Science.gov

Sample records for carbon nanofiber structures

  1. Morphology and internal structure of polymeric and carbon nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zhenxin

    Evaporation and the associated solidification are important factors that affect the diameter of electrospun nanofibers. The evaporation and solidification of a charged jet were controlled by varying the partial pressure of water vapor during electrospinning of poly(ethylene oxide) from aqueous solution. As the partial pressure of water vapor increases, the solidification process of the charged jet becomes slower, allowing elongation of the charged jet to continue longer and thereby to form thinner fibers. The morphology and internal structure of electrospun poly(vinylidene fluorides) nanofibers were investigated. Low voltage high resolution scanning electron microscopy was used to study the surface of electrospun nanofibers. Control of electrospinning process produced fibers with various morphological forms. Fibers that were beaded, branched, or split were obtained when different instabilities dominated in the electrospinning process. The high ratio of stretching during electrospinning aligns the polymer molecules along the fiber axis. A rapid evaporation of solvent during electrospinning gives fibers with small and imperfect crystallites. These can be perfected by thermal annealing. Fibers annealed at elevated temperature form plate-like lamellar crystals tightly linked by tie molecules. Electrospinning can provide ultrafine nanofibers with cross-sections that contain only a few polymer molecules. Ultrafine polymer nanofibers are extremely stable in transmission electron microscope. Electrospun nanofibers suspended on a holey carbon film showed features of individual polymer molecules. Carbon fibers with diameters ranging from 100 nm to several microns were produced from mesophase pitch by a low cost gas jet process. The structure of mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers was investigated as a function of heat treatment temperatures. Submicron-sized graphene oxide flakes were prepared by a combination of oxidative treatment and ultrasonic radiation. Because pitch is

  2. Pore-Structure-Optimized CNT-Carbon Nanofibers from Starch for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yongjin; Lee, Kyuhong; Kim, Kinam; Kim, Sunghwan

    2016-01-01

    Porous carbon materials are used for many electrochemical applications due to their outstanding properties. However, research on controlling the pore structure and analyzing the carbon structures is still necessary to achieve enhanced electrochemical properties. In this study, mesoporous carbon nanotube (CNT)-carbon nanofiber electrodes were developed by heat-treatment of electrospun starch with carbon nanotubes, and then applied as a binder-free electrochemical electrode for a lithium-ion battery. Using the unique lamellar structure of starch, mesoporous CNT-carbon nanofibers were prepared and their pore structures were controlled by manipulating the heat-treatment conditions. The activation process greatly increased the volume of micropores and mesopores of carbon nanofibers by etching carbons with CO2 gas, and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific area increased to about 982.4 m2·g−1. The activated CNT-carbon nanofibers exhibited a high specific capacity (743 mAh·g−1) and good cycle performance (510 mAh·g−1 after 30 cycles) due to their larger specific surface area. This condition presents many adsorption sites of lithium ions, and higher electrical conductivity, compared with carbon nanofibers without CNT. The research suggests that by controlling the heat-treatment conditions and activation process, the pore structure of the carbon nanofibers made from starch could be tuned to provide the conditions needed for various applications. PMID:28774117

  3. Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...REVIEW Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymers J.N. Baucom, A. Rohatgi, W.R. Pogue III, and J.P. Thomas Materials Science and Technology Division...of mass-produced and inexpensive, discontinuous carbon nanofibers to create a percolated fiber network within a polymeric matrix that will result in

  4. Extraordinary improvement of the graphitic structure of continuous carbon nanofibers templated with double wall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Papkov, Dimitry; Beese, Allison M; Goponenko, Alexander; Zou, Yan; Naraghi, Mohammad; Espinosa, Horacio D; Saha, Biswajit; Schatz, George C; Moravsky, Alexander; Loutfy, Raouf; Nguyen, Sonbinh T; Dzenis, Yuris

    2013-01-22

    Carbon nanotubes are being widely studied as a reinforcing element in high-performance composites and fibers at high volume fractions. However, problems with nanotube processing, alignment, and non-optimal stress transfer between the nanotubes and surrounding matrix have so far prevented full utilization of their superb mechanical properties in composites. Here, we present an alternative use of carbon nanotubes, at a very small concentration, as a templating agent for the formation of graphitic structure in fibers. Continuous carbon nanofibers (CNF) were manufactured by electrospinning from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) with 1.2% of double wall nanotubes (DWNT). Nanofibers were oxidized and carbonized at temperatures from 600 °C to 1850 °C. Structural analyses revealed significant improvements in graphitic structure and crystal orientation in the templated CNFs, with the largest improvements observed at lower carbonization temperatures. In situ pull-out experiments showed good interfacial bonding between the DWNT bundles and the surrounding templated carbon matrix. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of templated carbonization confirmed oriented graphitic growth and provided insight into mechanisms of carbonization initiation. The obtained results indicate that global templating of the graphitic structure in fine CNFs can be achieved at very small concentrations of well-dispersed DWNTs. The outcomes reveal a simple and inexpensive route to manufacture continuous CNFs with improved structure and properties for a variety of mechanical and functional applications. The demonstrated improvement of graphitic order at low carbonization temperatures in the absence of stretch shows potential as a promising new manufacturing technology for next generation carbon fibers.

  5. Novel Continuous Carbon Nanofibers for the Next Generation Lightweight Structural Nanocomposites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    nanomanufacturing technology based on the electrospinning technology was utilized. Continuous carbon nanofibers were produced from polyacrylonitrile (PAN...PAN precursors utilizing electrospinning process. The nanofibers were stabilized (cross-linked) and carbonized at different carbonization temperatures...2004 (Advisor: Y. Dzenis) L. Liu, "Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Nanofiber Deposition and Alignment in Electrospinning ", Ph.D. Dissertation

  6. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on hierarchically structured cobalt nanoparticle/carbon nanofiber/carbon felt composites.

    PubMed

    Zarubova, Sarka; Rane, Shreyas; Yang, Jia; Yu, Yingda; Zhu, Ye; Chen, De; Holmen, Anders

    2011-07-18

    The hierarchically structured carbon nanofibers (CNFs)/carbon felt composites, in which CNFs were directly grown on the surface of microfibers in carbon felt, forming a CNF layer on a micrometer range that completely covers the microfiber surfaces, were tested as a novel support material for cobalt nanoparticles in the highly exothermic Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis. A compact, fixed-bed reactor, made of disks of such composite materials, offered the advantages of improved heat and mass transfer, relatively low pressure drop, and safe handling of immobilized CNFs. An efficient 3-D thermal conductive network in the composite provided a relatively uniform temperature profile, whereas the open structure of the CNF layer afforded an almost 100 % effectiveness of Co nanoparticles in the F-T synthesis in the fixed bed. The greatly improved mass and heat transport makes the compact reactor attractive for applications in the conversion of biomass, coal, and natural gas to liquids. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Determination of morphology and properties of carbon nanofibers and carbon nanofiber polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Joseph G.

    Vapor grown carbon nanofibers which resemble carbon nanotubes in structure and properties, have been extensively manufactured and investigated in recent years. Carbon nanofibers have been used for producing multifunctional materials due to their excellent properties and low cost of production. Since, commercially available vapor grown carbon nanofibers are subjected to different processing and post processing conditions, the morphology and properties of these nanofibers are not well-known. In this study, we focus on the characterization of the morphology and properties of these nanofibers and the polymer nanocomposites made using these nanofibers as reinforcements. The morphology of the nanofibers was studied employing high resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images. The analysis showed that the nanofibers consist primarily of conical nanofibers, but can contain a significant amount of bamboo nanofibers. Most of the conical nanofibers were found to consist of an ordered inner layer and a disordered outer layer, with the cone angle distribution of the inner layers indicating that these cannot have a stacked cone structure but are compatible with a cone-helix structure. Nanofibers that were heat treated to temperatures above 1,500°C undergo a structural transformation with the ordered inner layers changing from a cone-helix structure to a highly ordered multiwall stacked cone structure. Due to the complexity in the structure of these nanofibers, a novel method to study the elastic properties and corresponding morphology of individual nanofibers has been developed combining Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), TEM and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technology. Employing the developed method, the elastic modulus of individual nanofibers and their corresponding dimensions and morphology were determined. The dependence of elastic properties on the wall thickness and the orientation of graphene sheets in the nanofibers were studied. The elastic modulus of these

  8. Stabilization and carbonization of mesophase pitch nanofiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Hao; Reneker, Darrell H.

    2000-03-01

    Mesophase pitch nanofibers were made with diameters of several hundred nanometers to a few microns. Thermogravimetric analysis showed the stabilization reaction in air began at a temperature below 200^oC, and produced a 6% weight gain. Changes intensity of aliphatic C-H (2850-3000 and 1400-1450 cm-1) and carbonyl -CO- (1690-1750 cm-1) peaks in Fourier transform infrared spectra were observed as a result of stabilization. The intensities of aryl alkyl ether peaks at 1200-1275 cm-1 increased with stabilization in air. Solid state NMR results confirmed these changes. Carbonization in inert gas began when the temperature reached 300^oC. There was a 25% weight loss during the carbonization. Element analysis showed that the only carbon remained. The structures of pitch nanofibers, stabilized nanofibers and the resulting carbon nanofibers were investigated with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction.

  9. Morphology and Structure Engineering in Nanofiber Reactor: Tubular Hierarchical Integrated Networks Composed of Dual Phase Octahedral CoMn2 O4 /Carbon Nanofibers for Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Han; Yu, Danni; Zhang, Songge; Chen, Jiawei; Wu, Wenbo; Wan, Meng; Wang, Lina; Zhang, Ming; Du, Mingliang

    2017-07-01

    1D hollow nanostructures combine the advantages of enhanced surface-to-volume ratio, short transport lengths, and efficient 1D electron transport, which can provide more design ideas for the preparation of highly active oxygen evolution (OER) electrocatalysts. A unique architecture of dual-phase octahedral CoMn2 O4 /carbon hollow nanofibers has been prepared via a two-step heat-treatment process including preoxidation treatment and Ostwald ripening process. The hollow and porous structures provide interior void spaces, large exposed surfaces, and high contact areas between the nanofibers and electrolyte and the morphology can be engineered by adjusting the heating conditions. Due to the intimate electrical and chemical coupling between the oxide nanocrystals and integrated carbon, the dual-phase octahedral CoMn2 O4 /carbon hollow nanofibers exhibit excellent OER activity with overpotentials of 337 mV at current density of 10 mA cm(-2) and Tafel slope of 82 mV dec(-1) . This approach will lead to the new perception of design issue for the nanoarchitecture with fine morphology, structures, and excellent electrocatalytic activity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analyses of Ni species trapped in graphene sheet of carbon nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Ushiro, Mayuko; Uno, Kanae; Fujikawa, Takashi; Sato, Yoshinori; Tohji, Kazuyuki; Watari, Fumio; Chun, W.-J.; Koike, Yuichiro; Asakura, Kiyotaka

    2006-04-01

    Metal impurities in the carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers play an important role in understanding their physical and chemical properties. We apply the Ni K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure analyses to the local electronic and geometric structures around embedded Ni impurities used as catalysts in a carbon nanofiber in combination with multiple scattering analyses. We find almost Ni catalysts as metal particles are removed by the purification treatment. Even after the purification, residual 100 ppm Ni species are still absorbed; most of them are in monomer structure with Ni-C bond length 1.83 A, and each of them is substituted for a carbon atom in a graphene sheet.

  11. Novel continuous carbon and ceramic nanofibers and nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yongkui

    2004-12-01

    Manufacturing of carbon nanofibers from PAN precursor is described in Chapter 2 of the dissertation. The electrospun nanofibers were continuous, uniform in diameter, and the samples didn't contain impurities, unlike carbon nanotubes or vapor grown carbon fibers. Systematic studies on the electrospinning parameters showed that nanofiber diameter could be varied in a range of 80 to 1800 nm. XRD studies on the carbon nanofibers fired at different temperatures showed that higher temperature resulted in better nanostructure. Fracture-free random carbon nanofiber sheets were produced by stretch-stabilization and carbonization for the first time. Toughening effects of random as-spun PAN, stabilized PAN, and carbon nanofibers on Mode I and Mode II interlaminar fracture of advanced carbon-epoxy composites were examined by DCB and ENF tests respectively in Chapter 3. The results showed that the interlaminar fracture toughness increased the most with carbon nanofiber reinforcement. 200% improvement in Mode I fracture toughness and 60% in Mode II fracture toughness were achieved with a minimum increase of weight. SEM fractographic analysis showed nanofiber pullout and crack bridging as the main nanomechanisms of toughening. Chapter 4 describes manufacturing of aligned carbon nanofibers and nanocomposites by a modified electrospinning technique. Constant-load stretch-stabilization was applied on carbon nanofibers for the first time. Analysis showed that mechanical properties of nanofibers and nanocomposites improved with stretch-stabilization and alignment of carbon nanofibers. Nanofabrication of ceramic 3Al2O3-2SiO2, SiO2-TiO2 nanofibers by a novel combination of sol-gel and electrospinning techniques invented recently at UNL is described in Chapters 5. The 3Al2O3-2SiO2, SiO2-TiO 2 nanofibers were continuous, non circular in cross section and had crystalline structure after high temperature calcination. Effects of the process parameters on their geometry and structure were

  12. Purification process for vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Cattien V.; Delziet, Lance; Matthews, Kristopher; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Individual, free-standing, vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes or nanofibers are ideal for sensor and electrode applications. Our plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition techniques for producing free-standing and vertically aligned carbon nanofibers use catalyst particles at the tip of the fiber. Here we present a simple purification process for the removal of iron catalyst particles at the tip of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers derived by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The first step involves thermal oxidation in air, at temperatures of 200-400 degrees C, resulting in the physical swelling of the iron particles from the formation of iron oxide. Subsequently, the complete removal of the iron oxide particles is achieved with diluted acid (12% HCl). The purification process appears to be very efficient at removing all of the iron catalyst particles. Electron microscopy images and Raman spectroscopy data indicate that the purification process does not damage the graphitic structure of the nanotubes.

  13. Silicon Whisker and Carbon Nanofiber Composite Anode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Junqing (Inventor); Newman, Aron (Inventor); Lennhoff, John (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A carbon nanofiber can have a surface and include at least one crystalline whisker extending from the surface of the carbon nanofiber. A battery anode composition can be formed from a plurality of carbon nanofibers each including a plurality of crystalline whiskers.

  14. Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibers on the Surface of Particles of Aluminum Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudskoy, A. I.; Tolochko, O. V.; Kol'tsova, T. S.; Nasibulin, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    A method for making an "aluminum - carbon nanofibers" composite material is presented. Good distribution of carbon structures is provided by synthesizing nanofibers from a gas phase directly on the surface of matrix metallic particles and adding a nickel catalyst.

  15. A heart-coronary arteries structure of carbon nanofibers/graphene/silicon composite anode for high performance lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoxin; Hou, Guangmei; Ai, Qing; Zhang, Lin; Si, Pengchao; Feng, Jinkui; Ci, Lijie

    2017-08-29

    In an animal body, coronary arteries cover around the whole heart and supply the necessary oxygen and nutrition so that the heart muscle can survive as well as can pump blood in and out very efficiently. Inspired by this, we have designed a novel heart-coronary arteries structured electrode by electrospinning carbon nanofibers to cover active anode graphene/silicon particles. Electrospun high conductive nanofibers serve as veins and arteries to enhance the electron transportation and improve the electrochemical properties of the active "heart" particles. This flexible binder free carbon nanofibers/graphene/silicon electrode consists of millions of heart-coronary arteries cells. Besides, in the graphene/silicon "hearts", graphene network improves the electrical conductivity of silicon nanopaticles, buffers the volume change of silicon, and prevents them from directly contacting with electrolyte. As expected, this novel composite electrode demonstrates excellent lithium storage performance with a 86.5% capacity retention after 200 cycles, along with a high rate performance with a 543 mAh g(-1) capacity at the rate of 1000 mA g(-1).

  16. From Carbon Nanotube Dispersion to Composite Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Yachin; Pyckhout-Hintzen, Wim

    2005-03-01

    Composite polymer nanofibers containing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are fabricated by electrospinning. We describe the path from dispersing individual SWCNTs or thin bundles in water using amphiphilic polymers, through a structural characterization of the polymer conformation in the SWCNT/polymer hybrid to the characteristics of the electrospun composite nanofibers. An alternating copolymer of styrene and sodium maleate (PSSty) and gum arabic (GA)-a highly branched natural polysaccharide were successfully used to produce stable aqueous dispersions. Measurements of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) show that both polymers form a thick corona of adsorbed coils on the nanotubes. The large coils introduce a significant steric barrier stabilizing the dispersions, in addition to electrostatic repulsion by charged groups. The composite nanofibers showed good distribution and alignment of the SWCNTs in the poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) nanfubers, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction demonstrated a high degree of orientation of the PEO crystals in the electrospun nanofibers. Enhanced tensile properties were achieved due to the high degree of alignment of both nanotubes and polymer crystals, and a strong interface, especially with PSSty. The morphology and possible applications of these composite nanofibers will be discussed.

  17. Hollow core-shell structured silicon@carbon nanoparticles embed in carbon nanofibers as binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanli; Hu, Yi; Shen, Zhen; Chen, Renzhong; He, Xia; Zhang, Xiangwu; Li, Yongqiang; Wu, Keshi

    2017-02-01

    Silicon is regarded as one of the most promising candidates for lithium-ion battery anodes owing to its large theoretical energy density (about 4200 mAh g-1) and low working potential (vs. Li/Li+). However, its practical application is limited by structure degradation and a comparatively poor capacity retention caused by large volume changes during cycling. In this study, we have prepared a novel nanofiber form of silicon/carbon with hollow core-shell structured silicon@carbon (Si@C) nanoparticles embedded in carbon nanofibers. Voids between the silicon nanoparticle (SiNP) core and carbon shell help to accommodate the volume expansion associated with the lithiation/delithiation process in a working electrode and allow formation of a stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film. The obtained electrodes exhibited good cycle performance with a high reversible capacity of 1020.7 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.2 A g-1, and also delivered excellent cycling performance at a high current density of 3.2 A g-1. The design of this new structure provides a potential method for developing other functional composite anode materials with high reversible capacities and long-term cycle stabilities.

  18. Carbon Nanofiber Electrode for Neurochemical Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, David A.; Rand, Emily; Marsh, Michael; Andrews, Russell J.; Lee, Kendall H.; Meyyappan, M.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to rapidly detect neurotransmitter release has broad implications in the study of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Electrochemical detection methods using carbon nanofiber nanoelectrodes integrated into the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensing System (WINCS) offer many important advantages including biocompatibility, selectivity, sensitivity, and rapid adsorption kinetics. Carbon nanofiber nanoelectrodes exhibit greater selectivity and sensitivity in the electrochemical detection of neurotransmitters compared to macroelectrodes and are able to resolve a ternary mixture of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and ascorbic acid as well as to detect individual neurotransmitters in concentrations as low as 50 nM for DA and 100 nM for 5-HT using differential pulse voltammetry. Adsorption kinetics studies and isopropyl alcohol treatments modeled on previous studies on carbon fiber microelectrodes were conducted to investigate the analogous properties on carbon nanofiber electrodes using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry with WINCS and showed analogous results in carbon nanofiber electrodes compared with carbon fiber microelectrodes. PMID:23975638

  19. Spectroscopic Investigations on Polypropylene -- Carbon Nanofibers Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipara, Mircea; Brian, Jones; Lozano, Karen; Villareal, John R.; Cristian Chipara, Alin; Hernandez, Anna; Dorina Chipara, Magdalena; Sellmyer, David J.

    2008-03-01

    Nanocomposites were obtained by high-shear mixing of isotactic polypropylene (Marlex HLN-120-01; Philips Sumika Polypropylene Company) with various amounts of vapor grown carbon nanofibers (PR-24AG; Pyrograf Products, Inc) by utilizing a HAAKE Rheomix at 65 rpm and 180 ^oC for 9 min followed by an additional mixing at 90 rpm for 5 min. Composites loaded with various amounts of vapor grown carbon nanofibers have been prepared. Wide angle X-Ray scattering investigations focus on the effect of carbon nanofibers on the crystalline phases of polypropylene and on the overall crystallinity degree of the polymeric matrix. Raman spectroscopy analysis concentrates on D and G bands. X-band electron spin resonance investigations aim at a better understanding of the purity of carbon nanofibers and of the ratio between conducting and paramagnetic.

  20. Preparation of Electrically Conductive Polystyrene/Carbon Nanofiber Nanocomposite Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Luyi; O'Reilly, Jonathan Y.; Tien, Chi-Wei; Sue, Hung-Jue

    2008-01-01

    A simple and effective approach to prepare conductive polystyrene/carbon nanofiber (PS/CNF) nanocomposite films via a solution dispersion method is presented. Inexpensive CNF, which has a structure similar to multi-walled carbon nanotubes, is chosen as a nanofiller in this experiment to achieve conductivity in PS films. A good dispersion is…

  1. Preparation of Electrically Conductive Polystyrene/Carbon Nanofiber Nanocomposite Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Luyi; O'Reilly, Jonathan Y.; Tien, Chi-Wei; Sue, Hung-Jue

    2008-01-01

    A simple and effective approach to prepare conductive polystyrene/carbon nanofiber (PS/CNF) nanocomposite films via a solution dispersion method is presented. Inexpensive CNF, which has a structure similar to multi-walled carbon nanotubes, is chosen as a nanofiller in this experiment to achieve conductivity in PS films. A good dispersion is…

  2. Micro-structural evolution and biomineralization behavior of carbon nanofiber/bioactive glass composites induced by precursor aging time.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaolong; Tang, Tianhong; Cheng, Dan; Zhang, Cuihua; Zhang, Ran; Cai, Qing; Yang, Xiaoping

    2015-12-01

    Bioactive glass (BG)-containing carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are promising orthopaedic biomaterials. Herein, CNF composites were produced from electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/BG sol-gel precursor solution, followed by carbonization. Choosing 58S-type BG (mol%: 58.0% SiO2-26.3% CaO-15.7% P2O5) as the model, micro-structural evolution of CNF/BG composites was systematically evaluated in relating to aging times of BG precursor solution. With aging time prolonging, BG precursors underwent morphological changes from small sol clusters with loosely and randomly branched structure to highly crosslinked Si-network structure, showing continuous increase in solution viscosity. BG precursor solution with low viscosity could mix well with PAN solution, resulting in CNF composite with homogeneously distributed BG component. Whereas, BG precursor gel with densely crosslinked Si-network structure led to uneven distribution of BG component along final CNFs due to its significant phase separation from PAN component. Meanwhile, BG nanoparticles in CNFs demonstrated micro-structural evolution that they transited from weak to strong crystal state along with longer aging time. Biomineralization in simulated body fluid and in vitro osteoblasts proliferation were then applied to determine the bioactivity of CNF/BG composites. CNF/BG composites prepared from shorter aging time could induce both faster apatite deposition and cell proliferation rate. It was suggested weakly crystallized BG nanoparticles along CNFs dissolved fast and was able to provide numerous nucleation sites for apatite deposition, which also favored the proliferation of osteoblasts cells. Aging time could thus be a useful tool to regulate the biological features of CNF/BG composites.

  3. Polyvinyl Alcohol-derived carbon nanofibers/carbon nanotubes/sulfur electrode with honeycomb-like hierarchical porous structure for the stable-capacity lithium/sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Nanping; Kang, Weimin; Ju, Jingge; Fan, Lanlan; Zhuang, Xupin; Ma, Xiaomin; He, Hongsheng; Zhao, Yixia; Cheng, Bowen

    2017-04-01

    The honeycomb-like hierarchical porous carbon nanofibers (PCNFs)-carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-sulfur(S) composite electrode is successfully desgined and prepared through ball-milling and heating method, in which the PCNFs are carbonized from fibers in the membrane composed of Polyvinyl Alcohol and Polytetrafluoroethylene by electro-blown spinning technology. The prepared PCNFs-CNTs-S composite are regarded as cathode for lithium-sulfur battery. The tailored porous structure and CNTs in the composite facilitate construction of a high electrical conductive pathway and store more S/polysulfides, and the dissoluble loss of intermediate S species in electrolyte can also be restrained because of acidized PVA-based porous carbon nanofibers. Meanwhile, the porous strcucture and CNTs can effectively alleviate volume changes in battery cycling process. Moreover, the presence of LiNO3 in electrolyte helps the electrochemical oxidation of Li2S and LiNO3-derived surface film effectively suppresses the migration of soluble polysulfide to the Li anode surface. Therefore, the obtained PCNFs-CNTs-S cathode exhibits excellent performance in Li-S battery with a high initial discharge capacity as high as 1302.9 mAh g-1, and super stable capacity retention with 809.1 mAh g-1 after 300 cycles at the current density of 837.5 mA g-1 (0.5 C). And the rate capability of PCNFs-CNTs-S electrode is much better than those of CNTs-S and PCNFs-S electrodes.

  4. Egg-Box Structure in Cobalt Alginate: A New Approach to Multifunctional Hierarchical Mesoporous N-Doped Carbon Nanofibers for Efficient Catalysis and Energy Storage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials with both doped heteroatom and porous structure represent a new class of carbon nanostructures for boosting electrochemical application, particularly sustainable electrochemical energy conversion and storage applications. We herein demonstrate a unique large-scale sustainable biomass conversion strategy for the synthesis of earth-abundant multifunctional carbon nanomaterials with well-defined doped heteroatom level and multimodal pores through pyrolyzing electrospinning renewable natural alginate. The key part for our chemical synthesis is that we found that the egg-box structure in cobalt alginate nanofiber can offer new opportunity to create large mesopores (∼10–40 nm) on the surface of nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers. The as-prepared hierarchical carbon nanofibers with three-dimensional pathway for electron and ion transport are conceptually new as high-performance multifunctional electrochemical materials for boosting the performance of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), lithium ion batteries (LIBs), and supercapacitors (SCs). In particular, they show amazingly the same ORR activity as commercial Pt/C catalyst and much better long-term stability and methanol tolerance for ORR than Pt/C via a four-electron pathway in alkaline electrolyte. They also exhibit a large reversible capacity of 625 mAh g–1 at 1 A g–1, good rate capability, and excellent cycling performance for LIBs, making them among the best in all the reported carbon nanomaterials. They also represent highly efficient carbon nanomaterials for SCs with excellent capacitive behavior of 197 F g–1 at 1 A g–1 and superior stability. The present work highlights the importance of biomass-derived multifunctional mesoporous carbon nanomaterials in enhancing electrochemical catalysis and energy storage. PMID:27162980

  5. Egg-Box Structure in Cobalt Alginate: A New Approach to Multifunctional Hierarchical Mesoporous N-Doped Carbon Nanofibers for Efficient Catalysis and Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Li, Daohao; Lv, Chunxiao; Liu, Long; Xia, Yanzhi; She, Xilin; Guo, Shaojun; Yang, Dongjiang

    2015-08-26

    Carbon nanomaterials with both doped heteroatom and porous structure represent a new class of carbon nanostructures for boosting electrochemical application, particularly sustainable electrochemical energy conversion and storage applications. We herein demonstrate a unique large-scale sustainable biomass conversion strategy for the synthesis of earth-abundant multifunctional carbon nanomaterials with well-defined doped heteroatom level and multimodal pores through pyrolyzing electrospinning renewable natural alginate. The key part for our chemical synthesis is that we found that the egg-box structure in cobalt alginate nanofiber can offer new opportunity to create large mesopores (∼10-40 nm) on the surface of nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers. The as-prepared hierarchical carbon nanofibers with three-dimensional pathway for electron and ion transport are conceptually new as high-performance multifunctional electrochemical materials for boosting the performance of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), lithium ion batteries (LIBs), and supercapacitors (SCs). In particular, they show amazingly the same ORR activity as commercial Pt/C catalyst and much better long-term stability and methanol tolerance for ORR than Pt/C via a four-electron pathway in alkaline electrolyte. They also exhibit a large reversible capacity of 625 mAh g(-1) at 1 A g(-1), good rate capability, and excellent cycling performance for LIBs, making them among the best in all the reported carbon nanomaterials. They also represent highly efficient carbon nanomaterials for SCs with excellent capacitive behavior of 197 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) and superior stability. The present work highlights the importance of biomass-derived multifunctional mesoporous carbon nanomaterials in enhancing electrochemical catalysis and energy storage.

  6. Structure-Processing-Property Interrelationships of Vapor Grown Carbon Nanofiber, Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube and Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube - Polypropylene Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Vinod Karumathil

    This dissertation describes the first use of a design of experiments approach to investigate the interrelationships between structure, processing, and properties of melt extruded polypropylene (PP) carbon nanomaterial composites. The effect of nanomaterial structure was evaluated by exploring the incorporation of vapor grown carbon nanofibers (VGCFs), or pristine or functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs or C12SWNTs) in polypropylene, while the effect of processing was investigated by studying the influence of melt extrusion temperature, speed, and time. The nanomaterials and PP were combined by an initial mixing method prior to melt extrusion. The nanocomposite properties were characterized by a combination of morphological, rheological, and thermal methods. Preliminary investigations into the effects of the initial mixing method revealed that the distribution of nanomaterials obtained after the mixing had a considerable influence on the properties of the final melt extruded nanocomposite. Dry mixing (DM) resulted in minimal adhesion between nanomaterials and PP during initial mixing; the majority of nanomaterials descended to the bottom. Hot coagulation (HC) mixing resulted in extremely high degrees of interaction between the nanomaterials and PP chains. Rotary evaporation (RE) mixing resulted in nanomaterial distribution uniformity between that obtained from DM and HC. Employing design of experiments to investigate the effects of structure and processing conditions on melt extruded PP nanocomposite properties revealed several interesting effects. The effect of processing conditions varied depending on the degree of nanomaterial distribution in PP attained prior to melt processing. Increasing melt extrusion temperature increased the decomposition temperature (Td) of PP/C12SWNT obtained from HC mixing but decreased T d of PP/C12SWNT obtained from RE mixing. Higher melt extrusion screw speed, on the other hand, significantly improved the nanocomposite

  7. Elastic properties and morphology of individual carbon nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Joseph G; Berhan, Lesley M; Nadarajah, Arunan

    2008-06-01

    The structural complexity of vapor-grown carbon nanofibers means that they require a method that determines both their elastic properties and their corresponding morphology. A three-point bending test method was developed combining atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and focused ion beam techniques to suspend individual nanofibers and measure their deflection coupled with accurate determinations of inner and outer diameters and morphology using high resolution TEM. This resulted in much improved accuracy and reproducibility of the measured values of the elastic modulus which ranged from 6 to 207 GPa. The data showed two distinct trends, with higher values of the modulus when the outer wall thickness of the nanofibers is larger than that of the inner wall, with the values decreasing with the overall wall thickness. These results suggest that the more ordered layers of the outer wall, closest to the inner wall, are mostly responsible for the nanofiber strength. For large nanofiber wall thicknesses of greater than 80 nm, the elastic modulus becomes independent of the thickness with a value of approximately 25 GPa. The results also demonstrate that this technique can be a standardized one for the detailed study of mechanical properties of nanofibers and their relationship to morphology.

  8. Electrical resistance of carbon-nanofiber concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Di; Sturm, Mariel; Mo, Y. L.

    2009-09-01

    Concrete is the most widely used construction material, and carbon nanofibers have many advantages in both mechanical and electrical properties such as high strength, high Young's modulus and high conductivity. In this paper, the mechanical and electrical properties of concrete containing carbon nanofibers (CNF) are experimentally studied. The test results indicate that the compressive strength and per cent reduction in electrical resistance while loading concrete containing CNF are much greater than those of plain concrete. Finally, a reasonable concentration of CNF is obtained for use in concrete which not only enhances compressive strength, but also improves the electrical properties required for strain monitoring, damage evaluation and self-health monitoring of concrete.

  9. Carbon-coated Li3 N nanofibers for advanced hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Xia, Guanglin; Li, Dan; Chen, Xiaowei; Tan, Yingbin; Tang, Ziwei; Guo, Zaiping; Liu, Huakun; Liu, Zongwen; Yu, Xuebin

    2013-11-20

    3D porous carbon-coated Li3 N nanofibers are successfully fabricated via the electrospinning technique. The as-prepared nanofibers exhibit a highly improved hydrogen-sorption performance in terms of both thermodynamics and kinetics. More interestingly, a stable regeneration can be achieved due to the unique structure of the nanofibers, over 10 cycles of H2 sorption at a temperature as low as 250 °C.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of carbon nanofiber@mesoporous carbon core-shell composite for the Li-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Myeong Jun; Shin, Moo Whan

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we successfully design and synthesize the mesoporous carbon coated carbon nanofibers (CNF@mesoCs) for the Li-air battery. The composites are fabricated via electrospinning technique and nanocasting strategy. After mesoporous carbon coating process, the composites have retained their original one-dimensional structure as pristine carbon nanofibers. Every nanofiber entangles with each other to form a three-dimensional cross-linked web structure. Because of the mesoporous carbon coating on carbon nanofibers, the surface area increases from 708 m2 g-1 to 2194 m2 g-1. We confirm that the mesoporous carbon coated on carbon nanofibers is well-graphitized by analysis of Raman spectra. The graphitized surface of CNF@mesoCs (4.638 S cm-1) is believed to result in their higher electrical conductivity than that of pristine carbon nanofibers (3.0759 S cm-1). Without employment of any binders and metal foams, the cathode of CNF@mesoCs exhibits high discharge capacity of 4000 mA h g-1, which is much higher than that from pristine carbon nanofibers (2750 mA h g-1). This work demonstrates that the fabricated CNF@mesoCs structures have a great potential to be employed as light-weight and efficient electrode for energy storage and conversion devices.

  11. Synthesis of porous carbon nanofiber with bamboo-like carbon nanofiber branches by one-step carbonization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Seung Hwa; Joh, Han-Ik; Lee, Sungho

    2017-04-01

    Porous carbon nanofibers (PCNFs) with CNF branches (PCNF/bCNF) were synthesized by a simple heat treatment method. Conventional methods to synthesize this unique structure usually follow a typical route, which consists of CNF preparation, catalyst deposition, and secondary CNF growth. In contrast, our method utilized a one-step carbonization process of polymer nanofibers, which were electrospun from a one-pot solution consisted of polyacrylonitrile, polystyrene (PS), and iron acetylacetonate. Various structures of PCNF/CNF were synthesized by changing the solution composition and molecular weight of PS. It was verified that the content and molecular weight of PS were critical for the growth of catalyst particles and subsequent growth of CNF branches. The morphology, phase of catalyst, and carbon structure of PCNF/bCNF were analyzed at different temperature steps during carbonization. It was found that pores were generated by the evaporation of PS and the catalyst particles were formed on the surface of PCNF at 700 °C. The gases originated from the evaporation of PS acted as a carbon source for the growth of CNF branches that started at 900 °C. Finally, when the carbonization process was finished at 1200 °C, uniform and abundant CNF branches were formed on the surface of PCNF.

  12. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber based Biosensor Platform for Glucose Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Al Mamun, Khandaker A.; Tulip, Fahmida S.; MacArthur, Kimberly; McFarlane, Nicole; Islam, Syed K.; Hensley, Dale

    2014-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) have recently become an important tool for biosensor design. Carbon nanofibers (CNF) have excellent conductive and structural properties with many irregularities and defect sites in addition to exposed carboxyl groups throughout their surfaces. These properties allow a better immobilization matrix compared to carbon nanotubes and offer better resolution when compared with the FET-based biosensors. VACNFs can be deterministically grown on silicon substrates allowing optimization of the structures for various biosensor applications. Two VACNF electrode architectures have been employed in this study and a comparison of their performances has been made in terms of sensitivity, sensing limitations, dynamic range, and response time. The usage of VACNF platform as a glucose sensor has been verified in this study by selecting an optimum architecture based on the VACNF forest density. Read More: http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0129156414500062

  13. Supercapacitive behavior of laminar-structured carbon cloth with alternating graphene and hybrid nanofibers: A synergistic effect of graphene-coating and post-oxidization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qinxing; Zhou, Shuwen; Wu, Shihua; Zhang, Yufeng; Zhao, Peng

    2017-06-01

    Laminar-structured flexible carbon cloth composed of alternating graphene and nitrogen-enriched carbon/graphene hybrid nanofibers was prepared via alternated electrospinning and graphene oxide coating, followed by stabilization, carbonization and post-thermal oxidization process. The multilayered graphene-coating and post-thermal treatment can exert great influence on microstructure of the as-prepared composite cloth, synergistically resulting in the increased conductivity and specific surface area, optimized pore structure and improved surface contents of nitrogen and oxygen species. Hence, the composite exhibits significantly enhanced supercapacitive performance, such as a high specific capacitance of 241 F g-1 (294 F cm-3) at 0.2 A g-1, a high retention rate of ca. 64% at a current density of up to 50 A g-1. Additionally, the resulted composite shows no significant capacitance degradation after 2000 charge/discharge cycles at 5 A g-1, indicating its superior cycling stability for energy storage application.

  14. Carbonized Electrospun Nanofiber Sheets for Thermophones.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Ali E; Perananthan, Sahila; Ferraris, John P

    2016-11-16

    Thermoacoustic performance of thin freestanding sheets of carbonized poly(acrylonitrile) and polybenzimidazole nanofibers are studied as promising candidates for thermophones. We analyze thermodynamic properties of sheets using transport parameters of single nanofibers and their aligned and randomly electrospun thin film assemblies. The electrical and thermal conductivities, thermal diffusivity, heat capacity, and infrared blackbody radiation are investigated to extract the heat exchange coefficient and enhance the energy conversion efficiency. Spectral and power dependencies of sound pressure in air are compared with carbon nanotube sheets and theoretical prediction. Despite lower thermoacoustic performance compared to that of CNT sheets, the mechanical strength and cost-effective production technology of thermophones make them very attractive for large-size sound projectors. The advantages of carbonized electrospun polymer nanofiber sheets are in the low frequency domain (<1000 Hz), where the large thermal diffusion length diminishes the thermal inertia of thick (∼200 nm) nonbundled fibers and the high intrinsic thermal conductivity of fibers enhances the heat exchange coefficient. Applications of thermoacoustic projectors for loudspeakers, high power SONAR arrays, and sound cancellation are discussed.

  15. Apparent Power Law Scaling of Variable Range Hopping Conduction in Carbonized Polymer Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Ho; Lara-Avila, Samuel; Kang, Hojin; He, Hans; Eklӧf, Johnas; Hong, Sung Ju; Park, Min; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Matsushita, Satoshi; Akagi, Kazuo; Kubatkin, Sergey; Park, Yung Woo

    2016-01-01

    We induce dramatic changes in the structure of conducting polymer nanofibers by carbonization at 800 °C and compare charge transport properties between carbonized and pristine nanofibers. Despite the profound structural differences, both types of systems display power law dependence of current with voltage and temperature, and all measurements can be scaled into a single universal curve. We analyze our experimental data in the framework of variable range hopping and argue that this mechanism can explain transport properties of pristine polymer nanofibers as well. PMID:27886233

  16. The synthesis of titanium carbide-reinforced carbon nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Pinwen; Hong, Youliang; Liu, Bingbing; Zou, Guangtian

    2009-06-24

    Tailoring hard materials into nanoscale building blocks can greatly extend the applications of hard materials and, at the same time, also represents a significant challenge in the field of nanoscale science. This work reports a novel process for the preparation of carbon-based one-dimensional hard nanomaterials. The titanium carbide-carbon composite nanofibers with an average diameter of 90 nm are prepared by an electrospinning technique and a high temperature pyrolysis process. A composite solution containing polyacrylonitrile and titanium sources is first electrospun into the composite nanofibers, which are subsequently pyrolyzed to produce the desired products. The x-ray diffraction pattern and transmission electron microscopy results show that the main phase of the as-synthesized nanofibers is titanium carbide. The Raman analyses show that the composite nanofibers have low graphite clusters in comparison with the pure carbon nanofibers originating from the electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers. The mechanical property tests demonstrate that the titanium carbide-carbon nanofiber membranes have four times higher tensile strength than the carbon nanofiber membranes, and the Young's modulus of the titanium carbide-carbon nanofiber membranes increases in direct proportion to the titanium quantity.

  17. Method for production of polymer and carbon nanofibers from water-soluble polymers.

    PubMed

    Spender, Jonathan; Demers, Alexander L; Xie, Xinfeng; Cline, Amos E; Earle, M Alden; Ellis, Lucas D; Neivandt, David J

    2012-07-11

    Nanometer scale carbon fibers (carbon nanofibers) are of great interest to scientists and engineers in fields such as materials science, composite production, and energy storage due to their unique chemical, physical, and mechanical properties. Precursors currently used for production of carbon nanofibers are primarily from nonrenewable resources. Lignin is a renewable natural polymer existing in all high-level plants that is a byproduct of the papermaking process and a potential feedstock for carbon nanofiber production. The work presented here demonstrates a process involving the rapid freezing of an aqueous lignin solution, followed by sublimation of the resultant ice, to form a uniform network comprised of individual interconnected lignin nanofibers. Carbonization of the lignin nanofibers yields a similarly structured carbon nanofiber network. The methodology is not specific to lignin; nanofibers of other water-soluble polymers have been successfully produced. This nanoscale fibrous morphology has not been observed in traditional cryogel processes, due to the relatively slower freezing rates employed compared to those achieved in this study.

  18. Zinc oxide nanorod assisted rapid single-step process for the conversion of electrospun poly(acrylonitrile) nanofibers to carbon nanofibers with a high graphitic content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nain, Ratyakshi; Singh, Dhirendra; Jassal, Manjeet; Agrawal, Ashwini K.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of incorporation of rigid zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures on carbonization behavior of electrospun special acrylic fiber grade poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN-SAF) nanofibers was investigated. ZnO nanorods with high aspect ratios were incorporated into a PAN-N,N-dimethylformamide system and the composite nanofibers reinforced with aligned ZnO rods up to 50 wt% were successfully electrospun, and subsequently, carbonized. The morphology and the structural analysis of the resultant carbon nanofibers revealed that the rigid ZnO nanorods, present inside the nanofibers, possibly acted as scaffolds (temporary support structures) for immobilization of polymer chains and assisted in uniform heat distribution. This facilitated rapid and efficient conversion of the polymer structure to the ladder, and subsequently, the graphitized structure. At the end of the process, the ZnO nanorods were found to completely separate from the carbonized fibers yielding pure carbon nanofibers with a high graphitic content and surface area. The approach could be used to eliminate the slow, energy intensive stabilization step and achieve fast conversion of randomly laid carbon nanofiber webs in a single step to carbon nanofibers without the application of external tension or internal templates usually employed to achieve a high graphitic content in such systems.The effect of incorporation of rigid zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures on carbonization behavior of electrospun special acrylic fiber grade poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN-SAF) nanofibers was investigated. ZnO nanorods with high aspect ratios were incorporated into a PAN-N,N-dimethylformamide system and the composite nanofibers reinforced with aligned ZnO rods up to 50 wt% were successfully electrospun, and subsequently, carbonized. The morphology and the structural analysis of the resultant carbon nanofibers revealed that the rigid ZnO nanorods, present inside the nanofibers, possibly acted as scaffolds (temporary support structures) for

  19. Epitaxial Growth of Aligned and Continuous Carbon Nanofibers from Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoyang; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Wenbin; Liu, Peng; Luo, Shu; Wei, Haoming; Yang, Guangzhi; Yang, Junhe; Cui, Jie; Yu, Richeng; Zhang, Lina; Wang, Jiaping; Li, Qunqing; Zhou, Weiya; Zhao, Weisheng; Fan, Shoushan; Jiang, Kaili

    2017-02-28

    Exploiting the superior properties of nanomaterials at macroscopic scale is a key issue of nanoscience. Different from the integration strategy, "additive synthesis" of macroscopic structures from nanomaterial templates may be a promising choice. In this paper, we report the epitaxial growth of aligned, continuous, and catalyst-free carbon nanofiber thin films from carbon nanotube films. The fabrication process includes thickening of continuous carbon nanotube films by gas-phase pyrolytic carbon deposition and further graphitization of the carbon layer by high-temperature treatment. As-fabricated nanofibers in the film have an "annual ring" cross-section, with a carbon nanotube core and a graphitic periphery, indicating the templated growth mechanism. The absence of a distinct interface between the carbon nanotube template and the graphitic periphery further implies the epitaxial growth mechanism of the fiber. The mechanically robust thin film with tunable fiber diameters from tens of nanometers to several micrometers possesses low density, high electrical conductivity, and high thermal conductivity. Further extension of this fabrication method to enhance carbon nanotube yarns is also demonstrated, resulting in yarns with ∼4-fold increased tensile strength and ∼10-fold increased Young's modulus. The aligned and continuous features of the films together with their outstanding physical and chemical properties would certainly promote the large-scale applications of carbon nanofibers.

  20. Oxidative stabilization of polyacrylonitrile nanofibers and carbon nanofibers containing graphene oxide (GO): a spectroscopic and electrochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Gergin, İlknur; Ismar, Ezgi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a precursor for carbon nanofibers (CNF) was fabricated via electrospinning and carbonized through a thermal process. Before carbonization, oxidative stabilization should be applied, and the oxidation mechanism also plays an important role during carbonization. Thus, the understanding of the oxidation mechanism is an essential part of the production of CNF. The oxidation process of polyacrylonitrile was studied and nanofiber webs containing graphene oxide (GO) are obtained to improve the electrochemical properties of CNF. Structural and morphological characterizations of the webs are carried out by using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Mechanical tests are performed with a dynamic mechanical analyzer, and thermal studies are conducted by using thermogravimetric analysis. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry are used to investigate capacitive behavior of the products. The proposed equivalent circuit model was consistent with charge-transfer processes taking place at interior pores filled with electrolyte. PMID:28875098

  1. Hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur cathodes for high specific capacity rechargeable lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guangyuan; Yang, Yuan; Cha, Judy J; Hong, Seung Sae; Cui, Yi

    2011-10-12

    Sulfur has a high specific capacity of 1673 mAh/g as lithium battery cathodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to polysulfides dissolution presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur cathode for effective trapping of polysulfides and demonstrate experimentally high specific capacity and excellent electrochemical cycling of the cells. The hollow carbon nanofiber arrays were fabricated using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, through thermal carbonization of polystyrene. The AAO template also facilitates sulfur infusion into the hollow fibers and prevents sulfur from coating onto the exterior carbon wall. The high aspect ratio of the carbon nanofibers provides an ideal structure for trapping polysulfides, and the thin carbon wall allows rapid transport of lithium ions. The small dimension of these nanofibers provides a large surface area per unit mass for Li(2)S deposition during cycling and reduces pulverization of electrode materials due to volumetric expansion. A high specific capacity of about 730 mAh/g was observed at C/5 rate after 150 cycles of charge/discharge. The introduction of LiNO(3) additive to the electrolyte was shown to improve the Coulombic efficiency to over 99% at C/5. The results show that the hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur structure could be a promising cathode design for rechargeable Li/S batteries with high specific energy.

  2. Charge transport measurements of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lan

    2005-07-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) have found a variety of electronic applications. To further realize these applications, a good understanding of the charge transport properties is essential. In this work, charge transport properties have been systematically measured for three types of VACNF forests with Ni as catalyst, namely VACNFs grown by direct current PECVD, and inductively coupled PECVD at both normal pressure and low pressure. The structure and composition of these nanofibers have also been investigated in detail prior to the charge transport measurements. Four-probe I-V measurements on individual nanofibers have been enabled by the fabrication of multiple metal ohmic contacts on individual fibers that exhibited resistance of only a few kO. An O2 plasma reactive ion etch method has been used to achieve ohmic contacts between the nanofibers and Ti/Au, Ag/Au, Cd/Au, and Cr/Au electrodes. Direct current VACNFs exhibit linear I-V behavior at room temperature, with a resistivity of approximately 4.2 x 10-3 O·cm. Our measurements are consistent with a dominant transport mechanism of electrons traveling through intergraphitic planes in the dc VACNFs. The resistivity of these fibers is almost independent of temperature, and the contact resistance decreases as temperature increases. Further studies reveal that the 10--15 nm thick graphitic outer layer dominates the charge transport properties of do VACNFs. This is demonstrated by comparison of charge transport properties of as-grown VACNFs and VACNFs with the outer layer partially removed by oxygen plasma reactive ion etch. The linear I-V behavior of the fibers does not vary as this outer layer becomes thinner, but displays a drastic shift to a rectifying behavior when this layer is completely stripped away from some regions of the nanofiber. This shift may be related with the compositional differences in the outer layer and the inner core of the nanofibers. Two-probe charge transport measurements on

  3. Superhydrophobic behavior of fluorinated carbon nanofiber arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chien-Te; Fan, Wen-Syuan

    2006-06-01

    Superhydrophobic behavior of fluorinated carbon nanofiber (CNF) arrays, prepared by a template-assisted synthesis, has been investigated. A thermal chemical vapor method, using perfluorohexane as the precursor, was used to coat fluorocarbon on the surface of the CNFs, thus lowering their surface tension. The F-coated CNFs exhibited a good water-repellent behavior, i.e., the highest value of contact angle ˜166°. The superhydrophobicity of water droplets on the arrays can be well predicted by a modified Cassie-Baxter model, incorporating the pore size distributions determined from the density functional theory method. This satisfactory result would shed one light on how the variation of opened sizes would induce the superhydrophobicity of nanostructured surfaces.

  4. Remarkable improvement in microwave absorption by cloaking a micro-scaled tetrapod hollow with helical carbon nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Jian, Xian; Chen, Xiangnan; Zhou, Zuowan; Li, Gang; Jiang, Man; Xu, Xiaoling; Lu, Jun; Li, Qiming; Wang, Yong; Gou, Jihua; Hui, David

    2015-02-07

    Helical nanofibers are prepared through in situ growth on the surface of a tetrapod-shaped ZnO whisker (T-ZnO), by employing a precursor decomposition method then adding substrate. After heat treatment at 900 °C under argon, this new composite material, named helical nanofiber-T-ZnO, undergoes a significant change in morphology and structure. The T-ZnO transforms from a solid tetrapod ZnO to a micro-scaled tetrapod hollow carbon film by reduction of the organic fiber at 900 °C. Besides, helical carbon nanofibers, generated from the carbonization of helical nanofibers, maintain the helical morphology. Interestingly, HCNFs with the T-hollow exhibit remarkable improvement in electromagnetic wave loss compared with the pure helical nanofibers. The enhanced loss ability may arise from the efficient dielectric friction, interface effect in the complex nanostructures and the micro-scaled tetrapod-hollow structure.

  5. Engineering the Composition and Structure of Bimetallic Au-Cu Alloy Nanoparticles in Carbon Nanofibers: Self-Supported Electrode Materials for Electrocatalytic Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Zhu, Han; Yu, Danni; Chen, JiaWei; Chen, JiaDong; Zhang, Ming; Wang, LiNa; Du, MingLiang

    2017-06-14

    The bimetallic Au-Cu alloy nanoparticles have been constructed in electrospun carbon nanofibers (Au-Cu/CNFs), employing as high efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrode. The morphology, structure, and composition of bimetallic Au-Cu alloy can be controlled by adjusting the precursor nanofibers through a facile approach. With the increased Cu content, the Au-Cu alloy have a transition from the homogeneous AuCu3 alloy phase to the Au3Cu phase with Cu shell. The self-supported bimetallic Au-Cu/CNFs hybrid can be directly employed as electrode materials for water splitting, and it showed excellent electrochemical activity, including long-term stability, high exchange current density, and low overpotential. The outstanding HER performance could be mainly attributed to the synergistic interactions and interfacial effects of Au-Cu alloy with high densities of uncoordinated surface atoms. In addition, the fast charge transport and the fast kinetic for the desorption of the gas were originated from the self-supported three-dimensional architectures consist of integrated Au-Cu/CNFs networks. The Au-Cu/CNFs with mass ratio of 1:2 (Au3Cu-Cu "core-shell" alloy) obtain the lowest overpotential of 83 mV (at j = 10 mA cm(-2)), lowest Tafel slope of 70 mV dec(-1), and highest exchange current density of 0.790 mA cm(-2). The present investigations offer a new strategy for the design and synthesis of unique nanocrystals in energy conversion related application.

  6. Interfacial engineering of carbon nanofiber-graphene-carbon nanofiber heterojunctions in flexible lightweight electromagnetic shielding networks.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei-Li; Wang, Jia; Fan, Li-Zhen; Li, Yong; Wang, Chan-Yuan; Cao, Mao-Sheng

    2014-07-09

    Lightweight carbon materials of effective electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding have attracted increasing interest because of rapid development of smart communication devices. To meet the requirement in portable electronic devices, flexible shielding materials with ultrathin characteristic have been pursued for this purpose. In this work, we demonstrated a facile strategy for scalable fabrication of flexible all-carbon networks, where the insulting polymeric frames and interfaces have been well eliminated. Microscopically, a novel carbon nanofiber-graphene nanosheet-carbon nanofiber (CNF-GN-CNF) heterojunction, which plays the dominant role as the interfacial modifier, has been observed in the as-fabricated networks. With the presence of CNF-GN-CNF heterojunctions, the all-carbon networks exhibit much increased electrical properties, resulting in the great enhancement of EMI shielding performance. The related mechanism for engineering the CNF interfaces based on the CNF-GN-CNF heterojunctions has been discussed. Implication of the results suggests that the lightweight all-carbon networks, whose thickness and density are much smaller than other graphene/polymer composites, present more promising potential as thin shielding materials in flexible portable electronics.

  7. Catalytic Growth of Macroscopic Carbon Nanofibers Bodies with Activated Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, N.; Muhammad, I. S.; Hamid, S. B. Abd.; Rinaldi, A.; Su, D. S.; Schlogl, R.

    2009-06-01

    Carbon-carbon composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofibers have been synthesized by growing Carbon nanofiber (CNF) on Palm shell-based Activated carbon (AC) with Ni catalyst. The composites are in an agglomerated shape due to the entanglement of the defective CNF between the AC particles forming a macroscopic body. The macroscopic size will allow the composite to be used as a stabile catalyst support and liquid adsorbent. The preparation of CNT/AC nanocarbon was initiated by pre-treating the activated carbon with nitric acid, followed by impregnation of 1 wt% loading of nickel (II) nitrate solutions in acetone. The catalyst precursor was calcined and reduced at 300 deg. C for an hour in each step. The catalytic growth of nanocarbon in C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/H{sub 2} was carried out at temperature of 550 deg. C for 2 hrs with different rotating angle in the fluidization system. SEM and N{sub 2} isotherms show the level of agglomeration which is a function of growth density and fluidization of the system. The effect of fluidization by rotating the reactor during growth with different speed give a significant impact on the agglomeration of the final CNF/AC composite and thus the amount of CNFs produced. The macrostructure body produced in this work of CNF/AC composite will have advantages in the adsorbent and catalyst support application, due to the mechanical and chemical properties of the material.

  8. One-Pot Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibers from CO2.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiawen; Li, Fang-Fang; Lau, Jason; González-Urbina, Luis; Licht, Stuart

    2015-09-09

    Carbon nanofibers, CNFs, due to their superior strength, conductivity, flexibility, and durability have great potential as a material resource but still have limited use due to the cost intensive complexities of their synthesis. Herein, we report the high-yield and scalable electrolytic conversion of atmospheric CO2 dissolved in molten carbonates into CNFs. It is demonstrated that the conversion of CO2 → CCNF + O2 can be driven by efficient solar, as well as conventional, energy at inexpensive steel or nickel electrodes. The structure is tuned by controlling the electrolysis conditions, such as the addition of trace transition metals to act as CNF nucleation sites, the addition of zinc as an initiator and the control of current density. A less expensive source of CNFs will facilitate its adoption as a societal resource, and using carbon dioxide as a reactant to generate a value added product such as CNFs provides impetus to consume this greenhouse gas to mitigate climate change.

  9. Dielectric relaxation of near-percolated carbon nanofiber polypropylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paleo, A. J.; Zille, A.; Van Hattum, F. W.; Ares-Pernas, A.; Agostinho Moreira, J.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the morphological, structural and dielectric analysis of near-percolated polypropylene (PP) composites containing carbon nanofibers (CNF) processing by melt-mixing are investigated. Whereas the morphological analysis shows that CNF exhibit some tendency to agglomerate within the PP matrix, the structural analysis showed first a general decrease in the intensity of the IR bands as a consequence of the interaction between carbon nanofibers and PP matrix and second an increase of the crystallinity degree of the PP/CNF composites when compared to the pure PP. The dielectric analysis demonstrates enhanced dielectric constants (from 2.97 for neat polymer to 9.7 for 1.9 vol% loaded composites at 200 Hz) and low dielectric losses. Furthermore, the dielectric relaxation for composites with concentrations in the vicinity of percolation is evidenced and well described by the generalized polydispersive Cole-Cole model from which the values of static dielectric constant (εs) , high frequency dielectric constant (ε∞) , distribution of relaxation time (α) and mean relaxation time (τo), are determined, suggesting that this latter analysis constitutes a strong tool for understanding the relationships between microstructure and dielectric properties in this type of polymer composites.

  10. Electrospun aligned poly(propylene carbonate) microfibers with chitosan nanofibers as tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xin; Mi, Hao-Yang; Peng, Jun; Peng, Xiang-Fang; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2015-03-06

    In this study, parallel-aligned poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) microfibers with a fiber diameter of 1.48±0.42 μm were prepared by electrospinning and modified by oxygen plasma treatment. Next, chitosan nanofibers with a fiber diameter size of 278±98 nm were introduced into the PPC fiber mats by freeze drying. Morphological analyses showed that the PPC scaffolds treated with 0.05 mg/ml chitosan solution provided the best micro and nanofiber structure with abundant chitosan nanofibers but without the formation of films. Surface chemical properties were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The initial water contact angle of the scaffolds decreased from 122.3±0.4° for neat PPC scaffolds to 53.8±1.6° for scaffolds with plasma treatment and chitosan nanofibers. The mechanical properties of the scaffolds were affected by plasma treatment with Young's modulus experiencing a reduction of 63%. Meanwhile, Young's modulus experienced a 26% improvement after the introduction of chitosan nanofibers. Fibroblast cells were cultured on the scaffolds to study the effects of both the plasma treatment and the introduction of chitosan nanofibers on cell adhesion, proliferation, and morphology. The scaffolds with PPC microfibers and chitosan nanofibers showed a superior cell response in terms of cell attachment, cell proliferation, and cell-scaffold interactions over the other scaffolds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrospun carbon-tin oxide composite nanofibers for use as lithium ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Bonino, Christopher A; Ji, Liwen; Lin, Zhan; Toprakci, Ozan; Zhang, Xiangwu; Khan, Saad A

    2011-07-01

    Composite carbon-tin oxide (C-SnO(2)) nanofibers are prepared by two methods and evaluated as anodes in lithium-ion battery half cells. Such an approach complements the long cycle life of carbon with the high lithium storage capacity of tin oxide. In addition, the high surface-to-volume ratio of the nanofibers improves the accessibility for lithium intercalation as compared to graphite-based anodes, while eliminating the need for binders or conductive additives. The composite nanofibrous anodes have first discharge capacities of 788 mAh g(-1) at 50 mA g(-1) current density, which are greater than pure carbon nanofiber anodes, as well as the theoretical capacity of graphite (372 mAh g(-1)), the traditional anode material. In the first protocol to fabricate the C-SnO(2) composites, tin sulfate is directly incorporated within polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers by electrospinning. During a thermal treatment the tin salt is converted to tin oxide and the polymer is carbonized, yielding carbon-SnO(2) nanofibers. In the second approach, we soak the nanofiber mats in tin sulfate solutions prior to the final thermal treatment, thereby loading the outer surfaces with SnO(2) nanoparticles and raising the tin content from 1.9 to 8.6 wt %. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses confirm the formation of conversion of tin sulfate to tin oxide. Furthermore, analysis with Raman spectroscopy reveals that the additional salt soak treatment from the second fabrication approach increases in the disorder of the carbon structure, as compared to the first approach. We also discuss the performance of our C-SnO(2) compared with its theoretical capacity and other nanofiber electrode composites previously reported in the literature.

  12. A novel nano-nonwoven fabric with three-dimensionally dispersed nanofibers: entrapment of carbon nanofibers within nonwovens using the wet-lay process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karwa, Amogh N.; Barron, Troy J.; Davis, Virginia A.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2012-05-01

    This study demonstrates, for the first time, the manufacturing of novel nano-nonwovens that are comprised of three-dimensionally distributed carbon nanofibers within the matrices of traditional wet-laid nonwovens. The preparation of these nano-nonwovens involves dispersing and flocking carbon nanofibers, and optimizing colloidal chemistry during wet-lay formation. The distribution of nanofibers within the nano-nonwoven was verified using polydispersed aerosol filtration testing, air permeability, low surface tension liquid capillary porometry, SEM and cyclic voltammetry. All these characterization techniques indicated that nanofiber flocks did not behave as large solid clumps, but retained the ‘nanoporous’ structure expected from nanofibers. These nano-nonwovens showed significant enhancements in aerosol filtration performance. The reduction-oxidation reactions of the functional groups on nanofibers and the linear variation of electric double-layer capacitance with nanofiber loading were measured using cyclic voltammetry. More than 65 m2 (700 ft2) of the composite were made during the demonstration of process scalability using a Fourdrinier-type continuous pilot papermaking machine. The scalability of the process with the control over pore size distribution makes these composites very promising for filtration and other nonwoven applications.

  13. Scanning Conductance Microscopy of Carbon Nanotubes and Polyethylene Oxide Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staii, Cristian; Pinto, Nicholas J.; Johnson, Alan T.

    2004-09-01

    We have developed a quantitative model that explains the phase shifts observed in Scanning Conductance Microscopy, by considering the change in the total capacitance of the tip-sample-substrate system. We show excellent agreement with data on samples of (conducting) single wall carbon nanotubes and insulating polyethylene oxide (PEO) nanofibers. Data for large diameter, conducting doped polyaniline/PEO nanofibers are qualitatively explained. This quantitative approach is used to determine the dielectric constant of PEO nanofiber ɛf = 2.88 ± 0.12, a general method that can be extended to other dielectric nanowires.

  14. Improvement of thermal contact resistance by carbon nanotubes and nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Helen F.; Cooper, Sarah M.; Meyyappan, M.; Cruden, Brett A.

    2004-01-01

    Interfacial thermal resistance results of various nanotube and nanofiber coatings, prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods, are reported at relatively low clamping pressures. The five types of samples examined include multi-walled and single-walled nanotubes growth by CVD, multi-walled nanotubes grown by plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD) and carbon nanofibers of differing aspect ratio grown by PECVD. Of the samples examined, only high aspect ratio nanofibers and thermally grown multi-walled nanotubes show an improvement in thermal contact resistance. The improvement is approximately a 60% lower thermal resistance than a bare Si-Cu interface and is comparable to that attained by commercially available thermal interface materials.

  15. Formation and Structure of Calcium Carbonate Thin Films and Nanofibers Precipitated in the Presence of Poly(Allylamine Hydrochloride) and Magnesium Ions.

    PubMed

    Cantaert, Bram; Verch, Andreas; Kim, Yi-Yeoun; Ludwig, Henning; Paunov, Vesselin N; Kröger, Roland; Meldrum, Fiona C

    2013-12-23

    That the cationic polyelectrolyte poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) exerts a significant influence on CaCO3 precipitation challenges the idea that only anionic additives have this effect. Here, we show that in common with anionic polyelectrolytes such as poly(aspartic acid), PAH supports the growth of calcite thin films and abundant nanofibers. While investigating the formation of these structures, we also perform the first detailed structural analysis of the nanofibers by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction. The nanofibers are shown to be principally single crystal, with isolated domains of polycrystallinity, and the single crystal structure is even preserved in regions where the nanofibers dramatically change direction. The formation mechanism of the fibers, which are often hundreds of micrometers long, has been the subject of intense speculation. Our results suggest that they form by aggregation of amorphous particles, which are incorporated into the fibers uniquely at their tips, before crystallizing. Extrusion of polymer during crystallization may inhibit particle addition at the fiber walls and result in local variations in the fiber nanostructure. Finally, we investigate the influence of Mg(2+) on CaCO3 precipitation in the presence of PAH, which gives thinner and smoother films, together with fibers with more polycrystalline, granular structures.

  16. Patterned Growth of Carbon Nanotubes or Nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance D.

    2004-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the growth of carbon nanotubes or nanofibers in a desired pattern has been invented. The essence of the method is to grow the nanotubes or nanofibers by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) onto a patterned catalyst supported by a substrate. The figure schematically depicts salient aspects of the method and apparatus in a typical application. A substrate is placed in a chamber that contains both ion-beam sputtering and CVD equipment. The substrate can be made of any of a variety of materials that include several forms of silicon or carbon, and selected polymers, metals, ceramics, and even some natural minerals and similar materials. Optionally, the substrate is first coated with a noncatalytic metal layer (which could be a single layer or could comprise multiple different sublayers) by ion-beam sputtering. The choice of metal(s) and thickness(es) of the first layer (if any) and its sublayers (if any) depends on the chemical and electrical properties required for subsequent deposition of the catalyst and the subsequent CVD of the carbon nanotubes. A typical first-sublayer metal is Pt, Pd, Cr, Mo, Ti, W, or an alloy of two or more of these elements. A typical metal for the second sublayer or for an undivided first layer is Al at a thickness .1 nm or Ir at a thickness .5 nm. Proper choice of the metal for a second sublayer of a first layer makes it possible to use a catalyst that is chemically incompatible with the substrate. In the next step, a mask having holes in the desired pattern is placed over the coated substrate. The catalyst is then deposited on the coated substrate by ion-beam sputtering through the mask. Optionally, the catalyst could be deposited by a technique other than sputtering and/or patterned by use of photolithography, electron- beam lithography, or another suitable technique. The catalytic metal can be Fe, Co, Ni, or an alloy of two or more of these elements, deposited to a typical thickness in the range from 0.1 to 20 nm.

  17. Electrospun carbon nanofibers for electrochemical capacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong

    The objective of this work is to electrospin poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) based nanofibers with controlled diameter and to stabilize and carbonize them for developing meso-porous carbon for application as electrochemical capacitor electrodes. A sacrificial polymer, poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (SAN) has been used to control porosity. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been used to increase electrode conductivity and hence power density. The study has been divided into two parts. In part I, electrospinning behavior of PAN and PAN/CNT has been studied. The diameter of electrospun PAN fibers was monitored as a function of polymer molecular weight, solution concentration, solution flow rate, distance between the spinneret and the target, and the applied voltage. Bead free PAN fibers of 60 nm diameter have been electrospun. Various electrospun fibers have been characterized by wide angle X-ray diffraction and by Raman spectroscopy. Electrospinning process has been observed by high speed photography. In part II, the electrospun PAN, PAN/SAN, and PAN/SAN/CNT fiber mats were stabilized, carbonized, and processed into electrochemical capacitor electrodes. The performance of the electrochemical capacitors was tested by the constant current charge/discharge and cyclic voltammetry in 6 molar potassium hydroxide aqueous solution. The surface area and pore size distribution of the electrodes were measured using N2 adsorption and desorption. The effect of surface area and pore size distribution on the capacitance performance has been studied. The capacitance performance of various carbonized electrospun fibers mats have been compared to those of the PAN/SAN/CNT film, carbon nanotube bucky paper, and activated carbon pellet. The capacitance of PAN/SAN/CNT fiber mat over 200 F/g (at a current density of 1 A/g) and the power density approaching 1 kW/kg have been observed. Addition of 1 wt% carbon nanotubes in PAN/SAN, improves the power density by a factor of four. For comparison, the

  18. Functionalized carbon nanotubes and nanofibers for biosensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-07-30

    This review summarizes the recent advances of carbon nanotube (CNT) and carbon nanofiber (CNF)-based electrochemical biosensors with an emphasis on the applications of CNTs. Carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers have unique electric, electrocatalytic, and mechanical properties which make them efficient materials for the use in electrochemical biosensor development. In this article, the functionalization of CNTs for biosensors is simply discussed. The electrochemical biosensors based on CNT and their various applications, e.g., measurement of small biological molecules and environmental pollutants, detection of DNA, and immunosensing of disease biomarkers, are reviewed. Moreover, the development of carbon nanofiber-based electrochemical biosensors and their applications are outlined. Finally, some challenges are discussed in the conclusion.

  19. A catechol biosensor based on electrospun carbon nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dawei; Pang, Zengyuan; Chen, Xiaodong; Luo, Lei; Cai, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    Summary Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by combining electrospinning with a high-temperature carbonization technique. And a polyphenol biosensor was fabricated by blending the obtained CNFs with laccase and Nafion. Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) were, respectively, employed to investigate the structures and morphologies of the CNFs and of the mixtures. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were employed to study the electrocatalysis of the catechol biosensor. The results indicated that the sensitivity of the biosensor was 41 µA·mM−1, the detection limit was 0.63 µM, the linear range was 1–1310 µM and the response time was within 2 seconds, which excelled most other laccase-based biosensor reported. Furthermore, the biosensor showed good repeatability, reproducibility, stability and tolerance to interferences. This novel biosensor also demonstrated its promising application in detecting catechol in real water samples. PMID:24778958

  20. High-performance supercapacitor electrode from cellulose-derived, inter-bonded carbon nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jie; Niu, Haitao; Wang, Hongxia; Shao, Hao; Fang, Jian; He, Jingren; Xiong, Hanguo; Ma, Chengjie; Lin, Tong

    2016-08-01

    Carbon nanofibers with inter-bonded fibrous structure show high supercapacitor performance when being used as electrode materials. Their preparation is highly desirable from cellulose through a pyrolysis technique, because cellulose is an abundant, low cost natural material and its carbonization does not emit toxic substance. However, interconnected carbon nanofibers prepared from electrospun cellulose nanofibers and their capacitive behaviors have not been reported in the research literature. Here we report a facile one-step strategy to prepare inter-bonded carbon nanofibers from partially hydrolyzed cellulose acetate nanofibers, for making high-performance supercapacitors as electrode materials. The inter-fiber connection shows considerable improvement in electrode electrochemical performances. The supercapacitor electrode has a specific capacitance of ∼241.4 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 current density. It maintains high cycling stability (negligible 0.1% capacitance reduction after 10,000 cycles) with a maximum power density of ∼84.1 kW kg-1. They may find applications in the development of efficient supercapacitor electrodes for energy storage applications.

  1. Radiation Effects on Polypropylene Carbon Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, John; Mion, Thomas; Chipara, Alin C.; Ibrahim, Elamin I.; Lozano, Karen; Chipara, Magdalena; Tidrow, Steven C.; Chipara, Mircea

    2010-03-01

    Dispersion of carbon nanostructures within polymeric matrices affects most physical and chemical properties of the polymeric matrix (increased Young modulus, improved thermal stability, faster crystallization rates, higher equilibrium degree of crystallinity, modified glass, melting, and crystallization temperatures, enhanced thermal and electrical conductivity). Such changes have been reported and explained by thorough spectroscopic investigations. Nevertheless, little is known about the radiation stability of such nanocomposites. The research is focused on spectroscopic investigations of radiation-induced modifications in isotactic polypropylene (iPP)-vapor grown nanofiber (VGCNF)composites. VGCNF were dispersed within iPP by extrusion at 180^oC. Composites containing various amounts of VGCNFs ranging from 0 to 20 % wt. were prepared and subjected to gamma irradiation, at room temperature, at various integral doses (10 MGy, 20 MGy, and 30 MGy). Raman spectroscopy, ATR, and WAXS were used to assess the radiation-induced modifications in these nanocomposites. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the Welch Foundation (Department of Chemistry at UTPA) and by US Army Research Office (AMSRD-ARL-RO-SI: 54498-MS-ISP).

  2. Carbon Nanofiber Nanoelectrodes for Biosensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehne, Jessica Erin

    2014-01-01

    A sensor platform based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) has been developed. Their inherent nanometer scale, high conductivity, wide potential window, good biocompatibility and well-defined surface chemistry make them ideal candidates as biosensor electrodes. Here, we report two studies using vertically aligned CNF nanoelectrodes for biomedical applications. CNF arrays are investigated as neural stimulation and neurotransmitter recording electrodes for application in deep brain stimulation (DBS). Polypyrrole coated CNF nanoelectrodes have shown great promise as stimulating electrodes due to their large surface area, low impedance, biocompatibility and capacity for highly localized stimulation. CNFs embedded in SiO2 have been used as sensing electrodes for neurotransmitter detection. Our approach combines a multiplexed CNF electrode chip, developed at NASA Ames Research Center, with the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor (WINCS) system, developed at the Mayo Clinic. Preliminary results indicate that the CNF nanoelectrode arrays are easily integrated with WINCS for neurotransmitter detection in a multiplexed array format. In the future, combining CNF based stimulating and recording electrodes with WINCS may lay the foundation for an implantable smart therapeutic system that utilizes neurochemical feedback control while likely resulting in increased DBS application in various neuropsychiatric disorders. In total, our goal is to take advantage of the nanostructure of CNF arrays for biosensing studies requiring ultrahigh sensitivity, high-degree of miniaturization, and selective biofunctionalization.

  3. Carbon Nanotubes Embedded in Oriented Polymer Nanofibers by Electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Yachin; Dror, Yael; Khalfin, Rafail L.; Salalha, Wael; Yarin, Alexander L.; Zussman, Eyal

    2004-03-01

    The electrospinning process was used successfully to fabricate nanofibers of poly(ethylene oxide) [PEO] in which carbon nanotubes, either multi-walled (MWCNT) or single-walled (SWCNT) are embedded. MWCNTs were dispersed in water using SDS or Gum Arabic - a highly branched polyelectrolyte. Aqueous dispersion of SWCNT's was achieved using an alternating copolymer of styrene and maleic anhydride, hydrolyzed with NaOH. The focus of this work is on the development of axial orientations in the multi-component nanofibers. The degree of orientation of polymers, surfactants and nanotubes was studied using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Individual nanotubes were successfully embedded in the polymer nanofibers with good axial alignment. A high degree of alignment of PEO crystals and SDS layers was also found in the electrospun nanofibers containing SWCNT's. Oriented ropes of the nanofibers were fabricated in a converging electric field by a rotating disc with a tapered edge. These results can lead to further usage of the nanofibers with embedded carbon nanotubes in applications such as nano-scale energy storage devices.

  4. Treated Carbon Nanofibers for Storing Energy in Aqueous KOH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firsich, David W.

    2004-01-01

    A surface treatment has been found to enhance the performances of carbon nanofibers as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors in which aqueous solutions of potassium hydroxide are used as the electrolytes. In the treatment, sulfonic acid groups are attached to edge plane sites on carbon atoms. The treatment is applicable to a variety of carbon nanofibers, including fibrils and both single- and multiple-wall nanotubes. The reason for choosing nanofibers over powders and other forms of carbon is that nanofibers offer greater power features. In previous research, it was found that the surface treatment of carbon nanofibers increased energy-storage densities in the presence of acid electrolytes. Now, it has been found that the same treatment increases energy-storage densities of carbon nanofibers in the presence of alkaline electrolytes when the carbon is paired with a NiOOH electrode. This beneficial effect varies depending on the variety of carbon substrate to which it is applied. It has been conjectured that the sulfonic acid groups, which exist in a deprotonated state in aqueous KOH solutions, undergo reversible electro-chemical reactions that are responsible for the observed increases in energystorage capacities. The increases can be considerable: For example, in one case, nanofibers exhibited a specific capacitance of 34 Farads per gram before treatment and 172 Farads per gram (an increase of about 400 percent) after treatment. The most promising application of this development appears to lie in hybrid capacitors, which are devices designed primarily for storing energy. These devices are designed to be capable of (1) discharge at rates greater than those of batteries and (2) storing energy at densities approaching those of batteries. A hybrid capacitor includes one electrode like that of a battery and one electrode like that of an electrochemical capacitor. For example, a hybrid capacitor could contain a potassium hydroxide solution as the electrolyte

  5. Ni K-Edge XANES Analyses of Residual Ni Catalyst in Carbon Nanofiber Using Full Multiple Scattering Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ushiro, Mayuko; Ohminami, Kenryo; Nagamatsu, Shin-ichi; Fujikawa, Takashi; Asakura, Kiyotaka

    2007-02-02

    Residual Ni species after Ni removal treatment of carbon nanofibers have been investigated by use of XAFS analyses. Most of the Ni impurities are in Ni monomer which is located on defects in carbon nanofibers. The XAFS analyses combined with the multiple scattering theory give useful information on nano-structures of small amount species. Molecular orbital calculation also support the results from the XAFS analyses.

  6. Silicon nanoparticles encapsulated in hollow graphitized carbon nanofibers for lithium ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Junhua; Yee, Wu Aik; Wei, Yuefan; Yang, Liping; Ang, Jia Ming; Phua, Si Lei; Wong, Siew Yee; Zhou, Rui; Dong, Yuliang; Li, Xu; Lu, Xuehong

    2013-04-07

    Silicon (Si) is a promising material for lithium ion battery (LIB) anodes due to its high specific capacity. To overcome its shortcomings such as insulation property and large volume change during the charge-discharge process, a novel hybrid system, Si nanoparticles encapsulated in hollow graphitized carbon nanofibers, is studied. First, electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-Si hybrid nanofibers were obtained using water as the collector. The loose nanofiber lumps suspended in water have large inter-fiber distance, allowing in situ coating of a thin layer of polydopamine (PDA), the source for graphitized carbon, uniformly throughout the system. The designed morphology and structure were then realized by etching and calcination, and the morphology and structure were subsequently verified by various analytical techniques. Electrochemical measurements show that the resulting hollow hybrid nanofibers (C-PDA-Si NFs) exhibit much better cycling stability and rate capacity than conventional C/Si nanofibers derived by electrospinning of PAN-Si followed by calcination. For instance, the capacity of C-PDA-Si NFs is as high as 72.6% of the theoretical capacity after 50 cycles, and a high capacity of 500 mA h g(-1) can be delivered at a current density of 5 A g(-1). The significantly improved electrochemical properties of C-PDA-Si NFs are due to the excellent electrical conductivity of the carbonized PDA (C-PDA) shell that compensates for the insulation property of Si, the high electrochemical activity of C-PDA, which has a layered structure and is N-doped, the hollow nature of the nanofibers and small size of Si nanoparticles that ensure smooth insertion-extraction of lithium ions and more complete alloying with them, as well as the buffering effect of the remaining PAN-derived carbon around the Si nanoparticles, which stabilizes the structure.

  7. Electromagnetic interference shielding characteristics of carbon nanofiber-polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yonglai; Guptal, Mool C; Dudley, Kenneth L; Lawrence, Roland W

    2007-02-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding characteristics of carbon nanofiber-polystyrene composites were investigated in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz (Ku-band). It was observed that the shielding effectiveness of such composites was frequency independent, and increased with increasing carbon nanofiber loading within Ku-band. The experimental data exhibited that the shielding effectiveness of the polymer composite containing 20 wt% carbon nanofibers could reach more than 36 dB in the measured frequency region, indicating such composites can be applied to the potential EMI shielding materials. In addition, the results showed that the contribution of reflection to the EMI shielding effectiveness was much larger than that of absorption, implying the primary EMI shielding mechanism of such composites was reflection of electromagnetic radiation within Ku-band.

  8. Heat treating carbon nanofibers for optimal composite performance

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, Jane Y; Tibbetts, Gary G.; Kwag, C; Lake, Max L

    2006-01-01

    Partial graphitization of carbon nanofibers by high-temperature heat treatment can give improved composite properties. The intrinsic electrical conductivity of the bulk carbon nanofibers measured under compression is maximized by giving the fibers an initial heat treatment at 1500 C. Similarly, for carbon nanofiber/polypropylene composites containing up to 12 vol% fiber, initial fiber heat treatments near 1500 C give tensile modulus and strength superior even to composites made from fibers graphitized at 2900 C. However, optimum composite conductivity is obtained with a somewhat lower heat-treatment temperature, near 1300 C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) along with x-ray diffraction (XRD) explains these results, showing that heat treating the fibers alters the exterior planes from continuous, coaxial, and poorly crystallized to discontinuous nested conical crystallites inclined at about 25 to the fiber axis.

  9. Occupational nanosafety considerations for carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Castranova, Vincent; Schulte, Paul A; Zumwalde, Ralph D

    2013-03-19

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are carbon atoms arranged in a crystalline graphene lattice with a tubular morphology. CNTs exhibit high tensile strength, possess unique electrical properties, are durable, and can be functionalized. These properties allow applications as structural materials, in electronics, as heating elements, in batteries, in the production of stain-resistant fabric, for bone grafting and dental implants, and for targeted drug delivery. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are strong, flexible fibers that are currently used to produce composite materials. Agitation can lead to aerosolized CNTs and CNFs, and peak airborne particulate concentrations are associated with workplace activities such as weighing, transferring, mixing, blending, or sonication. Most airborne CNTs or CNFs found in workplaces are loose agglomerates of micrometer diameter. However, due to their low density, they linger in workplace air for a considerable time, and a large fraction of these structures are respirable. In rat and mouse models, pulmonary exposure to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), or CNFs causes the following pulmonary reactions: acute pulmonary inflammation and injury, rapid and persistent formation of granulomatous lesions at deposition sites of large CNT agglomerates, and rapid and progressive alveolar interstitial fibrosis at deposition sites of more dispersed CNT or CNF structures. Pulmonary exposure to SWCNTs can induce oxidant stress in aortic tissue and increases plaque formation in an atherosclerotic mouse model. Pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs depresses the ability of coronary arterioles to respond to dilators. These cardiovascular effects may result from neurogenic signals from sensory irritant receptors in the lung. Pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs also upregulates mRNA for inflammatory mediators in selected brain regions, and pulmonary exposure to SWCNTs upregulates the baroreceptor reflex. In addition, pulmonary exposure to

  10. Electrospun carbon nanofibers for improved electrical conductivity of fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarifi, Ibrahim M.; Alharbi, Abdulaziz; Khan, Waseem S.; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2015-04-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF), and then electrospun to generate nanofibers using various electrospinning conditions, such as pump speeds, DC voltages and tip-to-collector distances. The produced nanofibers were oxidized at 270 °C for 1 hr, and then carbonized at 850 °C in an argon gas for additional 1 hr. The resultant carbonized PAN nanofibers were placed on top of the pre-preg carbon fiber composites as top layers prior to the vacuum oven curing following the pre-preg composite curing procedures. The major purpose of this study is to determine if the carbonized nanofibers on the fiber reinforced composites can detect the structural defects on the composite, which may be useful for the structural health monitoring (SHM) of the composites. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the electrospun PAN fibers were well integrated on the pre-preg composites. Electrical conductivity studies under various tensile loads revealed that nanoscale carbon fibers on the fiber reinforced composites detected small changes of loads by changing the resistance values. Electrically conductive composite manufacturing can have huge benefits over the conventional composites primarily used for the military and civilian aircraft and wind turbine blades.

  11. Nanostructure and physical properties of cellulose nanofiber-carbon nanotube composite films.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Akira; Suzuki, Shiho; Oku, Takeshi; Enomoto, Kenta; Ikeda, Motohide; Rodrigue, Joseph; Tateiwa, Keita; Terada, Yoshinobu; Yano, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Shinichi

    2017-09-01

    We studied the nanostructure and physical properties of cellulose nanofiber-multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNF-MWNT) composite films prepared via MWNT aqueous dispersion using 4-O-methyl-α-d-glucuronoxylan as a MWNT dispersion aid. The composite film had high electrical conductivity (1.05S/cm), good mechanical properties (Young's modulus: 10.1GPa, tensile strength: 173.4MPa) and a low coefficient of thermal expansion (7ppm/K). FE-SEM imaging showed that the carbon nanotubes dispersed homogeneously and made reinforcing networks in the matrix of cellulose nanofibers. Improvement in the physical properties of cellulose nanofiber film by adding MWNTs is due to this composite structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Morphology of PEG-Stabilized Carbon Nanofibers in Water

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jian; Schaefer, Dale W.

    2009-09-02

    Small-angle light scattering is used to assess the dispersion of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-functionalized carbon nanofibers suspended in water. Analysis of these data elucidates the mechanism by which the functionalized nanofibers are solubilized in water. Linear, tube-like morphology is observed for the PEG-functionalized nanofibers dispersed in water. However, dispersion is not down to the individual tube level as determined by analysis of the light scattering data in conjunction with transmission electron micrographs. Rather, scattering entities are polydisperse side-by-side fiber aggregates (bundles). Because of the presence of water-soluble PEG oligomers on the surfaces of the nanofibers these small-scale aggregates do not agglomerate to form the large-scale clusters that are observed for untreated and acid-treated nanofibers. Acid-treated nanofibers, by contrast, do agglomerate, but in an unusual fashion, showing a 10-h induction period of followed by linear growth of large-scale agglomerates. PEG-functionalization of the acid-treated fibers leads to stabilization by inhibiting formation of the large-scale agglomerates, not by disrupting the side-by-side bundles.

  13. Characterization of Plasma Synthesized Vertical Carbon Nanofibers for Nanoelectronics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jaesung; Feng, Philip X.-L.; Kaul, Anupama B.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the material characterization of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) which are assembled into a three-dimensional (3D) configuration for making new nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray electron dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) are employed to decipher the morphology and chemical compositions of the CNFs at various locations along individual CNFs grown on silicon (Si) and refractory nitride (NbTiN) substrates, respectively. The measured characteristics suggest interesting properties of the CNF bodies and their capping catalyst nanoparticles, and growth mechanisms on the two substrates. Laser irradiation on the CNFs seems to cause thermal oxidation and melting of catalyst nanoparticles. The structural morphology and chemical compositions of the CNFs revealed in this study should aid in the applications of the CNFs to nanoelectronics and NEMS.

  14. Characterization of Plasma Synthesized Vertical Carbon Nanofibers for Nanoelectronics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jaesung; Feng, Philip X.-L.; Kaul, Anupama B.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the material characterization of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) which are assembled into a three-dimensional (3D) configuration for making new nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray electron dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) are employed to decipher the morphology and chemical compositions of the CNFs at various locations along individual CNFs grown on silicon (Si) and refractory nitride (NbTiN) substrates, respectively. The measured characteristics suggest interesting properties of the CNF bodies and their capping catalyst nanoparticles, and growth mechanisms on the two substrates. Laser irradiation on the CNFs seems to cause thermal oxidation and melting of catalyst nanoparticles. The structural morphology and chemical compositions of the CNFs revealed in this study should aid in the applications of the CNFs to nanoelectronics and NEMS.

  15. Graphitic Carbon Nitride/Nitrogen-Rich Carbon Nanofibers: Highly Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution without Cocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Han, Qing; Wang, Bing; Gao, Jian; Qu, Liangti

    2016-08-26

    An interconnected framework of mesoporous graphitic-C3 N4 nanofibers merged with in situ incorporated nitrogen-rich carbon has been prepared. The unique composition and structure of the nanofibers as well as strong coupling between the components endow them with efficient light-harvesting properties, improved charged separation, and a multidimensional electron transport path that enhance the performance of hydrogen production. The as-obtained catalyst exhibits an extremely high hydrogen-evolution rate of 16885 μmol h(-1)  g(-1) , and a remarkable apparent quantum efficiency of 14.3 % at 420 nm without any cocatalysts, which is much higher than most reported g-C3 N4 -based photocatalysts even in the presence of Pt-based cocatalysts.

  16. Collagen-biomorphic porous carbon nanofiber monoliths: Biosilicification-assisted sustainable synthesis and application in Li-S battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wen; Shen, Tao; Hou, Hongying; Gan, Guoyou; Zheng, Biju; Li, Fengxian; Yi, Jianhong

    2016-12-01

    Monolithic carbon has been synthesized via a sustainable biomimetic route utilizing intrafibrillar silicified collagen sponge as precursor and morphogenesis template. The mineralized silica in the biohybrid prevents collapse of the carbon during pyrolysis. Upon biosilica removal results show that the carbon monoliths inherit the porous fiber structure of the mother collagen. The carbon nanofiber framework facilitates the construction of a high electrical conductive pathway, while the internal spaces developed among the intertwined fibrillar network and pores within nanofiber walls offer room for sulfur storage. The as-obtained carbon-sulfur cathode exhibits an accessible discharge capacity approaching 800mAh g-1 in Li-S battery.

  17. Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance of electrospun carbon-doped TiO2/halloysite nanotube hybrid nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling; Huang, Yunpeng; Liu, Tianxi

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the effects of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) on the visible-light photocatalytic ability of electrospun carbon doped TiO2/HNT (C-TH) nanofibers have been explored. Structural and morphological investigations demonstrate that incorporation of HNTs into anatase C-TH hybrid nanofibers was easily achieved by using sol-gel processing combined with electrospinning approach, thus HNTs could be uniformly embedded in the electrospun nanofibers. The visible-light photocatalytic efficiency of C-TH hybrid on the degradation of methyl blue (MB) was greatly enhanced with the combination of moderate amount of HNTs (8%), which was 23 times higher than that of commercial anatase TiO2. Mechanism of the enhancing effect of HNTs has been explored by analyzing the dual-effect of adsorption and photocatalysis in various amounts of HNTs incorporated C-TiO2 nanofibers. With nanotubular structure and considerable adsorption ability, incorporated HNTs functioned as porogen agent in C-TH nanofibers. This simple incorporation approach increases the specific surface areas of nanofibers, which improves the mass transport of reactant into the nanofibers and the adsorption of visible-light by scattering, meanwhile may suppress the charge recombination and enhance photoinduced charge separation, thus efficiently enhancing visible-light photocatalytic performance of the C-TH hybrid nanofibers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Control of physical properties of carbon nanofibers obtained from coaxial electrospinning of PMMA and PAN with adjustable inner/outer nozzle-ends.

    PubMed

    Kaerkitcha, Navaporn; Chuangchote, Surawut; Sagawa, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    Hollow carbon nanofibers (HCNFs) were prepared by electrospinning method with several coaxial nozzles, in which the level of the inner nozzle-end is adjustable. Core/shell nanofibers were prepared from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a pyrolytic core and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a carbon shell with three types of normal (viz. inner and outer nozzle-ends are balanced in the same level), inward, and outward coaxial nozzles. The influence of the applied voltage on these three types of coaxial nozzles was studied. Specific surface area, pore size diameter, crystallinity, and degree of graphitization of the hollow and mesoporous structures of carbon nanofibers obtained after carbonization of the as spun PMMA/PAN nanofibers were characterized by BET analyses, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy in addition to the conductivity measurements. It was found that specific surface area, crystallinity, and graphitization degree of the HCNFs affect the electrical conductivity of the carbon nanofibers.

  19. Spectroscopic studies of the influence of CNTs on the thermal conversion of PAN fibrous membranes to carbon nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stodolak-Zych, E.; Benko, A.; Szatkowski, P.; Długoń, E.; Nocuń, M.; Paluszkiewicz, C.; Błażewicz, M.

    2016-12-01

    Structural changes accompanying stabilization and carbonization processes of the two types of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber precursors (pure PAN and PAN with carbon nanotubes) were studied using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The fibrous membranes were preliminary stabilized in air followed by the two-step carbonization process under nitrogen atmosphere. IR absorption spectra showed that the introduction of a small amount of functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) into the PAN precursor has a significant impact on its stabilization process. Raman spectroscopy study showed that the structure of carbon nanofibers containing CNT is distinctly more ordered in comparison to pure carbon nanofibers. Based on the XPS analysis the concentration of heteroatoms and the type and amount of functional groups on the surfaces of both types of nanofibers were determined. The results indicate a high potential of functionalized MWCNT as a pyrolysis modifier of polymer precursor leading to the formation of carbon nanofibers with controlled structure and defined chemical state of the surface.

  20. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of multiwalled carbon nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Kristopher; Cruden, Brett A.; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M.; Delzeit, Lance

    2002-01-01

    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is used to grow vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanofibers (MWNFs). The graphite basal planes in these nanofibers are not parallel as in nanotubes; instead they exhibit a small angle resembling a stacked cone arrangement. A parametric study with varying process parameters such as growth temperature, feedstock composition, and substrate power has been conducted, and these parameters are found to influence the growth rate, diameter, and morphology. The well-aligned MWNFs are suitable for fabricating electrode systems in sensor and device development.

  1. Use of facile mechanochemical method to functionalize carbon nanofibers with nanostructured polyaniline and their electrochemical capacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xusheng; Liu, Hong-Yuan; Cai, Guipeng; Mai, Yiu-Wing; Baji, Avinash

    2012-02-01

    A facile approach to functionalize carbon nanofibers [CNFs] with nanostructured polyaniline was developed via in situ mechanochemical polymerization of polyaniline in the presence of chemically treated CNFs. The nanostructured polyaniline grafting on the CNF was mainly in a form of branched nanofibers as well as rough nanolayers. The good dispersibility and processability of the hybrid nanocomposite could be attributed to its overall nanostructure which enhanced its accessibility to the electrolyte. The mechanochemical oxidation polymerization was believed to be related to the strong Lewis acid characteristic of FeCl3 and the Lewis base characteristic of aniline. The growth mechanism of the hierarchical structured nanofibers was also discussed. After functionalization with the nanostructured polyaniline, the hybrid polyaniline/CNF composite showed an enhanced specific capacitance, which might be related to its hierarchical nanostructure and the interaction between the aromatic polyaniline molecules and the CNFs.

  2. Use of facile mechanochemical method to functionalize carbon nanofibers with nanostructured polyaniline and their electrochemical capacitance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A facile approach to functionalize carbon nanofibers [CNFs] with nanostructured polyaniline was developed via in situ mechanochemical polymerization of polyaniline in the presence of chemically treated CNFs. The nanostructured polyaniline grafting on the CNF was mainly in a form of branched nanofibers as well as rough nanolayers. The good dispersibility and processability of the hybrid nanocomposite could be attributed to its overall nanostructure which enhanced its accessibility to the electrolyte. The mechanochemical oxidation polymerization was believed to be related to the strong Lewis acid characteristic of FeCl3 and the Lewis base characteristic of aniline. The growth mechanism of the hierarchical structured nanofibers was also discussed. After functionalization with the nanostructured polyaniline, the hybrid polyaniline/CNF composite showed an enhanced specific capacitance, which might be related to its hierarchical nanostructure and the interaction between the aromatic polyaniline molecules and the CNFs. PMID:22315992

  3. Silver-functionalized carbon nanofiber composite electrodes for ibuprofen detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, Florica; Motoc, Sorina; Pop, Aniela; Remes, Adriana; Schoonman, Joop

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare and characterize two types of silver-functionalized carbon nanofiber (CNF) composite electrodes, i.e., silver-decorated CNF-epoxy and silver-modified natural zeolite-CNF-epoxy composite electrodes suitable for ibuprofen detection in aqueous solution. Ag carbon nanotube composite electrode exhibited the best electroanalytical parameters through applying preconcentration/differential-pulsed voltammetry scheme.

  4. TiO2@carbon core/shell nanofibers: Controllable preparation and enhanced visible photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Shao, Changlu; Zhang, Zhenyi; Zhang, Mingyi; Mu, Jingbo; Guo, Zengcai; Liu, Yichun

    2011-07-01

    TiO2@carbon core/shell nanofibers (TiO2@C NFs) with different thinkness of carbon layers (from 2 to 8 nm) were fabricated by combining the electrospinning technique and hydrothermal method. The results showed that a uniform graphite carbon layer was formed around the electrospun TiO2 nanofiber via C-O-Ti bonds. By adjusting the hydrothermal fabrication parameters, the thickness of carbon layer could be easily controlled. Furthermore, the TiO2@C NFs had remarkable light absorption in the visible region. The photocatalytic studies revealed that the TiO2@C NFs exhibited enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RB) compared with the pure TiO2 nanofibers under visible light irradiation, which might be attributed to high separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons and holes based on the synergistic effect between carbon as a sensitizer and TiO2 with one dimension structure. Notably, the TiO2@C NFs could be easily recycled due to their one-dimensional nanostructural property.TiO2@carbon core/shell nanofibers (TiO2@C NFs) with different thinkness of carbon layers (from 2 to 8 nm) were fabricated by combining the electrospinning technique and hydrothermal method. The results showed that a uniform graphite carbon layer was formed around the electrospun TiO2 nanofiber via C-O-Ti bonds. By adjusting the hydrothermal fabrication parameters, the thickness of carbon layer could be easily controlled. Furthermore, the TiO2@C NFs had remarkable light absorption in the visible region. The photocatalytic studies revealed that the TiO2@C NFs exhibited enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RB) compared with the pure TiO2 nanofibers under visible light irradiation, which might be attributed to high separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons and holes based on the synergistic effect between carbon as a sensitizer and TiO2 with one dimension structure. Notably, the TiO2@C NFs could be easily recycled due to their

  5. Decomposition of Fe5C2 catalyst particles in carbon nanofibers during TEM observation.

    PubMed

    Blank, Vladimir D; Kulnitskiy, Boris A; Perezhogin, Igor A; Alshevskiy, Yuriy L; Kazennov, Nikita V

    2009-02-01

    The effect of an electron beam on nanoparticles of two Fe carbide catalysts inside a carbon nanofiber was investigated in a transmission electron microscope. Electron beam exposure does not result in significant changes for cementite (θ-Fe3C). However, for Hägg carbide nanoparticles (χ-Fe5C2), explosive decay is observed after exposure for 5-10 s. This produces small particles of cementite and γ-Fe, each covered with a multilayer carbon shell, and significantly modifies the carbon-fiber structure. It is considered that the decomposition of Hägg carbide is mostly due to the damage induced by high-energy electron collisions with the crystal lattice, accompanied by the heating of the particle and by mechanical stress provided by the carbon layers of the nanofiber.

  6. Supercapacitor Electrodes Based on High-Purity Electrospun Polyaniline and Polyaniline-Carbon Nanotube Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Simotwo, Silas K; DelRe, Christopher; Kalra, Vibha

    2016-08-24

    Freestanding, binder-free supercapacitor electrodes based on high-purity polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers were fabricated via a single step electrospinning process. The successful electrospinning of nanofibers with an unprecedentedly high composition of PANI (93 wt %) was made possible due to blending ultrahigh molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) with PANI in solution to impart adequate chain entanglements, a critical requirement for electrospinning. To further enhance the conductivity and stability of the electrodes, a small concentration of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was added to the PANI/PEO solution prior to electrospinning to generate PANI/CNT/PEO nanofibers (12 wt % CNTs). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) porosimetry were conducted to characterize the external morphology of the nanofibers. The electrospun nanofibers were further probed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The electroactivity of the freestanding PANI and PANI/CNT nanofiber electrodes was examined using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Competitive specific capacitances of 308 and 385 F g(-1) were achieved for PANI and PANI-CNT based electrodes, respectively, at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1). Moreover, specific capacitance retentions of 70 and 81.4% were observed for PANI and PANI-CNT based electrodes, respectively, after 1000 cycles. The promising electrochemical performance of the fabricated electrodes, we believe, stems from the porous 3-D electrode structure characteristic of the nonwoven interconnected nanostructures. The interconnected nanofiber network facilitates efficient electron conduction while the inter- and intrafiber porosity enable excellent electrolyte penetration within the polymer matrix, allowing fast ion transport to the active sites.

  7. Carbon Nanofibers (CNFs) Surface Modification to Fabricate Carbon Nanofibers_Nanopaper Integrated Polymer Composite Material.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianjun; Zhao, Ziwei; Deng, Chao; Liu, Fa; Li, Dejia; Fang, Liangchao; Zhang, Dan; Castro Jose M; Chen, Feng; Lee, L James

    2016-06-01

    Carbon Nanofibers (CNFs) have shown great potential to improve the physical and mechanical properties of conventional Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites (FRPCs) surface. Excellent dispersion CNFs into water or polymer matrix was very crucial to get good quality CNFs enhanced FRPCs. Because of the hydrophobic properties of CNFs, we apply the reversible switching principles to transfer the hydrophobic surface into hydrophilic surface by growing polyaniline nanograss on the surface of CNFs which was carried out in hydrochloric acid condition. Incorporating CNFs into FRPCs as a surface layer named CNFs Nanopaper to increase the erosion resistance and electrical conductivity in this research which was very important in the wind energy field. In order to get high quality dispersed CNFs suspension, a sonication unit was used to detangle and uniform disperse the functionalized CNFs. A filter with vacuum pressure used to filter the suspension of CNFs onto Carbon veil to make CNFs Nanopaper. Vacuum Aided Resin Transfer Modeling (VARTM) process was used to fabricate Nano-enhanced FRPCs samples. In order to characterize the mechanical properties, three point bending experiment was measured. The flexural strength capacity and deformation resistance and behavior were compared and analyzed. In this paper, we discussed the methods used and provided experimental parameter and experimental results.

  8. Influence of oxygen on nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber growth directly on nichrome foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Shinde, Sachin M.; Saufi Rosmi, Mohamad; Takahashi, Chisato; Papon, Remi; Mahyavanshi, Rakesh D.; Ishii, Yosuke; Kawasaki, Shinji; Kalita, Golap; Tanemura, Masaki

    2016-09-01

    The synthesis of various nitrogen-doped (N-doped) carbon nanostructures has been significantly explored as an alternative material for energy storage and metal-free catalytic applications. Here, we reveal a direct growth technique of N-doped carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on flexible nichrome (NiCr) foil using melamine as a solid precursor. Highly reactive Cr plays a critical role in the nanofiber growth process on the metal alloy foil in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process. Oxidation of Cr occurs in the presence of oxygen impurities, where Ni nanoparticles are formed on the surface and assist the growth of nanofibers. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) clearly show the transformation process of the NiCr foil surface with annealing in the presence of oxygen impurities. The structural change of NiCr foil assists one-dimensional (1D) CNF growth, rather than the lateral two-dimensional (2D) growth. The incorporation of distinctive graphitic and pyridinic nitrogen in the graphene lattice are observed in the synthesized nanofiber, owing to better nitrogen solubility. Our finding shows an effective approach for the synthesis of highly N-doped carbon nanostructures directly on Cr-based metal alloys for various applications.

  9. Influence of oxygen on nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber growth directly on nichrome foil.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Shinde, Sachin M; Rosmi, Mohamad Saufi; Takahashi, Chisato; Papon, Remi; Mahyavanshi, Rakesh D; Ishii, Yosuke; Kawasaki, Shinji; Kalita, Golap; Tanemura, Masaki

    2016-09-09

    The synthesis of various nitrogen-doped (N-doped) carbon nanostructures has been significantly explored as an alternative material for energy storage and metal-free catalytic applications. Here, we reveal a direct growth technique of N-doped carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on flexible nichrome (NiCr) foil using melamine as a solid precursor. Highly reactive Cr plays a critical role in the nanofiber growth process on the metal alloy foil in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process. Oxidation of Cr occurs in the presence of oxygen impurities, where Ni nanoparticles are formed on the surface and assist the growth of nanofibers. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) clearly show the transformation process of the NiCr foil surface with annealing in the presence of oxygen impurities. The structural change of NiCr foil assists one-dimensional (1D) CNF growth, rather than the lateral two-dimensional (2D) growth. The incorporation of distinctive graphitic and pyridinic nitrogen in the graphene lattice are observed in the synthesized nanofiber, owing to better nitrogen solubility. Our finding shows an effective approach for the synthesis of highly N-doped carbon nanostructures directly on Cr-based metal alloys for various applications.

  10. Carbon nanofiber growth in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denysenko, I.; Ostrikov, K.; Cvelbar, U.; Mozetic, M.; Azarenkov, N. A.

    2008-10-01

    A theoretical model to describe the plasma-assisted growth of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) is proposed. Using the model, the plasma-related effects on the nanofiber growth parameters, such as the growth rate due to surface and bulk diffusion, the effective carbon flux to the catalyst surface, the characteristic residence time and diffusion length of carbon atoms on the catalyst surface, and the surface coverages, have been studied. The dependence of these parameters on the catalyst surface temperature and ion and etching gas fluxes to the catalyst surface is quantified. The optimum conditions under which a low-temperature plasma environment can benefit the CNF growth are formulated. These results are in good agreement with the available experimental data on CNF growth and can be used for optimizing synthesis of related nanoassemblies in low-temperature plasma-assisted nanofabrication.

  11. What does nitric acid really do to carbon nanofibers? [What nitric acid really does to carbon nanofibers

    DOE PAGES

    Sainio, S.; Nordlund, D.; Gandhiraman, R.; ...

    2016-09-15

    Understanding the chemical nature of the surface of carbon nanofibers (CNF) is critical in assessing their fundamental properties and tailoring them for the right application. To gain such knowledge, we present here a detailed X-ray adsorption spectroscopy (XAS) study accompanied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs of two morphologically different CNF pairs (tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) grown “open structured” fibers and traditional bamboo-like “closed structured” fibers), where the surface chemical properties and structural features of the fibers are investigated in depth and the effects of nitric acid treatment on the fibers are revealed. The morphology of the fibermore » and/or the original seed- and adhesion layers markedly affect the response of the fibers to the acid treatment. Results also show that the nitric acid treatment increases the observed sp2 intensity and modifies the two types of fibers to become more-alike both structurally and with respect to their oxygen functionalities. Furthermore, the XAS and HRTEM results confirm that a short nitric acid treatment does not remove the Ni catalyst particle but, instead, oxidizes their surfaces, especially in the case of ta-C grown fibers.« less

  12. What does nitric acid really do to carbon nanofibers? [What nitric acid really does to carbon nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Sainio, S.; Nordlund, D.; Gandhiraman, R.; Jiang, H.; Koehne, J.; Koskinen, J.; Meyyappan, M.; Laurila, T.

    2016-09-15

    Understanding the chemical nature of the surface of carbon nanofibers (CNF) is critical in assessing their fundamental properties and tailoring them for the right application. To gain such knowledge, we present here a detailed X-ray adsorption spectroscopy (XAS) study accompanied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs of two morphologically different CNF pairs (tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) grown “open structured” fibers and traditional bamboo-like “closed structured” fibers), where the surface chemical properties and structural features of the fibers are investigated in depth and the effects of nitric acid treatment on the fibers are revealed. The morphology of the fiber and/or the original seed- and adhesion layers markedly affect the response of the fibers to the acid treatment. Results also show that the nitric acid treatment increases the observed sp2 intensity and modifies the two types of fibers to become more-alike both structurally and with respect to their oxygen functionalities. Furthermore, the XAS and HRTEM results confirm that a short nitric acid treatment does not remove the Ni catalyst particle but, instead, oxidizes their surfaces, especially in the case of ta-C grown fibers.

  13. Electrospun carbon nanofibers reinforced 3D porous carbon polyhedra network derived from metal-organic frameworks for capacitive deionization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Ma, Jiaqi; Lu, Ting; Pan, Likun

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers reinforced 3D porous carbon polyhedra network (e-CNF-PCP) was prepared through electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment. The morphology, structure and electrochemical performance of the e-CNF-PCP were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and their electrosorption performance in NaCl solution was studied. The results show that the e-CNF-PCP exhibits a high electrosorption capacity of 16.98 mg g−1 at 1.2 V in 500 mg l−1 NaCl solution, which shows great improvement compared with those of electrospun carbon nanofibers and porous carbon polyhedra. The e-CNF-PCP should be a very promising candidate as electrode material for CDI applications. PMID:27608826

  14. Electrospun carbon nanofibers reinforced 3D porous carbon polyhedra network derived from metal-organic frameworks for capacitive deionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Ma, Jiaqi; Lu, Ting; Pan, Likun

    2016-09-01

    Carbon nanofibers reinforced 3D porous carbon polyhedra network (e-CNF-PCP) was prepared through electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment. The morphology, structure and electrochemical performance of the e-CNF-PCP were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and their electrosorption performance in NaCl solution was studied. The results show that the e-CNF-PCP exhibits a high electrosorption capacity of 16.98 mg g-1 at 1.2 V in 500 mg l-1 NaCl solution, which shows great improvement compared with those of electrospun carbon nanofibers and porous carbon polyhedra. The e-CNF-PCP should be a very promising candidate as electrode material for CDI applications.

  15. Development of Electro-Mechanical Spinning for Controlled Deposition of Carbon Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canton, Giulia

    In the past few decades the fields of nanotechnology and miniaturized devices had an exponentially growth of interest in academic and research environment, leading to breakthroughs discoveries that are envisioned to have a profound impact on our economy and society in the near future. Recently, the focus is moving toward the development of technologies that enable the production of micro- /nano-devices on a larger scale and at lower costs. Among the different micro- /nano-devices manufacturing challenges, in this dissertation the aim is to reliably fabricate suspend carbon micro- /nano-fibers between two carbon electrode walls in a way that can be mass produced at relatively low cost. The first part of this thesis provides an in depth overview of current methods used for the fabrication of carbon based micro devices (C-MEMS) and of electrospinning, a manufacturing technology that emerges as a simple and inexpensive approach to produce nanofibers. Electro-Mechanical Spinning (EMS) has been developed from electrospinning and optimized for the production of suspended carbon nanofibers, aiming to achieve greater deposition control at the single nanofiber level, while maintaining the low cost of electrospinning. After the successful development of EMS, the so fabricated carbon micro- /nano-fibers have been characterized, first from the electrical point of view, then from the mechanical one. The electrical characterization involves conductivity measurements of fibers with respect of different and controllable manufacturing processes steps. Variations of those manufacturing parameters have been proven to be capable of tailoring the carbon structure and, therefore, the conductivity of the fibers within a desired range. Further investigation regarding the electrical properties was also conducted to prevent (or control) current induced fiber breakdown. Finally, the Young's modulus of those fibers was investigated and observed to be dependent on the fibers thickness

  16. Electrospun core-shell nanofibers derived Fe-S/N doped carbon material for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Junxia; Niu, Qijian; Yuan, Yichun; Maitlo, Inamullh; Nie, Jun; Ma, Guiping

    2017-09-01

    One-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials have gained attention in energy conversion, storage, and catalyst due to the unique physical and chemical properties. Electrospinning is a kind of simple, versatile, and cost-effective technology to fabricate 1D functional nanofibers. Herein, electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN), melamine, and ferric chloride hexahydrate (FeCl3·6H2O) composite nanofibers are used as template, and polythiophene (PT) are prepared by photopolymerization technology on the surface of electrospun nanofibers as shell part of fibers. Then, the core-shell nanofibers are pyrolyzed and converted into Fe-S/N-C nanofibers, which can be used as catalysts for ORR due to the metal and S-/N-codoped structure and unique 1D structure which provided facile pathways for efficient mass transport and charge transfer. The ORR electrocatalytic ability of Fe-S/N-C nanofibers is tested and present excellent property, especially in stability and methanol crossover. The electrocatalytic ability of sample is comparable to that of 20 wt% Pt/C benchmarks. These results offer an easy pathway for exploring metal-heteroatom-codoped carbon nanofibers applicable for ORR catalyst.

  17. Electrospun MgO-loaded carbon nanofibers: Enhanced field electron emission from the fibers in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aykut, Yakup

    2013-02-01

    MgO-loaded electrospun carbon nanofibers (MgO/CNFs) were prepared by electrospinning a magnesium acetate containing polyacrylonitrile composite followed by stabilization under an air atmosphere at 280 °C and carbonization under a nitrogen atmosphere at 800 °C. In addition to investigating the morphological and material features of the nanofibers, the field emission (FE) characteristics of the carbonized NFs (CNFs), performed in an ultra-high vacuum chamber utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), were determined. The results of the investigation show that the MgO/CNFs (195.5% enhancement) display enhanced field electron emission as compared to that of pure CNFs as a result of the existence of a MgO phase. Consequently, it appears that the graphitic structures of CNFs can be tuned, a finding that has significance in studies aimed at developing new field electron emission devices.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of multiwalled CNT-PAN based composite carbon nanofibers via electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Narinder; Kumar, Vipin; Dhakate, Sanjay R

    2016-01-01

    Electrospun fibrous membranes find place in diverse applications like sensors, filters, fuel cell membranes, scaffolds for tissue engineering, organic electronics etc. The objectives of present work are to electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers and PAN-CNT nanocomposite nanofibers and convert into carbon nanofiber and carbon-CNT composite nanofiber. The work was divided into two parts, development of nanofibers and composite nanofiber. The PAN nanofibers were produced from 9 wt% PAN solution by electrospinning technique. In another case PAN-CNT composite nanofibers were developed from different concentrations of MWCNTs (1-3 wt%) in 9 wt% PAN solution by electrospinning. Both types of nanofibers were undergone through oxidation, stabilization, carbonization and graphitization. At each stage of processing of carbon and carbon-CNT composite nanofibers were characterized by SEM, AFM, TGA and XRD. It was observed that diameter of nanofiber varies with processing parameters such as applied voltage tip to collector distance, flow rate of solution and polymer concentrations etc. while in case of PAN-CNT composite nanofiber diameter decreases with increasing concentration of CNT in PAN solution. Also with stabilization, carbonization and graphitization diameter of nanofiber decreases. SEM images shows that the minimum fiber diameter in case of 3 wt% of CNT solution because as viscosity increases it reduces the phase separation of PAN and solvent and as a consequence increases in the fiber diameter. AFM images shows that surface of film is irregular which give idea about mat type orientation of fibers. XRD results show that degree of graphitization increases on increasing CNT concentration because of additional stresses exerting on the nanofiber surface in the immediate vicinity of CNTs. TGA results shows wt loss decreases as CNT concentration increases in fibers.

  19. Construction of solid-state Z-scheme carbon-modified TiO2/WO3 nanofibers with enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Junhua; Wang, Lijie; Zhang, Peng; Liang, Changhao; Shao, Guosheng

    2016-10-01

    Carbon-layer-coated TiO2/WO3 nanofibers (WTC) were fabricated by combining the electrospinning technique (for TiO2/WO3 nanofibers) and hydrothermal method (for carbon shell). The structure characterization results showed that TiO2/WO3 nanofibers (WT) were encased within an uniform carbon shell about 10 nm in thickness. By adjusting the content of WO3, the graphitization degree of carbon layer could be controlled, and the WTC nanofibers had remarkable light absorption in the visible region. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical performance and photocatalytic activity were investigated systematically. As expected, the H2-generation rate of the as-prepared composite materials was greatly enhanced compared with pure TiO2 nanofibers (TNFs), TiO2/WO3 nanofibers (WT) and TiO2@carbon core/shell nanofibers (TC). The enhanced activities were mainly attributed to the multichannel-improved charge-carrier photosynthetic heterojunction system with the carbon layer on the surface of TiO2 as an electron collector and WO3 as a hole collector, leading to effective charge separation on these components, which were evidenced by photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and photocurrent analysis. Besides, the addition of WO3 promoted the graphitization of carbon layer, which in turn improved transport of electrons in the carbon layer and also contributed to the performance improvement.

  20. Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers: interconnecting solid state electronics with biosystems.

    PubMed

    Cassell, Alan M; Li, Jun; Nguyen-Vu, Thuy-Duong Barbara; Koehne, Jessica E; Chen, Hua; Andrews, Russell; Meyyappan, M

    2009-08-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) are grown directly on prefabricated electronic circuits with nanoscale precision. Utilizing the free-standing nanofiber array geometry, we have demonstrated the detection of nucleic acids to construct an ultrasensitive electrochemical sensor. Extending this technology towards in vivo applications, we have modified the free-standing VACNF arrays in order to achieve a multifunctional three dimensional (3-D) matrix that interpenetrates the neuronal network of PC12 cells. We found that PC12 cells cultured on the nanofiber arrays can form an extended neural network upon proper chemical and biochemical modification. The soft 3-D nanofiber array architecture provides a novel platform to fine-tune the topographical, mechanical, chemical, and electrical cues at sub-cellular scales. This biomaterial platform can be used for both fundamental studies of nanomaterial-cell interactions and the development of multifunctional, chronically stable implantable devices. The application of these devices and potential utility as a multifunctional platform for neurophysiology and biochemical studies will be discussed.

  1. Photocatalytic Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds Over Electrospun Activated TIO2/CARBON Nanofiber Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholamvand, Zahra; Aboutalebi, Seyed Hamed; Keyanpour-Rad, Mansoor

    In this study, TiO2/PAN-based fibers were prepared by electrospinning a composite solution containing both the desirable contents of TiO2 and a 10 wt. % PAN polymer solution dissolved in N, N-dimethylformamide. The TiO2 loaded electrospun PAN nanofibers were then carbonized at 1000 °C in N2 atmosphere furnace after stabilization at 230 °C in air. Then CNF/TiO2 nanofibers were oxidized at 450 °C in air. The morphology and structure of the TiO2-embeded carbon nanofibers were investigated by SEM and Raman spectroscopy. Specific surface area was determined using BET equation from N2 adsorption analysis. Photocatalytic tests were conducted in a UV illuminated set-up specialized for the filters using ethanol vapor. The results have shown that ethanol vapor was efficiently degraded on TiO2/CNF composite nanofiber mat under UV illumination. The aim of this study was to further investigate the feasibility of TiO2/ACF for practical indoor air purification.

  2. Graphene-Composite Carbon Nanofiber-Based Electrodes for Energy Storage Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-18

    structured CNF webs by electrodeposition of nanostructured manganese oxide (MnOx) on CNFs. The electrodeposition were conducted in a standard three...graphene composite carbon nanofiber (CNF) webs with an electrical conductivity larger than 1×103 S/cm. In addition, metal-oxide- nanostructures on the... conductivity larger than 1?103 S/cm. In addition, metal-oxide- nanostructures on the surface of CNF webs will also be developed. These highly conductive

  3. Silicon nanoparticles encapsulated in hollow graphitized carbon nanofibers for lithium ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Junhua; Yee, Wu Aik; Wei, Yuefan; Yang, Liping; Ang, Jia Ming; Phua, Si Lei; Wong, Siew Yee; Zhou, Rui; Dong, Yuliang; Li, Xu; Lu, Xuehong

    2013-03-01

    Silicon (Si) is a promising material for lithium ion battery (LIB) anodes due to its high specific capacity. To overcome its shortcomings such as insulation property and large volume change during the charge-discharge process, a novel hybrid system, Si nanoparticles encapsulated in hollow graphitized carbon nanofibers, is studied. First, electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-Si hybrid nanofibers were obtained using water as the collector. The loose nanofiber lumps suspended in water have large inter-fiber distance, allowing in situ coating of a thin layer of polydopamine (PDA), the source for graphitized carbon, uniformly throughout the system. The designed morphology and structure were then realized by etching and calcination, and the morphology and structure were subsequently verified by various analytical techniques. Electrochemical measurements show that the resulting hollow hybrid nanofibers (C-PDA-Si NFs) exhibit much better cycling stability and rate capacity than conventional C/Si nanofibers derived by electrospinning of PAN-Si followed by calcination. For instance, the capacity of C-PDA-Si NFs is as high as 72.6% of the theoretical capacity after 50 cycles, and a high capacity of 500 mA h g-1 can be delivered at a current density of 5 A g-1. The significantly improved electrochemical properties of C-PDA-Si NFs are due to the excellent electrical conductivity of the carbonized PDA (C-PDA) shell that compensates for the insulation property of Si, the high electrochemical activity of C-PDA, which has a layered structure and is N-doped, the hollow nature of the nanofibers and small size of Si nanoparticles that ensure smooth insertion-extraction of lithium ions and more complete alloying with them, as well as the buffering effect of the remaining PAN-derived carbon around the Si nanoparticles, which stabilizes the structure.Silicon (Si) is a promising material for lithium ion battery (LIB) anodes due to its high specific capacity. To overcome its shortcomings

  4. Preparation of porous carbon nanofibers derived from PBI/PLLA for supercapacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kyung-Hye; Ferraris, John P.

    2016-10-01

    Porous carbon nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning blend solutions of polybenzimidazole/poly-L-lactic acid (PBI/PLLA) and carbonization. During thermal treatment, PLLA was decomposed, resulting in the creation of pores in the carbon nanofibers. From SEM images, it is shown that carbon nanofibers had diameters in the range of 100-200 nm. The conversion of PBI to carbon was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, and the surface area and pore volume of carbon nanofibers were determined using nitrogen adsorption/desorption analyses. To investigate electrochemical performances, coin-type cells were assembled using free-standing carbon nanofiber electrodes and ionic liquid electrolyte. cyclic voltammetry studies show that the PBI/PLLA-derived porous carbon nanofiber electrodes have higher capacitance due to lower electrochemical impedance compared to carbon nanofiber electrode from PBI only. These porous carbon nanofibers were activated using ammonia for further porosity improvement and annealed to remove the surface functional groups to better match the polarity of electrode and electrolyte. Ragone plots, correlating energy density with power density calculated from galvanostatic charge-discharge curves, reveal that activation/annealing further improves energy and power densities.

  5. Preparation of porous carbon nanofibers derived from PBI/PLLA for supercapacitor electrodes.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung-Hye; Ferraris, John P

    2016-10-21

    Porous carbon nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning blend solutions of polybenzimidazole/poly-L-lactic acid (PBI/PLLA) and carbonization. During thermal treatment, PLLA was decomposed, resulting in the creation of pores in the carbon nanofibers. From SEM images, it is shown that carbon nanofibers had diameters in the range of 100-200 nm. The conversion of PBI to carbon was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, and the surface area and pore volume of carbon nanofibers were determined using nitrogen adsorption/desorption analyses. To investigate electrochemical performances, coin-type cells were assembled using free-standing carbon nanofiber electrodes and ionic liquid electrolyte. cyclic voltammetry studies show that the PBI/PLLA-derived porous carbon nanofiber electrodes have higher capacitance due to lower electrochemical impedance compared to carbon nanofiber electrode from PBI only. These porous carbon nanofibers were activated using ammonia for further porosity improvement and annealed to remove the surface functional groups to better match the polarity of electrode and electrolyte. Ragone plots, correlating energy density with power density calculated from galvanostatic charge-discharge curves, reveal that activation/annealing further improves energy and power densities.

  6. Individually addressable vertically aligned carbon nanofiber-based electrochemical probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillorn, M. A.; McKnight, T. E.; Melechko, A.; Merkulov, V. I.; Britt, P. F.; Austin, D. W.; Lowndes, D. H.; Simpson, M. L.

    2002-03-01

    In this paper we present the fabrication and initial testing results of high aspect ratio vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (VACNF)-based electrochemical probes. Electron beam lithography was used to define the catalytic growth sites of the VACNFs. Following catalyst deposition, VACNF were grown using a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process. Photolithography was performed to realize interconnect structures. These probes were passivated with a thin layer of SiO2, which was then removed from the tips of the VACNF, rendering them electrochemically active. We have investigated the functionality of completed devices using cyclic voltammetry (CV) of ruthenium hexammine trichloride, a highly reversible, outer sphere redox system. The faradaic current obtained during CV potential sweeps shows clear oxidation and reduction peaks at magnitudes that correspond well with the geometry of these nanoscale electrochemical probes. Due to the size and the site-specific directed synthesis of the VACNFs, these probes are ideally suited for characterizing electrochemical phenomena with an unprecedented degree of spatial resolution.

  7. Enhancing capacitive deionization performance of electrospun activated carbon nanofibers by coupling with carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qiang; Wang, Gang; Wu, Tingting; Peng, Senpei; Qiu, Jieshan

    2015-05-15

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an alternative, effective and environmentally friendly technology for desalination of brackish water. The performance of the CDI device is highly determined by the electrode materials. In this paper, a composite of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) embedded in activated carbon nanofiber (ACF) was prepared by a direct co-electrospinning way and subsequent CO2 activation. The introduction of CNTs can greatly improve the conductivity while the CO2-mediated activation can render the final product with high porosity. As such, the hybrid structure can provide an excellent storage space and pathways for ion adsorption and conduction. When evaluated as electrode materials for CDI, the as-prepared CNT/ACF composites with higher electrical conductivity and mesopore ratios exhibited higher electrosorption capacity and good regeneration performance in comparison with the pure ACF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Polyacrylonitrile nanocomposite fibers from acrylonitrile-grafted carbon nanofibers

    DOE PAGES

    Hiremath, Nitilaksha; Evora, Maria Cecilia; Naskar, Amit K.; ...

    2017-07-31

    For the first time, uniform distribution of surface functionalized carbon nanofibers (CNFs) has been achieved in low molecular weight (≈120,000 g/mol) textile grade-polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based composite filaments. Furthermore, surface grafting of CNFs with acrylonitrile enhances the dispersion of nanofibers in PAN fiber matrix. XPS study reveals high atomic nitrogen content (7%) on the CNF surface due to the grafting reaction. The solution-spun filaments have been characterized for distribution of CNFs in the PAN matrix by electron microscopy. PAN composite filaments containing 3.2 wt.% CNF and processed at draw ratio of ≈6.3 exhibit enhanced tensile strength and modulus by more than threemore » folds compared to the control PAN filament. Because of chemically compatible surface modification of the nanofibers, better dispersion and improved mechanical properties were accomplished in the reinforced PAN fibers. This should then allow the production of CNF reinforced carbon fibers with improved tensile properties. An increase in CNF loading (6.4 wt.%), however, reduced performance due to inefficient alignment of CNF along the fiber axis. Nevertheless, hot stretching (at draw ratio ≈ 10) of the filaments enhanced tensile strength and elastic modulus of PAN composite filaments by 20–30% compared to the control hot stretched PAN filaments.« less

  9. Carbon Nanotubes/Nanofibers by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teo, K. B. K.; Hash, D. B.; Bell, M. S.; Chhowalla, M.; Cruden, B. A.; Amaratunga, G. A. J.; Meyyappan, M.; Milne, W. I.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) has been recently used for the production of vertically aligned carbon nanotubedfibers (CN) directly on substrates. These structures are potentially important technologically as electron field emitters (e.g. microguns, microwave amplifiers, displays), nanoelectrodes for sensors, filter media, superhydrophobic surfaces and thermal interface materials for microelectronics. A parametric study on the growth of CN grown by glow discharge dc-PECVD is presented. In this technique, a substrate containing thin film Ni catalyst is exposed to C2H2 and NH3 gases at 700 C. Without plasma, this process is essentially thermal CVD which produces curly spaghetti-like CN as seen in Fig. 1 (a). With the plasma generated by biasing the substrate at -6OOV, we observed that the CN align vertically during growth as shown in Fig. l(b), and that the magnitude of the applied substrate bias affects the degree of alignment. The thickness of the thin film Ni catalyst was found to determine the average diameter and inversely the length of the CN. The yield and density of the CN were controlled by the use of different diffusion barrier materials under the Ni catalyst. Patterned CN growth [Fig. l(c)], with la variation in CN diameter of 4.1% and 6.3% respectively, is achieved by lithographically defining the Ni thin film prior to growth. The shape of the structures could be varied from very straight nanotube-like to conical tip-like nanofibers by increasing the ratio of C2H2 in the gas flow. Due to the plasma decomposition of C2H2, amorphous carbon (a-C) is an undesirable byproduct which could coat the substrate during CN growth. Using a combination of depth profiled Auger electron spectroscopy to study the substrate and in-situ mass spectroscopy to examine gas phase neutrals and ions, the optimal conditions for a-C free growth of CN is determined.

  10. Laccase Biosensor Based on Electrospun Copper/Carbon Composite Nanofibers for Catechol Detection

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jiapeng; Qiao, Hui; Li, Dawei; Luo, Lei; Chen, Ke; Wei, Qufu

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the biosensing properties of laccase biosensors based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and copper/carbon composite nanofibers (Cu/CNFs). The two kinds of nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning and carbonization under the same conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy were employed to investigate the morphologies and structures of CNFs and Cu/CNFs. The amperometric results indicated that the Cu/CNFs/laccase(Lac)/Nafion/glass carbon electrode (GCE) possessed reliable analytical performance for the detection of catechol. The sensitivity of the Cu/CNFs/Lac/Nafion/GCE reached 33.1 μA/mM, larger than that of CNFs/Lac/Nafion/GCE. Meanwhile, Cu/CNFs/Lac/Nafion/GCE had a wider linear range from 9.95 × 10−6 to 9.76 × 10−3 M and a lower detection limit of 1.18 μM than CNFs/Lac/Nafion/GCE. Moreover, it exhibited a good repeatability, reproducibility, selectivity and long-term stability, revealing that electrospun Cu/CNFs have great potential in biosensing. PMID:24561403

  11. Laccase biosensor based on electrospun copper/carbon composite nanofibers for catechol detection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiapeng; Qiao, Hui; Li, Dawei; Luo, Lei; Chen, Ke; Wei, Qufu

    2014-02-20

    The study compared the biosensing properties of laccase biosensors based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and copper/carbon composite nanofibers (Cu/CNFs). The two kinds of nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning and carbonization under the same conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy were employed to investigate the morphologies and structures of CNFs and Cu/CNFs. The amperometric results indicated that the Cu/CNFs/laccase(Lac)/Nafion/glass carbon electrode (GCE) possessed reliable analytical performance for the detection of catechol. The sensitivity of the Cu/CNFs/Lac/Nafion/GCE reached 33.1 μA/mM, larger than that of CNFs/Lac/Nafion/GCE. Meanwhile, Cu/CNFs/Lac/Nafion/GCE had a wider linear range from 9.95 × 10(-6) to 9.76 × 10(-3) M and a lower detection limit of 1.18 μM than CNFs/Lac/Nafion/GCE. Moreover, it exhibited a good repeatability, reproducibility, selectivity and long-term stability, revealing that electrospun Cu/CNFs have great potential in biosensing.

  12. Plasma oxidation and stabilization of electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofiber for carbon nanofiber formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamideh Mortazavi, S.; Pilehvar, Soheil; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Hosseinnejad, M. T.; Zargham, Shamim; Mirarefi, Ali A.; Mirarefi, Amir Y.

    2013-11-01

    The effect of plasma treatment on the stabilization of copolymer P(AN-MA) containing 6.1 mol% methyl acrylate (MA) prepared by an electrospinning technique has been investigated at various oxygen contents (10 %, 20 % and 30 %) and different exposure times. The morphology and chemical structural evolution of electrospun and oxidized nanofibers were studied using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). FT-IR analysis indicated that the treated nanofibers were effectively oxidized under different contents of oxygen and prolonged plasma exposure times by increasing the peak intensities of polar groups at 1730 and 3400 cm-1 corresponding to C=O stretching band and OH stretching vibration mode, respectively. Additionally, a reduction in the extent of the cyclization reaction is observed with further increase in exposure times and contents of oxygen, which implies lower conversion of C≡N bands into C=N ones in the copolymer chain. According to the FE-SEM studies, the surfaces of the treated nanofibers were completely etched after 15 min of treatment due to the existence of strong ion bombardment and a reduction in the average fiber diameters was observed.

  13. Enhanced thermal conductance of polymer composites through embedding aligned carbon nanofibers

    DOE PAGES

    Nicholas, Roberts; Hensley, Dale K.; Wood, David

    2016-07-08

    The focus of this work is to find a more efficient method of enhancing the thermal conductance of polymer thin films. This work compares polymer thin films embedded with randomly oriented carbon nanotubes to those with vertically aligned carbon nanofibers. Thin films embedded with carbon nanofibers demonstrated a similar thermal conductance between 40–60 μm and a higher thermal conductance between 25–40 μm than films embedded with carbon nanotubes with similar volume fractions even though carbon nanotubes have a higher thermal conductivity than carbon nanofibers

  14. Enhanced thermal conductance of polymer composites through embedding aligned carbon nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, Roberts; Hensley, Dale K.; Wood, David

    2016-07-08

    The focus of this work is to find a more efficient method of enhancing the thermal conductance of polymer thin films. This work compares polymer thin films embedded with randomly oriented carbon nanotubes to those with vertically aligned carbon nanofibers. Thin films embedded with carbon nanofibers demonstrated a similar thermal conductance between 40–60 μm and a higher thermal conductance between 25–40 μm than films embedded with carbon nanotubes with similar volume fractions even though carbon nanotubes have a higher thermal conductivity than carbon nanofibers

  15. The effect of filler aspect ratio on the electromagnetic properties of carbon-nanofibers reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vivo, B.; Lamberti, P.; Spinelli, G.; Tucci, V.; Guadagno, L.; Raimondo, M.

    2015-08-01

    The effect of filler aspect ratio on the electromagnetic properties of epoxy-amine resin reinforced with carbon nanofibers is here investigated. A heat treatment at 2500 °C of carbon nanofibers seems to increase their aspect ratio with respect to as-received ones most likely due to a lowering of structural defects and the improvement of the graphene layers within the dixie cup conformation. These morphological differences revealed by Raman's spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses may be responsible for the different electrical properties of the resulting composites. The DC characterization of the nanofilled material highlights an higher electrical conductivity and a lower electrical percolation threshold for the heat-treated carbon nanofibers based composites. In fact, the electrical conductivity is about 0.107 S/m and 1.36 × 10-3 S/m for the nanocomposites reinforced with heat-treated and as received fibers, respectively, at 1 wt. % of nanofiller loading, while the electrical percolation threshold falls in the range [0.05-0.32]wt. % for the first nanocomposites and above 0.64 wt. % for the latter. Moreover, also a different frequency response is observed since the critical frequency, which is indicative of the transition from a resistive to a capacitive-type behaviour, shifts forward of about one decade at the same filler loading. The experimental results are supported by theoretical and simulation studies focused on the role of the filler aspect ratio on the electrical properties of the nanocomposites.

  16. Soft-templated synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanospheres and hollow carbon nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Youliang; Li, Tiehu; Fang, Changqing; Zhang, Maorong; Liu, Xiaolong; Yu, Ruien; Hu, Jingbo

    2013-10-01

    Using coal tar pitch based amphiphilic carbonaceous materials (ACMs) as the precursor and amphiphilic triblock copolymer Plutonic P123 as the only soft template, carbon nanospheres with partially ordered mesopores and hollow carbon nanofibers were synthesized. The concentration of P123, cp, and the mass ratio of P123 to ACM, r, are the key parameters of controlling the shape of the as-prepared products. Mesoporous carbon nanospheres with diameter of 30-150 nm were prepared under the condition of cp = 13.3 g/L and r = 1.2. When cp = 26.7 g/L and r = 2, hollow carbon nanofibers with diameters of 50-200 nm and mesopores/macropores were obtained. Carbon nanospheres and hollow carbon fibers were amorphous materials. The mesoporous carbon nanospheres show good stability in the cyclic voltammograms and their specific capacitance at 10 mV s-1 is 172.1 F/g.

  17. Preparation of Size-Controlled Hat-Stacked Carbon Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Y.; Yokoyama, A.; Motomiya, K.; Jeyadevan, B.; Tohji, K.

    2007-03-01

    Hat-stacked carbon nanofibers (H-CNFs) were size-separated using a multi-step microfiltration process employing polycarbonate membrane filters with respective cylindrical pore diameters of 2.0, 1.2 and 0.4 μm after being cut and dispersed in distilled water using sonication in a mixture of concentrated H2SO4 and HNO3. The average length of separated H-CNFs was 2.4 μm, 1.2 μm and 0.6 μm, respectively.

  18. Carbon nanofibers decorated with poly(furfuryl alcohol)-derived carbon nanoparticles and tetraethylorthosilicate-derived silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Yarin, A L

    2011-12-06

    The present paper introduces a novel method to functionalize nanofiber surfaces with carbon or silica nanoparticles by dip coating. This novel approach holds promise of significant benefits because dip coating of electrospun and carbonized nanofiber mats in poly(furfuryl alcohol) (abbreviated as PFA) is used to increase surface roughness by means of PFA-derived carbon nanoparticles produced at the fiber surface. Also, dip coating in tetraethylorthosilicate (abbreviated as TEOS) is shown to be an effective method for decorating carbon nanofibers with TEOS-derived silica nanoparticles at their surface. Furthermore, dip coating is an inexpensive technique which is easier to implement than the existing methods of nanofiber decoration with silica nanoparticles and results in a higher loading capacity. Carbon nanofiber mats with PFA- or TEOS-decorated surfaces hold promise of becoming the effective electrodes in fuel cells, Li-ion batteries and storage devices.

  19. Preparation and electrochemical properties of carbon-coated LiFePO4 hollow nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Bin-bin; Wu, Yan-bo; Yu, Fang-yuan; Zhou, Ya-nan

    2016-04-01

    Carbon-coated LiFePO4 hollow nanofibers as cathode materials for Li-ion batteries were obtained by coaxial electrospinning. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area analysis, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed to investigate the crystalline structure, morphology, and electrochemical performance of the as-prepared hollow nanofibers. The results indicate that the carbon-coated LiFePO4 hollow nanofibers have good long-term cycling performance and good rate capability: at a current density of 0.2C (1.0C = 170 mA·g-1) in the voltage range of 2.5-4.2 V, the cathode materials achieve an initial discharge specific capacity of 153.16 mAh·g-1 with a first charge-discharge coulombic efficiency of more than 97%, as well as a high capacity retention of 99% after 10 cycles; moreover, the materials can retain a specific capacity of 135.68 mAh·g-1, even at 2C.

  20. Suspensions of carbon nanofibers in organic medium: rheo-electrical properties.

    PubMed

    Youssry, Mohamed; Guyomard, Dominique; Lestriez, Bernard

    2015-12-28

    The nonaqueous suspensions of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) in 1 M lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonaimide) in propylene carbonate electrolyte reveal unique structural evolution and shear-induced transition due to the high aspect ratio. The rheo-electrical behavior elucidates a microstructural transition from entangled-to-aggregated networks above a distinct percolation threshold. Under shear flow, both networks show a three-regime flow curve and an inverted-bell-like conductivity curve as a consequence of shear-induced alignment (entangled network) and shear-induced breaking up (aggregated network). The different particle morphology of carbon nanofibers (anisometric) and carbon black (CB; isometric) causes different aggregation mechanisms (aggregate vs. particulate) and then varied microstructure for their suspensions in the same electrolyte. This fact explains the higher rigidity and lower electric conductivity of CNFs than CB suspensions. Interestingly, the suspension of hybrid carbons at the optimum mixing ratio merges the advantages of both carbons to operate efficiently as precursors in the formulation of electrodes for energy storage systems.

  1. A comparative study of EMI shielding properties of carbon nanofiber and multi-walled carbon nanotube filled polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yonglai; Gupta, Mool C; Dudley, Kenneth L; Lawrence, Roland W

    2005-06-01

    Electromagnetic interference shielding properties of carbon nanofiber- and multi-walled carbon nanotube-filled polystyrene composites were investigated in the frequency range of 8.2-12.4 GHz (X-band). It was observed that the shielding effectiveness of composites was frequency independent, and increased with the increase of carbon nanofiber or nanotube loading. At the same filler loading, multi-walled carbon nanotube-filled polystyrene composites exhibited higher shielding effectiveness compared to those filled with carbon nanofibers. In particular, carbon nanotubes were more effective than nanofibers in providing high EMI shielding at low filler loadings. The experimental data showed that the shielding effectiveness of the composite containing 7 wt% carbon nanotubes could reach more than 26 dB, implying that such a composite can be used as a potential electromagnetic interference shielding material. The dominant shielding mechanism of carbon nanotube-filled polystyrene composites was also discussed.

  2. LiFePO4 - 3D carbon nanofiber composites as cathode materials for Li-ions batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimesso, L.; Spanheimer, C.; Jaegermann, W.; Zhang, Y.; Yarin, A. L.

    2012-03-01

    The characterization of carbon nanofiber 3D nonwovens, prepared by electrospinning process, coated with olivine structured lithium iron phosphate is reported. The LiFePO4 as cathode material for lithium ion batteries was prepared by a Pechini-assisted reversed polyol process. The coating has been successfully performed on carbon nanofiber 3D nonwovens by soaking in aqueous solution containing lithium, iron salts and phosphates at 70 °C for 2-4 h. After drying-out, the composites were annealed at 600 °C for 5 h under nitrogen. The surface investigation of the prepared composites showed a uniform coating of the carbon nonwoven nanofibers as well as the formation of cauliflower-like crystalline structures which are uniformly distributed all over the surface area of the carbon nanofibers. The electrochemical measurements on the composites showed good performances delivering a discharge specific capacity of 156 mAhg- 1 at a discharging rate of C/25 and 152 mAhg- 1 at a discharging rate of C/10 at room temperature.

  3. Flame Synthesis Of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes And Nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wal, Randy L. Vander; Berger, Gordon M.; Ticich, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are widely sought for a variety of applications including gas storage, intercalation media, catalyst support and composite reinforcing material [1]. Each of these applications will require large scale quantities of CNTs. A second consideration is that some of these applications may require redispersal of the collected CNTs and attachment to a support structure. If the CNTs could be synthesized directly upon the support to be used in the end application, a tremendous savings in post-synthesis processing could be realized. Therein we have pursued both aerosol and supported catalyst synthesis of CNTs. Given space limitations, only the aerosol portion of the work is outlined here though results from both thrusts will be presented during the talk. Aerosol methods of SWNT, MWNT or nanofiber synthesis hold promise of large-scale production to supply the tonnage quantities these applications will require. Aerosol methods may potentially permit control of the catalyst particle size, offer continuous processing, provide highest product purity and most importantly, are scaleable. Only via economy of scale will the cost of CNTs be sufficient to realize the large-scale structural and power applications on both earth and in space. Present aerosol methods for SWNT synthesis include laser ablation of composite metalgraphite targets or thermal decomposition/pyrolysis of a sublimed or vaporized organometallic [2]. Both approaches, conducted within a high temperature furnace, have produced single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs). The former method requires sophisticated hardware and is inherently limited by the energy deposition that can be realized using pulsed laser light. The latter method, using expensive organometallics is difficult to control for SWNT synthesis given a range of gasparticle mixing conditions along variable temperature gradients; multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs) are a far more likely end products. Both approaches require large energy expenditures and

  4. Thermal conductivity of tubrostratic carbon nanofiber networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Matthew L.; Saltonstall, Chris B.; Leseman, Zayd C.; Beechem, Thomas E.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Norris, Pamela M.

    2016-01-01

    Composite material systems composed of a matrix of nano materials can achieve combinations of mechanical and thermophysical properties outside the range of traditional systems. While many reports have studied the intrinsic thermal properties of individual carbon fibers, to be useful in applications in which thermal stability is critical, an understanding of heat transport in composite materials is required. In this work, air/ carbon nano fiber networks are studied to elucidate the system parameters influencing thermal transport. Sample thermal properties are measured with varying initial carbon fiber fill fraction, environment pressure, loading pressure, and heat treatment temperature through a bidirectional modification of the 3ω technique. The nanostructures of the individual fibers are characterized with small angle x-ray scattering and Raman spectroscopy providing insight to individual fiber thermal conductivity. Measured thermal conductivity varied from 0.010 W/(m K) to 0.070 W/(m K). An understanding of the intrinsic properties of the individual fibers and the interactions of the two phase composite is used to reconcile low measured thermal conductivities with predictive modeling. This methodology can be more generally applied to a wide range of fiber composite materials and their applications.

  5. Thermal conductivity of tubrostratic carbon nanofiber networks

    DOE PAGES

    Bauer, Matthew L.; Saltonstall, Chris B.; Leseman, Zayd C.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Composite material systems composed of a matrix of nano materials can achieve combinations of mechanical and thermophysical properties outside the range of traditional systems. While many reports have studied the intrinsic thermal properties of individual carbon fibers, to be useful in applications in which thermal stability is critical, an understanding of heat transport in composite materials is required. In this work, air/ carbon nano fiber networks are studied to elucidate the system parameters influencing thermal transport. Sample thermal properties are measured with varying initial carbon fiber fill fraction, environment pressure, loading pressure, and heat treatment temperature through a bidirectional modificationmore » of the 3ω technique. The nanostructures of the individual fibers are characterized with small angle x-ray scattering and Raman spectroscopy providing insight to individual fiber thermal conductivity. Measured thermal conductivity varied from 0.010 W/(m K) to 0.070 W/(m K). An understanding of the intrinsic properties of the individual fibers and the interactions of the two phase composite is used to reconcile low measured thermal conductivities with predictive modeling. This methodology can be more generally applied to a wide range of fiber composite materials and their applications.« less

  6. Carbon nanofiber polymer composites: evaluation of life cycle energy use.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Vikas; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2009-03-15

    Holistic evaluation of emerging nanotechnologies using systems analysis is pivotal for guiding their safe and sustainable development. While toxicity studies of engineered nanomaterials are essential, understanding of the potential large scale impacts of nanotechnology is also critical for developing sustainable nanoproducts. This work evaluates the life cycle energetic impact associated with the production and use of carbon nanofiber (CNF) reinforced polymer nanocomposites (PNC). Specifically, both simple CNF and carbon nanofiber-glass fiber (CNF-GF) hybrid PNCs are evaluated and compared with steel for equal stiffness design. Life cycle inventory is developed based on published literature and best available engineering information. A cradle-to-gate comparison suggests that for equal stiffness design, CNF reinforced PNCs are 1.6-12 times more energy intensive than steel. It is anticipated that the product use phase may strongly influence whether any net savings in life cycle energy consumption can be realized. A case study involving the use of CNF and CNF-GF reinforced PNCs in the body panels of automobiles highlights that the use of PNCs with lower CNF loading ratios has the potential for net life cycle energy savings relative to steel owing to improved fuel economy benefits. Other factors such as cost, toxicity impact of CNF, and end-of-life issues specific to CNFs need to be considered to evaluate the final economic and environmental performance of CNF reinforced PNC materials.

  7. Thermal, Electrical and Surface Hydrophobic Properties of Electrospun Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers for Structural Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Alarifi, Ibrahim M.; Alharbi, Abdulaziz; Khan, Waseem S.; Swindle, Andrew; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an idea of using carbonized electrospun Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers as a sensor material in a structural health monitoring (SHM) system. The electrospun PAN fibers are lightweight, less costly and do not interfere with the functioning of infrastructure. This study deals with the fabrication of PAN-based nanofibers via electrospinning followed by stabilization and carbonization in order to remove all non-carbonaceous material and ensure pure carbon fibers as the resulting material. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to determine the ionic conductivity of PAN fibers. The X-ray diffraction study showed that the repeated peaks near 42° on the activated nanofiber film were α and β phases, respectively, with crystalline forms. Contact angle, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were also employed to examine the surface, thermal and chemical properties of the carbonized electrospun PAN fibers. The test results indicated that the carbonized PAN nanofibers have superior physical properties, which may be useful for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications in different industries. PMID:28793615

  8. Thermal, Electrical and Surface Hydrophobic Properties of Electrospun Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers for Structural Health Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Alarifi, Ibrahim M; Alharbi, Abdulaziz; Khan, Waseem S; Swindle, Andrew; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2015-10-14

    This paper presents an idea of using carbonized electrospun Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers as a sensor material in a structural health monitoring (SHM) system. The electrospun PAN fibers are lightweight, less costly and do not interfere with the functioning of infrastructure. This study deals with the fabrication of PAN-based nanofibers via electrospinning followed by stabilization and carbonization in order to remove all non-carbonaceous material and ensure pure carbon fibers as the resulting material. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to determine the ionic conductivity of PAN fibers. The X-ray diffraction study showed that the repeated peaks near 42° on the activated nanofiber film were α and β phases, respectively, with crystalline forms. Contact angle, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were also employed to examine the surface, thermal and chemical properties of the carbonized electrospun PAN fibers. The test results indicated that the carbonized PAN nanofibers have superior physical properties, which may be useful for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications in different industries.

  9. Multifunctional Composite Nanofibers for Smart Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-13

    demonstration 4.1 Nanofiber based supercapacitor, Lithium Ion battery and transparent electrodes for solar cell (student – Nicole Lee; collaborator...compensating power deficiencies of batteries or fuel cells in hybrid vehicles. Reducing their cost and increasing energy density are major...challenge for enabling next generation solar cell devices. High performance fibrous composite materials based on a carrier polymer with embedded functional

  10. Fabrication of a compacted aluminum-carbon nanofiber material by hot pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kol'tsova, T. S.; Shakhov, F. M.; Voznyakovskii, A. A.; Lyashkov, A. I.; Tolochko, O. V.; Nasibulin, A. G.; Rudskoi, A. I.; Mikhailov, V. G.

    2014-11-01

    The aluminum-carbon nanofiber compacted materials fabricated by hot pressing are studied. The carbon content and the compacting temperature are shown to affect the hardness of the aluminum-carbon nanofiber compacted composite material: the hardness increases from 30 to 57 HB when the carbon nanofiber concentration increases from 0 to 1.5 wt %. The chemical state of the composite components is studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Carbon nanofibers transform into an amorphous modification at a temperature of 980°C, which corresponds to the decrease in the hardness. Aluminum carbide Al4C3 is found to form, and its content increases monotonically in the hot pressing temperature range from 720 to 1370°C.

  11. Polycarboxylation of carbon nanofibers under Friedel-Crafts condition: A simple route to direct binding of carboxylic functionalities to graphitic π-system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiancheng; Cai, Hualun; Xu, Kai; Fu, Zien; Liu, Xin; Chen, Mingcai; Zhang, Xiuju

    2012-11-01

    The functionalization of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with oxalyl chloride, via Friedel-Crafts reaction in the presence of aluminum chloride, was first demonstrated as an efficient way to introduce carboxyl groups onto the nanofiber sidewalls. Octa-aminophenylsilsesquioxane (OASQ) was then covalently attached to the carboxylated nanocarbon CNF-(COOH)n through amide linkage. Taking into account the nature of the electrophilic aromatic substitution, this chemical functionalization may involve formation of conjugated carboxylic acid moiety. Structural analysis combined with electron microscopy observation of the robust octasilsesquioxane species show that carboxyl groups are uniformly distributed on the nanofibers surface.

  12. Monitoring Damage Propagation in Glass Fiber Composites Using Carbon Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabagh, Ahmed; Taha, Eman; Kandil, Usama; Nasr, Gamal-Abdelnaser; Reda Taha, Mahmoud

    2016-09-10

    In this work, we report the potential use of novel carbon nanofibers (CNFs), dispersed during fabrication of glass fiber composites to monitor damage propagation under static loading. The use of CNFs enables a transformation of the typically non-conductive glass fiber composites into new fiber composites with appreciable electrical conductivity. The percolation limit of CNFs/epoxy nanocomposites was first quantified. The electromechanical responses of glass fiber composites fabricated using CNFs/epoxy nanocomposite were examined under static tension loads. The experimental observations showed a nonlinear change of electrical conductivity of glass fiber composites incorporating CNFs versus the stress level under static load. Microstructural investigations proved the ability of CNFs to alter the polymer matrix and to produce a new polymer nanocomposite with a connected nanofiber network with improved electrical properties and different mechanical properties compared with the neat epoxy. It is concluded that incorporating CNFs during fabrication of glass fiber composites can provide an innovative means of self-sensing that will allow damage propagation to be monitored in glass fiber composites.

  13. Monitoring Damage Propagation in Glass Fiber Composites Using Carbon Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sabagh, Ahmed; Taha, Eman; Kandil, Usama; Nasr, Gamal-Abdelnaser; Reda Taha, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the potential use of novel carbon nanofibers (CNFs), dispersed during fabrication of glass fiber composites to monitor damage propagation under static loading. The use of CNFs enables a transformation of the typically non-conductive glass fiber composites into new fiber composites with appreciable electrical conductivity. The percolation limit of CNFs/epoxy nanocomposites was first quantified. The electromechanical responses of glass fiber composites fabricated using CNFs/epoxy nanocomposite were examined under static tension loads. The experimental observations showed a nonlinear change of electrical conductivity of glass fiber composites incorporating CNFs versus the stress level under static load. Microstructural investigations proved the ability of CNFs to alter the polymer matrix and to produce a new polymer nanocomposite with a connected nanofiber network with improved electrical properties and different mechanical properties compared with the neat epoxy. It is concluded that incorporating CNFs during fabrication of glass fiber composites can provide an innovative means of self-sensing that will allow damage propagation to be monitored in glass fiber composites. PMID:28335298

  14. Tunable Graphitic Carbon Nano-Onions Development in Carbon Nanofibers for Multivalent Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Haiqing L.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a novel porous graphitic carbon nanofiber material using a synthesis strategy combining electrospinning and catalytic graphitization. RF hydrogel was used as carbon precursors, transition metal ions were successfully introduced into the carbon matrix by binding to the carboxylate groups of a resorcinol derivative. Transition metal particles were homogeneously distributed throughout the carbon matrix, which are used as in-situ catalysts to produce graphitic fullerene-like nanostructures surrounding the metals. The success design of graphitic carbons with enlarged interlayer spacing will enable the multivalent ion intercalation for the development of multivalent rechargeable batteries.

  15. Immobilization and release strategies for DNA delivery using carbon nanofiber arrays and self-assembled monolayers.

    PubMed

    Peckys, Diana B; Melechko, Anatoli V; Simpson, Michael L; McKnight, Timothy E

    2009-04-08

    We report a strategy for immobilizing dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) onto vertically aligned carbon nanofibers and subsequently releasing this dsDNA following penetration and residence of these high aspect ratio structures within cells. Gold-coated nanofiber arrays were modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAM) to which reporter dsDNA was covalently and end-specifically bound with or without a cleavable linker. The DNA-modified nanofiber arrays were then used to impale, and thereby transfect, Chinese hamster lung epithelial cells. This mechanical approach enables the transport of bound ligands directly into the cell nucleus and consequently bypasses extracellular and cytosolic degradation. Statistically significant differences were observed between the expression levels from immobilized and releasable DNA, and these are discussed in relation to the distinct accessibility and mode of action of glutathione, an intracellular reducing agent responsible for releasing the bound dsDNA. These results prove for the first time that an end-specifically and covalently SAM-bound DNA can be expressed in cells. They further demonstrate how the choice of immobilization and release methods can impact expression of nanoparticle delivered DNA.

  16. Immobilization and release strategies for DNA delivery using carbon nanofiber arrays and self-assembled monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckys, Diana B.; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Simpson, Michael L.; McKnight, Timothy E.

    2009-04-01

    We report a strategy for immobilizing dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) onto vertically aligned carbon nanofibers and subsequently releasing this dsDNA following penetration and residence of these high aspect ratio structures within cells. Gold-coated nanofiber arrays were modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAM) to which reporter dsDNA was covalently and end-specifically bound with or without a cleavable linker. The DNA-modified nanofiber arrays were then used to impale, and thereby transfect, Chinese hamster lung epithelial cells. This mechanical approach enables the transport of bound ligands directly into the cell nucleus and consequently bypasses extracellular and cytosolic degradation. Statistically significant differences were observed between the expression levels from immobilized and releasable DNA, and these are discussed in relation to the distinct accessibility and mode of action of glutathione, an intracellular reducing agent responsible for releasing the bound dsDNA. These results prove for the first time that an end-specifically and covalently SAM-bound DNA can be expressed in cells. They further demonstrate how the choice of immobilization and release methods can impact expression of nanoparticle delivered DNA.

  17. Phosphorus-doped helical carbon nanofibers as enhanced sensing platform for electrochemical detection of carbendazim.

    PubMed

    Cui, Rongjing; Xu, Dong; Xie, Xiaohan; Yi, Yuyang; Quan, Ying; Zhou, Maixi; Gong, Jinjian; Han, Zhida; Zhang, Genhua

    2017-04-15

    A combined chemical vapor deposition with high-pressure annealing has been developed for the production of phosphorus-doped helical carbon nanofibers (P-HCNFs). The resulting P-HCNFs have a large specific surface area, well-defined three-dimensional hierarchical helical structure and rapid apparent heterogeneous electron transfer. Based on the high electrocatalytic activity, the P-HCNFs were used to develop an amperometric sensor for carbendazim detection. The experimental results demonstrated that the sensor is promising for the determination of carbendazim in food samples due to the high sensitivity, wide linear range and low detection limit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Imaging, spectroscopy, mechanical, alignment and biocompatibility studies of electrospun medical grade polyurethane (Carbothane™ 3575A) nanofibers and composite nanofibers containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Faheem A; Macossay, Javier; Cantu, Travis; Zhang, Xujun; Shamshi Hassan, M; Esther Salinas, M; Farhangi, Chakavak S; Ahmad, Hassan; Kim, Hern; Bowlin, Gary L

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we discuss the electrospinning of medical grade polyurethane (Carbothane™ 3575A) nanofibers containing multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes (MWCNTs). A simple method that does not depend on additional foreign chemicals has been employed to disperse MWCNTs through high intensity sonication. Typically, a polymer solution consisting of polymer/MWCNTs has been electrospun to form nanofibers. Physiochemical aspects of prepared nanofibers were evaluated by SEM, TEM, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, confirming nanofibers containing MWCNTs. The biocompatibility and cell attachment of the produced nanofiber mats were investigated while culturing them in the presence of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. The results from these tests indicated non-toxic behavior of the prepared nanofiber mats and had a significant attachment of cells towards nanofibers. The incorporation of MWCNTs into polymeric nanofibers led to an improvement in tensile stress from 11.40 ± 0.9 to 51.25 ± 5.5 MPa. Furthermore, complete alignment of the nanofibers resulted in an enhancement on tensile stress to 72.78 ± 5.5 MPa. Displaying these attributes of high mechanical properties and non-toxic nature of nanofibers are recommended for an ideal candidate for future tendon and ligament grafts.

  19. Imaging, Spectroscopy, Mechanical, Alignment and Biocompatibility Studies of Electrospun Medical Grade Polyurethane (Carbothane™ 3575A) Nanofibers and Composite Nanofibers Containing Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Faheem A.; Macossay, Javier; Cantu, Travis; Zhang, Xujun; Hassan, M. Shamshi; Salinas, M. Esther; Farhangi, Chakavak S.; Ahmad, Hassan; Kim, Hern; Bowlin, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we discuss the electrospinning of medical grade polyurethane (Carbothane™ 3575A) nanofibers containing multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes (MWCNTs). A simple method that does not depend on additional foreign chemicals has been employed to disperse MWCNTs through high intensity sonication. Typically, a polymer solution consisting of polymer/MWCNTs has been electrospun to form nanofibers. Physiochemical aspects of prepared nanofibers were evaluated by SEM, TEM, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, confirming nanofibers containing MWCNTs. The biocompatibility and cell attachment of the produced nanofiber mats were investigated while culturing them in the presence of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. The results from these tests indicated non-toxic behavior of the prepared nanofiber mats and had a significant attachment of cells towards nanofibers. The incorporation of MWCNTs into polymeric nanofibers led to an improvement in tensile stress from 11.40 ± 0.9 to 51.25 ± 5.5 MPa. Furthermore, complete alignment of the nanofibers resulted in an enhancement on tensile stress to 72.78 ± 5.5 MPa. Displaying these attributes of high mechanical properties and non-toxic nature of nanofibers are recommended for an ideal candidate for future tendon and ligament grafts. PMID:25460415

  20. Growth of carbon nanofibers on carbon fabric with Ni nanocatalyst prepared using pulse electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Kai-Hsuan; Tzeng, Shinn-Shyong; Kuo, Wen-Shyong; Wei, Bingqing; Ko, Tse-Hao

    2008-07-01

    The pulse electrodeposition (PED) technique was utilized to deposit nanosized (<=10 nm) Ni catalysts on carbon fabric (CF). Via an in situ potential profile, the PED technique can control the Ni catalyst loading, which is an important parameter for the growth of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on CF. The preparation of CNF-coated CF (carpet-like CF) was carried out in a thermal chemical vapor deposition system with an optimum loading of Ni catalysts deposited in the PED pulse range from 20 to 320 cycles. CNFs grown at 813 K using different pulse cycles had a narrow diameter distribution, around 15 ± 5 nm to 29 ± 7 nm they have a hydrophobic surface, like lotus leaves. Transmission electron microscopy images confirmed the graphene structural transformation of CNFs with the growth temperature. Solid wire CNFs were initially grown at 813 K with graphene edges exposed on the external surface. At elevated growth temperatures (1073 and 1173 K), bamboo-like CNFs were obtained, with herringbone structures and intersectional hollow cores.

  1. Growth of carbon nanofibers on carbon fabric with Ni nanocatalyst prepared using pulse electrodeposition.

    PubMed

    Hung, Kai-Hsuan; Tzeng, Shinn-Shyong; Kuo, Wen-Shyong; Wei, Bingqing; Ko, Tse-Hao

    2008-07-23

    The pulse electrodeposition (PED) technique was utilized to deposit nanosized (≤10 nm) Ni catalysts on carbon fabric (CF). Via an in situ potential profile, the PED technique can control the Ni catalyst loading, which is an important parameter for the growth of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on CF. The preparation of CNF-coated CF (carpet-like CF) was carried out in a thermal chemical vapor deposition system with an optimum loading of Ni catalysts deposited in the PED pulse range from 20 to 320 cycles. CNFs grown at 813 K using different pulse cycles had a narrow diameter distribution, around 15 ± 5 nm to 29 ± 7 nm; they have a hydrophobic surface, like lotus leaves. Transmission electron microscopy images confirmed the graphene structural transformation of CNFs with the growth temperature. Solid wire CNFs were initially grown at 813 K with graphene edges exposed on the external surface. At elevated growth temperatures (1073 and 1173 K), bamboo-like CNFs were obtained, with herringbone structures and intersectional hollow cores.

  2. In situ Polymerization of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Nylon-6 Nanocomposites and Their Electrospun Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotube/nylon-6 nanocomposites (MWNT/nylon-6) were prepared by in situ polymerization, whereby functionalized MWNTs (F-MWNTs) and pristine MWNTs (P-MWNTs) were used as reinforcing materials. The F-MWNTs were functionalized by Friedel-Crafts acylation, which introduced aromatic amine (COC6H4-NH2) groups onto the side wall. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images obtained from the fractured surfaces of the nanocomposites showed that the F-MWNTs in the nylon-6 matrix were well dispersed as compared to those of the P-MWNTs. Both nanocomposites could be electrospun into nanofibers in which the MWNTs were embedded and oriented along the nanofiber axis, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The specific strength and modulus of the MWNTs-reinforced nanofibers increased as compared to those of the neat nylon-6 nanofibers. The crystal structure of the nylon-6 in the MWNT/nylon-6 nanofibers was mostly γ-phase, although that of the MWNT/nylon-6 films, which were prepared by hot-pressing the pellets between two aluminum plates and then quenching them in icy water, was mostly α-phase, indicating that the shear force during electrospinning might favor the γ-phase, similarly to the conventional fiber spinning. PMID:20596470

  3. In situ Polymerization of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Nylon-6 Nanocomposites and Their Electrospun Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Khalid; Park, Soo-Young; Haider, Sajjad; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2009-01-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotube/nylon-6 nanocomposites (MWNT/nylon-6) were prepared by in situ polymerization, whereby functionalized MWNTs (F-MWNTs) and pristine MWNTs (P-MWNTs) were used as reinforcing materials. The F-MWNTs were functionalized by Friedel-Crafts acylation, which introduced aromatic amine (COC6H4-NH2) groups onto the side wall. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images obtained from the fractured surfaces of the nanocomposites showed that the F-MWNTs in the nylon-6 matrix were well dispersed as compared to those of the P-MWNTs. Both nanocomposites could be electrospun into nanofibers in which the MWNTs were embedded and oriented along the nanofiber axis, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The specific strength and modulus of the MWNTs-reinforced nanofibers increased as compared to those of the neat nylon-6 nanofibers. The crystal structure of the nylon-6 in the MWNT/nylon-6 nanofibers was mostly γ-phase, although that of the MWNT/nylon-6 films, which were prepared by hot-pressing the pellets between two aluminum plates and then quenching them in icy water, was mostly α-phase, indicating that the shear force during electrospinning might favor the γ-phase, similarly to the conventional fiber spinning.

  4. Vertically aligned carbon nanofiber nanoelectrode arrays: electrochemical etching and electrode reusability

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rakesh K.; Meyyappan, M.; Koehne, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers in the form of nanoelectrode arrays were grown on nine individual electrodes, arranged in a 3 × 3 array geometry, in a 2.5 cm2 chip. Electrochemical etching of the carbon nanofibers was employed for electrode activation and enhancing the electrode kinetics. Here, we report the effects of electrochemical etching on the fiber height and electrochemical properties. Electrode regeneration by amide hydrolysis and electrochemical etching is also investigated for electrode reusability. PMID:25089188

  5. DC Plasma Synthesis of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers for Biointerfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Ryan Christopher

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) are a class of materials whose nanoscale dimensions and physical properties makes them uniquely suitable as functional elements in many applications for biodetection and biointerfacing on a cellular level. Control of VACNF synthesis by catalytic plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) presents many challenges in integration into devices and structures designed for biointerfacing, such as transparent or flexible substrates. This dissertation addresses ways to overcome many of these issues in addition to deepening the fundamental understanding of nano-synthesis in catalytic PECVD. First, a survey of the field of VACNF synthesis and biointerfacing is presented, identifying the present challenges and greatest experimental applications. It is followed by experimental observations that elucidate the underlying mechanism to fiber alignment during synthesis, a critical step for deterministic control of fiber growth. Using a grid of electrodes patterned by photolithography on an insulating substrate, it was found that the alignment of the fibers is controlled by the anisotropic etching provided by ions during dc-PECVD synthesis. The VACNFs that have been utilized for many cellular interfacing experiments have unique mechanical and fluorescent properties due to a SiNx coating. The mechanism for SiNx deposition to VACNF sidewalls during synthesis is explored in addition to a detailed study of the optical properties of the coating. To explain the optical properties of this coating it is proposed that the source of photoluminescence for the SiNx coated VACNFs is quantum confinement effects due to the presence of silicon nanoclusters embedded in a Si3N4 matrix. These luminescent fibers have proven useful as registry markers in cell impalefection studies. To realize VACNF arrays used as an inflatable angioplasty balloon with embedded fibers to deliver drugs across the blood-brain barrier, a method for transferring fibers to

  6. Vertically aligned carbon nanofiber electrode arrays for nucleic acid detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugam, Prabhu U.; Yu, Edmond; Riviere, Roger; Meyyappan, M.

    2010-10-01

    We present electrochemical detection of DNA targets that corresponds to Escherichia coli O157:H7 16S rRNA gene using a nanoelectrode array consisting of vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (VACNF) electrodes. Parylene C is used as gap filling 'matrix' material to avoid high temperature processing in electrode construction. This easy to deposit film of several micron heights provides a conformal coating between the high aspect ratio VACNFs with negligible pin-holes. The low background currents show the potential of this approach for ultra-sensitive detection. Consistent and reproducible electrochemical-signals are achieved using a simple electrode preparation. This simple, reliable and low-cost approach is a forward step in developing practical sensors for applications like pathogen detection, early cancer diagnosis and environmental monitoring.

  7. Electron gun using carbon-nanofiber field emitter.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Y; Haga, A; Sugita, S; Kita, S; Tanaka, S-I; Okuyama, F; Kobayashi, N

    2007-01-01

    An electron gun constructed using carbon-nanofiber (CNF) emitters and an electrostatic Einzel lens system has been characterized for the development of a high-resolution x-ray source. The CNFs used were grown on tungsten and palladium tips by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition. Electron beams with the energies of 10

  8. Fabrication and Characterization of Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Shape Memory Epoxy (CNFR-SME) Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiuyang

    Shape memory polymers have a wide range of applications due to their ability to mechanically change shapes upon external stimulus, while their achievable composite counterparts prove even more versatile. An overview of literature on shape memory materials, fillers and composites was provided to pave a foundation for the materials used in the current study and their inherent benefits. This study details carbon nanofiber and composite fabrication and contrasts their material properties. In the first section, the morphology and surface chemistry of electrospun-poly(acrylonitrile)-based carbon nanofiber webs were tailored through various fabrication methods and impregnated with a shape memory epoxy. The morphologies, chemical compositions, thermal stabilities and electrical resistivities of the carbon nanofibers and composites were then characterized. In the second section, an overview of thermal, mechanical and shape memory characterization techniques for shape memory polymers and their composites was provided. Thermal and mechanical properties in addition to the kinetic and dynamic shape memory performances of neat epoxy and carbon nanofiber/epoxy composites were characterized. The various carbon nanofiber web modifications proved to have notable influence on their respective composite performances. The results from these two sections lead to an enhanced understanding of these carbon nanofiber reinforced shape memory epoxy composites and provided insight for future studies to tune these composites at will.

  9. Neural adhesion, growth, and activity on carbon nanotubes and carbonized nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franca, Eric William

    This dissertation focuses on how the physical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbonized nanofibers (CNFs) affect the physiological and electrophysiological properties of neurons and neural networks and how this may affect the efficacy of these nanomaterials as microelectrode materials. In general, the pursuit of increasing electrode sensitivity while maintaining low noise levels is addressed by investigating and utilizing novel electrode materials. Carbon nanomaterials have a native conductivity and nano-scale roughness that should decrease microelectrode noise levels and impedance by virtue of a substantially increased surface area. In addition to the beneficial microelectrode properties, these carbon nanomaterials could increase the integration of the electrode to the neural tissue. The work here is an investigation of how selected CNT and CNF materials affect the viability, outgrowth, and adhesion of cortical neurons in vitro and how the physical and chemical properties of each substrate correlates to these measurements. The intent is that properties detailed in vitro can be assumed to extrapolate to performance in vivo assuming the same materials are utilized for invasive, implanted microelectrodes. Carbon nanotubes were deposited by a layer-by-layer (LBL) method with poly(ethylenimine) (PEI). Carbon nanofiber substrates were prepared in conjunction with collaborators via electrospinning a photosensitive polymer (SU-8), photopatterning, and pyrolyzing the depositions. In addition to these substrates, control samples were prepared in the form of PEI-treated glass coverslips, carbonized thin films, SU-8 thin films, and SU-8 nanofibers. The primary variable between all of these substrates is the roughness or topography of each deposition (ranging from 0.26 nm to 160 nm average roughness). Physical and chemical characteristics of the depositions are presented in addition to the electrical characteristics which make them attractive as

  10. The role of carbon nanofiber defects on the electrical and mechanical properties of CNF-based resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadagno, Liberata; Raimondo, Marialuigia; Vittoria, Vittoria; Vertuccio, Luigi; Lafdi, Khalid; De Vivo, Biagio; Lamberti, Patrizia; Spinelli, Giovanni; Tucci, Vincenzo

    2013-08-01

    Heat treatment of carbon nanofibers has proven to be an effective method in removing defects from carbon nanofibers, causing a strong increase in their structural perfection and thermal stability. It affects the bonding states of carbon atoms in the nanofiber structure and causes a significant transformation in the hybridization state of the bonded carbon atoms. Nanofilled resins made of heat-treated CNF show significant increases in their electrical conductivity even at low concentrations. This confirms that enhancement in the perfection of the fiber structure with consequent change in the morphological features plays a prominent role in affecting the electrical properties. Indeed heat-treated CNFs display a stiff structure and a smooth surface which tends to lower the thickness of the unavoidable insulating epoxy layer formed around the CNF which, in turn, plays a fundamental role in the electrical transport properties along the conducting clusters. This might be very beneficial in terms of electrical conductivity but might have negligible effect on the mechanical properties.

  11. The effect of filler aspect ratio on the electromagnetic properties of carbon-nanofibers reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect

    De Vivo, B.; Lamberti, P.; Spinelli, G. Tucci, V.; Guadagno, L.; Raimondo, M.

    2015-08-14

    The effect of filler aspect ratio on the electromagnetic properties of epoxy-amine resin reinforced with carbon nanofibers is here investigated. A heat treatment at 2500 °C of carbon nanofibers seems to increase their aspect ratio with respect to as-received ones most likely due to a lowering of structural defects and the improvement of the graphene layers within the dixie cup conformation. These morphological differences revealed by Raman's spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses may be responsible for the different electrical properties of the resulting composites. The DC characterization of the nanofilled material highlights an higher electrical conductivity and a lower electrical percolation threshold for the heat-treated carbon nanofibers based composites. In fact, the electrical conductivity is about 0.107 S/m and 1.36 × 10{sup −3} S/m for the nanocomposites reinforced with heat-treated and as received fibers, respectively, at 1 wt. % of nanofiller loading, while the electrical percolation threshold falls in the range [0.05–0.32]wt. % for the first nanocomposites and above 0.64 wt. % for the latter. Moreover, also a different frequency response is observed since the critical frequency, which is indicative of the transition from a resistive to a capacitive-type behaviour, shifts forward of about one decade at the same filler loading. The experimental results are supported by theoretical and simulation studies focused on the role of the filler aspect ratio on the electrical properties of the nanocomposites.

  12. Sandwich-lithiation and longitudinal crack in amorphous silicon coated on carbon nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiang Wei; Liu, Xiao Hua; Zhao, Kejie; Palmer, Andrew; Patten, Erin; Burton, David; Mao, Scott X; Suo, Zhigang; Huang, Jian Yu

    2012-10-23

    Silicon-carbon nanofibers coaxial sponge, with strong mechanical integrity and improved electronic conductivity, is a promising anode structure to apply into commercial high-capacity lithium ion batteries. We characterized the electrochemical and mechanical behaviors of amorphous silicon-coated carbon nanofibers (a-Si/CNFs) with in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that lithiation of the a-Si coating layer occurred from the surface and the a-Si/CNF interface concurrently, and propagated toward the center of the a-Si layer. Such a process leads to a sandwiched Li(x)Si/Si/Li(x)Si structure, indicating fast Li transport through the a-Si/CNF interface. Nanocracks and sponge-like structures developed in the a-Si layer during the lithiation-delithiation cycles. Lithiation of the a-Si layer sealed in the hollow CNF was also observed, but at a much lower speed than the counterpart of the a-Si layer coated on the CNF surface. An analytical solution of the stress field was formulated based on the continuum theory of finite deformation, explaining the experimental observation of longitudinal crack formation and general mechanical degradation mechanism in a-Si/CNF electrode.

  13. Physicochemical investigations of carbon nanofiber supported Cu/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Din, Israf Ud E-mail: maizats@petronas.com.my; Shaharun, Maizatul S. E-mail: maizats@petronas.com.my; Subbarao, Duvvuri; Naeem, A.

    2014-10-24

    Zirconia-promoted copper/carbon nanofiber catalysts (Cu‐ZrO{sub 2}/CNF) were prepared by the sequential deposition precipitation method. The Herringbone type of carbon nanofiber GNF-100 (Graphite nanofiber) was used as a catalyst support. Carbon nanofiber was oxidized to (CNF-O) with 5% and 65 % concentration of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). The CNF activated with 5% HNO{sub 3} produced higher surface area which is 155 m{sup 2}/g. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption. The results showed that increase of HNO{sub 3} concentration reduced the surface area and porosity of the catalyst.

  14. Chemical vapor-deposited carbon nanofibers on carbon fabric for supercapacitor electrode applications

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Entangled carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were synthesized on a flexible carbon fabric (CF) via water-assisted chemical vapor deposition at 800°C at atmospheric pressure utilizing iron (Fe) nanoparticles as catalysts, ethylene (C2H4) as the precursor gas, and argon (Ar) and hydrogen (H2) as the carrier gases. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron dispersive spectroscopy were employed to characterize the morphology and structure of the CNFs. It has been found that the catalyst (Fe) thickness affected the morphology of the CNFs on the CF, resulting in different capacitive behaviors of the CNF/CF electrodes. Two different Fe thicknesses (5 and 10 nm) were studied. The capacitance behaviors of the CNF/CF electrodes were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry measurements. The highest specific capacitance, approximately 140 F g−1, has been obtained in the electrode grown with the 5-nm thickness of Fe. Samples with both Fe thicknesses showed good cycling performance over 2,000 cycles. PMID:23181897

  15. Recent advancements in carbon nanofiber and carbon nanotube applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Stout, David A

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery and synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) over a decade ago, researchers have envisioned and discovered new potential applications for these materials. CNTs and CNFs have rapidly become a platform technology for a variety of uses, including biomedical applications due to their mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical and structural properties. CNTs and CNFs are also advantageous due to their ability to be produced in many different shapes and sizes. Since their discovery, of the many imaginable applications, CNTs and CNFs have gained a significant amount of attention and therapeutic potential in tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. In recent years, CNTs and CNFs have made significant contributions in designing new strategies for, delivery of pharmaceuticals, genes and molecular probes into cells, stem cell therapies and assisting in tissue regeneration. Furthermore, it is widely expressed that these materials will significantly contribute to the next generation of health care technologies in treating diseases and contributing to tissue growth. Hence, this review seeks to explore the recent advancements, current status and limitations of CNTs and CNFs for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.

  16. A reagentless enzymatic amperometric biosensor using vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNF)

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, Martha L; Rahman, Touhidur; Frymier, Paul Dexter; Islam, Syed K; McKnight, Timothy E

    2008-01-01

    A reagentless amperometric enzymatic biosensor is constructed on a carbon substrate for detection of ethanol. Yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH), an oxidoreductase, and its cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) are immobilized by adsorption and covalent attachment to the carbon substrate. Carbon nanofibers grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) are chosen as the electrode material due to their excellent structural and electrical properties. Electrochemical techniques are employed to test the functionality and performance of the biosensor using reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) which also determines the oxidation peak potential of NADH. Subsequently, amperometric measurements are conducted for detection of ethanol to determine the electrical current response due to the increase in analyte concentration. The detection range, storage stability, reusability, and response time of the biosensor are also examined.

  17. Self-sensing of carbon nanofiber concrete columns subjected to reversed cyclic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howser, R. N.; Dhonde, H. B.; Mo, Y. L.

    2011-08-01

    Civil infrastructures are generally a country's most expensive investment, and concrete is the most widely used material in the construction of civil infrastructures. During a structure's service life, concrete ages and deteriorates, leading to substantial loss of structural integrity and potentially resulting in catastrophic disasters such as highway bridge collapses. A solution for preventing such occurrences is the use of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for concrete structures containing carbon nanofibers (CNF). CNF concrete has many structural benefits. CNF restricts the growth of nanocracks in addition to yielding higher strength and ductility. Additionally, test results indicate a relationship between electrical resistance and concrete strain, which can be well utilized for SHM. A series of reinforced concrete (RC) columns were built and tested under a reversed cyclic loading using CNF as a SHM device. The SHM device detected and assessed the level of damage in the RC columns, providing a real-time health monitoring system for the structure's overall integrity.

  18. Electrospun carbon nanofibers decorated with Ag-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles for selective detection of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yunpeng; Miao, Yue-E; Ji, Shanshan; Tjiu, Weng Weei; Liu, Tianxi

    2014-08-13

    Electrospun nanoporous carbon nanofibers (pCNFs) decorated with Ag-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by combining template carbonization and seed-growth reduction approach. Porous-structured polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers (pPAN) were first prepared by electrospinning PAN/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) blend solution, followed by subsequent water extraction and heat treatment to obtain pCNFs. Ag-Pt/pCNFs were then obtained by using pCNFs as support for bimetallic nanoparticle loading. Thus, the obtained Ag-Pt/pCNFs were used to modify glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for selective detection of dopamine (DA) in the presence of uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA). This novel sensor exhibits fast amperometric response and high sensitivity toward DA with a wide linear concentration range of 10-500 μM and a low detection limit of 0.11 μM (S/N = 3), wherein the interference of UA and AA can be eliminated effectively.

  19. Processing, characterization and modeling of carbon nanofiber modified carbon/carbon composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samalot Rivera, Francis J.

    Carbon/Carbon (C/C) composites are used in high temperature applications because they exhibit excellent thermomechanical properties. There are several challenges associated with the processing of C/C composites that include long cycle times, formation of closed porosity within fabric woven architecture and carbonization induced cracks that can lead to reduction of mechanical properties. This work addresses various innovative approaches to reduce processing uncertainties and thereby improve thermomechanical properties of C/C by using vapor grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNFs) in conjunction with carbon fabric and precursor phenolic matrix. The different aspects of the proposed research contribute to understanding of the translation of VGCNFs properties in a C/C composite. The specific objectives of the research are; (a) To understand the mechanical properties and microstructural features of phenolic resin precursor with and without modification with VGCNFs; (b) To develop innovative processing concepts that incorporate VGCNFs by spraying them on carbon fabric and/or adding VGCNFs to the phenolic resin precursor; and characterizing the process induced thermal and mechanical properties; and (c) To develop a finite element model to evaluate the thermal stresses developed in the carbonization of carbon/phenolic with and without VGCNFs. Addition of VGCNFs to phenolic resin enhanced the thermal and physical properties in terms of flexure and interlaminar properties, storage modulus and glass transition temperature and lowered the coefficient of thermal expansion. The approaches of spraying VGCNFs on the fabric surface and mixing VGCNFs with the phenolic resin was found to be effective in enhancing mechanical and thermal properties of the resulting C/C composites. Fiber bridging, improved carbon yield and minimization of carbonization-induced damage were the benefits of incorporating VGCNFs in C/C composites. Carbonization induced matrix cracking predicted by the finite

  20. Method for production of carbon nanofiber mat or carbon paper

    DOEpatents

    Naskar, Amit K.

    2015-08-04

    Method for the preparation of a non-woven mat or paper made of carbon fibers, the method comprising carbonizing a non-woven mat or paper preform (precursor) comprised of a plurality of bonded sulfonated polyolefin fibers to produce said non-woven mat or paper made of carbon fibers. The preforms and resulting non-woven mat or paper made of carbon fiber, as well as articles and devices containing them, and methods for their use, are also described.

  1. Fabrication and Characterization of High Temperature Resin/Carbon Nanofiber Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghose, Sayata; Watson, Kent A.; Working, Dennis C.; Criss, Jim M.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Connell, John W.

    2005-01-01

    Multifunctional composites present a route to structural weight reduction. Nanoparticles such as carbon nanofibers (CNF) provide a compromise as a lower cost nanosize reinforcement that yields a desirable combination of properties. Blends of PETI-330 and CNFs were prepared and characterized to investigate the potential of CNF composites as a high performance structural medium. Dry mixing techniques were employed and the effect of CNF loading level on melt viscosity was determined. The resulting powders were characterized for degree of mixing, thermal and rheological properties. Based on the characterization results, samples containing 30 and 40 wt% CNF were scaled up to approx.300 g and used to fabricate moldings 10.2 cm x 15.2 cm x 0.32 cm thick. The moldings were fabricated by injecting the mixtures at 260-280 C into a stainless steel tool followed by curing for 1 h at 371 C. The tool was designed to impart high shear during the process in an attempt to achieve some alignment of CNFs in the flow direction. Moldings were obtained that were subsequently characterized for thermal, mechanical and electrical properties. The degree of dispersion and alignment of CNFs were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. The preparation and preliminary characterization of PETI-330/CNF composites are discussed. Keywords: resins, carbon nanofibers, scanning electron microscopy, electrical properties, thermal conductivity,injection

  2. Graphene and carbon nanofiber nanopaper for multifunction composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chunxia; Lu, Haibao; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2011-04-01

    The new structures and multifunctional materials is that it can achieve some other special functions while it has ability to carry, such as wave-transparent, absorbing, anti-lightning, anti-heat, anti-nuclear etc. It represents the direction of future development of structural materials. And graphene is the one of two-dimensional atomic crystal free substance only found in the existence and shows great importance for fundamental studies and technological applications due to its unique structure and a wide range of unusual properties. It exhibits great promise for potential applications in chemistry, materials, and many other technological fields. In this paper, we prepare nanopaper through physical vapor deposition (PVD) with a variety in the weight ratio between graphene and nanofiber. Then prepare composite materials with nanopaper and T300/AG80 prepreg by the meaning of autoclave molding. The morphology of nanopaper was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). And the electrical properties and the EMI shielding performances of these nanocomposites have been investigated experimentally by and four-point probe measurement and vector network analyzer. The experimental results indicate that the composites made from graphene and nanofiber nanopaper have highly electric capability, and the EMI shielding value of composites were all up to -15dB. In the same time the conductivity and the EMI shielding performances were improved with increasing the ratio of graphene in nanopaper. We tested the mechanical properties of composite materials at the same time. The average strength of composite materials is about 2000MPa, the elastic modulus is 130GPa above. We are sure that it can be used as the load-bearing structural material which has a multi-functional performance in the aviation field.

  3. Cobalt/copper-decorated carbon nanofibers as novel non-precious electrocatalyst for methanol electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakat, Nasser A. M.; El-Newehy, Mohamed; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Kim, Hak Yong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Co/Cu-decorated carbon nanofibers are introduced as novel electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation. The introduced nanofibers have been prepared based on graphitization of poly(vinyl alcohol) which has high carbon content compared to many polymer precursors for carbon nanofiber synthesis. Typically, calcination in argon atmosphere of electrospun nanofibers composed of cobalt acetate tetrahydrate, copper acetate monohydrate, and poly(vinyl alcohol) leads to form carbon nanofibers decorated by CoCu nanoparticles. The graphitization of the poly(vinyl alcohol) has been enhanced due to presence of cobalt which acts as effective catalyst. The physicochemical characterization affirmed that the metallic nanoparticles are sheathed by thin crystalline graphite layer. Investigation of the electrocatalytic activity of the introduced nanofibers toward methanol oxidation indicates good performance, as the corresponding onset potential was small compared to many reported materials; 310 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl electrode) and a current density of 12 mA/cm2 was obtained. Moreover, due to the graphite shield, good stability was observed. Overall, the introduced study opens new avenue for cheap and stable transition metals-based nanostructures as non-precious catalysts for fuel cell applications.

  4. Cobalt/copper-decorated carbon nanofibers as novel non-precious electrocatalyst for methanol electrooxidation.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Nasser A M; El-Newehy, Mohamed; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Kim, Hak Yong

    2014-01-03

    In this study, Co/Cu-decorated carbon nanofibers are introduced as novel electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation. The introduced nanofibers have been prepared based on graphitization of poly(vinyl alcohol) which has high carbon content compared to many polymer precursors for carbon nanofiber synthesis. Typically, calcination in argon atmosphere of electrospun nanofibers composed of cobalt acetate tetrahydrate, copper acetate monohydrate, and poly(vinyl alcohol) leads to form carbon nanofibers decorated by CoCu nanoparticles. The graphitization of the poly(vinyl alcohol) has been enhanced due to presence of cobalt which acts as effective catalyst. The physicochemical characterization affirmed that the metallic nanoparticles are sheathed by thin crystalline graphite layer. Investigation of the electrocatalytic activity of the introduced nanofibers toward methanol oxidation indicates good performance, as the corresponding onset potential was small compared to many reported materials; 310 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl electrode) and a current density of 12 mA/cm2 was obtained. Moreover, due to the graphite shield, good stability was observed. Overall, the introduced study opens new avenue for cheap and stable transition metals-based nanostructures as non-precious catalysts for fuel cell applications.

  5. Cobalt/copper-decorated carbon nanofibers as novel non-precious electrocatalyst for methanol electrooxidation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Co/Cu-decorated carbon nanofibers are introduced as novel electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation. The introduced nanofibers have been prepared based on graphitization of poly(vinyl alcohol) which has high carbon content compared to many polymer precursors for carbon nanofiber synthesis. Typically, calcination in argon atmosphere of electrospun nanofibers composed of cobalt acetate tetrahydrate, copper acetate monohydrate, and poly(vinyl alcohol) leads to form carbon nanofibers decorated by CoCu nanoparticles. The graphitization of the poly(vinyl alcohol) has been enhanced due to presence of cobalt which acts as effective catalyst. The physicochemical characterization affirmed that the metallic nanoparticles are sheathed by thin crystalline graphite layer. Investigation of the electrocatalytic activity of the introduced nanofibers toward methanol oxidation indicates good performance, as the corresponding onset potential was small compared to many reported materials; 310 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl electrode) and a current density of 12 mA/cm2 was obtained. Moreover, due to the graphite shield, good stability was observed. Overall, the introduced study opens new avenue for cheap and stable transition metals-based nanostructures as non-precious catalysts for fuel cell applications. PMID:24387682

  6. Carbon nanofiber electrode array for electrochemical detection of dopamine using fast scan cyclic voltammetry

    PubMed Central

    Koehne, Jessica E.; Marsh, Michael; Boakye, Adwoa; Douglas, Brandon; Kim, In Yong; Chang, Su-Youne; Jang, Dong-Pyo; Bennet, Kevin E.; Kimble, Christopher; Andrews, Russell; Meyyappan, M.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanofiber (CNF) electrode array was integrated with the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Sensor System (WINCS) for detection of dopamine using fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). Dopamine detection performance by CNF arrays was comparable to that of traditional carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMs), demonstrating that CNF arrays can be utilized as an alternative carbon electrodes for neurochemical monitoring. PMID:21387028

  7. In situ formation of hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres in electrospun amorphous carbon nanofibers for high-performance Li-based batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuming; Lu, Zhouguang; Zhou, Limin; Mai, Yiu-Wing; Huang, Haitao

    2012-11-07

    We report on in situ formation of hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres (HGCNs) in amorphous carbon nanofibers (ACNFs) by a combination of electrospinning, calcination and acid treatment. The prepared carbon nanofibers contain many HGCNs on which defects such as discontinuous graphene sheets with a large d-spacing in their wall exist and provide extra sites for Li(+) storage and serve as buffers for withstanding large volume expansion and shrinkage during the Li insertion and extraction procedure. Furthermore, some exposed HGCNs on the surface of the ACNFs as well as hollow structures are favorable for lithium ion diffusion from different orientations and sufficient contact between active material and electrolyte. In addition, the high conductivity architectures facilitate collection and transport of electrons during the cycling process. As a result, the ACNFs/HGCNs display a high reversible specific gravimetric capacity of ∼750 mA h g(-1) and volumetric capacity of ∼1.1 A h cm(-3) with outstanding rate capability and good cycling stability, which is superior to those of carbon nanofibers (CNFs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), porous ACNFs, graphene nanosheets (GNSs), GNSs/CNFs, hollow carbon nanospheres and graphite. The synthesis process is simple, low-cost and environmentally friendly, providing new avenues for the rational engineering of high-energy carbon-based anode materials.

  8. Fabrication of ultrafine manganese oxide-decorated carbon nanofibers for high-performance electrochemical capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ying; Lee, Sungsik; Brown, Dennis E.; Zhao, Hairui; Li, Xinsong; Jiang, Daqiang; Hao, Shijie; Zhao, Yongxiang; Cong, Daoyong; Zhang, Xin; Ren, Yang

    2016-09-01

    Ultrafine manganese oxide-decorated carbon nanofibers (MnOn-CNF) as a new type of electrode materials are facilely fabricated by direct conversion of Mn, Zn-trimesic acid (H3BTC) metal organic framework fibers (Mn-ZnBTC). The construction and evolution of Mn-ZnBTC precursors are investigated by SEM and in situ high-energy XRD. The manganese oxides are highly dispersed onto the porous carbon nanofibers formed simultaneously, verified by TEM, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), Raman, ICP-AES and N2 adsorption techniques. As expected, the resulting MnOn-CNF composites are highly stable, and can be cycled up to 5000 times with a high capacitance retention ratio of 98% in electrochemical capacitor measurements. They show a high capacitance of up to 179 F g–1 per mass of the composite electrode, and a remarkable capacitance of up to 18290 F g–1 per active mass of the manganese(IV) oxide, significantly exceeding the theoretical specific capacitance of manganese(IV) oxide (1370 F g–1). The maximum energy density is up to 19.7 Wh kg–1 at the current density of 0.25 A g–1, even orders higher than those of reported electric double-layer capacitors and pseudocapacitors. The excellent capacitive performance can be ascribed to the joint effect of easy accessibility, high porosity, tight contact and superior conductivity integrated in final MnOn-CNF composites.

  9. Morphological characterization of carbon-nanofiber-reinforced epoxy nanocomposites using ultra-small angle scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Justice, R.S.; Anderson, D.P.; Brown, J.M.; Arlen, M.J.; Colleary, A.J.; Lafdi, K.; Schaefer, D.W.

    2010-07-01

    Studies of the properties of nanocomposites reinforced with vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (VGCFs) can be found throughout the literature. Electrical, mechanical, viscoelastic, and rheological properties are just a few of the characteristics that have been well discussed. Although these properties depend on morphology, morphological characterization is rare. Due to its 2-dimensional nature, microscopy is of limited value when analyzing network morphologies. This work will show how the characterization of the three-dimensional geometry and network formation of VGCFs can be determined using ultra-small angle scattering techniques. Ultra-small angle x-ray and neutron scattering (USAXS and USANS) were used to characterize the morphology of carbon nanofibers suspended in epoxy. Using a simplified tube model, we estimate the dimensions of suspended fibers. The assumption of tubular fibers accounts for the increased surface area observed with USAXS that is not accounted for using a solid rod model. Furthermore, USANS was used to search for a structural signature associated with the electrical percolation threshold. USANS extends to longer dimensional scales than USAXS, which measures a smaller range of momentum transfer. To determine the electrical percolation threshold, AC impedance spectroscopy was employed to verify that an electrically conductive, percolated network forms at VGCNF loadings of 0.8% < CNF wt% < 1.2%. These values correlate with the USANS data, where a morphological transition is seen at {approx}1.2% loading.

  10. Growth of carbon nanofibers in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denysenko, Igor; Ostrikov, Kostya; Tam, Eugene

    2008-10-01

    A theoretical model describing the plasma-assisted growth of carbon nanofibers with metal catalyst particles on top is proposed. Using the model, the plasma-related effects on the nanofiber growth parameters such us the surface diffusion growth rate, the effective carbon flux to the catalyst surface, the characteristic residence time and diffusion length of carbon on the catalyst surface, and the surface coverages, have been studied. It has been found how these parameters depend on the catalyst surface temperature and ion and etching gas fluxes to the catalyst surface. The optimum conditions under which a low-temperature plasma environment can benefit the carbon nanofiber growth are formulated. It has been also found how the plasma environment affects the temperature distribution over the length of the carbon nanofibers. Conditions when the temperature of the catalyst nanoparticles is higher than the temperature of the substrate holder are determined. The results here are in a good agreement with the available experimental data on the carbon nanofiber growth and can be used for optimizing synthesis of nanoassemblies in low-temperature plasma-assisted nanofabrication.

  11. Experimental study and modeling of swelling and bubble growth in carbon nanofiber filled mesophase pitch during carbonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calebrese, Christopher

    Graphite and all carbon bipolar plates show corrosion resistance in fuel cells and provide good electrical conductivity. These materials typically need to be individually machined, a time consuming and costly process. Mesophase pitch is used to manufacture carbon fibers and carbon-carbon composites. This material provides a good starting point for the production of a moldable, all carbon bipolar plate. However, processing of mesophase pitch to produce all carbon materials requires a time intensive oxidation step to prevent swelling during carbonization. In this work, carbon nanofibers were used to reduce swelling in mesophase pitch. It was found that the increase in viscosity with the addition of carbon nanofibers was responsible for the reduction in swelling. The influence of the filler became apparent above the percolation threshold. At loadings below the percolation threshold, the swelling of the mesophase pitch was not reduced after carbonization. The swelling of the mesophase pitch at a given carbon nanofiber loading was also dependent on the length of the carbon nanofibers. Longer carbon nanofibers led to greater increases in the viscosity of the melt and thus led to greater reduction in swelling. The final carbon product was evaluated for use as a low temperature fuel cell bipolar plate material. Constraining the mesophase pitch during carbonization led to a final product with strength and electrical conductivity comparable to current composite bipolar plate materials. The addition of micron size chopped glass fibers with a softening point near 850°C and carbon nanofibers led to a final product with air permeability less than that of graphite. A spherically symmetric, single bubble growth model was also developed. The model included temperature dependence, liquid to bubble mass transfer and reactions in the system. Results from simulations showed that that the increase in viscosity due to the addition of carbon nanofibers slows the growth of bubbles, but

  12. Handspinning Enabled Highly Concentrated Carbon Nanotubes with Controlled Orientation in Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hoik; Watanabe, Kei; Kim, Myungwoong; Gopiraman, Mayakrishnan; Song, Kyung-Hun; Lee, Jung Soon; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-01-01

    The novel method, handspinning (HS), was invented by mimicking commonly observed methods in our daily lives. The use of HS allows us to fabricate carbon nanotube-reinforced nanofibers (CNT-reinforced nanofibers) by addressing three significant challenges: (i) the difficulty of forming nanofibers at high concentrations of CNTs, (ii) aggregation of the CNTs, and (iii) control of the orientation of the CNTs. The handspun nanofibers showed better physical properties than fibers fabricated by conventional methods, such as electrospinning. Handspun nanofibers retain a larger amount of CNTs than electrospun nanofibers, and the CNTs are easily aligned uniaxially. We attributed these improvements provided by the HS process to simple mechanical stretching force, which allows for orienting the nanofillers along with the force direction without agglomeration, leading to increased contact area between the CNTs and the polymer matrix, thereby providing enhanced interactions. HS is a simple and straightforward method as it does not require an electric field, and, hence, any kinds of polymers and solvents can be applicable. Furthermore, it is feasible to retain a large amount of various nanofillers in the fibers to enhance their physical and chemical properties. Therefore, HS provides an effective pathway to create new types of reinforced nanofibers with outstanding properties. PMID:27876892

  13. Handspinning Enabled Highly Concentrated Carbon Nanotubes with Controlled Orientation in Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hoik; Watanabe, Kei; Kim, Myungwoong; Gopiraman, Mayakrishnan; Song, Kyung-Hun; Lee, Jung Soon; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-11-01

    The novel method, handspinning (HS), was invented by mimicking commonly observed methods in our daily lives. The use of HS allows us to fabricate carbon nanotube-reinforced nanofibers (CNT-reinforced nanofibers) by addressing three significant challenges: (i) the difficulty of forming nanofibers at high concentrations of CNTs, (ii) aggregation of the CNTs, and (iii) control of the orientation of the CNTs. The handspun nanofibers showed better physical properties than fibers fabricated by conventional methods, such as electrospinning. Handspun nanofibers retain a larger amount of CNTs than electrospun nanofibers, and the CNTs are easily aligned uniaxially. We attributed these improvements provided by the HS process to simple mechanical stretching force, which allows for orienting the nanofillers along with the force direction without agglomeration, leading to increased contact area between the CNTs and the polymer matrix, thereby providing enhanced interactions. HS is a simple and straightforward method as it does not require an electric field, and, hence, any kinds of polymers and solvents can be applicable. Furthermore, it is feasible to retain a large amount of various nanofillers in the fibers to enhance their physical and chemical properties. Therefore, HS provides an effective pathway to create new types of reinforced nanofibers with outstanding properties.

  14. Porous-carbon-nanotube decorated carbon nanofibers with effective microwave absorption properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Xiao, Bo; Zhou, Pengyu; Xia, Long; Wen, Guangwu; Zhang, Haibin

    2017-09-01

    Carbon nanofibers decorated with porous carbon nanotubes were prepared by electrospinning and annealing methods. The microwave reflection loss of the products was investigated in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz. The bandwidth with a reflection loss less than -10 dB covers a wide frequency, ranging from 7.0 to 14.1 GHz with thickness of 3.0-5.5 mm, and the minimum reflection loss is -44.5 dB at 10.7 GHz with thickness of 2.0 mm. The large reflection loss and wide reflection band reveal that the products could be a promising candidate for microwave absorption.

  15. Porous-carbon-nanotube decorated carbon nanofibers with effective microwave absorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Xiao, Bo; Zhou, Pengyu; Xia, Long; Wen, Guangwu; Zhang, Haibin

    2017-09-01

    Carbon nanofibers decorated with porous carbon nanotubes were prepared by electrospinning and annealing methods. The microwave reflection loss of the products was investigated in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz. The bandwidth with a reflection loss less than -10 dB covers a wide frequency, ranging from 7.0 to 14.1 GHz with thickness of 3.0-5.5 mm, and the minimum reflection loss is -44.5 dB at 10.7 GHz with thickness of 2.0 mm. The large reflection loss and wide reflection band reveal that the products could be a promising candidate for microwave absorption.

  16. Electrophoretic deposition of iron catalyst on C-fiber textiles for the growth of carbon nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2014-11-01

    In this study, carbon nanofibers synthesis has been conducted by chemical vapor deposition on C-fiber textiles coated with an iron catalyst via electrophoretic deposition. C-fiber textiles were oxidized with nitric acid before the iron catalyst was plated by electrophoretic deposition. Due to oxidation, the hydroxyl group was created on the C-fiber textiles and was used as an active site for iron catalyst deposition. It was verified that the iron catalyst was deposited on the C-fiber textiles, while current, voltage, and deposition time varied and the concentration of electrolyte was kept constant in electrophoretic deposition. After being deposited, the iron particles were dried in oven for 24 hours and reduced by hydrogen gas in a furnace. Ethylene gas was introduced for the growth of carbon nanofibers and the growth temperature was then varied to find the optimal growth temperature of the carbon nanofibers. Thus, the characteristics of carbon nanofibers were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), N2-sorption (BET), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). It is verified that the iron particles were most evenly deposited at 0.1 A for 3 minutes. Carbon nanofibers grew to 150-200 nm most evenly at 600 degrees C via temperature variations in CVD.

  17. Solid-state NMR and EPR study of fluorinated carbon nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Wei Dubois, Marc Guerin, Katia Hamwi, Andre Giraudet, Jerome Masin, Francis

    2008-08-15

    Carbon nanofibers were fluorinated in two manners, in pure fluorine gas (direct fluorination) and with a fluorinating agent (TbF{sub 4} during the so-called controlled fluorination). The resulting fluorinated nanofibers have been investigated by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). This underlines that the fluorination mechanisms differ since a (CF){sub n} structural type is obtained, whatever the temperature, with the controlled reaction, whereas, during the direct process, a (C{sub 2}F){sub n} type is formed over a wide temperature range. Through a careful characterization of the products, i.e. density of dangling bonds (as internal paramagnetic centers), structural type (acting on molecular motion) and specific surface area (related to the amount of physisorbed O{sub 2}), the effect of atmospheric oxygen molecules on the spin-lattice nuclear relaxation has been underlined. - Graphical abstract: Scheme of the fluorination process using F{sub 2} and TbF{sub 4} as fluorinating agent.

  18. Carbon nanotube-templated polyaniline nanofibers: synthesis, flash welding and ultrafiltration membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yaozu; Yu, Deng-Guang; Wang, Xia; Chain, Wei; Li, Xin-Gui; Hoek, Eric M. V.; Kaner, Richard B.

    2013-04-01

    Electro-active switchable ultrafiltration membranes are of great interest due to the possibility of external control over permeability, selectivity, anti-fouling and cleaning. Here, we report on hybrid single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-polyaniline (PANi) nanofibers synthesized by in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of oxidized SWCNTs. The composite nanofibers exhibit unique morphology of core-shell (SWCNT-PANi) structures with average total diameters of 60 nm with 10 to 30 nm thick PANi coatings. The composite nanofibers are easily dispersed in polar aprotic solvents and cast into asymmetric membranes via a nonsolvent induced phase separation. The hybrid SWCNT-PANi membranes are electrically conductive at neutral pH and exhibit ultrafiltration-like permeability and selectivity when filtering aqueous suspensions of 6 nm diameter bovine serum albumin and 48 nm diameter silica particles. A novel flash welding technique is utilized to tune the morphology, porosity, conductivity, permeability and nanoparticle rejection of the SWCNT-PANi composite ultrafiltration membranes. Upon flash welding, both conductivity and pure water permeability of the membranes improves by nearly a factor of 10, while maintaining silica nanoparticle rejection levels above 90%. Flash welding of SWCNT-PANi composite membranes holds promise for formation of electrochemically tunable membranes.Electro-active switchable ultrafiltration membranes are of great interest due to the possibility of external control over permeability, selectivity, anti-fouling and cleaning. Here, we report on hybrid single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-polyaniline (PANi) nanofibers synthesized by in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of oxidized SWCNTs. The composite nanofibers exhibit unique morphology of core-shell (SWCNT-PANi) structures with average total diameters of 60 nm with 10 to 30 nm thick PANi coatings. The composite nanofibers are easily dispersed in polar aprotic solvents and

  19. Electrical properties of isotactic polypropylene loaded with carbon nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipara, Mircea; Ciurea, Magdalena L.; Lozano, Karen; Aldica, Gheorghe V.; Chipara, Dorina M.; Popa, Stelian; Stavarache, Ionel

    2013-03-01

    Nanocomposites have been obtained by dispersing vapor grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNF) within isotactic polypropylene (iPP) via melt mixing. VGCNFs were purified and disentangled before blending with iPP. The mixing was performed by using HAAKE Rheomix, at 180 oC and 65 rpm for 9 minutes followed by an additional mixing at 90 rpm for 5 minutes (same temperature). The electrical properties of nanocomposites loaded with various amounts of VGCNFs (0%, 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% wt.) have been investigated. DC electrical measurements revealed a percolation threshold at about 12 % wt. VGCNFs. The DC electrical characteristics of the nanocomposites located above the percolation threshold were investigated in detail, in a wide temperature range starting from 20 K up to about 750 K. The investigations revealed small changes of the DC conductivity within the glass and melting transition range of the polymeric matrix. The dominant charge transport mechanism below the glass transition temperature as well as between the glass and melting transition temperature is the variable range hopping. Above the melting temperature an Arrhenius like dependence of the DC conductivity was noticed.

  20. Radiation Effects on Polypropylene Carbon Nanofibers Composites: Spectroscopic Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, John; Mion, Thomas; Cristian Chipara, Alin; Ibrahim, Elamin I.; Lozano, Karen; Tidrow, Steven; Magdalena Chipara, Dorina; Chipara, Mircea

    2010-03-01

    Dispersion of carbon nanostructures within polymeric matrices affects their physical and chemical properties (increased Young modulus, improved thermal stability, faster crystallization rates, higher equilibrium degree of crystallinity, modified glass, melting, and crystallization temperatures, enhanced thermal and electrical conductivity). Nevertheless, little is known about the radiation stability of such nanocomposites. The research is focused on spectroscopic investigations of radiation-induced modifications in isotactic polypropylene (iPP)-vapor grown nanofiber (VGCNF) composites. VGCNF were dispersed within iPP by extrusion at 180^oC. Composites containing various amounts of VGCNFs ranging from 0 to 20 % wt. were prepared and subjected to gamma irradiation, at room temperature, at various integral doses (10 MGy, 20 MGy, and 30 MGy). Raman spectroscopy, ATR, and WAXS were used to assess the radiation-induced modifications in these nanocomposites. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the Welch Foundation (Department of Chemistry at UTPA), by Air Force Research Laboratory (FA8650-07-2-5061) and by US Army Research Laboratory/Office (W911NF-08-1-0353).

  1. Carbon nanofiber mesoporous films: efficient platforms for bio-hydrogen oxidation in biofuel cells.

    PubMed

    de Poulpiquet, Anne; Marques-Knopf, Helena; Wernert, Véronique; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie Thérèse; Gadiou, Roger; Lojou, Elisabeth

    2014-01-28

    The discovery of oxygen and carbon monoxide tolerant [NiFe] hydrogenases was the first necessary step toward the definition of a novel generation of hydrogen fed biofuel cells. The next important milestone is now to identify and overcome bottlenecks limiting the current densities, hence the power densities. In the present work we report for the first time a comprehensive study of herringbone carbon nanofiber mesoporous films as platforms for enhanced biooxidation of hydrogen. The 3D network allows mediatorless hydrogen oxidation by the membrane-bound hydrogenase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus. We investigate the key physico-chemical parameters that enhance the catalytic efficiency, including surface chemistry and hierarchical porosity of the biohybrid film. We also emphasize that the catalytic current is limited by mass transport inside the mesoporous carbon nanofiber film. Provided hydrogen is supplied inside the carbon film, the combination of the hierarchical porosity of the carbon nanofiber film with the hydrophobicity of the treated carbon material results in very high efficiency of the bioelectrode. By optimization of the whole procedure, current densities as high as 4.5 mA cm(-2) are reached with a turnover frequency of 48 s(-1). This current density is almost 100 times higher than when hydrogenase is simply adsorbed at a bare graphite electrode, and more than 5 times higher than the average of the previous reported current densities at carbon nanotube modified electrodes, suggesting that carbon nanofibers can be efficiently used in future sustainable H2/O2 biofuel cells.

  2. Towards Scalable Binderless Electrodes: Carbon Coated Silicon Nanofiber Paper via Mg Reduction of Electrospun SiO2 Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Favors, Zachary; Bay, Hamed Hosseini; Mutlu, Zafer; Ahmed, Kazi; Ionescu, Robert; Ye, Rachel; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.

    2015-01-01

    The need for more energy dense and scalable Li-ion battery electrodes has become increasingly pressing with the ushering in of more powerful portable electronics and electric vehicles (EVs) requiring substantially longer range capabilities. Herein, we report on the first synthesis of nano-silicon paper electrodes synthesized via magnesiothermic reduction of electrospun SiO2 nanofiber paper produced by an in situ acid catalyzed polymerization of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in-flight. Free-standing carbon-coated Si nanofiber binderless electrodes produce a capacity of 802 mAh g−1 after 659 cycles with a Coulombic efficiency of 99.9%, which outperforms conventionally used slurry-prepared graphite anodes by over two times on an active material basis. Silicon nanofiber paper anodes offer a completely binder-free and Cu current collector-free approach to electrode fabrication with a silicon weight percent in excess of 80%. The absence of conductive powder additives, metallic current collectors, and polymer binders in addition to the high weight percent silicon all contribute to significantly increasing capacity at the cell level. PMID:25655007

  3. Towards Scalable Binderless Electrodes: Carbon Coated Silicon Nanofiber Paper via Mg Reduction of Electrospun SiO2 Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favors, Zachary; Bay, Hamed Hosseini; Mutlu, Zafer; Ahmed, Kazi; Ionescu, Robert; Ye, Rachel; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.

    2015-02-01

    The need for more energy dense and scalable Li-ion battery electrodes has become increasingly pressing with the ushering in of more powerful portable electronics and electric vehicles (EVs) requiring substantially longer range capabilities. Herein, we report on the first synthesis of nano-silicon paper electrodes synthesized via magnesiothermic reduction of electrospun SiO2 nanofiber paper produced by an in situ acid catalyzed polymerization of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in-flight. Free-standing carbon-coated Si nanofiber binderless electrodes produce a capacity of 802 mAh g-1 after 659 cycles with a Coulombic efficiency of 99.9%, which outperforms conventionally used slurry-prepared graphite anodes by over two times on an active material basis. Silicon nanofiber paper anodes offer a completely binder-free and Cu current collector-free approach to electrode fabrication with a silicon weight percent in excess of 80%. The absence of conductive powder additives, metallic current collectors, and polymer binders in addition to the high weight percent silicon all contribute to significantly increasing capacity at the cell level.

  4. Preparation of electrospun Ag/g-C3N4 loaded composite carbon nanofibers for catalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bo; Liu, Yongkun; Jiang, Guohua; Liu, Depeng; Yu, Weijiang; Chen, Hua; Li, Lei; Huang, Qin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the electrospun Ag nanoparticles and g-C3N4 (Ag/g-C3N4) loaded composite carbon nanofibers were successfully prepared combing the electrospinning technology and carbonization treatment. The composition and microstructure of the resultant composite nanofibers were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). Due to the synergistic effect between catalytic activity of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) and g-C3N4 and excellent adsorption capacity of carbon nanofibers, the resultant electrospun Ag/g-C3N4 loaded composite carbon nanofibers exhibited excellent conversion of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol and benzylamine to N-benzylbenzaldimine. The resultant hybrid carbon composite nanofibers offer the significant advantages, such as low dosage, high catalytic activity, easy recycling and excellent stability.

  5. Effect of carbon nanofibers on the infiltration and thermal conductivity of carbon/carbon composites

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jinsong; Luo, Ruiying; Yan, Ying

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} The CNFs improve the infiltration rate and thermal properties of carbon/carbon composites. {yields} The densification rate increases with the CNF content increasing at the beginning of infiltration. {yields} The values of the thermal conductivity of the composite obtain their maximum values at 5 wt.%. -- Abstract: Preforms containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt.% carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were fabricated by spreading layers of carbon cloth, and infiltrated using the electrified preform heating chemical vapor infiltration method (ECVI) under atmospheric pressure. Initial thermal gradients were determined. Resistivity and density evolutions with infiltration time have been recorded. Scanning electron microscopy, polarized light micrograph and X-ray diffraction technique were used to analyze the experiment results. The results showed that the infiltration rate increased with the rising of CNF content, and after 120 h of infiltration, the density was the highest when the CNF content was 5 wt.%, but the composite could not be densified efficiently as the CNF content ranged from 10 wt.% to 20 wt.%. CNF-reinforced C/C composites have enhanced thermal conductivity, the values at 5 wt.% were increased by nearly 5.5-24.1% in the X-Y direction and 153.8-251.3% in the Z direction compared to those with no CNFs. When the additive content was increased to 20 wt.%, due to the holes and cavities in the CNF web and between carbon cloth and matrix, the thermal conductivities in the X-Y and Z directions decreased from their maximum values at 5 wt.%.

  6. Carbon nanofiber-based luminol-biotin probe for sensitive chemiluminescence detection of protein.

    PubMed

    Baj, Stefan; Krawczyk, Tomasz; Pradel, Natalia; Azam, Md Golam; Shibata, Takayuki; Dragusha, Shpend; Skutil, Krzysztof; Pawlyta, Miroslawa; Kai, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    A carbon nanofiber-based luminol-biotin probe was synthesized for the sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) detection of a target protein by grafting luminol and biotin onto an oxidized carbon nanofiber. This carbon nanofiber was prepared by chemical vapor-deposition with methane in the presence of the Ni-Cu-MgO catalyst, which was followed by oxidization with HNO3-H2SO4 to produce a carboxyl group on the surface of the nanofiber. The material was grafted with luminol and biotin by means of a standard carbodiimide activation of COOH groups to produce corresponding amides. The substance was water-soluble and thus could be utilized as a sensitive CL probe for a protein assay. The probe showed highly specific affinity towards the biotin-labeled antibody via a streptavidin-biotin interaction. The detection limit for this model assay was approximately 0.2 pmol of the biotinized IgG spotted on a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Nonspecific binding to other proteins was not observed. Therefore, the synthesized carbon nanofiber-based CL probe may be useful for a sensitive and specific analysis of the target protein.

  7. Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Nonmulberry Silk Protein Fibroin Nanobiocomposite for Tissue Engineering Applications.

    PubMed

    Naskar, Deboki; Bhattacharjee, Promita; Ghosh, Ananta K; Mandal, Mahitosh; Kundu, Subhas C

    2017-06-14

    Natural silk protein fibroin based biomaterial are exploited extensively in tissue engineering due to their aqueous preparation, slow biodegradability, mechanical stability, low immunogenicity, dielectric properties, tunable properties, sufficient and easy availability. Carbon nanofibers are reported for their conductivity, mechanical strength and as delivery vehicle of small molecules. Limited evidence about their cytocompatibility and their poor dispersibility are the key issues for them to be used as successful biomaterials. In this study, carbon nanofiber is functionalized and dispersed using the green aqueous-based method within the regenerated nonmulberry (tropical tasar: Antheraea mylitta) silk fibroin (AmF), which contains inherent - R-G-D- sequences. Carbon nanofiber (CNF) reinforced silk films are fabricated using solvent evaporation technique. Different biophysical characterizations and cytocompatibility of the composite matrices are assessed. The investigations show that the presence of the nanofiber greatly influence the property of the composite films in terms of excellent conductivity (up to 6.4 × 10(-6) Mho cm, which is 3 orders of magnitude of pure AmF matrix), and superior tensile modulus (up to 1423 MPa, which is 12.5 times more elastic than AmF matrix). The composite matrices (composed of up to 1 mg of CNF per mL of 2% AmF) also support better fibroblast cell growth and proliferation. The fibroin-carbon nanofiber matrices can lead to a novel multifunctional biomaterial platform, which will support conductive as well as load bearing tissue (such as, muscle, bone, and nerve tissue) regenerations.

  8. Genotoxicity of carbon nanofibers: Are they potentially more or less dangerous than carbon nanotubes or asbestos?

    SciTech Connect

    Kisin, E.R.; Murray, A.R.; Sargent, L.; Lowry, D.; Chirila, M.; Siegrist, K.J.; Schwegler-Berry, D.; Leonard, S.; Castranova, V.; Fadeel, B.; Kagan, V.E.; Shvedova, A.A.

    2011-04-01

    The production of carbon nanofibers and nanotubes (CNF/CNT) and their composite products is increasing globally. CNF are generating great interest in industrial sectors such as energy production and electronics, where alternative materials may have limited performance or are produced at a much higher cost. However, despite the increasing industrial use of carbon nanofibers, information on their potential adverse health effects is limited. In the current study, we examine the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of carbon-based nanofibers (Pyrograf (registered) -III) and compare this material with the effects of asbestos fibers (crocidolite) or single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). The genotoxic effects in the lung fibroblast (V79) cell line were examined using two complementary assays: the comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test. In addition, we utilized fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect the chromatin pan-centromeric signals within the MN indicating their origin by aneugenic (chromosomal malsegregation) or clastogenic (chromosome breakage) mechanisms. Cytotoxicity tests revealed a concentration- and time-dependent loss of V79 cell viability after exposure to all tested materials in the following sequence: asbestos > CNF > SWCNT. Additionally, cellular uptake and generation of oxygen radicals was seen in the murine RAW264.7 macrophages following exposure to CNF or asbestos but not after administration of SWCNT. DNA damage and MN induction were found after exposure to all tested materials with the strongest effect seen for CNF. Finally, we demonstrated that CNF induced predominately centromere-positive MN in primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) indicating aneugenic events. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the possible mechanisms involved in CNF-induced genotoxicity.

  9. Nanoporous Carbon Nanofibers Decorated with Platinum Nanoparticles for Non-Enzymatic Electrochemical Sensing of H2O2

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Mingfa; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Xie, Guocheng; Su, Zhiqiang; Wei, Gang

    2015-01-01

    We describe the preparation of nanoporous carbon nanofibers (CNFs) decorated with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) in this work by electrospining polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers and subsequent carbonization and binding of PtNPs. The fabricated nanoporous CNF-PtNP hybrids were further utilized to modify glass carbon electrodes and used for the non-enzymatic amperometric biosensor for the highly sensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The morphologies of the fabricated nanoporous CNF-PtNP hybrids were observed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and their structure was further investigated with Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectrum. The cyclic voltammetry experiments indicate that CNF-PtNP modified electrodes have high electrocatalytic activity toward H2O2 and the chronoamperometry measurements illustrate that the fabricated biosensor has a high sensitivity for detecting H2O2. We anticipate that the strategies utilized in this work will not only guide the further design and fabrication of functional nanofiber-based biomaterials and nanodevices, but also extend the potential applications in energy storage, cytology, and tissue engineering.

  10. Graphitic carbon nanofiber (GCNF)/polymer materials. I. GCNF/epoxy monoliths using hexanediamine linker molecules.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wei-Hong; Li, Jiang; Xu, Luoyu R; Michel, Jason A; Sullivan, Lisa M; Lukehart, Charles M

    2004-09-01

    Processing methods have been optimized for the formation of graphitic carbon nanofiber (GCNF)/epoxy nanocomposites containing GCNFs highly dispersed throughout a thermoset epoxy matrix. GCNFs having a herringbone atomic structure are surface-derivatized with bifunctional hexanediamine linker molecules (GCNF-HDA) capable of covalent binding to an epoxy matrix during thermal curing and are cut to smaller dimension using high-power ultrasonication. GCNF-HDA nanofibers are dispersed in epoxy resin at 0.3 wt.% loading using variable levels of ultrasonication processing prior to thermal curing. Effects of sonication power on the quality of the GCNF-HDA/epoxy material obtained after curing have been determined from flexural property measurements, thermomechanical analysis and SEM/TEM imaging. GCNF-HDA/epoxy material of the highest quality is obtained using low-power sonication, although high-power sonication for short periods gives improved flexural properties without lowering the glass transition temperature. Good dispersion and polymer wetting of the GCNF component is evident on the nanoscale.

  11. Osteoinductive peptide-functionalized nanofibers with highly ordered structure as biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Song, Jinlin; Xu, Xiao; Xu, Anxiu; Wang, Mengke; Xie, Bingwu; Huang, Enyi; Deng, Feng; Wei, Shicheng

    2015-01-01

    The construction of functional biomimetic scaffolds that recapitulate the topographical and biochemical features of bone tissue extracellular matrix is now of topical interest in bone tissue engineering. In this study, a novel surface-functionalized electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber scaffold with highly ordered structure was developed to simulate the critical features of native bone tissue via a single step of catechol chemistry. Specially, under slightly alkaline aqueous solution, polydopamine (pDA) was coated on the surface of aligned PCL nanofibers after electrospinning, followed by covalent immobilization of bone morphogenetic protein-7-derived peptides onto the pDA-coated nanofiber surface. Contact angle measurement, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of pDA and peptides on PCL nanofiber surface. Our results demonstrated that surface modification with osteoinductive peptides could improve cytocompatibility of nanofibers in terms of cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation. Most importantly, Alizarin Red S staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunostaining, and Western blot revealed that human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on aligned nanofibers with osteoinductive peptides exhibited enhanced osteogenic differentiation potential than cells on randomly oriented nanofibers. Furthermore, the aligned nanofibers with osteoinductive peptides could direct osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells even in the absence of osteoinducting factors, suggesting superior osteogenic efficacy of biomimetic design that combines the advantages of osteoinductive peptide signal and highly ordered nanofibers on cell fate decision. The presented peptide-decorated bone-mimic nanofiber scaffolds hold a promising potential in the context of bone tissue engineering.

  12. Biodegradable poly (ɛ-caprolactone)/gelatin nanofibers: Effect of tubular halloysite on structure and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švachová, Veronika; Khunová, Viera; Vojtová, Lucy; PavliÅák, David

    2016-05-01

    The work explores preparation of new advanced nanofibers based on biodegradable polymers and biocompatible tubular halloysite (HNT). Electrospun nanofibers comprising 8 wt% gelatin (Gel) and 8 wt% poly (͛-caprolactone) (PCL) have been prepared by using eco-friendly solvent - acetic acid. The content of HNT in PCL/Gel nanofibers was 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0 and 9.0 wt%. It was found that the addition of HNT significantly affected the polymer mixture spinnability and the fiber diameter. SEM observations revealed that the structure of nanofibers depends on nanofiber composition. Whilst in nanofibers with lower HNT content uniform morphology with HNTs located merely inside the individual nanofibers has been observed, in nanofibers with 6 and 9 wt% HNT individual particles as well as the agglomerates of HNT have been detected in both, the inner part as well as outside part of nanofiber. Important reinforcing effect has been achieved in whole HNT content. The highest improvement has been reached when the HNT content was 0.5 wt%. In this case, multiple enhancements of strength (2x), elongation (4x) and modulus (2x) have been confirmed. ATR-FTIR revealed that improvement of mechanical properties is also due to the increase of interface interaction in between PCL/Gel and HNT. The prepared PCL/Gel/HNT nanofibers can be used for tissue engineering and/or as drug carriers or signal molecules in whole spectrum of medical applications.

  13. Effect of Filler Orientation on Thermal Conductivity of Polypropylene Matrix Carbon Nanofiber Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, Kazuki; Fujiwara, Shu; Yasuhara, Toshiyuki; Murakami, Hiroya; Teraki, Junichi; Ohtake, Naoto

    2005-06-01

    Polypropylene matrix carbon nanofiber composites were obtained by injection molding after kneading with a batch-type twin-screw kneader. The thermal conductivity of the composites in the thickness direction was evaluated, with particular focus on the effects of carbon nanofiber (CNF) content and filler orientation. The thermal conductivity of the composites increased with increasing CNF content, and was obtained as 3.46 W/(m\\cdotK) when the CNF content was 50% in weight fraction and the CNFs were highly oriented along the measuring direction of thermal conductivity. This value is approximately seventeenfold higher than that of neat polypropylene.

  14. Mesoporous Carbon Nanofibers Embedded with MoS2 Nanocrystals for Extraordinary Li-Ion Storage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shan; Chen, Wen; Uchaker, Evan; Zhou, Jing; Cao, Guozhong

    2015-12-07

    MoS2 nanocrystals embedded in mesoporous carbon nanofibers are synthesized through an electrospinning process followed by calcination. The resultant nanofibers are 100-150 nm in diameter and constructed from MoS2 nanocrystals with a lateral diameter of around 7 nm with specific surface areas of 135.9 m(2)  g(-1) . The MoS2 @C nanofibers are treated at 450 °C in H2 and comparison samples annealed at 800 °C in N2 . The heat treatments are designed to achieve good crystallinity and desired mesoporous microstructure, resulting in enhanced electrochemical performance. The small amount of oxygen in the nanofibers annealed in H2 contributes to obtaining a lower internal resistance, and thus, improving the conductivity. The results show that the nanofibers obtained at 450 °C in H2 deliver an extraordinary capacity of 1022 mA h g(-1) and improved cyclic stability, with only 2.3 % capacity loss after 165 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) , as well as an outstanding rate capability. The greatly improved kinetics and cycling stability of the mesoporous MoS2 @C nanofibers can be attributed to the crosslinked conductive carbon nanofibers, the large specific surface area, the good crystallinity of MoS2 , and the robust mesoporous microstructure. The resulting nanofiber electrodes, with short mass- and charge-transport pathways, improved electrical conductivity, and large contact area exposed to electrolyte, permitting fast diffusional flux of Li ions, explains the improved kinetics of the interfacial charge-transfer reaction and the diffusivity of the MoS2 @C mesoporous nanofibers. It is believed that the integration of MoS2 nanocrystals and mesoporous carbon nanofibers may have a synergistic effect, giving a promising anode, and widening the applicability range into high performance and mass production in the Li-ion battery market.

  15. Porous Carbon Nanofibers from Electrospun Biomass Tar/Polyacrylonitrile/Silver Hybrids as Antimicrobial Materials.

    PubMed

    Song, Kunlin; Wu, Qinglin; Zhang, Zhen; Ren, Suxia; Lei, Tingzhou; Negulescu, Ioan I; Zhang, Quanguo

    2015-07-15

    A novel route to fabricate low-cost porous carbon nanofibers (CNFs) using biomass tar, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and silver nanoparticles has been demonstrated through electrospinning and subsequent stabilization and carbonization processes. The continuous electrospun nanofibers had average diameters ranging from 392 to 903 nm. The addition of biomass tar resulted in increased fiber diameters, reduced thermal stabilities, and slowed cyclization reactions of PAN in the as-spun nanofibers. After stabilization and carbonization, the resultant CNFs showed more uniformly sized and reduced average diameters (226-507 nm) compared to as-spun nanofibers. The CNFs exhibited high specific surface area (>400 m(2)/g) and microporosity, attributed to the combined effects of phase separations of the tar and PAN and thermal decompositions of tar components. These pore characteristics increased the exposures and contacts of silver nanoparticles to the bacteria including Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli, leading to excellent antimicrobial performances of as-spun nanofibers and CNFs. A new strategy is thus provided for utilizing biomass tar as a low-cost precursor to prepare functional CNFs and reduce environmental pollutions associated with direct disposal of tar as an industrial waste.

  16. Preparation and characterization of oriented poly(vinyl alcohol)/carbon nanotube composite nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Akikazu; Kato, Hayato; Sato, Taiga; Kushida, Masahito

    2017-07-01

    Oriented nanofiber mats blended with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are expected to be applied as cell seeding scaffolds. Biomaterials that are often used for cell seeding scaffolds generally have low mechanical strength and low electrical conductivity; thus, it has been difficult to apply them to tissues such as heart and nerve. In this study, we prepared oriented poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofiber mats blended with various CNT concentrations (up to 10 wt %) by electrospinning using the parallel plate electrodes as collectors with applied voltage. The morphology, mechanical properties, and electrical properties of the prepared oriented nanofiber mats were measured by using various techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tensile strength of the oriented nanofiber mats in the applied voltage direction increased from 2.5 to 9.7 MPa with CNT concentration. Furthermore, the electrical conductivity of the oriented nanofiber mats in the applied voltage direction increased from 0.67 × 10-7 to 4.3 × 10-7 S·m-1. Also, the mechanical strength and electrical conductivity of the oriented nanofiber mats in the applied voltage direction were 3-4 and 2-3 times higher than those in the perpendicular direction, respectively.

  17. Silica decorated on porous activated carbon nanofiber composites for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, So Yeun; Kim, Bo-Hye

    2016-10-01

    A hybrid of silica decorated on porous activated carbon nanofibers (ACNFs) is fabricated in the form of a web via electrospinning and an activation process as an electrode material for electrochemical capacitors in an organic electrolyte. The introduction of PhSiH3 (PS) into the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) solution induces a porous ACNF structure containing silica nanoparticles (NPs) via the spontaneous sol-gel process of PS by steam in the subsequent physical activation process. These inorganic-organic hybrid composites of porous ACNF containing silica NPs show superior specific capacitance and energy density in electrochemical tests, along with good rate capability and excellent cycle life in an organic electrolyte, which is attributed to the combination of ACNF's high surface area and silica's hydrophilicity. The electrochemical performance decreases with increasing PS concentration, and this trend is consistent with the specific surface area results, which reveal the rapid formation of a double layer.

  18. Interrogating vertically oriented carbon nanofibers with nanomanipulation for nanoelectromechanical switching applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Megerian, Krikor G.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Epp, Larry; Khan, Abdur R.; Bagge, Leif

    2009-08-31

    We have demonstrated electrostatic switching in vertically oriented carbon nanofibers synthesized on refractory metallic nitride substrates, where pull-in voltages V{sub pi} ranged from 10 to 40 V. A nanoprobe was used as the actuating electrode inside a scanning-electron microscope and van der Waals interactions at these length scales appeared significant, suggesting such structures are promising for nonvolatile memory applications. A finite element model was also developed to determine a theoretical V{sub pi} and results were compared to experiment. Nanomanipulation tests also revealed tubes synthesized directly on Si by dc plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition with ammonia and acetylene were electrically unsuitable for dc nanoelectromechanical switching applications.

  19. On the image formation in x-ray radiography using aligned carbon nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, F.

    2017-04-01

    Evidence is presented that field electrons emitted from vertically-aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) yield clearer x-ray images than do thermionic electrons, under the identical electron-optical condition. Specifically, the same sample, an LSI circuit, mounted on the same x-ray chamber could be imaged far more sharply with a CNF emitter than with a thermionic one. It is hypothesized that electrons discharged from CNF tips hit the target to form ;discrete focal points; thereon, thereby generating multiple x-ray beams that interplay to form a brilliant, sharply-delineated x-ray image. This hypothesis may stimulate open discussion on how to define the ;focal point; for the x-ray imaging using nano-structured electron sources. Also, the improved resolution attained with CNFs might indicate that the heat generation originating in electron-target interactions is not so serious in the present field-emission mode.

  20. Heterogeneous adsorption of activated carbon nanofibers synthesized by electrospinning polyacrylonitrile solution.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Wook; Kang, Hyun-Chul; Shim, Wang-Geun; Kim, Chan; Yang, Kap-Seung; Moon, Hee

    2006-11-01

    This study focuses on the adsorption properties of activated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) fabricated by electrospinning polyacrylonitrile solutions dissolved in dimethylformamide, followed by heat treatment at high activation temperatures (700, 750, 800 degrees C). The samples were characterized by BET, SEM, and XRD. In addition, the adsorption energy distribution functions of CNFs were analyzed by using the generalized nonlinear regularization method. Comparative analysis of energy distribution functions provided significant information on the energetic and structural heterogeneities of CNFs. Furthermore, an investigation of adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of methylene blue (MB) and congo red (CR) revealed that the adsorption capacity and kinetics of MB are much higher and faster than that of CR on a given sample. Our experimental and theoretical results suggest that the CNFs used in this work may be widely used as an adsorbent.

  1. Electrochemical enzymatic biosensors using carbon nanofiber nanoelectrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Li, Yi-fen; Swisher, Luxi Z.; Syed, Lateef U.; Prior, Allan M.; Nguyen, Thu A.; Hua, Duy H.

    2012-10-01

    The reduction of electrode size down to nanometers could dramatically enhance detection sensitivity and temporal resolution. Nanoelectrode arrays (NEAs) are of particular interest for ultrasensitive biosensors. Here we report the study of two types of biosensors for measuring enzyme activities using NEAs fabricated with vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs). VACNFs of ~100 nm in average diameter and 3-5 μm in length were grown on conductive substrates as uniform vertical arrays which were then encapsulated in SiO2 matrix leaving only the tips exposed. We demonstrate that such VACNF NEAs can be used in profiling enzyme activities through monitoring the change in electrochemical signals induced by enzymatic reactions to the peptides attached to the VACNF tip. The cleavage of the tetrapeptide with a ferrocene tag by a cancerrelated protease (legumain) was monitored with AC voltammetry. Real-time electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) was used for fast label-free detection of two reversible processes, i.e. phosphorylation by c-Src tyrosine kinase and dephosphorylation by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). The REIS data of phosphorylation were slow and unreliable, but those of dephosphorylation showed large and fast exponential decay due to much higher activity of phosphatase PTP1B. The kinetic data were analyzed with a heterogeneous Michaelis-Menten model to derive the "specificity constant" kcat/Km, which is 8.2x103 M-1s-1 for legumain and (2.1 ± 0.1) x 107 M-1s-1 for phosphatase (PTP1B), well consistent with literature. It is promising to develop VACNF NEA based electrochemical enzymatic biosensors as portable multiplex electronic techniques for rapid cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring.

  2. Carbon Nanofibers Heavy Laden with Li3V2(PO4)3 Particles Featuring Superb Kinetics for High-Power Lithium Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jeongyim; Yang, Junghoon; Sergey, Chernov; Song, Min-Sang; Kang, Yong-Mook

    2017-09-01

    Fast lithium ion and electron transport inside electrode materials are essential to realize its superb electrochemical performances for lithium rechargeable batteries. Herein, a distinctive structure of cathode material is proposed, which can simultaneously satisfy these requirements. Nanosized Li3V2(PO4)3 (LVP) particles can be successfully grown up on the carbon nanofiber via electrospinning method followed by a controlled heat-treatment. Herein, LVP particles are anchored onto the surface of carbon nanofiber, and with this growing process, the size of LVP particles as well as the thickness of carbon nanofiber can be regulated together. The morphological features of this composite structure enable not only direct contact between electrolytes and LVP particles that can enhance lithium ion diffusivity, but also fast electron transport through 1D carbon network along nanofibers simultaneously. Finally, it is demonstrated that this unique structure is an ideal one to realize high electron transport and ion diffusivity together, which are essential for enhancing the electrochemical performances of electrode materials.

  3. One-step synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers from melamine over nickel alloy in a closed system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenzhin, Roman M.; Bauman, Yuri I.; Volodin, Alexander M.; Mishakov, Ilya V.; Vedyagin, Aleksey A.

    2017-10-01

    A novel approach to the synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers in a closed system at elevated pressure with the use of bulk Ni-Cr alloy as a catalyst precursor was proposed. Melamine was chosen as a substrate containing both carbon and nitrogen. Method of ferromagnetic resonance was applied for diagnostics of dispersed Ni particles appearance. The process of corrosion of a bulk alloy followed by formation of dispersed Ni particles catalyzing the growth of nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers was found to take place at temperatures above 560 °C. The final content of nitrogen in obtained carbon nanofibers was about 10 at.%.

  4. The Chemical Deposition Method for the Decoration of Palladium Particles on Carbon Nanofibers with Rapid Conductivity Changes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hoik; Phan, Duy-Nam; Kim, Myungwoong; Sohn, Daewon; Oh, Seong-Geun; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-01-01

    Palladium (Pd) metal is well-known for hydrogen sensing material due to its high sensitivity and selectivity toward hydrogen, and is able to detect hydrogen at near room temperature. In this work, palladium-doped carbon nanofibers (Pd/CNFs) were successfully produced in a facile manner via electrospinning. Well-organized and uniformly distributed Pd was observed in microscopic images of the resultant nanofibers. Hydrogen causes an increment in the volume of Pd due to the ability of hydrogen atoms to occupy the octahedral interstitial positions within its face centered cubic lattice structure, resulting in the resistance transition of Pd/CNFs. The resistance variation was around 400%, and it responded rapidly within 1 min, even in 5% hydrogen atmosphere conditions at room temperature. This fibrous hybrid material platform will open a new and practical route and stimulate further researches on the development of hydrogen sensing materials with rapid response, even to low concentrations of hydrogen in an atmosphere. PMID:28335353

  5. Fabrication and characterization of polylactic acid and polylactic acid/multi-walled carbon nanotube nanofibers through centrifugal spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patlan, Richard

    Biocompatible polymer nanofibers hold great potential in the biomedical engineering field. Their biodegradable nature and enhanced properties could help solve a wide array of health related problems, particularly in the areas of tissue regeneration, drug delivery, and biosensor design. The novel Forcespinning™ method allows the production of submicron fibers without many of the drawbacks found in electrospinning, while also providing a substantial increase in fiber production. The aim of the study was to utilize this method to fabricate non-woven nanofibrous mats composed of polylactic acid (PLA) and polylactic acid/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite fibers. The morphology, thermal properties, and crystalline structure of the resulting nanofibers were then characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD).

  6. Carbon functionalized TiO2 nanofibers for high efficiency photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghava Reddy, Kakarla; Gomes, Vincent G.; Hassan, Mahbub

    2014-03-01

    TiO2 nanofibers (30-50 nm diameter), fabricated by the electro-spinning process, were modified with organo-silane agents via a coupling reaction and were grafted with carbohydrate molecules. The mixture was carbonized to produce a uniform coating of amorphous carbon on the surface of the TiO2 nanofibers. The TiO2@C nanofibers were characterized by high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic property of the functional TiO2 and carbon nanocomposite was tested via the decomposition of an organic pollutant. The catalytic activity of the covalently functionalized nanocomposite was found to be significantly enhanced in comparison to unfunctionalized composite and pristine TiO2 due to the synergistic effect of nanostructured TiO2 and amorphous carbon bound via covalent bonds. The improvement in performance is due to bandgap modification in the 1D co-axial nanostructure where the anatase phase is bound by nano-carbon, providing a large surface to volume ratio within a confined space. The superior photocatalytic performance and recyclability of 1D TiO2@C nanofiber composites for water purification were established through dye degradation experiments.

  7. Free-Standing Thin Webs of Activated Carbon Nanofibers by Electrospinning for Rechargeable Li-O2 Batteries.

    PubMed

    Nie, Hongjiao; Xu, Chi; Zhou, Wei; Wu, Baoshan; Li, Xianfeng; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Huamin

    2016-01-27

    Free-standing activated carbon nanofibers (ACNF) were prepared through electrospinning combining with CO2 activation and then used for nonaqueous Li-O2 battery cathodes. As-prepared ACNF based cathode was loosely packed with carbon nanofibers complicatedly overlapped. Owing to some micrometer-sized pores between individual nanofibers, relatively high permeability of O2 across the cathode becomes feasible. Meanwhile, the mesopores introduced by CO2 activation act as additional nucleation sites for Li2O2 formation, leading to an increase in the density of Li2O2 particles along with a size decrease of the individual particles, and therefore, flake-like Li2O2 are preferentially formed. In addition, the free-standing structure of ACNF cathode eliminates the side reactions about PVDF. As a result, the Li-O2 batteries with ACNF cathodes showed increased discharge capacities, reduced overpotentials, and longer cycle life in the case of full discharge and charge operation. This provides a novel pathway for the design of cathodes for Li-O2 battery.

  8. Fabrication of structured micro and nanofibers by coaxial electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, J. E.; Fernández-Nieves, A.; Barrero, A.; Márquez, M.; Loscertales, I. G.

    2008-08-01

    Among the different ways of synthesizing fiber and tubular micro and nanostructures, some top-down methods resort to electro-hydrodynamic forces to smoothly stretch liquids interfaces down to such small size scales. The well-known electrospinning technique, commonly used to fabricate micro and nanofibers of a broad variety of materials, is now expanded to fabricate coaxial fibers upon the generation of electrified coaxial jets instead of single jets. We briefly report different types of micro and nano structures that may be fabricated with this new technique termed co-electrospinning.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of hybrid nanofibers from poly(vinyl alcohol), milk protein and metal carbonates.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, Narahari; Teow, Yiwei; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2012-08-01

    Porous three dimensional nanofibrous membranes were fabricated from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), milk protein and inorganic salts such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). Microscopic investigations showed that the fibers have smooth morphology with an average diameter of 300-500 nm and a surface area of 5.29 m2g(-1). Thermal analysis of the composite nanofibers showed a decrease in glass transition temperature as compared to PVA nanofiber. Incorporation of CaCO3 and MgCO3 into the nanofiber matrix was confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The cytocompatibility of electrospun composite nanofiber sheets was evaluated using human lung fibroblasts (IMR-90). There was an increase in cell attachment and cell density on milk protein incorporated to PVA-CaCO3 and PVA-MgCO3 fibers within a week of cell seeding. The cytocompatibility and increase in cell adhesion property of the hybrid nanofiber may provide significant advantages for such materials in biomedical applications.

  10. Improved mechanical properties of solution-cast silicone film reinforced with electrospun polyurethane nanofiber containing carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijing, Leonard D.; Park, Chan-Hee; Kang, Seung-Ji; Amarjargal, Altangerel; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Pant, Hem Raj; Kim, Han Joo; Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we describe the enhancing ability of electrospun polyurethane (PU) nanofibers containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as nanofillers for silicone film in improving the physico-mechanical properties of the composite material. We prepared the samples combining two simple techniques: solution casting and electrospinning. Neat PU nanofibers alone are good reinforcing materials but the presence of CNTs inside the PU nanofibers has drastically improved the mechanical properties of the silicone composite film. The silicone film increased its tensile strength by 226% and its tensile modulus by more than 14-fold when CNT/PU nanofibers were incorporated.

  11. Time-resolved structural investigation of regenerated silk fibroin nanofibers treated with solvent vapor.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Lim; Lee, Kuen Yong; Liu, Ju Whan; Park, Won Ho

    2006-03-30

    Nonwoven matrices of silk fibroin (SF) nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning a regenerated SF solution, followed by treatment with solvent vapor including water, methanol, ethanol, and propanol. Structural changes of solvent vapor-treated SF nanofibers were investigated in a time-resolved manner using IR spectroscopy. Conformational transitions of SF nanofibers from random coil to beta-sheet forms were dependent on the type of solvent vapor used, and their transition rates were strongly influenced by treatment temperatures. Consistent with previous findings, methanol vapor treatment provided a fast and effective means by which to alter the secondary structure of SF nanofibers. However, treatment with water vapor, as compared to treatment with alcohol vapor, was also useful for inducing structural changes in SF nanofibers. As demonstrated in the present study, our approach of controlling secondary structure formation of proteins by solvent vapor treatment and monitoring real-time conformational changes may be useful for the design and tailoring of materials for biomedical applications.

  12. Pyrolytic carbon-coated silicon/carbon nanofiber composite anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanli; Hu, Yi; Shao, Jianzhong; Shen, Zhen; Chen, Renzhong; Zhang, Xiangwu; He, Xia; Song, Yuanze; Xing, Xiuli

    2015-12-01

    Pyrolytic carbon-coated Si/C nanofibers (Si/C-CNFs) composites have been prepared through the sucrose coating and secondary thermal treatment of Si/CNFs composites produced via electrospinning and carbonization. This results in a structure in which Si nanoparticles are distributed along the fibers, with the fiber surface being coated with an amorphous carbon layer through pyrolysis of the sucrose. This carbon coating not only limits the volume expansion of the exposed Si nanoparticles, preventing their direct contact with the electrolyte, but also creates a connection between the fibers that is beneficial to Li+ ion transport, structural integrity, and electrochemical conductivity. Consequently, the Si/C-CNFs composite exhibits a more stable cycle performance, better rate performance, and higher conductivity than Si/CNFs alone. The optimal level of performance was attained with a 20:200 mass ratio of sucrose to deionized water, with a high retained capacity of 1215.2 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles, thus indicating that it is a suitable anode material for Li-ion batteries.

  13. A novel method to precisely assemble loose nanofiber structures for regenerative medicine applications.

    PubMed

    Beachley, Vince; Katsanevakis, Eleni; Zhang, Ning; Wen, Xuejun

    2013-02-01

    Polymer nanofibers are favorable for tissue engineering scaffolds because of their high surface-to-volume ratio and biomimicry of the extracellular matrix. Random and uniaxially oriented polymer nanofibers are easily fabricated by conventional electrospinning techniques; however, control over fiber organization within nanofiber structures is limited when they are collected directly from an electrospinning jet. The regenerative medicine applications of electrospun scaffolds could be expanded by developing assembly methods that allow better control of fiber organization. Here, a novel technique is presented that utilizes parallel automated tracks to orient and collect nanofibers from an electrospinning jet. The stabilized fibers are then subsequently assembled into desirable structures. It is difficult to assemble complex structures directly from an electrospinning jet because of high electrical charge and velocities, so this technology adds an intermediate step where nanofibers are immobilized on automated tracks. The result is a continuous steady-state delivery of static stabilized nanofibers that provides a unique and promising platform for automated post processing into useful nanofiber structures. This technique also allows for an indefinite amount of time, as determined by design parameters, for fibers to dry or cool before they contact other nanofibers in the collection site, thus eliminating potential for fiber-to-fiber adhesions even with slow evaporating solvents or high-temperature melts. To demonstrate potential in regenerative medicine applications, several nanofiber structures were fabricated, including: 2D structures with well-controlled fiber density; 3D loosely assembled aligned nanofiber structures with good cell penetration properties; and, complex layer-by-layer 3D aligned fiber structures assembled by integration with post-processing techniques.

  14. Fabrication of a Mechanically Robust Carbon Nanofiber Foam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    a carbon rich vapor to create carbon structures. This low temperature thermal decomposition, also called catalytic pyrolysis , is achieved by using a...under when mildly compressed under the pressure applied via a spatula. Figure 24. shows that the foam could be removed mostly intact. Unfortunately...mold (shown in Figure 10) 35 could be explained by reviewing some fundamental concepts, such as pyrolysis and free radicals. At high

  15. Assembly of carbon-SnO2 core-sheath composite nanofibers for superior lithium storage.

    PubMed

    Ji, Liwen; Lin, Zhan; Guo, Bingkun; Medford, Andrew J; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2010-10-11

    Protective coating: Carbon-SnO(2) core-sheath composite nanofibers are synthesized through the creative combination of electrospinning and electrodeposition processes (see figure). They display excellent electrochemical performance when directly used as binder-free anodes for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Core-sheath differentially biodegradable nanofiber structures for tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghe, Ajit Keshav

    In recent years, it has been shown that the nanofiber structures prepared using electrospinning can serve as near ideal substrates for engineering tissues. Various biodegradable polymers of natural and synthetic origins have been used to construct the nanofiber scaffolds. The use of natural polymers is important in that they contain specific cell recognition sites that are capable of binding cells. Synthetic biodegradable polymers, on the other hand, can provide the necessary mechanical properties and their degradation rate can be controlled positively. When used alone, however, neither can provide an ideal structure for long-term development of tissues. This is because the regenerated natural polymers, although greatly biocompatible, are weak and degrade rapidly and uncontrollably, while the synthetic polymers, although mechanically more stable, are not as biocompatible. The focus of the current investigation was, therefore, to combine natural and synthetic polymers and to produce materials that have novel hybrid properties at the nano level. An optimum structure proposed was a differentially biodegradable bicomponent nanofiber with the sheath of natural and the core of synthetic polymers. Co-axial electrospinning was used to prepare the proposed core-sheath nanofibers. A major objective of the current research was to develop and optimize the technology to produce uniform bicomponent nanofibers of predictable morphologies by understanding the effects of various material and process variables such as solution concentration, solvent type, solution flow rate, and applied voltage. Two natural polymers (collagen and gelatin) and one synthetic biodegradable polymer (PCL) were used to develop the proposed structures. The factors that affected the bicomponent fiber formation were: interfacial tension between sheath and core solutions, volatility of the solvent, and applied voltage. By minimizing the interfacial tension, selecting the solvents with low vapor pressure, and

  17. A High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Based on the Core-Shell Heterostructure of Silicon-Coated Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    electrode for polymer electrolyte dye-sensitized solar cells www.rsc.org/MaterialsA Registered Charity Number 207890 A university-industrial...ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This study reports a high-performance hybrid lithium-ion anode material based on coaxially coated Si shell...SUBJECT TERMS high-performance Li-ion battery anodes; nanostructured materials; silicon-carbon hybrid structure; vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

  18. Hollow carbon-nanotube/carbon-nanofiber hybrid anodes for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuming; Li, Xiaoyan; Park, Kyusung; Song, Jie; Hong, Jianhe; Zhou, Limin; Mai, Yiu-Wing; Huang, Haitao; Goodenough, John B

    2013-11-06

    By a novel in situ chemical vapor deposition, activated N-doped hollow carbon-nanotube/carbon-nanofiber composites are prepared having a superhigh specific Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of 1840 m(2) g(–1) and a total pore volume of 1.21 m(3) g(–1). As an anode, this material has a reversible capacity of ~1150 mAh g(–1) at 0.1 A g(–1) (0.27 C) after 70 cycles. At 8 A g(–1) (21.5 C), a capacity of ~320 mAh g(–1) fades less than 20% after 3500 cycles, which makes it a superior anode material for a Li-ion battery.

  19. Ultrasensitive, Label Free, Chemiresistive Nanobiosensor Using Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Embedded Electrospun SU-8 Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Durga Prakash, Matta; Vanjari, Siva Rama Krishna; Sharma, Chandra Shekhar; Singh, Shiv Govind

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and fabrication of aligned electrospun nanofibers derived out of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) embedded SU-8 photoresist, which are targeted towards ultrasensitive biosensor applications. The ultrasensitivity (detection in the range of fg/mL) and the specificity of these biosensors were achieved by complementing the inherent advantages of MWCNTs such as high surface to volume ratio and excellent electrical and transduction properties with the ease of surface functionalization of SU-8. The electrospinning process was optimized to precisely align nanofibers in between two electrodes of a copper microelectrode array. MWCNTs not only enhance the conductivity of SU-8 nanofibers but also act as transduction elements. In this paper, MWCNTs were embedded way beyond the percolation threshold and the optimum percentage loading of MWCNTs for maximizing the conductivity of nanofibers was figured out experimentally. As a proof of concept, the detection of myoglobin, an important biomarker for on-set of Acute Myocardial Infection (AMI) has been demonstrated by functionalizing the nanofibers with anti-myoglobin antibodies and carrying out detection using a chemiresistive method. This simple and robust device yielded a detection limit of 6 fg/mL. PMID:27563905

  20. Structural characterization of cup-stacked-type nanofibers with an entirely hollow core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, M.; Kim, Y. A.; Hayashi, T.; Fukai, Y.; Oshida, K.; Terrones, M.; Yanagisawa, T.; Higaki, S.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    2002-02-01

    Straight long carbon nanofibers with a large hollow core obtained by a floating reactant method show a stacking morphology of truncated conical graphene layers, which in turn exhibit a large portion of open edges on the outer surface and also in the inner channels. Through a judicious choice of oxidation conditions, nanofibers with increased active edge sites are obtained without disrupting the fiber's morphology. A graphitization process induces a morphological change from a tubular type to a reversing saw-toothed type and the formation of loops along the inner channel of the nanofibers, accompanied by a decrease in interlayer spacing.

  1. High rate capability and cyclic stability of hierarchically porous Tin oxide (IV)-carbon nanofibers as anode in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ashish; Dhakate, Sanjay R.; Gurunathan, P.; Ramesha, K.

    2017-07-01

    Tin oxide-carbon composite porous nanofibres exhibiting superior electrochemical performance as lithium ion battery (LIB) anode have been prepared using electrospinning technique. Surface morphology and structural characterizations of the composite material is carried out by techniques such as XRD, FESEM, HR-TEM, XPS, TGA and Raman spectroscopy. FESEM and TEM studies reveal that nanofibers have a uniform diameter of 150-180 nm and contain highly porous outer wall. The carbon content is limited to 10% in the nanofibers as shown by the TGA and EDAX which does not fade the high capacity of SnO2. These nanofibers delivered a higher discharge capacity of 722 mAh/g even after 100 cycles at high rate of 1C. The excellent electrochemical performance can be ascribed to the synergy effect of small amount of carbon in the composite and the hierarchically porous structure which accommodate large volume changes associated with Li-ion insertion-desertion. The porous nano-architecture would also provide a short diffusion path for Li+ ions in addition to facilitating high flux of electrolyte percolation through micropores. The electrochemical performance of composite material has also been tested at 60 °C at a higher rate of 2C and 5C. Post cycling FESEM analysis shows no volumetric and morphology changes in porous nanofibers after completing rate capability at high rate of 10C.

  2. Hierarchically structured suspended TiO2 nanofibers for use in UV and pH sensor devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Seok; Park, Yang-Seok; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

    2014-08-13

    Photoelectrochemical sensors based on hierarchically structured titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanofibers (NFs) were fabricated by combination of electrospinning, carbon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and hydrothermal reaction. During the electrospinning step, a rotating drum collector was used to align and position NFs of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on top of a carbon-MEMS structure. Following calcination under vacuum, a stable ohmic contact was obtained between suspended TiO2-carbon NFs (TiO2/C NF) and the carbon electrodes. Subsequent to this, a hierarchical nanostructure of TiO2 nanowires (TiO2 NWs) was hydrothermally synthesized onto the TiO2/C NFs and successfully utilized as UV and pH sensors. This is the first demonstration of a semiconductor-based nanofiber sensor suspended on carbon electrodes that has been achieved by a relatively simple and cost-effective electrospinning method. Furthermore, these sensors demonstrate a high sensitivity, as well as a stable ohmic contact, due to the large surface area of the TiO2 NWs and the carbon-carbon contact between the suspended TiO2/C NFs and carbon electrodes.

  3. Freestanding highly defect nitrogen-enriched carbon nanofibers for lithium ion battery thin-film anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Guoqiang; Bao, Wurigumula; Yuan, Yifei; Liu, Zhun; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Wu, Feng; Amine, Khalil; Wang, Jing; Lu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    To spread lithium ion batteries into large-scale energy storage technologies, high ener-gy/power densities and long cycling life of carbon-based anodes must be achieved. This re-quires revolutionary design of the anode’s architectures that can facilitate the fast electronic and ionic transport, as well as accommodate the electrode structural instability. Here we re-port a thin-film electrode design and demonstrate its use in flexible, and large-area carbon-based anode assemblies. The fabrication of electrodes is realized by sputtering a graphite tar-get in the high-purity nitrogen atmosphere, then highly-defect nitrogen-doped carbon nano-fibers are deposited vertically onto copper substrates with a thin film configuration. The high-ly-defect nitrogen-doping enhances the lithium storage and transport, the orientation grown mechanism improves the charge transfer, and the compact configuration makes the high tap density possible. As a result, the thin films exhibit high specific capacities of ~ 500 mAh g−1, namely a volume capacity of ~ 100 mAh cm−3. They also exhibit stable cycle performance (400 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles) and good rate capability (450 mAh g−1 at 1 A g−1 rate). This work opens up a new carbon-based anode design by using sputtering technology for effec-tively incorporating high content nitrogen into carbon matrices. Such electrode architecture significantly improves the electrochemical performance of carbon-based materials.

  4. Membranes of MnO Beading in Carbon Nanofibers as Flexible Anodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin; Du, Yuxuan; Jin, Lei; Yang, Yang; Wu, Shuilin; Li, Weihan; Yu, Yan; Zhu, Yanwu; Zhang, Qinghua

    2015-09-01

    Freestanding yet flexible membranes of MnO/carbon nanofibers are successfully fabricated through incorporating MnO2 nanowires into polymer solution by a facile electrospinning technique. During the stabilization and carbonization processes of the as-spun membranes, MnO2 nanowires are transformed to MnO nanoparticles coincided with a conversion of the polymer from an amorphous state to a graphitic structure of carbon nanofibers. The hybrids consist of isolated MnO nanoparticles beading in the porous carbon and demonstrate superior performance when being used as a binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries. With an optimized amount of MnO (34.6 wt%), the anode exhibits a reversible capacity of as high as 987.3 mAh g-1 after 150 discharge/charge cycles at 0.1 A g-1, a good rate capability (406.1 mAh g-1 at 3  A g-1) and an excellent cycling performance (655 mAh g-1 over 280 cycles at 0.5 A g-1). Furthermore, the hybrid anode maintains a good electrochemical performance at bending state as a flexible electrode.

  5. Membranes of MnO Beading in Carbon Nanofibers as Flexible Anodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Du, Yuxuan; Jin, Lei; Yang, Yang; Wu, Shuilin; Li, Weihan; Yu, Yan; Zhu, Yanwu; Zhang, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Freestanding yet flexible membranes of MnO/carbon nanofibers are successfully fabricated through incorporating MnO2 nanowires into polymer solution by a facile electrospinning technique. During the stabilization and carbonization processes of the as-spun membranes, MnO2 nanowires are transformed to MnO nanoparticles coincided with a conversion of the polymer from an amorphous state to a graphitic structure of carbon nanofibers. The hybrids consist of isolated MnO nanoparticles beading in the porous carbon and demonstrate superior performance when being used as a binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries. With an optimized amount of MnO (34.6 wt%), the anode exhibits a reversible capacity of as high as 987.3 mAh g−1 after 150 discharge/charge cycles at 0.1 A g−1, a good rate capability (406.1 mAh g−1 at 3  A g−1) and an excellent cycling performance (655 mAh g−1 over 280 cycles at 0.5 A g−1). Furthermore, the hybrid anode maintains a good electrochemical performance at bending state as a flexible electrode. PMID:26374601

  6. Structural characteristics and biological performance of silk fibroin nanofiber containing microalgae Spirulina extract.

    PubMed

    Cha, Bum-Gyu; Kwak, Hyo Won; Park, A Reum; Kim, Shin Hwan; Park, Sook-Young; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Ick-Soo; Lee, Ki Hoon; Park, Young Hwan

    2014-04-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) nanofiber scaffold containing microalgae Spirulina extract were prepared by electrospinning and the performance and functionality of the scaffold were evaluated. The viscosity and conductivity of the dope solution of Spirulina containing SF were examined for electrospinability and we found that the morphological structure of SF nanofiber is affected by the concentration of Spirulina extract added. The platelet adhesion and coagulation time test confirmed that the Spirulina containing SF nanofiber scaffold had excellent ability to prevent blood clotting or antithrombogenicity that is comparable to heparin. Low cytotoxicity and excellent cell adhesion and proliferation were also observed for Sprulina containing SF nanofiber scaffold by methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay and confocal fluorescence microscope using fibroblast and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Based on these results, we believe SF nanofiber scaffold containing Spirulina extract has the potential to be used as tissue engineering scaffold that requires high hemocompatibility. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Potential of electrospun core-shell structured gelatin-chitosan nanofibers for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Jalaja, K; Naskar, Deboki; Kundu, Subhas C; James, Nirmala R

    2016-01-20

    Coaxial electrospinning is an upcoming technology that has emerged from the conventional electrospinning process in order to realize the production of nanofibers of less spinnable materials with potential applications. The present work focuses on the production of chitosan nanofibers in a benign route, using natural polymer as core template, mild solvent system and naturally derived cross-linkers. Nanofibers with chitosan as shell are fabricated by coaxial electrospinning with highly spinnable gelatin as core using aqueous acetic acid as solvent. For maintaining the biocompatibility and structural integrity of the core-shell nanofibers, cross-linking is carried out using naturally derived cross-linking agents, dextran aldehyde and sucrose aldehyde. The biological evaluation of gelatin/chitosan mat is carried out using human osteoblast like cells. The results show that the cross-linked core-shell nanofibers are excellent matrices for cell adhesion and proliferation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ion-assisted precursor dissociation and surface diffusion: Enabling rapid, low-temperature growth of carbon nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denysenko, I.; Ostrikov, K.

    2007-06-01

    Growth kinetics of carbon nanofibers in a hydrocarbon plasma is studied. In addition to gas-phase and surface processes common to chemical vapor deposition, the model includes (unique to plasma-exposed catalyst surfaces) ion-induced dissociation of hydrocarbons, interaction of adsorbed species with incoming hydrogen atoms, and dissociation of hydrocarbon ions. It is shown that at low, nanodevice-friendly process temperatures the nanofibers grow via surface diffusion of carbon adatoms produced on the catalyst particle via ion-induced dissociation of a hydrocarbon precursor. These results explain a lower activation energy of nanofiber growth in a plasma and can be used for the synthesis of other nanoassemblies.

  9. Adsorption of ciprofloxacin, bisphenol and 2-chlorophenol on electrospun carbon nanofibers: in comparison with powder activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaona; Chen, Shuo; Fan, Xinfei; Quan, Xie; Tan, Feng; Zhang, Yaobin; Gao, Jinsuo

    2015-06-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer solutions followed by thermal treatment. For the first time, the influence of stabilization procedure on the structure properties of CNFs was explored to improve the adsorption capacity of CNFs towards the environmental pollutants from aqueous solution. The adsorption of three organic chemicals including ciprofloxacin (CIP), bisphenol (BPA) and 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) on electrospun CNFs with high surface area of 2326m(2)/g and micro/mesoporous structure characteristics were investigated. The adsorption affinities were compared with that of the commercial powder activated carbon (PAC). The adsorption kinetics and isotherms showed that the maximum adsorption capacities (qm) of CNFs towards the three pollutants are sequenced in the order of CIP>BPA>2-CP, which are 2.6-fold (CIP), 1.6-fold (BPA) and 1.1-fold (2-CP) increase respectively in comparison with that of PAC adsorption. It was assumed that the micro/mesoporous structure of CNFs, molecular size of the pollutants and the π electron interaction play important roles on the high adsorption capacity exhibited by CNFs. In addition, electrostatic interaction and hydrophobic interaction also contribute to the adsorption of CNFs. This study demonstrates that the electrospun CNFs are promising adsorbents for the removal of pollutants from aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The interfacial strength of carbon nanofiber epoxy composite using single fiber pullout experiments.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, M P; Sharma, A; Desai, A V; Haque, M A; Bakis, C E; Wang, K W

    2009-07-22

    Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers are extensively researched as reinforcing agents in nanocomposites for their multifunctionality, light weight and high strength. However, it is the interface between the nanofiber and the matrix that dictates the overall properties of the nanocomposite. The current trend is to measure elastic properties of the bulk nanocomposite and then compare them with theoretical models to extract the information on the interfacial strength. The ideal experiment is single fiber pullout from the matrix because it directly measures the interfacial strength. However, the technique is difficult to apply to nanocomposites because of the small size of the fibers and the requirement for high resolution force and displacement sensing. We present an experimental technique for measuring the interfacial strength of nanofiber-reinforced composites using the single fiber pullout technique and demonstrate the technique for a carbon nanofiber-reinforced epoxy composite. The experiment is performed in situ in a scanning electron microscope and the interfacial strength for the epoxy composite was measured to be 170 MPa.

  11. Thermal−Electrical Character of in Situ Synthesized Polyimide-Grafted Carbon Nanofiber Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Arlen, Michael J.; Wang, David; Jacobs, J. David; Justice, Ryan; Trionfi, Aaron; Hsu, Julia W.P.; Schaffer, Dale; Tan, Loon-Seng; Vaia, Richard A.

    2008-12-09

    Notwithstanding the success of polymer-carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposites, a solid understanding of the impact of external perturbations, including temperature and stress, on the electrical response, its reproducibility, and the subsequent relationship to the topology of the percolative morphology and molecular details of the CNT-CNT contact junction is not complete. Using an in situ synthesis approach, two series of polymide (CP2)-carbon nanofiber (CNF) composites are prepared with quantitatively (small-angle X-ray scattering) comparable CNF dispersions, but differing in the structure of the CNF-polymer interface. Amino-functionalized CNFs (FCNFs) enable direct formation of CP2 grafts onto the CNFs, whereas pristine CNFs (PCNFs) result in a relatively weak interface between the carbon nanofiber and CP2 matrix. In general, low-frequency ac impedance measurements are well described by the percolation bond model, yielding a percolation threshold below 1 vol % (0.24 and 0.68 vol % for PCNF-CP2 and FCNF-CP2, respectively). However, the design of the interface is determined to be crucial for controlling the electrical behavior in four substantial ways: magnitude of the limiting conductivity, linearity of the I-V response, magnitude and direction of temperature-dependent resistivity, and reproducibility of the absolute value of the resistivity with thermal cycling. These observations are consistent with a direct CNF-CNF contact limiting transport in the PCNF-CP2 system, where the CP2 grafts onto the FCNF from a dielectric layer, limiting transport within the FCNF-CP2 system. Furthermore, the grafted CP2 chains on the FCNF reduce local polymer dewetting at the CNF surfaces when the temperature exceeds the CP2 glass transition. This appears to stabilize the structure of the percolation network and associated conductivity. The general behavior of these interfacial extremes (pristine and fully functionalized CNFs) set important bounds on the design of interface

  12. INHALATION EXPOSURE TO CARBON NANOTUBES (CNT) AND CARBON NANOFIBERS (CNF): METHODOLOGY AND DOSIMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Oberdörster, Günter; Castranova, Vincent; Asgharian, Bahman; Sayre, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and nanofibers (CNF) are used increasingly in a broad array of commercial products. Given current understandings, the most significant life-cycle exposures to CNT/CNF occur from inhalation when they become airborne at different stages of their life cycle, including workplace, use, and disposal. Increasing awareness of the importance of physicochemical properties as determinants of toxicity of CNT/CNF and existing difficulties in interpreting results of mostly acute rodent inhalation studies to date necessitate a reexamination of standardized inhalation testing guidelines. The current literature on pulmonary exposure to CNT/CNF and associated effects is summarized; recommendations and conclusions are provided that address test guideline modifications for rodent inhalation studies that will improve dosimetric extrapolation modeling for hazard and risk characterization based on the analysis of exposure-dose-response relationships. Several physicochemical parameters for CNT/CNF, including shape, state of agglomeration/aggregation, surface properties, impurities, and density, influence toxicity. This requires an evaluation of the correlation between structure and pulmonary responses. Inhalation, using whole-body exposures of rodents, is recommended for acute to chronic pulmonary exposure studies. Dry powder generator methods for producing CNT/CNF aerosols are preferred, and specific instrumentation to measure mass, particle size and number distribution, and morphology in the exposure chambers are identified. Methods are discussed for establishing experimental exposure concentrations that correlate with realistic human exposures, such that unrealistically high experimental concentrations need to be identified that induce effects under mechanisms that are not relevant for workplace exposures. Recommendations for anchoring data to results seen for positive and negative benchmark materials are included, as well as periods for postexposure observation

  13. Surface coating of carbon nanofibers/nanotubes by electrodeposition for multifunctionalization.

    PubMed

    Xing, H; Sun, L; Song, G; Gou, J; Hao, Y W

    2008-01-16

    Carbon nanomaterials in the form of paper sheets have been used as platforms to achieve multifunctionality. Combined with electrochemical deposition, room temperature synthesis of magnetic Ni coatings on individual carbon nanofibers (CNF) and/or carbon nanotubes (CNT) has been realized through solution penetration and ion diffusion. In addition to significant electrical conductivity improvement, the magnetic responses of the Ni coated carbon nanopaper sheets can be tuned within large ranges in terms of saturation magnetic field, remnant magnetization and coercivity. After being re-suspended in liquids, the magnetized CNFs/CNTs can be aligned with small external magnetic fields.

  14. Osteoinductive peptide-functionalized nanofibers with highly ordered structure as biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Song, Jinlin; Xu, Xiao; Xu, Anxiu; Wang, Mengke; Xie, Bingwu; Huang, Enyi; Deng, Feng; Wei, Shicheng

    2015-01-01

    The construction of functional biomimetic scaffolds that recapitulate the topographical and biochemical features of bone tissue extracellular matrix is now of topical interest in bone tissue engineering. In this study, a novel surface-functionalized electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber scaffold with highly ordered structure was developed to simulate the critical features of native bone tissue via a single step of catechol chemistry. Specially, under slightly alkaline aqueous solution, polydopamine (pDA) was coated on the surface of aligned PCL nanofibers after electrospinning, followed by covalent immobilization of bone morphogenetic protein-7-derived peptides onto the pDA-coated nanofiber surface. Contact angle measurement, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of pDA and peptides on PCL nanofiber surface. Our results demonstrated that surface modification with osteoinductive peptides could improve cytocompatibility of nanofibers in terms of cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation. Most importantly, Alizarin Red S staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunostaining, and Western blot revealed that human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on aligned nanofibers with osteoinductive peptides exhibited enhanced osteogenic differentiation potential than cells on randomly oriented nanofibers. Furthermore, the aligned nanofibers with osteoinductive peptides could direct osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells even in the absence of osteoinducting factors, suggesting superior osteogenic efficacy of biomimetic design that combines the advantages of osteoinductive peptide signal and highly ordered nanofibers on cell fate decision. The presented peptide-decorated bone-mimic nanofiber scaffolds hold a promising potential in the context of bone tissue engineering. PMID:26604759

  15. Silicon-coated carbon nanofiber hierarchical nanostructures for improved lithium-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Gerard K.; Maruyama, Benji; Durstock, Michael F.; Burton, David J.; Goswami, Tarun

    Silicon-coated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are a viable method of exploiting silicon's capacity in a battery anode while ameliorating the complications of silicon expansion as it alloys with lithium. Silicon-coated CNFs were fabricated through chemical vapor deposition and deposited onto a carbon fiber mesh. This novel anode material demonstrated a capacity of 954 mAh g -1 in the first cycle, but faded to 766 mAh g -1 after 20 cycles. Structural characterization of the samples before and after cycling was carried out using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results suggest that a portion of the fade may be due to separation of the silicon coating from the CNFs. Enough silicon remains in contact with the conductive network of CNFs to allow a usable reversible capacity that well exceeds that of graphite. An anode of this material can double the capacity of a lithium-ion battery or allow a 14% weight reduction.

  16. The Leidenfrost temperature increase for impacting droplets on carbon-nanofiber surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nair, Hrudya; Staat, Hendrik J J; Tran, Tuan; van Houselt, Arie; Prosperetti, Andrea; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2014-04-07

    Droplets impacting on a superheated surface can either exhibit a contact boiling regime, in which they make direct contact with the surface and boil violently, or a film boiling regime, in which they remain separated from the surface by their own vapor. The transition from the contact to the film boiling regime depends not only on the temperature of the surface and the kinetic energy of the droplet, but also on the size of the structures fabricated on the surface. Here we experimentally show that surfaces covered with carbon-nanofibers delay the transition to film boiling to much higher temperatures compared to smooth surfaces. We present physical arguments showing that, because of the small scale of the carbon fibers, they are cooled by the vapor flow just before the liquid impact, thus permitting contact boiling up to much higher temperatures than on smooth surfaces. We also show that as long as the impact is in the film boiling regime, the spreading factor of impacting droplets is consistent with the We(3/10) scaling (with We being the Weber number) as predicted for large We by a scaling analysis.

  17. Enhanced activity and selectivity of carbon nanofiber supported Pd catalysts for nitrite reduction.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Danmeng; Choe, Jong Kwon; Shapley, John R; Werth, Charles J

    2012-03-06

    Pd-based catalyst treatment represents an emerging technology that shows promise to remove nitrate and nitrite from drinking water. In this work we use vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (CNF) supports in order to explore the effects of Pd nanoparticle size and interior versus exterior loading on nitrite reduction activity and selectivity (i.e., dinitrogen over ammonia production). Results show that nitrite reduction activity increases by 3.1-fold and selectivity decreases by 8.0-fold, with decreasing Pd nanoparticle size from 1.4 to 9.6 nm. Both activity and selectivity are not significantly influenced by Pd interior versus exterior CNF loading. Consequently, turnover frequencies (TOFs) among all CNF catalysts are similar, suggesting nitrite reduction is not sensitive to Pd location on CNFs nor Pd structure. CNF-based catalysts compare favorably to conventional Pd catalysts (i.e., Pd on activated carbon or alumina) with respect to nitrite reduction activity and selectivity, and they maintain activity over multiple reduction cycles. Hence, our results suggest new insights that an optimum Pd nanoparticle size on CNFs balances faster kinetics with lower ammonia production, that catalysts can be tailored at the nanoscale to improve catalytic performance for nitrite, and that CNFs hold promise as highly effective catalyst supports in drinking water treatment.

  18. Electrochemical Protease Biosensor Based on Enhanced AC Voltammetry Using Carbon Nanofiber Nanoelectrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Swisher, Luxi Z.; Syed, Lateef U.; Prior, Allan M.; Madiyar, Foram R.; Carlson, Kyle R.; Nguyen, Thu A.; Hua, Duy H.; Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    We report an electrochemical method for measuring the activity of proteases using nanoelectrode arrays (NEAs) fabricated with vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs). The VACNFs of ~150 nm in diameter and 3 to 5 μm in length were grown on conductive substrates and encapsulated in SiO2 matrix. After polishing and plasma etching, controlled VACNF tips are exposed to form an embedded VACNF NEA. Two types of tetrapeptides specific to cancer-mediated proteases legumain and cathepsin B are covalently attached to the exposed VACNF tip, with a ferrocene (Fc) moiety linked at the distal end. The redox signal of Fc can be measured with AC voltammetry (ACV) at ~1 kHz frequency on VACNF NEAs, showing distinct properties from macroscopic glassy carbon electrodes due to VACNF’s unique interior structure. The enhanced ACV properties enable the kinetic measurements of proteolytic cleavage of the surface-attached tetrapeptides by proteases, further validated with a fluorescence assay. The data can be analyzed with a heterogeneous Michaelis-Menten model, giving “specificity constant” kcat/Km as (4.3 ± 0.8) × 104 M−1s−1 for cathepsin B and (1.13 ± 0.38) × 104 M−1s−1 for legumain. This method could be developed as portable multiplex electronic techniques for rapid cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring. PMID:23814632

  19. Influence of nitrogen doping on oxygen reduction electrocatalysis at carbon nanofiber electrodes.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Stephen; Stevenson, Keith J

    2005-03-17

    Nondoped and nitrogen-doped (N-doped) carbon nanofiber (CNF) electrodes were prepared via a floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method using precursors consisting of ferrocene and either xylene or pyridine to control the nitrogen content. Structural and compositional differences between the nondoped and N-doped varieties were assessed using TEM, BET, Raman, TGA, and XPS. Electrochemical methods were used to study the influence of nitrogen doping on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The N-doped CNF electrodes demonstrate significant catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction in aqueous KNO(3) solutions at neutral to basic pH. Electrochemical data are presented which indicate that the ORR proceeds by the peroxide pathway via two successive two-electron reductions. However, for N-doped CNF electrodes, the reduction process can be treated as a catalytic regenerative process where the intermediate hydroperoxide (HO(2)(-)) is chemically decomposed to regenerate oxygen, 2HO(2)(-) <==> O(2) + 2OH(-). The proposed electrocatalysis mechanisms for ORR at both nondoped and N-doped varieties are supported by electrochemical simulations and by measured difference in hydroperoxide decomposition rate constants. Remarkably, approximately 100 fold enhancement for hydroperoxide decomposition is observed for N-doped CNFs, with rates comparable to the best known peroxide decomposition catalysts. Collectively the data indicate that exposed edge plane defects and nitrogen doping are important factors for influencing adsorption of reactive intermediates (i.e., superoxide, hydroperoxide) and for enhancing electrocatalysis for the ORR at nanostructured carbon electrodes.

  20. Localized surface grafting reactions on carbon nanofibers induced by gamma and e-beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evora, M. C.; Araujo, J. R.; Ferreira, E. H. M.; Strohmeier, B. R.; Silva, L. G. A.; Achete, C. A.

    2015-04-01

    Electron beam and gamma-ray irradiation have potential application to modify the carbon fiber nanostructures in order to produce useful defects in the graphitic structure and create reactive sites. In this study, the methodology to functionalize carbon nanofiber (CNF), via a radiation process and using acrylic acid as a source of oxygen functional groups, was investigated. The samples were submitted to a direct grafting radiation process with electron beam and gamma-ray source. Several parameters were changed such as: acrylic acid concentration, radiation dose and percentage of inhibitor necessary to achieve functionalization, with higher percentage of oxygen functional groups on CNF surface, and better dispersion. The better results achieved were when mixing CNF in a solution of acrylic acid with 6% of inhibitor (FeSO4·7H2O) and irradiated at 100 kGy. The samples were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the surface composition (atomic%) showed a significant increase of oxygen content for the samples after irradiation. Also, the dispersion of the functionalized CNF in water was stable during months which may be a good indication that the functionalization process of CNF via ionizing radiation was successful.

  1. Vanadium nitride quantum dot/nitrogen-doped microporous carbon nanofibers electrode for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yage; Ran, Fen

    2017-03-01

    In this article, vanadium nitride quantum dot/nitrogen-doped microporous carbon nanofibers (VNQD/CNF) is developed by a method of combination of electrostatic spinning and high-temperature calcination under the atmosphere of NH3: N2 = 3: 2 for high performance supercapacitors. VNQD dispersing into CNF, enrichment of N atom doped in carbon bulk, and abundant porous structure not only prevent the growth and aggregation of VN nanoparticles, improve electrical conductivity, wettability, and stability of the electrode materials, but also enhance fast migration of electrolyte ions during the electrochemical process. Thus, VNQD/CNF exhibits a high specific capacitance of 406.5 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and a good rate capability with a capacitance retention of 75.1% at 5.0 A g-1. Additionally, VNQD/CNF as a negative electrode are combined with Ni(OH)2 as a positive electrode to fabricate the hybrid supercapacitor of VNQD/CNF//Ni(OH)2. Remarkably, at a power density of 774.6 W kg-1, the supercapacitor device delivers an ultrahigh energy density of 31.2 Wh kg-1.

  2. Carbon Nanofibers and Their Composites: A Review of Synthesizing, Properties and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lichao; Xie, Ning; Zhong, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF), as one of the most important members of carbon fibers, has been investigated in both fundamental scientific research and practical applications. CNF composites are able to be applied as promising materials in many fields, such as electrical devices, electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors and as sensors. In these applications, the electrical conductivity is always the first priority need to be considered. In fact, the electrical property of CNF composites largely counts on the dispersion and percolation status of CNFs in matrix materials. In this review, the electrical transport phenomenon of CNF composites is systematically summarized based on percolation theory. The effects of the aspect ratio, percolation backbone structure and fractal characteristics of CNFs and the non-universality of the percolation critical exponents on the electrical properties are systematically reviewed. Apart from the electrical property, the thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of CNF composites are briefly reviewed, as well. In addition, the preparation methods of CNFs, including catalytic chemical vapor deposition growth and electrospinning, and the preparation methods of CNF composites, including the melt mixing and solution process, are briefly introduced. Finally, their applications as sensors and electrode materials are described in this review article. PMID:28788657

  3. Ultrafast Lithium Storage Using Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide Nanoparticles Sandwiched between Carbon Nanofibers and a Carbon Skin.

    PubMed

    An, Geon-Hyoung; Lee, Do-Young; Lee, Yu-Jin; Ahn, Hyo-Jin

    2016-11-09

    Metal oxides as anode materials for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) are of significant interest to many potential technologies because of their high theoretical capacity value, low price, and environmentally friendly features. In spite of these considerable benefits and ongoing progress in the field, momentous challenges exist, related with structural disintegration due to volume expansion of electrode materials. This leads to rapid capacity decline and must be resolved in order to progress for realistic utilization of LIBs with ultrafast cycling stability. This article proposes a novel architecture of Sb-doped SnO2 nanoparticles sandwiched between carbon nanofiber and carbon skin (CNF/ATO/C) using electrospinning and hydrothermal methods. The CNF/ATO/C exhibits superb electrochemical behavior such as high specific capacity and outstanding cycling stability (705 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles), outstanding high-rate performance (411 mA h g(-1) at 2000 mA g(-1)), and ultrafast cycling stability (347 mA h g(-1) at 2000 mA g(-1) after 100 cycles), which is high compared to any reported value using SnO2-based anode materials. Thus, this unique architecture furnishes profitable effects, including electroactive sites, structural stability, and electrical conductivity, which can potentially be realizes for ultrafast LIBs.

  4. Occupational Exposure Assessment in Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Primary and Secondary Manufacturers

    PubMed Central

    DAHM, MATTHEW M.; EVANS, DOUGLAS E.; SCHUBAUER-BERIGAN, MARY K.; BIRCH, M. EILEEN; FERNBACK, JOSEPH E.

    2015-01-01

    Research Significance Toxicological evidence suggests the potential for a wide range of health effects, which could result from exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs). The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has proposed a recommended exposure limit (REL) for CNTs/CNFs at the respirable size fraction. The current literature is lacking exposure information, with few studies reporting results for personal breathing zone (PBZ) samples in occupational settings. To address this gap, exposure assessments were conducted at six representative sites identified as CNT/CNF primary or secondary manufacturers. Methods Personal and area filter-based samples were collected for both the inhalable mass concentration and the respirable mass concentration of elemental carbon (EC) as well as CNT structure count analysis by transmission electron microscopy to assess exposures. When possible, full-shift PBZ samples were collected; area samples were collected on a task-based approach. Results The vast majority of samples collected in this study were below the proposed REL (7 μg m−3). Two of the three secondary manufacturers’ surveyed found concentrations above the proposed REL. None of the samples collected at primary manufacturers were found to be above the REL. Visual and microscopy-based evidence of CNTs/CNFs were found at all sites, with the highest CNT/CNF structure counts being found in samples collected at secondary manufacturing sites. The statistical correlations between the filter-based samples for the mass concentration of EC and CNT structure counts were examined. A general trend was found with a P-value of 0.01 and a corresponding Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.44. Conclusions CNT/CNF concentrations were above the proposed NIOSH REL for PBZ samples in two secondary manufacturing facilities that use these materials for commercial applications. These samples were collected during dry powder handling processes, such

  5. Effects of vapor grown carbon nanofibers on electrical and mechanical properties of a thermoplastic elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basaldua, Daniel Thomas

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF) reinforced composites are exceptional materials that exhibit superior properties compared to conventional composites. This paper presents the development of a vapor grown carbon nanofiber (VGCNF) thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composite by a melt mixing process. Dispersion and distribution of CNFs inside the TPU matrix were examined through scanning electron microscopy to determine homogeneity. The composite material underwent durometer, thermal gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, heat transfer, hysteresis, dynamic modulus, creep, tensile, abrasion, and electrical conductivity testing to characterize its properties and predict behavior. The motivation for this research is to develop an elastomer pad that is an electrically conductive alternative to the elastomer pads currently used in railroad service. The material had to be a completely homogenous electrically conductive CNF composite that could withstand a harsh dynamically loaded environment. The new material meets mechanical and conductive requirements for use as an elastomer pad in a rail suspension.

  6. Controllable synthesis of helical, straight, hollow and nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers and their magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xun; Xu, Zheng

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The helical, straight and hollow carbon nanofibers can be selectively synthesized by adjusting either the reaction temperature or feed gas composition. Display Omitted Highlights: ► CNFs were synthesized via pyrolysis of acetylene on copper NPs. ► The helical, straight, hollow and N-doped CNFs can be selectively synthesized. ► The growth mechanism of different types of CNFs was proposed. -- Abstract: Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with various morphologies were synthesized by catalytic pyrolysis of acetylene on copper nanoparticles which were generated from the in situ decomposition of copper acetylacetonate. The morphology of the pristine and acid-washed CNFs was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. Helical, straight and hollow CNFs can be selectively synthesized by adjusting either the reaction temperature or feed gas composition. The growth mechanism for these three types of CNFs was proposed.

  7. Vertically aligned carbon nanofiber as nano-neuron interface for monitoring neural function

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, Milton Nance; McKnight, Timothy E; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich; Simpson, Michael L; Morrison, Barclay; Yu, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Neural chips, which are capable of simultaneous, multi-site neural recording and stimulation, have been used to detect and modulate neural activity for almost 30 years. As a neural interface, neural chips provide dynamic functional information for neural decoding and neural control. By improving sensitivity and spatial resolution, nano-scale electrodes may revolutionize neural detection and modulation at cellular and molecular levels as nano-neuron interfaces. We developed a carbon-nanofiber neural chip with lithographically defined arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanofiber electrodes and demonstrated its capability of both stimulating and monitoring electrophysiological signals from brain tissues in vitro and monitoring dynamic information of neuroplasticity. This novel nano-neuron interface can potentially serve as a precise, informative, biocompatible, and dual-mode neural interface for monitoring of both neuroelectrical and neurochemical activity at the single cell level and even inside the cell.

  8. Preparation of flexible zinc oxide/carbon nanofiber webs for mid-temperature desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soojung; Bajaj, Bharat; Byun, Chang Ki; Kwon, Soon-Jin; Joh, Han-Ik; Yi, Kwang Bok; Lee, Sungho

    2014-11-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) derived carbon nanofiber (CNF) webs loaded with zinc oxide (ZnO) were synthesized using electrospinning and heat treatment at 600 °C. Uniformly dispersed ZnO nanoparticles, clarified by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, were observed on the surface of the nanofiber composites containing 13.6-29.5 wt% of ZnO. The further addition of ZnO up to 34.2 wt% caused agglomeration with a size of 50-80 nm. Higher ZnO contents led the concentrated ZnO nanoparticles on the surface of the nanofibers rather than uniform dispersion along the cross-section of the fiber. The flexible composite webs were crushed and tested for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) adsorption at 300 °C. Breakthrough experiments with the ZnO/CNF composite containing 25.7 wt% of ZnO for H2S adsorption showed three times higher ZnO utilization efficiency compared to pure ZnO nano powders, attributed to chemisorption of the larger surface area of well dispersed ZnO particles on nanofibers and physical adsorption of CNF.

  9. Self-floating graphitic carbon nitride/zinc phthalocyanine nanofibers for photocatalytic degradation of contaminants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tiefeng; Ni, Dongjing; Chen, Xia; Wu, Fei; Ge, Pengfei; Lu, Wangyang; Hu, Hongguang; Zhu, ZheXin; Chen, Wenxing

    2016-11-05

    The effective elimination of micropollutants by an environmentally friendly method has received extensive attention recently. In this study, a photocatalyst based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-supported graphitic carbon nitride coupled with zinc phthalocyanine nanofibers (g-C3N4/ZnTcPc/PAN nanofibers) was successfully prepared, where g-C3N4/ZnTcPc was introduced as the catalytic entity and the PAN nanofibers were employed as support to overcome the defects of easy aggregation and difficult recycling. Herein, rhodamine B (RhB), 4-chlorophenol and carbamazepine (CBZ) were selected as the model pollutants. Compared with the typical hydroxyl radical-dominated catalytic system, g-C3N4/ZnTcPc/PAN nanofibers displayed the targeted adsorption and degradation of contaminants under visible light or solar irradiation in the presence of high additive concentrations. According to the results of the radical scavenging techniques and the electron paramagnetic resonance technology, the degradation of target substrates was achieved by the attack of active species, including photogenerated hole, singlet oxygen, superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radicals. Based on the results of ultra-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, the role of free radicals on the photocatalytic degradation intermediates was identified and the final photocatalytic degradation products of both RhB and CBZ were some biodegradable small molecules.

  10. From Chromonic Self-Assembly to Hollow Carbon Nanofibers: Efficient Materials in Supercapacitor and Vapor-Sensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Magana, J Rodrigo; Kolen'ko, Yury V; Deepak, Francis Leonard; Solans, Conxita; Shrestha, Rekha Goswami; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Rodriguez-Abreu, Carlos

    2016-11-16

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with high surface area (820 m(2)/g) have been successfully prepared by a nanocasting approach using silica nanofibers obtained from chromonic liquid crystals as a template. CNFs with randomly oriented graphitic layers show outstanding electrochemical supercapacitance performance, exhibiting a specific capacitance of 327 F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s with a long life-cycling capability. Approximately 95% capacitance retention is observed after 1000 charge-discharge cycles. Furthermore, about 80% of capacitance is retained at higher scan rates (up to 500 mV/s) and current densities (from 1 to 10 A/g). The high capacitance of CNFs comes from their porous structure, high pore volume, and electrolyte-accessible high surface area. CNFs with ordered graphitic layers were also obtained upon heat treatment at high temperatures (>1500 °C). Although it is expected that these graphitic CNFs have increased electrical conductivity, in the present case, they exhibited lower capacitance values due to a loss in surface area during thermal treatment. High-surface-area CNFs can be used in sensing applications; in particular, they showed selective differential adsorption of volatile organic compounds such as pyridine and toluene. This behavior is attributed to the free diffusion of these volatile aromatic molecules into the pores of CNFs accompanied by interactions with sp(2) carbon structures and other chemical groups on the surface of the fibers.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanofibers by catalytic chemical vapor deposition using non-ferromagnetic metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Su, Chi-Jung; Yuan, Wei-Li; Lai, Tzu-Wei; Lei, Chien-Ming

    2014-06-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have wide applications in energy storage devices, electrically conducting composites, selective adsorbents, and catalyst supports. Catalytic chemical vapor deposition was carried out in this work to synthesize CNFs at mild temperatures of 700 and 800 degrees C. Non-ferromagnetic metal complexes of La, Nb, and Ti, spread on porous NaX-type zeolite support, were tested as new catalyst. CNFs ranging from 30 to 200 nm in diameter were obtained. Images of transmission electron microscopy showed encapsulated transition-metal nanoparticles by CNFs. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed the crystalline structures of La (FCC), Nb (BCC), and Ti (HCP) formed over zeolite. Magnetic hysteresis loops showed superconductivity from the CNF-encapsulated Nb at 2 K. Raman spectra showed that all the samples possessed graphitic and amorphous carbon structures. Based on the SEM images and Raman spectra, the three metals all catalyzed the synthesis of CNFs.

  12. Electrical conductivity of polyvinylidene fluoride nanocomposites with carbon nanotubes and nanofibers.

    PubMed

    He, Linxiang; Tjong, Sie Chin

    2011-12-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride nanocomposites with low loading levels of pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes, carboxyl functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes and vapor grown carbon nanofibers were prepared by a versatile coagulation method. The alternating current electrical conductivity of these composites in the frequency range of 40-12 MHz was investigated. The alternating current conductivity of percolating nanocomposites followed a universal dynamic response. Therefore, both the direct current plateau and frequency dependent regime were observed. The percolation threshold of three composite systems was determined to be 1.0, 0.98, and 1.46 vol.%, respectively. Moreover, the percolative nanocomposites exhibited nonlinear current-voltage responses, demonstrating the presence of tunneling conduction.

  13. Impedance of Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystals with Carbon Nanofibers in Weak Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, K. R.; Romanenko, A. I.; Zharkova, G. M.; Podyacheva, O. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    Impedance of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals modified by carbon nanofibers is studied in fields lower than the threshold field of the director reorientation of a liquid crystal. It is shown that the real and imaginary parts of the impedance obey to the relationship (Zre - X0)2 + (Zim - Y0)2 = R 0 2 , where X0, Y0, and R0 are the fitting parameters depending on the frequency of the exciting electric field.

  14. Deposition precipitation for the preparation of carbon nanofiber supported nickel catalysts.

    PubMed

    van der Lee, Martijn K; van Dillen, A Jos; Bitter, Johannes H; de Jong, Krijn P

    2005-10-05

    Deposition precipitation of nickel hydroxide onto modified carbon nanofibers has been studied and compared to deposition onto silica. The carbon nanofiber support materials consisted of graphite-like material of the fishbone-type with a diameter of 20-50 nm and a specific surface area of 150 m2/g. Modification involved surface oxidation (CNF-O) optionally followed by partial reduction (CNF-OR) or thermal treatment (CNF-OT). Titration of the support materials showed the presence of 0.17 and 0.03 mmol/g carboxylic acid groups for CNF-O and CNF-OR, respectively. For the CNF-OT only basic groups were present. The deposition precipitation of 20 wt % nickel onto these supports has been studied by time dependent pH and nickel loading studies. With silica, nickel ion adsorption did not occur prior to nucleation of the nickel hydroxide phase at pH = 5.6. With CNF-O, nickel ion adsorption took place right from the start of the deposition process at pH = 3.5, and at pH = 5.6 already 4 wt % nickel was adsorbed. Nucleation of nickel hydroxide onto adsorbed nickel ion clusters proceeded subsequently. Characterization of the dried Ni/CNF-O samples with TEM and XRD showed well dispersed and thin (5 nm) platelets of nickel hydroxide adhering to the carbon nanofibers. After reduction at 773 K in hydrogen the Ni/CNF-O contained metallic nickel particles of 8 nm homogeneously distributed over the fibers. With CNF-OR and CNF-OT, precipitation of large platelets (> 500 nm) separate from the support took place. Clearly, the presence of carboxylic acid groups is essential to successfully deposit nickel hydroxide onto modified carbon nanofibers.

  15. A three-dimensionally chitin nanofiber/carbon nanotube hydrogel network for foldable conductive paper.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuchu; Yang, Chuang; Li, Suiyi; Li, Dagang

    2015-12-10

    We reported a highly conductive nanocomposite made with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and chitin nanofibers (ChNFs). The MWCNTs were dispersed into ChNFs by the simple process of vacuum-filtration, forming a three-dimensional network structure. In this approach, MWCNT acted as a filler to introduce electron channel paths throughout the ChNF skeleton. And then, a hybrid hydrogel system (20 wt.% NaOH, -18 °C) was applied to prepare the ChNF/MWCNT gel-film followed with drying process. It is found that the resultant ChNF/MWCNT gel-film exposed much more MWCNT areas forming denser structure due to the shrinking of ChNFs after the gelation treatment. Compared with ChNF/MWCNT film, the one treated under hydrogel system (ChNF/MWCNT gel-film) exhibited almost twice higher conductivity (9.3S/cm for 50 wt.% MWCNTs in gel-film; whereas 4.7S/cm for 50 wt.% MWCNTs in film). Moreover, the facile and low-cost of this conductive paper may have great potential in development of foldable electronic devices.

  16. Nanofiber scaffolds influence organelle structure and function in bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Tutak, Wojtek; Jyotsnendu, Giri; Bajcsy, Peter; Simon, Carl G

    2017-07-01

    Recent work demonstrates that osteoprogenitor cell culture on nanofiber scaffolds can promote differentiation. This response may be driven by changes in cell morphology caused by the three-dimensional (3D) structure of nanofibers. We hypothesized that nanofiber effects on cell behavior may be mediated by changes in organelle structure and function. To test this hypothesis, human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) were cultured on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers scaffolds and on PCL flat spuncoat films. After 1 day-culture, hBMSCs were stained for actin, nucleus, mitochondria, and peroxisomes, and then imaged using 3D confocal microscopy. Imaging revealed that the hBMSC cell body (actin) and peroxisomal volume were reduced during culture on nanofibers. In addition, the nucleus and peroxisomes occupied a larger fraction of cell volume during culture on nanofibers than on films, suggesting enhancement of the nuclear and peroxisomal functional capacity. Organelles adopted morphologies with greater 3D-character on nanofibers, where the Z-Depth (a measure of cell thickness) was increased. Comparisons of organelle positions indicated that the nucleus, mitochondria, and peroxisomes were closer to the cell center (actin) for nanofibers, suggesting that nanofiber culture induced active organelle positioning. The smaller cell volume and more centralized organelle positioning would reduce the energy cost of inter-organelle vesicular transport during culture on nanofibers. Finally, hBMSC bioassay measurements (DNA, peroxidase, bioreductive potential, lactate, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)) indicated that peroxidase activity may be enhanced during nanofiber culture. These results demonstrate that culture of hBMSCs on nanofibers caused changes in organelle structure and positioning, which may affect organelle functional capacity and transport. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl

  17. Effects of Thickness and Amount of Carbon Nanofiber Coated Carbon Fiber on Improving the Mechanical Properties of Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Ghaemi, Ferial; Ahmadian, Ali; Yunus, Robiah; Ismail, Fudziah; Rahmanian, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were grown on a carbon fiber (CF) surface by using the chemical vapor deposition method (CVD) and the influences of some parameters of the CVD method on improving the mechanical properties of a polypropylene (PP) composite were investigated. To obtain an optimum surface area, thickness, and yield of the CNFs, the parameters of the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, such as catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, and hydrocarbon flow rate, were optimized. It was observed that the optimal surface area, thickness, and yield of the CNFs caused more adhesion of the fibers with the PP matrix, which enhanced the composite properties. Besides this, the effectiveness of reinforcement of fillers was fitted with a mathematical model obtaining good agreement between the experimental result and the theoretical prediction. By applying scanning electronic microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and Raman spectroscopy, the surface morphology and structural information of the resultant CF-CNF were analyzed. Additionally, SEM images and a mechanical test of the composite with a proper layer of CNFs on the CF revealed not only a compactness effect but also the thickness and surface area roles of the CNF layers in improving the mechanical properties of the composites. PMID:28344263

  18. Label-Free Detection of Cardiac Troponin-I Using Carbon Nanofiber Based Nanoelectrode Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Periyakaruppan, Adaikkappan; Koehne, Jessica Erin; Gandhiraman, Ram P.; Meyyappan, M.

    2013-01-01

    A sensor platform based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) has been developed. Their inherent nanometer scale, high conductivity, wide potential window, good biocompatibility and well-defined surface chemistry make them ideal candidates as biosensor electrodes. A carbon nanofiber (CNF) multiplexed array has been fabricated with 9 sensing pads, each containing 40,000 carbon nanofibers as nanoelectrodes. Here, we report the use of vertically aligned CNF nanoelectrodes for the detection of cardiac Troponin-I for the early diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Antibody, antitroponin, probe immobilization and subsequent binding to human cardiac troponin-I were characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry techniques. Each step of the modification process resulted in changes in electrical capacitance or resistance to charge transfer due to the changes at the electrode surface upon antibody immobilization and binding to the specific antigen. This sensor demonstrates high sensitivity, down to 0.2 ng/mL, and good selectivity making this platform a good candidate for early stage diagnosis of myocardial infarction.

  19. Hierarchical Structure on Nanofiber via Combination of Electrospinning and Polymer Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Wang, Bingbing; Shah, Rucha; Li, Christopher

    2009-03-01

    We report the formation of hierarchically ordered polymer nanofiber structures, named as nano fiber shish kebabs (NFSKs), by combining electrospinning and controlled polymer crystallization methods. both poly caprolactone (PCL) and poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) nanofibers were produced by electrospinning. These polymer nanofibers served as the shish and a secondary polymer (block copolymer) was decorated on the nanofiber in the form of single crystal lamellae by either an incubation (slow crystallization), or a solvent evaporation (fast crystallization) method. The structural parameters of the NSFK such as the fiber diameter, periods, the kebab size etc., were readily controlled by changing the electrospinning and crystallization conditions. This hierarchical architecture is of great technological interest because it provides a platform for incorporating different functionalities into nanoscale polymer fibers in an ordered fashion.

  20. Aligned PVDF-TrFE nanofibers with high-density PVDF nanofibers and PVDF core–shell structures for endovascular pressure sensing.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Tushar; Naik, Sahil; Langevine, Jewel; Gill, Brijesh; Zhang, John X J

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructures of polyvinyledenedifluoride-tetrafluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE), a semicrystalline polymer with high piezoelectricity, results in significant enhancement of crystallinity and better device performance as sensors, actuators, and energy harvesters. Using electrospinning of PVDF to manufacture nanofibers, we demonstrate a new method to pattern high-density, highly aligned nanofibers. To further boost the charge transfer from such a bundle of nanofibers, we fabricated novel core-shell structures. Finally, we developed pressure sensors utilizing these fiber structures for endovascular applications. The sensors were tested in vitro under simulated physiological conditions. We observed significant improvements using core-shell electrospun fibers (4.5 times gain in signal intensity, 4000 μV/mmHg sensitivity) over PVDF nanofibers (280 μV/mmHg). The preliminary results showed that core-shell fiber-based devices exhibit nearly 40-fold higher sensitivity, compared to the thin-film structures demonstrated earlier.

  1. Facile electrospinning preparation of phosphorus and nitrogen dual-doped cobalt-based carbon nanofibers as bifunctional electrocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhuang; Zuo, Pengjian; Fan, Liquan; Han, Jianan; Xiong, Yueping; Yin, Geping

    2016-04-01

    A novel electrochemical catalyst of phosphorus and nitrogen dual-doped cobalt-based carbon nanofibers (Cosbnd Nsbnd P-CNFs) is prepared by a facile and cost-effective electrospinning technique. Excellent features of the porous carbon nanofibers with large amounts of Co atoms, N/P-doping effect, abundant pyridinic-N and Cosbnd Nx clusters as catalytic active sites, and the advantages of the structure and composition result in a high catalytic efficiency. In alkaline or acidic media, Cosbnd Nsbnd P-CNFs exhibits remarkable electrocatalytic activities and kinetics for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), superior methanol tolerance and stability, and a similar four-electron pathway. In addition, Cosbnd Nsbnd P-CNFs also shows excellent performance for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), offering a low onset potential of -0.216 V and a stable current density of 10 mA cm-2 at potential of -0.248 V. The mechanism of ORR and HER catalytic active site arises from the doping of N/P atoms in the Co-based CNFs, which is responsible for the excellent electrocatalytic performance. Due to the excellent catalytic efficiencies, Cosbnd Nsbnd P-CNFs act as a promising catalyst material for fuel cells and water splitting technologies.

  2. In situ encapsulation of germanium clusters in carbon nanofibers: high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Xiao, Ying; Wang, Xia; Liu, Bing; Cao, Minhua

    2014-10-01

    Alloyed anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) usually suffer from considerable capacity losses during charge-discharge process. Herein, in situ-grown germanium clusters are homogeneously encapsulated into porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (N-CNFs) to form Ge/N-CNFs hybrids, using a facile electrospinning method followed by thermal treatment. When used as anode in LIBs, the Ge/N-CNFs hybrids exhibit excellent lithium storage performance in terms of specific capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability. The excellent electrochemical properties can be attributed to the unique structural features: the distribution of the germanium clusters, porous carbon nanofibers, and GeN chemical bonds all contribute to alleviating the large volume changes of germanium during the discharge-charge process, while at same time the unique porous N-CNFs not only increase the contact area between the electrode and the electrolyte, but also the conductivity of the hybrid. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Flexible copper-stabilized sulfur-carbon nanofibers with excellent electrochemical performance for Li-S batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Linchao; Jiang, Yu; Xu, Jun; Wang, Min; Li, Weihan; Yu, Yan

    2015-06-01

    By rational design, we fabricated a flexible and free-standing copper-immobilized sulfur-porous carbon nanofiber (denoted as S@PCNFs-Cu) electrode by simply impregnating sulfur into electrospun derived Cu embedded porous carbon nanofibers (PCNFs-Cu). The PCNF film with a 3D interconnected structure is used as a conducting matrix to encapsulate sulfur. In addition, the introduction of Cu leads to the formation of a chemical bond between Cu and S, preventing the dissolution of polysulfide during cycling. The micropores and mesopores of PCNF hosts provide free space to accommodate the volume change of S and polysulfide. When used as a cathode material for Li-S batteries, the S@PCNFs-Cu (S content: 52 wt%) exhibits much better electrochemical performance compared to the Cu-free S@PCNF electrode. The S@PCNFs-Cu displays high reversible capacity (680 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at 50 mA g-1), excellent rate capability (415 mA h g-1 at 1 A g-1) and super Coulombic efficiency of 100%. This strategy of stabilizing S with a small amount of copper nanoparticles can be a very promising method to prepare free-standing cathode material for high-performance Li-S batteries.

  4. Flexible copper-stabilized sulfur-carbon nanofibers with excellent electrochemical performance for Li-S batteries.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Linchao; Jiang, Yu; Xu, Jun; Wang, Min; Li, Weihan; Yu, Yan

    2015-07-07

    By rational design, we fabricated a flexible and free-standing copper-immobilized sulfur-porous carbon nanofiber (denoted as S@PCNFs-Cu) electrode by simply impregnating sulfur into electrospun derived Cu embedded porous carbon nanofibers (PCNFs-Cu). The PCNF film with a 3D interconnected structure is used as a conducting matrix to encapsulate sulfur. In addition, the introduction of Cu leads to the formation of a chemical bond between Cu and S, preventing the dissolution of polysulfide during cycling. The micropores and mesopores of PCNF hosts provide free space to accommodate the volume change of S and polysulfide. When used as a cathode material for Li-S batteries, the S@PCNFs-Cu (S content: 52 wt%) exhibits much better electrochemical performance compared to the Cu-free S@PCNF electrode. The S@PCNFs-Cu displays high reversible capacity (680 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles at 50 mA g(-1)), excellent rate capability (415 mA h g(-1) at 1 A g(-1)) and super Coulombic efficiency of 100%. This strategy of stabilizing S with a small amount of copper nanoparticles can be a very promising method to prepare free-standing cathode material for high-performance Li-S batteries.

  5. Polyaniline/carbon nanofiber and organic charge transfer complex based composite electrode for electroanalytical urea detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Gautam; Yoon, Hyon Hee

    2015-06-01

    A composite electrode based on polyaniline coated modified carbon nanofiber (PANI-mCNF), tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) and urease (Ur) enzyme was evaluated as biosensor for urea detection. Homogeneous coating of PANI on the surface of mCNF was achieved by oxidative polymerization of anilium ion. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were used to analyze the structural and morphological characteristics of PANI-mCNF nanocomposite. The biosensor showed excellent electroactivity in neutral and basic medium. A linear response to urea in the concentration range of 0.5-8.4 mM with a correlation coefficient of 0.998, good sensitivity (2.84 µA cm-2 mM-1) and a fast response time (ca. 4 s) was obtained for the biosensor. The minimum detection limit was found to be 3 µM. The biosensor was stable and showed minimal loss in sensitivity, even after two months of storage. The amalgamation of the PANI and CNF synergistically enhances the performance of the biosensor for electroanalytical detection of urea.

  6. Hierarchically mesoporous CuO/carbon nanofiber coaxial shell-core nanowires for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seok-Hwan; Lee, Wan-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Hierarchically mesoporous CuO/carbon nanofiber coaxial shell-core nanowires (CuO/CNF) as anodes for lithium ion batteries were prepared by coating the Cu2(NO3)(OH)3 on the surface of conductive and elastic CNF via electrophoretic deposition (EPD), followed by thermal treatment in air. The CuO shell stacked with nanoparticles grows radially toward the CNF core, which forms hierarchically mesoporous three-dimensional (3D) coaxial shell-core structure with abundant inner spaces in nanoparticle-stacked CuO shell. The CuO shells with abundant inner spaces on the surface of CNF and high conductivity of 1D CNF increase mainly electrochemical rate capability. The CNF core with elasticity plays an important role in strongly suppressing radial volume expansion by inelastic CuO shell by offering the buffering effect. The CuO/CNF nanowires deliver an initial capacity of 1150 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1 and maintain a high reversible capacity of 772 mAh g-1 without showing obvious decay after 50 cycles.

  7. Fabrication of uniform graphene discs via transversal cutting of carbon nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Long, Donghui; Hong, Jin-Yong; Li, Wei; Miyawaki, Jin; Ling, Licheng; Mochida, Isao; Yoon, Seong-Ho; Jang, Jyongsik

    2011-08-23

    The graphene discs with well-defined shape are successfully fabricated using a simple oxidation and exfoliation process of high-crystalline carbon nanofibers (CNFs). To control the shapes of graphene discs, two different types of CNFs (platelet and herringbone-type) are used as starting materials. The CNFs are formed by the perpendicular stacking of graphene discs, resulting in free edges on the external surface and ready access to interlay spaces. Interestingly, the diameter and shape of the graphene discs can be controlled by selectively designing the morphology of starting materials and optimizing the cutting method. In addition, a mechanical reduction method for oxidized graphene discs is also proposed in order to combine the high recovery of π-conjugated electronic structure with the solution processability of graphene discs. The reduced graphene discs can be formed without any additives, such as reducing agent, and are highly dispersed in different solvents with a high content of graphene discs. This novel strategy offers great possibility for fabricating various graphene-based nanomaterials with rational nanostructure design. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  8. Hierarchically mesoporous CuO/carbon nanofiber coaxial shell-core nanowires for lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seok-Hwan; Lee, Wan-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchically mesoporous CuO/carbon nanofiber coaxial shell-core nanowires (CuO/CNF) as anodes for lithium ion batteries were prepared by coating the Cu2(NO3)(OH)3 on the surface of conductive and elastic CNF via electrophoretic deposition (EPD), followed by thermal treatment in air. The CuO shell stacked with nanoparticles grows radially toward the CNF core, which forms hierarchically mesoporous three-dimensional (3D) coaxial shell-core structure with abundant inner spaces in nanoparticle-stacked CuO shell. The CuO shells with abundant inner spaces on the surface of CNF and high conductivity of 1D CNF increase mainly electrochemical rate capability. The CNF core with elasticity plays an important role in strongly suppressing radial volume expansion by inelastic CuO shell by offering the buffering effect. The CuO/CNF nanowires deliver an initial capacity of 1150 mAh g−1 at 100 mA g−1 and maintain a high reversible capacity of 772 mAh g−1 without showing obvious decay after 50 cycles. PMID:25944615

  9. Flexible supercapacitors based on low-cost tape casting of high dense carbon nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daraghmeh, Allan; Hussain, Shahzad; Servera, Llorenç; Xuriguera, Elena; Blanes, Mireia; Ramos, Francisco; Cornet, Albert; Cirera, Albert

    2017-02-01

    This experimental study, reports the use of flexible tape casting of dense carbon nanofiber (CNFs) alone and in hybrid structure with MnO2 for supercapacitor applications. Different electrolyte concentrations of potassium hydroxide (KOH) were tested and it was founded that mild concentrated electrolyte, like 9 M KOH, provides higher specific capacitance 38 F g-1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements explain that the solution resistance and the charge transfer resistance is higher for 3 M KOH concentrations and lower for 6 M KOH concentrations. Afterwards a novel, fast and simple method is adopted to achieve a hybrid nanostructure of CNFs/MnO2 with various KMnO4 ratios. The hybrid supercapacitor, having loaded a mass of 0.0003 g MnO2 as a thin film, delivers a highest specific capacitance of 812 F g-1 at a scan rate 5 mV s-1. Charge/discharge cycling stability at current density of 7.9 A g-1 demonstrates larger specific capacitance 303 F g-1 and stability. Furthermore, the hybrid supercapacitor can deliver specific energy (72.4 Wh kg-1) at specific power (3.44 kW kg-1). Specific surface area increase from 68 m2 g-1 for CNFs to 240 m2 g-1 for CNFs/MnO2.

  10. Highly flexible NiCo2O4/CNTs doped carbon nanofibers for CO2 adsorption and supercapacitor electrodes.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Nousheen; Wang, Xianfeng; Ahmed Babar, Aijaz; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2016-08-15

    Controllable synthesis of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with hierarchical porosity and high flexibility are extremely desirable for CO2 adsorption and energy storage applications. Herein, we report a nickel cobaltite/carbon nanotubes doped CNFs (NiCo2O4/CNTs CNFs) mesoporous membrane that shows well-developed flexibility, tailored pore structure, hydrophobic character, and high stability. Ascribed to these unique features, NiCo2O4/CNTs CNFs membrane shows high CO2 capture of 1.54mmol/g at 25°C and 1.0bar, and electrochemical measurements for supercapacitors exhibit good performance with specific capacitances of 220F/g (in 1M KOH) at a current density of 1A/g. The successful synthesis of such hybrid membrane provides new insight into development of various multifunctional applications.

  11. Preparation of polyacrylnitrile (PAN)/ Manganese oxide based activated carbon nanofibers (ACNFs) for adsorption of Cadmium (II) from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, N.; Yusof, N.; Jaafar, J.; Ismail, AF; Che Othman, F. E.; Hasbullah, H.; Salleh, W. N. W.; Misdan, N.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, activated carbon nanofibers (ACNFs) from precursor polyacrylnitrile (PAN) and manganese oxide (MnO2) were prepared via electrospinning process. The electrospun PAN/MnO2-based ACNFs were characterised in term of its morphological structure and specific surface area using SEM and BET analysis respectively. The comparative adsorption study of cadmium (II) ions from aqueous solution between the neat ACNFs, composite ACNFs and commercial granular activated carbon was also conducted. SEM analysis illustrated that composite ACNFs have more compact fibers with presence of MnO2 beads with smaller fiber diameter of 437.2 nm as compared to the neat ACNFs which is 575.5 nm. BET analysis elucidated specific surface area of ACNFs/MnO2 to be 67 m2/g. Under adsorption study, it was found out that Cd (II) removal by ACNFs/MnO2 was the highest (97%) followed by neat ACNFs (96%) and GAC (74%).

  12. Exposure and Emissions Monitoring during Carbon Nanofiber Production—Part II: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    BIRCH, M. EILEEN

    2015-01-01

    Production of carbon nanofibers and nanotubes (CNFs/CNTs) and their composite products is increasing globally. High-volume production may increase the exposure risks for workers who handle these materials. Though health effects data for CNFs/CNTs are limited, some studies raise serious health concerns. Given the uncertainty about their potential hazards, there is an immediate need for toxicity data and field studies to assess exposure to CNFs/CNTs. An extensive study was conducted at a facility that manufactures and processes CNFs. Filter, sorbent, cascade impactor, bulk, and microscopy samples, combined with direct-reading instruments, provided complementary information on air contaminants. Samples were analyzed for organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with EC as a measure of CNFs. Transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy also was applied. Fine/ultrafine iron-rich soot, PAHs, and carbon monoxide were production byproducts. Direct-reading instrument results were reported previously [Evans DE et al. (Aerosol monitoring during carbon nanofiber production: mobile direct-reading sampling. Ann Occup Hyg 2010; 54:514–31)]. Results for time-integrated samples are reported as companion papers in this issue. OC and EC, metals, and microscopy results are reported in Part I [Birch ME et al. (Exposure and emissions monitoring during carbon nanofiber production—Part I: elemental carbon and iron–soot aerosols. Ann Occup Hyg 2011; 55: 1016–36.)] whereas results for PAHs are reported here. Naphthalene and acenaphthylene were the dominant PAHs with average concentrations ranging from 115 to 336 μg m−3 and 35 to 84 μg m−3, respectively. Concentrations of other PAHs ranged from ~1 to 10 μg m−3. PMID:21976308

  13. Thermal conductivity measurements on individual vapor-grown carbon nanofibers and graphene nanoplatelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahanta, Nayandeep K.; Abramson, Alexis R.; Howe, Jane Y.

    2013-10-01

    The thermal flash technique was utilized for measuring the thermal conductivity of vapor-grown carbon nanofibers and graphene nanoplatelets. The vapor-grown carbon nanofibers with stacked-cone morphology and heat treated to 1100 °C and 3000 °C were measured to have thermal conductivities of 1130 W/m K and 1715 W/m K, respectively. The physical dimensions of the constitutive cones determining the mean free path due to static phonon scattering were estimated to be ˜128 nm and ˜176 nm for the low and high heat treatment temperatures, respectively. Static scattering lengths shorter than the Umklapp scattering length indicate ballistic transport within individual cones and limit the thermal conductivities of the nanofibers. Additionally, nanoplatelets of few-layer oxygen intercalated graphene and multi-layer reduced graphene exhibited thermal conductivities of 776 W/m K and 2275 W/m K, respectively. The lower thermal conductivity of few-layer (˜3 layers) graphene is attributed to the presence of intercalating oxygen atoms which introduce covalent character to the interlayer interactions, acting as phonon scattering centers and hence reducing the phonon mean free path. The thermal conductivity measured for multi-layer graphene with ˜30-45 layers lies within range of the thermal conductivities previously reported for bulk graphite.

  14. Characterization of carbon nanofiber mats produced from electrospun lignin-g-polyacrylonitrile copolymer.

    PubMed

    Youe, Won-Jae; Lee, Soo-Min; Lee, Sung-Suk; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Yong Sik

    2016-01-01

    The graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) onto methanol-soluble kraft lignin (ML) was achieved through a two-step process in which AN was first polymerized with an α,α'-azobisisobutyronitrile initiator, followed by radical coupling with activated ML. A carbon nanofiber material was obtained by electrospinning a solution of this copolymer in N,N-dimethylformamide, then subjecting it to a heat treatment including thermostabilization at 250°C and subsequent carbonization at 600-1400°C. Increasing the carbonization temperature was found to increase the carbon content of the resulting carbon nanofibers from 70.5 to 97.1%, which had the effect of increasing their tensile strength from 35.2 to 89.4 MPa, their crystallite size from 13.2 to 19.1 nm, and their electrical conductivity from ∼0 to 21.3 Scm(-1). The morphology of the mats, in terms of whether they experienced beading or not, was found to be dependent on the concentration of the initial electrospinning solution. From these results, it is proposed that these mats could provide the basis for a new class of carbon fiber material.

  15. Antitumor Activity of Doxorubicin-Loaded Carbon Nanotubes Incorporated Poly(Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) Electrospun Composite Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yuan; Kong, Lijun; Li, Lan; Li, Naie; Yan, Peng

    2015-08-01

    The drug-loaded composite electrospun nanofiber has attracted more attention in biomedical field, especially in cancer therapy. In this study, a composite nanofiber was fabricated by electrospinning for cancer treatment. Firstly, the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were selected as carriers to load the anticancer drug—doxorubicin (DOX) hydrochloride. Secondly, the DOX-loaded CNTs (DOX@CNTs) were incorporated into the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanofibers via electrospinning. Finally, a new drug-loaded nanofibrous scaffold (PLGA/DOX@CNTs) was formed. The properties of the prepared composite nanofibrous mats were characterized by various techniques. The release profiles of the different DOX-loaded nanofibers were measured, and the in vitro antitumor efficacy against HeLa cells was also evaluated. The results showed that DOX-loaded CNTs can be readily incorporated into the nanofibers with relatively uniform distribution within the nanofibers. More importantly, the drug from the composite nanofibers can be released in a sustained and prolonged manner, and thereby, a significant antitumor efficacy in vitro is obtained. Thus, the prepared composite nanofibrous mats are a promising alternative for cancer treatment.

  16. Aerosynthesis: Growths of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers with Air DC Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kodumagulla, A; Varanasi, V; Pearce, Ryan; Wu, W-C; Hensley, Dale K; Tracy, Joseph B; McKnight, Timothy E; Melechko, Anatoli

    2014-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNF) have been synthesized in a mixture of acetone and air using catalytic DC plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Typically, ammonia or hydrogen is used as etchant gas in the mixture to remove carbon that otherwise passivates the catalyst surface and impedes growth. Our demonstration of using air as the etchant gas opens up a possibility that ion etching could be sufficient to maintain the catalytic activity state during synthesis. It also demonstrates the path toward growing VACNFs in open atmosphere.

  17. Controlling SEI Formation on SnSb-Porous Carbon Nanofibers for Improved Na Ion Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Liwen; Gu, Meng; Shao, Yuyan; Li, Xiaolin; Engelhard, Mark H.; Arey, Bruce W.; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2014-05-14

    Porous carbon nanofiber (CNF)-supported tin-antimony (SnSb) alloys is synthesized and applied as sodium ion battery anode. The chemistry and morphology of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film and its correlation with the electrode performance are studied. The addition of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) in electrolyte significantly reduces electrolyte decomposition and creates a very thin and uniform SEI layer on the cycled electrode surface which could promote the kinetics of Na-ion migration/transportation, leading to excellent electrochemical performance.

  18. Carbon-Confined SnO2-Electrodeposited Porous Carbon Nanofiber Composite as High-Capacity Sodium-Ion Battery Anode Material.

    PubMed

    Dirican, Mahmut; Lu, Yao; Ge, Yeqian; Yildiz, Ozkan; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2015-08-26

    Sodium resources are inexpensive and abundant, and hence, sodium-ion batteries are promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries. However, lower energy density and poor cycling stability of current sodium-ion batteries prevent their practical implementation for future smart power grid and stationary storage applications. Tin oxides (SnO2) can be potentially used as a high-capacity anode material for future sodium-ion batteries, and they have the advantages of high sodium storage capacity, high abundance, and low toxicity. However, SnO2-based anodes still cannot be used in practical sodium-ion batteries because they experience large volume changes during repetitive charge and discharge cycles. Such large volume changes lead to severe pulverization of the active material and loss of electrical contact between the SnO2 and carbon conductor, which in turn result in rapid capacity loss during cycling. Here, we introduce a new amorphous carbon-coated SnO2-electrodeposited porous carbon nanofiber (PCNF@SnO2@C) composite that not only has high sodium storage capability, but also maintains its structural integrity while ongoing repetitive cycles. Electrochemical results revealed that this SnO2-containing nanofiber composite anode had excellent electrochemical performance including high-capacity (374 mAh g(-1)), good capacity retention (82.7%), and large Coulombic efficiency (98.9% after 100th cycle).

  19. Growth of La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} nanofibers under a mild condition by using single walled carbon nanotubes as templates

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Lizhen . E-mail: lizhen@mech.uwa.edu.au; Wang Xiaolin; Chua, H.T.; Kawi, Sibudjing

    2006-07-15

    La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} nanofibers (ca. 30 nm in diameter and 3 {mu}m in length) have been grown in situ by using single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs; ca. 2 nm in inner diameter; made via cracking CH{sub 4} over the catalyst of Mg{sub 0.8}Mo{sub 0.05}Ni{sub 0.10}Co{sub 0.05}O {sub x} at 800 deg. C) as templates under mild hydrothermal conditions and a temperature around 60 deg. C. During synthesis, the surfactant poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were added to disperse SWNTs and oxidize the reactants, respectively. The structure of La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} nanofibers was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and their morphologies were observed with field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) at the hydrothermal synthesis lasting for 5, 20 and 40 h, respectively. The La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} crystals grew from needle-like (5 h) through stick-like (20 h) and finally to plate-like (40 h) fibers. Twenty hours is an optimum reaction time to obtain regular crystal fibers. The La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} nanofibers are probably cubic rather than round and may capsulate SWNTs. - Graphical abstract: La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} nanofibers have been grown in situ by using single walled carbon nanotubes as templates under mild hydrothermal conditions and a temperature around 60 deg. C. The La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} crystals grew from needle-like (5 h) through stick-like (20 h) and finally to plate-like (40 h) fibers. The La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} nanofibers are probably cubic rather than round and may capsulate SWNTs.

  20. Manufacturing carbon nanofiber electrodes with embedded metallic nanoparticles using block copolymers templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazinejad, Maziar; Holmberg, Sunshine; Madou, Marc

    2016-09-01

    Owing to its superb thermal and electrical attributes, as well as electrochemical stability, carbon is emerging as an attractive material for fabrication of many bioelectrochemical devices such as biosensors and biofuel cells. However, carbon's inert nature makes it difficult to functionalize with biocatalysts; often requiring harsh chemical treatment, such as nitric acid oxidation, to attach reactive amines and carboxylic acids to its surface. Recent studies, however, points toward a self-assembly approach for fabricating well organized layers of carbon loaded with arrays of metallic nanoparticles patterned by block-copolymers (BCP) templates. Herein, we demonstrate an effective method for developing carbon nanofibers meshes embedded with metal nanoparticles, by incorporating a BCP self-assembly approach into our C-MEMS fabrication technique. The main phase of this hybrid method includes electrospinning metal salt-loaded BCP into nanofiber meshes, and subsequently reducing the metal salts into metal nanoparticles prior to pyrolysis. This cost-effective process will pave the way for fabricating scalable advanced 3-D carbon electrodes that can be applied to biosensors and biofuel cells devices.

  1. Adsorption energy distribution of carbon tetrachloride on carbon nanofiber arrays prepared by template synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chi-Hsin; Shr, Jin-Fang; Wu, Chu-Fu; Hsieh, Chien-Te

    2008-02-01

    The influence of pore size distribution on adsorption energy distributions (AEDs) of aligned carbon nanofiber (CNF) arrays in vapor phase was conducted in the present study. A template-assisted synthesis was employed to fabricate aligned CNF arrays with different pore size distributions (PSDs). Adsorption isotherms of CCl 4 onto the CNF arrays were investigated within an entire pressure of 0.05-0.18 atm at 30 °C. The adsorptive surface coverage was found to decrease with the average pore size, indicating the presence of heterogeneity for gas adsorption. An AED model was postulated to describe the heterogeneous surface consisting of numerous surface pitchwises that obey a localized Langmuir model. It was found that all CNF arrays exhibit a similar Gaussian-type AED, in where the peak adsorption energy shifts to a higher energy with decreasing the pore size of CNFs. This finding can be ascribed to a fact that micropores are major providers of adsorption sites, whereas in mesopores only weaker adsorption is observed, thus resulting in the shift of energy distribution. An excellent prediction to the adsorption isotherms of CCl 4 by the AED model indicates that the PSD of CNFs acts a crucial factor in affecting the adsorptive coverage.

  2. Metal nanoparticle-directed NiCo2O4 nanostructure growth on carbon nanofibers with high capacitance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Zhu, Jiahua

    2014-08-04

    Metal nanoparticles (Ni, Co) decorated on an electrospun carbon nanofiber surface directed the growth of NiCo2O4 into nanorod and nanosheet morphologies. These metal nanoparticles served as a transition layer to strengthen the interface and promote charge transfer between carbon and NiCo2O4 to achieve a high capacitance of 781 F g(-1).

  3. Structural and magnetic properties of electrospun FeCoNi magnetic nanofibers with nanogranular phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji Hea; Kweon, Soon C.; Kim, Sang Woo

    2012-02-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of silicon/aluminum-added and -free FeCoNi magnetic alloy nanofibers with nanogranular phases prepared by electrospinning and subsequent annealing of the PVP-blended ternary metal precursors in hydrogen atmosphere were investigated. The FeCoNi magnetic alloy nanofibers with evenly distributed nanocrystalline phases were formed, which are identified as γ-Fe1- x Ni x binary phase with face-centered cubic structure and α-CoFe phase with body-centered cubic structure. At elevated temperature, the α → γ structural martensitic transformation in the FeCoNi ternary alloys occurred due to the inhomogeneities in composition of the matrix during annealing of the alloy with metastable α-phase. In the Si/Al-added FeCoNi nanofibers, more than two phases with complicated-boundaries of the grains in and/or outside the nanofibers were formed as crystalline phases and amorphous phase. The amorphous phase consisted of Si and/or Al acted as an inhibitor diminishing α → γ transformation as well as an interparticle insulation layer. At low annealing temperature of 450 °C, the Si/Al-added nanofiber mainly consisted of metastable α-phase with a low-crystallinity surface structure and very small diameter of 13 nm was formed and showed an unexpectedly high coercivity, which attributed to the surface effects and/or high surface/volume ratio.

  4. Exposure and emissions monitoring during carbon nanofiber production--Part I: elemental carbon and iron-soot aerosols.

    PubMed

    Birch, M Eileen; Ku, Bon-Ki; Evans, Douglas E; Ruda-Eberenz, Toni A

    2011-11-01

    Production of carbon nanofibers and nanotubes (CNFs/CNTs) and their composite products is increasing globally. High volume production may increase the exposure risks for workers who handle these materials. Though health effects data for CNFs/CNTs are limited, some studies raise serious health concerns. Given the uncertainty about their potential hazards, there is an immediate need for toxicity data and field studies to assess exposure to CNFs/CNTs. An extensive study was conducted at a facility that manufactures and processes CNFs. Filter, sorbent, cascade impactor, bulk, and microscopy samples, combined with direct-reading instruments, provided complementary information on air contaminants. Samples were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with EC as a measure of CNFs. Transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy also was applied. Fine/ultrafine iron-rich soot, PAHs, and carbon monoxide were production byproducts. Direct-reading instrument results were reported previously [Evans DE et al. (Aerosol monitoring during carbon nanofiber production: mobile direct-reading sampling. Ann Occup Hyg 2010;54:514-31.)] Results for time-integrated samples are reported as companion papers in this Issue. OC and EC, metals, and microscopy results are reported here, in Part I, while results for PAHs are reported in Part II [Birch ME. (Exposure and Emissions Monitoring during Carbon Nanofiber Production-Part II: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Ann. Occup. Hyg 2011; 55: 1037-47.)]. Respirable EC area concentrations inside the facility were about 6-68 times higher than outdoors, while personal breathing zone samples were up to 170 times higher.

  5. Exposure and Emissions Monitoring during Carbon Nanofiber Production—Part I: Elemental Carbon and Iron–Soot Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Birch, M. Eileen; Ku, Bon-Ki; Evans, Douglas E.; Ruda-Eberenz, Toni A.

    2015-01-01

    Production of carbon nanofibers and nanotubes (CNFs/CNTs) and their composite products is increasing globally. High volume production may increase the exposure risks for workers who handle these materials. Though health effects data for CNFs/CNTs are limited, some studies raise serious health concerns. Given the uncertainty about their potential hazards, there is an immediate need for toxicity data and field studies to assess exposure to CNFs/CNTs. An extensive study was conducted at a facility that manufactures and processes CNFs. Filter, sorbent, cascade impactor, bulk, and microscopy samples, combined with direct-reading instruments, provided complementary information on air contaminants. Samples were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with EC as a measure of CNFs. Transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy also was applied. Fine/ultrafine iron-rich soot, PAHs, and carbon monoxide were production byproducts. Direct-reading instrument results were reported previously [Evans DE et al. (Aerosol monitoring during carbon nanofiber production: mobile direct-reading sampling. Ann Occup Hyg 2010;54:514–31.)] Results for time-integrated samples are reported as companion papers in this Issue. OC and EC, metals, and microscopy results are reported here, in Part I, while results for PAHs are reported in Part II [Birch ME. (Exposure and Emissions Monitoring during Carbon Nanofiber Production—Part II: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Ann. Occup. Hyg 2011; 55: 1037–47.)]. Respirable EC area concentrations inside the facility were about 6–68 times higher than outdoors, while personal breathing zone samples were up to 170 times higher. PMID:21965464

  6. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence from CdS hollow spheres composited with carbon nanofiber and its sensing application.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qinshu; Han, Min; Wang, Huaisheng; Liu, Lili; Bao, Jianchun; Dai, Zhihui; Shen, Jian

    2010-10-01

    The electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) from nanometre-sized CdS hollow spheres and carbon nanofiber (CdSHS-CNF) nanocomposites in aqueous solution and their sensing applications were studied by entrapping them in carbon paste. The CdSHS-CNF nanocomposites exhibited a peak at -1.02 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 0.1 M pH 8.0 PBS containing 20 mM H(2)O(2) during the cyclic sweep between 0 and -1.2 V at 40 mV s(-1). Compared with CdS hollow spheres (CdSHS), carbon nanofiber (CNF) and CdS nanocrystals and carbon nanofiber (CdSNC-CNF) nanocomposites, CdSHS-CNF not only enhanced the electrochemiluminescent intensity but also decreased the ECL starting potentials. Furthermore, by immobilizing cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) on CdSHS-CNF nanocomposites modified electrode, a sensitive and selective method was developed for detection of cholesterol using oxygen as a coreactant which captured more electrons from electrochemically reduced CdSHS-CNF than H(2)O(2). Under optimal conditions, the sensor could be used for the determination of cholesterol from 1 × 10(-6) to 4.4 × 10(-4) M with a correlation coefficient of 0.9991 and a detection limit was 8 × 10(-7) M at 3σ. The unique ECL intensity and stability of CdSHS-CNF would promote the application of nanometre-sized semiconductor hollow spheres based composites in fabricating sensors for chemical and biochemical analysis.

  7. Metal-Support Interactions of Platinum Nanoparticles Decorated N-Doped Carbon Nanofibers for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    PubMed

    Melke, Julia; Peter, Benedikt; Habereder, Anja; Ziegler, Juergen; Fasel, Claudia; Nefedov, Alexei; Sezen, Hikmet; Wöll, Christof; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Roth, Christina

    2016-01-13

    N-doped carbon materials are discussed as catalyst supports for the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells. This work deals with the preparation of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) supported on N-doped carbon nanofibers (N-CNF) from a polyaniline nanofiber (PANI NF) precursor, and investigates the ORR activity of the produced materials. Initially, Pt NPs are deposited on PANI NFs. The PANI NF precursors are characterized by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. It is shown, that in the PANI NF precursor materials electrons from the Pt are being transferred toward the π-conjugated systems of the aromatic ring. This strong interaction of Pt atoms with PANI explains the high dispersion of Pt NPs on the PANI NF. Subsequently, the PANI NF precursors are carbonized at different heat-treatment conditions resulting in structurally different N-CNFs which are characterized by NEXAFS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) ,and TEM measurements. It is shown that an interaction between N-groups and Pt NPs exists in all investigated N-CNFs. However, the N-CNFs differ in the composition of the N-species and the dispersion of the Pt NPs. A small mean Pt NP size with a narrow size distribution is attributed to the presence of pyrdinic N-groups in the N-CNFs, whereas, for the N-CNFs with mainly graphitic and pyrrolic N-groups, an increase in the average Pt NP size with a broad size distribution is found. The ORR activity in alkaline media investigated by Koutecky-Levich analysis of rotating disk electrode measurements showed a largely enhanced ORR activity in comparison to a conventional Pt/C catalyst.

  8. In-situ preparation and characterization of acid functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes with polyimide nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Dhakshnamoorthy, M; Ramakrishnan, S; Vikram, S; Kothurkar, Nikhil K; Rangarajan, Murali; Vasanthakumari, R

    2014-07-01

    Nanofiber composites (Polyimide/f-SWCNT) of Pyromellitic dianhydride, 4,4'-Oxydianiline, and 4,4'-(4,4'-isopropylidene diphenyl-1,1'-diyl dioxy) dianiline (PMDA-ODA/IDDA) and surface-functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (f-SWCNT) were made by electrospinning a solution of poly(amic acid) (PAA) containing 0-2 wt% f-SWCNT followed by thermal imidization. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra verified the oxidation of SWCNT surface after acid treatment, and indicated possible hydrogen bonding interactions between the f-SWCNTs and polyamic acid. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy images showed the average diameter of nanofibers to be below 150 nm, and transmission electron microscopy images showed that SWCNTs were aligned inside the polymer nanofiber. In thermogravimetric analysis, all composites showed increased thermal stability with increasing f-SWCNT content compared to neat PI. Storage modulus also increased from 124 MPa to 229 MPa from neat PI to 2% f-SWCNT composite.

  9. Diamond synthesis from carbon nanofibers at low temperature and low pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chengzhi; Qi, Xiang; Pan, Chunxu; Yang, Wenge

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we report a new route to synthesize diamond by converting “solid” carbon nanofibers with a Spark Plasma Sintering system under low temperature and pressure (even at atmospheric pressure). Well-crystallized diamond crystals are obtained at the tips of the carbon nanofibers after sintering at 1500 °C and atmospheric pressure. Combining with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron-energy loss spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy observations, we propose the conversion mechanism as follows: the disorder “solid” carbon nanofibers → well crystallined carbon nanofibers → bent graphitic sheets → onion-liked rings → diamond single crystal → the bigger congregated diamond crystal. It is believed that the plasma generated by low-voltage, vacuum spark, via a pulsed DC in Spark Plasma Sintering process, plays a critical role in the low temperature and low pressure diamond formation. This Spark Plasma Sintering process may provide a new route for diamond synthesis in an economical way to a large scale.

  10. Diamond synthesis from carbon nanofibers at low temperature and low pressure.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chengzhi; Qi, Xiang; Pan, Chunxu; Yang, Wenge

    2015-09-09

    In this article, we report a new route to synthesize diamond by converting "solid" carbon nanofibers with a Spark Plasma Sintering system under low temperature and pressure (even at atmospheric pressure). Well-crystallized diamond crystals are obtained at the tips of the carbon nanofibers after sintering at 1500 °C and atmospheric pressure. Combining with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron-energy loss spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy observations, we propose the conversion mechanism as follows: the disorder "solid" carbon nanofibers→well crystallined carbon nanofibers→bent graphitic sheets→onion-liked rings→diamond single crystal→the bigger congregated diamond crystal. It is believed that the plasma generated by low-voltage, vacuum spark, via a pulsed DC in Spark Plasma Sintering process, plays a critical role in the low temperature and low pressure diamond formation. This Spark Plasma Sintering process may provide a new route for diamond synthesis in an economical way to a large scale.

  11. Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Exposure Assessments: An Analysis of 14 Site Visits

    PubMed Central

    Dahm, Matthew M.; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Evans, Douglas E.; Birch, M. Eileen; Fernback, Joseph E.; Deddens, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested the potential for wide-ranging health effects that could result from exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanofibers (CNF). In response, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) set a recommended exposure limit (REL) for CNT and CNF: 1 µg m−3 as an 8-h time weighted average (TWA) of elemental carbon (EC) for the respirable size fraction. The purpose of this study was to conduct an industrywide exposure assessment among US CNT and CNF manufacturers and users. Fourteen total sites were visited to assess exposures to CNT (13 sites) and CNF (1 site). Personal breathing zone (PBZ) and area samples were collected for both the inhalable and respirable mass concentration of EC, using NIOSH Method 5040. Inhalable PBZ samples were collected at nine sites while at the remaining five sites both respirable and inhalable PBZ samples were collected side-by-side. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) PBZ and area samples were also collected at the inhalable size fraction and analyzed to quantify and size CNT and CNF agglomerate and fibrous exposures. Respirable EC PBZ concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 2.94 µg m−3 with a geometric mean (GM) of 0.34 µg m−3 and an 8-h TWA of 0.16 µg m−3. PBZ samples at the inhalable size fraction for EC ranged from 0.01 to 79.57 µg m−3 with a GM of 1.21 µg m−3. PBZ samples analyzed by TEM showed concentrations ranging from 0.0001 to 1.613 CNT or CNF-structures per cm3 with a GM of 0.008 and an 8-h TWA concentration of 0.003. The most common CNT structure sizes were found to be larger agglomerates in the 2–5 µm range as well as agglomerates >5 µm. A statistically significant correlation was observed between the inhalable samples for the mass of EC and structure counts by TEM (Spearman ρ = 0.39, P < 0.0001). Overall, EC PBZ and area TWA samples were below the NIOSH REL (96% were <1 μg m−3 at the respirable size fraction), while 30% of the inhalable PBZ EC

  12. Surface analysis and electrochemistry of a robust carbon-nanofiber-based electrode platform H2O2 sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suazo-Dávila, D.; Rivera-Meléndez, J.; Koehne, J.; Meyyappan, M.; Cabrera, C. R.

    2016-10-01

    A vertically aligned carbon nanofiber-based (VACNF) electrode platform was developed for an enzymeless hydrogen peroxide sensor. Vertical nanofibers have heights on the order of 2-3 μm, and diameters that vary from 50 to 100 nm as seen by atomic force microscopy. The VACNF was grown as individual, vertically, and freestanding structures using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The electrochemical sensor, for the hydrogen peroxide measurement in solution, showed stability and reproducibility in five consecutive calibration curves with different hydrogen peroxide concentrations over a period of 3 days. The detection limit was 66 μM. The sensitivity for hydrogen peroxide electrochemical detection was 0.0906 mA cm-2 mM-1, respectively. The sensor was also used for the measurement of hydrogen peroxide as the by-product of the reaction of cholesterol with cholesterol oxidase as a biosensor application. The sensor exhibits linear behavior in the range of 50 μM-1 mM in cholesterol concentrations. The surface analysis and electrochemistry characterization is presented.

  13. Vapor-phase polymerization of poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofibers on carbon cloth as electrodes for flexible supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin; Dong, Mengyang; Zhang, Junxian; Li, Yingzhi; Zhang, Qinghua

    2016-09-01

    In this study, an evaporative vapor-phase polymerization approach was employed to fabricate vertically aligned poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanofibers on the surface of carbon cloth (CC). Optimized reaction conditions can obtain well distributed and uniform layers of high-aspect-ratio PEDOT nanofibers on CC. The hierarchical PEDOT/CC structure as a freestanding electrode exhibits good electrochemical properties. As a flexible symmetric supercapacitor, the PEDOT/CC hybrid electrode displays a specific areal capacitance of 201.4 mF cm-2 at 1 mA cm-2, good flexibility with a higher value (204.6 mF cm-2) in the bending state, and a good cycling stability of 92.4% after 1000 cycles. Moreover, the device shows a maximum energy density of 4.0 Wh kg-1 (with a power density of 3.2 kW kg-1) and a maximum power density of 4.2 kW kg-1 (with an energy density of 3.1 Wh kg-1). The results demonstrate that PEDOT may be a promising material for storage devices through a simple and efficient vapor-phase polymerization process with precisely controlled reaction conditions.

  14. Mechanical and structural characterizations of gamma- and alpha-alumina nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Vahtrus, Mikk; Umalas, Madis; Polyakov, Boris; Dorogin, Leonid; Saar, Rando; Tamme, Maret; Saal, Kristjan; Lõhmus, Rünno; Vlassov, Sergei

    2015-09-15

    We investigate the applicability of alumina nanofibers as a potential reinforcement material in ceramic matrix compounds by comparing the mechanical properties of individual nanofibers before and after annealing at 1400 °C. Mechanical testing is performed inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM), which enables observation in real time of the deformation and fracture of the fibers under loading, thereby providing a close-up inspection of the freshly fractured area in vacuum. Improvement of both the Young's modulus and the breaking strength for annealed nanofibers is demonstrated. Mechanical testing is supplemented with the structural characterization of the fibers before and after annealing using SEM, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. - Highlights: • Mechanical properties of individual alumina nanofibers were measured using in situ SEM cantilevered beam bending technique. • Improvement of mechanical properties of the alumina fibers after annealing at 1400 °C is demonstrated. • Formation of branched structures is demonstrated and their mechanical properties are studied. • XRD and electron microscopy were used for structural characterization of untreated and annealed nanofibers.

  15. A TiO2 Nanofiber-Carbon Nanotube-Composite Photoanode for Improved Efficiency in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Thomas J; Tune, Daniel D; Dewi, Melissa R; Gibson, Christopher T; Shapter, Joseph G; Nann, Thomas

    2015-10-26

    A light-scattering layer fabricated from electrospun titanium dioxide nanofibers (TiO2 -NFs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) formed a fiber-based photoanode. The nanocomposite scattering layer had a lawn-like structure and integration of carbon nanotubes into the NF photoanodes increased the power conversion efficiency from 2.9 % to 4.8 % under 1 Sun illumination. Under reduced light intensity (0.25 Sun), TiO2 -NF and TiO2 -NF/SWCNT-based DSSCs reached PCE values of up to 3.7 % and 6.6 %, respectively.

  16. Carbon Nanofiber Arrays Grown on Three-Dimensional Carbon Fiber Architecture Substrate and Enhanced Interface Performance of Carbon Fiber and Zirconium Carbide Coating.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liwen; Zhang, Xinghong; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Guangdong; Dong, Shun; Liu, Dazhao; Sun, Boqian; Zhang, Dongyang; Han, Jiecai

    2017-05-24

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were grown around the carbon fiber architecture through a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method to enhance the interface performance between CF architecture substrate and ZrC preceramic matrix. The synthesized 3D CF hierarchical architectures (CNFs-CF) are coated with zirconium carbide (ZrC) ceramic to enhance their antioxidant property and high temperature resistance. The composition and the crystalline phase structure of the composite were detected with the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results of scanning electron microscopy show that, the as-prepared CNFs and consistent ZrC ceramic coating are uniformly covered on the surface of carbon fiber architecture substrate. The ZrC ceramic products with excellent crystallinity were got from the pyrolysis of preceramic polymer at 1600 °C in inert atmosphere. Comparing with the untreated CF, the loading of ZrC ceramics around the CNFs-CF architecture surface are significantly increased. The thermal stability and mechanical property of CNFs-CF/ZrC nanocomposites have been promoted obviously compared with the CF/ZrC ceramic nanocomposite. The prepared CNFs-CF/ZrC ceramic nanocomposite is one of the potential candidate materials for the thermal protection application.

  17. Plum-branch-like carbon nanofibers decorated with SnO2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zunxian; Du, Guodong; Guo, Zaiping; Yu, Xuebin; Li, Sean; Chen, Zhixin; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Huakun

    2010-06-01

    Novel plum-branch-like carbon nanofibers (CNFs) decorated with SnO2 nanocrystals have been synthesized by electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment in an Ar/H2O atmosphere. The morphologies of the as-synthesized SnO2/CNF composites and the contents of carbon and SnO2 can be controlled by adjusting the heat treatment temperature. It is proposed that the growth of SnO2/CNF composites follows the outward diffusion of tin composites from the as-spun tin composite/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers, pyrolysis of PAN and oxidation of tin composites, and then formation of SnO2 nanocrystals around the CNFs. This novel 1D SnO2/CNF composite may have potential application in nanobatteries, nano fuel cells, and nanosensors. A preliminary result has revealed that the SnO2/CNF composite presents favourable electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries.Novel plum-branch-like carbon nanofibers (CNFs) decorated with SnO2 nanocrystals have been synthesized by electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment in an Ar/H2O atmosphere. The morphologies of the as-synthesized SnO2/CNF composites and the contents of carbon and SnO2 can be controlled by adjusting the heat treatment temperature. It is proposed that the growth of SnO2/CNF composites follows the outward diffusion of tin composites from the as-spun tin composite/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers, pyrolysis of PAN and oxidation of tin composites, and then formation of SnO2 nanocrystals around the CNFs. This novel 1D SnO2/CNF composite may have potential application in nanobatteries, nano fuel cells, and nanosensors. A preliminary result has revealed that the SnO2/CNF composite presents favourable electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Figures S1-S6. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00009d

  18. Synthesis and photocatalytic property of porous metal oxides nanowires based on carbon nanofiber template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Weiqiang; Li, Meng; Xu, Jinfu; Bai, Hongye; Zhang, Rongxian; Chen, Chao

    2015-11-01

    A series of porous metal oxides nanowires (Fe2O3, Co3O4, NiO and CuO) have been successfully synthesized, where commercial carbon nanofibers were used as the template. The obtained samples were systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance (UV-Vis DR) spectra and transmission electron microscope (TEM). According to the photodegradation data, the porous metal oxides nanowires exhibit significantly photocatalytic activity for degrading tetracycline (TC). Furthermore, the porous Fe2O3 nanowires show the best photocatalytic performance among all the samples.

  19. Residual gas analysis of a dc plasma for carbon nanofiber growth

    SciTech Connect

    Cruden, Brett A.; Cassell, Alan M.; Hash, David B.; Meyyappan, M.

    2004-11-01

    We report the analysis of a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process for carbon nanofiber growth. A direct current (dc) plasma is employed with a mixture of acetylene and ammonia. Residual gas analysis is performed on the downstream plasma effluent to determine degrees of precursor dissociation and high molecular weight species formation. Results are correlated to growth quality obtained in the plasma as a function of dc voltage/power, gas mixture, and pressure. Behaviors in plasma chemistry are understood through application of a zero-dimensional model.

  20. Fabrication of carbon nanofiber-polyaniline composite flexible paper for supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xingbin; Tai, Zhixin; Chen, Jiangtao; Xue, Qunji

    2011-01-01

    In this work we report a low cost technique, via simple rapid-mixture polymerization of aniline using an electrospun carbon nanofiber (CNF) paper as substrate, to fabricate free-standing, flexible CNF-PANI (PANI = polyaniline) composite paper. The morphology and microstructure of the obtained products are characterized by FESEM, FTIR, Raman and XRD. As results, PANInanoparticles are homogeneously deposited on the surface of each CNF, forming a thin, light-weight and flexible composite paper. The resulting composite paper displays remarkably enhanced electrochemical capacitance compared with the CNF paper, making it attractive for high-performance flexible capacitors.

  1. Carbon nanofiber aerogels for emergent cleanup of oil spillage and chemical leakage under harsh conditions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhen-Yu; Li, Chao; Liang, Hai-Wei; Zhang, Yu-Ning; Wang, Xin; Chen, Jia-Fu; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2014-02-12

    To address oil spillage and chemical leakage accidents, the development of efficient sorbent materials is of global importance for environment and water source protection. Here we report on a new type of carbon nanofiber (CNF) aerogels as efficient sorbents for oil uptake with high sorption capacity and excellent recyclability. Importantly, the oil uptake ability of the CNF aerogels can be maintained over a wide temperature range, from liquid nitrogen temperature up to ca. 400°C, making them suitable for oil cleanup under harsh conditions. The outstanding sorption performance of CNF aerogels is associated with their unique physical properties, such as low density, high porosity, excellent mechanical stability, high hydrophobicity and superoleophilicity.

  2. CdS loaded on coal based activated carbon nanofibers with enhanced photocatalytic property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jixi; Guo, Mingxi; Jia, Dianzeng; Song, Xianli; Tong, Fenglian

    2016-08-01

    The coal based activated carbon nanofibers (CBACFs) were prepared by electrospinning a mixture of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and acid treated coal. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles loaded on CBACFs were fabricated by solvothermal method. The obtained samples were characterized by FESEM, TEM, and XRD. The results reveal that the CdS nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed on the surfaces of CBACFs. The CdS/CBACFs nanocomposites exhibited higher photoactivity for photodegradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible light irradiation than pure CdS nanoparticles. CBACFs can be used as low cost support materials for the preparation of nanocomposites with high photocatalytic activity.

  3. Cu grown carbon nanofibers - Variation of their chemical and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoware, Shrikant; Maubane, Manoko S.; Phaahlamohlaka, Tumelo; Shaikjee, Ahmed; Coville, Neil J.

    2013-07-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by passing a mixture of acetylene/H2 or acetylene/N2 over different Cu catalysts. The Soxhlet extracted CNFs were characterized by TEM, TGA and IR spectroscopy and revealed that the morphology, diameter distribution and crystallinity of the CNFs varied with gas atmosphere and Cu particle size. TEM images revealed that coiled CNFs were only produced from Cu/SiO2 grown in the presence of H2. It is thus revealed that the CNFs produced by different Cu catalysts have different chemical and physical properties and that these properties correlate with catalyst particle size and the gas mixtures used.

  4. Poly-m-aramid nanofiber mats: Production for application as structural modifiers in CFRP laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzocchetti, Laura; D'Angelo, Emanuele; Benelli, Tiziana; Belcari, Juri; Brugo, Tommaso Maria; Zucchelli, Andrea; Giorgini, Loris

    2016-05-01

    Poly(m-phenylene isophtalamide) electrospun nanofibrous membranes were produced to be used as structural reinforcements for carbon fiber reinforced composites production. In order for the polymer to be electrospun, it needs however to be fully solubilized, so the addition of some salts is required to help disrupt the tight macromolecular packing based on intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonding. Such salts may also contribute to the electrospinnability of the overall solution, since the provide it with a higher conductivity, whatever the solvent might be. The salt haobwever stays in the final nanofibrous mat. The membranes containing the salt are also observed to be highly hygroscopic, with a water content up to 26%, in the presence of 20%wt LiCl in the nanofibrous mat. When those membranes were interleaved among prepregs to produce a laminates, the obtained composite displayed thermal properties comparable to those of a reference nanofiber-free composite, though the former showed also easier delamination. Hence the removal of the hygroscopic salt was performed, that lead to thinner membranes, whose water content matched that of the pristine polymer. The washing step induced a thinning of the layers and of the fibers diameters, though no fiber shrinking nor membrane macroscopic damages were observed. These preliminary encouraging results thus pave the way to a deeper study of the optimized condition for producing convenient poly(m-phenylene isophtalamide) electrospun nanofibrous membranes to be used for carbon fiber reinforced composites structural modification.

  5. Formation of Bamboo-Like Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers Using Co-Si-O and Co-Si Catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hui Lin; Tzu Kuo, Cheng

    2010-04-01

    Bamboo-like carbon nanotubes were synthesized by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) using CH4 and N2 as source gases in various ratios. Two types of catalytic films, namely, a condition 1, Co film/SiO2/Si substrate, and, a Co film/Si substrate layer with rapid thermal annealing (RTA; condition 2), were used as catalysts to grow carbon nanotubes. The interaction between the catalytic film and the Si substrate or between the catalytic film and the SiO2 interlayer occurred during the H2 reduction step before nanotube growth. The chemical compositions of catalytic particles capping the carbon nanotubes were identified by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) as Co-Si-O and Co-Si for conditions 1 and 2, respectively. The growth of the base and tip growths was investigated and is suggested to be governed by the capillary effect and the strength of adhesion between the catalytic particles and the underlayer. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis reveals that the carbon nanotubes and nanofibers have bamboo-like structures with hollow internal compartments. The formation mechanisms of these bamboo-like structures are discussed.

  6. A carbon nanofiber-based label free immunosensor for high sensitive detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Lim, Syazana Abdullah; Ahmed, Minhaz Uddin

    2015-08-15

    A carbon nanofiber-based label free electrochemical immunosensor for sensitive detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) was developed. In this immunosensor design, a mild site-directed antibody immobilization via interaction of boronic acid and oligosaccharide moiety found on Fc region of an antibody was performed to preserve the biological activity of antibody and improve the sensor's sensitivity. Electrochemical characterization of the immunosensor fabrication was carried out by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in Fe(CN)6(3-)/Fe(CN)6(4-) probe. A comparison study between different transducer platforms showed carbon nanofiber gave higher current signal response than single-walled carbon nanotube. In this work, calibration curve was obtained from the decrease of DPV peak current of Fe(CN)6(3-)/Fe(CN)6(4-) after immunocomplexed was formed. A linear relationship between DPV current change signal response and rbST concentrations from 1 pg/mL to 10 ng/mL (correlation coefficient of 0.9721) was achieved with detection limit of 1 pg/mL. Our developed immunosensor demonstrated high selectivity in cross-reactivity studies and a good percentage recovery in spiked bovine serum sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nanostructurally Controlled Hydrogel Based on Small‐Diameter Native Chitin Nanofibers: Preparation, Structure, and Properties

    PubMed Central

    Kochumalayil, Joby; Cervin, Nicholas Tchang; Zhou, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chitin nanofibers of unique structure and properties can be obtained from crustacean and fishery waste. These chitin nanofibers have roughly 4 nm diameters, aspect ratios between 25–250, a high degree of acetylation and preserved crystallinity, and can be potentially applied in hydrogels. Hydrogels with a chitin nanofiber content of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 wt % were successfully prepared. The methodology for preparation is new, environmentally friendly, and simple as gelation is induced by neutralization of the charged colloidal mixture, inducing precipitation and secondary bond interaction between nanofibers. Pore structure and pore size distributions of corresponding aerogels are characterized using auto‐porosimetry, revealing a substantial fraction of nanoscale pores. To the best of our knowledge, the values for storage (13 kPa at 3 wt %) and compression modulus (309 kPa at 2 wt %) are the highest reported for chitin nanofibers hydrogels. PMID:27061912

  8. Nanostructurally Controlled Hydrogel Based on Small-Diameter Native Chitin Nanofibers: Preparation, Structure, and Properties.

    PubMed

    Mushi, Ngesa Ezekiel; Kochumalayil, Joby; Cervin, Nicholas Tchang; Zhou, Qi; Berglund, Lars A

    2016-05-10

    Chitin nanofibers of unique structure and properties can be obtained from crustacean and fishery waste. These chitin nanofibers have roughly 4 nm diameters, aspect ratios between 25-250, a high degree of acetylation and preserved crystallinity, and can be potentially applied in hydrogels. Hydrogels with a chitin nanofiber content of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 wt % were successfully prepared. The methodology for preparation is new, environmentally friendly, and simple as gelation is induced by neutralization of the charged colloidal mixture, inducing precipitation and secondary bond interaction between nanofibers. Pore structure and pore size distributions of corresponding aerogels are characterized using auto-porosimetry, revealing a substantial fraction of nanoscale pores. To the best of our knowledge, the values for storage (13 kPa at 3 wt %) and compression modulus (309 kPa at 2 wt %) are the highest reported for chitin nanofibers hydrogels. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  9. Core-shell structured PEO-chitosan nanofibers by coaxial electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Pakravan, Mehdi; Heuzey, Marie-Claude; Ajji, Abdellah

    2012-02-13

    Core-shell structured PEO-chitosan nanofibers have been produced using a coaxial electrospinning setup. PEO and chitosan solutions, both in an aqueous acetic acid solvent, were used as the inner (core) and outer (shell) layer, respectively. Uniform-sized defect-free nanofibers of 150-190 nm diameter were produced. In addition, hollow nanofibers could be obtained subsequent to PEO washing of the membranes. The core-shell nanostructure and existence of chitosan on the shell layer were confirmed by TEM images obtained before and after washing the PEO content with water. The presence of chitosan on the surface of the composite nanofibers was further supported by XPS studies. The chitosan and PEO compositions in the nanofibrous mats were determined by TGA analysis, which were similar to their ratio in the feed solutions. The local compositional homogeneity of the membranes and the efficiency of the washing step to remove PEO were also verified by FTIR. In addition, DSC and XRD were used to characterize the crystalline structure and morphology of the co-electrospun nonwoven mats. The prepared coaxial nanofibers (hollow and solid) have several potential applications due to the presence of chitosan on their outer surfaces.

  10. Carbon nanofiber reinforced epoxy matrix composites and syntactic foams - mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveda, Ronald Leonel

    The tailorability of composite materials is crucial for use in a wide array of real-world applications, which range from heat-sensitive computer components to fuselage reinforcement on commercial aircraft. The mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties of composites are highly dependent on their material composition, method of fabrication, inclusion orientation, and constituent percentages. The focus of this work is to explore carbon nanofibers (CNFs) as potential nanoscale reinforcement for hollow particle filled polymer composites referred to as syntactic foams. In the present study, polymer composites with high weight fractions of CNFs, ranging from 1-10 wt.%, are used for quasi-static and high strain rate compression analysis, as well as for evaluation and characterization of thermal and electrical properties. It is shown that during compressive characterization of vapor grown carbon nanofiber (CNF)/epoxy composites in the strain rate range of 10-4-2800 s-1, a difference in the fiber failure mechanism is identified based on the strain rate. Results from compression analyses show that the addition of fractions of CNFs and glass microballoons varies the compressive strength and elastic modulus of epoxy composites by as much as 53.6% and 39.9%. The compressive strength and modulus of the syntactic foams is also shown to generally increase by a factor of 3.41 and 2.96, respectively, with increasing strain rate when quasi-static and high strain rate testing data are compared, proving strain rate sensitivity of these reinforced composites. Exposure to moisture over a 6 month period of time is found to reduce the quasi-static and high strain rate strength and modulus, with a maximum of 7% weight gain with select grades of CNF/syntactic foam. The degradation of glass microballoons due to dealkalization is found to be the primary mechanism for reduced mechanical properties, as well as moisture diffusion and weight gain. In terms of thermal analysis results, the

  11. Free-standing and binder-free sodium-ion electrodes with ultralong cycle life and high rate performance based on porous carbon nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihan; Zeng, Linchao; Yang, Zhenzhong; Gu, Lin; Wang, Jiaqing; Liu, Xiaowu; Cheng, Jianxiu; Yu, Yan

    2014-01-21

    Free-standing and binder-free porous carbon nanofibers (P-CNFs) electrodes were prepared by pyrolysis of PAN-F127/DMF nanofibers via an electrospinning process as potential anodes for Na-ion batteries (NIB). The P-CNFs delivers a reversible capacity of 266 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles at 0.2 C, corresponding to ~80% of the initial charge capacity. When cycled at a current density as high as 500 mA g(-1) (2 C), it still delivers a reversible capacity of ~140 mA h g(-1) after 1000 cycles. The improvement of electrochemical performance is attributed to the special design and microstructure of P-CNFs, which conferred a variety of advantages: hierarchical porous channels enabling short transport length for ions and electrons, 3D interconnected structure resulting in low contact resistances, good mechanical properties leading to the excellent morphology stability.

  12. Shape memory polymer nanofibers and their composites: electrospinning, structure, performance and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fenghua; Zhang, Zhichun; Zhou, Tianyang; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2015-10-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) have been defined as a kind of smart materials under great investigation from academic research to industry applications. Research on SMPs and their composites, now incorporates a growing focus on nanofibers which offers new structures in microscopic level and the potential of enhanced performance of SMPs. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the development of shape memory polymer nanofibers and their composites, including the introduction of electrospinning technology, the morphology and structures of nanofibers (non-woven fibers, oriented fibers, core/shell fibers and functional particles added in the fibers), shape memory performance (thermal and mechanical properties, stimulus responsive behavior, multiple and two-way shape changing performance), as well as their potential applications in the fields of biomedical and tissue engineering.

  13. Tailored synthesis of photoactive TiO ₂ nanofibers and Au/TiO ₂ nanofiber composites: structure and reactivity optimization for water treatment applications.

    PubMed

    Nalbandian, Michael J; Greenstein, Katherine E; Shuai, Danmeng; Zhang, Miluo; Choa, Yong-Ho; Parkin, Gene F; Myung, Nosang V; Cwiertny, David M

    2015-02-03

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanofibers with tailored structure and composition were synthesized by electrospinning to optimize photocatalytic treatment efficiency. Nanofibers of controlled diameter (30-210 nm), crystal structure (anatase, rutile, mixed phases), and grain size (20-50 nm) were developed along with composite nanofibers with either surface-deposited or bulk-integrated Au nanoparticle cocatalysts. Their reactivity was then examined in batch suspensions toward model (phenol) and emerging (pharmaceuticals, personal care products) pollutants across various water qualities. Optimized TiO2 nanofibers meet or exceed the performance of traditional nanoparticulate photocatalysts (e.g., Aeroxide P25) with the greatest reactivity enhancements arising from (i) decreasing diameter (i.e., increasing surface area), (ii) mixed phase composition [74/26 (±0.5) % anatase/rutile], and (iii) small amounts (1.5 wt %) of surface-deposited, more so than bulk-integrated, Au nanoparticles. Surface Au deposition consistently enhanced photoactivity by 5- to 10-fold across our micropollutant suite independent of their solution concentration, behavior that we attribute to higher photocatalytic efficiency from improved charge separation. However, the practical value of Au/TiO2 nanofibers was limited by their greater degree of inhibition by solution-phase radical scavengers and higher rate of reactivity loss from surface fouling in nonidealized matrixes (e.g., partially treated surface water). Ultimately, unmodified TiO2 nanofibers appear most promising for use as reactive filtration materials because their performance was less influenced by water quality, although future efforts must increase the strength of TiO2 nanofiber mats to realize such applications.

  14. Carbon Nanofiber/Polycaprolactone/Mineralized Hydroxyapatite Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Potential Orthopedic Applications.

    PubMed

    Elangomannan, Shinyjoy; Louis, Kavitha; Dharmaraj, Bhagya Mathi; Kandasamy, Venkata Saravanan; Soundarapandian, Kannan; Gopi, Dhanaraj

    2017-02-22

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca10 (PO4)6(OH)2, HAP), a multimineral substituted calcium phosphate is one of the most substantial bone mineral component that has been widely used as bone replacement materials because of its bioactive and biocompatible properties. However, the use of HAP as bone implants is restricted due to its brittle nature and poor mechanical properties. To overcome this defect and to generate suitable bone implant material, HAP is combined with biodegradable polymer (polycaprolactone, PCL). To enhance the mechanical property of the composite, carbon nanofibers (CNF) is incorporated to the composite, which has long been considered for hard and soft tissue implant due to its exceptional mechanical and structural properties. It is well-known that nanofibrous scaffold are the most-prominent material for the bone reconstruction. We have developed a new remarkable CNF/PCL/mineralized hydroxyapatite (M-HAP) nanofibrous scaffolds on titanium (Ti). The as-developed coatings were characterized by various techniques. The results indicate the formation and homogeneous distribution of components in the nanofibrous scaffolds. Incorporation of CNF into the PCL/M-HAP composite significantly improves the adhesion strength and elastic modulus of the scaffolds. Furthermore, the responses of human osteosarcoma (HOS MG63) cells cultured onto the scaffolds demonstrate that the viability of cells were considerably high for CNF-incorporated PCL/M-HAP than for PCL/M-HAP. In vivo analysis show the presence of soft fibrous tissue growth without any significant inflammatory signs, which suggests that incorporated CNF did not counteract the favorable biological roles of HAP. For load-bearing applications, research in various bone models is needed to substantiate the clinical availability. Thus, from the obtained results, we suggest that CNF/PCL/M-HAP nanofibrous scaffolds can be considered as potential candidates for orthopedic applications.

  15. Growth of manganese filled carbon nanofibers in the vapor phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajayan, P. M.; Colliex, C.; Lambert, J. M.; Bernier, P.; Barbedette, L.; Tence, M.; Stephan, O.

    1994-03-01

    We report the vapor phase growth of partially filled graphitic fibers, 20-30 nm in diameter and up to a micron in length, during a manganese catalyzed carbon electric arc discharge. The fiber morphology resembles that of catalytic chemical vapor deposited carbon filaments but the inside hollow contains intermittent precipitates and continuous filling of Mn that at times occupy >50% of fiber lengths. Transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss line spectra show that the fillings form as solid cores and may correspond to pure metal.

  16. Properties that Influence the Specific Surface Areas of Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    BIRCH, M. EILEEN; RUDA-EBERENZ, TONI A.; CHAI, MING; ANDREWS, RONNEE; HATFIELD, RANDAL L.

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available carbon nanotubes and nanofibers were analyzed to examine possible relationships between their Brunauer–Emmett–Teller specific surface areas (SSAs) and their physical and chemical properties. Properties found to influence surface area were number of walls/diameter, impurities, and surface functionalization with hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Characterization by electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis, and elemental analysis indicates that SSA can provide insight on carbon nanomaterials properties, which can differ vastly depending on synthesis parameters and post-production treatments. In this study, how different properties may influence surface area is discussed. The materials examined have a wide range of surface areas. The measured surface areas differed from product specifications, to varying degrees, and between similar products. Findings emphasize the multiple factors that influence surface area and mark its utility in carbon nanomaterial characterization, a prerequisite to understanding their potential applications and toxicities. Implications for occupational monitoring are discussed. PMID:24029925

  17. Improved direct electrochemistry for proteins adsorbed on a UV/ozone-treated carbon nanofiber electrode.

    PubMed

    Xue, Qiang; Kato, Dai; Kamata, Tomoyuki; Guo, Qiaohui; You, Tianyan; Niwa, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    We studied the direct electron transfer (DET) of proteins on a carbon nanofiber (CNF) modified carbon film electrode by employing the one-step UV/ozone treatment of CNF. This treatment changed the CNF surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic because a sufficient quantity of oxygen functional groups was introduced onto the CNF surface. Furthermore, this simple approach increased both the effective surface area and the number of edge-plane defect sites. As a result, the reversibility of redox species, such as ferrocyanide and dopamine, was greatly improved on the treated electrode surface. We obtained on efficient DET of bilirubin oxidase (BOD) and cytochrome c (cyt c) at the treated CNF electrode, which exhibited 38 (for BOD) and 6 (for cyt c) times higher than that at untreated CNF modified electrode. These results indicate that the combination of nanostructured carbon and this UV/ozone treatment process can efficiently create a functionalized surface for the electron transfer of proteins.

  18. Direct measurement of hydrogen adsorption in carbon nanotubes/nanofibers by elastic recoil detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naab, F. U.; Dhoubhadel, M.; Gilbert, J. R.; Gilbert, M. C.; Savage, L. K.; Holland, O. W.; Duggan, J. L.; McDaniel, F. D.

    2006-07-01

    Physi- or chemi-sorption of hydrogen in solid materials offers a viable medium for hydrogen storage since the concentration of hydrogen can exceed that in its gaseous form at high compression. Due to their unique architecture, carbon nanotubes are potentially an excellent carbon-based adsorbent for hydrogen. In this work, we report direct measurements of hydrogen adsorption using elastic recoil detection analysis in single-walled, double-walled, and multi-walled nanotubes, as well as carbon nanofibers. Results are presented for hydrogen adsorption treatment at ambient temperature and above, where chemical rather than physical adsorption is anticipated. The results show that the concentration of hydrogen in all samples over the range of conditions investigated is below 1 wt.%, which is well below that required for a viable storage media.

  19. Properties that influence the specific surface areas of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Birch, M Eileen; Ruda-Eberenz, Toni A; Chai, Ming; Andrews, Ronnee; Hatfield, Randal L

    2013-11-01

    Commercially available carbon nanotubes and nanofibers were analyzed to examine possible relationships between their Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface areas (SSAs) and their physical and chemical properties. Properties found to influence surface area were number of walls/diameter, impurities, and surface functionalization with hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Characterization by electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis, and elemental analysis indicates that SSA can provide insight on carbon nanomaterials properties, which can differ vastly depending on synthesis parameters and post-production treatments. In this study, how different properties may influence surface area is discussed. The materials examined have a wide range of surface areas. The measured surface areas differed from product specifications, to varying degrees, and between similar products. Findings emphasize the multiple factors that influence surface area and mark its utility in carbon nanomaterial characterization, a prerequisite to understanding their potential applications and toxicities. Implications for occupational monitoring are discussed.

  20. Design and evaluation of carbon nanofiber and silicon materials for neural implant applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Janice L.

    Reduction of glial scar tissue around central nervous system implants is necessary for improved efficacy in chronic applications. Design of materials that possess tunable properties inspired by native biological tissue and elucidation of pertinent cellular interactions with these materials was the motivation for this study. Since nanoscale carbon fibers possess the fundamental dimensional similarities to biological tissue and have attractive material properties needed for neural biomaterial implants, this present study explored cytocompatibility of these materials as well as modifications to traditionally used silicon. On silicon materials, results indicated that nanoscale surface features reduced astrocyte functions, and could be used to guide neurite extension from PC12 cells. Similarly, it was determined that astrocyte functions (key cells in glial scar tissue formation) were reduced on smaller diameter carbon fibers (125 nm or less) while PC12 neurite extension was enhanced on smaller diameter carbon fibers (100 nm or less). Further studies implicated laminin adsorption as a key mechanism in enhancing astrocyte adhesion to larger diameter fibers and at the same time encouraging neurite extension on smaller diameter fibers. Polycarbonate urethane (PCU) was then used as a matrix material for the smaller diameter carbon fibers (100 and 60 nm). These composites proved very versatile since electrical and mechanical properties as well as cell functions and directionality could be influenced by changing bulk and surface composition and features of these matrices. When these composites were modified to be smooth at the micronscale and only rough at the nanoscale, P19 cells actually submerged philopodia, extensions, or whole cells bodies beneath the PCU in order to interact with the carbon nanofibers. These carbon nanofiber composites that have been formulated are a promising material to coat neural probes and thereby enhance functionality at the tissue interface. This

  1. Oxidation of CO and Methanol on Pd-Ni Catalysts Supported on Different Chemically-Treated Carbon Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Calderón, Juan Carlos; Rios Ráfales, Miguel; Nieto-Monge, María Jesús; Pardo, Juan Ignacio; Moliner, Rafael; Lázaro, María Jesús

    2016-01-01

    In this work, palladium-nickel nanoparticles supported on carbon nanofibers were synthesized, with metal contents close to 25 wt % and Pd:Ni atomic ratios near to 1:2. These catalysts were previously studied in order to determine their activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction. Before the deposition of metals, the carbon nanofibers were chemically treated in order to generate oxygen and nitrogen groups on their surface. Transmission electron microscopy analysis (TEM) images revealed particle diameters between 3 and 4 nm, overcoming the sizes observed for the nanoparticles supported on carbon black (catalyst Pd-Ni CB 1:2). From the CO oxidation at different temperatures, the activation energy Eact for this reaction was determined. These values indicated a high tolerance of the catalysts toward the CO poisoning, especially in the case of the catalysts supported on the non-chemically treated carbon nanofibers. On the other hand, apparent activation energy Eap for the methanol oxidation was also determined finding—as a rate determining step—the COads diffusion to the OHads for the catalysts supported on carbon nanofibers. The results here presented showed that the surface functional groups only play a role in the obtaining of lower particle sizes, which is an important factor in the obtaining of low CO oxidation activation energies. PMID:28335315

  2. Oxidation of CO and Methanol on Pd-Ni Catalysts Supported on Different Chemically-Treated Carbon Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Juan Carlos; Rios Ráfales, Miguel; Nieto-Monge, María Jesús; Pardo, Juan Ignacio; Moliner, Rafael; Lázaro, María Jesús

    2016-10-18

    In this work, palladium-nickel nanoparticles supported on carbon nanofibers were synthesized, with metal contents close to 25 wt % and Pd:Ni atomic ratios near to 1:2. These catalysts were previously studied in order to determine their activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction. Before the deposition of metals, the carbon nanofibers were chemically treated in order to generate oxygen and nitrogen groups on their surface. Transmission electron microscopy analysis (TEM) images revealed particle diameters between 3 and 4 nm, overcoming the sizes observed for the nanoparticles supported on carbon black (catalyst Pd-Ni CB 1:2). From the CO oxidation at different temperatures, the activation energy Eact for this reaction was determined. These values indicated a high tolerance of the catalysts toward the CO poisoning, especially in the case of the catalysts supported on the non-chemically treated carbon nanofibers. On the other hand, apparent activation energy Eap for the methanol oxidation was also determined finding-as a rate determining step-the COads diffusion to the OHads for the catalysts supported on carbon nanofibers. The results here presented showed that the surface functional groups only play a role in the obtaining of lower particle sizes, which is an important factor in the obtaining of low CO oxidation activation energies.

  3. Hard carbon originated from polyvinyl chloride nanofibers as high-performance anode material for Na-ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Ying; Wang, Zhen; Wu, Chuan; Xu, Rui; Wu, F; Liu, Yuancheng; Li, Hui; Li, Yu; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2015-03-02

    Two types of hard carbon materials were synthesized through direct pyrolysis of commercial polyvinyl chloride (PVC) particles and pyrolysis of PVC nanofibers at 600-800 degrees C, respectively, where the nanofibers were prepared by an electrospinning PVC precursors method. These as-prepared hard carbon samples were used as anode materials for Na-ion batteries. The hard carbon obtained from PVC nanofibers achieved a high reversible capacity of 271 mAh/g and an initial Coulombic efficiency of 69.9%, which were much superior to the one from commercial PVC, namely, a reversible capacity of 206 mAh/g and an initial Coulombic efficiency of 60.9%. In addition, the hard carbon originated from the PVC nanofibers exhibited good cycling stability and rate performance: the initial discharge capacities were 389, 228, 194, 178, 147 mAh/g at the current density of 12, 24, 60, 120, and 240 mA/g, respectively, retaining 211 mAh/g after 150 cycles. Such excellent cycle performance, high reversible capacity, and good rate capability enabled this hard carbon to be a promising candidate as anode material for Na-ion battery application.

  4. Swift heavy ion irradiation-induced enhancement in structural, conformational and electrical properties of polyaniline nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazarika, Jayanta; Nath, Chandrani; Kumar, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report here the irradiation effects of 160 MeV Ni12+ ion beam on the structural and electrical properties of polyaniline (PAni) nanofibers synthesized by the interfacial polymerization method. The morphological studies show an increase in average diameter of PAni nanofibers upon swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. X-ray diffraction results show the amorphous nature of PAni nanofibers and upon SHI irradiation its crystallinity (K) and average crystallite size or extent of order (L) increase with increasing ion fluence. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results confirm the formation of PAni and suggest better conjugation length of PAni chains with increasing ion fluence. The ac conductivity follows the universal power law, σac=A ωs with (0nanofibers show the non-ohmic behavior and the current increases with increasing ion fluence. Thermogravimetric analysis exhibits enhanced thermal stability of PAni nanofibers upon SHI irradiation.

  5. Improving Microstructure of Silicon/Carbon Nanofiber Composites as A Li Battery Anode

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, Jane Y; Burton, David J.; Meyer III, Harry M; Nazri, Maryam; Nazri, G. Abbas; Palmer, Andrew C.; Lake, Patrick D.

    2013-01-01

    We report the interfacial study of a silicon/carbon nanofiber (Si/CNF) nanocomposite material as a potentially high performance anode for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The carbon nanofiber is hollow, with a graphitic interior and turbostratic exterior. Amorphous silicon layers were uniformly coated via chemical vapor deposition on both the exterior and interior surfaces of the CNF. The resulting Si/CNF composites were tested as anodes for Li ion batteries and exhibited capacities near 800 mAh g{sup -1} for 100 cycles. After cycling, we found that more Si had fallen off from the outer wall than from the inner wall of CNF. Theoretical calculations confirmed that this is due to a higher interfacial strength at the Si/C-edge interface at the inner wall than that of the Si/C-basal interface at the outer wall. Based upon the experimental analysis and theoretical calculation, we have proposed several interfacial engineering approaches to improve the performance of the electrodes by optimizing the microstructure of this nanocomposite.

  6. Improving microstructure of silicon/carbon nanofiber composites as a Li battery anode

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, Jane Y; Meyer III, Harry M; Burton, David J.; Qi, Dr. Yue; Nazri, Maryam; Nazri, G. Abbas; Palmer, Andrew C.; Lake, Patrick D.

    2013-01-01

    We report the interfacial study of a silicon/carbon nanofiber (Si/CNF) nanocomposite material as a potentially high performance anode for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The carbon nanofiber is hollow, with a graphitic interior and turbostratic exterior. Amorphous silicon layers were uniformly coated via chemical vapor deposition on both the exterior and interior surfaces of the CNF. The resulting Si/CNF composites were tested as anodes for Li ion batteries and exhibited capacities near 800 mAh g1 for 100 cycles. After cycling, we found that more Si had fallen off from the outer wall than from the innerwall of CNF. Theoretical calculations confirmed that this is due to a higher interfacial strength at the Si/Cedge interface at the inner wall than that of the Si/C-basal interface at the outer wall. Based upon the experimental analysis and theoretical calculation, we have proposed several interfacial engineering approaches to improve the performance of the electrodes by optimizing the microstructure of this nanocomposite.

  7. Label-free detection of C-reactive protein using a carbon nanofiber based biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rakesh K.; Periyakaruppan, Adaikkappan; Meyyappan, M.; Koehne, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    We report the sensitive detection of C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker for cardiac disease, using a carbon nanofiber based biosensor platform. Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers were grown using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition to fabricate nanoelectrode arrays in a 3 X 3 configuration. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used for the CRP detection. The CV responses show a 25 % reduction in redox current upon the immobilization of anti-CRP on the electrode where as a 30% increase in charge transfer resistance is seen from EIS. Further reduction in redox current and increase in charge transfer resistance result from binding of CRP on anti-CRP immobilized surface, proportional to the concentration of the CRP target. The detection limit of the sensor is found to be ~90 pM or ~11 ng/ml, which is in the clinically relevant range. Control tests using non-specific myoglobin antigen confirmed the specificity of the present approach. PMID:24709327

  8. Carbon nanofiber electrodes and controlled nanogaps for scanning electrochemical microscopy experiments.

    PubMed

    Tel-Vered, Ran; Walsh, Darren A; Mehrgardi, Masoud A; Bard, Allen J

    2006-10-01

    The electrochemical behavior of electrodes made by sealing carbon nanofibers in glass or with electrophoretic paint has been studied by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). Because of their small electroactive surface area, conical geometry with a low aspect ratio and high overpotential for proton and oxygen reduction, carbon nanofiber (CNF) electrodes are promising candidates for producing electrode nanogaps, imaging with high spatial resolution and for the electrodeposition of single metal nanoparticles (e.g., Pt, Pd) for studies as electrocatalysts. By using the feedback mode of the SECM, a CNF tip can produce a gap that is smaller than 20 nm from a platinum disk. Similarly, the SECM used in a tip-collection substrate-generation mode, which subsequently shows a feedback interaction at short distances, makes it possible to detect a single CNF by another CNF and then to form a nanometer gap between the two electrodes. This approach was used to image vertically aligned CNF arrays. This method is useful in the detection in a homogeneous solution of short-lifetime intermediates, which can be electrochemically generated at one electrode and collected at the second at distances that are equivalent to a nanosecond time scale.

  9. Chloride-Reinforced Carbon Nanofiber Host as Effective Polysulfide Traps in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lei; Zhuang, Houlong L; Zhang, Kaihang; Cooper, Valentino R; Li, Qi; Lu, Yingying

    2016-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is one of the most promising alternatives for the current state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical energy density and low production cost from the use of sulfur. However, the commercialization of Li-S batteries has been so far limited to the cyclability and the retention of active sulfur materials. Using co-electrospinning and physical vapor deposition procedures, we created a class of chloride-carbon nanofiber composites, and studied their effectiveness on polysulfides sequestration. By trapping sulfur reduction products in the modified cathode through both chemical and physical confinements, these chloride-coated cathodes are shown to remarkably suppress the polysulfide dissolution and shuttling between lithium and sulfur electrodes. From adsorption experiments and theoretical calculations, it is shown that not only the sulfide-adsorption effect but also the diffusivity in the vicinity of these chlorides materials plays an important role on the reversibility of sulfur-based cathode upon repeated cycles. Balancing the adsorption and diffusion effects of these nonconductive materials could lead to the enhanced cycling performance of an Li-S cell. Electrochemical analyses over hundreds of cycles indicate that cells containing indium chloride-modified carbon nanofiber outperform cells with other halogenated salts, delivering an average specific capacity of above 1200 mAh g(-1) at 0.2 C.

  10. Chloride‐Reinforced Carbon Nanofiber Host as Effective Polysulfide Traps in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lei; Zhuang, Houlong L.; Zhang, Kaihang; Cooper, Valentino R.; Li, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery is one of the most promising alternatives for the current state‐of‐the‐art lithium‐ion batteries due to its high theoretical energy density and low production cost from the use of sulfur. However, the commercialization of Li–S batteries has been so far limited to the cyclability and the retention of active sulfur materials. Using co‐electrospinning and physical vapor deposition procedures, we created a class of chloride–carbon nanofiber composites, and studied their effectiveness on polysulfides sequestration. By trapping sulfur reduction products in the modified cathode through both chemical and physical confinements, these chloride‐coated cathodes are shown to remarkably suppress the polysulfide dissolution and shuttling between lithium and sulfur electrodes. From adsorption experiments and theoretical calculations, it is shown that not only the sulfide‐adsorption effect but also the diffusivity in the vicinity of these chlorides materials plays an important role on the reversibility of sulfur‐based cathode upon repeated cycles. Balancing the adsorption and diffusion effects of these nonconductive materials could lead to the enhanced cycling performance of an Li–S cell. Electrochemical analyses over hundreds of cycles indicate that cells containing indium chloride‐modified carbon nanofiber outperform cells with other halogenated salts, delivering an average specific capacity of above 1200 mAh g−1 at 0.2 C. PMID:27981007

  11. Activated carbon nanofibers (ACNF) as cathode for single chamber microbial fuel cells (SCMFCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Carlo; Stadlhofer, Astrid; Hacker, Viktor; Squadrito, Gaetano; Schröder, Uwe; Li, Baikun

    2013-12-01

    The suitability of carbon nanofibers (CNF) based cathodes as alternative to the platinum (Pt)-based cathode in single chamber microbial fuel cells (SCMFCs) were extensively studied over 3-month operational period. MFCs were fed with two solutions: synthetic wastewater (phosphate buffer (PBS) plus sodium acetate) and real wastewater (mixed liquor suspendedsolid (MLSS) solution). CNFs were chemically activated using HNO3 and then hot pressed on a carbon cloth support to increase surface area. The cathode polarization showed a better behavior of the clean Pt-based cathode in abiotic conditions. The activation of the nanofibers (ACNFs) gave an advantage to the cathode performances compared to the raw CNFs. The SCMFCs fed with PBS showed four times higher power generation compared to MLSS solution. All the cathodes showed a decrease in performances over time, and the advantage of the Pt over CNF/ACNF disappeared. CNF/ACNF cathodes showed more stability in performances in long time operations. Biofilm formation, salt precipitations on the cathode, and the presence of hydrogen sulfide decreased the activity of Pt cathodes. A degradation and Pt detachment were noticed on Pt cathodes over time. In contrast, CNF/ACNF cathodes exhibited less deterioration throughout the operational period, which demonstrated a great potential as cost-effective cathodes for long-term operation.

  12. A nanobursa mesh: a graded electrospun nanofiber mesh with metal nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senturk-Ozer, Semra; Chen, Tao; Degirmenbasi, Nebahat; Gevgilili, Halil; Podkolzin, Simon G.; Kalyon, Dilhan M.

    2014-07-01

    A new type of material, a ``nanobursa'' mesh (from ``bursa'' meaning ``sac or pouch''), is introduced. This material consists of sequential layers of porous polymeric nanofibers encapsulating carbon nanotubes, which are functionalized with different metal nanoparticles in each layer. The nanobursa mesh is fabricated via a novel combination of twin-screw extrusion and electrospinning. Use of this hybrid process at industrially-relevant rates is demonstrated by producing a nanobursa mesh with graded layers of Pd, Co, Ag, and Pt nanoparticles. The potential use of the fabricated nanobursa mesh is illustrated by modeling of catalytic hydrocarbon oxidation.A new type of material, a ``nanobursa'' mesh (from ``bursa'' meaning ``sac or pouch''), is introduced. This material consists of sequential layers of porous polymeric nanofibers encapsulating carbon nanotubes, which are functionalized with different metal nanoparticles in each layer. The nanobursa mesh is fabricated via a novel combination of twin-screw extrusion and electrospinning. Use of this hybrid process at industrially-relevant rates is demonstrated by producing a nanobursa mesh with graded layers of Pd, Co, Ag, and Pt nanoparticles. The potential use of the fabricated nanobursa mesh is illustrated by modeling of catalytic hydrocarbon oxidation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental methods and computational details. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01145g

  13. Effect of Sulfur Concentration on the Morphology of Carbon Nanofibers Produced from a Botanical Hydrocarbon

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNF) with diameters of 20–130 nm with different morphologies were obtained from a botanical hydrocarbon: Turpentine oil, using ferrocene as catalyst source and sulfur as a promoter by simple spray pyrolysis method at 1,000 °C. The influence of sulfur concentration on the morphology of the carbon nanofibers was investigated. SEM, TEM, Raman, TGA/DTA, and BET surface area were employed to characterize the as-prepared samples. TEM analysis confirms that as-prepared CNFs have a very sharp tip, bamboo shape, open end, hemispherical cap, pipe like morphology, and metal particle trapped inside the wide hollow core. It is observed that sulfur plays an important role to promote or inhibit the CNF growth. Addition of sulfur to the solution of ferrocene and turpentine oil mixture was found to be very effective in promoting the growth of CNF. Without addition of sulfur, carbonaceous product was very less and mainly soot was formed. At high concentration of sulfur inhibit the growth of CNFs. Hence the yield of CNFs was optimized for a given sulfur concentration. PMID:21816116

  14. Hierarchical Structure on Nanofiber via Combination of Electrospinning and Polymer Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Wang, Bingbing; Li, Christopher

    2010-03-01

    We report the formation of hierarchically ordered polymer nanofiber structures, named as nano fiber shish kebabs (NFSKs), by combining electrospinning and controlled polymer crystallization methods. We have proved that it is a general method that can be applied to a number of polymers, both homopolymer and block copolymers.Electrospun poly caprolactone (PCL) nanofibers serve as the shish and a secondary polymer (PCL homopolymer or PCL-related block copolymers) is decorated on the nanofiber in the form of single crystal lamellae by either an incubation (slow crystallization), or a solvent evaporation (fast crystallization) method. This hierarchical architecture is found potential application as a platform for incorporating inorganic nanoparticles into nanoscale polymer fibers in an ordered fashion.

  15. Investigation of Lithium-Air Battery Discharge Product Formed on Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Robert Revell, III

    Carbon nanotubes have been actively investigated for integration in a wide variety of applications since their discovery over 20 years ago. Their myriad desirable material properties including exceptional mechanical strength, high thermal conductivities, large surface-to-volume ratios, and considerable electrical conductivities, which are attributable to a quantum mechanical ability to conduct electrons ballistically, have continued to motivate interest in this material system. While a variety of synthesis techniques exist, carbon nanotubes and nanofibers are most often conveniently synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), which involves their catalyzed growth from transition metal nanoparticles. Vertically-aligned nanotube and nanofiber carpets produced using CVD have been utilized in a variety of applications including those related to energy storage. Li-air (Li-O2) batteries have received much interest recently because of their very high theoretical energy densities (3200 Wh/kgLi2O2 ). which make them ideal candidates for energy storage devices for future fully-electric vehicles. During operation of a Li-air battery O2 is reduced on the surface a porous air cathode, reacting with Li-ions to form lithium peroxide (Li-O2). Unlike the intercalation reactions of Li-ion batteries, discharge in a Li-air cell is analogous to an electrodeposition process involving the nucleation and growth of the depositing species on a foreign substrate. Carbon nanofiber electrodes were synthesized on porous substrates using a chemical vapor deposition process and then assembled into Li-O2 cells. The large surface to volume ratio and low density of carbon nanofiber electrodes were found to yield a very high gravimetric energy density in Li-O 2 cells, approaching 75% of the theoretical energy density for Li 2O2. Further, the carbon nanofiber electrodes were found to be excellent platforms for conducting ex situ electron microscopy investigations of the deposition Li2O2 phase

  16. A smart strategy to fabricate Ru nanoparticle inserted porous carbon nanofibers as highly efficient levulinic acid hydrogenation catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ying; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Brown, Dennis E.; Zhang, Liqiang; Yang, Feng; Zhao, Hairui; Wang, Yue; Ma, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xin; Ren, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we first put forward a smart strategy to in situ fabricate Ru nanoparticle (NP) inserted porous carbon nanofibers by one-pot conversion of Ru-functionalized metal organic framework fibers. Such fiber precursors are skillfully constructed by cooperative assembly of different proportional RuCl3 and Zn(Ac)2·2H2O along with trimesic acid (H3BTC) in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide. The following high-temperature pyrolysis affords uniform and evenly dispersed Ru NPs (ca. 12-16 nm), which are firmly inserted into the hierarchically porous carbon nanofibers formed simultaneously. The resulting Ru-carbon nanofiber (Ru-CNF) catalysts prove to be active towards the liquid-phase hydrogenation of levulinic acid (LA) to γ-valerolactone (GVL), a biomass-derived platform molecule with wide applications in the preparation of renewable chemicals and liquid transportation fuels. The optimal GVL yield of 96.0% is obtained, corresponding to a high activity of 9.23 molLAh–1gRu–1, 17 times of that using the commercial Ru/C catalyst. Moreover, the Ru-CNF catalyst is extremely stable, and can be cycled up to 7 times without significant loss of reactivity. Our strategy demonstrated here reveals new possibilities to make proficient metal catalysts, and provides a general way to fabricate metal-carbon nanofiber composites available for other applications.

  17. New carbon nanofiber/graphite felt composite for use as a catalyst support for hydrazine catalytic decomposition.

    PubMed

    Vieira, R; Pham-Huu, C; Keller, N; Ledoux, M J

    2002-05-07

    Graphite felt supporting 40 nm diameter carbon nanofibers was synthesized and successfully used as a support for a high loaded iridium catalyst (30 wt%) in the decomposition of hydrazine; a strong mechanical resistance and a high thermal conductivity led to a very efficient and stable catalyst as compared to that used industrially, iridium supported on a high surface area alumina.

  18. Direct fabrication of aligned metal composite carbon nanofibers on copper substrate at room temperature and their field emission property.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pradip; Yusop, M Zamri; Ghosh, Debasish; Hayashi, Akari; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Tanemura, Masaki

    2011-04-28

    Direct growth of aligned metal composite carbon nanofibers (MCNFs) was achieved by a highly reproducible room temperature growth process on cost effective electrically conductive copper (Cu) substrate without any catalyst. The direct fabrication of MCNFs on electrically conductive substrate might offer new perspectives in the field of field emission displays (FEDs).

  19. Controlled direct electron transfer kinetics of fructose dehydrogenase at cup-stacked carbon nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Komori, K; Huang, J; Mizushima, N; Ko, S; Tatsuma, T; Sakai, Y

    2017-10-09

    Graphene edge sites not only facilitate heterogeneous electron transfer reactions of redox species because of localization of electrons, but also allow sensitivities and selectivities to be tuned by controlling the atomic oxygen/carbon (O/C) ratio. Here, we immobilized fructose dehydrogenase (FDH) onto the surface of cup-stacked carbon nanofibers (CSCNFs), which provide highly ordered graphene edges with a controlled O/C ratio, and investigated the direct electron communication with FDH. As the O/C ratio decreased at the CSCNF surface, the negative zeta potential was mitigated and the electrochemical communication with FDH was facilitated. This is likely due to improved orientation of FDH molecules on the CSCNF surface. CSCNFs with a controlled O/C ratio could be applied to FDH-based d-fructose biosensors with tunable dynamic range and fructose biofuel cells with a controlled maximum current.

  20. Microstructure and electrochemical properties of polyacrylonitrile-based carbon micro- and nanofibers fabricated by centrifugal spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hang; Min, Xin; Wu, Xiaowen; Wang, Huan; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Zhijie; Huang, Zhaohui; Liu, Yan-gai; Fang, Minghao

    2017-09-01

    Carbon nanofibers were prepared by using centrifugal spinning with polyacrylonitrile as precursor. The microstructure and electrochemical properties of prepared samples were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical workstation, respectively. The results showed that the distribution of fiber diameter showed a normal law. The carbon fibers present good cycle stability at low scan rate. Moreover, the integral area of cyclic voltammetry curve reaches the maximum when the mass ratio of PAN/PMMA is 20:3. The specific capacitance of it is 102 F/g and 84 F/g, in case of the current density at 0.1 A/g and 0.2 A/g, respectively.

  1. Tin Oxide-Carbon-Coated Sepiolite Nanofibers with Enhanced Lithium-Ion Storage Property.

    PubMed

    Hou, Kai; Wen, Xin; Yan, Peng; Tang, Aidong; Yang, Huaming

    2017-12-01

    Natural sepiolite (Sep) nanofibers were coated with carbon and nanoscale SnO2 to prepare an emerging nanocomposite (SnO2-C@Sep), which exhibited enhanced electrochemical performance. Sepiolite could act as a steady skeleton, carbon coating principally led sepiolite from an isolated to an electric state, and decoration of nanoscale SnO2 was beneficial to the functionization of sepiolite. Cycling performances indicated that SnO2-C@Sep showed higher discharge capacities than commercial SnO2 after 50 cycles. The nanocomposite SnO2-C@Sep possessed enhanced lithium storage properties with stable capacity retention and low cost, which could open up a new strategy to synthesize a variety of functional hybrid materials based on the cheap and abundant clay and commercialization of lithium-metal oxide batteries.

  2. Tin Oxide-Carbon-Coated Sepiolite Nanofibers with Enhanced Lithium-Ion Storage Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Kai; Wen, Xin; Yan, Peng; Tang, Aidong; Yang, Huaming

    2017-03-01

    Natural sepiolite (Sep) nanofibers were coated with carbon and nanoscale SnO2 to prepare an emerging nanocomposite (SnO2-C@Sep), which exhibited enhanced electrochemical performance. Sepiolite could act as a steady skeleton, carbon coating principally led sepiolite from an isolated to an electric state, and decoration of nanoscale SnO2 was beneficial to the functionization of sepiolite. Cycling performances indicated that SnO2-C@Sep showed higher discharge capacities than commercial SnO2 after 50 cycles. The nanocomposite SnO2-C@Sep possessed enhanced lithium storage properties with stable capacity retention and low cost, which could open up a new strategy to synthesize a variety of functional hybrid materials based on the cheap and abundant clay and commercialization of lithium-metal oxide batteries.

  3. Porous Core-Shell Fe3C Embedded N-doped Carbon Nanofibers as an Effective Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guangyuan; Lu, Xianyong; Li, Yunan; Zhu, Ying; Dai, Liming; Jiang, Lei

    2016-02-17

    The development of nonprecious-metal-based electrocatalysts with high oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity, low cost, and good durability in both alkaline and acidic media is very important for application of full cells. Herein, we developed a facile and economical strategy to obtain porous core-shell Fe3C embedded nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (Fe3C@NCNF-X, where X denotes pyrolysis temperature) by electrospinning of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and FeCl3 mixture, chemical vapor phase polymerization of pyrrole, and followed by pyrolysis of composite nanofibers at high temperatures. Note that the FeCl3 and polypyrrole acts as precursor for Fe3C core and N-doped carbon shell, respectively. Moreover, PVDF not only plays a role as carbon resources, but also provides porous structures due to hydrogen fluoride exposure originated from thermal decomposition of PVDF. The resultant Fe3C@NCNF-X catalysts, particularly Fe3C@NCNF-900, showed efficient electrocatalytic performance for ORR in both alkaline and acidic solutions, which are attributed to the synergistic effect between Fe3C and N-doped carbon as catalytic active sites, and carbon shell protects Fe3C from leaching out. In addition, the Fe3C@NCNF-X catalyst displayed a better long-term stability, free from methanol crossover and CO-poisoning effects than those of Pt/C, which is of great significance for the design and development of advanced electrocatalysts based on nonprecious metals.

  4. Mass Production of Carbon Nanofibers Using Microwave Technology.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, N M; Abdullah, E C; Sahu, J N; Jayakumar, N S; Ganesan, P

    2015-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNFs) were produced by gas phase single stage microwave assisted chemical vapour deposition (MA-CVD) using ferrocene as a catalyst and acetylene (C2H2) and hydrogen (H2) as precursor gases. The effect of the process parameters such as microwave power, radiation time, and gas ratio of C2H2/H2 was investigated. The CNFs were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Results reveal that the optimized conditions for CNF production were 1000 W reaction power, 35 min radiation time, and 0.8 gas ratio of C2H2/H2. TEM analyses revealed that the uniformly dispersed CNFs diameters ranging from 115-131 nm. The TGA analysis showed that the purity of CNF produced was 93%.

  5. Tailored surface structure of LiFePO4/C nanofibers by phosphidation and their electrochemical superiority for lithium rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon Cheol; Han, Dong-Wook; Park, Mihui; Jo, Mi Ru; Kang, Seung Ho; Lee, Ju Kyung; Kang, Yong-Mook

    2014-06-25

    We offer a brand new strategy for enhancing Li ion transport at the surface of LiFePO4/C nanofibers through noble Li ion conducting pathways built along reduced carbon webs by phosphorus. Pristine LiFePO4/C nanofibers composed of 1-dimensional (1D) LiFePO4 nanofibers with thick carbon coating layers on the surfaces of the nanofibers were prepared by the electrospinning technique. These dense and thick carbon layers prevented not only electrolyte penetration into the inner LiFePO4 nanofibers but also facile Li ion transport at the electrode/electrolyte interface. In contrast, the existing strong interactions between the carbon and oxygen atoms on the surface of the pristine LiFePO4/C nanofibers were weakened or partly broken by the adhesion of phosphorus, thereby improving Li ion migration through the thick carbon layers on the surfaces of the LiFePO4 nanofibers. As a result, the phosphidated LiFePO4/C nanofibers have a higher initial discharge capacity and a greatly improved rate capability when compared with pristine LiFePO4/C nanofibers. Our findings of high Li ion transport induced by phosphidation can be widely applied to other carbon-coated electrode materials.

  6. Structure-induced enhancement of thermal conductivities in electrospun polymer nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zhenxin; Wingert, Matthew C.; Strzalka, Joseph; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Sun, Tao; Wang, Jin; Chen, Renkun; Jiang, Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Polymers that are thermally insulating in bulk forms have been found to exhibit higher thermal conductivities when stretched under tension. This enhanced heat transport performance is believed to arise from the orientational alignment of the polymer chains induced by tensile stretching. In this work, a novel high-sensitivity micro-device platform was employed to determine the axial thermal conductivity of individual Nylon-11 polymer nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning and post-stretching. Their thermal conductivity showed a correlation with the crystalline morphology measured by high-resolution wide-angle X-ray scattering. The relationship between the nanofiber internal structures and thermal conductivities could provide insights into the understanding of phonon transport mechanisms in polymeric systems and also guide future development of the fabrication and control of polymer nanofibers with extraordinary thermal performance and other desired properties.Polymers that are thermally insulating in bulk forms have been found to exhibit higher thermal conductivities when stretched under tension. This enhanced heat transport performance is believed to arise from the orientational alignment of the polymer chains induced by tensile stretching. In this work, a novel high-sensitivity micro-device platform was employed to determine the axial thermal conductivity of individual Nylon-11 polymer nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning and post-stretching. Their thermal conductivity showed a correlation with the crystalline morphology measured by high-resolution wide-angle X-ray scattering. The relationship between the nanofiber internal structures and thermal conductivities could provide insights into the understanding of phonon transport mechanisms in polymeric systems and also guide future development of the fabrication and control of polymer nanofibers with extraordinary thermal performance and other desired properties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI

  7. Electrospun nanofiber membranes for electrically activated shape memory nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fenghua; Zhang, Zhichun; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2014-06-01

    A novel shape memory nanocomposite system, consisting of a thermoplastic Nafion polymer and ultrathin electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbonization nanofiber membranes, is successfully synthesized. PAN-based carbonization nanofiber networks that offer responses to deformations are considered to be an excellent actuation source. Significant improvement in the electrical conductivity of carbon nanofiber membranes is found by adjusting the applied voltage power in the electrospinning PAN process varying from 7.85 to 12.30 S cm-1. The porous structure of the carbon nanofiber membranes provides a large specific surface area and interfacial contact area when combined with the polymer matrix. Shape memory Nafion nanocomposites filled with interpenetrating non-woven electrospun PAN carbonization membranes can be actuated by applying 14 V electrical voltage within 5 s. The results, as demonstrated through morphology, electrical and thermal measurements and a shape recovery test, suggest a valuable route to producing soft nanocomposites.

  8. Facile Synthesis of Coaxial CNTs/MnOx-Carbon Hybrid Nanofibers and Their Greatly Enhanced Lithium Storage Performance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zunxian; Lv, Jun; Pang, Haidong; Yan, Wenhuan; Qian, Kun; Guo, Tailiang; Guo, Zaiping

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/MnOx-Carbon hybrid nanofibers have been successfully synthesized by the combination of a liquid chemical redox reaction (LCRR) and a subsequent carbonization heat treatment. The nanostructures exhibit a unique one-dimensional core/shell architecture, with one-dimensional CNTs encapsulated inside and a MnOx-carbon composite nanoparticle layer on the outside. The particular porous characteristics with many meso/micro holes/pores, the highly conductive one-dimensional CNT core, as well as the encapsulating carbon matrix on the outside of the MnOx nanoparticles, lead to excellent electrochemical performance of the electrode. The CNTs/MnOx-Carbon hybrid nanofibers exhibit a high initial reversible capacity of 762.9 mAhg−1, a high reversible specific capacity of 560.5 mAhg−1 after 100 cycles, and excellent cycling stability and rate capability, with specific capacity of 396.2 mAhg−1 when cycled at the current density of 1000 mAg−1, indicating that the CNTs/MnOx-Carbon hybrid nanofibers are a promising anode candidate for Li-ion batteries. PMID:26621615

  9. Highly Compliant Vascular Grafts with Gelatin-Sheathed Coaxially Structured Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Nagiah, Naveen; Johnson, Richard; Anderson, Roy; Elliott, Winston; Tan, Wei

    2015-12-01

    We have developed three types of materials composed of polyurethane-gelatin, polycaprolactone-gelatin, or polylactic acid-gelatin nanofibers by coaxially electrospinning the hydrophobic core and gelatin sheath with a ratio of 1:5 at fixed concentrations. Results from attenuated total reflection-Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy demonstrated the gelatin coating around nanofibers in all of the materials. Transmission electron microscopy images further displayed the core-sheath structures showing the core-to-sheath thickness ratio varied greatly with the highest ratio found in polyurethane-gelatin nanofibers. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed similar, uniform fibrous structures in all of the materials, which changed with genipin cross-linking due to interfiber interactions. Thermal analyses revealed varied interactions between the hydrophilic sheath and hydrophobic core among the three materials, which likely caused different core-sheath structures, and thus physicomechanical properties. The addition of gelatin around the hydrophobic polymer and their interactions led to the formation of graft scaffolds with tissue-like viscoelasticity, high compliance, excellent swelling capability, and absence of water permeability while maintaining competent tensile modulus, burst pressure, and suture retention. The hydrogel-like characteristics are advantageous for vascular grafting use, because of the capability of bypassing preclotting prior to implantation, retaining vascular fluid volume, and facilitating molecular transport across the graft wall, as shown by coculturing vascular cells sandwiched over a thick-wall scaffold. Varied core-sheath interactions within scaffolding nanofibers led to differences in graft functional properties such as water swelling ratio, compliance, and supporting growth of cocultured vascular cells. The PCL-gelatin scaffold with thick gelatin-sheathed nanofibers demonstrated a more compliant structure, elastic mechanics, and high

  10. Failure modes of electrospun nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zussman, E.; Rittel, D.; Yarin, A. L.

    2003-06-01

    Failure modes of electrospun polymer nanofibers are reported. The nanofibers have diameters in the range of 80-400 nm and lengths greater then several centimeters. The nanofibers fail by a multiple necking mechanism, sometimes followed by the development of a fibriliar structure. This phenomenon is attributed to a strong stretching of solidified nanofibers by the tapered accumulating wheel (electrostatic lens), if its rotation speed becomes too high. Necking has not been observed in the nanofibers collected on a grounded plate.

  11. Carbon nanofibers with radially grown graphene sheets derived from electrospinning for aqueous supercapacitors with high working voltage and energy density.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Qiu, Yejun; Yu, Jie; Deng, Xianyu; Dai, Chenglong; Bai, Xuedong

    2013-06-07

    Improvement of energy density is an urgent task for developing advanced supercapacitors. In this paper, aqueous supercapacitors with high voltage of 1.8 V and energy density of 29.1 W h kg(-1) were fabricated based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and Na2SO4 electrolyte. The CNFs with radially grown graphene sheets (GSs) and small average diameter down to 11 nm were prepared by electrospinning and carbonization in NH3. The radially grown GSs contain between 1 and a few atomic layers with their edges exposed on the surface. The CNFs are doped with nitrogen and oxygen with different concentrations depending on the carbonizing temperature. The supercapacitors exhibit excellent cycling performance with the capacity retention over 93.7% after 5000 charging-discharging cycles. The unique structure, possessing radially grown GSs, small diameter, and heteroatom doping of the CNFs, and application of neutral electrolyte account for the high voltage and energy density of the present supercapacitors. The present supercapacitors are of high promise for practical application due to the high energy density and the advantages of neutral electrolyte including low cost, safety, low corrosivity, and convenient assembly in air.

  12. Nitrogen-doped carbon-embedded TiO2 nanofibers as promising oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassen, D.; Shenashen, M. A.; El-Safty, S. A.; Selim, M. M.; Isago, H.; Elmarakbi, A.; El-Safty, A.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2016-10-01

    The development of inexpensive and effective electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as a substitute for commercial Pt/C catalyst is an important issue in fuel cells. In this paper, we report on novel fabrication of self-supported nitrogen-doped carbon-supported titanium nanofibers (Nsbnd TiO2@C) and carbon-supported titanium (TiO2@C) electrocatalysts via a facile electrospinning route. The nitrogen atom integrates physically and homogenously into the entire carbon-titanium structure. We demonstrate the catalytic performance of Nsbnd TiO2@C and TiO2@C for ORR under alkaline conditions in comparison with Pt/C catalyst. The Nsbnd TiO2@C catalyst shows excellent ORR reactivity and durability. Interestingly, among all the catalysts used in this ORR, Nsbnd TiO2@C-0.75 exhibits remarkable competitive oxygen reduction activity in terms of current density and onset potential, as well as superior methanol tolerance. Such tolerance attributes to maximizing the diffusion of trigger pulse electrons during catalytic reactions because of enhanced electronic features. Results indicate that our fabrication strategy can provide an opportunity to produce a simple, efficient, cost-effective, and promising ORR electrocatalyst for practical applications in energy conversion and storage technologies.

  13. Morphological characterization of carbon nanofiber aerosol using tandem mobility and aerodynamic size measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deye, Gregory J.; Kulkarni, Pramod; Ku, Bon Ki

    2012-09-01

    Characterizing microstructural and transport properties of non-spherical particles, such as carbon nanofibers (CNF), is important for understanding their transport and deposition in human respiratory system and engineered devices such as particle filters. We describe an approach to obtain morphological information of non-spherical particles using a tandem system of differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and an electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI). Effective density, dynamic shape factors (DSF), particle mass, and fractal dimension-like mass-scaling exponent of nanofibers were derived using the measured mobility and aerodynamic diameters, along with the known material density of CNF. Multiple charging of particles during DMA classification, which tends to bias the measured shape factors and particle mass toward higher values, was accounted for using a correction procedure. Particle mass derived from DMA-ELPI measurements agreed well with the direct mass measurements using an aerosol particle mass analyzer. Effective densities, based on mobility diameters, ranged from 0.32 to 0.67 g cm-3. The DSF of the CNF ranged from 1.8 to 2.3, indicating highly non-spherical particle morphologies.

  14. Preparation and electrochemical performance of heteroatom-enriched electrospun carbon nanofibers from melamine formaldehyde resin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chang; Song, Yan; Shi, Jingli; Zhang, Dongqing; Guo, Quangui; Liu, Lang

    2013-04-01

    Melamine formaldehyde resin was used to prepare heteroatom-enriched carbon nanofibers by electrospinning for the first time. The melamine formaldehyde resin-based carbon fibers without any activation treatment showed a moderate specific surface area ranging from 130 to 479 m2/g and rich surface functionalities (2.56-5.34 wt.% nitrogen and 10.39-11.2 9 wt.% oxygen). Both the specific surface area and surface functionality greatly depended on the carbonization temperature. The capacitive performance was evaluated in 6M KOH aqueous solution. The electrochemically active surface functionalities played an important role in improving the surface capacitance of the electrodes. The sample carbonized at 600°C showed the highest specific surface capacitance of 1.4 F/m2, which was attributed to the most active functionalities (10.69 wt.% of N and O). In addition, the sample carbonized at 750°C exhibited the highest specific capacitance of 206 F/g. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of Microstructure Change of Carbon Nanofibers as Binder-Free Anode for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Shi, Shaojun; Li, Yuhong; Zhao, Mengxi; Chang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Di; Wang, Haiying; Peng, Luming; Wang, Peng; Yang, Gang

    2016-12-07

    Flexible and binder-free film of N, O-doped carbon nanofibers (CNFs) is the ideal anode for high-energy-density batteries. Here, CNFs flexible films which the N, O dopant give defect in graphite structure results in high specific surface area more than 500 m(2) g(-1). A flexible film of CNF800 carbonized at 800 °C delivers initial capacities of 2000 and 755 mAh g(-1) at the current densities of 5 and 10 A g(-1), respectively. After 500 cycles, CNF800 remains the capacities of 1251, 865, 702, and 305 mAh g(-1) at 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 A g(-1), respectively. The microstructures of CNFs under various state of charge are studied by HRTEM, XPS, (13)C NMR, and so forth. The lithiation/delithiation mainly happens to the interlayer of graphite domain of CNFs. The dopants of nitrogen and oxygen involve in lithiation, but much of Li-N is irreversible. The excellent performances of CNFs film can be attributed to the N, O doped structure of graphite domain that has increased the conductivity and lithium storage ability. Further development of N, O doped CNFs may enable practical applications as flexible anode in high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Electrocatalytic Behavior of Hemoglobin Oxidation of Hydrazine Based on ZnO Nano-rods with Carbon Nanofiber Modified Electrode.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Ding, Wen; Meng, Junli; Ni, Henmei; Li, Ying; Ma, Quanhong

    2015-01-01

    A novel biosensor was developed by immobilizing hemoglobin (Hb) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a composite of ZnO nano-rods and carbon nanofiber (CNF), a strong reducer, hydrazine, was firstly used to evaluate the electrochemical behavior of Hb on Hb/ZnO/CNF/GCE. UV-vis and circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated the conformational structure of Hb interaction with ZnO/CNF was predominantly an α-helical structure. The modified electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry. Electrocatalytic mechanism of Hb to oxidation reaction of hydrazine was suggested. The bioelectrocatalytic activity, kinetic parameters of Michaelis-Menten constant (Km), stability and reproducibility were also investigated. A linear dependence of peak currents to the concentrations of hydrazine was observed in the range from 1.98 × 10(-5) to 1.71 × 10(-3) mol L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.998, and a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 6.60 μmol L(-1) was estimated.

  17. Graphitic Carbon-Coated FeSe2 Hollow Nanosphere-Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid Nanofibers as an Efficient Anode Material for Sodium Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jung Sang; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-01-01

    A novel one-dimensional nanohybrid comprised of conductive graphitic carbon (GC)-coated hollow FeSe2 nanospheres decorating reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanofiber (hollow nanosphere FeSe2@GC–rGO) was designed as an efficient anode material for sodium ion batteries and synthesized by introducing the nanoscale Kirkendall effect into the electrospinning method. The electrospun nanofibers transformed into hollow nanosphere FeSe2@GC–rGO hybrid nanofibers through a Fe@GC–rGO intermediate. The discharge capacities of the bare FeSe2 nanofibers, nanorod FeSe2–rGO–amorphous carbon (AC) hybrid nanofibers, and hollow nanosphere FeSe2@GC–rGO hyrbid nanofibers at a current density of 1 A g−1 for the 150th cycle were 63, 302, and 412 mA h g−1, respectively, and their corresponding capacity retentions measured from the 2nd cycle were 11, 73, and 82%, respectively. The hollow nanosphere FeSe2@GC–rGO hybrid nanofibers delivered a high discharge capacity of 352 mA h g−1 even at an extremely high current density of 10 A g−1. The enhanced electrochemical properties of the hollow nanosphere FeSe2@GC–rGO composite nanofibers arose from the synergetic effects of the FeSe2 hollow morphology and highly conductive rGO matrix. PMID:27033096

  18. Controlled Molybdenum Disulfide Assembly inside Carbon Nanofiber by Boudouard Reaction Inspired Selective Carbon Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Dae-Hyun; Kang, Ho-Young; Jo, Jun-Hyun; Kim, Byung Kyu; Na, Sekwon; Sim, Uk; Ahn, In-Kyoung; Yi, Kyung-Woo; Nam, Ki Tae; Joo, Young-Chang

    2017-03-01

    Vertical stacking and lateral growth of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) are controlled with remarkable precision, and MoS2 nanotubes are directly converted from nanofibers. Predictive synthesis is enabled by identifying the specific thermodynamic region where the Boudouard reaction becomes favored. It reveals how the chemical potential of each species in the MoSCO system can predict phase behaviors.

  19. Electrochemical performance of fulvic acid-based electrospun hard carbon nanofibers as promising anodes for sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Pin-Yi; Zhang, Jie; Li, Qi; Wang, Cheng-Yang

    2016-12-01

    The electrochemical performance of fulvic acid-based electrospun hard carbon nanofibers (PF-CNFs) as anodes for sodium-ion batteries is reported. PF-CNFs were prepared, stabilization in air at 280 °C and then carbonized in N2 at 800, 1000, 1300 or 1500 °C. The PF-CNFs prepared at 1300 °C had abundant oxygen functional groups, large interlayer spaces and stable morphologies and when used as anodes in sodium-ion batteries, a reversible sodium intercalation capacity of 248 mAh g-1 was obtained with capacity retention ratio of 91% after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1. This large capacity combined with the superior cycling performance indicates that fulvic acid-based carbon nanofibers are promising electrode materials for use in rechargeable sodium-ion batteries.

  20. Improved lithium-ion battery anode capacity with a network of easily fabricated spindle-like carbon nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengting; Xie, Wenhe; Gu, Lili; Qin, Tianfeng; Hou, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    Summary A novel network of spindle-like carbon nanofibers was fabricated via a simplified synthesis involving electrospinning followed by preoxidation in air and postcarbonization in Ar. Not only was the as-obtained carbon network comprised of beads of spindle-like nanofibers but the cubic MnO phase and N elements were successfully anchored into the amorphous carbon matrix. When directly used as a binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries, the network showed excellent electrochemical performance with high capacity, good rate capacity and reliable cycling stability. Under a current density of 0.2 A g−1, it delivered a high reversible capacity of 875.5 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles and 1005.5 mAh g−1 after 250 cycles with a significant coulombic efficiency of 99.5%. PMID:27826503

  1. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Anjali Sharma, Arti; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav; Dharamvir, Keya

    2015-08-28

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds.

  2. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Anjali; Sharma, Arti; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav; Dharamvir, Keya

    2015-08-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds.

  3. Electrosorption of ions from aqueous solutions with carbon nanotubes and nanofibers composite film electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. Z.; Li, M. G.; Chen, Y. W.; Cheng, R. M.; Huang, S. M.; Pan, L. K.; Sun, Z.

    2006-07-01

    Electrosorption of ions from aqueous solutions with carbon nanotubes and nanofibers (CNTs-CNFs) composite film electrodes has been demonstrated. The large area CNTs-CNFs film was directly grown on Ni plate by low pressure and low temperature thermal chemical vapor deposition. The CNTs-CNFs electrodes have great advantages such as low cost, easy operation, long-term reproducibility, and integrity of monolithic CNTs-CNFs film and current collector. Batch-mode experiments at low voltage (0.4-2V) were conducted in a continuously recycling system to investigate the electrosorption process. Purification of water with good reproducibility was achieved because of optimal pore size distribution of CNTs-CNFs composite films.

  4. Carbon nanofibers modified graphite felt for high performance anode in high substrate concentration microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Youliang; Zhou, Yan; Chen, Shuiliang; Yang, Fangfang; Zheng, Suqi; Hou, Haoqing

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers modified graphite fibers (CNFs/GF) composite electrode was prepared for anode in high substrate concentration microbial fuel cells. Electrochemical tests showed that the CNFs/GF anode generated a peak current density of 2.42 mA cm(-2) at a low acetate concentration of 20 mM, which was 54% higher than that from bare GF. Increase of the acetate concentration to 80 mM, in which the peak current density of the CNFs/GF anode greatly increased and was up to 3.57 mA cm(-2), was seven times as that of GF anode. Morphology characterization revealed that the biofilms in the CNFs/GF anode were much denser than those in the bare GF. This result revealed that the nanostructure in the anode not only enhanced current generation but also could tolerate high substrate concentration.

  5. Direct measurement of the percolation probability in carbon nanofiber-polyimide nanocomposites.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, David H.; Trionfi, Aaron; Vaia, Richard A.; Hsu, Julia W. P.; Jacobs, J. David; Tan, L.-Seng

    2008-11-01

    We present the first experimental measurement of the geometric critical exponent {beta} associated with the percolation probability, the probability a metallic filler belongs to the conducting network, of an electrical composite. The technique employs conducting-tip atomic force microscopy to obtain a conducting areal density, and is demonstrated on polyimide nanocomposites containing different concentrations of carbon nanofibers. We find {beta} {approx} 1 and t (the exponent for bulk conductivity) {approx} 3. These values are consistent with the predictions for the Bethe lattice and larger than the values predicted in the 3D lattice percolation model. Hence, this electrical composite likely belongs to the same universality class as the Bethe lattice. The ability to measure geometric and transport critical exponents on the same material is critical to drawing this conclusion.

  6. Field emission from a single carbon nanofiber at sub 100 nm gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, H. S.; Lau, S. P.; Ang, L. K.; You, G. F.; Tanemura, M.; Yamaguchi, K.; Zamri, M.; Yusop, M.

    2008-07-01

    The authors report the electron field emission from a single carbon nanofiber (CNF) over a range of anode to CNF tip separations of 20-5500nm. Our results show that the field enhancement factor γ is associated with the electrode separation (S). The modified Miller equation is a reasonable empirical model to describe the behavior of γ, which varies with S over a large range of values. The γ approaches to an asymptotic value of 415 or 1 when S is very large or very small as compared to the length of the CNF, respectively. The maximum field emission current sustained by the single CNF without causing damage was estimated to be as high as 15μA.

  7. Enhanced performance in dye-sensitized solar cells via carbon nanofibers-platinum composite counter electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poudel, Prashant; Zhang, Lifeng; Joshi, Prakash; Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Fong, Hao; Qiao, Qiquan

    2012-07-01

    A composite counter electrode (CE) made of electrospun carbon nanofibers (ECNs) and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles has been demonstrated for the first time to improve the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The new ECN-Pt composite CE exhibited a more efficient electro-catalytic performance with lower charge transfer resistance (Rct), larger surface area, and faster reaction rate than those of conventional Pt. It reduced the overall series resistance (Rse), decreased dark saturation current density (J0) and increased shunt resistance (Rsh) of the DSCs, thereby leading to a higher fill factor (FF) and larger open circuit voltage (Voc). The reduced electron transport resistance (Rs) and faster charge transfer rate in the CE led to a smaller overall cell series resistance (Rse) in the ECN-Pt composite based DSCs. The DSCs based on an ECN-Pt CE achieved a η of ~8%, which was improved over those of pure Pt or ECN based cells.

  8. Flexible Sensing Arrays Fabricated with Carbon Nanofiber Composite Thin Films for Posture Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Fuh-Yu; Wang, Ruoh-Huey; Lin, Yu-Hsien; Chen, Tse-Min; Lee, Yueh-Feng; Huang, Shu-Jiuan; Liu, Chia-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Faulty posture increases joint stress and causes postural pain syndrome. In this paper, we present a portable strain sensing system with flexible sensor arrays to warn patients to correct inappropriate posture. A 3×3 flexible strain sensing array system was fabricated using patterned surface treatment and the tilted-drop process with carbon nanofiber composite solutions on polyimide substrates. Atmospheric plasma was used to enhance or reduce the surface energy in specific areas for patterned surface treatment. A scanning circuit was also developed to capture the signal from the flexible sensing array. The developed system has been used to measure the bent angle of the human neck from 15 to 60°. The results indicate that human posture can be successfully captured by analyzing the measured strains from a flexible strain sensing array.

  9. Sensitivity of Dielectric Properties to Wear Process on Carbon Nanofiber/High-Density Polyethylene Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tian; Wood, Weston; Zhong, Wei-Hong

    2011-12-01

    We examined the correlation of wear effects with dielectric properties of carbon nanofibers (CNFs; untreated and organosilane-treated)-reinforced high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. Wear testing for the nanocomposites over up to 120 h was carried out, and then, dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss factor of the polymer composites with the increased wear time were studied. Scanning electron microscope and optical microscope observations were made to analyze the microstructure features of the nanocomposites. The results reveal that there exist approximate linear relationships of permittivity with wear coefficient for the nanocomposites. Composites containing silanized CNFs with the sufficiently thick coating exhibited high wear resistance. The change in permittivity was more sensitive to the increased wear coefficient for the nanocomposites with lower wear resistance. This work provides potential for further research on the application of dielectric signals to detect the effects of wear process on lifetime of polymeric materials.

  10. Carbon nanofiber supported bimetallic PdAu nanoparticles for formic acid electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yuan-Hang; Jiang, Yue; Niu, Dong-Fang; Zhang, Xin-Sheng; Zhou, Xing-Gui; Niu, Li; Yuan, Wei-Kang

    2012-10-01

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF) supported PdAu nanoparticles are synthesized with sodium citrate as the stabilizing agent and sodium borohydride as the reducing agent. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) characterization indicates that the synthesized PdAu particles are well dispersed on the CNF surface and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization indicates that the alloying degree of the synthesized PdAu nanoparticles can be improved by adding tetrahydrofuran to the synthesis solution. The results of electrochemical characterization indicate that the addition of Au can promote the electrocatalytic activity of Pd/C catalyst for formic acid oxidation and the CNF supported high-alloying PdAu catalyst possesses better electrocatalytic activity and stability for formic acid oxidation than either the CNF supported low-alloying PdAu catalyst or the CNF supported Pd catalyst.

  11. Synthesis of highly dispersed and active palladium/carbon nanofiber catalyst for formic acid electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yuan-Hang; Jiang, Yue; Yang, Hou-Hua; Zhang, Xin-Sheng; Zhou, Xing-Gui; Niu, Li; Yuan, Wei-Kang

    2011-05-01

    Highly dispersed and active palladium/carbon nanofiber (Pd/CNF) catalyst is synthesized by NaBH4 reduction with trisodium citrate as the stabilizing agent. The obtained Pd/CNF catalyst is characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the Pd nanoparticles with an average particle size of ca. 3.8 nm are highly dispersed on the CNF support even with a small ratio of citrate to Pd precursor, which is believed to be due to the pH adjustment of citrate stabilized colloidal Pd nanoparticles. The cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques show that the obtained Pd/CNF catalyst exhibits good catalytic activity and stability for the electrooxidation of formic acid.

  12. Electrosorption of ions from aqueous solutions with carbon nanotubes and nanofibers composite film electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X. Z.; Li, M. G.; Chen, Y. W.; Cheng, R. M.; Huang, S. M.; Pan, L. K.; Sun, Z.

    2006-07-31

    Electrosorption of ions from aqueous solutions with carbon nanotubes and nanofibers (CNTs-CNFs) composite film electrodes has been demonstrated. The large area CNTs-CNFs film was directly grown on Ni plate by low pressure and low temperature thermal chemical vapor deposition. The CNTs-CNFs electrodes have great advantages such as low cost, easy operation, long-term reproducibility, and integrity of monolithic CNTs-CNFs film and current collector. Batch-mode experiments at low voltage (0.4-2 V) were conducted in a continuously recycling system to investigate the electrosorption process. Purification of water with good reproducibility was achieved because of optimal pore size distribution of CNTs-CNFs composite films.

  13. Sensitivity of Dielectric Properties to Wear Process on Carbon Nanofiber/High-Density Polyethylene Composites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian; Wood, Weston; Zhong, Wei-Hong

    2011-12-01

    We examined the correlation of wear effects with dielectric properties of carbon nanofibers (CNFs; untreated and organosilane-treated)-reinforced high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. Wear testing for the nanocomposites over up to 120 h was carried out, and then, dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss factor of the polymer composites with the increased wear time were studied. Scanning electron microscope and optical microscope observations were made to analyze the microstructure features of the nanocomposites. The results reveal that there exist approximate linear relationships of permittivity with wear coefficient for the nanocomposites. Composites containing silanized CNFs with the sufficiently thick coating exhibited high wear resistance. The change in permittivity was more sensitive to the increased wear coefficient for the nanocomposites with lower wear resistance. This work provides potential for further research on the application of dielectric signals to detect the effects of wear process on lifetime of polymeric materials.

  14. Nitrogen/phosphorus co-doped nonporous carbon nanofibers for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiaodong; Liu, Yuan; Fan, Xiaorong; Jia, Xiaolong; Yu, Yunhua; Yang, Xiaoping

    2014-02-01

    This study demonstrates a facile and effective approach to prepare nitrogen/phosphorus co-doped nonporous carbon nanofibers (N/P-NPCNFs) through the electrospinning of the polyacrylonitrile and phosphoric acid precursor solutions and subsequent thermal treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses show that the contents of phosphorus and pyrrol-like nitrogen in N/P-NPCNFs can be tuned by controlling the amount of phosphoric acid. The maximum specific capacitance of 224.9 F g-1 is achieved at 0.5 A g-1 in 1 M H2SO4. Furthermore, the specific capacitance could still remain 155.5 F g-1 at 30 A g-1 with a high capacitance retention ratio of 70%. It is worth noting that no capacitance loss is observed over 8000 charge/discharge cycles, clearly demonstrating a robust long-term stability. The excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to the synergetic effect of nitrogen and phosphorus functionalities.

  15. Fabrication of Carbon Nanofiber Emitters for Excitation of Organic Phosphor Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, Shinji; Yoshikuni, Masato; Iwata, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    For applications to a novel low-voltage acceleration field emission display, carbon nanofiber (CNF) emitters were fabricated using a screen printing method. The two types of CNF of different lengths, normal-length CNFs, and cut CNFs were examined. A current density of 1.4 mA/cm2 was achieved at 10 V/µm in CNF emitters prepared from the paste composed of normal-length CNFs (1 wt %), glass paste (6 wt %), and gold nanometal ink (30 wt %). The field enhancement factor β in the Fowler-Nordheim equation was ca. 5800. CNF emitters without gold nanometal ink showed low performance. Emitter performance was determined on the basis of the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and field emission characteristics.

  16. Fabrication and Properties of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate-Carbon Nanofiber Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF) is one of the stiffest materials produced commercially, having excellent mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. The reinforcement of rubbery matrices by CNFs was studied in the case of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). The tensile strength was greatly (61%) increased, even for very low fiber content (i.e., 1.0 wt.%). The surface modification of the fiber by high energy electron beam and gamma irradiation led to better dispersion in the rubber matrix. This in turn gave rise to further improvements in mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of EVA. The thermal conductivity also exhibited improvements from that of the neat elastomer, although thermal stability of the nanocomposites was not significantly altered by the functionalization of CNFs. Various results were well supported by the morphological analysis of the nanocomposites. PMID:20596388

  17. Carbon nanofiber aerogels for emergent cleanup of oil spillage and chemical leakage under harsh conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhen-Yu; Li, Chao; Liang, Hai-Wei; Zhang, Yu-Ning; Wang, Xin; Chen, Jia-Fu; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2014-01-01

    To address oil spillage and chemical leakage accidents, the development of efficient sorbent materials is of global importance for environment and water source protection. Here we report on a new type of carbon nanofiber (CNF) aerogels as efficient sorbents for oil uptake with high sorption capacity and excellent recyclability. Importantly, the oil uptake ability of the CNF aerogels can be maintained over a wide temperature range, from liquid nitrogen temperature up to ca. 400°C, making them suitable for oil cleanup under harsh conditions. The outstanding sorption performance of CNF aerogels is associated with their unique physical properties, such as low density, high porosity, excellent mechanical stability, high hydrophobicity and superoleophilicity. PMID:24518262

  18. Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Composites-Molecular Dynamics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sumit; Chandra, Rakesh; Kumar, Pramod; Kumar, Navin

    2016-06-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation has been used to study the effect of carbon nanofiber (CNF) volume fraction ( V f) and aspect ratio ( l/d) on mechanical properties of CNF-reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. Materials Studio 5.5 has been used as a tool for finding the modulus and damping in composites. CNF composition in PP was varied by volume from 0% to 16%. The aspect ratio of CNF was varied from l/d = 5 to l/d = 100. Results show that, with only 2% addition by volume of CNF in PP, E 11 increases 748%. Increase in E 22 is much less in comparison to the increase in E 11. With the increase in the CNF aspect ratio ( l/d) up to l/d = 60, the longitudinal loss factor ( η 11) decreases rapidly. The results of this study have been compared with those available in the literature.

  19. Design and synthesis of superhydrophobic carbon nanofiber composite coatings for terahertz frequency shielding and attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Arindam; Megaridis, Constantine M.; Liu, Lei; Wang, Tao; Biswas, Abhijit

    2011-04-01

    We report design and synthesis of polymer-based large-area superhydrophobic carbon nanofiber (CNF) composite coatings for tunable electromagnetic interference shielding and attenuation in the terahertz (THz) frequency regime. Such coatings with different CNF/polymer weight ratios are characterized by a frequency domain THz spectroscopy system. A maximum THz shielding effectiveness of ˜32 dB was measured in the examined frequency range of 570-630 GHz. Coating attenuation level varied with CNF loading. Two-dimensional distributions of power attenuation at 600 GHz showed good spatial uniformity. The present composite coatings, in addition to their self-cleaning property, have high potential for advanced technology high-frequency applications.

  20. A Glucose Biosensor Using CMOS Potentiostat and Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Al Mamun, Khandaker A; Islam, Syed K; Hensley, Dale K; McFarlane, Nicole

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports a linear, low power, and compact CMOS based potentiostat for vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNF) based amperometric glucose sensors. The CMOS based potentiostat consists of a single-ended potential control unit, a low noise common gate difference-differential pair transimpedance amplifier and a low power VCO. The potentiostat current measuring unit can detect electrochemical current ranging from 500 nA to 7 [Formula: see text] from the VACNF working electrodes with high degree of linearity. This current corresponds to a range of glucose, which depends on the fiber forest density. The potentiostat consumes 71.7 [Formula: see text] of power from a 1.8 V supply and occupies 0.017 [Formula: see text] of chip area realized in a 0.18 [Formula: see text] standard CMOS process.

  1. Sensitivity of Dielectric Properties to Wear Process on Carbon Nanofiber/High-Density Polyethylene Composites

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We examined the correlation of wear effects with dielectric properties of carbon nanofibers (CNFs; untreated and organosilane-treated)-reinforced high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. Wear testing for the nanocomposites over up to 120 h was carried out, and then, dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss factor of the polymer composites with the increased wear time were studied. Scanning electron microscope and optical microscope observations were made to analyze the microstructure features of the nanocomposites. The results reveal that there exist approximate linear relationships of permittivity with wear coefficient for the nanocomposites. Composites containing silanized CNFs with the sufficiently thick coating exhibited high wear resistance. The change in permittivity was more sensitive to the increased wear coefficient for the nanocomposites with lower wear resistance. This work provides potential for further research on the application of dielectric signals to detect the effects of wear process on lifetime of polymeric materials. PMID:27502631

  2. Chloride-reinforced carbon nanofiber host as effective polysulfide traps in lithium-sulfur batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Lei; Zhuang, Houlong; Zhang, Kaihang; Cooper, Valentino R; Li, Qi; Lu, Yingying

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is one of the most promising alternatives for the current state-of-art lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to its high theoretical energy density and lower production cost from the use of earth abundant element - sulfur. However, the commercialization of Li-S batteries has been so far limited to the cyclability and the retention of active sulfur materials. Using co-electrospinning and physical vapor deposition procedures, we created a class of chloride-carbon nanofiber composites, and studied their effectiveness on polysulfides sequestration. By trapping sulfur reduction products in the modified-cathode through both chemical and physical confinements in a conductive host, these chloride-coated cathodes are shown to remarkably suppress the polysulfide dissolution and shuttling between lithium and sulfur electrodes. We show that not only the binding energy but also the electronic conductivity of the host plays an important role on the reversibility of sulfur-based cathode upon repeated cycles. Electrochemical analysis of the chloride-modified cathodes over hundreds of cycles indicates that too strong binding of the sulfur species may lead to the decay of Coulombic efficiency. Cells containing indium chloride-modified carbon nanofiber outperform cells with other halogenated salt modifications, delivering an average specific capacity of above 1200mAh g-1 at 0.2C over 200 cycles. Once loaded with high S content, it shows stable capacity retention with only 0.019% decay per cycle from 5th to 650th cycle. It also shows stabilized cyclability and enhanced Coulombic efficiency in the absence of traditional anode stabilizer lithium nitrite.

  3. Chloride-reinforced carbon nanofiber host as effective polysulfide traps in lithium-sulfur batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Fan, Lei; Zhuang, Houlong; Zhang, Kaihang; ...

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is one of the most promising alternatives for the current state-of-art lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to its high theoretical energy density and lower production cost from the use of earth abundant element - sulfur. However, the commercialization of Li-S batteries has been so far limited to the cyclability and the retention of active sulfur materials. Using co-electrospinning and physical vapor deposition procedures, we created a class of chloride-carbon nanofiber composites, and studied their effectiveness on polysulfides sequestration. By trapping sulfur reduction products in the modified-cathode through both chemical and physical confinements in a conductive host, these chloride-coatedmore » cathodes are shown to remarkably suppress the polysulfide dissolution and shuttling between lithium and sulfur electrodes. We show that not only the binding energy but also the electronic conductivity of the host plays an important role on the reversibility of sulfur-based cathode upon repeated cycles. Electrochemical analysis of the chloride-modified cathodes over hundreds of cycles indicates that too strong binding of the sulfur species may lead to the decay of Coulombic efficiency. Cells containing indium chloride-modified carbon nanofiber outperform cells with other halogenated salt modifications, delivering an average specific capacity of above 1200mAh g-1 at 0.2C over 200 cycles. Once loaded with high S content, it shows stable capacity retention with only 0.019% decay per cycle from 5th to 650th cycle. It also shows stabilized cyclability and enhanced Coulombic efficiency in the absence of traditional anode stabilizer lithium nitrite.« less

  4. Strong magnetic field-assisted growth of carbon nanofibers and its microstructural transformation mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Chengzhi; Fu, Qiang; Pan, Chunxu

    2015-01-01

    It is well-known that electric and magnetic fields can control the growth direction, morphology and microstructure of one-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (1-DCNMs), which plays a key role for its potential applications in micro-nano-electrics and devices. In this paper, we introduce a novel process for controlling growth of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with assistance of a strong magnetic field (up to 0.5 T in the center) in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system. The results reveal that: 1) The CNFs get bundled when grown in the presence of a strong magnetic field and slightly get aligned parallel to the direction of the magnetic field; 2) The CNFs diameter become narrowed and homogenized with increase of the magnetic field; 3) With the increase of the magnetic field, the microstructure of CNFs is gradually changed, i.e., the strong magnetic field makes the disordered “solid-cored” CNFs transform into a kind of bamboo-liked carbon nanotubes; 4) We propose a mechanism that the reason for these variations and transformation is due to diamagnetic property of carbon atoms, so that it has direction selectivity in the precipitation process. PMID:25761381

  5. Face-centered-cubic lithium crystals formed in mesopores of carbon nanofiber electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byoung-Sun; Seo, Jong-Hyun; Son, Seoung-Bum; Kim, Seul Cham; Choi, In-Suk; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Lee, Se-Hee; Yu, Woong-Ryeol

    2013-07-23

    In the foreseeable future, there will be a sharp increase in the demand for flexible Li-ion batteries. One of the most important components of such batteries will be a freestanding electrode, because the traditional electrodes are easily damaged by repeated deformations. The mechanical sustainability of carbon-based freestanding electrodes subjected to repeated electrochemical reactions with Li ions is investigated via nanotensile tests of individual hollow carbon nanofibers (HCNFs). Surprisingly, the mechanical properties of such electrodes are improved by repeated electrochemical reactions with Li ions, which is contrary to the conventional wisdom that the mechanical sustainability of carbon-based electrodes should be degraded by repeated electrochemical reactions. Microscopic studies reveal a reinforcing mechanism behind this improvement, namely, that inserted Li ions form irreversible face-centered-cubic (FCC) crystals within HCNF cavities, which can reinforce the carbonaceous matrix as strong second-phase particles. These FCC Li crystals formed within the carbon matrix create tremendous potential for HCNFs as freestanding electrodes for flexible batteries, but they also contribute to the irreversible (and thus low) capacity of HCNFs.

  6. Strong magnetic field-assisted growth of carbon nanofibers and its microstructural transformation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chengzhi; Fu, Qiang; Pan, Chunxu

    2015-03-01

    It is well-known that electric and magnetic fields can control the growth direction, morphology and microstructure of one-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (1-DCNMs), which plays a key role for its potential applications in micro-nano-electrics and devices. In this paper, we introduce a novel process for controlling growth of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with assistance of a strong magnetic field (up to 0.5 T in the center) in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system. The results reveal that: 1) The CNFs get bundled when grown in the presence of a strong magnetic field and slightly get aligned parallel to the direction of the magnetic field; 2) The CNFs diameter become narrowed and homogenized with increase of the magnetic field; 3) With the increase of the magnetic field, the microstructure of CNFs is gradually changed, i.e., the strong magnetic field makes the disordered ``solid-cored'' CNFs transform into a kind of bamboo-liked carbon nanotubes; 4) We propose a mechanism that the reason for these variations and transformation is due to diamagnetic property of carbon atoms, so that it has direction selectivity in the precipitation process.

  7. Synthesis of SnO2 versus Sn crystals within N-doped porous carbon nanofibers via electrospinning towards high-performance lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongkang; Lu, Xuan; Li, Longchao; Li, Beibei; Cao, Daxian; Wu, Qizhen; Li, Zhihui; Yang, Guang; Guo, Baolin; Niu, Chunming

    2016-04-14

    The design of tin-based anode materials (SnO2 or Sn) has become a major concern for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) owing to their different inherent characteristics. Herein, particulate SnO2 or Sn crystals coupled with porous N-doped carbon nanofibers (denoted as SnO2/PCNFs and Sn/PCNFs, respectively) are fabricated via the electrospinning method. The electrochemical behaviors of both SnO2/PCNFs and Sn/PCNFs are systematically investigated as anodes for LIBs. When coupled with porous carbon nanofibers, both SnO2 nanoparticles and Sn micro/nanoparticles display superior cycling and rate performances. SnO2/PCNFs and Sn/PCNFs deliver discharge capacities of 998 and 710 mA h g(-1) after 140 cycles (at 100, 200, 500 and 1000 mA g(-1) each for 10 cycles and then 100 cycles at 100 mA g(-1)), respectively. However, the Sn/PCNF electrodes show better cycling stability at higher current densities, delivering higher discharge capacities of 700 and 550 mA h g(-1) than that of SnO2/PCNFs (685 and 424 mA h g(-1)) after 160 cycles at 200 and 500 mA g(-1), respectively. The different superior electrochemical performance is attributed to the introduction of porous N-doped carbon nanofibers and their self-constructed networks, which, on the one hand, greatly decrease the charge-transfer resistance due to the high conductivity of N-doped carbon fibers; on the other hand, the porous carbon nanofibers with numerous voids and flexible one-dimensional (1D) structures efficiently alleviate the volume changes of SnO2 and Sn during the Li-Sn alloying-dealloying processes. Moreover, the discussion of the electrochemical behaviors of SnO2vs. Sn would provide new insights into the design of tin-based anode materials for practical applications, and the current strategy demonstrates great potential in the rational design of metallic tin-based anode materials.

  8. Amorphous flower-like molybdenum-sulfide-@-nitrogen-doped-carbon-nanofiber film for use in the hydrogen-evolution reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Li, Libo; Guo, Yaxiao; Liu, Dong; You, Tianyan

    2016-06-15

    A novel amorphous flower-like molybdenum sulfides@nitrogen doped carbon nanofibers (MoSx@NCNFs) films are successfully synthesized by combining electrospinning, carbonization and a mild hydrothermal process. NCNFs, as a conductive substrate, can accelerate the electron transfer rate and depress the aggregation of MoSx nanoparticles. The resultant amorphous flower-like MoSx on NCNFs exposes abundant S(2-)/S2(2-) active edge sites which is of great importance for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalytic performance. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate the superior electrocatalytic activity of MoSx@NCNFs toward HER deriving from the synergistic effect between NCNFs and amorphous MoSx. The overpotential is only 137 mV to reach the current density of 10 mA cm(-2) with a Tafel slope of 41 mV decade(-1) at MoSx@NCNFs. Meanwhile, MoSx@NCNFs exhibits satisfactory long-time stability for HER. Noteworthy, the obtained composites show a free-standing structure which can be directly used as electrode materials. This work provides a feasible way to design promising noble-metal free electrocatalysts in the aspect of energy conversion.

  9. Preparation of surfactant-mediated silver and copper nanoparticles dispersed in hierarchical carbon micro-nanofibers for antibacterial applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shiv; Ashfaq, Mohammad; Singh, Rohitashaw Kumar; Joshi, Harish C; Srivastava, Anurag; Sharma, Ashutosh; Verma, Nishith

    2013-09-25

    The antibacterial potential of copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles dispersed in a phenolic resin precursor-based multi-scale web of carbon microfibers (ACFs) and nanofibers (CNFs) was assessed in this study. The multi-scale web of ACF/CNF was prepared by growing the CNFs on the ACF substrate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The Ag or Cu nanoparticles were used as the catalyst, and acetylene (C2H2) gas was used as the carbon source. An anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), was used for the preparation of the Cu/Ag-ACF composites to prevent the agglomeration of Cu(II) and Ag(I) ions and achieve a uniform mono-dispersion during the impregnation step. The prepared composites with Cu and Ag dispersed in the ACF and ACF/CNF were characterized using several analytical techniques, including atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermal programming reduction (TPR). The antibacterial properties of the prepared multi-scale or hierarchical structures were evaluated against the gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) and the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The results revealed that the prepared Ag-ACF/CNFs were highly effective against these bacteria, achieving a complete inhibition of bacterial growth for over 72 hours. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrated fast assembly of free-standing lithium titanate/carbon nanotube/cellulose nanofiber hybrid network film as flexible paper-electrode for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shaomei; Feng, Xin; Song, Yuanyuan; Xue, Xin; Liu, Hongjiang; Miao, Miao; Fang, Jianhui; Shi, Liyi

    2015-05-27

    A free-standing lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12)/carbon nanotube/cellulose nanofiber hybrid network film is successfully assembled by using a pressure-controlled aqueous extrusion process, which is highly efficient and easily to scale up from the perspective of disposable and recyclable device production. This hybrid network film used as a lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrode has a dual-layer structure consisting of Li4Ti5O12/carbon nanotube/cellulose nanofiber composites (hereinafter referred to as LTO/CNT/CNF), and carbon nanotube/cellulose nanofiber composites (hereinafter referred to as CNT/CNF). In the heterogeneous fibrous network of the hybrid film, CNF serves simultaneously as building skeleton and a biosourced binder, which substitutes traditional toxic solvents and synthetic polymer binders. Of importance here is that the CNT/CNF layer is used as a lightweight current collector to replace traditional heavy metal foils, which therefore reduces the total mass of the electrode while keeping the same areal loading of active materials. The free-standing network film with high flexibility is easy to handle, and has extremely good conductivity, up to 15.0 S cm(-1). The flexible paper-electrode for LIBs shows very good high rate cycling performance, and the specific charge/discharge capacity values are up to 142 mAh g(-1) even at a current rate of 10 C. On the basis of the mild condition and fast assembly process, a CNF template fulfills multiple functions in the fabrication of paper-electrode for LIBs, which would offer an ever increasing potential for high energy density, low cost, and environmentally friendly flexible electronics.

  11. Elastic Carbon Aerogels Reconstructed from Electrospun Nanofibers and Graphene as Three-Dimensional Networked Matrix for Efficient Energy Storage/Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yunpeng; Lai, Feili; Zhang, Longsheng; Lu, Hengyi; Miao, Yue-E; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) all-carbon nanofibrous aerogels with good structural stability and elasticity are highly desirable in flexible energy storage/conversion devices. Hence, an efficient surface-induced co-assembly strategy is reported for the novel design and reconstruction of electrospun nanofibers into graphene/carbon nanofiber (CNF) composite aerogels (GCA) with hierarchical structures utilizing graphene flakes as cross-linkers. The as-obtained GCA monoliths possess interconnected macropores and integrated conductive networks, which exhibit high elasticity and great structural robustness. Benefitting from the largely increased surface area and charge-transfer efficiency derived from the multi-form firm interconnections (including pillaring, bridging and jointing) between graphene flakes and CNF ribs, GCA not only reveals prominent capacitive performance as supercapacitor electrode, but also shows excellent hydrogen evolution reaction activity in both acidic and alkaline solutions as a 3D template for decoration of few-layered MoSe2 nanosheets, holding great potentials for energy-related applications. PMID:27511271

  12. Elastic Carbon Aerogels Reconstructed from Electrospun Nanofibers and Graphene as Three-Dimensional Networked Matrix for Efficient Energy Storage/Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yunpeng; Lai, Feili; Zhang, Longsheng; Lu, Hengyi; Miao, Yue-E.; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) all-carbon nanofibrous aerogels with good structural stability and elasticity are highly desirable in flexible energy storage/conversion devices. Hence, an efficient surface-induced co-assembly strategy is reported for the novel design and reconstruction of electrospun nanofibers into graphene/carbon nanofiber (CNF) composite aerogels (GCA) with hierarchical structures utilizing graphene flakes as cross-linkers. The as-obtained GCA monoliths possess interconnected macropores and integrated conductive networks, which exhibit high elasticity and great structural robustness. Benefitting from the largely increased surface area and charge-transfer efficiency derived from the multi-form firm interconnections (including pillaring, bridging and jointing) between graphene flakes and CNF ribs, GCA not only reveals prominent capacitive performance as supercapacitor electrode, but also shows excellent hydrogen evolution reaction activity in both acidic and alkaline solutions as a 3D template for decoration of few-layered MoSe2 nanosheets, holding great potentials for energy-related applications.

  13. First exploration of freestanding and flexible Na2+2xFe2-x(SO4)3@porous carbon nanofiber hybrid films with superior sodium intercalation for sodium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tiantian; Lin, Bo; Li, Qiufeng; Wang, Xiaoguang; Qu, Weili; Zhang, Sen; Deng, Chao

    2016-09-29

    The design of a freestanding electrode is the key to the development of energy storage devices with superior electrochemical performance and mechanical durability. Herein, we propose a highly-scalable strategy for the facile synthesis of a freestanding alluaudite Na2+2xFe2-x(SO4)3@porous carbon-nanofiber hybrid film, which is used as a self-supported and flexible electrode for sodium ion batteries. By the combined use of electrospinning and electrospraying, the freestanding hybrid film is constructed in the form of sulfate nanoparticles enwrapped in highly porous graphitic-like carbon-nanofibers. The multimodal porous architecture of the freestanding hybrid film ensures its superiority in mechanical flexibility and structural stability during repeated electrochemical processes, which meets the long-standing challenge of practical application. Moreover, both the highly conductive and porous framework and the nanoscale particles are favorable for promoting fast electron/ion transport capability. Compared with other carbon based supports such as graphene (GA), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and active carbons (ACs), the flexible carbon nanofiber shows better interaction with electrochemical active materials and superior electrochemical properties. It retains over 95% of the capacity after five hundred cycles at alternate rates of 40C and 5C, which demonstrates the superior ultralong time and high-rate cycling capability. Therefore, the present work provides a facile and highly scalable strategy for the design and fabrication of high-performance freestanding sulfate cathodes for advanced sodium ion batteries.

  14. Occupational Exposure Assessment in Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Primary and Secondary Manufacturers: Mobile Direct-Reading Sampling

    PubMed Central

    DAHM, MATTHEW M.; EVANS, DOUGLAS E.; SCHUBAUER-BERIGAN, MARY K.; BIRCH, M. EILEEN; DEDDENS, JAMES A.

    2015-01-01

    Research Significance Toxicological evidence suggests the potential for a wide range of health effects from exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs). To date, there has been much focus on the use of direct-reading instruments (DRIs) to assess multiple airborne exposure metrics for potential exposures to CNTs and CNFs due to their ease of use and ability to provide instantaneous results. Still, uncertainty exists in the usefulness and interpretation of the data. To address this gap, air-monitoring was conducted at six sites identified as CNT and CNF manufacturers or users and results were compared with filter-based metrics. Methods Particle number, respirable mass, and active surface area concentrations were monitored with a condensation particle counter, a photometer, and a diffusion charger, respectively. The instruments were placed on a mobile cart and used as area monitors in parallel with filter-based elemental carbon (EC) and electron microscopy samples. Repeat samples were collected on consecutive days, when possible, during the same processes. All instruments in this study are portable and routinely used for industrial hygiene sampling. Results Differences were not observed among the various sampled processes compared with concurrent indoor or outdoor background samples while examining the different DRI exposure metrics. Such data were also inconsistent with results for filter-based samples collected concurrently at the same sites [Dahm MM, Evans DE, Schubauer-Berigan MK et al. (2012) Occupational exposure assessment in CNT and nanofiber primary and secondary manufacturers. Ann Occup Hyg; 56: 542–56]. Significant variability was seen between these processes as well as the indoor and outdoor backgrounds. However, no clear pattern emerged linking the DRI results to the EC or the microscopy data (CNT and CNF structure counts). Conclusions Overall, no consistent trends were seen among similar processes at the various sites. The DRI

  15. Metal-free N-doped carbon nanofibers as an efficient catalyst for oxygen reduction reactions in alkaline and acid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruchun; Shao, Xiaofeng; Li, Shuoshuo; Cheng, Pengpeng; Hu, Zhaoxia; Yuan, Dingsheng

    2016-12-01

    The development of metal-free catalysts to replace the use of Pt has played an important role in relation to its application to fuel cells. We report N-doped carbon nanofibers as the catalyst of an oxygen reduction reaction, which were synthesized via carbonizing bacterial cellulose-polypyrrole composites. The as-prepared material exhibited remarkable catalytic activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction with comparable onset potential and the ability to limit the current density of commercial Pt/C catalysts in both alkaline and acid media due to the unique porous three-dimensional network structure and the doped nitrogen atoms. The effect of N functionalities on catalytic behavior was systematically investigated. The results demonstrated that pyridinic-N was the dominating factor for catalytic performance toward the oxygen reduction reaction. Additionally, N-doped carbon nanofibers also demonstrated excellent cycling stability (93.2% and 89.4% retention of current density after chronoamperometry 20 000 s in alkaline and media, respectively), obviously superior to Pt/C.

  16. Metal-free N-doped carbon nanofibers as an efficient catalyst for oxygen reduction reactions in alkaline and acid media.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruchun; Shao, Xiaofeng; Li, Shuoshuo; Cheng, Pengpeng; Hu, Zhaoxia; Yuan, Dingsheng

    2016-12-16

    The development of metal-free catalysts to replace the use of Pt has played an important role in relation to its application to fuel cells. We report N-doped carbon nanofibers as the catalyst of an oxygen reduction reaction, which were synthesized via carbonizing bacterial cellulose-polypyrrole composites. The as-prepared material exhibited remarkable catalytic activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction with comparable onset potential and the ability to limit the current density of commercial Pt/C catalysts in both alkaline and acid media due to the unique porous three-dimensional network structure and the doped nitrogen atoms. The effect of N functionalities on catalytic behavior was systematically investigated. The results demonstrated that pyridinic-N was the dominating factor for catalytic performance toward the oxygen reduction reaction. Additionally, N-doped carbon nanofibers also demonstrated excellent cycling stability (93.2% and 89.4% retention of current density after chronoamperometry 20 000 s in alkaline and media, respectively), obviously superior to Pt/C.

  17. Effect of a room-temperature ionic liquid on the structure and properties of electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Xing, Chenyang; Guan, Jipeng; Li, Yongjin; Li, Jingye

    2014-03-26

    Novel anti-static nanofibers based on blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF6], were fabricated using an electrospinning approach. The effects of the RTIL on the morphology, crystal structure, and physical properties of the PVDF nanofibers were investigated. Incorporation of RTIL leads to an increase in the mean fiber diameter and the rough fiber surface of the PVDF/RTIL composite nanofibers compared with the neat PVDF nanofibers. The PVDF in the PVDF/RTIL nanofibers exhibits an extremely high content (almost 100%) of β crystals, in contrast to the dominance of PVDF γ crystals in bulk melt-blended PVDF/RTIL blends. Nonwoven fabrics produced from the electrospun PVDF/RTIL composite nanofibers show better stretchability and higher electrical conductivity than those made from neat PVDF without RTIL, and are thus excellent antielectrostatic fibrous materials. In addition, RTIL greatly improved the hydrophobicity of the PVDF fibers, enabling them to effectively separate a mixture of tetrachloromethane (CCl4) and water. The extremely high β content, excellent antielectrostatic properties, better stretchability, and hydrophobicity of the present PVDF/RTIL nanofibers make them a promising candidate for micro- and nanoscale electronic device applications.

  18. Carbon Nanofiber/3D Nanoporous Silicon Hybrids as High Capacity Lithium Storage Materials.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeong-Il; Sohn, Myungbeom; Kim, Dae Sik; Park, Cheolho; Choi, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Hansu

    2016-04-21

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF)/3D nanoporous (3DNP) Si hybrid materials were prepared by chemical etching of melt-spun Si/Al-Cu-Fe alloy nanocomposites, followed by carbonization using a pitch. CNFs were successfully grown on the surface of 3DNP Si particles using residual Fe impurities after acidic etching, which acted as a catalyst for the growth of CNFs. The resulting CNF/3DNP Si hybrid materials showed an enhanced cycle performance up to 100 cycles compared to that of the pristine Si/Al-Cu-Fe alloy nanocomposite as well as that of bare 3DNP Si particles. These results indicate that CNFs and the carbon coating layer have a beneficial effect on the capacity retention characteristics of 3DNP Si particles by providing continuous electron-conduction pathways in the electrode during cycling. The approach presented here provides another way to improve the electrochemical performances of porous Si-based high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Hierarchical Electrospun and Cooperatively Assembled Nanoporous Ni/NiO/MnOx/Carbon Nanofiber Composites for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Bhaway, Sarang M; Chen, Yu-Ming; Guo, Yuanhao; Tangvijitsakul, Pattarasai; Soucek, Mark D; Cakmak, Miko; Zhu, Yu; Vogt, Bryan D

    2016-08-03

    A facile method to fabricate hierarchically structured fiber composites is described based on the electrospinning of a dope containing nickel and manganese nitrate salts, citric acid, phenolic resin, and an amphiphilic block copolymer. Carbonization of these fiber mats at 800 °C generates metallic Ni-encapsulated NiO/MnOx/carbon composite fibers with average BET surface area (150 m(2)/g) almost 3 times higher than those reported for nonporous metal oxide nanofibers. The average diameter (∼900 nm) of these fiber composites is nearly invariant of chemical composition and can be easily tuned by the dope concentration and electrospinning conditions. The metallic Ni nanoparticle encapsulation of NiO/MnOx/C fibers leads to enhanced electrical conductivity of the fibers, while the block copolymers template an internal nanoporous morphology and the carbon in these composite fibers helps to accommodate volumetric changes during charging. These attributes can lead to lithium ion battery anodes with decent rate performance and long-term cycle stability, but performance strongly depends on the composition of the composite fibers. The composite fibers produced from a dope where the metal nitrate is 66% Ni generates the anode that exhibits the highest reversible specific capacity at high rate for any composition, even when including the mass of the nonactive carbon and Ni(0) in the calculation of the capacity. On the basis of the active oxides alone, near-theoretical capacity and excellent cycling stability are achieved for this composition. These cooperatively assembled hierarchical composites provide a platform for fundamentally assessing compositional dependencies for electrochemical performance. Moreover, this electrospinning strategy is readily scalable for the fabrication of a wide variety of nanoporous transition metal oxide fibers.

  20. Amperometric sensor for ethanol based on one-step electropolymerization of thionine-carbon nanofiber nanocomposite containing alcohol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lina; McIntosh, Mike; Zhang, Xueji; Ju, Huangxian

    2007-12-15

    Thionine had strong interaction with carbon nanofiber (CNF) and was used in the non-covalent functionalization of carbon nanofiber for the preparation of stable thionine-CNF nanocomposite with good dispersion. With a simple one-step electrochemical polymerization of thionine-CNF nanocomposite and alcohol oxidase (AOD), a stable poly(thionine)-CNF/AOD biocomposite film was formed on electrode surface. Based on the excellent catalytic activity of the biocomposite film toward reduction of dissolved oxygen, a sensitive ethanol biosensor was proposed. The ethanol biosensor could monitor ethanol ranging from 2.0 to 252 microM with a detection limit of 1.7 microM. It displayed a rapid response, an expanded linear response range as well as excellent reproducibility and stability. The combination of catalytic activity of CNF and the promising feature of the biocomposite with one-step non-manual technique favored the sensitive determination of ethanol with improved analytical capabilities.

  1. Consolidation of carbon nanofiber/copper composites by hot-pressing and spark plasma sintering: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Barcena, Jorge; Martinez, Vladimir; Martinez, Ramon; Maudes, Jon; Sarries, Jose-Ignacio; Carol, Iñaki; Gonzalez, Javier-Jesus; Coleto, Javier

    2009-03-01

    Vapour grown carbon nanofibers have been incorporated into a copper matrix at 20 and 40 volume fractions. The manufacturing route involves the dispersion of the carbon nanofibers and their subsequent coating by electroless plating with copper. The consolidation of the composite powders was performed by two different techniques: hot-pressing and spark plasma sintering. A comparative study of the two processes is reported, in terms of microstructure, dispersion and porosity. The consolidation by hot-pressing (at 900 degrees C, 30 MPa) led to poreless composites (relative density > 96%) and to a homogeneous microstructure. On the other hand, spark plasma sintering (at 400 degrees C, 75 MPa) led to lower densification (relative density < 96%) and heterogeneous microstructure.

  2. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Ni-Based Nanoparticles and Patterning for Carbon Nanofiber Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarac, Mehmet Fahri

    This dissertation reviews a comprehensive set of research results comprised of three studies, which includes the synthesis of nickel (Ni) nanoparticles (NPs) and their conversion chemistry, methods for depositing them onto substrates, and catalysis of carbon nanofiber growth. The first part of the work is concerned with the synthesis of Ni NPs, dropcasting and growing them in alignment with carbon nanofibers along a silicon (Si) substrate. Following observed success of this step, Ni NPs were airbrushed across different substrates, attempting to observe differences while reporting the results of an extensive comparative analysis of the different substrates used. Here, it was observed that the Ni NPs had a tendency to have dendritic rather than spherical shapes, motivating an additional study of the cause of branching and how it can be controlled. All three portions of this study are presented and discussed in detail. In the first set of experiments, vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) were created through ligand-stabilized Ni nanoparticle (NP) catalysts and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition; these NPs were used to allow growth of VACNFs in dense arrays. In the pregrowth heating process, the ligands are converted into graphitic shells that prevent agglomeration and coalescence of the catalyst NPs, resulting in a monodisperse VACNF size distribution. Meanwhile, VACNFs were grown from Ni NPs that had been airbrushed onto various substrates (silicon (Si), aluminum (Al), copper (Cu), and titanium (Ti)). Si micropowder was also used as a precursor for Si coatings formed in situ on VACNFs, causing rigidity. Growth of VACNFs on metal foils will facilitate applications that require thermal or electrical contact to the VACNFs, such as anode materials for Li-ion batteries and thermal interface materials. A related study focused on the synthesis of Ni3C1-x NPs, the control of branching in dendritic Ni3C1-x NPs and the effect of branching on the conversion into

  3. Origin of the Excellent Performance of Ru on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanofibers for CO2 Hydrogenation to CH4.

    PubMed

    Roldán, Laura; Marco, Yanila; García-Bordejé, Enrique

    2017-03-22

    Carbon materials have rarely been used as support for CO2 methanation, which is usually carried out using catalysts supported on metal oxides. Here, it is shown that Ru nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (NCNF) provide competitive CH4 production rate and stability compared to Al2 O3 -supported catalysts. Contrary to the general belief about the inert nature of carbon supports, it is demonstrated that NCNF is a non-innocent spectator in CO2 methanation due to its ability to store a high amount of COad reaction intermediates. This explains the excellent catalytic behaviour afforded by this unconventional catalyst support.

  4. In₂S₃/carbon nanofibers/Au ternary synergetic system: hierarchical assembly and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Shao, Changlu; Li, Xinghua; Lu, Na; Wang, Kexin; Miao, Fujun; Liu, Yichun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were successfully synthesized by electrospinning technique. Next, Au nanoparticles (NPs) were assembled on the electrospun CNFs through in situ reduction method. By using the obtained Au NPs modified CNFs (CNFs/Au) as hard template, the In2S3/CNFs/Au composites were synthesized through hydrothermal technique. The results showed that the super long one-dimensional (1D) CNFs (about 306 nm in average diameter) were well connected to form a nanofibrous network; and, the Au NPs with 18 nm in average diameter and In2S3 nanosheets with 5-10nm in thickness were uniformly grown onto the surface of CNFs. Photocatalytic studies revealed that the In2S3/CNFs/Au composites exhibited highest visible-light photocatalytic activities for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RB) compared with pure In2S3 and In2S3/CNFs. The enhanced photocatalytic activity might arise from the high separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs based on the positive synergetic effect between In2S3, CNFs and Au components in this ternary photocatalytic system. Meanwhile, the In2S3/CNFs/Au composites with hierarchical structure possess a strong adsorption ability towards organic dyes, which also contributed to the enhancement of photocatalytic activity. Moreover, the In2S3/CNFs/Au composites could be recycled easily by sedimentation due to their nanofibrous network structure.

  5. A simple synthesis of hollow carbon nanofiber-sulfur composite via mixed-solvent process for lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Zhian; Zhang, Kai; Fang, Jing; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie

    2014-06-01

    A hollow carbon nanofiber supported sulfur (HCNF-S) composite cathode material is prepared by a mixed-solvent (DMF/CS2) process in an organic solution for lithium-sulfur batteries. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations show the hollow structures of the HCNF and the homogeneous distribution of sulfur in the composite. The performance of the HCNF-S cathode is evaluated in lithium-sulfur batteries using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is found that the HCNF-S cathode shows perfect cycling stability. The results exhibit an initial discharge capacity of 1090 mAh g-1 and retains 600 mAh g-1 after 100 discharge/charge cycles at a high rate of 1 C. The excellent electrochemical properties benefit from the hollow and highly conductive network-like structure of HCNFs, which contribute to disperse sulfur and absorb polysulfides, and suppress the formation of residual Li2S layer.

  6. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes, Carbon Nanofibers and Laser-Induced Incandescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Kathy (Technical Monitor); VanderWal, Randy L.; Ticich, Thomas M.; Berger, Gordon M.; Patel, Premal D.

    2004-01-01

    Laser induced incandescence applied to a heterogeneous, multi-element reacting flows is characterized by a) temporally resolved emission spectra, time-resolved emission at selected detection wavelengths and fluence dependence. Laser fluences above 0.6 Joules per square centimeter at 1064 nm initiate laser-induced vaporization, yielding a lower incandescence intensity, as found through fluence dependence measurements. Spectrally derived temperatures show that values of excitation laser fluence beyond this value lead to a super-heated plasma, well above the vaporization of temperature of carbon. The temporal evolution of the emission signal at these fluences is consistent with plasma dissipation processes, not incandescence from solid-like structures.

  7. Mechanical, thermal and morphological characterization of polycarbonate/oxidized carbon nanofiber composites produced with a lean 2-step manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Lively, Brooks; Kumar, Sandeep; Tian, Liu; Li, Bin; Zhong, Wei-Hong

    2011-05-01

    In this study we report the advantages of a 2-step method that incorporates an additional process pre-conditioning step for rapid and precise blending of the constituents prior to the commonly used melt compounding method for preparing polycarbonate/oxidized carbon nanofiber composites. This additional step (equivalent to a manufacturing cell) involves the formation of a highly concentrated solid nano-nectar of polycarbonate/carbon nanofiber composite using a solution mixing process followed by melt mixing with pure polycarbonate. This combined method yields excellent dispersion and improved mechanical and thermal properties as compared to the 1-step melt mixing method. The test results indicated that inclusion of carbon nanofibers into composites via the 2-step method resulted in dramatically reduced ( 48% lower) coefficient of thermal expansion compared to that of pure polycarbonate and 30% lower than that from the 1-step processing, at the same loading of 1.0 wt%. Improvements were also found in dynamic mechanical analysis and flexural mechanical properties. The 2-step approach is more precise and leads to better dispersion, higher quality, consistency, and improved performance in critical application areas. It is also consistent with Lean Manufacturing principles in which manufacturing cells are linked together using less of the key resources and creates a smoother production flow. Therefore, this 2-step process can be more attractive for industry.

  8. Structure and photoactivity of titania derived from nanotubes and nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Michio; Kondo, Naho; Nonaka, Rie; Ito, Eiki; Toyoda, Masahiro; Sogabe, Kazuo; Tsumura, Tomoki

    2009-01-30

    Photoactivity under UV irradiation for the decomposition of methylene blue in water and for the oxidation of NO gas was studied on titania powders derived from titanate nanotube (TNT) and nanofiber (TNF) by annealing at high temperatures, comparing with granular titania (ST-01). Rate constant for methylene blue decomposition k(MB) increased with increasing annealing temperature above 300 degrees C after the conversion from titanate to tinania. It tended to decrease above 700 degrees C, mainly due to the phase transformation from anatase to rutile. The dependences of k(MB) on full width at half maximum intensity (FWHM) were common for three samples, a sharp maximum at around 0.4 degrees in FWHM, but TNF-derived sample gave much higher maximum than ST-01. Change in fraction of oxidized NO with annealing temperature showed a plateau at around 50% and then decreased abruptly by high temperature annealing. Starting from TNT and TNF has an advantage to form fine particles by annealing above 300 degrees C, giving high photoactivity due to high crystallinity and high adsorptivity particularly for methylene blue.

  9. Direct synthesis of carbon nanofibers from South African coal fly ash.

    PubMed

    Hintsho, Nomso; Shaikjee, Ahmed; Masenda, Hilary; Naidoo, Deena; Billing, Dave; Franklyn, Paul; Durbach, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs), cylindrical nanostructures containing graphene, were synthesized directly from South African fly ash (a waste product formed during the combustion of coal). The CNFs (as well as other carbonaceous materials like carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) were produced by the catalytic chemical vapour deposition method (CCVD) in the presence of acetylene gas at temperatures ranging from 400°C to 700°C. The fly ash and its carbonaceous products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), laser Raman spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements. It was observed that as-received fly ash was capable of producing CNFs in high yield by CCVD, starting at a relatively low temperature of 400°C. Laser Raman spectra and TGA thermograms showed that the carbonaceous products which formed were mostly disordered. Small bundles of CNTs and CNFs observed by TEM and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) showed that the catalyst most likely responsible for CNF formation was iron in the form of cementite; X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed these findings.

  10. Mechanisms of titania nanoparticle mediated growth of turbostratic carbon nanotubes and nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, A.; Steiner, S. A.; Bayer, B. C.; Kidambi, P. R.; Hofmann, S.; Strano, M. S.; Wardle, B. L.

    2017-07-01

    Turbostratic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanofibers (CNFs) are synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using titania nanoparticle catalysts, and a quantitative lift-off model is developed to explain CNT and CNF growth. Micron-scale long turbostratic CNTs and CNFs were observed when acetylene is utilized as a carbon feedstock, and an alumina substrate was incorporated to improve the homogeneity of catalyst distribution. Turbostratic CNTs/CNFs are always found attached to nanoparticle corners, in the absence of the graphitic cage that is typically observed with metal nanoparticle-mediated growth. The observed morphology in turbostratic CNTs/CNFs supports a model in which several layers of graphene lift off from high-curvature corners of the titania nanoparticle catalysts. This model explains a key feature, which differentiates the growth of turbostratic CNTs/CNFs via non-metallic nanoparticles from growth using standard metal nanoparticle catalysts. The observed CNT/CNF growth and the accompanying model can impact the assessment of other metal-oxide nanoparticle catalysts, with the findings here contributing to a metal-free synthesis of turbostratic CNTs/CNFs.

  11. Cell studies of hybridized carbon nanofibers containing bioactive glass nanoparticles using bone mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiu-Rui; Hu, Xiao-Qing; Jia, Xiao-Long; Yang, Li-Ka; Meng, Qing-Yang; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Zheng-Zheng; Cai, Qing; Ao, Yin-Fang; Yang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Bone regeneration required suitable scaffolding materials to support the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone-related cells. In this study, a kind of hybridized nanofibrous scaffold material (CNF/BG) was prepared by incorporating bioactive glass (BG) nanoparticles into carbon nanofibers (CNF) via the combination of BG sol-gel and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) electrospinning, followed by carbonization. Three types (49 s, 68 s and 86 s) of BG nanoparticles were incorporated. To understand the mechanism of CNF/BG hybrids exerting osteogenic effects, bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured directly on these hybrids (contact culture) or cultured in transwell chambers in the presence of these materials (non-contact culture). The contributions of ion release and contact effect on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were able to be correlated. It was found that the ionic dissolution products had limited effect on cell proliferation, while they were able to enhance osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in comparison with pure CNF. Differently, the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were both significantly promoted in the contact culture. In both cases, CNF/BG(68 s) showed the strongest ability in influencing cell behaviors due to its fastest release rate of soluble silicium-relating ions. The synergistic effect of CNF and BG would make CNF/BG hybrids promising substrates for bone repairing. PMID:27924854

  12. Cell studies of hybridized carbon nanofibers containing bioactive glass nanoparticles using bone mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiu-Rui; Hu, Xiao-Qing; Jia, Xiao-Long; Yang, Li-Ka; Meng, Qing-Yang; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Zheng-Zheng; Cai, Qing; Ao, Yin-Fang; Yang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-12-07

    Bone regeneration required suitable scaffolding materials to support the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone-related cells. In this study, a kind of hybridized nanofibrous scaffold material (CNF/BG) was prepared by incorporating bioactive glass (BG) nanoparticles into carbon nanofibers (CNF) via the combination of BG sol-gel and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) electrospinning, followed by carbonization. Three types (49 s, 68 s and 86 s) of BG nanoparticles were incorporated. To understand the mechanism of CNF/BG hybrids exerting osteogenic effects, bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured directly on these hybrids (contact culture) or cultured in transwell chambers in the presence of these materials (non-contact culture). The contributions of ion release and contact effect on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were able to be correlated. It was found that the ionic dissolution products had limited effect on cell proliferation, while they were able to enhance osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in comparison with pure CNF. Differently, the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were both significantly promoted in the contact culture. In both cases, CNF/BG(68 s) showed the strongest ability in influencing cell behaviors due to its fastest release rate of soluble silicium-relating ions. The synergistic effect of CNF and BG would make CNF/BG hybrids promising substrates for bone repairing.

  13. Boosting the local anodic oxidation of silicon through carbon nanofiber atomic force microscopy probes.

    PubMed

    Rius, Gemma; Lorenzoni, Matteo; Matsui, Soichiro; Tanemura, Masaki; Perez-Murano, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    Many nanofabrication methods based on scanning probe microscopy have been developed during the last decades. Local anodic oxidation (LAO) is one of such methods: Upon application of an electric field between tip and surface under ambient conditions, oxide patterning with nanometer-scale resolution can be performed with good control of dimensions and placement. LAO through the non-contact mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM) has proven to yield a better resolution and tip preservation than the contact mode and it can be effectively performed in the dynamic mode of AFM. The tip plays a crucial role for the LAO-AFM, because it regulates the minimum feature size and the electric field. For instance, the feasibility of carbon nanotube (CNT)-functionalized tips showed great promise for LAO-AFM, yet, the fabrication of CNT tips presents difficulties. Here, we explore the use of a carbon nanofiber (CNF) as the tip apex of AFM probes for the application of LAO on silicon substrates in the AFM amplitude modulation dynamic mode of operation. We show the good performance of CNF-AFM probes in terms of resolution and reproducibility, as well as demonstration that the CNF apex provides enhanced conditions in terms of field-induced, chemical process efficiency.

  14. NiCu Alloy Nanoparticle-Loaded Carbon Nanofibers for Phenolic Biosensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Dawei; Lv, Pengfei; Zhu, Jiadeng; Lu, Yao; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Xiangwu; Wei, Qufu

    2015-11-20

    NiCu alloy nanoparticle-loaded carbon nanofibers (NiCuCNFs) were fabricated by a combination of electrospinning and carbonization methods. A series of characterizations, including SEM, TEM and XRD, were employed to study the NiCuCNFs. The as-prepared NiCuCNFs were then mixed with laccase (Lac) and Nafion to form a novel biosensor. NiCuCNFs successfully achieved the direct electron transfer of Lac. Cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry were used to study the electrochemical properties of the biosensor. The finally prepared biosensor showed favorable electrocatalytic effects toward hydroquinone. The detection limit was 90 nM (S/N = 3), the sensitivity was 1.5 µA µM(-1), the detection linear range was 4 × 10(-7)-2.37 × 10(-6) M. In addition, this biosensor exhibited satisfactory repeatability, reproducibility, anti-interference properties and stability. Besides, the sensor achieved the detection of hydroquinone in lake water.

  15. NiCu Alloy Nanoparticle-Loaded Carbon Nanofibers for Phenolic Biosensor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dawei; Lv, Pengfei; Zhu, Jiadeng; Lu, Yao; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Xiangwu; Wei, Qufu

    2015-01-01

    NiCu alloy nanoparticle-loaded carbon nanofibers (NiCuCNFs) were fabricated by a combination of electrospinning and carbonization methods. A series of characterizations, including SEM, TEM and XRD, were employed to study the NiCuCNFs. The as-prepared NiCuCNFs were then mixed with laccase (Lac) and Nafion to form a novel biosensor. NiCuCNFs successfully achieved the direct electron transfer of Lac. Cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry were used to study the electrochemical properties of the biosensor. The finally prepared biosensor showed favorable electrocatalytic effects toward hydroquinone. The detection limit was 90 nM (S/N = 3), the sensitivity was 1.5 µA µM−1, the detection linear range was 4 × 10−7–2.37 × 10−6 M. In addition, this biosensor exhibited satisfactory repeatability, reproducibility, anti-interference properties and stability. Besides, the sensor achieved the detection of hydroquinone in lake water. PMID:26610505

  16. Detection of NADH and ethanol based on catalytic activity of soluble carbon nanofiber with low overpotential.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lina; Zhang, Xueji; Ju, Huangxian

    2007-01-15

    The excellent catalytic activity of a novel carbon nanomaterial, soluble carbon nanofiber (CNF) with good dispersion and wettability, to the oxidation of dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) was described for biosensing application. The edge plane sites and oxygen-rich groups presented on the CNF surface could be partially responsible for its electrocatalytic behavior, which induced a substantial decrease by 573 mV in the overpotential of NADH oxidation reaction (compared to a bare electrode). The CNF-coated electrode thus allowed highly sensitive amperometric detection of NADH with a low limit of detection (0.11 muM), low applied potential (+0.06 V), and minimization of surface fouling. Such ability of CNF to promote the electron transfer between NADH and the electrode suggested a new, promising biocompatible platform for development of dehydrogenase-based amperometric biosensors. With alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) as a model, the ADH/CNF-modified electrode could be constructed by a simple casting process. The proposed biosensor showed rapid and highly sensitive amperometric response to ethanol with acceptable preparation reproducibility and excellent stability.

  17. Electrical Properties of Cement-Based Composites with Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene, and Graphite Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Doo-Yeol; You, Ilhwan; Lee, Seung-Jung

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the carbon-based nanomaterial type on the electrical properties of cement paste. Three different nanomaterials, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphite nanofibers (GNFs), and graphene (G), were incorporated into the cement paste at a volume fraction of 1%. The self-sensing capacity of the cement composites was also investigated by comparing the compressive stress/strain behaviors by evaluating the fractional change of resistivity (FCR). The electrical resistivity of the plain cement paste was slightly reduced by adding 1 vol % GNFs and G, whereas a significant decrease of the resistivity was achieved by adding 1 vol % MWCNTs. At an identical volume fraction of 1%, the composites with MWCNTs provided the best self-sensing capacity with insignificant noise, followed by the composites containing GNFs and G. Therefore, the addition of MWCNTs was considered to be the most effective to improve the self-sensing capacity of the cement paste. Finally, the composites with 1 vol % MWCNTs exhibited a gauge factor of 113.2, which is much higher than commercially available strain gauges. PMID:28481296

  18. Synthesis and characterisation of epoxy resins reinforced with carbon nanotubes and nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Prolongo, S G; Gude, M R; Ureña, A

    2009-10-01

    Epoxy nanocomposites were fabricated using two kinds of nanofiller, amino-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and non-treated long carbon nanofibers (CNFs). The non-cured mixtures were analysed through viscosity measurements. The effect of the nanoreinforcement on the curing process was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Finally, the characterisation of cured nanocomposites was carried out studying their thermo-mechanical and electrical behaviour. At room temperature, the addition of CNTs causes a viscosity increase of epoxy monomer much more marked than the introduction of CNFs due to their higher specific area. It was probed that in that case exists chemical reaction between amino-functionalized CNTs and the oxirane rings of epoxy monomer. The presence of nanoreinforcement induces a decrease of curing reaction rate and modifies the epoxy conversion reached. The glass transition temperature of the nanocomposites decreases with the contents of CNTs and CNFs added, which could be related to plasticization phenomena of the nanoreinforcements. The storage modulus of epoxy resin significantly increases with the addition of CNTs and CNFs. This augment is higher with amino-functionalized CNTs due, between other reasons, to the stronger interaction with the epoxy matrix. The electrical conductivity is greatly increased with the addition of CNTs and CNFs. In fact, the percolation threshold is lower than 0.25 wt% due to the high aspect ratio of the used nanoreinforcements.

  19. Direct synthesis of carbon nanofibers from South African coal fly ash

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs), cylindrical nanostructures containing graphene, were synthesized directly from South African fly ash (a waste product formed during the combustion of coal). The CNFs (as well as other carbonaceous materials like carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) were produced by the catalytic chemical vapour deposition method (CCVD) in the presence of acetylene gas at temperatures ranging from 400°C to 700°C. The fly ash and its carbonaceous products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), laser Raman spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements. It was observed that as-received fly ash was capable of producing CNFs in high yield by CCVD, starting at a relatively low temperature of 400°C. Laser Raman spectra and TGA thermograms showed that the carbonaceous products which formed were mostly disordered. Small bundles of CNTs and CNFs observed by TEM and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) showed that the catalyst most likely responsible for CNF formation was iron in the form of cementite; X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed these findings. PMID:25177215

  20. High-Performance Hydrogen Storage Nanoparticles Inside Hierarchical Porous Carbon Nanofibers with Stable Cycling.

    PubMed

    Xia, Guanglin; Chen, Xiaowei; Zhao, Yan; Li, Xingguo; Guo, Zaiping; Jensen, Craig M; Gu, Qinfen; Yu, Xuebin

    2017-05-10

    An effective route based on space-confined chemical reaction to synthesize uniform Li2Mg(NH)2 nanoparticles is reported. The hierarchical pores inside the one-dimensional carbon nanofibers (CNFs), induced by the creation of well-dispersed Li3N, serve as intelligent nanoreactors for the reaction of Li3N with Mg-containing precursors, resulting in the formation of uniformly discrete Li2Mg(NH)2 nanoparticles. The nanostructured Li2Mg(NH)2 particles inside the CNFs are capable of complete hydrogenation and dehydrogenation at a temperature as low as 105 °C with the suppression of ammonia release. Furthermore, by virtue of the nanosize effects and space-confinement by the porous carbon scaffold, no degradation was observed after 50 de/rehydrogenation cycles at a temperature as low as 130 °C for the as-prepared Li2Mg(NH)2 nanoparticles, indicating excellent reversibility. Moreover, the theoretical calculations demonstrate that the reduction in particle size could significantly enhance the H2 sorption of Li2Mg(NH)2 by decreasing the relative activation energy barrier, which agrees well with our experimental results. This method could represent an effective, general strategy for synthesizing nanoparticles of complex hydrides with stable reversibility and excellent hydrogen storage performance.

  1. Boosting the local anodic oxidation of silicon through carbon nanofiber atomic force microscopy probes

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzoni, Matteo; Matsui, Soichiro; Tanemura, Masaki; Perez-Murano, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    Summary Many nanofabrication methods based on scanning probe microscopy have been developed during the last decades. Local anodic oxidation (LAO) is one of such methods: Upon application of an electric field between tip and surface under ambient conditions, oxide patterning with nanometer-scale resolution can be performed with good control of dimensions and placement. LAO through the non-contact mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM) has proven to yield a better resolution and tip preservation than the contact mode and it can be effectively performed in the dynamic mode of AFM. The tip plays a crucial role for the LAO-AFM, because it regulates the minimum feature size and the electric field. For instance, the feasibility of carbon nanotube (CNT)-functionalized tips showed great promise for LAO-AFM, yet, the fabrication of CNT tips presents difficulties. Here, we explore the use of a carbon nanofiber (CNF) as the tip apex of AFM probes for the application of LAO on silicon substrates in the AFM amplitude modulation dynamic mode of operation. We show the good performance of CNF-AFM probes in terms of resolution and reproducibility, as well as demonstration that the CNF apex provides enhanced conditions in terms of field-induced, chemical process efficiency. PMID:25671165

  2. Cell studies of hybridized carbon nanofibers containing bioactive glass nanoparticles using bone mesenchymal stromal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Rui; Hu, Xiao-Qing; Jia, Xiao-Long; Yang, Li-Ka; Meng, Qing-Yang; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Zheng-Zheng; Cai, Qing; Ao, Yin-Fang; Yang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Bone regeneration required suitable scaffolding materials to support the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone-related cells. In this study, a kind of hybridized nanofibrous scaffold material (CNF/BG) was prepared by incorporating bioactive glass (BG) nanoparticles into carbon nanofibers (CNF) via the combination of BG sol-gel and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) electrospinning, followed by carbonization. Three types (49 s, 68 s and 86 s) of BG nanoparticles were incorporated. To understand the mechanism of CNF/BG hybrids exerting osteogenic effects, bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured directly on these hybrids (contact culture) or cultured in transwell chambers in the presence of these materials (non-contact culture). The contributions of ion release and contact effect on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were able to be correlated. It was found that the ionic dissolution products had limited effect on cell proliferation, while they were able to enhance osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in comparison with pure CNF. Differently, the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were both significantly promoted in the contact culture. In both cases, CNF/BG(68 s) showed the strongest ability in influencing cell behaviors due to its fastest release rate of soluble silicium-relating ions. The synergistic effect of CNF and BG would make CNF/BG hybrids promising substrates for bone repairing.

  3. Co3O4 nanoparticles decorated carbon nanofiber mat as binder-free air-cathode for high performance rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Ge, Xiaoming; Goh, F W Thomas; Hor, T S Andy; Geng, Dongsheng; Du, Guojun; Liu, Zhaolin; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Xiaogang; Zong, Yun

    2015-02-07

    An efficient, durable and low cost air-cathode is essential for a high performance metal-air battery for practical applications. Herein, we report a composite bifunctional catalyst, Co3O4 nanoparticles-decorated carbon nanofibers (CNFs), working as an efficient air-cathode in high performance rechargeable Zn-air batteries (ZnABs). The particles-on-fibers nanohybrid materials were derived from electrospun metal-ion containing polymer fibers followed by thermal carbonization and a post annealing process in air at a moderate temperature. Electrochemical studies suggest that the nanohybrid material effectively catalyzes oxygen reduction reaction via an ideal 4-electron transfer process and outperforms Pt/C in catalyzing oxygen evolution reactions. Accordingly, the prototype ZnABs exhibit a low discharge-charge voltage gap (e.g. 0.7 V, discharge-charge at 2 mA cm(-2)) with higher stability and longer cycle life compared to their counterparts constructed using Pt/C in air-cathode. Importantly, the hybrid nanofiber mat readily serves as an integrated air-cathode without the need of any further modification. Benefitting from its efficient catalytic activities and structural advantages, particularly the 3D architecture of highly conductive CNFs and the high loading density of strongly attached Co3O4 NPs on their surfaces, the resultant ZnABs show significantly improved performance with respect to the rate capability, cycling stability and current density, promising good potential in practical applications.

  4. Characterization of Mechanical Properties at the Micro/Nano Scale: Stiction Failure of MEMS, High-Frequency Michelson Interferometry and Carbon NanoFibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheyraddini Mousavi, Arash

    Different forces scale differently with decreasing length scales. Van der Waals and surface tension are generally ignored at the macro scale, but can become dominant at the micro and nano scales. This fact, combined with the considerable compliance and large surface areas of micro and nano devices, can leads to adhesion in MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS) - a.k.a. stiction-failure. The adhesive forces between MEMS devices leading to stiction failure are characterized in this dissertation analytically and experimentally. Specifically, the adhesion energy of poly-Si μcantilevers are determined experimentally through Mode II and mixed Mode I&II crack propagation experiments. Furthermore, the description of a high-frequency Michelson Interferometer is discussed for imaging of crack propagation of the μcantilevers with their substrate at the nano-scale and harmonic imaging of MEMS/NEMS. Van der Waals forces are also responsible for the adhesion in nonwoven carbon nanofiber networks. Experimental and modeling results are presented for the mechanical and electrical properties of nonwoven (random entanglements) of carbon nanofibers under relatively low and high-loads, both in tensions and compression. It was also observed that the structural integrity of these networks is controlled by mechanical entanglement and flexural rigidity of individual fibers as well as Hertzian forces at the fiber/fiber interface.

  5. Free-standing sulfur host based on titanium-dioxide-modified porous-carbon nanofibers for lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiong; Gao, Tuo; Wang, Suqing; Bao, Yue; Chen, Guoping; Ding, Liang-Xin; Wang, Haihui

    2017-07-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are regarded as a promising next-generation electrical-energy-storage technology due to their low cost and high theoretical energy density. Furthermore, flexible and wearable electronics urgently requires their power sources to be mechanically robust and flexible. However, the effective progress of high-performance, flexible Li-S batteries is still hindered by the poor conductivity of sulfur cathodes and the dissolution of lithium polysulfides as well as the weak mechanical properties of sulfur cathodes. Herein, a new type of flexible porous carbon nanofiber film modified with graphene and ultrafine polar TiO2 nanoparticles is designed as a sulfur host, in which the artful structure enabled the highly efficient dispersion of sulfur for a high capacity and a strong confinement capability of lithium polysulfides, resulting in prolonged cycle life. Thus, the cathode shows an extremely high initial specific discharge capacity of 1501 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C and an excellent rate capability of 668 mA h g-1 at 5 C as well as prolonged cycling stability. The artful design provides a facile method to fabricate high-performance, flexible sulfur cathodes for Li-S batteries.

  6. Carbon-nanofiber-based nanocomposite membrane as a highly stable solid-state junction for reference electrodes.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Glen D; Buiculescu, Raluca; Kounaves, Samuel P; Chaniotakis, Nikos A

    2011-07-15

    There is currently a need for a reliable solid-state reference electrode, especially in applications such as autonomous sensing or long-term environmental monitoring. We present here for the first time a novel solid-state nanofiber junction reference electrode (NFJRE) incorporating a junction consisting of poly(methyl methacrylate) and carbon graphene stacked nanofibers. The NFJRE operates by using the membrane polymer junction, which has a very high glass transition temperature (T(g)) and small diffusion coefficient, to control the diffusion of ions, and the carbon nanofibers lower the junction resistance and act as ion-to-electron transducers. The fabrication of the NFJRE is detailed, and its behavior is characterized in terms of its impedance, stability, and behavior in comparison with traditional reference electrodes. The NFJRE showed a response of <5-13 mV toward a variety of electrolyte solutions from 10(-5) to 10(-2) M, <10 mV over a pH range of 2-12, and excellent behavior when used with voltammetric methods.

  7. Fabrication, structure, and magnetic properties of electrospun Ce0.96Fe0.04O2 nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonsupap, Somchai; Kidkhunthod, Pinit; Chanlek, Narong; Pinitsoontorn, Supree; Maensiri, Santi

    2016-09-01

    We report room temperature ferromagnetism in ∼30-60 nm nanofibers of Ce0.96Fe0.04O2 calcined at 500, 600, 700, and 800 °C. The as-spun nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning technique. Nanofibers of the as-spun and calcined samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD and TEM with selected electron diffraction (SEAD) analysis results indicate that the Ce0.96Fe0.04O2 nanofibers have a cubic perovskite structure without any secondary phase. The as-spun samples exhibit a diamagnetic behavior, whereas the calcined Ce0.96Fe0.04O2 samples are ferromagnetic having the specific magnetizations of 0.002-0.923 emu/g at 10 kOe. The results from XAS spectra show the valence state of Fe3+ and Fe2+ mixed in the Ce0.96Fe0.04O2 samples indicating oxygen vacancies in the nanofibers. Similarly, the results XPS spectra show that there are oxygen vacancies in the nanofibers as a result of Ce3+ on the surface. These oxygen vacancies play an important role to induce room temperature ferromagnetism (RT-FM) in the calcined Ce0.96Fe0.04O2 nanofibers. Our results indicate that the ferromagnetic properties of Ce0.96Fe0.04O2 system are intrinsic and are not a result of any secondary magnetic phase or cluster formation. It is suggested that the electrospun Ce0.96Fe0.04O2 nanofibers can be further developed for many applications including ferrofluids, magnetic recording, biomedicine, and spintronics.

  8. Surface optimization of high density polyethylene and carbon nanofiber composites for the improvement of electromagnetic shielding effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, Brandon C.

    Nanoreinforced composites of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Carbon Nanofibers (CNF) of varying nanofiber concentration were fabricated via melt mixing. Following fabrication, various metal and metal-nitride thin films were sputter deposited upon the substrates. Volume resistivity measurements of the composite substrates, as well as four point probe analysis of the composites and the deposited films were performed and are reported. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding Effectiveness (SE) measurements were performed upon all samples in order to gauge the effects of percolation and the presence of the deposited film(s) upon overall SE. Comparisons of experimental measurements with analytical models available in the literature will be made in order to gain insight in to the dominant shielding mechanisms in the composite(s).

  9. Preparation of NiO-CuO-MgO fine powders by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis for carbon nanofibers synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnikova, Irina V.; Mishakov, Ilya V.; Bauman, Yury I.; Karnaukhov, Timofey M.; Vedyagin, Aleksey A.

    2017-09-01

    Carbon nanofibers with uniform diameter distribution are of great importance to be applied in composite materials production. Characteristics of the final carbon product obtained via catalytic chemical vapour deposition are known to be determined by the catalyst characteristics and the process conditions. In this work, ultrasonic spray pyrolysis was used for the preparation of uniform-sized NiO-CuO-MgO fine powders. Spherical particles of 170-340 nm in diameter were obtained in a temperature range of 400-600 °C. Synthesized powders exhibited high catalytic activity in CCVD of ethylene with the formation of CNF with relatively narrow diameter distribution (60 ± 20 nm).

  10. Preparation of novel carbon microfiber/carbon nanofiber-dispersed polyvinyl alcohol-based nanocomposite material for lithium-ion electrolyte battery separator.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajit K; Khare, Prateek; Singh, Jayant K; Verma, Nishith

    2013-04-01

    A novel nanocomposite polyvinyl alcohol precursor-based material dispersed with the web of carbon microfibers and carbon nanofibers is developed as lithium (Li)-ion electrolyte battery separator. The primary synthesis steps of the separator material consist of esterification of polyvinyl acetate to produce polyvinyl alcohol gel, ball-milling of the surfactant dispersed carbon micro-nanofibers, mixing of the milled micron size (~500 nm) fibers to the reactant mixture at the incipience of the polyvinyl alcohol gel formation, and the mixing of hydrophobic reagents along with polyethylene glycol as a plasticizer, to produce a thin film of ~25 μm. The produced film, uniformly dispersed with carbon micro-nanofibers, has dramatically improved performance as a battery separator, with the ion conductivity of the electrolytes (LiPF6) saturated film measured as 0.119 S-cm(-1), approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that of polyvinyl alcohol. The other primary characteristics of the produced film, such as tensile strength, contact angle, and thermal stability, are also found to be superior to the materials made of other precursors, including polypropylene and polyethylene, discussed in the literature. The method of producing the films in this study is novel, simple, environmentally benign, and economically viable.

  11. An inner filter effect based sensor of tetracycline hydrochloride as developed by loading photoluminescent carbon nanodots in the electrospun nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Min; Zou, Hong Yan; Yang, Tong; Liu, Ze Xi; Liu, Hui; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The inner filter effect (IFE), which results from the absorption of the excitation or emission light by absorbers, has been employed as an alternative approach in sensing systems due to its flexibility and simplicity. In this work, highly photoluminescent carbon nanodots (CDs), which were simply prepared through a new one-step microwave synthesis route, were loaded in electrospun nanofibers, and the obtained nanofibers were then successfully applied to develop a fluorescent IFE-based visual sensor for tetracycline hydrochloride (Tc) sensing in milk. This developed visual sensor has high selectivity owing to the requirements of the spectral overlap between the CDs and Tc, showing high promise in sensing chemistry with an efficient response and economic effect.The inner filter effect (IFE), which results from the absorption of the excitation or emission light by absorbers, has been employed as an alternative approach in sensing systems due to its flexibility and simplicity. In this work, highly photoluminescent carbon nanodots (CDs), which were simply prepared through a new one-step microwave synthesis route, were loaded in electrospun nanofibers, and the obtained nanofibers were then successfully applied to develop a fluorescent IFE-based visual sensor for tetracycline hydrochloride (Tc) sensing in milk. This developed visual sensor has high selectivity owing to the requirements of the spectral overlap between the CDs and Tc, showing high promise in sensing chemistry with an efficient response and economic effect. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section and additional figures (Fig. S1-S9). See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08177g

  12. Sustainable Hydrothermal Carbonization Synthesis of Iron/Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanofiber Aerogels as Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction.

    PubMed

    Song, Lu-Ting; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Zhou, Fei; Liang, Hai-Wei; Yu, Zi-You; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-12-01

    It is urgent to develop new kinds of low-cost and high-performance nonprecious metal (NPM) catalysts as alternatives to Pt-based catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries, which have been proved to be efficient to meet the challenge of increase of global energy demand and CO2 emissions. Here, an economical and sustainable method is developed for the synthesis of Fe, N codoped carbon nanofibers (Fe-N/CNFs) aerogels as efficient NPM catalysts for ORR via a mild template-directed hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process, where cost-effective biomass-derived d(+)-glucosamine hydrochloride and ferrous gluconate are used as precursors and recyclable ultrathin tellurium nanowires are used as templates. The prepared Fe/N-CNFs catalysts display outstanding ORR activity, i.e., onset potential of 0.88 V and half-wave potential of 0.78 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode in an alkaline medium, which is highly comparable to that of commercial Pt/C (20 wt% Pt) catalyst. Furthermore, the Fe/N-CNFs catalysts exhibit superior long-term stability and better tolerance to the methanol crossover effect than the Pt/C catalyst in both alkaline and acidic electrolytes. This work suggests the great promise of developing new families of NPM ORR catalysts by the economical and sustainable HTC process.

  13. Highly sensitive and selective determination of methylergometrine maleate using carbon nanofibers/silver nanoparticles composite modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Kalambate, Pramod K; Rawool, Chaitali R; Karna, Shashi P; Srivastava, Ashwini K

    2016-12-01

    A highly sensitive and selective voltammetric method for determination of Methylergometrine maleate (MM) in pharmaceutical formulations, urine and blood serum samples has been developed based on enhanced electrochemical response of MM at carbon nanofibers and silver nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode (CNF-AgNP-CPE). The electrode material was characterized by various techniques viz., X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic response of MM at CNF-AgNP-CPE was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Under optimized conditions, the proposed sensor exhibits excellent electrochemical response towards MM. The DPV study shows greatly enhanced electrochemical signal for MM at CNF-AgNP-CPE lending high sensitivity to the proposed sensor for MM detection. The peak (Ip) current for MM is found to be rectilinear in the range 4.0×10(-8)-2.0×10(-5)M with a detection limit of 7.1×10(-9)M using DPV. The feasibility of the proposed sensor in analytical applications was investigated by conducting experiments on commercial pharmaceutical formulations, human urine and blood serum samples, which yielded satisfactory recoveries of MM. The proposed electrochemical sensor offers high sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility and practical utility. We recommend it as an authentic and productive electrochemical sensor for successful determination of MM.

  14. Carbon Nanofiber Arrays: A Novel Tool for Microdelivery of Biomolecules to Plants

    PubMed Central

    Davern, Sandra M.; McKnight, Timothy E.; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L.; Shpak, Elena D.; Kalluri, Udaya C.; Jelenska, Joanna; Greenberg, Jean T.; Mirzadeh, Saed

    2016-01-01

    Effective methods for delivering bioprobes into the cells of intact plants are essential for investigating diverse biological processes. Increasing research on trees, such as Populus spp., for bioenergy applications is driving the need for techniques that work well with tree species. This report introduces vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (VACNF) arrays as a new tool for microdelivery of labeled molecules to Populus leaf tissue and whole plants. We demonstrated that VACNFs penetrate the leaf surface to deliver sub-microliter quantities of solution containing fluorescent or radiolabeled molecules into Populus leaf cells. Importantly, VACNFs proved to be gentler than abrasion with carborundum, a common way to introduce material into leaves. Unlike carborundum, VACNFs did not disrupt cell or tissue integrity, nor did they induce production of hydrogen peroxide, a typical wound response. We show that femtomole to picomole quantities of labeled molecules (fluorescent dyes, small proteins and dextran), ranging from 0.5–500 kDa, can be introduced by VACNFs, and we demonstrate the use of the approach to track delivered probes from their site of introduction on the leaf to distal plant regions. VACNF arrays thus offer an attractive microdelivery method for the introduction of biomolecules and other probes into trees and potentially other types of plants. PMID:27119338

  15. Electrospun carbon nanofibers as low-cost counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Prakash; Zhang, Lifeng; Chen, Qiliang; Galipeau, David; Fong, Hao; Qiao, Qiquan

    2010-12-01

    Electrospun carbon nanofibers (ECNs) have been explored as an electrocatalyst and low-cost alternative to platinum (Pt) for triiodide reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry measurements indicated that the ECN counter electrodes exhibited low charge-transfer resistance (Rct), large capacitance (C), and fast reaction rates for triiodide reduction. Although the efficiency (η) of ECN-based cells was slightly lower than that of Pt-based cells, their short circuit current density (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Voc) were comparable. The ECN-based cells achieved an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 5.5 % under the AM 1.5 illumination at 100 mW cm(-2). The reason for lower cell performance using the ECN electrode was because of its lower fill factor (FF) than that of Pt-based cells, probably caused by high total series resistance (RStot) at ∼15.5 Ω cm2, which was larger than that of ∼4.8 Ω cm2 in the Pt-based devices. Simulated results showed that the fill factor (FF) and η could be substantially improved by decreasing RStot, which might be achieved by using thinner and highly porous ECNs to reduce the thickness of the ECNs counter electrode.

  16. Lithium aluminosilicate reinforced with carbon nanofiber and alumina for controlled-thermal-expansion materials

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, Amparo; García-Moreno, Olga; Torrecillas, Ramón; García-Rocha, Victoria; Fernández, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    Materials with a very low or tailored thermal expansion have many applications ranging from cookware to the aerospace industry. Among others, lithium aluminosilicates (LAS) are the most studied family with low and negative thermal expansion coefficients. However, LAS materials are electrical insulators and have poor mechanical properties. Nanocomposites using LAS as a matrix are promising in many applications where special properties are achieved by the addition of one or two more phases. The main scope of this work is to study the sinterability of carbon nanofiber (CNFs)/LAS and CNFs/alumina/LAS nanocomposites, and to adjust the ratio among components for obtaining a near-zero or tailored thermal expansion. Spark plasma sintering of nanocomposites, consisting of commercial CNFs and alumina powders and an ad hoc synthesized β-eucryptite phase, is proposed as a solution to improving mechanical and electrical properties compared with the LAS ceramics obtained under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction results on phase compositions and microstructure are discussed together with dilatometry data obtained in a wide temperature range (−150 to 450 °C). The use of a ceramic LAS phase makes it possible to design a nanocomposite with a very low or tailored thermal expansion coefficient and exceptional electrical and mechanical properties. PMID:27877474

  17. Physicochemical and electrochemical properties of carbon nanotube/graphite nanofiber hybrid nanocomposites for supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Nurul Infaza Talalah; Abdul Rashid, Suraya; Sulaiman, Yusran; Mamat, Md Shuhazlly; Mohd Zobir, Syazwan Afif; Krishnan, Shutesh

    2016-10-01

    This work reports the combination of graphitic nanofibers (GNF) and carbon nanotubes (CNT) as the electrode material for supercapacitors. The hybrid CNT/GNF was prepared via a synthesis route that involved simple sonication and stirring. The loading of CNT was varied from 5 to 40% weight percentages. A specific capacitance of 174 Fg-1 has been obtained for 20 wt% CNT loading at 50 mV F g-1th 1 M H2SO4 aqueous solution as the electrolyte. The addition of 20 wt% CNT raised the specific capacitance by 87% more than the GNF electrodes. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) reveals the random entanglement of CNT and GNF that create diffusion paths for ion transportation. Conformational changes were monitored by Raman spectroscopy, where two dominant peaks (D and G) showed strong intensities and sharp profiles. X-ray Diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) confirmed the purity of CNT/GNF hybrid nanocomposites. 20 wt% of CNT addition also shows an outstanding thermal stability. The marked improvement of the hybrid performance was attributed to the high conductivity of the two constituent materials, coupled with sufficient accessible active sites for electrochemical reactions that resulted in a synergistic behavior of the materials.

  18. Preparation and Catalytic Activity of Carbon Nanofibers Anchored Metallophthalocyanine in Decomposing Acid Orange 7

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Baocheng; Chen, Wenxing

    2014-01-01

    Amine-modified CNFs (AN-CNFs) were first obtained through the Billups reaction from carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and were used as supports of cobalt tetracarboxylphthalocyanine (CoTCPc) for the catalytic oxidation of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) in the CoTCPc-AN-CNFs/H2O2 system. CNFs, AN-CNFs and CoTCPc-AN-CNFs were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption. The oxidative decoloration of AO7 in the presence of CoTCPcNa-AN-CNFs and H2O2 was investigated by UV-Vis absorption spectra. The results showed that AO7 was oxidized efficiently in the CoTCPcNa-AN-CNFs /H2O2 system. The benzene ring was first introduced between CNFs and MPcs. However, its catalytic efficiency and electronic properties would not weaken. New catalytic mechanism may display in this CoTCPcNa-AN-CNFs /H2O2 system. PMID:28788519

  19. A Novel Carbon Nanofibers Grown on Glass Microballoons Immunosensor: A Tool for Early Diagnosis of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Gikunoo, Emmanuel; Abera, Adeyabeba; Woldesenbet, Eyassu

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for direct detection of Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein-2 (PfHRP-2) antigen using carbon nanofiber (CNF) forests grown on glass microballoons (NMBs). Secondary antibodies specific to PfHRP-2 densely attached to the CNFs exhibit extraordinary ability for the detection of minute concentrations of Plasmodium species. A sandwich immunoassay protocol was employed, where a glass substrate was used to immobilize primary antibodies at designated capture zones. High signal amplification was obtained in both colorimetric and electrical measurements due to the CNFs through specific binding. As a result, it was possible to detect PfHRP-2 levels as low as 0.025 ng/mL concentration in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) using a visual signal within only 1 min of test duration. Lower limits of 0.01 ng/mL was obtained by measuring the electrical resistivity of the capture zone. This method is also highly selective and specific in identifying PfHRP-2 and other Plasmodium species from the same solution. In addition, the stability of the labeling mechanism eliminates the false signals generated by the use of dyes in current malaria rapid diagnostic test kits (MRDTs). Thus, the rapid, sensitive and high signal amplification capabilities of NMBs is a promising tool for early diagnosis of malaria and other infectious diseases. PMID:25120159

  20. Lithium aluminosilicate reinforced with carbon nanofiber and alumina for controlled-thermal-expansion materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrell, Amparo; García-Moreno, Olga; Torrecillas, Ramón; García-Rocha, Victoria; Fernández, Adolfo

    2012-02-01

    Materials with a very low or tailored thermal expansion have many applications ranging from cookware to the aerospace industry. Among others, lithium aluminosilicates (LAS) are the most studied family with low and negative thermal expansion coefficients. However, LAS materials are electrical insulators and have poor mechanical properties. Nanocomposites using LAS as a matrix are promising in many applications where special properties are achieved by the addition of one or two more phases. The main scope of this work is to study the sinterability of carbon nanofiber (CNFs)/LAS and CNFs/alumina/LAS nanocomposites, and to adjust the ratio among components for obtaining a near-zero or tailored thermal expansion. Spark plasma sintering of nanocomposites, consisting of commercial CNFs and alumina powders and an ad hoc synthesized β-eucryptite phase, is proposed as a solution to improving mechanical and electrical properties compared with the LAS ceramics obtained under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction results on phase compositions and microstructure are discussed together with dilatometry data obtained in a wide temperature range (-150 to 450 °C). The use of a ceramic LAS phase makes it possible to design a nanocomposite with a very low or tailored thermal expansion coefficient and exceptional electrical and mechanical properties.

  1. Lithium aluminosilicate reinforced with carbon nanofiber and alumina for controlled-thermal-expansion materials.

    PubMed

    Borrell, Amparo; García-Moreno, Olga; Torrecillas, Ramón; García-Rocha, Victoria; Fernández, Adolfo

    2012-02-01

    Materials with a very low or tailored thermal expansion have many applications ranging from cookware to the aerospace industry. Among others, lithium aluminosilicates (LAS) are the most studied family with low and negative thermal expansion coefficients. However, LAS materials are electrical insulators and have poor mechanical properties. Nanocomposites using LAS as a matrix are promising in many applications where special properties are achieved by the addition of one or two more phases. The main scope of this work is to study the sinterability of carbon nanofiber (CNFs)/LAS and CNFs/alumina/LAS nanocomposites, and to adjust the ratio among components for obtaining a near-zero or tailored thermal expansion. Spark plasma sintering of nanocomposites, consisting of commercial CNFs and alumina powders and an ad hoc synthesized β-eucryptite phase, is proposed as a solution to improving mechanical and electrical properties compared with the LAS ceramics obtained under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction results on phase compositions and microstructure are discussed together with dilatometry data obtained in a wide temperature range (-150 to 450 °C). The use of a ceramic LAS phase makes it possible to design a nanocomposite with a very low or tailored thermal expansion coefficient and exceptional electrical and mechanical properties.

  2. Biofunctional nanocomposite of carbon nanofiber with water-soluble porphyrin for highly sensitive ethanol biosensing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lina; Lei, Jianping; Zhang, Xueji; Ju, Huangxian

    2008-12-01

    A biofunctional hybrid nanocomposite of carbon nanofiber (CNF) with water-soluble iron(III) meso-tetrakis(N-methylpyridinum-4-yl) porphyrin (FeTMPyP) was designed via non-covalent interaction for preparation of highly sensitive ethanol biosensor. The prepared nanocomposite showed good dispersion in water and was characterized with steady-state electronic absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope. The nanocomposite combined the good conductivity of CNF and the excellent catalytic activity of both CNF and FeTMPyP toward the reduction of dissolved oxygen, producing a method for amperometric detection of oxygen ranging from 6.5 nM to 6.4 microM at a low overpotential. The nanocomposite modified electrode was further used for assembly of alcohol oxidase to construct an amperometric biosensor for ethanol. The biosensor showed rapid and highly sensitive response to ethanol with a linear range from 2.0 microM to 112 microM. The immobilized alcohol oxidase also showed its direct electrochemistry. The biofunctional nanocomposite provides a new way to not only construct the highly sensitive biosensors but also mimic the catalytic activity of enzyme in the life process.

  3. Carbon Nanofiber Nanoelectrodes for Neural Stimulation and Chemical Detection: The Era of Smart Deep Brain Stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehne, Jessica E.

    2016-01-01

    A sensor platform based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) has been developed. Their inherent nanometer scale, high conductivity, wide potential window, good biocompatibility and well-defined surface chemistry make them ideal candidates as biosensor electrodes. Here, we report two studies using vertically aligned CNF nanoelectrodes for biomedical applications. CNF arrays are investigated as neural stimulation and neurotransmitter recording electrodes for application in deep brain stimulation (DBS). Polypyrrole coated CNF nanoelectrodes have shown great promise as stimulating electrodes due to their large surface area, low impedance, biocompatibility and capacity for highly localized stimulation. CNFs embedded in SiO2 have been used as sensing electrodes for neurotransmitter detection. Our approach combines a multiplexed CNF electrode chip, developed at NASA Ames Research Center, with the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor (WINCS) system, developed at the Mayo Clinic. Preliminary results indicate that the CNF nanoelectrode arrays are easily integrated with WINCS for neurotransmitter detection in a multiplexed array format. In the future, combining CNF based stimulating and recording electrodes with WINCS may lay the foundation for an implantable "smart" therapeutic system that utilizes neurochemical feedback control while likely resulting in increased DBS application in various neuropsychiatric disorders. In total, our goal is to take advantage of the nanostructure of CNF arrays for biosensing studies requiring ultrahigh sensitivity, high-degree of miniaturization, and selective biofunctionalization.

  4. Vertically aligned carbon nanofiber architecture as a multifunctional 3-D neural electrical interface.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Vu, T D Barbara; Chen, Hua; Cassell, Alan M; Andrews, Russell J; Meyyappan, M; Li, Jun

    2007-06-01

    Developing biomaterial constructs that closely mimic the natural tissue microenvironment with its complex chemical and physical cues is essential for improving the function and reliability of implantable devices, especially those that require direct neural-electrical interfaces. Here we demonstrate that free-standing vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (VACNF) arrays can be used as a multifunctional 3-D brush-like nanoengineered matrix that interpenetrates the neuronal network of PC12 cells. We found that PC12 neuron cells cultured on VACNF substrates can form extended neural network upon proper chemical and biochemical modifications. The soft 3-D VACNF architecture provides a new platform to fine-tune the topographical, mechanical, chemical, and electrical cues at subcellular nanoscale. This new biomaterial platform can be used for both fundamental studies of material-cell interactions and the development of chronically stable implantable neural devices. Micropatterned multiplex VACNF arrays can be selectively controlled by electrical and electrochemical methods to provide localized stimulation with extraordinary spatiotemporal resolution. Further development of this technology may potentially result in a highly multiplex closed-loop system with multifunctions for neuromodulation and neuroprostheses.

  5. Electrochemically Active Polyaniline (PANi) Coated Carbon Nanopipes and PANi Nanofibers Containing Composite.

    PubMed

    Ramana, G Venkata; Kumar, P Sampath; Srikanth, Vadali V S S; Padya, Balaji; Jain, P K

    2015-02-01

    A composite constituted by carbon nanopipes (CNPs) and polyaniline nanofibers (PANi NFs) is synthesized using in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization. Owing to its electrochemical activity the composite is found to be suitable as a working electrode material in hybrid type supercapacitors. Microstructural and phase analyses of the composite showed that (i) CNP surfaces are coated with PANi and (ii) PANi coated CNPs are distributed among PANi NFs. The composite shows an excellent electrochemical activity and a high specific capacitance of ~224.39 F/g. The electro-chemical activity of the composite is explicated in correlation with crystallinity, intrinsic oxidation state, and doping degree of PANi in the composite. The electro-chemical activity of the composite is also explicated in correlation with BET surface area and ordered meso-porosity pertaining to the composite. Charge/discharge curves indicate that the specific capacitance of the composite is a result of electric double-layer capacitance offered by CNPs and Faradaic pseudo capacitance offered by PANi NFs.

  6. Heterometal nanoparticles from Ru-based molecular clusters covalently anchored onto functionalized carbon nanotubes and nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Vidick, Deborah; Ke, Xiaoxing; Devillers, Michel; Poleunis, Claude; Delcorte, Arnaud; Moggi, Pietro; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2015-01-01

    Summary Heterometal clusters containing Ru and Au, Co and/or Pt are anchored onto carbon nanotubes and nanofibers functionalized with chelating phosphine groups. The cluster anchoring yield is related to the amount of phosphine groups available on the nanocarbon surface. The ligands of the anchored molecular species are then removed by gentle thermal treatment in order to form nanoparticles. In the case of Au-containing clusters, removal of gold atoms from the clusters and agglomeration leads to a bimodal distribution of nanoparticles at the nanocarbon surface. In the case of Ru–Pt species, anchoring occurs without reorganization through a ligand exchange mechanism. After thermal treatment, ultrasmall (1–3 nm) bimetal Ru–Pt nanoparticles are formed on the surface of the nanocarbons. Characterization by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) confirms their bimetal nature on the nanoscale. The obtained bimetal nanoparticles supported on nanocarbon were tested as catalysts in ammonia synthesis and are shown to be active at low temperature and atmospheric pressure with very low Ru loading. PMID:26199832

  7. Carbon Nanofiber Nanoelectrodes for Neural Stimulation and Chemical Detection: The Era of "Smart" Deep Brain Stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehne, Jessica E.

    2016-01-01

    A sensor platform based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) has been developed. Their inherent nanometer scale, high conductivity, wide potential window, good biocompatibility and well-defined surface chemistry make them ideal candidates as biosensor electrodes. Here, we report two studies using vertically aligned CNF nanoelectrodes for biomedical applications. CNF arrays are investigated as neural stimulation and neurotransmitter recording electrodes for application in deep brain stimulation (DBS). Polypyrrole coated CNF nanoelectrodes have shown great promise as stimulating electrodes due to their large surface area, low impedance, biocompatibility and capacity for highly localized stimulation. CNFs embedded in SiO2 have been used as sensing electrodes for neurotransmitter detection. Our approach combines a multiplexed CNF electrode chip, developed at NASA Ames Research Center, with the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor (WINCS) system, developed at the Mayo Clinic. Preliminary results indicate that the CNF nanoelectrode arrays are easily integrated with WINCS for neurotransmitter detection in a multiplexed array format. In the future, combining CNF based stimulating and recording electrodes with WINCS may lay the foundation for an implantable smart therapeutic system that utilizes neurochemical feedback control while likely resulting in increased DBS application in various neuropsychiatric disorders. In total, our goal is to take advantage of the nanostructure of CNF arrays for biosensing studies requiring ultrahigh sensitivity, high-degree of miniaturization, and selective biofunctionalization.

  8. Novel injectable biomimetic hydrogels with carbon nanofibers and self assembled rosette nanotubes for myocardial applications.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangling; Stout, David A; Sun, Linlin; Beingessner, Rachel L; Fenniri, Hicham; Webster, Thomas J

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the present in vitro study was to investigate cardiomyocyte functions, specifically their adhesion and proliferation, on injectable scaffolds containing RNT (rosette nanotubes) and CNF (carbon nanofibers) in a pHEMA (poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)) hydrogel to determine their potential for myocardial tissue engineering applications. RNTs are novel biocompatible nanomaterials assembled from synthetic analogs of DNA bases guanine and cytosine that self-assemble within minutes when placed in aqueous solutions at body temperatures. These materials could potentially improve cardiomyocyte functions and solidification time of pHEMA and CNF composites. Because heart tissue is conductive, CNFs were added to pHEMA to increase the composite's conductivity. Our results showed that cardiomyocyte density increased after 4 h, 1 day, and 3 days with greater amounts of CNFs and greater amounts of RNTs in pHEMA (up to 10 mg mL(-1) CNFs and 0.05 mg mL(-1) RNTs). Factors that may have increased cardiomyocyte functions include greater wettability, conductivity, and an increase in surface nanoroughness with greater amounts of CNFs and RNTs. In effect, contact angles measured on the surface of the composites decreased while the conductivity and surface roughness increased as CNFs and RNTs content increased. Lastly, the ultimate tensile modulus decreased for composites with greater amounts of CNFs. In summary, the properties of these injectable composites make them promising candidates for myocardial tissue engineering applications and should be further studied.

  9. Graphitic carbon nitride nanofibers in seaweed-like architecture for gas chromatographic separations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yunzhong; Han, Qing; Qi, Meiling; Qu, Liangti

    2017-05-05

    Seaweed-like graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) has a unique porous architecture composed of interlocking g-C3N4 nanofibers (NF-C3N4) with much higher surface area than bulk g-C3N4 and shows good potential in separation science. This work investigated the separation performance of NF-C3N4 as stationary phase for capillary gas chromatographic (GC) separations. The NF-C3N4 column exhibits weak polarity and high column efficiency of 4728 plates/m for n-dodecane. Importantly, it displays good separation performance for a wide range of analytes and shows different retention behaviors from the bulk g-C3N4 column and commercial HP-5MS column with 5% phenylpolysiloxane. Particularly, it shows high resolving capability for both aliphatic and aromatic isomers. In addition, NF-C3N4 column has high thermal stability up to 280°C and good separation repeatability with relative standard deviation (RSD) values in the range of 0.29-0.61% for intra-day, 0.56-1.1% for inter-day and 2.0-4.9% for between-column, respectively. Moreover, it was applied for the determination of isomer impurities in real samples, showing good potential in GC applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbon nanofibers arrays: A novel tool for microdelivery of biomolecules to plants

    SciTech Connect

    Davern, Sandra M.; McKnight, Timothy E.; Kalluri, Udaya C.; Standaert, Robert F.; Mirzadeh, Saed; Greenberg, Jean T.; Jelenska, Joanna; Shpak, Elena D.; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L.

    2016-04-27

    Effective methods for delivering bioprobes into the cells of intact plants are essential for investigating diverse biological processes. Increasing research on trees, such as Populus spp., for bioenergy applications is driving the need for techniques that work well with tree species. This report introduces vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (VACNF) arrays as a new tool for microdelivery of labeled molecules to Populus leaf tissue and whole plants. We demonstrated that VACNFs penetrate the leaf surface to deliver sub-microliter quantities of solution containing fluorescent or radiolabeled molecules into Populus leaf cells. Importantly, VACNFs proved to be gentler than abrasion with carborundum, a common way to introduce material into leaves. Unlike carborundum, VACNFs did not disrupt cell or tissue integrity, nor did they induce production of hydrogen peroxide, a typical wound response. We show that femtomole to picomole quantities of labeled molecules (fluorescent dyes, small proteins and dextran), ranging from 0.5–500 kDa, can be introduced by VACNFs, and we demonstrate the use of the approach to track delivered probes from their site of introduction on the leaf to distal plant regions. VACNF arrays thus offer an attractive microdelivery method for the introduction of biomolecules and other probes into trees and potentially other types of plants.

  11. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube/nanofiber Arrays as Conductive and Dry Adhesive Interface Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Tao; Zhao, Yang; Delzeit, Lance; Majumdar, Arun; Kashani, Ali

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of making conductive and dry adhesive interfaces between multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) and nanofiber (MWNF) arrays grown by chemical vapor deposition with transition-metal as catalyst on highly Boron doped silicon substrates. The maximum observed adhesion force between MWNT and MWNF surfaces is 3.5 mN for an apparent contact area of 2 mm by 4 mm. The minimum contact resistance measured at the same time is approx.20 Omega. Contact resistances of MWNT-MWNT and MWNT-gold interfaces were also measured as pressure forces around several mN were applied at the interface. The resulting minimum contact resistances are on the same order but with considerable variation from sample to sample. For MWNT-MWNT contacts, a minimum contact resistance of approx.1 Omega is observed for a contact area of 2 mm by 1 mm. The relatively high contact resistances, considering the area density of the nanotubes, might be explained by the high cross-tube resistances at the contact interfaces.

  12. Electrophoretic nanotechnology of graphene-carbon nanotube and graphene-polypyrrole nanofiber composites for electrochemical supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Kaiyuan; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2013-10-01

    Thin films of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), graphene and polypyrrole (PPy) nanofibers were prepared by cathodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD) from aqueous suspensions, containing safranin (SAF) as a new dispersant. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy studies and sedimentation tests, coupled with deposition yield and electron microscopy data showed that SAF adsorbed on MWCNT, graphene and PPy, provided their dispersion and charging in the suspensions and allowed efficient EPD. The deposition yield can be controlled by the variation of SAF concentration in the suspensions and deposition time. The use of SAF as a co-dispersant for MWCNT, graphene and PPy, allowed controlled EPD of composite graphene-MWCNT and graphene-PPy films. The proposed approach for the deposition of PPy paves the way for EPD of neutral polymers using organic dyes as dispersing and charging agents. The composite films were investigated for application in electrochemical supercapacitors (ES). The graphene-MWCNT and graphene-PPy films showed significant increase in capacitance, decrease in resistance and increase in capacitance retention at high charge-discharge rates compared to the films of individual components. The analysis of electrochemical testing results and electron microscopy data provided an insight into the influence of composite microstructure on electrochemical performance. The composites, prepared by EPD are promising materials for electrodes of ES.

  13. Carbon nanofibers arrays: A novel tool for microdelivery of biomolecules to plants

    DOE PAGES

    Davern, Sandra M.; McKnight, Timothy E.; Kalluri, Udaya C.; ...

    2016-04-27

    Effective methods for delivering bioprobes into the cells of intact plants are essential for investigating diverse biological processes. Increasing research on trees, such as Populus spp., for bioenergy applications is driving the need for techniques that work well with tree species. This report introduces vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (VACNF) arrays as a new tool for microdelivery of labeled molecules to Populus leaf tissue and whole plants. We demonstrated that VACNFs penetrate the leaf surface to deliver sub-microliter quantities of solution containing fluorescent or radiolabeled molecules into Populus leaf cells. Importantly, VACNFs proved to be gentler than abrasion with carborundum, amore » common way to introduce material into leaves. Unlike carborundum, VACNFs did not disrupt cell or tissue integrity, nor did they induce production of hydrogen peroxide, a typical wound response. We show that femtomole to picomole quantities of labeled molecules (fluorescent dyes, small proteins and dextran), ranging from 0.5–500 kDa, can be introduced by VACNFs, and we demonstrate the use of the approach to track delivered probes from their site of introduction on the leaf to distal plant regions. VACNF arrays thus offer an attractive microdelivery method for the introduction of biomolecules and other probes into trees and potentially other types of plants.« less

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of High Temperature Resin/Carbon Nanofiber Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghose, Sayata; Watson, Kent A.; Working, Dennis C.; Criss, Jim M.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Conell, John W.

    2005-01-01

    As part of ongoing efforts to develop multifunctional advanced composites, blends of PETI-330 and carbon nanofibers (CNF) were prepared and characterized. Dry mixing techniques were employed and the effect of CNF loading level on melt viscosity was determined. The resulting powders were characterized for degree of mixing, thermal and rheological properties. Based on the characterization results, samples containing 30 and 40 wt% CNF were scaled up to approx.300 g and used to fabricate moldings 10.2 cm x 15.2 cm x 0.32 cm thick. The moldings were fabricated by injecting the mixtures at 260-280 C into a stainless steel tool followed by curing for 1 h at 371 C. The tool was designed to impart high shear during the injection process in an attempt to achieve some alignment of CNFs in the flow direction. Moldings were obtained that were subsequently characterized for thermal, mechanical and electrical properties. The degree of dispersion and alignment of CNFs were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. The preparation and preliminary characterization of PETI-330/CNF composites will be discussed.

  15. Flexible one-dimensional carbon-selenium composite nanofibers with superior electrochemical performance for Li-Se/Na-Se batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Linchao; Wei, Xiang; Wang, Jiaqing; Jiang, Yu; Li, Weihan; Yu, Yan

    2015-05-01

    A facile strategy is developed to synthesis selenium/carbon composites (Se@CNFs-CNT) by co-heating Se powder and electrospun Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-CNT nanofibers at 600°Cin a sealed vessel. The Se molecules are chemically bonded and physical encapsulated by carbonized PAN-CNT composite (CNFs-CNT), which leads to prevent the dissolution of polyselenide intermediates in carbonate based electrolyte. When directly used as flexible free-standing cathode material for Li-Se batteries in low cost carbonate-based electrolyte, the Se@CNFs-CNT electrode exhibits improved cyclability (517 mAh g-1 after 500 cycles at 0.5 A g-1) and rate capability (485 mAh g-1 at 1 A g-1). Moreover, when tested as sodium batteries, it maintains a reversible capacity of 410 mAh g-1 after 240 cycles at 0.5 A g-1. The superior electrochemical performance (especially at high rates) of Se@CNFs-CNT is attributed to synergistic effect of the additive of CNT, the well confine of Se in the CNFs-CNT matrix through chemical bonding and the 3D interconnected carbon nanofibers (CNFs). This simple yet efficient process thus provides a promising route towards fabrication of a variety of high performance flexible Li-Se and Na-Se batteries.

  16. Preparation of Surface Adsorbed and Impregnated Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube/Nylon-6 Nanofiber Composites and Investigation of their Gas Sensing Ability.

    PubMed

    Lala, Neeta L; Thavasi, Velmurugan; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2009-01-01

    We have prepared electrospun Nylon-6 nanofibers via electrospinning, and adsorbed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) onto the surface of Nylon-6 fibers using Triton(®) X-100 to form a MWCNTs/Nylon-6 nanofiber composite. The dispersed MWCNTs have been found to be stable in hexafluoroisopropanol for several months without precipitation. A MWCNTs/Nylon-6 nanofiber composite based chemical sensor has demonstrated its responsiveness towards a wide range of solvent vapours at room temperature and only mg quantities of MWCNTs were expended. The large surface area and porous nature of the electrospun Nylon-6/MWCNT nanofibers facilitates greater analyte permeability. The experimental analysis has indicated that the dipole moment, functional group and vapour pressure of the analytes determine the magnitude of the responsiveness.

  17. Preparation of Surface Adsorbed and Impregnated Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube/Nylon-6 Nanofiber Composites and Investigation of their Gas Sensing Ability

    PubMed Central

    Lala, Neeta L.; Thavasi, Velmurugan; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2009-01-01

    We have prepared electrospun Nylon-6 nanofibers via electrospinning, and adsorbed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) onto the surface of Nylon-6 fibers using Triton® X-100 to form a MWCNTs/Nylon-6 nanofiber composite. The dispersed MWCNTs have been found to be stable in hexafluoroisopropanol for several months without precipitation. A MWCNTs/Nylon-6 nanofiber composite based chemical sensor has demonstrated its responsiveness towards a wide range of solvent vapours at room temperature and only mg quantities of MWCNTs were expended. The large surface area and porous nature of the electrospun Nylon-6/MWCNT nanofibers facilitates greater analyte permeability. The experimental analysis has indicated that the dipole moment, functional group and vapour pressure of the analytes determine the magnitude of the responsiveness. PMID:22389589

  18. Toward CH4 dissociation and C diffusion during Ni/Fe-catalyzed carbon nanofiber growth: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Chen; Zhou, Xing-Gui; Chen, De; Cheng, Hong-Ye; Zhu, Yi-An

    2011-04-01

    First-principles calculations have been performed to investigate CH4 dissociation and C diffusion during the Ni/Fe-catalyzed growth of carbon nanofibers (CNFs). Two bulk models with different Ni to Fe molar ratios (1:1 and 2:1) are constructed, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) simulations are conducted to evaluate their reliability. With the comparison between the calculated and experimental XRD patterns, these models are found to be well suited to reproduce the crystalline structures of Ni/Fe bulk alloys. The calculations indicate the binding of the C1 derivatives to the Ni/Fe closest-packed surfaces is strengthened compared to that on Ni(111), arising from the upshift of the weighted d-band centers of catalyst surfaces. Then, the transition states for the four successive dehydrogenation steps in CH4 dissociation are located using the dimer method. It is found that the energy barriers for the first three steps are rather close on the alloyed Ni/Fe and Ni surfaces, while the activation energy for CH dissociation is substantially lowered with the introduction of Fe. The dissolution of the generated C from the surface into the bulk of the Ni/Fe alloys is thermodynamically favorable, and the diffusion of C through catalyst particles is hindered by the Fe component. With the combination of density functional theory calculations and kinetic analysis, the C concentration in catalyst particles is predicted to increase with the Fe content. Meanwhile, other experimental conditions, such as the composition of carbon-containing gases, feedstock partial pressure, and reaction temperature, are also found to play a key role in determining the C concentration in bulk metal, and hence the microstructures of generated CNFs.

  19. Tuning the functionality of a carbon nanofiber-Pt-RuO2 system from charge storage to electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Balan, Beena K; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2012-09-17

    Chemical-functionalization-induced switching in the property of a hybrid system composed of a hollow carbon nanofiber (CNF) and Pt and RuO(2) nanoparticles from charge storage to electrocatalysis is presented. The results of this study show how important it is to have a clear understanding of the nature of surface functionalities in the processes involving dispersion of more than one component on various substrates including carbon nanomorphologies. When pristine CNF is used to decorate Pt and RuO(2) nanoparticles, random dispersion occurs on the CNF surface (C-PtRuO(2)). This results in mainly phase-separated nanoparticles rich in RuO(2) characteristics. In contrast to this, upon moving from the pristine CNF to those activated by a simple H(2)O(2) treatment to create oxygen-containing surface functional groups, a material rich in Pt features on the surface is obtained (F-PtRuO(2)). This is achieved because of the preferential adsorption of RuO(2) by the functionalized surface of CNF. A better affinity of the oxygen-containing functional groups on CNF toward RuO(2) mobilizes relatively faster adsorption of this moiety, leading to a well-controlled segregation of Pt nanoparticles toward the surface. Further reorganization of Pt nanoparticles leads to the formation of a Pt nanosheet structure on the surface. The electrochemical properties of these materials are initially evaluated using cyclic voltammetric analysis. The cyclic voltammetric results indicate that C-PtRuO(2) shows a charge storage property, a typical characteristic of hydrous RuO(2), whereas F-PtRuO(2) shows an oxygen reduction property, which is the characteristic feature of Pt. This clear switch in the behavior from charge storage to electrocatalysis is further confirmed by galvanostatic charge-discharge and rotating-disk-electrode studies.

  20. Cellulose nanofiber/single-walled carbon nanotube hybrid non-woven macrofiber mats as novel wearable supercapacitors with excellent stability, tailorability and reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Qingyuan; Gao, Kezheng; Shao, Ziqiang

    2014-03-01

    Non-woven macrofiber mats are prepared by simply controlling the extrusion patterns of cellulose nanofiber/single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions in an ethanol coagulation bath, and drying in air under restricted conditions. These novel wearable supercapacitors based on non-woven macrofiber mats are demonstrated to have excellent tailorability, electrochemical stability, and damage reliability.Non-woven macrofiber mats are prepared by simply controlling the extrusion patterns of cellulose nanofiber/single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions in an ethanol coagulation bath, and drying in air under restricted conditions. These novel wearable supercapacitors based on non-woven macrofiber mats are demonstrated to have excellent tailorability, electrochemical stability, and damage reliability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental, TEM image, IR spectra, and XRD spectra of cellulose nanofibers, photograph of the cellulose nanofiber/single-walled carbon nanotube suspension, cellulose nanofiber/single-walled carbon nanotube non-woven macrofiber mat and non-woven macrofiber mat wearable supercapacitors. The electrochemical performance of the CNF/SWCNT hybrid fiber wearable supercapacitor. Photograph of the non-woven macrofiber mat wearable supercapacitors integrated within textiles. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05929d

  1. Optimized electrospinning synthesis of iron-nitrogen-carbon nanofibers for high electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xingxu; Liu, Kexi; Wang, Xiangqing; Wang, Tuo; Luo, Jun; Zhu, Jing

    2015-04-01

    To achieve iron-nitrogen-carbon (Fe-N-C) nanofibers with excellent electrocatalysis for replacing high-cost Pt-based catalysts in the cathodes of fuel cells and metal-air batteries, we have investigated and evaluated the effects of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) concentration and the proportion of iron to PAN, along with voltage and flow rate during the electrospinning process, and thus proposed three criteria to optimize these parameters for ideal nanofiber catalysts. The best half-wave potential of an optimized catalysts is 0.82 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode in an alkaline medium, which reaches the best range of the non-precious-metal catalysts reported and is very close to that of commercial Pt/C catalysts. Furthermore, the electron-transfer number of our catalysts is superior to that of the Pt/C, indicating the catalysts undergo a four-electron process. The durability of the optimized Fe-N-C nanofibers is also better than that of the Pt/C, which is attributed to the homogeneous distribution of the active sites in our catalysts.

  2. Preparation and characterization of electrospun core sheath nanofibers from multi-walled carbon nanotubes and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone).

    PubMed

    Miao, Jianjun; Miyauchi, Minoru; Dordick, Jonathan S; Linhardt, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    Electrospinning is a versatile technique to prepare polymer fibers in nano to micrometer size ranges using very high electrostatic fields. Electrospun nanofibers with tunable porosity and high specific surface area have various applications, including chromatographic supports for protein separation, biomedical devices, tissue engineering and drug delivery matrices, and as key components in solar cells and supercapacitors. Unspinnable materials such as nanoparticles, nanorods, nanotubes or rigid conducting polymers can also be electrospun into fibers through co-axial electrospinning. In this study, we have prepared core-sheath nanofibers utilizing co-axial electrospinning. The core portion of these electrospun fibers consists of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and the sheath portion is poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). Various morphologies were obtained by changing both core and sheath solution concentrations. The core-sheath nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, to confirm core-sheath morphology, thermogravimetric analysis, and mechanical strength testing. The electrical conductivity of the surfaces of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) fibers and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)-multi-walled nanotube fibers were both 10(-15) S/m. The highest bulk conductivity observed for the poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)-multi-walled nanotube fibers was 1.2 x 10(-3) S/m.

  3. Electrospun polyamide 6/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) nanofibers functionalized with carbon nanotubes for electrochemical detection of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Mercante, Luiza A; Pavinatto, Adriana; Iwaki, Leonardo E O; Scagion, Vanessa P; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Mattoso, Luiz H C; Correa, Daniel S

    2015-03-04

    The use of nanomaterials as an electroactive medium has improved the performance of bio/chemical sensors, particularly when synergy is reached upon combining distinct materials. In this paper, we report on a novel architecture comprising electrospun polyamide 6/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PA6/PAH) nanofibers functionalized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes, used to detect the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). Miscibility of PA6 and PAH was sufficient to form a single phase material, as indicated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), leading to nanofibers with no beads onto which the nanotubes could adsorb strongly. Differential pulse voltammetry was employed with indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes coated with the functionalized nanofibers for the selective electrochemical detection of dopamine (DA), with no interference from uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) that are normally present in biological fluids. The response was linear for a DA concentration range from 1 to 70 μmol L(-1), with detection limit of 0.15 μmol L(-1) (S/N = 3). The concepts behind the novel architecture to modify electrodes can be potentially harnessed in other electrochemical sensors and biosensors.

  4. Fabrication of three-dimensional micro-nanofiber structures by a novel solution blow spinning device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Feng; Fang, Feiyu; Zeng, Jun; Wang, Zhifeng; Ou, Weijun; Chen, Xindu; Wu, Peixuan; Wang, Han; Zhang, Lin

    2017-02-01

    The fabrication of three-dimensional scaffolds has attracted more attention in tissue engineering. The purpose of this study is to explore a new method for the fabrication of three-dimensional micro-nanofiber structures by combining solution blow spinning and rotating collector. In this study, we successfully fabricated fibers with a minimum diameter of 200 nm and a three-dimensional structure with a maximum porosity of 89.9%. At the same time, the influence of various parameters such as the solvent volatility, the shape of the collector, the feed rate of the solution and the applied gas pressure were studied. It is found that solvent volatility has large effect on the formation of the three-dimensional shape of the structure. The shape of the collector affects the porosity and fiber distribution of the three-dimensional structure. The fiber diameter and fiber uniformity can be controlled by adjusting the solution feed rate and the applied gas pressure. It is feasible to fabricate high-quality three-dimensional micro-nanofiber structure by this new method, which has great potential in tissue engineering.

  5. Synthesis and photocatalytic activities of CdS/TiO₂ nanoparticles supported on carbon nanofibers for high efficient adsorption and simultaneous decomposition of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Pant, Bishweshwar; Barakat, Nasser A M; Pant, Hem Raj; Park, Mira; Saud, Prem Singh; Kim, Jong-Wan; Kim, Hak-Yong

    2014-11-15

    CdS/TiO2 NPs-decorated carbon nanofibers were prepared by a simple electrospinning method followed by the calcination under argon atmosphere. As-synthesized nanocomposites exhibited a strong photocatalytic activity for decomposition of methylene blue (MB), reactive black 5, and reactive orange 16 under visible light radiation for many successive cycles. Moreover, in the dark, the carbon content revealed very good adsorption behavior as 95% of the dye was removed within 5 min, however less adsorption capacity was observed upon successive cycles. Therefore, the enhanced photocatalytic performance for the introduced nanofibers might be attributed to the adsorption characteristic of carbon nanofiber and the known photocatalytic activities of the TiO2 and CdS photocatalysts.

  6. Graphene Folding in Si Rich Carbon Nanofibers for Highly Stable, High Capacity Li-Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Fei, Ling; Williams, Brian P; Yoo, Sang H; Kim, Jangwoo; Shoorideh, Ghazal; Joo, Yong Lak

    2016-03-02

    Silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs) wrapped by graphene in carbon nanofibers were obtained via electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment. In this study, water-soluble poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with low carbon yield is selected to make the process water-based and to achieve a high silicon yield in the composite. It was also found that increasing the amount of graphene helps keep the PVA fiber morphology after carbonization, while forming a graphene network. The fiber SEM and HRTEM images reveal that micrometer graphene is heavily folded into sub-micron scale fibers during electrospinning, while Si NPs are incorporated into the folds with nanospace in between. When applied to lithium-ion battery anodes, the Si/graphene/carbon nanofiber composites show a high reversible capacity of ∼2300 mAh g(-1) at a charging rate of 100 mA/g and a stable capacity of 1191 mAh g(-1) at 1 A/g after more than 200 cycles. The interconnected graphene network not only ensures the excellent conductivity but also serves as a buffering matrix for the mechanic stress caused by volume change; the nanospace between Si NPs and folded graphene provides the space needed for volume expansion.

  7. Porous Carbon Nanofibers Encapsulated with Peapod-Like Hematite Nanoparticles for High-Rate and Long-Life Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Xia, Guanglin; Gao, Qili; Sun, Dalin; Yu, Xuebin

    2017-07-19

    Fe2 O3 is regarded as a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) due to its high specific capacity. The large volume change during discharge and charge processes, however, induces significant cracking of the Fe2 O3 anodes, leading to rapid fading of the capacity. Herein, a novel peapod-like nanostructured material, consisting of Fe2 O3 nanoparticles homogeneously encapsulated in the hollow interior of N-doped porous carbon nanofibers, as a high-performance anode material is reported. The distinctive structure not only provides enough voids to accommodate the volume expansion of the pea-like Fe2 O3 nanoparticles but also offers a continuous conducting framework for electron transport and accessible nanoporous channels for fast diffusion and transport of Li/Na-ions. As a consequence, this peapod-like structure exhibits a stable discharge capacity of 1434 mAh g(-1) (at 100 mA g(-1) ) and 806 mAh g(-1) (at 200 mA g(-1) ) over 100 cycles as anode materials for LIBs and SIBs, respectively. More importantly, a stable capacity of 958 mAh g(-1) after 1000 cycles and 396 mAh g(-1) after 1500 cycles can be achieved for LIBs and SIBs, respectively, at a large current density of 2000 mA g(-1) . This study provides a promising strategy for developing long-cycle-life LIBs and SIBs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Designing an ultrathin silica layer for highly durable carbon nanofibers as the carbon support in polymer electrolyte fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sun-Mi; Park, Jae-Hyun; Lim, Seongyop; Jung, Doo-Hwan; Guim, Hwanuk; Yoon, Young-Gi; Yim, Sung-Dae; Kim, Tae-Young

    2014-10-21

    A critical issue for maintaining long-term applications of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is the development of an innovative technique for the functionalization of a carbon support that preserves their exceptional electrical conductivity and robustly enriches their durability. Here, we report for the first time how the formation of a partially coated, ultrathin, hydrophobic silica layer around the surfaces of the carbon nanofiber (CNF) helps improve the durability of the CNF without decreasing the significant electrical conductivity of the virgin CNF. The synthesis involved the adsorption of polycarbomethylsilane (PS) on the CNF's sidewalls, followed by high temperature pyrolysis of PS, resulting in a highly durable, conductive carbon support in PEFCs. The Pt nanoparticles are in direct contact with the surface of the carbon in the empty spaces between unevenly coated silica layers, which are not deposited directly onto the silica layer. The presence of a Pt nanoparticle layer that was thicker than the silica layer would be a quite advantageous circumstance that provides contact with other neighboring CNFs without having a significant adverse effect that deeply damages the electrical conductivity of the neighboring CNF composites with the silica layer. Furthermore, the ultrathin, hydrophobic silica layer around the surfaces of the CNF provides great potential to reduce the presence of water molecules in the vicinity of the carbon supports and the ˙OH radicals formed on the surface of the Pt catalyst. As a result, the CNF with a 5 wt% silica layer that we prepared has had extremely high initial performance and durability under severe carbon corrosion conditions, starting up with 974 mA cm(-2) at 0.6 V and ending up with more than 58% of the initial performance (i.e., 569 mA cm(-2) at 0.6 V) after a 1.6 V holding test for 6 h. The beginning-of-life and end-of-life performances based on the virgin CNF without the silica layer were 981 and 340 mA cm(-2) at 0

  9. Pipe-Wire TiO2-Sn@Carbon Nanofibers Paper Anodes for Lithium and Sodium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Mao, Minglei; Yan, Feilong; Cui, Chunyu; Ma, Jianmin; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Taihong; Wang, Chunsheng

    2017-06-14

    Metallic tin has been considered as one of the most promising anode materials both for lithium (LIBs) and sodium ion battery (NIBs) because of a high theoretical capacity and an appropriate low discharge potential. However, Sn anodes suffer from a rapid capacity fading during cycling due to pulverization induced by severe volume changes. Here we innovatively synthesized pipe-wire TiO2-Sn@carbon nanofibers (TiO2-Sn@CNFs) via electrospinning and atomic layer deposition to suppress pulverization-induced capacity decay. In pipe-wire TiO2-Sn@CNFs paper, nano-Sn is uniformly dispersed in carbon nanofibers, which not only act as a buffer material to prevent pulverization, but also serve as a conductive matrix. In addition, TiO2 pipe as the protection shell outside of Sn@carbon nanofibers can restrain the volume variation to prevent Sn from aggregation and pulverization during cycling, thus increasing the Coulombic efficiency. The pipe-wire TiO2-Sn@CNFs show excellent electrochemical performance as anodes for both LIBs and NIBs. It exhibits a high and stable capacity of 643 mA h/g at 200 mA/g after 1100 cycles in LIBs and 413 mA h/g at 100 mA/g after 400 cycles in NIBs. These results would shed light on the practical application of Sn-based materials as a high capacity electrode with good cycling stability for next-generation LIBs and NIBs.

  10. Effective Infiltration of Gel Polymer Electrolyte into Silicon-Coated Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers as Anodes for Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Gaind P; Klankowski, Steven A; Li, Yonghui; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan; Wu, Judy; Rojeski, Ronald A; Li, Jun

    2015-09-23

    This study demonstrates the full infiltration of gel polymer electrolyte into silicon-coated vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (Si-VACNFs), a high-capacity 3D nanostructured anode, and the electrochemical characterization of its properties as an effective electrolyte/separator for future all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries. Two fabrication methods have been employed to form a stable interface between the gel polymer electrolyte and the Si-VACNF anode. In the first method, the drop-casted gel polymer electrolyte is able to fully infiltrate into the open space between the vertically aligned core-shell nanofibers and encapsulate/stabilize each individual nanofiber in the polymer matrix. The 3D nanostructured Si-VACNF anode shows a very high capacity of 3450 mAh g(-1) at C/10.5 (or 0.36 A g(-1)) rate and 1732 mAh g(-1) at 1C (or 3.8 A g(-1)) rate. In the second method, a preformed gel electrolyte film is sandwiched between an Si-VACNF electrode and a Li foil to form a half-cell. Most of the vertical core-shell nanofibers of the Si-VACNF anode are able to penetrate into the gel polymer film while retaining their structural integrity. The slightly lower capacity of 2800 mAh g(-1) at C/11 rate and ∼1070 mAh g(-1) at C/1.5 (or 2.6 A g(-1)) rate have been obtained, with almost no capacity fade for up to 100 cycles. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy does not show noticeable changes after 110 cycles, further revealing the stable interface between the gel polymer electrolyte and the Si-VACNFs anode. These results show that the infiltrated flexible gel polymer electrolyte can effectively accommodate the stress/strain of the Si shell due to the large volume expansion/contraction during the charge-discharge processes, which is particularly useful for developing future flexible solid-state lithium-ion batteries incorporating Si-anodes.

  11. Filament Winding Of Carbon/Carbon Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacoy, Paul J.; Schmitigal, Wesley P.; Phillips, Wayne M.

    1991-01-01

    Improved method of winding carbon filaments for carbon/carbon composite structures less costly and labor-intensive, also produces more consistent results. Involves use of roller squeegee to ensure filaments continuously wet with resin during winding. Also involves control of spacing and resin contents of plies to obtain strong bonds between carbon filaments and carbon matrices. Lends itself to full automation and involves use of filaments and matrix-precursor resins in their simplest forms, thereby reducing costs.

  12. Stainless steel mesh supported nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers for binder-free cathode in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuiliang; Chen, Yu; He, Guanghua; He, Shuijian; Schröder, Uwe; Hou, Haoqing

    2012-04-15

    In this communication, we report a binder-free oxygen reduction cathode for microbial fuel cells. The binder-free cathode is prepared by growth of nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (NCNFs) on stainless steel mesh (SSM) via simple pyrolysis of pyridine. The interaction force between NCNFs and SSM surface is very strong which is able to tolerate water flush. The NCNFs/SSM cathode shows high and stable electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction, which is comparable to that of Pt/SSM and ferricyanide cathode. This study proposes a promising low-cost binder-free cathode for microbial fuel cells.

  13. A Precision Dose Control Circuit for Maskless E-Beam Lithography With Massively Parallel Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Eliza, Sazia A.; Islam, Syed K; Rahman, Touhidur; Bull, Nora D; Blalock, Benjamin; Baylor, Larry R; Ericson, Milton Nance; Gardner, Walter L

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a highly accurate dose control circuit (DCC) for the emission of a desired number of electrons from vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) in a massively parallel maskless e-beam lithography system. The parasitic components within the VACNF device cause a premature termination of the electron emission, resulting in underexposure of the photoresist. In this paper, we compensate for the effects of the parasitic components and noise while reducing the area of the chip and achieving a precise count of emitted electrons from the VACNFs to obtain the optimum dose for the e-beam lithography.

  14. Asymmetric supercapacitors based on functional electrospun carbon nanofiber/manganese oxide electrodes with high power density and energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sheng-Chi; Lu, Yi-Ting; Chien, Yu-An; Wang, Jeng-An; You, Ting-Hsuan; Wang, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Chih-Wen; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Hu, Chi-Chang

    2017-09-01

    Carbon nanofibers modified with carboxyl groups (CNF-COOH) possessing good wettability and high porosity are homogeneously deposited with amorphous manganese dioxide (amorphous MnO2) by potentiodynamic deposition for asymmetric super-capacitors (ASCs). The potential-cycling in 1 M H2SO4 successfully enhances the hydrophilicity of carbonized polymer nanofibers and facilitates the access of electrolytes within the CNF-COOH matrix. This modification favors the deposition of amorphous MnO2 and improves its electrochemical utilization. In this composite, MnO2 homogeneously dispersed onto CNF-COOH provides desirable pseudocapacitance and the CNF-COOH network works as the electron conductor. The composite of CNF-COOH@MnO2-20 shows a high specific capacitance of 415 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1. The capacitance retention of this composite is 94% in a 10,000-cycle test. An ASC cell consisting of this composite and activated carbon as positive and negative electrodes can be reversibly charged/discharged to a cell voltage of 2.0 V in 1 M Na2SO4 and 4 mM NaHCO3 with specific energy and power of 36.7 Wh kg-1 and 354.9 W kg-1, respectively. This ASC also shows excellent cell capacitance retention (8% decay) in the 2V, 10,000-cycle stability test, revealing superior performance.

  15. High electrocatalytic performance of nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber-supported nickel oxide nanocomposite for methanol oxidation in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Enizi, Abdullah M.; Elzatahry, Ahmed A.; Abdullah, Aboubakr M.; Vinu, Ajayan; Iwai, Hideo; Al-Deyab, Salem S.

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanofiber (N-CNF)-supported NiO composite was prepared by electrospinning a sol-gel mixture of graphene and polyaniline (PANi) with aqueous solutions of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) followed by a high-temperature annealing process. The electrospun was stabilized for 2 h at 280 °C, carbonized for 5 h at 1200 °C then loaded by 10% NiO. The electrocatalytic activities of the produced nanocomposite have been studied using cyclic voltammetry, and chronoamperometry. Also, N-CNF was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), surface area (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and scanning-electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained N-doped carbon nanofiber was found to have a nitrogen content of 2.6 atomic% with a diameter range of (140-160) nm, and a surface area (393.3 m2 g-1). In addition, it showed a high electrocatalytic behavior towards methanol oxidation reaction in alkaline medium and high stability and resistivity to the adsorption of intermediates.

  16. Simulation of the Impact of Si Shell Thickness on the Performance of Si-Coated Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber as Li-Ion Battery Anode.

    PubMed

    Das, Susobhan; Li, Jun; Hui, Rongqing

    2015-12-15

    Micro- and nano-structured electrodes have the potential to improve the performance of Li-ion batteries by increasing the surface area of the electrode and reducing the diffusion distance required by the charged carriers. We report the numerical simulation of Lithium-ion batteries with the anode made of core-shell heterostructures of silicon-coated carbon nanofibers. We show that the energy capacity can be significantly improved by reducing the thickness of the silicon anode to the dimension comparable or less than the Li-ion diffusion length inside silicon. The results of simulation indicate that the contraction of the silicon electrode thickness during the battery discharge process commonly found in experiments also plays a major role in the increase of the energy capacity.

  17. Improving the microstructure and electrochemical performance of carbon nanofibers containing graphene-wrapped silicon nanoparticles as a Li-ion battery anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, So Yeun; Yang, Kap Seung; Kim, Bo-Hye

    2015-01-01

    A novel anode material for lithium-ion batteries, graphene-wrapped Si nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in carbon composite nanofibers (CCNFs) with G/Si, is fabricated by electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment. In CCNFs with G/Si, Si NPs are distributed and preserved inside the CNF surface because the graphene wrapping the Si NPs help prevent agglomeration and ensure a good dispersion of Si NPs inside the CNF matrix. 20-GSP prepared from a weight ratio of 20 wt% of G/Si to polyacrylonitrile exhibits stable capacity retention and a reversible capacity of above 600 mAh g-1 up to 100 cycles. The high cycling performance and superior reversible capacity of the 20-GSP anode can be attributed to the one-dimensional nanofibrous structure with non-agglomerated Si NPs in the CNF matrix, which promotes charge transfer, maintains a stable electrical contact, and buffers the Si volume expansion.

  18. In situ fabrication of three-dimensional nitrogen and boron co-doped porous carbon nanofibers for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lijun; Xia, Guanglin; Guo, Zaiping; Sun, Dalin; Li, Xingguo; Yu, Xuebin

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the fabrication of three-dimensional porous carbon nanofibers network with high doping level of nitrogen (N, 5.17 at.%) and boron (B, 6.87 at.%) through a general electrospinning strategy followed by a calcination process. The employed ammonia borane (NH3BH3, denote as AB) not only functions as a porogen reagent to generate porous structures but also as the heteroatoms source to induce N and B co-doping. Such highly unique nanoarchitectures offer remarkably improved Li storage performance including high reversible capacity (∼910 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1) with good cycling and rate performances.

  19. Simulation of the Impact of Si Shell Thickness on the Performance of Si-Coated Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber as Li-Ion Battery Anode

    PubMed Central

    Das, Susobhan; Li, Jun; Hui, Rongqing

    2015-01-01

    Micro- and nano-structured electrodes have the potential to improve the performance of Li-ion batteries by increasing the surface area of the electrode and reducing the diffusion distance required by the charged carriers. We report the numerical simulation of Lithium-ion batteries with the anode made of core-shell heterostructures of silicon-coated carbon nanofibers. We show that the energy capacity can be significantly improved by reducing the thickness of the silicon anode to the dimension comparable or less than the Li-ion diffusion length inside silicon. The results of simulation indicate that the contraction of the silicon electrode thickness during the battery discharge process commonly found in experiments also plays a major role in the increase of the energy capacity. PMID:28347120

  20. Protein/CaCO₃/Chitin Nanofiber Complex Prepared from Crab Shells by Simple Mechanical Treatment and Its Effect on Plant Growth.

    PubMed

    Aklog, Yihun Fantahun; Egusa, Mayumi; Kaminaka, Hironori; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2016-09-22

    A protein/CaCO₃/chitin nanofiber complex was prepared from crab shells by a simple mechanical treatment with a high-pressure water-jet (HPWJ) system. The preparation process did not involve chemical treatments, such as removal of protein and calcium carbonate with sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid, respectively. Thus, it was economically and environmentally friendly. The nanofibers obtained had uniform width and dispersed homogeneously in water. Nanofibers were characterized in morphology, transparency, and viscosity. Results indicated that the shell was mostly disintegrated into nanofibers at above five cycles of the HPWJ system. The chemical structure of the nanofiber was maintained even after extensive mechanical treatments. Subsequently, the nanofiber complex was found to improve the growth of tomatoes in a hydroponics system, suggesting the mechanical treatments efficiently released minerals into the system. The homogeneous dispersion of the nanofiber complex enabled easier application as a fertilizer compared to the crab shell flakes.

  1. Protein/CaCO3/Chitin Nanofiber Complex Prepared from Crab Shells by Simple Mechanical Treatment and Its Effect on Plant Growth

    PubMed Central

    Aklog, Yihun Fantahun; Egusa, Mayumi; Kaminaka, Hironori; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2016-01-01

    A protein/CaCO3/chitin nanofiber complex was prepared from crab shells by a simple mechanical treatment with a high-pressure water-jet (HPWJ) system. The preparation process did not involve chemical treatments, such as removal of protein and calcium carbonate with sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid, respectively. Thus, it was economically and environmentally friendly. The nanofibers obtained had uniform width and dispersed homogeneously in water. Nanofibers were characterized in morphology, transparency, and viscosity. Results indicated that the shell was mostly disintegrated into nanofibers at above five cycles of the HPWJ system. The chemical structure of the nanofiber was maintained even after extensive mechanical treatments. Subsequently, the nanofiber complex was found to improve the growth of tomatoes in a hydroponics system, suggesting the mechanical treatments efficiently released minerals into the system. The homogeneous dispersion of the nanofiber complex enabled easier application as a fertilizer compared to the crab shell flakes. PMID:27669216

  2. Greater cardiomyocyte density on aligned compared with random carbon nanofibers in polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Asiri, Abdullah M; Marwani, Hadi M; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Webster, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) randomly embedded in poly (lactic-co-glycolic-acid) (PLGA) composites have recently been shown to promote cardiomyocyte growth when compared with conventional PLGA without CNFs. It was shown then that PLGA:CNF composites were conductive and that conductivity increased as greater amounts of CNFs were added to pure PLGA. Moreover, tensile tests showed that addition of CNFs increased the tensile strength of the PLGA composite to mimic that of natural heart tissue. Most importantly, throughout all cytocompatibility experiments, cardiomyocytes were viable and expressed important biomarkers that were greatest on 50:50 wt% CNF:PLGA composites. The increased selective adsorption of fibronectin and vitronectin (critical proteins that mediate cardiomyocyte function) onto such composites proved to be the mechanism of action. However, the natural myocardium is anisotropic in terms of mechanical and electrical properties, which was not emulated in these prior PLGA:CNF composites. Thus, the aim of this in vitro study was to create and characterize CNFs aligned in PLGA composites (at 50:50 wt%, including their mechanical and electrical properties and cardiomyocyte density), comparing such results with randomly oriented CNFs in PLGA. Specifically, CNFs were added to soluble biodegradable PLGA (50:50 PGA:PLA weight ratio) and aligned by applying a voltage and then allowing the polymer to cure. CNF surface micron patterns (20 μm wide) on PLGA were then fabricated through a mold method to further mimic myocardium anisotropy. The results demonstrated anisotropic mechanical and electrical properties and significantly improved cardiomyocyte density for up to 5 days on CNFs aligned in PLGA compared with being randomly oriented in PLGA. These results indicate that CNFs aligned in PLGA should be further explored for improving cardiomyocyte density, which is necessary in numerous cardiovascular applications.

  3. An amperometric uric acid biosensor based on chitosan-carbon nanotubes electrospun nanofiber on silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Numnuam, Apon; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

    2014-06-01

    A novel amperometric uric acid biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing uricase on an electrospun nanocomposite of chitosan-carbon nanotubes nanofiber (Chi-CNTsNF) covering an electrodeposited layer of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on a gold electrode (uricase/Chi-CNTsNF/AgNPs/Au). The uric acid response was determined at an optimum applied potential of -0.35 V vs Ag/AgCl in a flow-injection system based on the change of the reduction current for dissolved oxygen during oxidation of uric acid by the immobilized uricase. The response was directly proportional to the uric acid concentration. Under the optimum conditions, the fabricated uric acid biosensor had a very wide linear range, 1.0-400 μmol L(-1), with a very low limit of detection of 1.0 μmol L(-1) (s/n = 3). The operational stability of the uricase/Chi-CNTsNF/AgNPs/Au biosensor (up to 205 injections) was excellent and the storage life was more than six weeks. A low Michaelis-Menten constant of 0.21 mmol L(-1) indicated that the immobilized uricase had high affinity for uric acid. The presence of potential common interfering substances, for example ascorbic acid, glucose, and lactic acid, had negligible effects on the performance of the biosensor. When used for analysis of uric acid in serum samples, the results agreed well with those obtained by use of the standard enzymatic colorimetric method (P > 0.05).

  4. Understanding greater cardiomyocyte functions on aligned compared to random carbon nanofibers in PLGA.

    PubMed

    Asiri, Abdullah M; Marwani, Hadi M; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated greater cardiomyocyte density on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) aligned (compared to randomly oriented) in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composites. Although such studies demonstrated a closer mimicking of anisotropic electrical and mechanical properties for such aligned (compared to randomly oriented) CNFs in PLGA composites, the objective of the present in vitro study was to elucidate a deeper mechanistic understanding of how cardiomyocyte densities recognize such materials to respond more favorably. Results showed lower wettability (greater hydrophobicity) of CNFs embedded in PLGA compar