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Sample records for carbon nanotube-based nanostructures

  1. Carbon nanotube based nanostructured thin films: preparation and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Li; Yu, Aimin

    2013-08-01

    Hybrid thin films of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and titania were fabricated on quartz slides by alternatively depositing MWCNT and titanium(IV) bis(ammonium lactato) dihydroxide (TALH) via a solution based layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method followed by calcination to convert TALH to crystalline titania. The multilayer film build-up was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy which indicated the linear growth of the film with the bilayer number. XRD confirmed the formation of anantase titania after heat treatment. The photocatalytic property of the hybrid thin film was evaluated by its capacity to degrade rhodamine B under the UV illumination. Compared with pure TiO2 film, experiments showed that the MWCNT/TiO2 hybrid film had a much higher photocatalytic activity under the same conditions. The first order rate constant of photocatalysis of 30 bilayers of hybrid film was approximately 8-fold higher than that of 30 bilayers of pure TiO2 film. In addition, the degradation efficiency of MWCNT/TiO2 hybrid thin film increased with its thickness while pure titania film remained unchanged. A 30 bilayers hybrid thin film that contains about 0.2 mg MWCNT/TiO2 catalyst was capable of completely degrading 10 mL of 2 mg/L Rh B solution within 5 hours. The results also indicated that the hybrid catalyst could be reused for several cycles.

  2. Novel Carbon Nanotube-Based Nanostructures for High-Temperature Gas Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhi Chen; Kozo Saito

    2008-08-31

    The primary objective of this research is to examine the feasibility of using vertically aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a high temperature sensor material for fossil energy systems where reducing atmospheres are present. In the initial period of research, we fabricated capacitive sensors for hydrogen sensing using vertically aligned MWCNTs. We found that CNT itself is not sensitive to hydrogen. Moreover, with the help of Pd electrodes, hydrogen sensors based on CNTs are very sensitive and fast responsive. However, the Pd-based sensors can not withstand high temperature (T<200 C). In the last year, we successfully fabricated a hydrogen sensor based on an ultra-thin nanoporous titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) film supported by an AAO substrate, which can operate at 500 C with hydrogen concentrations in a range from 50 to 500 ppm.

  3. Carbon Nanotube Based Molecular Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash; Menon, Madhu

    1998-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes and the nanotube heterojunctions have recently emerged as excellent candidates for nanoscale molecular electronic device components. Experimental measurements on the conductivity, rectifying behavior and conductivity-chirality correlation have also been made. While quasi-one dimensional simple heterojunctions between nanotubes with different electronic behavior can be generated by introduction of a pair of heptagon-pentagon defects in an otherwise all hexagon graphene sheet. Other complex 3- and 4-point junctions may require other mechanisms. Structural stability as well as local electronic density of states of various nanotube junctions are investigated using a generalized tight-binding molecular dynamics (GDBMD) scheme that incorporates non-orthogonality of the orbitals. The junctions investigated include straight and small angle heterojunctions of various chiralities and diameters; as well as more complex 'T' and 'Y' junctions which do not always obey the usual pentagon-heptagon pair rule. The study of local density of states (LDOS) reveal many interesting features, most prominent among them being the defect-induced states in the gap. The proposed three and four pointjunctions are one of the smallest possible tunnel junctions made entirely of carbon atoms. Furthermore the electronic behavior of the nanotube based device components can be taylored by doping with group III-V elements such as B and N, and BN nanotubes as a wide band gap semiconductor has also been realized in experiments. Structural properties of heteroatomic nanotubes comprising C, B and N will be discussed.

  4. Carbon Nanotube-Based Synthetic Gecko Tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhinojwala, Ali

    2008-03-01

    Wall-climbing geckos have unique ability to attach to different surfaces without the use of any viscoelastic glues. On coming in contact with any surface, the micron-size gecko foot-hairs deform, enabling molecular contact over large areas, thus translating weak van der Waals (vdW) interactions into enormous shear forces. We will present our recent results on the development of synthetic gecko tape using aligned carbon nanotubes to mimic the keratin hairs found on gecko feet. The patterned carbon nanotube-based gecko tape can support a shear stress (36 N/cm^2) nearly four times higher than the gecko foot and sticks to a variety of surfaces, including Teflon. Both the micron-size setae (replicated by nanotube bundles) and nanometer-size spatulas (individual nanotubes) are necessary to achieve macroscopic shear adhesion and to translate the weak vdW interactions into high shear forces. The carbon nanotube based tape offers an excellent synthetic option as a dry conductive reversible adhesive in microelectronics, robotics and space applications. The mechanism behind these large shear forces and self-cleaning properties of these carbon nanotube based synthetic gecko tapes will be discussed. This work was performed in collaboration with graduate students Liehui Ge, and Sunny Sethi, and collaborators from RPI; Lijie Ci and Professor Pulickel Ajayan.

  5. Carbon Nanotube Based Light Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, russell A. (Inventor); Smits, Jan M. (Inventor); Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony Neal (Inventor); Ingram, JoAnne L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A light sensor substrate comprises a base made from a semi-conductive material and topped with a layer of an electrically non-conductive material. A first electrode and a plurality of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based conductors are positioned on the layer of electrically non-conductive material with the CNT-based conductors being distributed in a spaced apart fashion about a periphery of the first electrode. Each CNT-based conductor is coupled on one end thereof to the first electrode and extends away from the first electrode to terminate at a second free end. A second or gate electrode is positioned on the non-conductive material layer and is spaced apart from the second free end of each CNT-based conductor. Coupled to the first and second electrode is a device for detecting electron transfer along the CNT-based conductors resulting from light impinging on the CNT-based conductors.

  6. Carbon nanotube-based synthetic gecko tapes.

    PubMed

    Ge, Liehui; Sethi, Sunny; Ci, Lijie; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2007-06-26

    We have developed a synthetic gecko tape by transferring micropatterned carbon nanotube arrays onto flexible polymer tape based on the hierarchical structure found on the foot of a gecko lizard. The gecko tape can support a shear stress (36 N/cm(2)) nearly four times higher than the gecko foot and sticks to a variety of surfaces, including Teflon. Both the micrometer-size setae (replicated by nanotube bundles) and nanometer-size spatulas (individual nanotubes) are necessary to achieve macroscopic shear adhesion and to translate the weak van der Waals interactions into high shear forces. We have demonstrated for the first time a macroscopic flexible patch that can be used repeatedly with peeling and adhesive properties better than the natural gecko foot. The carbon nanotube-based tape offers an excellent synthetic option as a dry conductive reversible adhesive in microelectronics, robotics, and space applications.

  7. Analytical, numerical, and experimental investigations on effective mechanical properties and performances of carbon nanotubes and nanotube based nanocomposites with novel three dimensional nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askari, Davood

    The theoretical objectives and accomplishment of this work are the analytical and numerical investigation of material properties and mechanical behavior of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanotube nanocomposites when they are subjected to various loading conditions. First, the finite element method is employed to investigate numerically the effective Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of a single-walled CNT. Next, the effects of chirality on the effective Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are investigated and then variations of their effective coefficient of thermal expansions and effective thermal conductivities are studied for CNTs with different structural configurations. To study the influence of small vacancy defects on mechanical properties of CNTs, finite element analyses are performed and the behavior of CNTs with various structural configurations having different types of vacancy defects is studied. It is frequently reported that nano-materials are excellent candidates as reinforcements in nanocomposites to change or enhance material properties of polymers and their nanocomposites. Second, the inclusion of nano-materials can considerably improve electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of the bonding agent, i.e., resin. Note that, materials atomic and molecular level do not usually show isotropic behaviour, rather they have orthotropic properties. Therefore, two-phase and three-phase cylindrically orthotropic composite models consisting of different constituents with orthotropic properties are developed and introduced in this work to analytically predict the effective mechanical properties and mechanical behavior of such structures when they are subjected to various external loading conditions. To verify the analytically obtained exact solutions, finite element analyses of identical cylindrical structures are also performed and then results are compared with those obtained analytically, and excellent agreement is achieved. The third part of this

  8. Carbon Nanotube-Based Permeable Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, J K; Park, H G; Bakajin, O; Noy, A; Huser, T; Eaglesham, D

    2004-04-06

    A membrane of multiwalled carbon nanotubes embedded in a silicon nitride matrix was fabricated for use in studying fluid mechanics on the nanometer scale. Characterization by fluorescent tracer diffusion and scanning electron microscopy suggests that the membrane is void-free near the silicon substrate on which it rests, implying that the hollow core of the nanotube is the only conduction path for molecular transport. Assuming Knudsen diffusion through this nanotube membrane, a maximum helium transport rate (for a pressure drop of 1 atm) of 0.25 cc/sec is predicted. Helium flow measurements of a nanoporous silicon nitride membrane, fabricated by sacrificial removal of carbon, give a flow rate greater than 1x10{sup -6} cc/sec. For viscous, laminar flow conditions, water is estimated to flow across the nanotube membrane (under a 1 atm pressure drop) at up to 2.8x10{sup -5} cc/sec (1.7 {micro}L/min).

  9. Carbon Nanotube-Based Chemical Sensors.

    PubMed

    Meyyappan, M

    2016-04-27

    The need to sense gases and vapors arises in numerous scenarios in industrial, environmental, security and medical applications. Traditionally, this activity has utilized bulky instruments to obtain both qualitative and quantitative information on the constituents of the gas mixture. It is ideal to use sensors for this purpose since they are smaller in size and less expensive; however, their performance in the field must match that of established analytical instruments in order to gain acceptance. In this regard, nanomaterials as sensing media offer advantages in sensitivity, preparation of chip-based sensors and construction of electronic nose for selective detection of analytes of interest. This article provides a review of the use of carbon nanotubes in gas and vapor sensing. PMID:26959284

  10. Carbon-Nanotube-Based Chemical Gas Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Arunpama B.

    2010-01-01

    Conventional thermal conductivity gauges (e.g. Pirani gauges) lend themselves to applications such as leak detectors, or in gas chromatographs for identifying various gas species. However, these conventional gauges are physically large, operate at high power, and have a slow response time. A single-walled carbon-nanotube (SWNT)-based chemical sensing gauge relies on differences in thermal conductance of the respective gases surrounding the CNT as it is voltage-biased, as a means for chemical identification. Such a sensor provides benefits of significantly reduced size and compactness, fast response time, low-power operation, and inexpensive manufacturing since it can be batch-fabricated using Si integrated-circuit (IC) process technology.

  11. The calibration of carbon nanotube based bionanosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, S.; Chowdhury, R.

    2010-06-15

    We derive the calibration constants necessary for using single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as nanoscale mass sensors. The CNT resonators are assumed to be either in cantilevered or in bridged configurations. Two cases, namely, when the added mass can be considered as a point mass and when the added mass is distributed over a larger area is considered. Closed-form transcendental equations have been derived for the frequency shift due to the added mass. Using the energy principles, generalized nondimensional calibration constants have been derived for an explicit relationship between the added mass and the frequency shift. A molecular mechanics model based on the universal force field potential is used to validate the new results presented. The results indicate that the distributed nature of the mass to be detected has considerable effect on the performance of the sensor.

  12. Pristine carbon nanotubes based resistive temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Md Bayazeed; Saini, Sudhir Kumar; Sharma, Daya Shankar; Agarwal, Pankaj B.

    2016-04-01

    A good sensor must be highly sensitive, faster in response, of low cost cum easily producible, and highly reliable. Incorporation of nano-dimensional particles/ wires makes conventional sensors more effective in terms of fulfilling the above requirements. For example, Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are promising sensing element because of its large aspect ratio, unique electronic and thermal properties. In addition to their use for widely reported chemical sensing, it has also been explored for temperature sensing. This paper presents the fabrication of CNTs based temperature sensor, prepared on silicon substrate using low cost spray coating method, which is reliable and reproducible method to prepare uniform CNTs thin films on any substrate. Besides this, simple and inexpensive method of preparation of dispersion of single walled CNTs (SWNTs) in 1,2 dichlorobenzene by using probe type ultrasonicator for debundling the CNTs for improving sensor response were used. The electrical contacts over the dispersed SWNTs were taken using silver paste electrodes. Fabricated sensors clearly show immediate change in resistance as a response to change in temperature of SWNTs. The measured sensitivity (change in resistance with temperature) of the sensor was found ˜ 0.29%/°C in the 25°C to 60°C temperature range.

  13. Carbon nanotube based functional superhydrophobic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Sunny

    The main objective of this dissertation is synthesis of carbon nanotube (CNT) based superhydrophobic materials. The materials were designed such that electrical and mechanical properties of CNTs could be combined with superhydrophobicity to create materials with unique properties, such as self-cleaning adhesives, miniature flotation devices, ice-repellant coatings, and coatings for heat transfer furnaces. The coatings were divided into two broad categories based on CNT structure: Vertically aligned CNT arrays (VA coatings) and mesh-like (non-aligned) carbon nanotube arrays (NA coatings). VA coatings were used to create self-cleaning adhesives and flexible field emission devices. Coatings with self cleaning property along with high adhesiveness were inspired from structure found on gecko foot. Gecko foot is covered with thousands of microscopic hairs called setae; these setae are further divided into hundreds of nanometer sized hairs called spatulas. When gecko presses its foot against any surface, these hairs bend and conform to the topology of the surface resulting into very large area of contact. Such large area of intimate contact allows geckos to adhere to surfaces using van der Waals (vdW) interactions alone. VA-CNTs adhere to a variety of surfaces using a similar mechanism. CNTs of suitable diameter could withstand four times higher adhesion force than gecko foot. We found that upon soiling these CNT based adhesives (gecko tape) could be cleaned using a water droplet (lotus effect) or by applying vibrations. These materials could be used for applications requiring reversible adhesion. VA coatings were also used for developing field emission devices. A single CNT can emit electrons at very low threshold voltages. Achieving efficient electron emission on large scale has a lot of challenges such as screening effect, pull-off and lower current efficiency. We have explored the use of polymer-CNT composite structures to overcome these challenges in this work. NA

  14. Three-dimensional carbon nanotube based photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flicker, Jack

    2011-12-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cells with a three dimensional (3D) morphology are an exciting new research thrust with promise to create cheaper, more efficient solar cells. This work introduces a new type of 3D PV device based on carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays. These arrays are paired with the thin film heterojunction, CdTe/CdS, to form a complete 3D carbon nanotube PV device (3DCNTPV). Marriage of a complicated 3D structure with production methods traditionally used for planar CdTe solar cell is challenging. This work examines the problems associated with processing these types of cells and systematically alters production methods of the semiconductor layers and electrodes to increase the short circuit current (Isc), eliminate parasitic shunts, and increase the open circuit voltage (Voc). The main benefit of 3D solar cell is the ability to utilize multiple photon interactions with the solar cell surface. The three dimensionality allows photons to interact multiple times with the photoactive material, which increases the absorption and the overall power output over what is possible with a two dimensional (2D) morphology. To quantify the increased power output arising from these multiple photon interactions, a new absorption efficiency term, eta3D, is introduced. The theoretical basis behind this new term and how it relates to the absorption efficiency of a planar cell, eta 2D, is derived. A unique model for the average number of multiple photon impingements, Gamma, is proposed based on three categories of 3D morphology: an infinite trench, an enclosed box, and an array of towers. The derivation of eta3D and Gamma for these 3D PV devices gives a complete picture of the enhanced power output over 2D cells based on CNT array height, pitch, radius, and shape. This theory is validated by monte carlo simulations and experiment. This new type of 3D PV devices has been shown to work experimentally. The first 3DCNTPV cells created posses Isc values of 0.085 to 17.872mA/cm2 and Voc values

  15. High strain carbon nanotubes based epoxy matrix nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manocha, L. M.; Basak, Arpana; Bhandari, T.; Baishya, T.; Manocha, S.

    2013-06-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes, synthesized by catalytic chemical vapour deposition using xylene as the carbon precursor and ferrocene as the catalyst source, were used as reinforcements for the preparation of carbon nanotubes based epoxy matrix composites. For higher degree of dispersion in the matrix system, oxygen containing groups (C=O, COOH) were attached to the surface of carbon nanotubes by acid treatment followed by rigorous sonication of reinforcement in the matrix system. FTIR confirms the formation of oxygen containing groups on the surface of the carbon nanotubes. Tensile strength and glass transition temperature of the epoxy resin as well as nanocomposite samples have been determined. Carbon nanotubes reinforced composites exhibited ten times higher elongation than as such epoxy mainly due to the strengthening effect of the dispersed nanotubes and the development of moderate interfacial bonding between the resin and the reinforcing agent. A noticeable increase in the glass transition temperature of ˜20°C in the nanocomposites is attributable to the restricted movement of the polymeric chains on account of addition of carbon nanotubes.

  16. Carbon-Nanotube-Based Electrodes for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jun; Meyyappan, M.

    2008-01-01

    A nanotube array based on vertically aligned nanotubes or carbon nanofibers has been invented for use in localized electrical stimulation and recording of electrical responses in selected regions of an animal body, especially including the brain. There are numerous established, emerging, and potential applications for localized electrical stimulation and/or recording, including treatment of Parkinson s disease, Tourette s syndrome, and chronic pain, and research on electrochemical effects involved in neurotransmission. Carbon-nanotube-based electrodes offer potential advantages over metal macroelectrodes (having diameters of the order of a millimeter) and microelectrodes (having various diameters ranging down to tens of microns) heretofore used in such applications. These advantages include the following: a) Stimuli and responses could be localized at finer scales of spatial and temporal resolution, which is at subcellular level, with fewer disturbances to, and less interference from, adjacent regions. b) There would be less risk of hemorrhage on implantation because nano-electrode-based probe tips could be configured to be less traumatic. c) Being more biocompatible than are metal electrodes, carbon-nanotube-based electrodes and arrays would be more suitable for long-term or permanent implantation. d) Unlike macro- and microelectrodes, a nano-electrode could penetrate a cell membrane with minimal disruption. Thus, for example, a nanoelectrode could be used to generate an action potential inside a neuron or in proximity of an active neuron zone. Such stimulation may be much more effective than is extra- or intracellular stimulation via a macro- or microelectrode. e) The large surface area of an array at a micron-scale footprint of non-insulated nanoelectrodes coated with a suitable electrochemically active material containing redox ingredients would make it possible to obtain a pseudocapacitance large enough to dissipate a relatively large amount of electric charge

  17. Gecko-Inspired Carbon Nanotube-Based Adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Liehui; Sethi, Sunny; Goyal, Anubha; Ci, Lijie; Ajayan, Pulickel; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2009-03-01

    Nature has developed hierarchical hairy structure on the wall-climbing gecko's foot, consisting of microscopic hairs called setae, which further split into hundreds of smaller structures called spatulas. In the last five years, numerous attempts to mimic gecko foot-hair using polymer soft molding and photolithography methods have been reported. However, most of these polymer-based synthetic gecko hairs fall short of the clinging ability of geckos. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) have shown strong adhesion at nanometer scale. Here, we present our work on developing CNT-based macroscopic flexible tape mimicking the hierarchical structure found on gecko's foot. The synthetic gecko tape is made by transferring aligned CNT array onto flexible polymer tape. The unpatterned CNT-gecko tape can support a shear force stress similar to gecko foot (10 N/cm^2). The supported shear stress increase by a factor of four, when we use micro-patterned CNT patches (50 to 500 μm). We find that both setae (replicated by CNT bundles) and spatulas (individual CNT) are necessary to achieve large macroscopic shear adhesion. The carbon nanotube-based tape offers an excellent synthetic option as a dry conductive reversible adhesive in microelectronics, robotics, and space applications.

  18. Carbon Nanotube Based Chemical Sensors for Space and Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing; Lu, Yijiang

    2009-01-01

    A nanosensor technology has been developed using nanostructures, such as single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), on a pair of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) processed with a silicon-based microfabrication and micromachining technique. The IDE fingers were fabricated using photolithography and thin film metallization techniques. Both in-situ growth of nanostructure materials and casting of the nanostructure dispersions were used to make chemical sensing devices. These sensors have been exposed to nitrogen dioxide, acetone, benzene, nitrotoluene, chlorine, and ammonia in the concentration range of ppm to ppb at room temperature. The electronic molecular sensing of carbon nanotubes in our sensor platform can be understood by intra- and inter-tube electron modulation in terms of charge transfer mechanisms. As a result of the charge transfer, the conductance of p-type or hole-richer SWNTs in air will change. Due to the large surface area, low surface energy barrier and high thermal and mechanical stability, nanostructured chemical sensors potentially can offer higher sensitivity, lower power consumption and better robustness than the state-of-the-art systems, which make them more attractive for defense and space applications. Combined with MEMS technology, light weight and compact size sensors can be made in wafer scale with low cost. Additionally, a wireless capability of such a sensor chip can be used for networked mobile and fixed-site detection and warning systems for military bases, facilities and battlefield areas.

  19. Gecko-inspired carbon nanotube-based self-cleaning adhesives.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sunny; Ge, Liehui; Ci, Lijie; Ajayan, P M; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2008-03-01

    The design of reversible adhesives requires both stickiness and the ability to remain clean from dust and other contaminants. Inspired by gecko feet, we demonstrate the self-cleaning ability of carbon nanotube-based flexible gecko tapes.

  20. Carbon Nanotubes Based Nanoelectrode Arrays: Fabrication, Evaluation, and Sensing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yuehe; Tu, Yi; Lu, Fang; Yantasee, Wassana; Ren, Zhifeng

    2004-10-05

    The fabrication, electrochemical characterization, and applications of low-site density carbon nanotubes based nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) are reported in this work. Spin-coating of an epoxy resin provides a new way to create the electrode passivation layer that effectively reduces the current leakage and eliminates the electrode capacitance by sealing the side-wall of CNTs. The CNT-NEAs fabricated in our work effectively use the open ends of CNTs for electrochemical sensing. The open ends of the CNTs have fast electron transfer rates similar to a graphite edge-plane electrode, while the side-walls present very slow electron transfer rates similar to the graphitic basal plane. Cyclic voltammetry showed the sigmoidal shape curves with low capacitive current and scan-rate-independent limiting current. The CNT-NEAs were used successfully for voltammetric detection of trace concentrations of lead (II) at ppb level. The successful development of a glucose biosensor based on CNT-NEAs for the selective detection of glucose is also described. Glucose oxidase was covalently immobilized on the CNTs tips via carbodiimide chemistry by forming amide linkages between the amine residues and carboxylic acid groups on the open ends of CNTs. The biosensor effectively performs selective electrochemical detections of glucose in the presence of common interferences. The CNT-NEAs provide an excellent platform for ultra sensitive electrochemical sensors for chemical and biological sensing.

  1. Comparison of two different carbon nanotube-based surfaces with respect to potassium ferricyanide electrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taurino, Irene; Carrara, Sandro; Giorcelli, Mauro; Tagliaferro, Alberto; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2012-02-01

    This paper describes the electrochemical investigation of two multi-walled carbon nanotube-based electrodes using potassium ferricyanide as a benchmark redox system. Carbon nanotubes were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition on silicon wafer with camphor and ferrocene as precursors. Vertically-aligned as well as islands of horizontally-randomly-oriented carbon nanotubes were obtained by varying the growth parameters. Cyclic voltammetry was the employed method for this electrochemical study. Vertical nanotubes showed a slightly higher kinetic. Regarding the sensing parameters we found a sensitivity for vertical nanotubes almost equal to the sensitivity obtained with horizontally/randomly oriented nanotubes (71.5 ± 0.3 μA/(mM cm2) and 62.8 ± 0.3 μA/(mM cm2), respectively). In addition, values of detection limit are of the same order of magnitude. Although tip contribution to electron emission has been shown to be greatly larger than the lateral contribution on single carbon nanotubes per unit area, the new findings reported in this paper demonstrate that the global effects of nanotube surface on potassium ferricyanide electrochemistry are comparable for these two types of nanostructured surfaces.

  2. Carbon nanotube-based functional materials for optical limiting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Lin, Ying; Liu, Ying; Doyle, James; He, Nan; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Bai, Jinrui; Blau, Werner J

    2007-01-01

    Optical limiting is an important application of nonlinear optics, useful for the protection of human eyes, optical elements, and optical sensors from intense laser pulses. An optical limiter is such a device that strongly attenuates high intensity light and potentially damaging light such as focused laser beams, whilst allowing for the high transmission of ambient light. Optical limiting properties of carbon nanotube suspensions, solubilized carbon nanotubes, small molecules doped carbon nanotubes and polymer/carbon nanotube composites have been reviewed. The optical limiting responses of carbon nanotube suspensions are shown to be dominated by nonlinear scattering as a result of thermally induced solvent-bubble formation and sublimation of the nanotubes, while the solubilized carbon nanotubes optically limit through nonlinear absorption mechanism and exhibit significant solution-concentration-dependent optical limiting responses. In the former case the optical limiting results are independent of nanotube concentrations at the same linear transmittance as that of the solubilized systems. Many efforts have been invested into the research of polymer/carbon nanotube composites in an attempt to allow for the fabrication of films required for the use of nanotubes in a real optical limiting application. The higher carbon nanotube content samples block the incident light more effectively at higher incident energy densities or intensities. The optical limiting mechanism of these composite materials is quite complicated. Besides nonlinear scattering contribution to the optical limiting, there may also be other contributions e.g., nonlinear absorption, nonlinear refraction, electronic absorption and others to the optical limiting. Further improvements in the optical limiting efficiency of the composites and in the dispersion and alignment properties of carbon nanotubes in the polymer matrix could be realized by variation of both nanostructured guest and polymer host, and by

  3. Carbon-nanotube-based liquids: a new class of nanomaterials and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Ngoc Minh; Thang Bui, Hung; Nguyen, Manh Hong; Khoi Phan, Hong

    2014-03-01

    Carbon-nanotube-based liquids—a new class of nanomaterials—have shown many interesting properties and distinctive features offering unprecedented potential for many applications. This paper summarizes the recent progress on the study of the preparation, characterization and properties of carbon-nanotube-based liquids including so-called nanofluids, nanolubricants and different kinds of nanosolutions containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes/single-walled carbon nanotubes/graphene. A broad range of current and future applications of these nanomaterials in the fields of energy saving, power electronic and optoelectronic devices, biotechnology and agriculture are presented. The paper also identifies challenges and opportunities for future research.

  4. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Carbon Nanotube-Based Vacuum Electronic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Toda, Risaku (Inventor); Del Castillo, Linda Y. (Inventor); Murthy, Rakesh (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention proficiently produce carbon nanotube-based vacuum electronic devices. In one embodiment a method of fabricating a carbon nanotube-based vacuum electronic device includes: growing carbon nanotubes onto a substrate to form a cathode; assembling a stack that includes the cathode, an anode, and a first layer that includes an alignment slot; disposing a microsphere partially into the alignment slot during the assembling of the stack such that the microsphere protrudes from the alignment slot and can thereby separate the first layer from an adjacent layer; and encasing the stack in a vacuum sealed container.

  5. Zirconia grafted carbon nanotubes based biosensor for M. Tuberculosis detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Maumita; Dhand, Chetna; Sumana, G.; Srivastava, A. K.; Vijayan, N.; Nagarajan, R.; Malhotra, B. D.

    2011-10-01

    Zirconia (ZrO2) grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (crystallite size of ZrO2 ˜ 28.63 nm), obtained via isothermal hydrolysis of zirconium oxychloride in presence of CNT, have been electrophoretically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass plate. High resolution electron microscopic investigations reveal assemblage of the ZrO2 nanostructure inside and around CNT cavities. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic studies indicate ˜3.5 fold enhancement in charge transfer behaviour of NanoZrO2-CNT/ITO electrode compared to that of NanoZrO2/ITO electrode. Considering the synergy between biocompatible ZrO2 and electrochemically superior CNT, this nanobiocomposite has been explored to develop an impedimetric nucleic acid biosensor for M. Tuberculosis detection.

  6. A new nonlinear model for analyzing the behaviour of carbon nanotube-based resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farokhi, Hamed; Païdoussis, Michael P.; Misra, Arun K.

    2016-09-01

    The present study develops a new size-dependent nonlinear model for the analysis of the behaviour of carbon nanotube-based resonators. In particular, based on modified couple stress theory, the fully nonlinear equations of motion of the carbon nanotube-based resonator are derived using Hamilton's principle, taking into account both the longitudinal and transverse displacements. Molecular dynamics simulation is then performed in order to verify the validity of the developed size-dependent continuum model at the nano scale. The nonlinear partial differential equations of motion of the system are discretized by means of the Galerkin technique, resulting in a high-dimensional reduced-order model of the system. The pseudo-arclength continuation technique is employed to examine the nonlinear resonant behaviour of the carbon nanotube-based resonator. A new universal pull-in formula is also developed for predicting the occurrence of the static pull-in and validated using numerical simulations.

  7. A Bioactive Carbon Nanotube-Based Ink for Printing 2D and 3D Flexible Electronics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Su Ryon; Farzad, Raziyeh; Tamayol, Ali; Manoharan, Vijayan; Mostafalu, Pooria; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Akbari, Mohsen; Jung, Sung Mi; Kim, Duckjin; Comotto, Mattia; Annabi, Nasim; Al-Hazmi, Faten Ebrahim; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-05-01

    The development of electrically conductive carbon nanotube-based inks is reported. Using these inks, 2D and 3D structures are printed on various flexible substrates such as paper, hydrogels, and elastomers. The printed patterns have mechanical and electrical properties that make them beneficial for various biological applications. PMID:26915715

  8. A Bioactive Carbon Nanotube-Based Ink for Printing 2D and 3D Flexible Electronics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Su Ryon; Farzad, Raziyeh; Tamayol, Ali; Manoharan, Vijayan; Mostafalu, Pooria; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Akbari, Mohsen; Jung, Sung Mi; Kim, Duckjin; Comotto, Mattia; Annabi, Nasim; Al-Hazmi, Faten Ebrahim; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-05-01

    The development of electrically conductive carbon nanotube-based inks is reported. Using these inks, 2D and 3D structures are printed on various flexible substrates such as paper, hydrogels, and elastomers. The printed patterns have mechanical and electrical properties that make them beneficial for various biological applications.

  9. Carbon Nanotube Based Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Jie; Dai, Hongjie; Saini, Subhash

    1998-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) enable nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) because of their inherent nanostructure, intrinsic electric conductivity and mechanical resilience. The collaborative work between Stanford (experiment) and NASA Ames (theory and simulation) has made progress in two types of CNT based NEMS for nanoelectronics and sensor applications. The CNT tipped scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a NEMS in which CNT tips are used for nanoscale probing, imaging and manipulating. It showed great improvement in probing surfaces and biological systems over conventional tips. We have recently applied it to write (lithography) and read (image) uniform SiO2 lines on large Si surface area at speed up to 0.5 mm per s. Preliminary work using approximately 10 nm multiwall nanotube tips produced approximately 10 nm structures and showed that the CNT tips didn't wear down when crashed as conventional tips often do. This presents a solution to the long standing tip-wear problem in SPM nanolithography. We have also explored potential of CNT tips in imaging DNA in water. Preliminary experiment using 10 nm CNT tips reached 5 nm resolution. The 1 nm nanolithography and 1 nm DNA imaging can be expected by using approximately 1 nm CNT tips. In contrast to CNT tipped SPM, we also fabricated CNT devices on silicon wafer in which CNTs connect patterned metallic lines on SiO2/Si by a simple chemical vapor deposition process. Using conventional lithography for silicon wafer, we have been able to obtain CNT based transistors and sensors. Investigations of the CNT NEMS as physical, biological and chemical sensors are in progress and will be discussed.

  10. Mechanically robust, electrically conductive ultralow-density carbon nanotube-based aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Worsley, Marcus A; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr., Joe H

    2014-04-01

    A method of making a mechanically robust, electrically conductive ultralow-density carbon nanotube-based aerogel, including the steps of dispersing nanotubes in an aqueous media or other media to form a suspension, adding reactants and catalyst to the suspension to create a reaction mixture, curing the reaction mixture to form a wet gel, drying the wet gel to produce a dry gel, and pyrolyzing the dry gel to produce the mechanically robust, electrically conductive ultralow-density carbon nanotube-based aerogel. The aerogel is mechanically robust, electrically conductive, and ultralow-density, and is made of a porous carbon material having 5 to 95% by weight carbon nanotubes and 5 to 95% carbon binder.

  11. Mechanically robust, electrically conductive ultralow-density carbon nanotube-based aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr, Joe H.

    2016-07-05

    A method of making a mechanically robust, electrically conductive ultralow-density carbon nanotube-based aerogel, including the steps of dispersing nanotubes in an aqueous media or other media to form a suspension, adding reactants and catalyst to the suspension to create a reaction mixture, curing the reaction mixture to form a wet gel, drying the wet gel to produce a dry gel, and pyrolyzing the dry gel to produce the mechanically robust, electrically conductive ultralow-density carbon nanotube-based aerogel. The aerogel is mechanically robust, electrically conductive, and ultralow-density, and is made of a porous carbon material having 5 to 95% by weight carbon nanotubes and 5 to 95% carbon binder.

  12. Systems and Methods for Implementing Robust Carbon Nanotube-Based Field Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Kristof, Valerie (Inventor); Toda, Risaku (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement carbon nanotube-based field emitters. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating a carbon nanotube field emitter includes: patterning a substrate with a catalyst, where the substrate has thereon disposed a diffusion barrier layer; growing a plurality of carbon nanotubes on at least a portion of the patterned catalyst; and heating the substrate to an extent where it begins to soften such that at least a portion of at least one carbon nanotube becomes enveloped by the softened substrate.

  13. Dynamic radiography using a carbon-nanotube-based field-emission x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Y.; Zhang, J.; Lee, Y.Z.; Gao, B.; Dike, S.; Lin, W.; Lu, J.P.; Zhou, O.

    2004-10-01

    We report a dynamic radiography system with a carbon nanotube based field-emission microfocus x-ray source. The system can readily generate x-ray radiation with continuous variation of temporal resolution as short as nanoseconds. Its potential applications for dynamic x-ray imaging are demonstrated. The performance characteristics of this compact and versatile system are promising for noninvasive imaging in biomedical research and industrial inspection.

  14. Carbon Nanotube Based Microfluidic Elements for Filtration and Concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Bakajin, O; Ben-Barak, N; Peng, J; Noy, A

    2003-06-25

    We have developed a method for integration of patterned arrays of carbon nanotubes or the ''nanotube mesh'' into microfabricated channels. The method includes standard lithographic methods for patterning and etching the substrate, followed by catalyst patterning, CVD deposition of nanotubes, and anodic bonding of coverslip top. We will describe a carbon nanotube filtering device fabricated using this method and discuss the use of carbon nanotube arrays as molecular concentration and separation media.

  15. Carbon nanotube based pressure sensor for flexible electronics

    SciTech Connect

    So, Hye-Mi; Sim, Jin Woo; Kwon, Jinhyeong; Yun, Jongju; Baik, Seunghyun; Chang, Won Seok

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The electromechanical change of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. • Fabrication of CNT field-effect transistor on flexible substrate. • CNT based FET integrated active pressure sensor. • The integrated device yields an increase in the source-drain current under pressure. - Abstract: A pressure sensor was developed based on an arrangement of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) supported by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. The VACNTs embedded in the PDMS matrix were structurally flexible and provided repeated sensing operation due to the high elasticities of both the polymer and the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The conductance increased in the presence of a loading pressure, which compressed the material and induced contact between neighboring CNTs, thereby producing a dense current path and better CNT/metal contacts. To achieve flexible functional electronics, VACNTs based pressure sensor was integrated with field-effect transistor, which is fabricated using sprayed semiconducting carbon nanotubes on plastic substrate.

  16. Roll-to-Roll production of carbon nanotubes based supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jingyi; Childress, Anthony; Karakaya, Mehmet; Roberts, Mark; Arcilla-Velez, Margarita; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao

    2014-03-01

    Carbon nanomaterials provide an excellent platform for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). However, current industrial methods for producing carbon nanotubes are expensive and thereby increase the costs of energy storage to more than 10 Wh/kg. In this regard, we developed a facile roll-to-roll production technology for scalable manufacturing of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with variable density on run-of-the-mill kitchen Al foils. Our method produces MWNTs with diameter (heights) between 50-100 nm (10-100 μm), and a specific capacitance as high as ~ 100 F/g in non-aqueous electrolytes. In this talk, the fundamental challenges involved in EDLC-suitable MWNT growth, roll-to-roll production, and device manufacturing will be discussed along with electrochemical characteristics of roll-to-roll MWNTs. Research supported by NSF CMMI Grant1246800.

  17. Gecko inspired carbon nanotube based thermal gap pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Sunny; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2012-02-01

    Thermal management has become a critical factor in designing the next generation of microprocessors. The bottleneck in design of material for efficient heat transfer from electronic units to heat sinks is to enhance heat flow across interface between two dissimilar, rough surfaces. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been shown to be promising candidates for thermal transport. However, the heat transport across the interface continues to be a challenging hurdle. In the current work we designed free standing thermal pads based on gecko-inspired carbon nanotube adhesives. The pads were made of metallic carbon nanotubes and the structure was designed such that it would allow large area of intimate contact. We showed that these adhesive pads can be used as electrical and thermal interconnects.

  18. Carbon-nanotube based nano-electro-mechanical oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadakis, S. J.; Hall, A. R.; Spivak, D. M.; Falvo, M. R.; Superfine, R.; Washburn, S.

    2004-03-01

    We report on the fabrication and performance of nanometer-scale electromechanical oscillators which use multi-walled carbon nanotubes as torsional springs. Carbon nanotube devices may offer high quality factors due to the inert surface of the torsional member, and high sensitivity due to their nanoscale dimensions. They also provide a means to study the effects of torsion on nanotube transport. The devices have a paddle-oscillator geometry and are driven electrostatically. In previous work we manipulated these devices directly with a scanning probe to measure the torsional properties of the nanotube, its shear modulus, and its subsequent stiffening under repeated strain [1]. Here we use both optical and electron-beam techniques to measure the response of the devices to applied voltages. We demonstrate both quasi-static and on-resonance performance characteristics. 1. P. A. Williams, S. J. Papadakis, A. M. Patel, M. R. Falvo, S. Washburn, and R. Superfine, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 255502 (2002).

  19. Piezoresistive Strain Sensors Made from Carbon Nanotubes Based Polymer Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Alamusi; Hu, Ning; Fukunaga, Hisao; Atobe, Satoshi; Liu, Yaolu; Li, Jinhua

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, nanocomposites based on various nano-scale carbon fillers, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), are increasingly being thought of as a realistic alternative to conventional smart materials, largely due to their superior electrical properties. Great interest has been generated in building highly sensitive strain sensors with these new nanocomposites. This article reviews the recent significant developments in the field of highly sensitive strain sensors made from CNT/polymer nanocomposites. We focus on the following two topics: electrical conductivity and piezoresistivity of CNT/polymer nanocomposites, and the relationship between them by considering the internal conductive network formed by CNTs, tunneling effect, aspect ratio and piezoresistivity of CNTs themselves, etc. Many recent experimental, theoretical and numerical studies in this field are described in detail to uncover the working mechanisms of this new type of strain sensors and to demonstrate some possible key factors for improving the sensor sensitivity. PMID:22346667

  20. Carbon nanotube based gecko inspired self-cleaning adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Sunny; Ge, Liehui; Ajayan, Pulickel; Ali, Dhinojwala

    2008-03-01

    Wall climbing organisms like geckos have unique ability to attach to different surfaces without use of any viscoelastic material. The hairy structure found in gecko feet allows them to obtain intimate contact over a large area thus allowing then to adhere using van der Waals interactions. Not only high adhesion, the geometry of the hairs makes gecko feet self cleaning, thus allowing them to walk continuously without worrying about loosing adhesive strength. Such properties if mimicked synthetically could form basis of a new class of materials, which, unlike conventional adhesives would show two contradictory properties, self cleaning and high adhesion. Such materials would form essential component of applications like wall climbing robot. We tried to synthesize such material using micropatterened vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. When dealing with large areas, probability of defects in the structure increase, forming patterns instead of using uniform film of carbon nanotubes helps to inhibit crack propagation, thus gives much higher adhesive strength than a uniform film. When carbon nanotube patterns with optimized aspect ratio are used, both high adhesion and self cleaning properties are observed.

  1. Rectifying Properties of a Nitrogen/Boron-Doped Capped-Carbon-Nanotube-Based Molecular Junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng; Liu, De-Sheng; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Pei-Ji; Zhang, Zhong

    2011-04-01

    Based on the non-equilibrium Green's function method and first-principles density functional theory calculations, we investigate the electronic transport properties of a nitrogen/boron-doped capped-single-walled carbon-nanotube-based molecular junction. Obvious rectifying behavior is observed and it is strongly dependent on the doping site. The best rectifying performance can be carried out when the nitrogen/boron atom dopes at a carbon site in the second layer. Moreover, the rectifying performance can be further improved by adjusting the distance between the C60 nanotube caps.

  2. Nanoindentation of Carbon Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Karamjit; Verma, Veena; Bhatti, H S

    2016-06-01

    In the present research paper carbon nanostructures viz. single walled carbon nanotubes, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, single walled carbon nanohorns and graphene nanoplatelets have been synthesized by CVD technique, hydrothermal method, DC arc discharge method in liquid nitrogen and microwave technique respectively. After synthesis 5 mm thick pallets of given nanomaterial are prepared by making a paste in isopropyl alcohol and using polyvinylidene difluoride as a binder and then these pallets were used for nanoindentation measurements. Hardness, reduced modulus, stiffness, contact height and contact area have been measured using nanoindenter. PMID:27427726

  3. Recent advances in carbon nanotube-based enzymatic fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Cosnier, Serge; Holzinger, Michael; Le Goff, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes recent trends in the field of enzymatic fuel cells. Thanks to the high specificity of enzymes, biofuel cells can generate electrical energy by oxidation of a targeted fuel (sugars, alcohols, or hydrogen) at the anode and reduction of oxidants (O2, H2O2) at the cathode in complex media. The combination of carbon nanotubes (CNT), enzymes and redox mediators was widely exploited to develop biofuel cells since the electrons involved in the bio-electrocatalytic processes can be efficiently transferred from or to an external circuit. Original approaches to construct electron transfer based CNT-bioelectrodes and impressive biofuel cell performances are reported as well as biomedical applications.

  4. Carbon nanotube-based nano-fluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoud Seyyed Fakhrabadi, Mir; Rastgoo, Abbas; Taghi Ahmadian, Mohammad

    2014-02-01

    The paper investigates the influences of fluid flow on static and dynamic behaviours of electrostatically actuated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using strain gradient theory. This nonclassical elasticity theory is applied in order to obtain more accurate results possessing higher agreement with the experimental data. The effects of various fluid parameters such as the fluid viscosity, velocity, mass and temperature on the pull-in properties of the CNTs with two cantilever and doubly clamped boundary conditions are studied. The results reveal the applicability of the proposed nano-system as nano-valves or nano-fluidic sensors.

  5. Heat dissipation for microprocessor using multiwalled carbon nanotubes based liquid.

    PubMed

    Hung Thang, Bui; Trinh, Pham Van; Chuc, Nguyen Van; Khoi, Phan Hong; Minh, Phan Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the most valuable materials with high thermal conductivity (2000 W/m · K compared with thermal conductivity of Ag 419 W/m · K). This suggested an approach in applying the CNTs in thermal dissipation system for high power electronic devices, such as computer processor and high brightness light emitting diode (HB-LED). In this work, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based liquid was made by COOH functionalized MWCNTs dispersed in distilled water with concentration in the range between 0.2 and 1.2 gram/liter. MWCNT based liquid was used in liquid cooling system to enhance thermal dissipation for computer processor. By using distilled water in liquid cooling system, CPU's temperature decreases by about 10°C compared with using fan cooling system. By using MWCNT liquid with concentration of 1 gram/liter MWCNTs, the CPU's temperature decreases by 7°C compared with using distilled water in cooling system. Theoretically, we also showed that the presence of MWCNTs reduced thermal resistance and increased the thermal conductivity of liquid cooling system. The results have confirmed the advantages of the MWCNTs for thermal dissipation systems for the μ -processor and other high power electronic devices.

  6. Heat Dissipation for Microprocessor Using Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Based Liquid

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, Pham Van; Chuc, Nguyen Van; Khoi, Phan Hong; Minh, Phan Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the most valuable materials with high thermal conductivity (2000 W/m · K compared with thermal conductivity of Ag 419 W/m · K). This suggested an approach in applying the CNTs in thermal dissipation system for high power electronic devices, such as computer processor and high brightness light emitting diode (HB-LED). In this work, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based liquid was made by COOH functionalized MWCNTs dispersed in distilled water with concentration in the range between 0.2 and 1.2 gram/liter. MWCNT based liquid was used in liquid cooling system to enhance thermal dissipation for computer processor. By using distilled water in liquid cooling system, CPU's temperature decreases by about 10°C compared with using fan cooling system. By using MWCNT liquid with concentration of 1 gram/liter MWCNTs, the CPU's temperature decreases by 7°C compared with using distilled water in cooling system. Theoretically, we also showed that the presence of MWCNTs reduced thermal resistance and increased the thermal conductivity of liquid cooling system. The results have confirmed the advantages of the MWCNTs for thermal dissipation systems for the μ-processor and other high power electronic devices. PMID:24453829

  7. Macroscopic Carbon Nanotube-based 3D Monoliths.

    PubMed

    Du, Ran; Zhao, Qiuchen; Zhang, Na; Zhang, Jin

    2015-07-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the most promising carbon allotropes with incredible diverse physicochemical properties, thereby enjoying continuous worldwide attention since their discovery about two decades ago. From the point of view of practical applications, assembling individual CNTs into macroscopic functional and high-performance materials is of paramount importance. For example, multiscaled CNT-based assemblies including 1D fibers, 2D films, and 3D monoliths have been developed. Among all of these, monolithic 3D CNT architectures with porous structures have attracted increasing interest in the last few years. In this form, theoretically all individual CNTs are well connected and fully expose their surfaces. These 3D architectures have huge specific surface areas, hierarchical pores, and interconnected conductive networks, resulting in enhanced mass/electron transport and countless accessible active sites for diverse applications (e.g. catalysis, capacitors, and sorption). More importantly, the monolithic form of 3D CNT assemblies can impart additional application potentials to materials, such as free-standing electrodes, sensors, and recyclable sorbents. However, scaling the properties of individual CNTs to 3D assemblies, improving use of the diverse, structure-dependent properties of CNTs, and increasing the performance-to-cost ratio are great unsolved challenges for their real commercialization. This review aims to provide a comprehensive introduction of this young and energetic field, i.e., CNT-based 3D monoliths, with a focus on the preparation principles, current synthetic methods, and typical applications. Opportunities and challenges in this field are also presented.

  8. Carbon Nanotube-based microelectrodes for enhanced detection of neurotransmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher B.

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is one of the common techniques used for rapid measurement of neurotransmitters in vivo. Carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) are typically used for neurotransmitter detection because of sub-second measurement capabilities, ability to measure changes in neurotransmitter concentration during neurotransmission, and the small size electrode diameter, which limits the amount of damage caused to tissue. Cylinder CFMEs, typically 50 -- 100 microm long, are commonly used for in vivo experiments because the electrode sensitivity is directly related to the electrode surface area. However the length of the electrode can limit the spatial resolution of neurotransmitter detection, which can restrict experiments in Drosophila and other small model systems. In addition, the electrode sensitivity toward dopamine and serotonin detection drops significantly for measurements at rates faster than 10 Hz, limiting the temporal resolution of CFMEs. While the use of FSCV at carbon-fiber microelectrodes has led to substantial strides in our understanding of neurotransmission, techniques that expand the capabilities of CFMEs are crucial to fully maximize the potential uses of FSCV. This dissertation introduces new methods to integrate carbon nanotubes (CNT) into microelectrodes and discusses the electrochemical enhancements of these CNT-microelectrodes. The electrodes are specifically designed with simple fabrication procedures so that highly specialized equipment is not necessary, and they utilize commercially available materials so that the electrodes could be easily integrated into existing systems. The electrochemical properties of CNT modified CFMEs are characterized using FSCV and the effect of CNT functionalization on these properties is explored in Chapter 2. For example, CFME modification using carboxylic acid functionalized CNTs yield about a 6-fold increase in dopamine oxidation current, but modification with octadecylamine CNTs results in a

  9. Single Wall Carbon Nanotube-Based Structural Health Sensing Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, A. Neal; Ingram, JoAnne L.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Smits, Jan M.; Williams, Phillip A.

    2004-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-based materials represent the future aerospace vehicle construction material of choice based primarily on predicted strength-to-weight advantages and inherent multifunctionality. The multifunctionality of SWCNTs arises from the ability of the nanotubes to be either metallic or semi-conducting based on their chirality. Furthermore, simply changing the environment around a SWCNT can change its conducting behavior. This phenomenon is being exploited to create sensors capable of measuring several parameters related to vehicle structural health (i.e. strain, pressure, temperature, etc.) The structural health monitor is constructed using conventional electron-beam lithographic and photolithographic techniques to place specific electrode patterns on a surface. SWCNTs are then deposited between the electrodes using a dielectrophoretic alignment technique. Prototypes have been constructed on both silicon and polyimide substrates, demonstrating that surface-mountable and multifunctional devices based on SWCNTs can be realized.

  10. Recent Advances in Carbon Nanotube-Based Enzymatic Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cosnier, Serge; Holzinger, Michael; Le Goff, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes recent trends in the field of enzymatic fuel cells. Thanks to the high specificity of enzymes, biofuel cells can generate electrical energy by oxidation of a targeted fuel (sugars, alcohols, or hydrogen) at the anode and reduction of oxidants (O2, H2O2) at the cathode in complex media. The combination of carbon nanotubes (CNT), enzymes and redox mediators was widely exploited to develop biofuel cells since the electrons involved in the bio-electrocatalytic processes can be efficiently transferred from or to an external circuit. Original approaches to construct electron transfer based CNT-bioelectrodes and impressive biofuel cell performances are reported as well as biomedical applications. PMID:25386555

  11. A carbon nanotube based ammonia sensor on cotton textile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jin-Woo; Kim, Beomseok; Li, Jing; Meyyappan, M.

    2013-05-01

    A single-wall carbon nanotube (CNT) based ammonia (NH3) sensor was implemented on a cotton yarn. Two types of sensors were fabricated: Au/sensing CNT/Au and conducting/sensing/conducting all CNT structures. Two perpendicular Au wires were designed to contact CNT-cotton yarn for metal-CNT sensor, whereas nanotubes were used for the electrode as well as sensing material for the all CNT sensor. The resistance shift of the CNT network upon NH3 was monitored in a chemiresistor approach. The CNT-cotton yarn sensors exhibited uniformity and repeatability. Furthermore, the sensors displayed good mechanical robustness against bending. The present approach can be utilized for low-cost smart textile applications.

  12. Carbon Nanotube Based Groundwater Remediation: The Case of Trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Jha, Kshitij C; Liu, Zhuonan; Vijwani, Hema; Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila M; Tsige, Mesfin

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption of chlorinated organic contaminants (COCs) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been gaining ground as a remedial platform for groundwater treatment. Applications depend on our mechanistic understanding of COC adsorption on CNTs. This paper lays out the nature of competing interactions at play in hybrid, membrane, and pure CNT based systems and presents results with the perspective of existing gaps in design strategies. First, current remediation approaches to trichloroethylene (TCE), the most ubiquitous of the COCs, is presented along with examination of forces contributing to adsorption of analogous contaminants at the molecular level. Second, we present results on TCE adsorption and remediation on pure and hybrid CNT systems with a stress on the specific nature of substrate and molecular architecture that would contribute to competitive adsorption. The delineation of intermolecular interactions that contribute to efficient remediation is needed for custom, scalable field design of purification systems for a wide range of contaminants. PMID:27455218

  13. Carbon Nanotube Based Groundwater Remediation: The Case of Trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Jha, Kshitij C; Liu, Zhuonan; Vijwani, Hema; Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila M; Tsige, Mesfin

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption of chlorinated organic contaminants (COCs) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been gaining ground as a remedial platform for groundwater treatment. Applications depend on our mechanistic understanding of COC adsorption on CNTs. This paper lays out the nature of competing interactions at play in hybrid, membrane, and pure CNT based systems and presents results with the perspective of existing gaps in design strategies. First, current remediation approaches to trichloroethylene (TCE), the most ubiquitous of the COCs, is presented along with examination of forces contributing to adsorption of analogous contaminants at the molecular level. Second, we present results on TCE adsorption and remediation on pure and hybrid CNT systems with a stress on the specific nature of substrate and molecular architecture that would contribute to competitive adsorption. The delineation of intermolecular interactions that contribute to efficient remediation is needed for custom, scalable field design of purification systems for a wide range of contaminants.

  14. Single-wall carbon nanotubes based anticancer drug delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripisciano, C.; Kraemer, K.; Taylor, A.; Borowiak-Palen, E.

    2009-08-01

    Conventional administration of chemotherapeutic agents is compromised by their lack of selectivity which is the cause of a lethal effect accomplishment on healthy tissues. Since therapeutic and diagnostic agents could functionalize the structure of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), the development of CNTs as drug containers would pave the way to their employment as nanovectors into the cells. Here a study on cisplatin (Cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum (CDDP) - a platinum-based chemotherapy drug) embedding to single-wall CNTs (SWCNTs) is shown.Being sure that the anticancer drug discharge occurred, in vitro analysis have been performed. The inhibition of prostate cancer cells (PC3 and DU145) viability from tubes encapsulating cisplatin proved the efficiency of the produced delivery system.

  15. High sensitivity carbon nanotube based electrochemiluminescence sensor array.

    PubMed

    Venkatanarayanan, Anita; Crowley, Karl; Lestini, Elena; Keyes, Tia E; Rusling, James F; Forster, Robert J

    2012-01-15

    Ink jet printed carbon nanotube forest arrays capable of detecting picomolar concentrations of immunoglobulin G (IgG) using electrochemiluminescence (ECL) are described. Patterned arrays of vertically aligned single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) forests were printed on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Capture anti-IgG antibodies were then coupled through peptide bond formation to acidic functional groups on the vertical nanotubes. IgG immunoassays were performed using silica nano particles (Si NP) functionalized with the ECL luminophore [Ru(bpy)(2)PICH(2)](2+)], and IgG labelled G1.5 acid terminated PAMAM dendrimers. PAMAM is poly(amido amine), bpy is 2,2'-bipyridyl and PICH(2) is (2-(4-carboxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline). The carboxyl terminal of [Ru(bpy)(2)PICH(2)](2+) (fluorescence lifetime ≈ 682±5 ns) dye was covalently coupled to amine groups on the 800 nm diameter silica spheres in order to produce significant ECL enhancement in the presence of sodium oxalate as co-reactant in PBS at pH 7.2). Significantly, this SWCNT-based sensor array shows a wide linear dynamic range for IgG coated spheres (10(6) to 10(12) spheres) corresponding to IgG concentrations between 20 pM and 300 nM. A detection limit of 1.1±0.1 pM IgG is obtained under optimal conditions. PMID:22137061

  16. Actuation mechanisms of carbon nanotube-based architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, Sebastian; Mahrholz, Thorsten; Wierach, Peter; Sinapius, Michael

    2016-04-01

    State of the art smart materials such as piezo ceramics or electroactive polymers cannot feature both, mechanical stiffness and high active strain. Moreover, properties like low density, high mechanical stiffness and high strain at the same time driven by low energy play an increasingly important role for their future application. Carbon nanotubes (CNT), show this behavior. Their active behavior was observed 1999 the first time using paper-like mats made of CNT. Therefore the CNT-papers are electrical charged within an electrolyte thus forming a double- layer. The measured deflection of CNT material is based on the interaction between the charged high surface area formed by carbon nanotubes and ions provided by the electrolyte. Although CNT-papers have been extensively analyzed as well at the macro-scale as nano-scale there is still no generally accepted theory for the actuation mechanism. This paper focuses on investigations of the actuation mechanisms of CNT-papers in comparison to vertically aligned CNT-arrays. One reason of divergent results found in literature might be attributed to different types of CNT samples. While CNT-papers represent architectures of short CNTs which need to bridge each other to form the dimensions of the sample, the continuous CNTs of the array feature a length of almost 3 mm, along which the experiments are carried out. Both sample types are tested within an actuated tensile test set-up under different conditions. While the CNT-papers are tested in water-based electrolytes with comparably small redox-windows the hydrophobic CNT-arrays are tested in ionic liquids with comparatively larger redox-ranges. Furthermore an in-situ micro tensile test within an SEM is carried out to prove the optimized orientation of the MWCNTs as result of external load. It was found that the performance of CNT-papers strongly depends on the test conditions. However, the CNT-arrays are almost unaffected by the conditions showing active response at negative

  17. Single-Walled Carbon-Nanotubes-Based Organic Memory Structures.

    PubMed

    Fakher, Sundes; Nejm, Razan; Ayesh, Ahmad; Al-Ghaferi, Amal; Zeze, Dagou; Mabrook, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The electrical behaviour of organic memory structures, based on single-walled carbon-nanotubes (SWCNTs), metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) and thin film transistor (TFT) structures, using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as the gate dielectric, are reported. The drain and source electrodes were fabricated by evaporating 50 nm gold, and the gate electrode was made from 50 nm-evaporated aluminium on a clean glass substrate. Thin films of SWCNTs, embedded within the insulating layer, were used as the floating gate. SWCNTs-based memory devices exhibited clear hysteresis in their electrical characteristics (capacitance-voltage (C-V) for MIS structures, as well as output and transfer characteristics for transistors). Both structures were shown to produce reliable and large memory windows by virtue of high capacity and reduced charge leakage. The hysteresis in the output and transfer characteristics, the shifts in the threshold voltage of the transfer characteristics, and the flat-band voltage shift in the MIS structures were attributed to the charging and discharging of the SWCNTs floating gate. Under an appropriate gate bias (1 s pulses), the floating gate is charged and discharged, resulting in significant threshold voltage shifts. Pulses as low as 1 V resulted in clear write and erase states.

  18. Carbon nanotube based field emission X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuan

    This dissertation describes the development of field emission (FE) x-ray sources with a carbon-nanotube (CNT) cathode. Field emission x-rays have advantages over conventional x-rays by replacing the thermionic cathode with a cold cathode so that electrons are emitted at room temperature and emission is voltage controllable. CNTs are found to be excellent electron emitters with low threshold fields and high current density which makes them ideal for generate field emission x-rays. Macroscopic CNT cold cathodes are prepared and the parameters to tune their field emission properties are studied: structure and morphology of CNT cathodes, temperature as well as electronic work function of CNT. Macroscopic CNT cathodes with optimized performance are chosen to build a high-resolution x-ray imaging system. The system can readily generate x-ray radiation with continuous variation of temporal resolution up to nanoseconds and spatial resolution down to 10 micron. Its potential applications for dynamic x-ray imaging and micro-computed tomography are also demonstrated. The performance characteristics of this compact and versatile system are promising for non-destructive testing and for non-invasive small-animal imaging for biomedical research.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of a carbon nanotube-based nanoknife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, G.; Rice, P.; Mahajan, R. L.; McIntosh, J. R.

    2009-03-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication and testing of a prototype microtome knife based on a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) for cutting ~100 nm thick slices of frozen-hydrated biological samples. A piezoelectric-based 3D manipulator was used inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to select and position individual MWCNTs, which were subsequently welded in place using electron beam-induced deposition. The knife is built on a pair of tungsten needles with provision to adjust the distance between the needle tips, accommodating various lengths of MWCNTs. We performed experiments to test the mechanical strength of a MWCNT in the completed device using an atomic force microscope tip. An increasing force was applied at the mid-point of the nanotube until failure occurred, which was observed in situ in the SEM. The maximum breaking force was approximately (8 × 10-7) N which corresponds well with the typical microtome cutting forces reported in the literature. In situ cutting experiments were performed on a cell biological embedding plastic (epoxy) by pushing it against the nanotube. Initial experiments show indentation marks on the epoxy surface. Quantitative analysis is currently limited by the surface asperities, which have the same dimensions as the nanotube.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of carbon nanotube-based gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jie; Globus, Al; Jaffe, Richard; Deardorff, Glenn

    1997-09-01

    We use a molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the properties and design space of molecular gears fashioned from carbon nanotubes with teeth added via a benzyne reaction known to occur with 0957-4484/8/3/001/img1. Brenner's reactive hydrocarbon potential is used to model interatomic forces within each molecular gear. A Lennard - Jones 6 - 12 potential or the Buckingham 0957-4484/8/3/001/img2 potential plus electrostatic interaction terms are used for intermolecular interactions between gears. A number of gear and gear/shaft configurations are simulated on parallel computers. One gear is powered by forcing the atoms near the end of the nanotube to rotate, and a second gear is allowed to rotate by keeping the atoms near the end of its nanotube constrained to a cylinder. The meshing aromatic gear teeth transfer angular momentum from the powered gear to the driven gear. Results suggest that these gears can operate at up to 50 - 100 GHz in a vacuum at room temperature. The failure mode involves tooth slip, not bond breaking, so failed gears can be returned to operation by lowering the temperature and/or rotation rate.

  1. Carbon nanotube-based supercapacitors using low cost collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirhoseiny, Maryam; Zandi, Majid; Mosayyebi, Abolghasem; Khademian, Mehrzad

    2016-01-01

    In this work, electrochemical double layer supercapacitors were fabricated using multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite microfilm as electrode. To improve the electrochemical properties, MWCNTs were functionalized with -COOH by acid treatments. CNT/PVA films have been deposited on different current collectors by spin coating to drastically enhance the electrode performance. Electrode fabrication involved various stages preparing of the CNT composite, and coating of the CNT/PVA paste on different substrates which also served as current collector. Al, Ni and graphite were used and compared as current collectors. The surface morphology of the fabricated electrodes was investigated with scanning electrode microscopy (SEM). Overall cell performance was evaluated with a multi-channel potentiostat/galvanostat analyzer. Each supercapacitor cell was subjected to charge-discharge cycling study at different current rates from 0.2Ag-1 to 1Ag-1. The results showed that graphite-based electrodes offer advantages of significantly higher conductivity and superior capacitive behavior compared to thin film electrodes formed on Ni and Al current collectors. The specific capacitance of graphite based electrode is found to be 29Fg-1.

  2. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Carbon Nanotube Based Gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Jie; Globus, Al; Jaffe, Richard; Deardorff, Glenn; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    We used molecular dynamics to investigate the properties and design space of molecular gears fashioned from carbon nanotubes with teeth added via a benzyne reaction known to occur with C60. A modified, parallelized version of Brenner's potential was used to model interatomic forces within each molecule. A Leonard-Jones 6-12 potential was used for forces between molecules. One gear was powered by forcing the atoms near the end of the buckytube to rotate, and a second gear was allowed.to rotate by keeping the atoms near the end of its buckytube on a cylinder. The meshing aromatic gear teeth transfer angular momentum from the powered gear to the driven gear. A number of gear and gear/shaft configurations were simulated. Cases in vacuum and with an inert atmosphere were examined. In an extension to molecular dynamics technology, some simulations used a thermostat on the atmosphere while the hydrocarbon gear's temperature was allowed to fluctuate. This models cooling the gears with an atmosphere. Results suggest that these gears can operate at up to 50-100 gigahertz in a vacuum or inert atmosphere at room temperature. The failure mode involves tooth slip, not bond breaking, so failed gears can be returned to operation by lowering temperature and/or rotation rate. Videos and atomic trajectory files in xyz format are presented.

  3. Selective functionalization of carbon nanotubes based upon distance traveled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, Bishun N. (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for functionalizing a collection of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A selected precursor gas (e.g., H.sub.2 or NH.sub.3 or NF.sub.3 or F.sub.2 or CF.sub.4 or C.sub.nH.sub.m) is irradiated to provide a cold plasma of selected target particles, such as atomic H or F, in a first chamber. The target particles are directed toward an array of CNTs located in a second chamber while suppressing transport of ultraviolet radiation to the second chamber. A CNT array is functionalized with the target particles, at or below room temperature, to a point of saturation, in an exposure time interval no longer than about 30 sec. The predominant species that are deposited on the CNT array vary with the distance d measured along a path from the precursor gas to the CNT array; two or three different predominant species can be deposited on a CNT array for distances d=d1 and d=d2>d1 and d=d3>d2.

  4. Infrared imaging using carbon nanotube-based detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongzhi; Xi, Ning; Song, Bo; Chen, Liangliang; Lai, King W. C.; Lou, Jianyong

    2011-06-01

    Using carbon nanotubes (CNT), high performance infrared detectors have been developed. Since the CNTs have extraordinary optoelectronics properties due to its unique one dimensional geometry and structure, the CNT based infrared detectors have extremely low dark current, low noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD), short response time, and high dynamic range. Most importantly, it can detect 3-5 um middle-wave infrared (MWIR) at room temperature. This unique feature can significantly reduce the size and weight of a MWIR imaging system by eliminating a cryogenic cooling system. However, there are two major difficulties that impede the application of CNT based IR detectors for imaging systems. First, the small diameter of the CNTs results in low fill factor. Secondly, it is difficult to fabricate large scale of detector array for high resolution focal plane due to the limitations on the efficiency and cost of the manufacturing. In this paper, a new CNT based IR imaging system will be presented. Integrating the CNT detectors with photonic crystal resonant cavity, the fill factor of the CNT based IR sensor can reach as high as 0.91. Furthermore, using the compressive sensing technology, a high resolution imaging can be achieved by CNT based IR detectors. The experimental testing results show that the new imaging system can achieve the superb performance enabled by CNT based IR detectors, and, at the same time, overcame its difficulties to achieve high resolution and efficient imaging.

  5. Carbon Nanotube-Based Structural Health Monitoring Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell; Jordan, Jeffrey; Oglesby, Donald; Watkins, Anthony; Patry, JoAnne; Smits, Jan; Williams, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based sensors for structural health monitoring (SHM) can be embedded in structures of all geometries to monitor conditions both inside and at the surface of the structure to continuously sense changes. These CNTs can be manipulated into specific orientations to create small, powerful, and flexible sensors. One of the sensors is a highly flexible sensor for crack growth detection and strain field mapping that features a very dense and highly ordered array of single-walled CNTs. CNT structural health sensors can be mass-produced, are inexpensive, can be packaged in small sizes (0.5 micron(sup 2)), require less power than electronic or piezoelectric transducers, and produce less waste heat per square centimeter than electronic or piezoelectric transducers. Chemically functionalized lithographic patterns are used to deposit and align the CNTs onto metallic electrodes. This method consistently produces aligned CNTs in the defined locations. Using photo- and electron-beam lithography, simple Cr/Au thin-film circuits are patterned onto oxidized silicon substrates. The samples are then re-patterned with a CNT-attracting, self-assembled monolayer of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to delineate the desired CNT locations between electrodes. During the deposition of the solution-suspended single- wall CNTs, the application of an electric field to the metallic contacts causes alignment of the CNTs along the field direction. This innovation is a prime candidate for smart skin technologies with applications ranging from military, to aerospace, to private industry.

  6. Carbon nanotube-based bioceramic grafts for electrotherapy of bone.

    PubMed

    Mata, D; Horovistiz, A L; Branco, I; Ferro, M; Ferreira, N M; Belmonte, M; Lopes, M A; Silva, R F; Oliveira, F J

    2014-01-01

    Bone complexity demands the engineering of new scaffolding solutions for its reconstructive surgery. Emerging bone grafts should offer not only mechanical support but also functional properties to explore innovative bone therapies. Following this, ceramic bone grafts of Glass/hydroxyapatite (HA) reinforced with conductive carbon nanotubes (CNTs) - CNT/Glass/HA - were prepared for bone electrotherapy purposes. Computer-aided 3D microstructural reconstructions and TEM analysis of CNT/Glass/HA composites provided details on the CNT 3D network and further correlation to their functional properties. CNTs are arranged as sub-micrometric sized ropes bridging homogenously distributed ellipsoid-shaped agglomerates. This arrangement yielded composites with a percolation threshold of pc=1.5vol.%. At 4.4vol.% of CNTs, thermal and electrical conductivities of 1.5W·m(-1)·K(-1) and 55S·m(-1), respectively, were obtained, matching relevant requisites in electrical stimulation protocols. While the former avoids bone damaging from Joule's heat generation, the latter might allow the confinement of external electrical fields through the conductive material if used for in vivo electrical stimulation. Moreover, the electrically conductive bone grafts have better mechanical properties than those of the natural cortical bone. Overall, these highly conductive materials with controlled size CNT agglomerates might accelerate bone bonding and maximize the delivery of electrical stimulation during electrotherapy practices.

  7. Sensing Mechanisms for Carbon Nanotube Based NH3 Gas Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Ning; Zhang, Qing; Chow, Chee L.; Tan, Ooi K.; Marzari, Nicola N.

    2009-03-31

    There has been an argument on carbon nanotube (CNT) based gas detectors with a field-effect transistor (FET) geometry: do the response signals result from charge transfer between adsorbed gas molecules and the CNT channel and/or from the gas species induced Schottky barrier modulation at the CNT/metal contacts? To differentiate the sensing mechanisms, we employed three CNTFET structures, i.e., (1) the entire CNT channel and CNT/electrode contacts are accessible to NH3 gas; (2) the CNT/electrode contacts are passivated with a Si3N4 thin film, leaving the CNT channel open to the gas and, in contrast, (3) the CNT channel is covered with the film, while the contacts are open to the gas. We suggest that the Schottky barrier modulation at the contacts is the dominant mechanism from room temperature to 150°C. At higher temperatures, the charge transfer process contributes to the response signals. There is a clear evidence that the adsorption of NH3 on the CNT channel is facilitated by environmental oxygen.

  8. Single-Walled Carbon-Nanotubes-Based Organic Memory Structures.

    PubMed

    Fakher, Sundes; Nejm, Razan; Ayesh, Ahmad; Al-Ghaferi, Amal; Zeze, Dagou; Mabrook, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The electrical behaviour of organic memory structures, based on single-walled carbon-nanotubes (SWCNTs), metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) and thin film transistor (TFT) structures, using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as the gate dielectric, are reported. The drain and source electrodes were fabricated by evaporating 50 nm gold, and the gate electrode was made from 50 nm-evaporated aluminium on a clean glass substrate. Thin films of SWCNTs, embedded within the insulating layer, were used as the floating gate. SWCNTs-based memory devices exhibited clear hysteresis in their electrical characteristics (capacitance-voltage (C-V) for MIS structures, as well as output and transfer characteristics for transistors). Both structures were shown to produce reliable and large memory windows by virtue of high capacity and reduced charge leakage. The hysteresis in the output and transfer characteristics, the shifts in the threshold voltage of the transfer characteristics, and the flat-band voltage shift in the MIS structures were attributed to the charging and discharging of the SWCNTs floating gate. Under an appropriate gate bias (1 s pulses), the floating gate is charged and discharged, resulting in significant threshold voltage shifts. Pulses as low as 1 V resulted in clear write and erase states. PMID:27598112

  9. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-based RF antennas.

    PubMed

    Elwi, Taha A; Al-Rizzo, Hussain M; Rucker, Daniel G; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Li, Zhongrui; Biris, Alexandru S

    2010-01-29

    A novel application that utilizes conductive patches composed of purified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) embedded in a sodium cholate composite thin film to create microstrip antennas operating in the microwave frequency regime is proposed. The MWCNTs are suspended in an adhesive solvent to form a conductive ink that is printed on flexible polymer substrates. The DC conductivity of the printed patches was measured by the four probe technique and the complex relative permittivity was measured by an Agilent E5071B probe. The commercial software package, CST Microwave Studio (MWS), was used to simulate the proposed antennas based on the measured constitutive parameters. An excellent agreement of less than 0.2% difference in resonant frequency is shown. Simulated and measured results were also compared against identical microstrip antennas that utilize copper conducting patches. The proposed MWCNT-based antennas demonstrate a 5.6% to 2.2% increase in bandwidth, with respect to their corresponding copper-based prototypes, without significant degradation in gain and/or far-field radiation patterns.

  10. Reusable glucose sensing using carbon nanotube-based self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Tamoghna; Samaddar, Sarbani; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr.

    2013-09-01

    Lipid functionalized single walled carbon nanotube-based self assembly forms a super-micellar structure. This assemblage has been exploited to trap glucose oxidase in a molecular cargo for glucose sensing. The advantage of such a molecular trap is that all components of this unique structure (both the trapping shell and the entrapped enzyme) are reusable and rechargeable. The unique feature of this sensing method lies in the solid state functionalization of single walled carbon nanotubes that facilitates liquid state immobilization of the enzyme. The method can be used for soft-immobilization (a new paradigm in enzyme immobilization) of enzymes with better thermostability that is imparted by the strong hydrophobic environment provided through encapsulation by the nanotubes.Lipid functionalized single walled carbon nanotube-based self assembly forms a super-micellar structure. This assemblage has been exploited to trap glucose oxidase in a molecular cargo for glucose sensing. The advantage of such a molecular trap is that all components of this unique structure (both the trapping shell and the entrapped enzyme) are reusable and rechargeable. The unique feature of this sensing method lies in the solid state functionalization of single walled carbon nanotubes that facilitates liquid state immobilization of the enzyme. The method can be used for soft-immobilization (a new paradigm in enzyme immobilization) of enzymes with better thermostability that is imparted by the strong hydrophobic environment provided through encapsulation by the nanotubes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02609d

  11. Considerably improved photovoltaic performance of carbon nanotube-based solar cells using metal oxide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feijiu; Kozawa, Daichi; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Hiraoka, Kazushi; Mouri, Shinichiro; Ohno, Yutaka; Matsuda, Kazunari

    2015-02-01

    Carbon nanotube-based solar cells have been extensively studied from the perspective of potential application. Here we demonstrated a significant improvement of the carbon nanotube solar cells by the use of metal oxide layers for efficient carrier transport. The metal oxides also serve as an antireflection layer and an efficient carrier dopant, leading to a reduction in the loss of the incident solar light and an increase in the photocurrent, respectively. As a consequence, the photovoltaic performance of both p-single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/n-Si and n-SWNT/p-Si heterojunction solar cells using MoOx and ZnO layers is improved, resulting in very high photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of 17.0 and 4.0%, respectively. These findings regarding the use of metal oxides as multifunctional layers suggest that metal oxide layers could improve the performance of various electronic devices based on carbon nanotubes.

  12. Considerably improved photovoltaic performance of carbon nanotube-based solar cells using metal oxide layers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feijiu; Kozawa, Daichi; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Hiraoka, Kazushi; Mouri, Shinichiro; Ohno, Yutaka; Matsuda, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube-based solar cells have been extensively studied from the perspective of potential application. Here we demonstrated a significant improvement of the carbon nanotube solar cells by the use of metal oxide layers for efficient carrier transport. The metal oxides also serve as an antireflection layer and an efficient carrier dopant, leading to a reduction in the loss of the incident solar light and an increase in the photocurrent, respectively. As a consequence, the photovoltaic performance of both p-single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/n-Si and n-SWNT/p-Si heterojunction solar cells using MoOx and ZnO layers is improved, resulting in very high photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of 17.0 and 4.0%, respectively. These findings regarding the use of metal oxides as multifunctional layers suggest that metal oxide layers could improve the performance of various electronic devices based on carbon nanotubes.

  13. Novel self-sensing carbon nanotube-based composites for rehabilitation of structural steel members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Shafique; Doshi, Sagar; Schumacher, Thomas; Thostenson, Erik T.; McConnell, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    Fatigue and fracture are among the most critical forms of damage in metal structures. Fatigue damage can initiate from microscopic defects (e.g., surface scratches, voids in welds, and internal defects) and initiate a crack. Under cyclic loading, these cracks can grow and reach a critical level to trigger fracture of the member which leads to compromised structural integrity and, in some cases, catastrophic failure of the entire structure. In our research, we are investigating a solution using carbon nanotube-based sensing composites, which have the potential to simultaneously rehabilitate and monitor fatigue-cracked structural members. These composites consist of a fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) layer and a carbon nanotube-based sensing layer, which are integrated to form a novel structural self-sensing material. The sensing layer is composed of a non-woven aramid fabric that is coated with carbon nanotubes (CNT) to form an electrically conductive network that is extremely sensitive to detecting deformation as well as damage accumulation via changes in the resistance of the CNT network. In this paper, we introduce the sensing concept, describe the manufacturing of a model sensing prototype, and discuss a set of small-scale laboratory experiments to examine the load-carrying capacity and damage sensing response.

  14. Carbon nanotube-based charge-controlled speed-regulating nanoclutch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhong-Qiang; Ye, Hong-Fei; Liu, Zhen; Ding, Jian-Ning; Cheng, Guang-Gui; Ling, Zhi-Yong; Zheng, Yong-Gang; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jin-Bao

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, a carbon nanotube-based charge-controlled speed-regulating nanoclutch (CNT-CC-SRNC), composed of an inner carbon nanotube (CNT), an outer CNT, and the water confined between the two CNT walls, is proposed by utilizing electrowetting-induced improvement of the friction at the interfaces between water and CNT walls. As the inner CNT is the driving axle, molecular dynamics simulation results demonstrate that CNT-CC-SRNC is in the disengaged state for the uncharged CNTs, whereas water confined in the two charged CNT walls can transmit the torque from the inner tube to the outer tube. Importantly, the proposed CNT-CC-SRNC can perform stepless speed-regulating function through changing the magnitude of the charge assigned on CNT atoms.

  15. Influence of functionalization on mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanotube-based silver composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Hemant; Sharma, Vimal; Sharma, Manjula

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we have extended the molecular-level mixing method to fabricate multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced silver nanocomposites. The multiwall nanotubes used in the synthesis process were dispersed by two ways viz. covalent and non-covalent functionalization techniques. To elucidate the comparative effects of functionalization, structural, mechanical and electrical properties of nanocomposites were evaluated before and after sintering. The structural characterization revealed that the nanotubes were embedded, anchored and homogenously dispersed within the silver matrix. Hardness and Young's modulus of nanotube-reinforced nanocomposite were increased by a factor of 1-1.6 times than that of pure silver, even before and after the sintering. Covalently functionalized nanotube-based composites have shown more enhanced mechanical properties. The CNT reinforcement also improved the electrical conductivity of low-conducting nanosilver matrix before sintering. Non-covalently functionalized nanotube-based nanosilver composites showed more increased electrical conductivity before sintering. But a negative reinforcement effect was observed in high-conducting bulk silver matrix after the sintering. Thus, covalent functionalization might be appropriate for mechanical improvement in low-strength materials. However, non-covalent functionalization is suitable for electrical enhancement in low-conducting nanomaterials.

  16. A Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-based Biosensor for Monitoring Microcystin-LR in Sources of Drinking Water Supplies

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multi-walled carbon nanotube-based electrochemical biosensor is developed for monitoring microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a toxic cyanobacterial toxin, in sources of drinking water supplies. The biosensor electrodes are fabricated using dense, mm-long multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) arrays gro...

  17. Modelling the nonlinear behaviour of double walled carbon nanotube based resonator with curvature factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ajay M.; Joshi, Anand Y.

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the nonlinear vibration analysis of a double walled carbon nanotube based mass sensor with curvature factor or waviness, which is doubly clamped at a source and a drain. Nonlinear vibrational behaviour of a double-walled carbon nanotube excited harmonically near its primary resonance is considered. The double walled carbon nanotube is harmonically excited by the addition of an excitation force. The modelling involves stretching of the mid plane and damping as per phenomenon. The equation of motion involves four nonlinear terms for inner and outer tubes of DWCNT due to the curved geometry and the stretching of the central plane due to the boundary conditions. The vibrational behaviour of the double walled carbon nanotube with different surface deviations along its axis is analyzed in the context of the time response, Poincaré maps and Fast Fourier Transformation diagrams. The appearance of instability and chaos in the dynamic response is observed as the curvature factor on double walled carbon nanotube is changed. The phenomenon of Periodic doubling and intermittency are observed as the pathway to chaos. The regions of periodic, sub-harmonic and chaotic behaviour are clearly seen to be dependent on added mass and the curvature factors in the double walled carbon nanotube. Poincaré maps and frequency spectra are used to explicate and to demonstrate the miscellany of the system behaviour. With the increase in the curvature factor system excitations increases and results in an increase of the vibration amplitude with reduction in excitation frequency.

  18. Frequency Shift of Carbon-Nanotube-Based Mass Sensor Using Nonlocal Elasticity Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Haw-Long; Hsu, Jung-Chang; Chang, Win-Jin

    2010-11-01

    The frequency equation of carbon-nanotube-based cantilever sensor with an attached mass is derived analytically using nonlocal elasticity theory. According to the equation, the relationship between the frequency shift of the sensor and the attached mass can be obtained. When the nonlocal effect is not taken into account, the variation of frequency shift with the attached mass on the sensor is compared with the previous study. According to this study, the result shows that the frequency shift of the sensor increases with increasing the attached mass. When the attached mass is small compared with that of the sensor, the nonlocal effect is obvious and increasing nonlocal parameter decreases the frequency shift of the sensor. In addition, when the location of the attached mass is closer to the free end, the frequency shift is more significant and that makes the sensor reveal more sensitive. When the attached mass is small, a high sensitivity is obtained.

  19. Improved thermoelectric power output from multilayered polyethylenimine doped carbon nanotube based organic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hewitt, Corey A.; Montgomery, David S.; Barbalace, Ryan L.; Carlson, Rowland D.; Carroll, David L.

    2014-05-14

    By appropriately selecting the carbon nanotube type and n-type dopant for the conduction layers in a multilayered carbon nanotube composite, the total device thermoelectric power output can be increased significantly. The particular materials chosen in this study were raw single walled carbon nanotubes for the p-type layers and polyethylenimine doped single walled carbon nanotubes for the n-type layers. The combination of these two conduction layers leads to a single thermocouple Seebeck coefficient of 96 ± 4 μVK{sup −1}, which is 6.3 times higher than that previously reported. This improved Seebeck coefficient leads to a total power output of 14.7 nW per thermocouple at the maximum temperature difference of 50 K, which is 44 times the power output per thermocouple for the previously reported results. Ultimately, these thermoelectric power output improvements help to increase the potential use of these lightweight, flexible, and durable organic multilayered carbon nanotube based thermoelectric modules in low powered electronics applications, where waste heat is available.

  20. Improved thermoelectric power output from multilayered polyethylenimine doped carbon nanotube based organic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Corey A.; Montgomery, David S.; Barbalace, Ryan L.; Carlson, Rowland D.; Carroll, David L.

    2014-05-01

    By appropriately selecting the carbon nanotube type and n-type dopant for the conduction layers in a multilayered carbon nanotube composite, the total device thermoelectric power output can be increased significantly. The particular materials chosen in this study were raw single walled carbon nanotubes for the p-type layers and polyethylenimine doped single walled carbon nanotubes for the n-type layers. The combination of these two conduction layers leads to a single thermocouple Seebeck coefficient of 96 ± 4 μVK-1, which is 6.3 times higher than that previously reported. This improved Seebeck coefficient leads to a total power output of 14.7 nW per thermocouple at the maximum temperature difference of 50 K, which is 44 times the power output per thermocouple for the previously reported results. Ultimately, these thermoelectric power output improvements help to increase the potential use of these lightweight, flexible, and durable organic multilayered carbon nanotube based thermoelectric modules in low powered electronics applications, where waste heat is available.

  1. Modeling of carbon nanotube-based devices: from nanoFETs to THz emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Carlo, Aldo; Pecchia, Alessandro; Petrolati, Eleonora; Paoloni, Claudio

    2006-08-01

    In the first part of the present contribution, we will report on transport calculations of nanoscaled devices based on Carbon Nanotubes obtained via self-consistent density-functional method coupled with non-equilibrium Green's function approaches. In particular, density functional tight-binding techniques are very promising due to their intrinsic efficiency. This scheme allows treatment of systems comprising a large number of atoms and enables the computation of the current flowing between two or more contacts in a fully self-consistent manner with the open boundary conditions that naturally arise in transport problems. We will give a description of this methodology and application to field effect transistor based on Carbon nanotubes. The advances in manufacturing technology are allowing new opportunities even for vacuum electron devices producing radio-frequency radiation. Modern micro and nano-technologies can overcome the typical severe limitations of vacuum tube devices. As an example, Carbon Nanotubes used as cold emitters in micron-scaled triodes allow for frequency generation up to THz region. The purpose of the second part of this contribution will be a description of the modelling of Carbon Nanotube based vacuum devices such as triodes. We will present the calculation of important figures of merit and possible realizations.

  2. The effect of nanocomposite packaging carbon nanotube base on organoleptic and fungal growth of Mazafati brand dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgari, Parinaz; Moradi, Omid; Tajeddin, Behjat

    2014-03-01

    In this work, nanocomposite low-density polyethylene films with carbon nanotube base were prepared by solution casting from boiling xylene. Fresh Mazafati dates were placed on the packages obtained from films and stored at ambient temperature. In addition, the fungal growth and sensory attributes were monitored on the 0th, 30th, 60th, and 90th days of storage. Although films containing carbon nanotube increased shelf life of Mazafati dates compared to controls, some of the characteristics of sensory were lost.

  3. Analytical calculation of sensing parameters on carbon nanotube based gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Elnaz; Buntat, Zolkafle; Ahmad, Mohd Hafizi; Enzevaee, Aria; Yousof, Rubiyah; Iqbal, Syed Muhammad Zafar; Ahmadi, Mohammad Taghi; Sidik, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Karimi, Hediyeh

    2014-01-01

    Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are generally nano-scale tubes comprising a network of carbon atoms in a cylindrical setting that compared with silicon counterparts present outstanding characteristics such as high mechanical strength, high sensing capability and large surface-to-volume ratio. These characteristics, in addition to the fact that CNTs experience changes in their electrical conductance when exposed to different gases, make them appropriate candidates for use in sensing/measuring applications such as gas detection devices. In this research, a model for a Field Effect Transistor (FET)-based structure has been developed as a platform for a gas detection sensor in which the CNT conductance change resulting from the chemical reaction between NH3 and CNT has been employed to model the sensing mechanism with proposed sensing parameters. The research implements the same FET-based structure as in the work of Peng et al. on nanotube-based NH3 gas detection. With respect to this conductance change, the I-V characteristic of the CNT is investigated. Finally, a comparative study shows satisfactory agreement between the proposed model and the experimental data from the mentioned research.

  4. Processing and Characterization of a Novel Distributed Strain Sensor Using Carbon Nanotube-Based Nonwoven Composites.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongbo; Thostenson, Erik T; Schumacher, Thomas

    2015-07-21

    This paper describes the development of an innovative carbon nanotube-based non-woven composite sensor that can be tailored for strain sensing properties and potentially offers a reliable and cost-effective sensing option for structural health monitoring (SHM). This novel strain sensor is fabricated using a readily scalable process of coating Carbon nanotubes (CNT) onto a nonwoven carrier fabric to form an electrically-isotropic conductive network. Epoxy is then infused into the CNT-modified fabric to form a free-standing nanocomposite strain sensor. By measuring the changes in the electrical properties of the sensing composite the deformation can be measured in real-time. The sensors are repeatable and linear up to 0.4% strain. Highest elastic strain gage factors of 1.9 and 4.0 have been achieved in the longitudinal and transverse direction, respectively. Although the longitudinal gage factor of the newly formed nanocomposite sensor is close to some metallic foil strain gages, the proposed sensing methodology offers spatial coverage, manufacturing customizability, distributed sensing capability as well as transverse sensitivity.

  5. Processing and Characterization of a Novel Distributed Strain Sensor Using Carbon Nanotube-Based Nonwoven Composites.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongbo; Thostenson, Erik T; Schumacher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an innovative carbon nanotube-based non-woven composite sensor that can be tailored for strain sensing properties and potentially offers a reliable and cost-effective sensing option for structural health monitoring (SHM). This novel strain sensor is fabricated using a readily scalable process of coating Carbon nanotubes (CNT) onto a nonwoven carrier fabric to form an electrically-isotropic conductive network. Epoxy is then infused into the CNT-modified fabric to form a free-standing nanocomposite strain sensor. By measuring the changes in the electrical properties of the sensing composite the deformation can be measured in real-time. The sensors are repeatable and linear up to 0.4% strain. Highest elastic strain gage factors of 1.9 and 4.0 have been achieved in the longitudinal and transverse direction, respectively. Although the longitudinal gage factor of the newly formed nanocomposite sensor is close to some metallic foil strain gages, the proposed sensing methodology offers spatial coverage, manufacturing customizability, distributed sensing capability as well as transverse sensitivity. PMID:26197323

  6. Processing and Characterization of a Novel Distributed Strain Sensor Using Carbon Nanotube-Based Nonwoven Composites

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hongbo; Thostenson, Erik T.; Schumacher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an innovative carbon nanotube-based non-woven composite sensor that can be tailored for strain sensing properties and potentially offers a reliable and cost-effective sensing option for structural health monitoring (SHM). This novel strain sensor is fabricated using a readily scalable process of coating Carbon nanotubes (CNT) onto a nonwoven carrier fabric to form an electrically-isotropic conductive network. Epoxy is then infused into the CNT-modified fabric to form a free-standing nanocomposite strain sensor. By measuring the changes in the electrical properties of the sensing composite the deformation can be measured in real-time. The sensors are repeatable and linear up to 0.4% strain. Highest elastic strain gage factors of 1.9 and 4.0 have been achieved in the longitudinal and transverse direction, respectively. Although the longitudinal gage factor of the newly formed nanocomposite sensor is close to some metallic foil strain gages, the proposed sensing methodology offers spatial coverage, manufacturing customizability, distributed sensing capability as well as transverse sensitivity. PMID:26197323

  7. Bridged single-walled carbon nanotube-based atomic-scale mass sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Akbari, H. R.; Shaat, M.; Abdelkefi, A.

    2016-08-01

    The potentials of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as mechanical resonators for atomic-scale mass sensing are presented. To this aim, a nonlocal continuum-based model is proposed to study the dynamic behavior of bridged single-walled carbon nanotube-based mass nanosensors. The carbon nanotube (CNT) is considered as an elastic Euler-Bernoulli beam with von Kármán type geometric nonlinearity. Eringen's nonlocal elastic field theory is utilized to model the interatomic long-range interactions within the structure of the CNT. This developed model accounts for the arbitrary position of the deposited atomic-mass. The natural frequencies and associated mode shapes are determined based on an eigenvalue problem analysis. An atom of xenon (Xe) is first considered as a specific case where the results show that the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the CNT are strongly dependent on the location of the deposited Xe and the nonlocal parameter of the CNT. It is also indicated that the first vibrational mode is the most sensitive when the mass is deposited at the middle of a single-walled carbon nanotube. However, when deposited in other locations, it is demonstrated that the second or third vibrational modes may be more sensitive. To investigate the sensitivity of bridged single-walled CNTs as mass sensors, different noble gases are considered, namely Xe, argon (Ar), and helium (He). It is shown that the sensitivity of the single-walled CNT to the Ar and He gases is much lower than the Xe gas due to the significant decrease in their masses. The derived model and performed analysis are so needed for mass sensing applications and particularly when the detected mass is randomly deposited.

  8. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of a Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Based Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Jie; Globus, Al; Srivastava, Deepak; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    We used molecular dynamics to investigate the properties of a multi-walled carbon nanotube based gear. Previous work computationally suggested that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. The gears were formed from nanotubes with teeth added via a benzyne reaction known to occur with C60. A modified, parallelized version of Brenner's potential was used to model interatomic forces within each molecule. A Leonard-Jones 6-12 potential was used for forces between molecules. The gear in this study was based on the smallest multi-walled nanotube supported by some experimental evidence. Each gear was a (52,0) nanotube surrounding a (37,10) nanotube with approximate 20.4 and 16,8 A radii respectively. These sizes were chosen to be consistent with inter-tube spacing observed by and were slightly larger than graphite inter-layer spacings. The benzyne teeth were attached via 2+4 cycloaddition to exterior of the (52,0) tube. 2+4 bonds were used rather than the 2+2 bonds observed by Hoke since 2+4 bonds are preferred by naphthalene and quantum calculations by Jaffe suggest that 2+4 bonds are preferred on carbon nanotubes of sufficient diameter. One gear was 'powered' by forcing the atoms near the end of the outside buckytube to rotate to simulate a motor. A second gear was allowed to rotate by keeping the atoms near the end of its outside buckytube on a cylinder. The ends of both gears were constrained to stay in an approximately constant position relative to each other, simulating a casing, to insure that the gear teeth meshed. The stiff meshing aromatic gear teeth transferred angular momentum from the powered gear to the driven gear. The simulation was performed in a vacuum and with a software thermostat. Preliminary results suggest that the powered gear had trouble turning the driven gear without slip. The larger radius and greater mass of these gears relative to the (14,0) gears previously studied requires a

  9. Heat dissipation for the Intel Core i5 processor using multiwalled carbon-nanotube-based ethylene glycol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thang, Bui Hung; Van Trinh, Pham; Quang, Le Dinh; Huong, Nguyen Thi; Khoi, Phan Hong; Minh, Phan Ngoc

    2014-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are some of the most valuable materials with high thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) grown by using chemical vapor deposition is 600 ± 100 Wm-1K-1 compared with the thermal conductivity 419 Wm-1K-1 of Ag. Carbon-nanotube-based liquids — a new class of nanomaterials, have shown many interesting properties and distinctive features offering potential in heat dissipation applications for electronic devices, such as computer microprocessor, high power LED, etc. In this work, a multiwalled carbon-nanotube-based liquid was made of well-dispersed hydroxyl-functional multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-OH) in ethylene glycol (EG)/distilled water (DW) solutions by using Tween-80 surfactant and an ultrasonication method. The concentration of MWCNT-OH in EG/DW solutions ranged from 0.1 to 1.2 gram/liter. The dispersion of the MWCNT-OH-based EG/DW solutions was evaluated by using a Zeta-Sizer analyzer. The MWCNT-OH-based EG/DW solutions were used as coolants in the liquid cooling system for the Intel Core i5 processor. The thermal dissipation efficiency and the thermal response of the system were evaluated by directly measuring the temperature of the micro-processor using the Core Temp software and the temperature sensors built inside the micro-processor. The results confirmed the advantages of CNTs in thermal dissipation systems for computer processors and other high-power electronic devices.

  10. Multi Objective Optimization of Multi Wall Carbon Nanotube Based Nanogrinding Wheel Using Grey Relational and Regression Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethuramalingam, Prabhu; Vinayagam, Babu Kupusamy

    2016-07-01

    Carbon nanotube mixed grinding wheel is used in the grinding process to analyze the surface characteristics of AISI D2 tool steel material. Till now no work has been carried out using carbon nanotube based grinding wheel. Carbon nanotube based grinding wheel has excellent thermal conductivity and good mechanical properties which are used to improve the surface finish of the workpiece. In the present study, the multi response optimization of process parameters like surface roughness and metal removal rate of grinding process of single wall carbon nanotube (CNT) in mixed cutting fluids is undertaken using orthogonal array with grey relational analysis. Experiments are performed with designated grinding conditions obtained using the L9 orthogonal array. Based on the results of the grey relational analysis, a set of optimum grinding parameters is obtained. Using the analysis of variance approach the significant machining parameters are found. Empirical model for the prediction of output parameters has been developed using regression analysis and the results are compared empirically, for conditions of with and without CNT grinding wheel in grinding process.

  11. Raman Studies of Carbon Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorio, Ado; Souza Filho, Antonio G.

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews recent advances on the use of Raman spectroscopy to study and characterize carbon nanostructures. It starts with a brief survey of Raman spectroscopy of graphene and carbon nanotubes, followed by recent developments in the field. Various novel topics, including Stokes–anti-Stokes correlation, tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy in two dimensions, phonon coherence, and high-pressure and shielding effects, are presented. Some consequences for other fields—quantum optics, near-field electromagnetism, archeology, materials and soil sciences—are discussed. The review ends with a discussion of new perspectives on Raman spectroscopy of carbon nanostructures, including how this technique can contribute to the development of biotechnological applications and nanotoxicology.

  12. Raman Studies of Carbon Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorio, Ado; Souza Filho, Antonio G.

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews recent advances on the use of Raman spectroscopy to study and characterize carbon nanostructures. It starts with a brief survey of Raman spectroscopy of graphene and carbon nanotubes, followed by recent developments in the field. Various novel topics, including Stokes-anti-Stokes correlation, tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy in two dimensions, phonon coherence, and high-pressure and shielding effects, are presented. Some consequences for other fields—quantum optics, near-field electromagnetism, archeology, materials and soil sciences—are discussed. The review ends with a discussion of new perspectives on Raman spectroscopy of carbon nanostructures, including how this technique can contribute to the development of biotechnological applications and nanotoxicology.

  13. Shear deformable deformation of carbon nanotubes based on a new analytical nonlocal Timoshenko beam nodel

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jianming; Yang, Yang

    2015-03-10

    According to Hamilton’s principle, a new mathematical model and analytical solutions for nonlocal Timoshenko beam model (ANT) is established based on nonlocal elastic continuum theory when shear deformation and nonlocal effect are considered. The new ANT equilibrium equations and boundary conditions are derived for bending analysis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with simply supported, clamped and cantilever. The ANT deflection solutions demonstrate that the CNT stiffness is enhanced by the presence of nonlocal stress effects. Furthermore, the new ANT model concluded verifiable bending behaviors for a cantilever CNT with point load at the free end, which depends on the strength of nonlocal stress. Therefore, this new model will gives a better prediction for mechanical behaviors of nanostructures.

  14. Synthesis, Characterization and Utility of Carbon Nanotube Based Hybrid Sensors in Bioanalytical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badhulika, Sushmee

    The detection of gaseous analytes and biological molecules is of prime importance in the fields of environmental pollution control, food and water - safety and analysis; and medical diagnostics. This necessitates the development of advanced and improved technology that is reliable, inexpensive and suitable for high volume production. The conventional sensors are often thin film based which lack sensitivity due to the phenomena of current shunting across the charge depleted region when an analyte binds with them. One dimensional (1-D) nanostructures provide a better alternative for sensing applications by eliminating the issue of current shunting due to their 1-D geometries and facilitating device miniaturization and low power operations. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are 1-D nanostructures that possess small size, high mechanical strength, high electrical and thermal conductivity and high specific area that have resulted in their wide spread applications in sensor technology. To overcome the issue of low sensitivity of pristine CNTs and to widen their scope, hybrid devices have been fabricated that combine the synergistic properties of CNTs along with materials like metals and conducting polymers (CPs). CPs exhibit electronic, magnetic and optical properties of metals and semiconductors while retaining the processing advantages of polymers. Their high chemical sensitivity, room temperature operation and tunable charge transport properties has made them ideal for use as transducing elements in chemical sensors. In this dissertation, various CNT based hybrid devices such as CNT-conducting polymer and graphene-CNT-metal nanoparticles based sensors have been developed and demonstrated towards bioanalytical applications such as detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and saccharides. Electrochemical polymerization enabled the synthesis of CPs and metal nanoparticles in a simple, cost effective and controlled way on the surface of CNT based platforms thus resulting in

  15. Dynamics of multiple viscoelastic carbon nanotube based nanocomposites with axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Karličić, Danilo; Cajić, Milan; Murmu, Tony; Kozić, Predrag; Adhikari, Sondipon

    2014-06-21

    Nanocomposites and magnetic field effects on nanostructures have received great attention in recent years. A large amount of research work was focused on developing the proper theoretical framework for describing many physical effects appearing in structures on nanoscale level. Great step in this direction was successful application of nonlocal continuum field theory of Eringen. In the present paper, the free transverse vibration analysis is carried out for the system composed of multiple single walled carbon nanotubes (MSWCNT) embedded in a polymer matrix and under the influence of an axial magnetic field. Equivalent nonlocal model of MSWCNT is adopted as viscoelastically coupled multi-nanobeam system (MNBS) under the influence of longitudinal magnetic field. Governing equations of motion are derived using the Newton second low and nonlocal Rayleigh beam theory, which take into account small-scale effects, the effect of nanobeam angular acceleration, internal damping and Maxwell relation. Explicit expressions for complex natural frequency are derived based on the method of separation of variables and trigonometric method for the “Clamped-Chain” system. In addition, an analytical method is proposed in order to obtain asymptotic damped natural frequency and the critical damping ratio, which are independent of boundary conditions and a number of nanobeams in MNBS. The validity of obtained results is confirmed by comparing the results obtained for complex frequencies via trigonometric method with the results obtained by using numerical methods. The influence of the longitudinal magnetic field on the free vibration response of viscoelastically coupled MNBS is discussed in detail. In addition, numerical results are presented to point out the effects of the nonlocal parameter, internal damping, and parameters of viscoelastic medium on complex natural frequencies of the system. The results demonstrate the efficiency of the suggested methodology to find the closed form

  16. Magnesium oxide grafted carbon nanotubes based impedimetric genosensor for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manoj Kumar; Ali, Md Azahar; Srivastava, Saurabh; Agrawal, Ved Varun; Ansari, S G; Malhotra, Bansi D

    2013-12-15

    Nanostructured magnesium oxide (size<10nm) grafted carboxyl (COOH) functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (nMgO-cMWCNTs) deposited electrophoretically onto indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass electrode and have been utilized for Vibrio cholerae detection. Aminated 23 bases single stranded DNA (NH2-ssDNA) probe sequence (O1 gene) of V. cholerae has been covalently functionalized onto nMgO-cMWCNTs/ITO electrode surface using EDC-NHS chemistry. This DNA functionalized MgO grafted cMWCNTs electrode has been characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrochemical techniques. The results of XPS studies reveal that sufficient O-C=O groups present at the nMgO-cMWCNTs surface are utilized for DNA binding. The results of hybridization studies conducted with fragmented target DNA (ftDNA) of V. cholerae using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) reveal sensitivity as 3.87 Ω ng(-1) cm(-2), detection limit of ~21.70 ng µL(-1) in the linear range of 100-500 ng µL(-1) and stability of about 120 days. The proposed DNA functionalized nMgO-cMWCNTs nanomatrix provides a novel impedimetric platform for the fabrication of a compact genosensor device for biomedical application.

  17. Carbon nanotube-based glucose oxidase nanocomposite anode materials for bio-fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudzik, Jonathan

    The field of nanotechnology has benefited medicine, science, and engineering. The advent of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and protein-inorganic interfacing have received much attention due to their unique nanostructures which can be modified to act as a scaffold to house proteins or create nanowires. The current trend incorporates the robustness and specificity characteristics of proteins to the mechanical strength, enlarged surface area, and conductive capabilities emblematic of their inorganic counterparts. Bio-Fuel Cells (BFCs) and Biosensors remain at the forefront and devices such as implantable glucose monitors are closer to realization than ever before. This research strives to exploit potential energy from the eukaryotic enzyme Glucose Oxidase (GOx) during oxidation of its substrate, glucose. During this process, a two-electron transfer occurs at its two FAD redox centres which can be harnessed via an electrochemical setup involving a Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNTs) modified electrode. The objective is to develop a MWCNT-GOx bionanocomposite capable of producing and sustaining a competitive power output. To help with this aim, investigation into a crosslinked enzyme cluster (CEC) immobilization technique is envisioned to amplify power output due to its highly concentrated, reusable, and thermally stable characteristics. Numerous CEC-GOx-MWCNT composites were fabricated with the highest initial output reaching 170 muW/cm 2. It was hypothesized that the carbohydrate moiety increased tunnelling distance and therefore hindered electron transfer. Efforts to produce a recombinant GOx without the encumbrance were unsuccessful. Two sub-clone constructs were explored and although a recombinant protein was identified, it was not confirmed to be GOx. BFC testing on bionanocomposites integrating non-glycosylated GOx could not be performed although there remains a strong contention that the recombinant would demonstrate superior power densities in comparison to its

  18. Electronically type-sorted carbon nanotube-based electrochemical biosensors with glucose oxidase and dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Muguruma, Hitoshi; Hoshino, Tatsuya; Nowaki, Kohei

    2015-01-14

    An electrochemical enzyme biosensor with electronically type-sorted (metallic and semiconducting) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for use in aqueous media is presented. This research investigates how the electronic types of SWNTs influence the amperometric response of enzyme biosensors. To conduct a clear evaluation, a simple layer-by-layer process based on a plasma-polymerized nano thin film (PPF) was adopted because a PPF is an inactive matrix that can form a well-defined nanostructure composed of SWNTs and enzyme. For a biosensor with the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme in the presence of oxygen, the response of a metallic SWNT-GOx electrode was 2 times larger than that of a semiconducting SWNT-GOx electrode. In contrast, in the absence of oxygen, the response of the semiconducting SWNT-GOx electrode was retained, whereas that of the metallic SWNT-GOx electrode was significantly reduced. This indicates that direct electron transfer occurred with the semiconducting SWNT-GOx electrode, whereas the metallic SWNT-GOx electrode was dominated by a hydrogen peroxide pathway caused by an enzymatic reaction. For a biosensor with the glucose dehydrogenase (GDH; oxygen-independent catalysis) enzyme, the response of the semiconducting SWNT-GDH electrode was 4 times larger than that of the metallic SWNT-GDH electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to show that the semiconducting SWNT network has less resistance for electron transfer than the metallic SWNT network. Therefore, it was concluded that semiconducting SWNTs are more suitable than metallic SWNTs for electrochemical enzyme biosensors in terms of direct electron transfer as a detection mechanism. This study makes a valuable contribution toward the development of electrochemical biosensors that employ sorted SWNTs and various enzymes. PMID:25522366

  19. Electronically type-sorted carbon nanotube-based electrochemical biosensors with glucose oxidase and dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Muguruma, Hitoshi; Hoshino, Tatsuya; Nowaki, Kohei

    2015-01-14

    An electrochemical enzyme biosensor with electronically type-sorted (metallic and semiconducting) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for use in aqueous media is presented. This research investigates how the electronic types of SWNTs influence the amperometric response of enzyme biosensors. To conduct a clear evaluation, a simple layer-by-layer process based on a plasma-polymerized nano thin film (PPF) was adopted because a PPF is an inactive matrix that can form a well-defined nanostructure composed of SWNTs and enzyme. For a biosensor with the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme in the presence of oxygen, the response of a metallic SWNT-GOx electrode was 2 times larger than that of a semiconducting SWNT-GOx electrode. In contrast, in the absence of oxygen, the response of the semiconducting SWNT-GOx electrode was retained, whereas that of the metallic SWNT-GOx electrode was significantly reduced. This indicates that direct electron transfer occurred with the semiconducting SWNT-GOx electrode, whereas the metallic SWNT-GOx electrode was dominated by a hydrogen peroxide pathway caused by an enzymatic reaction. For a biosensor with the glucose dehydrogenase (GDH; oxygen-independent catalysis) enzyme, the response of the semiconducting SWNT-GDH electrode was 4 times larger than that of the metallic SWNT-GDH electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to show that the semiconducting SWNT network has less resistance for electron transfer than the metallic SWNT network. Therefore, it was concluded that semiconducting SWNTs are more suitable than metallic SWNTs for electrochemical enzyme biosensors in terms of direct electron transfer as a detection mechanism. This study makes a valuable contribution toward the development of electrochemical biosensors that employ sorted SWNTs and various enzymes.

  20. Issues related to the characterization and fabrication of coiled carbon nanotube based inductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraby, Hasan Mohammad

    The superior inductive properties of coiled carbon nanotubes (CCNTs) have been demonstrated through numerical computations. It is shown, through computations, that a range of inductance values (in the pH to muH range) operational at THz frequencies could be obtained through a variation of CCNT geometric parameters, which can be accomplished through rational synthesis. A comparison of the proposed inductor material to conventional inductor material e.g. copper (Cu), in terms of both component footprint and material volume, indicated a greater quality factor (Q) through the use of the CCNTs. Experimental characterization of these CCNT inductors require high quality ohmic contacts. Focused ion beam based metal deposition is one of the easiest ways to create contacts on those nanostructures. Metal deposition with focused ion beam (FIB) systems result in material composed of carbon, oxygen, gallium and the primary metal from the metallo-organic precursor. Four point probe measurements to determine the material resistivity and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to determine the relative chemical composition were conducted on a wide range of FIB deposited platinum (Pt) and tungsten (W) lines. It has been shown that the gallium (Ga) percentage in the metal line plays a significant role in reducing the electrical resistivity of the material. Effective media theory (EMT), specifically using Mc Lachlan's general effective medium (GEM) equation is used to describe the relationship between the chemical compositions of the FIB deposited metal lines and the corresponding electrical resistivity. The relation between the chemical elements and the resistivity of the FIB deposited metal lines will make possible the accurate estimation of their resistance without using conventional probe stations. Like metals insulators can also be deposited using the FIB system. Insulator deposition by FIB systems results in SiO2 layers with impurities from gallium (Ga) and carbon (C). The

  1. Dispersion and separation of nanostructured carbon in organic solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landi, Brian J. (Inventor); Raffaelle, Ryne P. (Inventor); Ruf, Herbert J. (Inventor); Evans, Christopher M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to dispersions of nanostructured carbon in organic solvents containing alkyl amide compounds and/or diamide compounds. The invention also relates to methods of dispersing nanostructured carbon in organic solvents and methods of mobilizing nanostructured carbon. Also disclosed are methods of determining the purity of nanostructured carbon.

  2. A vertically aligned carbon nanotube-based impedance sensing biosensor for rapid and high sensitive detection of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Abdolahad, Mohammad; Taghinejad, Mohammad; Taghinejad, Hossein; Janmaleki, Mohsen; Mohajerzadeh, Shams

    2012-03-21

    A novel vertically aligned carbon nanotube based electrical cell impedance sensing biosensor (CNT-ECIS) was demonstrated for the first time as a more rapid, sensitive and specific device for the detection of cancer cells. This biosensor is based on the fast entrapment of cancer cells on vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays and leads to mechanical and electrical interactions between CNT tips and entrapped cell membranes, changing the impedance of the biosensor. CNT-ECIS was fabricated through a photolithography process on Ni/SiO(2)/Si layers. Carbon nanotube arrays have been grown on 9 nm thick patterned Ni microelectrodes by DC-PECVD. SW48 colon cancer cells were passed over the surface of CNT covered electrodes to be specifically entrapped on elastic nanotube beams. CNT arrays act as both adhesive and conductive agents and impedance changes occurred as fast as 30 s (for whole entrapment and signaling processes). CNT-ECIS detected the cancer cells with the concentration as low as 4000 cells cm(-2) on its surface and a sensitivity of 1.7 × 10(-3)Ω cm(2). Time and cell efficiency factor (TEF and CEF) parameters were defined which describe the sensor's rapidness and resolution, respectively. TEF and CEF of CNT-ECIS were much higher than other cell based electrical biosensors which are compared in this paper. PMID:22294045

  3. Electrical and optical properties of reduced graphene oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes based nanocomposites: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goumri, Meryem; Lucas, Bruno; Ratier, Bernard; Baitoul, Mimouna

    2016-10-01

    Graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes have attracted interest for a number of potential applications. One of the most actively pursued applications uses graphene and carbon nanotubes as a transparent conducting electrode in solar cells, displays or touch screens. In this work, in situ reduced graphene oxide/Poly (vinyl alcohol) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes/Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/Poly (vinyl alcohol) composites were prepared by water dispersion and different reduction treatments. Comparative studies were conducted to explore the electrical and optical properties of nanocomposites based on graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. A thermal reduction of graphene oxide was more effective, producing films with sheet resistances as low as 102-103 Ω/square with 80% transmittance for 550 nm light. The percolation threshold of the thermally reduced graphene oxide composites (0.35 vol%) was much lower than that of the chemically reduced graphene oxide composites (0.57 vol%), and than that of the carbon nanotubes composites (0.47 vol%). The Seebeck coefficient of graphene oxide films changes from about 40 μV/K to -30 μV/K after an annealing of three hours at 200 °C. The optical absorption of the nanocomposites showed a high absorbance in near UV regions and the photoluminescence enhancement was achieved at 1 wt% graphene loading, while the carbon nanotubes based composite presents a significant emission at 0.7 wt% followed with a photoluminescence quenching at higher fraction of the nanofillers 1.6 wt% TRGO and 1 wt% MWCNTs.

  4. Mechanically robust, electrically conductive ultralow-density carbon nanotube-based aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2016-10-04

    Disclosed here is a device comprising a porous carbon aerogel or composite thereof as an energy storage material, catalyst support, sensor or adsorbent, wherein the porous carbon aerogel comprises a network of interconnected struts comprising carbon nanotube bundles covalently crosslinked by graphitic carbon nanoparticles, wherein the carbon nanotubes account for 5 to 95 wt. % of the aerogel and the graphitic carbon nanoparticles account for 5 to 95 wt. % of the aerogel, and wherein the aerogel has an electrical conductivity of at least 10 S/m and is capable of withstanding strains of more than 10% before fracture.

  5. Synthesis of carbon nanostructures on iron nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshanova, A.; Partizan, G.; Mansurov, B.; Medyanova, B.; Mansurova, M.; Aliev, B.; Jiang, Xin

    2016-08-01

    This work presents the results of experiments on synthesis of carbon nanostructures (CNs) by the method of thermal chemical vapor deposition using iron nanopowders obtained by the method of electrical explosion of wires as catalysts. To study the process of nucleation and growth of individual carbon nanostructures, experiments were conducted not only on nanopowders, but also on the separated clusters. To determine the optimum conditions of the carbon nanostructures synthesis and lower temperature limit, experiments were performed at different temperatures (300-700°C) and pressures (100-400 mbar). The experiments have shown that the lower temperature limit for carbon nanostructures synthesis on the iron nanopowders is 350°C and in this process the growth of carbon nanostructures is not so massive. Stable growth of carbon nanostructures for nanopowders began from 400°C during the entire range of pressures. The analysis of Raman spectroscopy showed that the most optimum conditions for obtaining nanotubes of high quality are P = 100 mbar and T = 425°C.

  6. Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques for Development and Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Based Superstructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sauti, Godfrey; Wainwright, Elliot; Williams, Phillip; Siochi, Emile J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, multiple commercial vendors have developed capability for the production of large-scale quantities of high-quality carbon nanotube sheets and yarns. While the materials have found use in electrical shielding applications, development of structural systems composed of a high volume fraction of carbon nanotubes is still lacking. A recent NASA program seeks to address this by prototyping a structural nanotube composite with strength-toweight ratio exceeding current state-of-the-art carbon fiber composites. Commercially available carbon nanotube sheets, tapes, and yarns are being processed into high volume fraction carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposites. Nondestructive evaluation techniques have been applied throughout this development effort for material characterization and process control. This paper will report on the progress of these efforts, including magnetic characterization of residual catalyst content, Raman scattering characterization of nanotube diameter, defect ratio, and nanotube strain, and polarized Raman scattering for characterization of nanotube alignment.

  7. Carbon Nanotube-based Sensor and Method for Continually Sensing Changes in a Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Jeffry D. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony Neal (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Ingram, JoAnne L. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A sensor has a plurality of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based conductors operatively positioned on a substrate. The conductors are arranged side-by-side, such as in a substantially parallel relationship to one another. At least one pair of spaced-apart electrodes is coupled to opposing ends of the conductors. A portion of each of the conductors spanning between each pair of electrodes comprises a plurality of carbon nanotubes arranged end-to-end and substantially aligned along an axis. Because a direct correlation exists between resistance of a carbon nanotube and carbon nanotube strain, changes experienced by the portion of the structure to which the sensor is coupled induce a change in electrical properties of the conductors.

  8. Integration of a carbon nanotube based electrode in silicon microtechnology to fabricate electrochemical transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luais, E.; Boujtita, M.; Gohier, A.; Tailleur, A.; Casimirius, S.; Djouadi, M. A.; Granier, A.; Tessier, P. Y.

    2008-10-01

    An original approach was developed and validated for the fabrication of a carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode synthesized directly onto a carbon buffer thin film deposited on a highly doped monocrystalline silicon surface. The buffer layer of amorphous carbon thin film was deposited by physical vapour deposition on the silicon substrate before CNT synthesis. For this purpose, nickel was deposited on the carbon buffer layer by an electrochemical procedure and used as a catalyst for the CNT growth. The CNT synthesis was achieved by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma chamber using a C2H2/NH3 gas mixture. In order to evaluate the electrochemical behaviour of the CNT-based electrode, the carbon layer and the silicon/carbon interface were studied. The resulting buffer layer enhanced the electronic transport from the doped silicon to the CNTs. The electrode surface was studied by XPS and characterized by both SEM and TEM. The electrochemical response exhibited by the resulting electrodes modified with CNTs was also examined by cyclic voltammetry. The whole process was found to be compatible with silicon microtechnology and could be envisaged for the direct integration of microsensors on silicon chips.

  9. Integration of a carbon nanotube based electrode in silicon microtechnology to fabricate electrochemical transducers.

    PubMed

    Luais, E; Boujtita, M; Gohier, A; Tailleur, A; Casimirius, S; Djouadi, M A; Granier, A; Tessier, P Y

    2008-10-29

    An original approach was developed and validated for the fabrication of a carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode synthesized directly onto a carbon buffer thin film deposited on a highly doped monocrystalline silicon surface. The buffer layer of amorphous carbon thin film was deposited by physical vapour deposition on the silicon substrate before CNT synthesis. For this purpose, nickel was deposited on the carbon buffer layer by an electrochemical procedure and used as a catalyst for the CNT growth. The CNT synthesis was achieved by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma chamber using a C(2)H(2)/NH(3) gas mixture. In order to evaluate the electrochemical behaviour of the CNT-based electrode, the carbon layer and the silicon/carbon interface were studied. The resulting buffer layer enhanced the electronic transport from the doped silicon to the CNTs. The electrode surface was studied by XPS and characterized by both SEM and TEM. The electrochemical response exhibited by the resulting electrodes modified with CNTs was also examined by cyclic voltammetry. The whole process was found to be compatible with silicon microtechnology and could be envisaged for the direct integration of microsensors on silicon chips. PMID:21832696

  10. Carbon Nanotube Based Molecular Electronics and Motors: A View from Classical and Quantum Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The tubular forms of fullerenes popularly known as carbon nanotubes are experimentally produced as single-, multiwall, and rope configurations. The nanotubes and nanoropes have shown to exhibit unusual mechanical and electronic properties. The single wall nanotubes exhibit both semiconducting and metallic behavior. In short undefected lengths they are the known strongest fibers which are unbreakable even when bent in half. Grown in ropes their tensile strength is approximately 100 times greater than steel at only one sixth the weight. Employing large scale classical and quantum molecular dynamics simulations we will explore the use of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube junctions in 2-, 3-, and 4-point molecular electronic device components, dynamic strength characterization for compressive, bending and torsional strains, and chemical functionalization for possible use in a nanoscale molecular motor. The above is an unclassified material produced for non-competitive basic research in the nanotechnology area.

  11. Carbon nanotube-based sensor and method for detection of crack growth in a structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smits, Jan M. (Inventor); Kite, Marlen T. (Inventor); Moore, Thomas C. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Ingram, JoAnne L. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony N. (Inventor); Williams, Phillip A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A sensor has a plurality of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based conductors operatively positioned on a substrate. The conductors are arranged side-by-side, such as in a substantially parallel relationship to one another. At least one pair of spaced-apart electrodes is coupled to opposing ends of the conductors. A portion of each of the conductors spanning between each pair of electrodes comprises a plurality of carbon nanotubes arranged end-to-end and substantially aligned along an axis. Because a direct correlation exists between the resistance of a carbon nanotube and its strain, changes experienced by the portion of the structure to which the sensor is coupled induce a corresponding change in the electrical properties of the conductors, thereby enabling detection of crack growth in the structure.

  12. Sub percolation threshold carbon nanotube based polyvinylidene fluoride polymer-polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Cedric Antony

    The study of piezoelectric materials has traditionally focused largely on homogeneous crystalline or semi-crystalline materials. This research focuses on the concept of piezoelectric composites using selective microstructural reinforcement in the piezoelectric material to improve the piezoelectric properties. This is done using a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and carbon nanotube composite as the model system. A multi-tiered engineering approach is taken to understand the material (experimental and computational analyses) and design a composite system which provides an effective platform for future research in piezoelectric improvement. A finite element analysis is used to evaluate the ability of carbon nanotubes to generate a heterogeneous electric field where local improvements in electric field produce an increase in the effective piezoelectric strength. The study finds that weight percent and aspect ratio of the carbon nanotubes are of key importance while formations of percolating networks are detrimental to performance. This motivates investigation into electrospinning into a method of producing sub percolation threshold composites with large carbon nanotube content. However, the electrospun fabrics have too low of a dielectric strength to sustain high strength electric fields. This is studied within the context of high voltage physics and a solution inspired by traditional composites manufacturing is proposed wherein the electrospun fiber mat is used as the fiber reinforcing component of a polymer-polymer composite. This composite is thoroughly analyzed to show that it allows for a high dielectric strength combined with high carbon nanotube content. It is also shown that the PVDF contains the proper crystal structure to allow for piezoelectric properties. Furthermore, the addition of carbon nanotubes greatly improves the strength and stiffness of the composite, as well as affecting the internal electric field response to an applied voltage. These qualities

  13. Continuous production of flexible carbon nanotube-based transparent conductive films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, I. Stuart; Motta, Marcelo S.; Schmidt, Ron K.; Windle, Alan H.

    2010-08-01

    This work shows a simple, single-stage, scalable method for the continuous production of high-quality carbon nanotube-polymer transparent conductive films from carbon feedstock. Besides the ease of scalability, a particular advantage of this process is that the concentration of nanotubes in the films, and thus transparency and conductivity, can be adjusted by changing simple process parameters. Therefore, films can be readily prepared for any application desired, ranging from solar cells to flat panel displays. Our best results show a surface resistivity of the order of 300 Ω square-1 for a film with 80% transparency, which is promising at this early stage of process development.

  14. Production and Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes and Nanotube-Based Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikolaev, Pavel; Arepalli, Sivaram; Holmes, William; Gorelik, Olga; Files, Brad; Scott, Carl; Santos, Beatrice; Mayeaux, Brian; Victor, Joe

    1999-01-01

    The Nobel Prize winning discovery of the Buckuball (C60) in 1985 at Rice University by a group including Dr. Richard Smalley led to the whole new class of carbon allotropes including fullerenes and nanotubes. Especially interesting from many viewpoints are single-walled carbon nanotubes, which structurally are like a single graphitic sheet wrapped around a cylinder and capped at the ends. This cylinders have diameter as small as 0.5 - 2 nm (1/100,000th the diameter of a human hair) and are as long as 0.1 - 1 mm. Nanotubes are really individual molecules and believed to be defect-free, leading to high tensile strength despite their low density. Additionally, these fibers exhibit electrical conductivity as high as copper, thermal conductivity as high as diamond, strength 100 times higher than steel at one-sixth the weight, and high strain to failure. Thus it is believed that developments in the field of nanotechnology will lead to stronger and lighter composite materials for next generation spacecraft. Lack of a bulk method of production is the primary reason nanotubes are not used widely today. Toward this goal JSC nanotube team is exploring three distinct production techniques: laser ablation, arc discharge and chemical vapor deposition (CVD, in collaboration with Rice University). In laser ablation technique high-power laser impinges on the piece of carbon containing small amount of catalyst, and nanotubes self-assemble from the resulting carbon vapor. In arc generator similar vapor is created in arc discharge between carbon electrodes with catalyst. In CVD method nanotubes grow at much lower temperature on small catalyst particles from carbon-containing feedstock gas (methane or carbon monoxide). As of now, laser ablation produces cleanest material, but mass yield is rather small. Arc discharge produces grams of material, but purity is low. CVD technique is still in baby steps, but preliminary results look promising, as well as perspective of scaling the process

  15. Self-propelled carbon nanotube based microrockets for rapid capture and isolation of circulating tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Shashwat S.; Jalota-Badhwar, Archana; Zope, Khushbu R.; Todkar, Kiran J.; Mascarenhas, Russel R.; Chate, Govind P.; Khutale, Ganesh V.; Bharde, Atul; Calderon, Marcelo; Khandare, Jayant J.

    2015-05-01

    Here, we report a non-invasive strategy for isolating cancer cells by autonomously propelled carbon nanotube (CNT) microrockets. H2O2-driven oxygen (O2) bubble-propelled microrockets were synthesized using CNT and Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the inner surface and covalently conjugating transferrin on the outer surface. Results show that self-propellant microrockets can specifically capture cancer cells.Here, we report a non-invasive strategy for isolating cancer cells by autonomously propelled carbon nanotube (CNT) microrockets. H2O2-driven oxygen (O2) bubble-propelled microrockets were synthesized using CNT and Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the inner surface and covalently conjugating transferrin on the outer surface. Results show that self-propellant microrockets can specifically capture cancer cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01797a

  16. Carbon Nanotube-Based Permeable Membranes: A Platform for Studying Nanofluidics

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, J K; Park, H G; Noy, A; Huser, T; Eaglesham, D; Bakajin, O

    2004-05-25

    A membrane of multiwalled carbon nanotubes embedded in a silicon nitride matrix was fabricated for use in studying fluid mechanics on the nanometer scale. Characterization by fluorescent tracer diffusion and scanning electron microscopy suggests that the membrane is void-free near the silicon substrate on which it rests, implying that the hollow core of the nanotube is the only conduction path for molecular transport. Nitrogen flow measurements of a nanoporous silicon nitride membrane, fabricated by sacrificial removal of carbon, give a flow rate of 0.086 cc/sec. Calculations of water flow across a nanotube membrane give a rate of 2.1x10{sup -6} cc/sec (0.12 {micro}L/min).

  17. Self-propelled carbon nanotube based microrockets for rapid capture and isolation of circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Shashwat S; Jalota-Badhwar, Archana; Zope, Khushbu R; Todkar, Kiran J; Mascarenhas, Russel R; Chate, Govind P; Khutale, Ganesh V; Bharde, Atul; Calderon, Marcelo; Khandare, Jayant J

    2015-05-21

    Here, we report a non-invasive strategy for isolating cancer cells by autonomously propelled carbon nanotube (CNT) microrockets. H2O2-driven oxygen (O2) bubble-propelled microrockets were synthesized using CNT and Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the inner surface and covalently conjugating transferrin on the outer surface. Results show that self-propellant microrockets can specifically capture cancer cells.

  18. Different types of carbon nanotube-based anodes to improve microbial fuel cell performance.

    PubMed

    Thepsuparungsikul, N; Ng, T C; Lefebvre, O; Ng, H Y

    2014-01-01

    The microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an innovative technology for producing electricity directly from biodegradable organic matter using bacteria. Among all the influenceable factors, anode materials play a crucial role in electricity generation. Recently, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have exhibited promising properties as electrode material due to their unique structural, and physical and chemical properties. In this study, the impacts of CNT types in CNT-based anodes were investigated to determine their effect on both efficiency of wastewater treatment and power generation. The CNTs, namely single-walled CNT with carboxyl group (SWCNT), multi-walled CNT with carboxyl group (MWCNT-COOH) and multi-walled CNT with hydroxyl group (MWCNT-OH) were used to fabricate CNT-based anodes by a filtration method. Overall, MWCNTs provided better results than SWCNTs, especially in the presence of the -OH groups. The highest power and treatment efficiencies in MFC were achieved with an anode made of MWCNT-OH filtered on Poreflon membrane; the open circuit voltage attained was 0.75 V and the maximum power density averaged 167 mW/m(2), which was 130% higher than that obtained with plain carbon cloth. In addition, MWCNT-OH is more cost-effective, further suggesting its potential to replace plain carbon cloth generally used for the MFC anode. PMID:24804666

  19. Generalized Protein Attachment Chemistry for Highly Sensitive Carbon Nanotube-Based Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, Mitchell; Pazina, Tatiana; Robinson, Matthew; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    2012-02-01

    We developed a label free covalent functionalization procedure for attaching proteins to carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs). Biomarker proteins are becoming increasingly useful for early diagnosis of disease, ranging from cancer to arthritis to stress. Current clinical immunoassays for measuring patient protein levels are costly and require significant processing time. Using diazonium salts followed by stabilization of carboxylic acid groups, we can attach a variety of proteins to carbon nanotubes as confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Proteins maintain the integrity of their epitope and bind to their corresponding complementary proteins. Carbon nanotube transistors are superior readout elements for such protein binding events due to their speed and comparable scale. Resulting changes in the electronic transport properties of CNTFETs demonstrate a concentration-dependent response. Binding of osteopontin (OPN), a biomarker for prostate cancer, to its complementary single chain variable fragment (scFv) can be detected down to 1 pg/mL with these methods. Moreover, these devices exhibit selectivity for OPN. Such high sensitivity biosensors could be used in parallel to test a single small volume patient sample for any number of potentially ominous biomarker proteins.

  20. Is hexagonal boron nitride always good as a substrate for carbon nanotube-based devices?

    PubMed

    Kang, Seoung-Hun; Kim, Gunn; Kwon, Young-Kyun

    2015-02-21

    Hexagonal boron nitride sheets have been noted especially for their enhanced properties as substrates for sp(2) carbon-based nanodevices. To evaluate whether such enhanced properties would be retained under various realistic conditions, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of semiconducting carbon nanotubes on perfect and defective hexagonal boron nitride sheets under an external electric field as well as with a metal impurity, using density functional theory. We verify that the use of a perfect hexagonal boron nitride sheet as a substrate indeed improves the device performances of carbon nanotubes, compared with the use of conventional substrates such as SiO2. We further show that even the hexagonal boron nitride with some defects can show better performance as a substrate. Our calculations, on the other hand, also suggest that some defective boron nitride layers with a monovacancy and a nickel impurity could bring about poor device behavior since the imperfections impair electrical conductivity due to residual scattering under an applied electric field.

  1. Micro-Raman analysis of titanium oxide/carbon nanotubes-based nanocomposites for hydrogen sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Santangelo, S.; Messina, G.; Faggio, G.; Donato, A.; De Luca, L.; Donato, N.; Bonavita, A.; Neri, G.

    2010-10-15

    Titanium oxide/carbon nanotubes-based nanocomposites (TiO{sub 2}/CNTs, prepared by sol-gel method, and 2%Pt/TiO{sub 2}/CNTs, obtained by wetness impregnation of the TiO{sub 2}/CNTs base material with a solution of platinum acetylacetonate) have been recently used as active layer in hydrogen sensing devices at near room temperature, obtaining quite different responsiveness. The microstructure of these hybrid materials is here systematically investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy at 2.41 eV. The results show that regardless of the nominal C/Ti molar ratio (3.6 or 17.0) only the anatase phase of titania is formed. Theoretical calculations demonstrate that phonon confinement is fully responsible for the large blue-shift ({approx}10 cm{sup -1}) and broadening ({approx}20 cm{sup -1}) of the lowest-frequency Raman mode with respect to bulk anatase. The average size (4.3-5.0 nm) of TiO{sub 2} crystallites, resulting from Raman spectra fitting, is in excellent agreement with those inferred from transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. - Graphical Abstract: Micro-Raman analysis of TiO{sub 2}/CNTs and Pt/TiO{sub 2}/CNTs hybrids for H{sub 2} sensing applications evidences that regardless of C/Ti molar ratio titania crystallizes in the anatase phase. The very small size of TiO{sub 2} crystallites (4.3-5.0 nm) is responsible for the observed phonon confinement effects.

  2. On-line carbon nanotube-based biosensors in microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, YeoHeung; Dong, Zhongyun; Shanov, Vesselin N.; Bange, Adam; Heineman, William R.; Halsall, H. Brian; Conforti, Laura; Bhattacharya, Amit; Schulz, Mark J.

    2007-04-01

    Highly aligned double wall carbon nanotubes (DWCNT) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were synthesized in the shape of towers and embedded into microchannels for use as a biosensor. The towers were fabricated on a substrate patterned in 1mm x 1mm blocks with 1 mm spacing between the blocks. Chemical vapor deposition was used for the nanotube synthesis process. Patterned towers up to 8 mm high were grown and easily peeled off the silicon substrate. A nanotube electrode was then soldered on printed circuit boards and epoxy was cast into the tower under pressure. After curing, the top of the tower was polished. RF-plasma at 13.56 MHz was used to enhance the electrocatalytic effect of the nanotube electrode by removing excess epoxy and exposing the ends of the nanotubes. Au particles were electrodeposited on the plasma treated tower electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) for the reduction of 6 mM K 3Fe(CN)6 (in a 1.0 M KNO3 supporting electrolyte) was performed to examine the redox behavior of the nanotube tower electrode. Next, a master mold for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was patterned using SU-8 and then a Pt disk electrode was embedded into the PDMS. The final fluidic channel between the epoxy-nanotube electrode and PDMS was sealed using a UV-curing adhesive. Impedance between the Pt and nanotube electrodes was monitored while flowing different solutions and LNCaP prostate cells. The impedance changed in proportion to the concentration of cells in the solution. A needle-type composite microelectrode was then fabricated by injecting a carbon nanotube-epoxy solution into a pulled-glass tube. CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) to detect dopamine were showed a highly linear response with a sensitivity 100 nA/mM. Based on the impedance results using the flowing cells and the CV and DPV results, carbon nanotube microelectrodes are a promising candidate for cancer cell detection and neurotransmitter detection.

  3. Breakdown voltage reduction by field emission in multi-walled carbon nanotubes based ionization gas sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Saheed, M. Shuaib M.; Muti Mohamed, Norani; Arif Burhanudin, Zainal

    2014-03-24

    Ionization gas sensors using vertically aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are demonstrated. The sharp tips of the nanotubes generate large non-uniform electric fields at relatively low applied voltage. The enhancement of the electric field results in field emission of electrons that dominates the breakdown mechanism in gas sensor with gap spacing below 14 μm. More than 90% reduction in breakdown voltage is observed for sensors with MWCNT and 7 μm gap spacing. Transition of breakdown mechanism, dominated by avalanche electrons to field emission electrons, as decreasing gap spacing is also observed and discussed.

  4. Vibration analysis of carbon nanotube-based resonator using nonlocal elasticity theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsuki, Toshiaki; Matsuyama, Nobuhiro; Ni, Qing-Qing

    2015-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are nanomaterials with extremely favorable mass sensor properties. In this paper, we propose that CNTs under clamped boundary condition and an axial tensile load are considered as CNT-based resonators. Moreover, the resonant frequencies and frequency shifts of the CNTs with attached nanomass are investigated based on vibration analysis, which used the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam model. Using the present methods, we analyze and discuss the effects of the aspect ratio, the concentrated mass and the axial force on the resonant frequency of the CNTs. The results indicate that the CNT beam under the axial tensile loads could provide higher sensitivity as nanomechanical mass sensor.

  5. Measurement of Contractile Activity in Small Animal's Digestive Organ by Carbon Nanotube-Based Force Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Takamichi; Takeda, Naoki; Tsutsui, Chihiro; Koike, Kanako; Shimatani, Yuichi; Sakai, Takafumi; Akiya, Masahiro; Taguchi, Akira

    2011-03-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT)-based force transducer designed to be embedded in the body of a live animal was fabricated and implanted into the stomach of a rat omit to measure contractile movement. The transducer comprised dispersed poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted multiwalled CNTs applied to a comb-like Au-electrode formed on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) sheet. The implanted rat was injected with acetylcholine to induce muscular contractions and changes in the resistance of the transducer were measured. Such changes arise owing to strain in the CNT network upon distortion. The measured resistance change was found to be proportional to the concentration of injected acetylcholine.

  6. Carbon nanotube-based multi electrode arrays for neuronal interfacing: progress and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Bareket-Keren, Lilach; Hanein, Yael

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) coatings have been demonstrated over the past several years as a promising material for neuronal interfacing applications. In particular, in the realm of neuronal implants, CNTs have major advantages owing to their unique mechanical and electrical properties. Here we review recent investigations utilizing CNTs in neuro-interfacing applications. Cell adhesion, neuronal engineering and multi electrode recordings with CNTs are described. We also highlight prospective advances in this field, in particular, progress toward flexible, bio-compatible CNT-based technology. PMID:23316141

  7. Development of novel graphene and carbon nanotubes based multifunctional polymer matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, S. N.; Khan, M. O.; Naguib, H. E.

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates strategies to alter the nano-and-microstructures of carbon-based filler-reinforced polymer matrix composites (PMCs). The matrix materials being studied in this work include polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) and liquid crystal polymer (LCP). A set of experiments were performed to investigate various strategies (i) to fabricate a morphological structure within the polymer matrix; (ii) to develop a thermally and electrically conductive network of nano-scaled fillers; and (iii) to produce a thermally conductive but electrically insulative network of hybrid fillers of nano-and-micro scales. The PMCs' structure-to-property relationships, including electrical and thermal properties, were revealed. In particular, the composites' effective thermal conductivities could be increased by as much as 10-folded over the neat polymers. By structuring the embedded electrically conductive pathways in the PMCs, their electrical conductivities could be tailored to levels that ranged from those of electrical insulators to those of semi-conductors. These multifunctional carbon-based filler-reinforced PMCs are envisioned to be potential solutions of various engineering problems. For example, light-weight thermally conductive PMCs with tailored electrical conductivities can serve as a new family of materials for electronic packaging or heat management applications.

  8. Development of novel graphene and carbon nanotubes based multifunctional polymer matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, S. N. Khan, M. O. Naguib, H. E.

    2014-05-15

    This paper investigates strategies to alter the nano-and-microstructures of carbon-based filler-reinforced polymer matrix composites (PMCs). The matrix materials being studied in this work include polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) and liquid crystal polymer (LCP). A set of experiments were performed to investigate various strategies (i) to fabricate a morphological structure within the polymer matrix; (ii) to develop a thermally and electrically conductive network of nano-scaled fillers; and (iii) to produce a thermally conductive but electrically insulative network of hybrid fillers of nano-and-micro scales. The PMCs' structure-to-property relationships, including electrical and thermal properties, were revealed. In particular, the composites' effective thermal conductivities could be increased by as much as 10-folded over the neat polymers. By structuring the embedded electrically conductive pathways in the PMCs, their electrical conductivities could be tailored to levels that ranged from those of electrical insulators to those of semi-conductors. These multifunctional carbon-based filler-reinforced PMCs are envisioned to be potential solutions of various engineering problems. For example, light-weight thermally conductive PMCs with tailored electrical conductivities can serve as a new family of materials for electronic packaging or heat management applications.

  9. Carbon nanoribbons and nanotubes based on δ-graphyne: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hongcai; Lu, Shuangwen; Li, Feng; Qu, Yuanyuan

    2016-04-01

    As a stable allotropy of two-dimensional (2D) carbon materials, δ-graphyne has been predicted to be superior to graphene in many aspects. Using first-principles calculations, we investigated the electronic properties of carbon nanoribbons (CNRs) and nanotubes (CNTs) formed by δ-graphyne. It is found that the electronic band structures of CNRs depend on the edge structure and the ribbon width. The CNRs with zigzag edges (Z-CNRs) have spin-polarized edge states with ferromagnetic (FM) ordering along each edge and anti-ferromagnetic (AFM) ordering between two edges. The CNRs with armchair edges (A-CNRs), however, are semiconductors with the band gap oscillating with the ribbon width. For the CNTs built by rolling up δ-graphyne with different chirality, the electronic properties are closely related to the chirality of the CNTs. Armchair (n, n) CNTs are metallic while zigzag (n, 0) CNTs are semiconducting or metallic. These interesting properties are quite crucial for applications in δ-graphyne-based nanoscale devices.

  10. Carbon nanotube-based electrochemical biosensing platforms: fundamentals, applications, and future possibilities.

    PubMed

    Luong, John H T; Male, Keith B; Hrapovic, Sabahudin

    2007-01-01

    Biosensors can be considered as a most plausible and exciting application area for nanobiotechnology. The recent bloom of nanofabrication technology and biofunctionalization methods of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has stimulated significant research interest to develop CNT-based biosensors for monitoring biorecognition events and biocatalytic processes. The unique properties of CNTs, rolled-up sheets of carbon atoms with a diameter less than 1 nm, offer excellent prospects for interfacing biological recognition events with electronic signal transduction. CNT-based biosensors could be developed to sense only a few or even a single molecule of a chemical or biological agent. Both hydrogen peroxide and NADH, two by-products of over 300 oxidoreductases, are efficiently oxidized by CNT-modified electrodes at significantly lower potentials with minimal surface fouling. This appealing feature enables the development of useful biosensors for diversified applications. Aligned CNT "forests" can act as molecular wires to allow efficient electron transfer between the detecting electrode and the redox centers of enzymes to fabricate reagentless biosensors. Electrochemical sensing for DNA can greatly benefit from the use of CNT based platforms since guanine, one of the four bases, can be detected with significantly enhanced sensitivity. CNTs fluoresce, or emit light after absorbing light, in the near infrared region and retain their ability to fluoresce over time. This feature will allow CNT-based sensors to transmit information from inside the body. The combination of micro/nanofabrication and chemical functionalization, particularly nanoelectrode assembly interfaced with biomolecules, is expected to pave the way to fabricate improved biosensors for proteins, chemicals, and pathogens. However, several technical challenges need to be overcome to tightly integrate CNT-based platforms with sampling, fluidic handling, separation, and other detection principles. The biosensing platform

  11. Carbon nanotube-based electrochemical biosensing platforms: fundamentals, applications, and future possibilities.

    PubMed

    Luong, John H T; Male, Keith B; Hrapovic, Sabahudin

    2007-01-01

    Biosensors can be considered as a most plausible and exciting application area for nanobiotechnology. The recent bloom of nanofabrication technology and biofunctionalization methods of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has stimulated significant research interest to develop CNT-based biosensors for monitoring biorecognition events and biocatalytic processes. The unique properties of CNTs, rolled-up sheets of carbon atoms with a diameter less than 1 nm, offer excellent prospects for interfacing biological recognition events with electronic signal transduction. CNT-based biosensors could be developed to sense only a few or even a single molecule of a chemical or biological agent. Both hydrogen peroxide and NADH, two by-products of over 300 oxidoreductases, are efficiently oxidized by CNT-modified electrodes at significantly lower potentials with minimal surface fouling. This appealing feature enables the development of useful biosensors for diversified applications. Aligned CNT "forests" can act as molecular wires to allow efficient electron transfer between the detecting electrode and the redox centers of enzymes to fabricate reagentless biosensors. Electrochemical sensing for DNA can greatly benefit from the use of CNT based platforms since guanine, one of the four bases, can be detected with significantly enhanced sensitivity. CNTs fluoresce, or emit light after absorbing light, in the near infrared region and retain their ability to fluoresce over time. This feature will allow CNT-based sensors to transmit information from inside the body. The combination of micro/nanofabrication and chemical functionalization, particularly nanoelectrode assembly interfaced with biomolecules, is expected to pave the way to fabricate improved biosensors for proteins, chemicals, and pathogens. However, several technical challenges need to be overcome to tightly integrate CNT-based platforms with sampling, fluidic handling, separation, and other detection principles. The biosensing platform

  12. Carbon nanotube based field-effect transistors: merits and fundamental limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Lian-Mao

    The development of even more powerful computer systems are made possible by scaling of CMOS transistors, and this simple process has afforded continuous improvement in both the device switch time and integration density. However, CMOS scaling has become very difficult at the 22-nm node and unlikely to be rewarding beyond the 14-nm node. Among other new approaches, carbon nanotube devices are emerging as the most promising technique with unique properties that are ideal for nanoelectronics. In particular, perfect n-type and p-type contacts are now available for controlled injection of electrons into the conduction band and holes into the valence band of the CNT, paving the way for a doping free fabrication of CNT based ballistic CMOS, high performance optoelectronic devices, and integrated circuits. These results will be compared with data projected for Si CMOS toward the end of the roadmap at 2026, as well as with those thermodynamic and quantum limits.

  13. Effect of nitrogen doping on the electromagnetic properties of carbon nanotube-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanygin, M. A.; Sedelnikova, O. V.; Asanov, I. P.; Bulusheva, L. G.; Okotrub, A. V.; Kuzhir, P. P.; Plyushch, A. O.; Maksimenko, S. A.; Lapko, K. N.; Sokol, A. A.; Ivashkevich, O. A.; Lambin, Ph.

    2013-04-01

    Nitrogen-doped and pure carbon nanotube (CNT) based composites were fabricated for investigating their dielectric properties in static regime as well as electromagnetic response properties in microwave frequency range (Ka-band). Two classes of host matrix—polystyrene and phosphate unfired ceramics—have been used for composites fabrication. The study reveals miscellaneous effect of nitrogen doping on the dielectric permittivity, dc conductivity and electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency of CNT-based composites, produced with both polymer and ceramic matrices. The high-frequency polarizability, estimated for different-length CNTs, and static polarizability, calculated for nitrogen-containing CNT models using a quantum-chemical approach, show that this effect results from a decrease of the nanotube defect-free-length and deterioration of the polarizability with incorporation of nitrogen in pyridinic form.

  14. Carbon nanotube based microfocus field emission x-ray source for microcomputed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Zejian; Yang Guang; Lee, Yueh Z.; Bordelon, David; Lu Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2006-09-04

    Microcomputed tomography is now widely used for in vivo small animal imaging for cancer studies. Achieving high imaging quality of live objects requires the x-ray source to have both high spatial and temporal resolutions. Preliminary studies have shown that carbon nanotube (CNT) based field emission x-ray source has significant intrinsic advantages over the conventional thermionic x-ray tube including better temporal resolution and programmability. Here we report the design and characterization of a CNT based field emission x-ray source that also affords a high spatial resolution. The device uses modified asymmetric Einzel lenses for electron focusing and an elliptical shaped CNT cathode patterned by photolithography. Stable and small isotropic x-ray focal spot sizes were obtained.

  15. Fabrication of single-walled carbon-nanotube-based pressure sensors.

    PubMed

    Stampfer, C; Helbling, T; Obergfell, D; Schöberle, B; Tripp, M K; Jungen, A; Roth, S; Bright, V M; Hierold, C

    2006-02-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of bulk micromachined pressure sensors based on individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as the active electromechanical transducer elements. The electromechanical sensor device consists of an individual electrically connected SWNT adsorbed on top of a 100-nm-thick atomic layer deposited (ALD) circular alumina (Al(2)O(3)) membrane with a radius in the range of 50-100 microm. A white light interferometer (WLI) was used to measure the deflection of the membrane due to differential pressure, and the mechanical properties of the device were characterized by bulge testing. Finally, we performed the first electromechanical measurements on strained metallic SWNTs adhering to a membrane and found a piezoresistive gauge factor of approximately 210 for metallic SWNTs.

  16. Carbon-Nanotube-Based Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitor Technologies for Spaceflight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arepalli, S.; Fireman, H.; Huffman, C.; Maloney, P.; Nikolaev, P.; Yowell, L.; Kim, K.; Kohl, P. A.; Higgins, C. D.; Turano, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemical double-layer capacitors, or supercapacitors, have tremendous potential as high-power energy sources for use in low-weight hybrid systems for space exploration. Electrodes based on single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) offer exceptional power and energy performance due to the high surface area, high conductivity, and the ability to functionalize the SWCNTs to optimize capacitor properties. This paper will report on the preparation of electrochemical capacitors incorporating SWCNT electrodes and their performance compared with existing commercial technology. Preliminary results indicate that substantial increases in power and energy density are possible. The effects of nanotube growth and processing methods on electrochemical capacitor performance is also presented. The compatibility of different SWCNTs and electrolytes was studied by varying the type of electrolyte ions that accumulate on the high-surface-area electrodes.

  17. Fast, Ultrasensitive Detection of Reactive Oxygen Species Using a Carbon Nanotube Based-Electrocatalytic Intracellular Sensor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report a highly sensitive electrocatalytic sensor-cell construct that can electrochemically communicate with the internal environment of immune cells (e.g., macrophages) via the selective monitoring of a particular reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxide. The sensor, which is based on vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with an osmium electrocatalyst, enabled the unprecedented detection of a local intracellular “pulse” of ROS on a short second time scale in response to bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide-LPS) stimulation. Our studies have shown that this initial pulse of ROS is dependent on NADPH oxidase (NOX) and toll like receptor 4 (TLR4). The results suggest that bacteria can induce a rapid intracellular pulse of ROS in macrophages that initiates the classical innate immune response of these cells to infection. PMID:26438964

  18. Amperometric Low-Potential Detection of Malic Acid Using Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Based Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Arvinte, Adina; Rotariu, Lucian; Bala, Camelia

    2008-01-01

    The electrocatalytical property of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) modified electrode toward NADH detection was explored by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry techniques. The experimental results show that SWNT decrease the overvoltage required for oxidation of NADH (to +300 mV vs. Ag/AgCl) and this property make them suitable for dehydrogenases based biosensors. The behavior of the SWNT modified biosensor for L-malic acid was studied as an example for dehydrogenases biosensor. The amperometric measurements indicate that malate dehydrogenase (MDH) can be strongly adsorbed on the surface of the SWNT-modified electrode to form an approximate monolayer film. Enzyme immobilization in Nafion membrane can increase the biosensor stability. A linear calibration curve was obtained for L-malic acid concentrations between 0.2 and 1mM.

  19. Nanomanipulation and Lithography for Carbon Nanotube Based Nondestructive Evaluation Sensor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Smits, Jan; Namkung, Min; Ingram, JoAnne; Watkins, Neal; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Louie, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) offer great potential for advanced sensor development due to the unique electronic transport properties of the material. However, a significant obstacle to the realization of practical CNT devices is the formation of reliable and reproducible CNT to metallic contacts. In this work, scanning probe techniques are explored for both fabrication of metallic junctions and positioning of singlewalled CNTs across these junctions. The use of a haptic force feedback interface to a scanning probe microscope is used to enable movement of nanotubes over micron length scales with nanometer precision. In this case, imaging of the surface is performed with light or intermittent contact to the surface. Increased tip-to-sample interaction forces are then applied to either create junctions or position CNTs. The effect of functionalization of substrate surfaces on the movement and tribology of the materials is also studied. The application of these techniques to the fabrication of CNT-based sensors for nondestructive evaluation applications is discussed.

  20. Electrical and mechanical characterisation of single wall carbon nanotubes based composites for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Whulanza, Yudan; Battini, Elena; Vannozzi, Lorenzo; Vomero, Maria; Ahluwalia, Arti; Vozzi, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the realisation of conductive matrices for application to tissue engineering research. We used poly(L-lactide (PLLA)), poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) as polymer matrix, because they are biocompatible and biodegradable. The conductive property was integrated to them by adding single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) into the polymer matrix. Several SWNTs concentrations were introduced aiming to understand how they influence and modulate mechanical properties, impedance features and electric percolation threshold of polymer matrix. It was observed that a concentration of 0.3% was able to transform insulating matrix into conductive one. Furthermore, a conductive model of the SWNT/polymer was developed by applying power law of percolation threshold.

  1. Characteristics of carbon nanotubes based micro-bubble generator for thermal jet printing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenli; Li, Yupeng; Sun, Weijun; Wang, Yunbo; Zhu, Chao

    2011-12-01

    We propose a conceptional thermal printhead with dual microbubble generators mounted parallel in each nozzle chamber, where multiwalled carbon nanotubes are adopted as heating elements with much higher energy efficiency than traditional approaches using noble metals or polysilicon. Tailing effect of droplet can be excluded by appropriate control of grouped bubble generations. Characteristics of the corresponding micro-fabricated microbubble generators were comprehensively studied before the formation of printhead. Electrical properties of the microheaters on glass substrate in air and performance of bubble generation underwater focusing on the relationships between input power, device resistance and bubble behavior were probed. Proof-of-concept bubble generations grouped to eliminate the tailing effect of droplet were performed indicating precise pattern with high resolution could be realized by this kind of printhead. Experimental results revealed guidance to the geometric design of the printhead as well as its fabrication margin and the electrical control of the microbubble generators.

  2. Carbon nanotube-based electromagnetic band gap resonator for CH4 gas detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cismaru, Alina; Aldrigo, Martino; Radoi, Antonio; Dragoman, Mircea

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained in the microwave frequency range using an electromagnetic band gap (EMBG) resonator covered with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and dedicated to CH4 gas detection. The multi-walled CNTs layer is decorated with gold nanoislands (with sizes between 2 nm and 20 nm) and deposited over the EMBG resonator. The microwave measurements of the CNT-based EMBG resonator in air (no gas) and kept for 60 min inside the chamber filled with CH4 demonstrate a shift in the resonance frequency of about 139 MHz and a phase shift of about 9.63°. A very good sensitivity of about 4.58% was obtained from scattering parameters measurements. A new device for CH4 detection was then fabricated and tested.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotube-based composites and their applications for water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awadh, Tawfik Abdo Saleh

    This dissertation describes the synthesis of carbon nanotube/ metal oxides composites including alumina, iron oxide, manganese oxide, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide using sol gel methods and thermal process. The conditions of the reactions were proper optimized. The methods have the additional advantage of reducing cost by minimizing time, amount of reagent consumed, man power required, and simple equipments used, and improved the ability to control the process. Different techniques, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) conducted for the characterization of the synthesized materials. The properties and activities of the synthesized materials have been tested for removal or degradation of various pollutants, such as lead, arsenic, chromium, cyanide

  4. Electrophoretically deposited multiwalled carbon nanotube based amperometric genosensor for E.coli detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Hema; Solanki, Shipra; Sumana, Gajjala

    2016-04-01

    This work reports on a sensitive and selective genosensor fabrication method for Escherichia coli (E.coli) detection. The functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) synthesized via chemical vapour deposition have been deposited electrophoretically onto indium tin oxide coated glass surface and have been utilized as matrices for the covalent immobilization of E.coli specific probe oligonucleotide that was identified from the 16s rRNA coding region of the E.coli genome. This fabricated functionalized MWCNT based platform sought to provide improved fundamental characteristics to electrode interface in terms of electro-active surface area and diffusion coefficient. Electrochemical cyclic voltammetry revealed that this genosensor exhibits a linear response to complementary DNA in the concentration range of 10-7 to 10-12 M with a detection limit of 1×10-12 M.

  5. Viscoelastic wave propagation in the viscoelastic single walled carbon nanotubes based on nonlocal strain gradient theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yugang; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Dong

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the viscoelastic wave propagation in an embedded viscoelastic single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) is studied based on the nonlocal strain gradient theory. The characteristic equation for the viscoelastic wave in SWCNTs is derived. The emphasis is placed on the influence of the tube diameter on the viscoelastic wave dispersion. A blocking diameter is observed, above which the wave could not propagate in SWCNTs. The results show that the blocking diameter is greatly dependent on the damping coefficient, the nonlocal and the strain gradient length scale parameters, as well as the Winkler modulus of the surrounding elastic medium. These findings may provide a prospective application of SWCNTs in nanodevices and nanocomposites.

  6. Fast, Ultrasensitive Detection of Reactive Oxygen Species Using a Carbon Nanotube Based-Electrocatalytic Intracellular Sensor.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Frankie J; Hicks, Jacqueline; Dodd, Nicholas; Abate, Wondwossen; Garrett, David J; Yip, Nga; Fejer, Gyorgy; Downard, Alison J; Baronian, Kim H R; Jackson, Simon K; Mendes, Paula M

    2015-10-28

    Herein, we report a highly sensitive electrocatalytic sensor-cell construct that can electrochemically communicate with the internal environment of immune cells (e.g., macrophages) via the selective monitoring of a particular reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxide. The sensor, which is based on vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with an osmium electrocatalyst, enabled the unprecedented detection of a local intracellular "pulse" of ROS on a short second time scale in response to bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide-LPS) stimulation. Our studies have shown that this initial pulse of ROS is dependent on NADPH oxidase (NOX) and toll like receptor 4 (TLR4). The results suggest that bacteria can induce a rapid intracellular pulse of ROS in macrophages that initiates the classical innate immune response of these cells to infection. PMID:26438964

  7. Creation of carbon nanotube based bioSensors through dielectrophoretic assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Nilan S.; Kim, Steve; Annam, Kaushik; Bane, Danielle; Subramanyam, Guru

    2015-08-01

    Due to their excellent electrical, optical, and mechanical properties, nanosized single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have attracted significant attention as a transducing element in nano-bio sensor research. Controlled assembly, device fabrication, and bio-functionalization of the SWNTs are crucial in creating the sensors. In this study, working biosensor platforms were created using dielectrophoretic assembly of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as a bridge between two gold electrodes. SWNTs in a commercial SDS surfactant solution were dispensed in the gap between the two gold electrodes, followed by applying an ac voltage across the two electrodes. The dielectrophoresis aligns the CNTs and forms a bridge between the two electrodes. A copious washing and a subsequent annealing of the devices at 200 °C remove the surfactants and create an excellent semiconducting (p-type) bridge between the two electrodes. A liquid gated field effect transistor (LGFET) was built using DI water as the gate dielectric and the SWNT bridge as the channel. Negative gate voltages of the FET increased the drain current and applying a positive gate voltage of +0.5V depleted the channel of charges and turned the device off. The biosensor was verified using both the two terminal and three terminal devices. Genomic salmon DNA dissolved in DI water was applied on the SWNT bridge in both type of devices. In the two terminal device, the conductance of the bridge dropped by 65x after the binding of the DNA. In the LGFET, the transconductance of the device decreased 2X after the binding of the DNA. The binding of the DNA also suppressed hysteresis in the Drain Current vs Gate Voltage characteristics of the LGFET.

  8. Continuous Carbon Nanotube-Based Fibers and Films for Applications Requiring Enhanced Heat Dissipation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Fan, Zeng; Mikhalchan, Anastasiia; Tran, Thang Q; Jewell, Daniel; Duong, Hai M; Marconnet, Amy M

    2016-07-13

    The production of continuous carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers and films has paved the way to leverage the superior properties of individual carbon nanotubes for novel macroscale applications such as electronic cables and multifunctional composites. In this manuscript, we synthesize fibers and films from CNT aerogels that are continuously grown by floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FCCVD) and measure thermal conductivity and natural convective heat transfer coefficient from the fiber and film. To probe the mechanisms of heat transfer, we develop a new, robust, steady-state thermal characterization technique that enables measurement of the intrinsic fiber thermal conductivity and the convective heat transfer coefficient from the fiber to the surrounding air. The thermal conductivity of the as-prepared fiber ranges from 4.7 ± 0.3 to 28.0 ± 2.4 W m(-1) K(-1) and depends on fiber volume fraction and diameter. A simple nitric acid treatment increases the thermal conductivity by as much as a factor of ∼3 for the fibers and ∼6.7 for the thin films. These acid-treated CNT materials demonstrate specific thermal conductivities significantly higher than common metals with the same absolute thermal conductivity, which means they are comparatively lightweight, thermally conductive fibers and films. Beyond thermal conductivity, the acid treatment enhances electrical conductivity by a factor of ∼2.3. Further, the measured convective heat transfer coefficients range from 25 to 200 W m(-2) K(-1) for all fibers, which is higher than expected for macroscale materials and demonstrates the impact of the nanoscale CNT features on convective heat losses from the fibers. The measured thermal and electrical performance demonstrates the promise for using these fibers and films in macroscale applications requiring effective heat dissipation. PMID:27322344

  9. Carbon Nanotube Based Nanotechnology for NASA Mission Needs and Societal Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing; Meyyappan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) exhibit extraordinary mechanical properties and unique electronic properties and therefore, have received much attention for more than a decade now for a variety of applications ranging from nanoelectronics, composites to meeting needs in energy, environmental and other sectors. In this talk, we focus on some near term potential of CNT applications for both NASA and other Agency/societal needs. The most promising and successful application to date is a nano chem sensor at TRL 6 that uses a 16-256 sensor array in the construction of an electronic nose. Pristine, doped, functionalized and metal-loaded SWCNTs are used as conducting materials to provide chemical variation across the individual elements of the sensor array. This miniaturized sensor has been incorporated in an iPhone for homeland security applications. Gases and vapors relevant to leak detection in crew vehicles, biomedical, mining, chemical threats, industrial spills and others have been demonstrated. SWCNTs also respond to radiation exposure via a change in conductivity and therefore, a similar strategy is being pursued to construct a radiation nose to identify radiation sources (gamma, protons, neutrons, X-ray, etc.) with their energy levels. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown using plasma enhanced CVD typically are vertical, individual, freestanding structures and therefore, are ideal for construction of nanoelectrodes. A nanoelectrode array (NEA) can be the basis for an affinity-based biosensor to meet the needs in applications such as lab-on-a-chip, environmental monitoring, cancer diagnostics, biothreat monitoring, water and food safety and others. A couple of demonstrations including detection of e-coli and ricin will be discussed. The NEA is also useful for implantation in the brain for deep brain stimulation and neuroengineering applications. Miniaturization of payload such as science instrumentation and power sources is critical to reduce launch costs. High current density

  10. Modeling of Energy Transfer for Carbon Nanotube-Based Precision Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Basil T.; Pinar Menguc, M.; Vallance, R. Ryan; Rao, Apparao M.

    2003-03-01

    INTRODUCTION Possible use of electron emission from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for precision machining has been realized only recently. It is hypothesized that by coupling CNT electron emission with radiation transfer mechanism nano-scaled machining can be achieved. A laser, for example, can be used to raise the temperature of the workpiece near its melting point, and a carbon nanotube is then used to transfer additional energy required to the workpiece to complete the removal of minute amount of materials for nanomachining process. To investigate this hypothesis, a detailed numerical/analytical study is conducted. Electron transfer is modeled using a Monte Carlo approach, and a detailed radiation transfer model, including Fresnel reflections is adapted. Based on the numerical simulations we found that a power of one-tenth of a watt is required from a CNT alone to raise the temperature of gold beyond its melting point. However, using a localized heating with a laser, the required power can be reduced by roughly more than a half. This paper outlines the details of the numerical simulation and establishes a set of design guidelines for future nanomachining modalities. We are interested in nanomachining using the CNTs. Our objective is to determine if we can effectively remove tens of atoms from the workpiece by electron transfer from a single CNT and proper laser heating from either side of the workpiece. To reach our goal, energy transfer from a single CNT may not be sufficient. One way to overcome this setback is to preheat the workpiece to a certain temperature through a bulk heating, and using a subsequent localized heating by the laser beam to further increase the temperature of a specified location. Thus only a minimum amount of energy is required from the nanotube to process the material, i.e. to remove tens of atoms. Due to the complicated interactions between propagating electrons and the solid material, obtaining a physically realistic theoretical analysis

  11. Directed assembly techniques for nano-manufacturing of scalable single walled carbon nanotube based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makaram, Prashanth

    Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) are being considered building blocks for next generation electronics due to their unique electrical, mechanical and thermal properties. A number of SWNT based devices including scanning probes, field emitters, field effect transistors, biological and chemical sensors, and memory devices have been demonstrated. Despite successful demonstration of these single devices, the success of SWNT based nanoelectronics is hampered due to the lack of a successful nano-manufacturing method. Precise alignment and placement of SWNTs is necessary for successful integration of SWNTs into nanoelectronics. The work described in this thesis is focused on developing electric field assisted assembly techniques for precise placement and controlled orientation of SWNTs. In a first set of experiments we evaluate the use of micro/nano finger shaped metal electrodes to assemble SWNTs. Eventhough this assembly technique help in understanding the electrophoretic behavior of SWNTs, problems related with orientation, assembly at nanoscale and electrode degradation demanded evaluating alternative techniques. Nanotemplates that use trenches made in PMMA on a conductive substrate are utilized for the directed, controlled assembly of SWNTs This technique uses a combination of electrophoretic forces and fluidic forces to assemble and align the SWNTs. We were able to assemble SWNTs in trenches that are as small as 80 nm wide and 100,000 nm long over a 2.25 cm2 area in 30-90 seconds. Based on the experimental results and analysis a model is proposed to explain the assembly and alignment mechanism of SWNT s. The technique has been utilized to fabricated interconnects and field effect transistors to demonstrate the feasibility to make devices. Finally we introduce a novel room temperature assembly technique for fabricating a three dimensional single walled carbon nanotube platform. A top down lithographic approach is used to fabricate the platform while a bottom

  12. Carbon nanotube-based nanocarrier loaded with ribavirin against grass carp reovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2015-06-01

    Infectious diseases of viral origin cause major aquatic production losses in different parts of the world. Because of formidable barriers for gastrointestinal tract, skin and cell, large amounts of antiviral drugs have limited therapeutic effect. In the current study, functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were selected as a drug carrier to carry antiviral drug for the treatment of viral diseases on fish. The results show that increasing antiviral drug (ribavirin) intake was observed by SWCNTs carrier and therapeutic dosage to kill grass carp reovirus is significantly reduced. At 12d post infection, survival rate and infection rate were 29.7% and 50.4% for naked ribavirin treatment group exposed to the highest concentration (20 mg/L); however, survival rate of 96.6% and infection rate of 9.4% were observed in 5 mg/L ribavirin-SWCNTs treatment group. In addition, the drug detention time in different organs and tissues (blood, gill, liver, muscle, kidney and intestine) was also significantly extended (about 72 h) compared with the same dosage in naked ribavirin treatment group. Moreover, the toxicity of functionalized SWCNTs in grass carp can be minimal, and physiological markers (some antioxidant enzymes activities, apoptotic factors activities and their corresponding genes expression) remained within normal ranges following treatment. Our results indicated that drug delivery with functionalized SWCNTs can improve the antiviral effect on grass carp and has a potential application value to control fish viral diseases in aquaculture.

  13. Bundled carbon nanotube-based sensor on paper-based microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Lei, Kin Fong; Yang, Shih-I

    2013-10-01

    Bundled carbon nanotube (CNT)-based sensor has been fabricated on paper substrate for chemical sensing applications. Integration of the sensor and fluidic channel was demonstrated for the potential development of a paper-based microfluidic device. In this work, electrical pH measurement of analyte solution was presented to show the functionality of the device. The device with the functions of fluidic transportation and chemical sensing was fabricated on a single paper. The bundled CNT-based sensor was first formed on a sheet of paper by vacuum filtration process. Hence, the hydrophilic channel across the sensor was defined by the application of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material. Therefore, aqueous solution, e.g., sample, can be passively transported along the channels by wicking through the hydrophilic fibers of paper. The pH value of the solution can be electrically measured by the sensor. Determination of the pH value from 3 to 11 of the solutions was demonstrated by measuring the resistance change of the sensor. Because the proposed device is low cost, simple, flexible, and disposable, it is suitable for the development of the analytical device for the developing countries and harsh environments. Moreover, because CNT has excellent properties and can be functionalized by various molecules, the proposed paper-based microfluidic device has potential to realize more chemical and biological assays on paper with high sensitivity and specificity.

  14. A carbon nanotube based resettable sensor for measuring free chlorine in drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Leo H. H.; Hoque, Enamul; Kruse, Peter; Ravi Selvaganapathy, P.

    2015-02-01

    Free chlorine from dissolved chlorine gas is widely used as a disinfectant for drinking water. The residual chlorine concentration has to be continuously monitored and accurately controlled in a certain range around 0.5-2 mg/l to ensure drinking water safety and quality. However, simple, reliable, and reagent free monitoring devices are currently not available. Here, we present a free chlorine sensor that uses oxidation of a phenyl-capped aniline tetramer (PCAT) to dope single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and to change their resistance. The oxidation of PCAT by chlorine switches the PCAT-SWCNT system into a low resistance (p-doped) state which can be detected by probing it with a small voltage. The change in resistance is found to be proportional to the log-scale concentration of the free chlorine in the sample. The p-doping of the PCAT-SWCNT film then can be electrochemically reversed by polarizing it cathodically. This sensor not only shows good sensing response in the whole concentration range of free chlorine in drinking water but is also able to be electrochemically reset back many times without the use of any reagents. This simple sensor is ideally suited for measuring free chlorine in drinking water continuously.

  15. Fully Automated Field-Deployable Bioaerosol Monitoring System Using Carbon Nanotube-Based Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhyup; Jin, Joon-Hyung; Kim, Hyun Soo; Song, Wonbin; Shin, Su-Kyoung; Yi, Hana; Jang, Dae-Ho; Shin, Sehyun; Lee, Byung Yang

    2016-05-17

    Much progress has been made in the field of automated monitoring systems of airborne pathogens. However, they still lack the robustness and stability necessary for field deployment. Here, we demonstrate a bioaerosol automonitoring instrument (BAMI) specifically designed for the in situ capturing and continuous monitoring of airborne fungal particles. This was possible by developing highly sensitive and selective fungi sensors based on two-channel carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNT-FETs), followed by integration with a bioaerosol sampler, a Peltier cooler for receptor lifetime enhancement, and a pumping assembly for fluidic control. These four main components collectively cooperated with each other to enable the real-time monitoring of fungi. The two-channel CNT-FETs can detect two different fungal species simultaneously. The Peltier cooler effectively lowers the working temperature of the sensor device, resulting in extended sensor lifetime and receptor stability. The system performance was verified in both laboratory conditions and real residential areas. The system response was in accordance with reported fungal species distribution in the environment. Our system is versatile enough that it can be easily modified for the monitoring of other airborne pathogens. We expect that our system will expedite the development of hand-held and portable systems for airborne bioaerosol monitoring. PMID:27070239

  16. Scratch-resistant, highly conductive, and high-strength carbon nanotube-based composite yarns.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Sun, Yinghui; Lin, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Ruifeng; Wang, Jiaping; Fan, Shoushan; Jiang, Kaili

    2010-10-26

    High-strength and conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns are very attractive in many potential applications. However, there is a difficulty when simultaneously enhancing the strength and conductivity of CNT yarns. Adding some polymers into CNT yarns to enhance their strength will decrease their conductivity, while treating them in acid or coating them with metal nanoparticles to enhance their conductivity will reduce their strength. To overcome this difficulty, here we report a method to make high-strength and highly conductive CNT-based composite yarns by using a continuous superaligned CNT (SACNT) yarn as a conductive framework and then inserting polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) into the intertube spaces of the framework through PVA/dimethyl sulphoxide solution to enhance the strength of yarns. The as-produced CNT/PVA composite yarns possess very high tensile strengths up to 2.0 GPa and Young's moduli more than 120 GPa, much higher than those of the CNT/PVA yarns reported. The electric conductivity of as-produced composite yarns is as high as 9.2 × 10(4) S/m, comparable to HNO(3)-treated or Au nanoparticle-coated CNT yarns. These composite yarns are flexible, lightweight, scratch-resistant, very stable in the lab environment, and resistant to extremely humid ambient and as a result can be woven into high-strength and heatable fabrics, showing potential applications in flexible heaters, bullet-proof vests, radiation protection suits, and spacesuits.

  17. Design and evaluation of carbon nanotube based optical power limiting materials.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Salma; Mirza, Shamim; Sarkar, Abhijit; Rayfield, George W

    2010-08-01

    Optical power limiters (OPLs) are "smart materials" that follow passive approaches to provide laser protection. They have the potential for protecting optical sensors and possibly even human eyes from laser-pulse damage. Optical power limiting has been a subject of increasing interest for more than two decades now. The interest is due to the increasingly large number of applications based on lasers that are currently available. Several research groups have been attempting to develop novel OPL materials based on nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophores. As a result, there are a large number of publications and patents on this subject. To date, however, there is not a single OPL material available which, taken individually, can provide ideal and smooth attenuation of an output beam. Therefore, the design and development of radically new types of materials for OPL is urgently required. During the last few years, materials containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have established themselves as some of the best-performing optical limiters; however, such materials are difficult to prepare and have issues with stability. In this review, the origin of OPL as well as the mechanisms of OPL are discussed. Ways to modify CNTs to make them suitable for OPL applications is also discussed.

  18. Aligned carbon nanotube based ultrasonic microtransducers for durability monitoring in civil engineering.

    PubMed

    Lebental, B; Chainais, P; Chenevier, P; Chevalier, N; Delevoye, E; Fabbri, J-M; Nicoletti, S; Renaux, P; Ghis, A

    2011-09-30

    Structural health monitoring of porous materials such as concrete is becoming a major component in our resource-limited economy, as it conditions durable exploitation of existing facilities. Durability in porous materials depends on nanoscale features which need to be monitored in situ with nanometric resolution. To address this problem, we put forward an approach based on the development of a new nanosensor, namely a capacitive micrometric ultrasonic transducer whose vibrating membrane is made of aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Such sensors are meant to be embedded in large numbers within a porous material in order to provide information on its durability by monitoring in situ neighboring individual micropores. In the present paper, we report on the feasibility of the key building block of the proposed sensor: we have fabricated well-aligned, ultra-thin, dense SWNT membranes that show above-nanometer amplitudes of vibration over a large range of frequencies spanning from 100 kHz to 5 MHz.

  19. Design of microencapsulated carbon nanotube-based microspheres and its application in colon targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Peng, Zheng; Liao, Shuangquan; Li, Puwang; Li, Sidong

    2014-03-01

    The present study aims to prepare and evaluate carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based colon-specific microspheres using irinotecan as a model of drug. The synthesis of CNTs-based microspheres including attachment of folate-chitosan conjugate and irinotecan to CNTs via non-covalent interaction, followed by microencapsulation with Eudragit S-100 by an oil-in-oil solvent evaporation technique. The obtained samples were characterized in case of surface morphology, drug loading efficiency and particle size. In vitro drug release behavior was studied in different pH medium and the obtained data were subjected to kinetic equations. It was found that the Eudragit-coated microparticles were spherical with smooth surface, and the particle size varied with the core/coat ratio. In vitro drug release shows that the irinotecan released in a slow and sustained fashion from the CNTs-based carriers without coating with Eudragit. No drug release was observed from Eudragit-coated microspheres when the medium pH below 7, while when the pH reached 7.4, the coating layer of Eudragit began to dissolve and a controlled release of irinotecan was observed. The cell viability test indicates that the drug free FA-CS decorated CNTs had no influence on the cell proliferation rates of HT-29 cells, while the irinotecan-loaded CNTs drug system proved to be the most cytotoxic.

  20. Development of functionalized multi-walled carbon-nanotube-based alginate hydrogels for enabling biomimetic technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joddar, Binata; Garcia, Eduardo; Casas, Atzimba; Stewart, Calvin M.

    2016-08-01

    Alginate is a hydrogel commonly used for cell culture by ionically crosslinking in the presence of divalent Ca2+ ions. However these alginate gels are mechanically unstable, not permitting their use as scaffolds to engineer robust biological bone, breast, cardiac or tumor tissues. This issue can be addressed via encapsulation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) serving as a reinforcing phase while being dispersed in a continuous phase of alginate. We hypothesized that adding functionalized MWCNT to alginate, would yield composite gels with distinctively different mechanical, physical and biological characteristics in comparison to alginate alone. Resultant MWCNT-alginate gels were porous, and showed significantly less degradation after 14 days compared to alginate alone. In vitro cell-studies showed enhanced HeLa cell adhesion and proliferation on the MWCNT-alginate compared to alginate. The extent of cell proliferation was greater when cultured atop 1 and 3 mg/ml MWCNT-alginate; although all MWCNT-alginates lead to enhanced cell cluster formation compared to alginate alone. Among all the MWCNT-alginates, the 1 mg/ml gels showed significantly greater stiffness compared to all other cases. These results provide an important basis for the development of the MWCNT-alginates as novel substrates for cell culture applications, cell therapy and tissue engineering.

  1. Chitosan-modified carbon nanotubes-based platform for low-density lipoprotein detection.

    PubMed

    Ali, Md Azahar; Singh, Nawab; Srivastava, Saurabh; Agrawal, Ved V; John, Renu; Onoda, M; Malhotra, Bansi D

    2014-10-01

    We have fabricated an immunosensor based on carbon nanotubes and chitosan (CNT-CH) composite for detection of low density lipoprotein (LDL) molecules via electrochemical impedance technique. The CNT-CH composite deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass electrode has been used to covalently interact with anti-apolipoprotein B (antibody: AAB) via a co-entrapment method. The biofunctionalization of AAB on carboxylated CNT-CH surface has been confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic and electron microscopic studies. The covalent functionalization of antibody on transducer surface reveals higher stability and reproducibility of the fabricated immunosensor. Electrochemical properties of the AAB/CNT-CH/ITO electrode have been investigated using cyclic voltammetric and impedimetric techniques. The impedimetric response of the AAB/CNT-CH/ITO immunoelectrode shows a high sensitivity of 0.953 Ω/(mg/dL)/cm(2) in a detection range of 0-120 mg/dL and low detection limit of 12.5 mg/dL with a regression coefficient of 0.996. The observed low value of association constant (0.34 M(-1)s(-1)) indicates high affinity of AAB/CNT-CH/ITO immunoelectrode towards LDL molecules. This fabricated immunosensor allows quantitative estimation of LDL concentration with distinguishable variation in the impedance signal.

  2. Development of functionalized multi-walled carbon-nanotube-based alginate hydrogels for enabling biomimetic technologies

    PubMed Central

    Joddar, Binata; Garcia, Eduardo; Casas, Atzimba; Stewart, Calvin M.

    2016-01-01

    Alginate is a hydrogel commonly used for cell culture by ionically crosslinking in the presence of divalent Ca2+ ions. However these alginate gels are mechanically unstable, not permitting their use as scaffolds to engineer robust biological bone, breast, cardiac or tumor tissues. This issue can be addressed via encapsulation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) serving as a reinforcing phase while being dispersed in a continuous phase of alginate. We hypothesized that adding functionalized MWCNT to alginate, would yield composite gels with distinctively different mechanical, physical and biological characteristics in comparison to alginate alone. Resultant MWCNT-alginate gels were porous, and showed significantly less degradation after 14 days compared to alginate alone. In vitro cell-studies showed enhanced HeLa cell adhesion and proliferation on the MWCNT-alginate compared to alginate. The extent of cell proliferation was greater when cultured atop 1 and 3 mg/ml MWCNT-alginate; although all MWCNT-alginates lead to enhanced cell cluster formation compared to alginate alone. Among all the MWCNT-alginates, the 1 mg/ml gels showed significantly greater stiffness compared to all other cases. These results provide an important basis for the development of the MWCNT-alginates as novel substrates for cell culture applications, cell therapy and tissue engineering. PMID:27578567

  3. Development of functionalized multi-walled carbon-nanotube-based alginate hydrogels for enabling biomimetic technologies.

    PubMed

    Joddar, Binata; Garcia, Eduardo; Casas, Atzimba; Stewart, Calvin M

    2016-01-01

    Alginate is a hydrogel commonly used for cell culture by ionically crosslinking in the presence of divalent Ca(2+) ions. However these alginate gels are mechanically unstable, not permitting their use as scaffolds to engineer robust biological bone, breast, cardiac or tumor tissues. This issue can be addressed via encapsulation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) serving as a reinforcing phase while being dispersed in a continuous phase of alginate. We hypothesized that adding functionalized MWCNT to alginate, would yield composite gels with distinctively different mechanical, physical and biological characteristics in comparison to alginate alone. Resultant MWCNT-alginate gels were porous, and showed significantly less degradation after 14 days compared to alginate alone. In vitro cell-studies showed enhanced HeLa cell adhesion and proliferation on the MWCNT-alginate compared to alginate. The extent of cell proliferation was greater when cultured atop 1 and 3 mg/ml MWCNT-alginate; although all MWCNT-alginates lead to enhanced cell cluster formation compared to alginate alone. Among all the MWCNT-alginates, the 1 mg/ml gels showed significantly greater stiffness compared to all other cases. These results provide an important basis for the development of the MWCNT-alginates as novel substrates for cell culture applications, cell therapy and tissue engineering. PMID:27578567

  4. Quantitative Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Polymer Composites.

    PubMed

    Bârsan, Oana A; Hoffmann, Günter G; van der Ven, Leendert G J; de With, Gijsbertus

    2016-08-01

    Conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) is a valuable technique for correlating the electrical properties of a material with its topographic features and for identifying and characterizing conductive pathways in polymer composites. However, aspects such as compatibility between tip material and sample, contact force and area between the tip and the sample, tip degradation and environmental conditions render quantifying the results quite challenging. This study aims at finding the suitable conditions for C-AFM to generate reliable, reproducible, and quantitative current maps that can be used to calculate the resistance in each point of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) network, nonimpregnated as well as impregnated with a polymer. The results obtained emphasize the technique's limitation at the macroscale as the resistance of these highly conductive samples cannot be distinguished from the tip-sample contact resistance. Quantitative C-AFM measurements on thin composite sections of 150-350 nm enable the separation of sample and tip-sample contact resistance, but also indicate that these sections are not representative for the overall SWCNT network. Nevertheless, the technique was successfully used to characterize the local electrical properties of the composite material, such as sample homogeneity and resistance range of individual SWCNT clusters, at the nano- and microscale. PMID:27404764

  5. A carbon nanotube based resettable sensor for measuring free chlorine in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Leo H. H.; Hoque, Enamul; Kruse, Peter; Ravi Selvaganapathy, P.

    2015-02-09

    Free chlorine from dissolved chlorine gas is widely used as a disinfectant for drinking water. The residual chlorine concentration has to be continuously monitored and accurately controlled in a certain range around 0.5–2 mg/l to ensure drinking water safety and quality. However, simple, reliable, and reagent free monitoring devices are currently not available. Here, we present a free chlorine sensor that uses oxidation of a phenyl-capped aniline tetramer (PCAT) to dope single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and to change their resistance. The oxidation of PCAT by chlorine switches the PCAT-SWCNT system into a low resistance (p-doped) state which can be detected by probing it with a small voltage. The change in resistance is found to be proportional to the log-scale concentration of the free chlorine in the sample. The p-doping of the PCAT-SWCNT film then can be electrochemically reversed by polarizing it cathodically. This sensor not only shows good sensing response in the whole concentration range of free chlorine in drinking water but is also able to be electrochemically reset back many times without the use of any reagents. This simple sensor is ideally suited for measuring free chlorine in drinking water continuously.

  6. Processing strategies for smart electroconductive carbon nanotube-based bioceramic bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Mata, D; Oliveira, F J; Ferreira, N M; Araújo, R F; Fernandes, A J S; Lopes, M A; Gomes, P S; Fernandes, M H; Silva, R F

    2014-04-11

    Electroconductive bone grafts have been designed to control bone regeneration. Contrary to polymeric matrices, the translation of the carbon nanotube (CNT) electroconductivity into oxide ceramics is challenging due to the CNT oxidation during sintering. Sintering strategies involving reactive-bed pressureless sintering (RB + P) and hot-pressing (HP) were optimized towards prevention of CNT oxidation in glass/hydroxyapatite (HA) matrices. Both showed CNT retentions up to 80%, even at 1300 °C, yielding an increase of the electroconductivity in ten orders of magnitude relative to the matrix. The RB + P CNT compacts showed higher electroconductivity by ∼170% than the HP ones due to the lower damage to CNTs of the former route. Even so, highly reproducible conductivities with statistical variation below 5% and dense compacts up to 96% were only obtained by HP. The hot-pressed CNT compacts possessed no acute toxicity in a human osteoblastic cell line. A normal cellular adhesion and a marked orientation of the cell growth were observed over the CNT composites, with a proliferation/differentiation relationship favouring osteoblastic functional activity. These sintering strategies offer new insights into the sintering of electroconductive CNT containing bioactive ceramics with unlimited geometries for electrotherapy of the bone tissue. PMID:24622290

  7. Processing strategies for smart electroconductive carbon nanotube-based bioceramic bone grafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mata, D.; Oliveira, F. J.; Ferreira, N. M.; Araújo, R. F.; Fernandes, A. J. S.; Lopes, M. A.; Gomes, P. S.; Fernandes, M. H.; Silva, R. F.

    2014-04-01

    Electroconductive bone grafts have been designed to control bone regeneration. Contrary to polymeric matrices, the translation of the carbon nanotube (CNT) electroconductivity into oxide ceramics is challenging due to the CNT oxidation during sintering. Sintering strategies involving reactive-bed pressureless sintering (RB + P) and hot-pressing (HP) were optimized towards prevention of CNT oxidation in glass/hydroxyapatite (HA) matrices. Both showed CNT retentions up to 80%, even at 1300 °C, yielding an increase of the electroconductivity in ten orders of magnitude relative to the matrix. The RB + P CNT compacts showed higher electroconductivity by ˜170% than the HP ones due to the lower damage to CNTs of the former route. Even so, highly reproducible conductivities with statistical variation below 5% and dense compacts up to 96% were only obtained by HP. The hot-pressed CNT compacts possessed no acute toxicity in a human osteoblastic cell line. A normal cellular adhesion and a marked orientation of the cell growth were observed over the CNT composites, with a proliferation/differentiation relationship favouring osteoblastic functional activity. These sintering strategies offer new insights into the sintering of electroconductive CNT containing bioactive ceramics with unlimited geometries for electrotherapy of the bone tissue.

  8. Sensing human physiological response using wearable carbon nanotube-based fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Long; Loh, Kenneth J.; Koo, Helen S.

    2016-04-01

    Flexible and wearable sensors for human monitoring have received increased attention. Besides detecting motion and physical activity, measuring human vital signals (e.g., respiration rate and body temperature) provide rich data for assessing subjects' physiological or psychological condition. Instead of using conventional, bulky, sensing transducers, the objective of this study was to design and test a wearable, fabric-like sensing system. In particular, multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-latex thin films of different MWCNT concentrations were first fabricated using spray coating. Freestanding MWCNT-latex films were then sandwiched between two layers of flexible fabric using iron-on adhesive to form the wearable sensor. Second, to characterize its strain sensing properties, the fabric sensors were subjected to uniaxial and cyclic tensile load tests, and they exhibited relatively stable electromechanical responses. Finally, the wearable sensors were placed on a human subject for monitoring simple motions and for validating their practical strain sensing performance. Overall, the wearable fabric sensor design exhibited advances such as flexibility, ease of fabrication, light weight, low cost, noninvasiveness, and user comfort.

  9. Morphology of PEDOT:PSS/SWCNT Composites: Insight into Carbon Nanotube Based Organic Thermoelectric Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etampawala, Thusitha; Tehrani, Mehran; Dadmun, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) loaded poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) nanocomposites are promising materials as the active layer in organic thermoelectric devices. Improvements in the thermoelectric performance of these nanocomposites have been hampered by the lack of an understanding of the correlation between thermo-electrical performance and morphology. In this study, the morphology of highly conducting single walled CNT/PEDOT:PSS nanocomposites were probed by small and ultra-small angle neutron scattering (SANS and USANS respectively) as a function of CNT loading (10wt%, 30wt% and 50wt%,), sonication duration to control the CNT dispersion, and presence and absence of ethylene glycol (EG) in the deposition solution of PEDOT:PSS. The morphology of these composites is currently being correlated to their thermo-electric performance. The SANS and USANS profiles were analyzed with the hierarchical Beaucage model. Further, the USANS data were fit to a two ellipsoidal form factor, which is consistent with the analysis of the USANS data by the Beaucage model and SEM results. These results reveal that the sonication duration and presence of EG effectively de-bundle the CNTs and disperse them in the PEDOT:PSS matrix.

  10. Carbon Nanotube-Based Digital Vacuum Electronics and Miniature Instrumentation for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, H.; Toda, R.; Lin, R. H.; Liao, A.; Mojarradi, M.

    2010-01-01

    JPL has developed high performance cold cathodes using arrays of carbon nanotube bundles that produce > 15 A/sq cm at applied fields of 5 to 8 V/micron without any beam focusing. They have exhibited robust operation in poor vacuums of 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -4) Torr- a typically achievable range inside hermetically sealed microcavities. Using these CNT cathodes JPL has developed miniature X-ray tubes capable of delivering sufficient photon flux at acceleration voltages of <20kV to perform definitive mineralogy on planetary surfaces; mass ionizers that offer two orders of magnitude power savings, and S/N ratio better by a factor of five over conventional ionizers. JPL has also developed a new class of programmable logic gates using CNT vacuum electronics potentially for Venus in situ missions and defense applications. These digital vacuum electronic devices are inherently high-temperature tolerant and radiation insensitive. Device design, fabrication and DC switching operation at temperatures up to 700 C are presented in this paper.

  11. Sustaining GHz oscillation of carbon nanotube based oscillators via a MHz frequency excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motevalli, Benyamin; Taherifar, Neda; Zhe Liu, Jefferson

    2016-05-01

    There have been intensive studies to investigate the properties of gigahertz nano-oscillators based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Many of these studies, however, revealed that the unique telescopic translational oscillations in such devices would damp quickly due to various energy dissipation mechanisms. This challenge remains the primary obstacle against its practical applications. Herein, we propose a design concept in which a GHz oscillation could be re-excited by a MHz mechanical motion. This design involves a triple-walled CNT, in which sliding of the longer inner tube at a MHz frequency can re-excite and sustain a GHz oscillation of the shorter middle tube. Our molecular dynamics (MD) simulations prove this design concept at ˜10 nm scale. A mathematical model is developed to explore the feasibility at a larger size scale. As an example, in an oscillatory system with the CNT’s length above 100 nm, the high oscillatory frequency range of 1.8-3.3 GHz could be excited by moving the inner tube at a much lower frequency of 53.4 MHz. This design concept together with the mechanical model could energize the development of GHz nano-oscillators in miniaturized electro-mechanical devices.

  12. Single carbon nanotube-based reversible regulation of biological motor activity.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuichi; Nagata, Mitsunori; Matsutaka, Hiroshi; Okada, Takeru; Sato, Masaaki K; Ishijima, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Because of their small size and high thermal conductivity, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are excellent candidates for exploring heat transfer at the level of individual molecules in biological research. With a view toward examining the thermal regulation of single biomolecules, we here developed single CNTs as a new platform for observing the motile activity of myosin motors. On multiwall CNTs (diameter ∼170 nm; length ∼10 μm) coated with skeletal-muscle myosin, the ATP-driven sliding of single actin filaments was clearly observable. The normal sliding speed was ∼6 μm/s. Locally irradiating one end of the CNT with a red laser (642 nm), without directly irradiating the active myosin motors, accelerated the sliding speed to ∼12 μm/s, indicating the reversible activation of protein function on a single CNT in real time. The temperature along the CNT, which was estimated from the temperature-dependence of the sliding speed, decreased with the distance from the irradiated spot. Using these results with the finite element method, we calculated a first estimation of the thermal conductivity of multiwall CNTs in solution, as 1540 ± 260 (Wm(-1) K(-1)), which is consistent with the value estimated from the width dependency of multiwall CNTs and the length dependency of single-wall CNTs in a vacuum or air. The temporal regulation of local temperature through individual CNTs should be broadly applicable to the selective activation of various biomolecules in vitro and in vivo.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10287 - Infused carbon nanostructures (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Infused carbon nanostructures (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10287 Infused carbon nanostructures (generic). (a) Chemical substance... infused carbon nanostructures (PMN P-11-188) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10287 - Infused carbon nanostructures (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Infused carbon nanostructures (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10287 Infused carbon nanostructures (generic). (a) Chemical substance... infused carbon nanostructures (PMN P-11-188) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10706 - Infused carbon nanostructures (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Infused carbon nanostructures (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10706 Infused carbon nanostructures (generic). (a) Chemical substance... infused carbon nanostructures (PMN P-12-576) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10287 - Infused carbon nanostructures (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Infused carbon nanostructures (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10287 Infused carbon nanostructures (generic). (a) Chemical substance... infused carbon nanostructures (PMN P-11-188) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  17. Field Emission and Nanostructure of Carbon Films

    SciTech Connect

    Merkulov, V.I.; Lowndes, D.H.; Baylor, L.R.

    1999-11-29

    The results of field emission measurements of various forms of carbon films are reported. It is shown that the films nanostructure is a crucial factor determining the field emission properties. In particular, smooth, pulsed-laser deposited amorphous carbon films with both high and low sp3 contents are poor field emitters. This is similar to the results obtained for smooth nanocrystalline, sp2-bonded carbon films. In contrast, carbon films prepared by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HE-CVD) exhibit very good field emission properties, including low emission turn-on fields, high emission site density, and excellent durability. HF-CVD carbon films were found to be predominantly sp2-bonded. However, surface morphology studies show that these films are thoroughly nanostructured, which is believed to be responsible for their promising field emission properties.

  18. Metal-filled carbon nanotube based optical nanoantennas: bubbling, reshaping, and in situ characterization.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zheng; Tao, Xinyong; Cui, Xudong; Fan, Xudong; Zhang, Xiaobin; Dong, Lixin

    2012-09-21

    Controlled fabrication of metal nanospheres on nanotube tips for optical antennas is investigated experimentally. Resembling soap bubble blowing using a straw, the fabrication process is based on nanofluidic mass delivery at the attogram scale using metal-filled carbon nanotubes (m@CNTs). Two methods have been investigated including electron-beam-induced bubbling (EBIB) and electromigration-based bubbling (EMBB). EBIB involves the bombardment of an m@CNT with a high energy electron beam of a transmission electron microscope (TEM), with which the encapsulated metal is melted and flowed out from the nanotube, generating a metallic particle on a nanotube tip. In the case where the encapsulated materials inside the CNT have a higher melting point than what the beam energy can reach, EMBB is an optional process to apply. Experiments show that, under a low bias (2.0-2.5 V), nanoparticles can be formed on the nanotube tips. The final shape and crystallinity of the nanoparticles are determined by the cooling rate. Instant cooling occurs with a relatively large heat sink and causes the instant shaping of the solid deposit, which is typically similar to the shape of the molten state. With a smaller heat sink as a probe, it is possible to keep the deposit in a molten state. Instant cooling by separating the deposit from the probe can result in a perfect sphere. Surface and volume plasmons characterized with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) prove that resonance occurs between a pair of as-fabricated spheres on the tip structures. Such spheres on pillars can serve as nano-optical antennas and will enable devices such as scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) probes, scanning anodes for field emitters, and single molecule detectors, which can find applications in bio-sensing, molecular detection, and high-resolution optical microscopy.

  19. Carbon nanotube based stationary x-ray tomosynthesis scanner for detection of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang

    In this dissertation, my Ph.D. research during the past six years will be presented. My research mainly focused on design, fabrication and characterization of devices based on carbon nanotubes (CNT). Since the discovery of CNT in 1991, the research focus has gradually shifted from material synthesis and characterization to devices and applications. During early stages of my Ph.D. study, I worked on synthesizing CNT using laser ablation method, and fabricating CNT-AFM tips and magnetic wire MFM tips. During the second half of my Ph.D. study, my research focused more on design, fabrication, and testing the x-ray sources and imaging systems based on CNT, including both single-beam system (microCT) and multi-beam system (tomosysthesis). During the last two years, I worked on the project to develop a novel imaging system (Argus) using CNT x-ray source array for breast cancer detection. This is the first stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) imaging system in the world. My research result has shown great clinical potentials of these imaging systems using x-ray source based on CNTs. This dissertation is composed by five chapters. In chapter one, the physics behind x-ray and field emission theory will be reviewed. Chapter two covers discovery, property and synthesis of CNT. Methods to fabricate CNT emitters and their emission property will also be introduced there. Single and multi beam x-ray sources and applications will be discussed in chapter three. The design and characteristic test results are presented. The application includes micro-CT, tomosynthesis and multiplexing. Chapter four is dedicated to the Argus system, the first stationary digital breast tomosynthesis imaging system. At last, conclusion is given in chapter five.

  20. Protein functionalized carbon nanotubes-based smart lab-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Ali, Md Azahar; Solanki, Pratima R; Srivastava, Saurabh; Singh, Samer; Agrawal, Ved V; John, Renu; Malhotra, Bansi D

    2015-03-18

    A label-free impedimetric lab on a chip (iLOC) is fabricated using protein (bovine serum albumin) and antiapolipoprotein B functionalized carbon nanotubes-nickel oxide (CNT-NiO) nanocomposite for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) detection. The antiapolipoprotein B (AAB) functionalized CNT-NiO microfluidic electrode is assembled with polydimethylsiloxane rectangular microchannels (cross section: 100 × 100 μm). Cytotoxicity of the synthesized CNTs, NiO nanoparticles, and CNT-NiO nanocomposite has been investigated in the presence of lung epithelial cancer A549 cell line using MTT assay. The CNT-NiO nanocomposite shows higher cell viability at a concentration of 6.5 μg/mL compared to those using individual CNTs. The cell viability and proliferation studies reveal that the toxicity increases with increasing CNTs concentration. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have been used to quantify the functional groups present on the CNT-NiO electrode surface before and after proteins functionalization. The binding kinetic and electrochemical activities of CNT-NiO based iLOC have been conducted using chronocoulometry and impedance spectroscopic techniques. This iLOC shows excellent sensitivity of 5.37 kΩ (mg/dL)(-1) and a low detection limit of 0.63 mg/dL in a wide concentration range (5-120 mg/dL) of LDL. The binding kinetics of antigen-antibody interaction of LDL molecules reveal a high association rate constant (8.13 M(-1) s(-1)). Thus, this smart nanocomposite (CNT-NiO) based iLOC has improved stability and reproducibility and has implications toward in vivo diagnostics.

  1. Protein functionalized carbon nanotubes-based smart lab-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Ali, Md Azahar; Solanki, Pratima R; Srivastava, Saurabh; Singh, Samer; Agrawal, Ved V; John, Renu; Malhotra, Bansi D

    2015-03-18

    A label-free impedimetric lab on a chip (iLOC) is fabricated using protein (bovine serum albumin) and antiapolipoprotein B functionalized carbon nanotubes-nickel oxide (CNT-NiO) nanocomposite for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) detection. The antiapolipoprotein B (AAB) functionalized CNT-NiO microfluidic electrode is assembled with polydimethylsiloxane rectangular microchannels (cross section: 100 × 100 μm). Cytotoxicity of the synthesized CNTs, NiO nanoparticles, and CNT-NiO nanocomposite has been investigated in the presence of lung epithelial cancer A549 cell line using MTT assay. The CNT-NiO nanocomposite shows higher cell viability at a concentration of 6.5 μg/mL compared to those using individual CNTs. The cell viability and proliferation studies reveal that the toxicity increases with increasing CNTs concentration. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have been used to quantify the functional groups present on the CNT-NiO electrode surface before and after proteins functionalization. The binding kinetic and electrochemical activities of CNT-NiO based iLOC have been conducted using chronocoulometry and impedance spectroscopic techniques. This iLOC shows excellent sensitivity of 5.37 kΩ (mg/dL)(-1) and a low detection limit of 0.63 mg/dL in a wide concentration range (5-120 mg/dL) of LDL. The binding kinetics of antigen-antibody interaction of LDL molecules reveal a high association rate constant (8.13 M(-1) s(-1)). Thus, this smart nanocomposite (CNT-NiO) based iLOC has improved stability and reproducibility and has implications toward in vivo diagnostics. PMID:25719923

  2. Characterization and modeling of piezo-resistive properties of carbon nanotube-based conductive polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Giang Truong

    Electrically conductive polymers (ECPs), offering capabilities such as electrostatic discharge protection and electromagnetic interference shielding, have been the subject of intensive research and development both in academia and industry. The emergence of new conductive nano-fillers in recent decades, particularly carbon nanotubes (CNTs), further fuels more enthusiasm. Thanks to CNTs' excellent mechanical, thermal, and electrical/electronic properties, CNT-filled polymers possess not only conductive properties, but a range of other properties desirable for multi-functional and high performance applications. In order to fully exploit the benefits of CNT-based conductive polymers (CNT-ECPs), researchers have conducted diverse studies primarily to characterize the electrical conductivity of the composites. A crucial area that is less studied is the piezoresistive behaviors of CNT-ECPs, that is, the change in material conductive properties due to an applied stress or strain. Given broad usage of ECPs, it would be reasonable to assume that ECP products commonly operate under certain stress or strain conditions. For instance, an electrostatic discharge (ESD)-protected conductive coating for spacecraft would be affected by strain induced by mechanical or aerodynamic loads. A more systematic understanding of the materials' piezoresistivity, therefore, is instrumental in ensuring satisfactory conductive performance of those material applications. Additionally, knowledge of conductive characteristics of the CNT-ECPs against stress/strain can open the door to newer material applications, e.g., strain gage or multifunctional conductive coating with strain-sensing capability. This research aims to achieve a more fundamental understanding of the mechanism of piezoresistive property of CNT-ECPs, and to develop a model that permits quantifying the structure-property relationships of CNT-ECPs' piezoresistivity. In this research, expanded experimental studies with various

  3. Development of a Carbon Nanotube-Based Micro-CT and its Applications in Preclinical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burk, Laurel May

    Due to the dependence of researchers on mouse models for the study of human disease, diagnostic tools available in the clinic must be modified for use on these much smaller subjects. In addition to high spatial resolution, cardiac and lung imaging of mice presents extreme temporal challenges, and physiological gating methods must be developed in order to image these organs without motion blur. Commercially available micro-CT imaging devices are equipped with conventional thermionic x-ray sources and have a limited temporal response and are not ideal for in vivo small animal studies. Recent development of a field-emission x-ray source with carbon nanotube (CNT) cathode in our lab presented the opportunity to create a micro-CT device well-suited for in vivo lung and cardiac imaging of murine models for human disease. The goal of this thesis work was to present such a device, to develop and refine protocols which allow high resolution in vivo imaging of free-breathing mice, and to demonstrate the use of this new imaging tool for the study many different disease models. In Chapter 1, I provide background information about x-rays, CT imaging, and small animal micro-CT. In Chapter 2, CNT-based x-ray sources are explained, and details of a micro-focus x-ray tube specialized for micro-CT imaging are presented. In Chapter 3, the first and second generation CNT micro-CT devices are characterized, and successful respiratory- and cardiac-gated live animal imaging on normal, wild-type mice is achieved. In Chapter 4, respiratory-gated imaging of mouse disease models is demonstrated, limitations to the method are discussed, and a new contactless respiration sensor is presented which addresses many of these limitations. In Chapter 5, cardiac-gated imaging of disease models is demonstrated, including studies of aortic calcification, left ventricular hypertrophy, and myocardial infarction. In Chapter 6, several methods for image and system improvement are explored, and radiation

  4. Covalently functionalized carbon nanostructures and methods for their separation

    DOEpatents

    Wang, YuHuang; Brozena, Alexandra H; Deng, Shunliu; Zhang, Yin

    2015-03-17

    The present invention is directed to carbon nanostructures, e.g., carbon nanotubes, methods of covalently functionalizing carbon nanostructures, and methods of separating and isolating covalently functionalized carbon. In some embodiments, carbon nanotubes are reacted with alkylating agents to provide water soluble covalently functionalized carbon nanotubes. In other embodiments, carbon nanotubes are reacted with a thermally-responsive agent and exposed to light in order to separate carbon nanotubes of a specific chirality from a mixture of carbon nanotubes.

  5. Impact of the atomic layer deposition precursors diffusion on solid-state carbon nanotube based supercapacitors performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorentino, Giuseppe; Vollebregt, Sten; Tichelaar, F. D.; Ishihara, Ryoichi; Sarro, Pasqualina M.

    2015-02-01

    A study on the impact of atomic layer deposition (ALD) precursors diffusion on the performance of solid-state miniaturized nanostructure capacitor array is presented. Three-dimensional nanostructured capacitor array based on double conformal coating of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) bundles is realized using ALD to deposit Al2O3 as dielectric layer and TiN as high aspect-ratio conformal counter-electrode on 2 μm long MWCNT bundles. The devices have a small footprint (from 100 μm2 to 2500 μm2) and are realized using an IC wafer-scale manufacturing process with high reproducibility (≤0.3E-12F deviation). To evaluate the enhancement of the electrode surface, the measured capacitance values are compared to a lumped circuital model. The observed discrepancies are explained with a partial coating of the CNT, that determine a limited use of the available electrode surface area. To analyze the CNT coating effectiveness, the ALD precursors diffusions inside the CNT bundle is studied using a Knudsen diffusion mechanism.

  6. Multiwalled-carbon-nanotubes-based matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of honokiol and magnolol in Magnoliae Cortex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Hong, Bo; Liu, Jianhua; Mu, Guangze; Cong, Huan; Li, Gang; Cai, Defu

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, multiwalled-carbon-nanotube-based matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled to HPLC with diode array detection was used to extract and determine honokiol and magnolol from Magnoliae Cortex. The extraction efficiency of the multiwalled-carbon-nanotube-based matrix solid-phase dispersion was studied and optimized as a function of the amount of dispersing sorbent, volume of elution solvent, and flow rate of elution solvent, with the aid of response surface methodology. An amount of 0.06 g of carboxyl-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes and 1.5 mL of methanol at a flow rate of 1.1 mL/min were selected. The method obtained good linearity (r(2) > 0.9992) and precision (RSD < 4.7%) for honokiol and magnolol, with limits of detection of 0.045 and 0.087 μg/mL, respectively. The recoveries obtained from analyzing in triplicate spiked samples were determined to be from 90.23 to 101.10% and the RSDs from 3.5 to 4.8%. The proposed method that required less samples and reagents was simpler and faster than Soxhlet and maceration extraction methods. The optimized method was applied for analyzing five real samples collected from different cultivated areas.

  7. ZnS nanocrystals decorated single-walled carbon nanotube based chemiresistive label-free DNA sensor

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh; Das, Basanta K.; Srinives, Sira; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    We fabricated ZnS nanocrystals decorated single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) based chemiresistive sensor for DNA. Since the charge transfer in the hybrid nanostructures is considered to be responsible for many of their unique properties, the role of ZnS nanocrystals toward its performance in DNA sensor was delineated. It was found that the free carboxyl groups surrounding the ZnS nanocrystals allowed large loading of single strand DNA (ssDNA) probe that provided an ease of hybridization with target complementary c-ssDNA resulting in large electron transfer to SWNT. Thus it provided a significant improvement in sensitivity toward c-ssDNA as compared to bare SWNT based DNA sensor. PMID:21286239

  8. Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes

    SciTech Connect

    Teo, E. H. T.; Kalish, R.; Kulik, J.; Kauffmann, Y.; Lifshitz, Y.

    2011-03-21

    Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes can be deposited by applying energetic carbon bombardment. The present work shows the possibility of structuring graphitic planes perpendicular to the substrate in following two distinct ways: (i) applying sufficiently large carbon energies for deposition at room temperature (E>10 keV), (ii) utilizing much lower energies for deposition at elevated substrate temperatures (T>200 deg. C). High resolution transmission electron microscopy is used to probe the graphitic planes. The alignment achieved at elevated temperatures does not depend on the deposition angle. The data provides insight into the mechanisms leading to the growth of oriented graphitic planes under different conditions.

  9. Activated carbon and single-walled carbon nanotube based electrochemical capacitor in 1 M LiPF{sub 6} electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Azam, M.A.; Jantan, N.H.; Dorah, N.; Seman, R.N.A.R.; Manaf, N.S.A.; Kudin, T.I.T.; Yahya, M.Z.A.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Activated carbon and single-walled CNT based electrochemical capacitor. • Electrochemical analysis by means of CV, charge/discharge and impedance. • 1 M LiPF{sub 6} non-aqueous solution as an electrolyte. • AC/SWCNT electrode exhibits a maximum capacitance of 60.97 F g{sup −1}. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes have been extensively studied because of their wide range of potential application such as in nanoscale electric circuits, textiles, transportation, health, and the environment. Carbon nanotubes feature extraordinary properties, such as electrical conductivities higher than those of copper, hardness and thermal conductivity higher than those of diamond, and strength surpassing that of steel, among others. This research focuses on the fabrication of an energy storage device, namely, an electrochemical capacitor, by using carbon materials, i.e., activated carbon and single-walled carbon nanotubes, of a specific weight ratio as electrode materials. The electrolyte functioning as an ion carrier is 1 M lithium hexafluorophosphate. Variations in the electrochemical performance of the device, including its capacitance, charge/discharge characteristics, and impedance, are reported in this paper. The electrode proposed in this work exhibits a maximum capacitance of 60.97 F g{sup −1} at a scan rate of 1 mV s{sup −1}.

  10. Nanostructural characterization of amorphous diamondlike carbon films

    SciTech Connect

    SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; TALLANT,DAVID R.; MARTINEZ-MIRANDA,L.J.; BARBOUR,J. CHARLES; SIMPSON,REGINA L.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.

    2000-01-27

    Nanostructural characterization of amorphous diamondlike carbon (a-C) films grown on silicon using pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) is correlated to both growth energetic and film thickness. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray reflectivity probe both the topological nature of 3- and 4-fold coordinated carbon atom bonding and the topographical clustering of their distributions within a given film. In general, increasing the energetic of PLD growth results in films becoming more ``diamondlike'', i.e. increasing mass density and decreasing optical absorbance. However, these same properties decrease appreciably with thickness. The topology of carbon atom bonding is different for material near the substrate interface compared to material within the bulk portion of an a-C film. A simple model balancing the energy of residual stress and the free energies of resulting carbon topologies is proposed to provide an explanation of the evolution of topographical bonding clusters in a growing a-C film.

  11. Magneto Transport in Three Dimensional Carbon Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Timir; Wang, Lei; Jaroszynski, Jan; Yin, Ming; Alameri, Dheyaa

    Electrical properties of self-assembled three dimensional nanostructures are interesting topic. Here we report temperature dependence of magneto transport in such carbon nanostructures with periodic spherical voids. Specimens with different void diameters in the temperature range from 200 mK to 20 K were studied. Above 2 K, magnetoresistance, MR = [R(B) - R(0)] / R(0), crosses over from quadratic to a linear dependence with the increase of magnetic field [Wang et al., APL 2015; DOI:10.1063/1.4926606]. We observe MR to be non-saturating even up to 18 Tesla. Furthermore, MR demonstrates universality because all experimental data can be collapsed on to a single curve, as a universal function of B/T. Below 2 K, magnetoresistance saturates with increasing field. Quantum Hall like steps are also observed in this low temperature regime. Remarkably, MR of our sample displays orientation independence, an attractive feature for technological applications.

  12. Modification of anisotropic plasma diffusion via auxiliary electrons emitted by a carbon nanotubes-based electron gun in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Malferrari, L; Odorici, F; Veronese, G P; Rizzoli, R; Mascali, D; Celona, L; Gammino, S; Castro, G; Miracoli, R; Serafino, T

    2012-02-01

    The diffusion mechanism in magnetized plasmas is a largely debated issue. A short circuit model was proposed by Simon, assuming fluxes of lost particles along the axial (electrons) and radial (ions) directions which can be compensated, to preserve the quasi-neutrality, by currents flowing throughout the conducting plasma chamber walls. We hereby propose a new method to modify Simon's currents via electrons injected by a carbon nanotubes-based electron gun. We found this improves the source performances, increasing the output current for several charge states. The method is especially sensitive to the pumping frequency. Output currents for given charge states, at different auxiliary electron currents, will be reported in the paper and the influence of the frequency tuning on the compensation mechanism will be discussed.

  13. AEM and HREM evaluation of carbon nanostructures in silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Song, X.Y.; Cao, W.; Hunt, A.J.

    1994-04-01

    Nanostructured carbon has been deposited in silica aerogels by chemical vapor infiltration using acetylene or ferrocene at moderate temperatures. Using analytical electron microscopy and high-resolution electron microscopy, we have observed various carbon rings and nanotubes in the silica aerogel-based carbon composite. Both X-ray microanalysis and nano-probe diffraction techniques have been used to confirm the presence of those carbon nanostructures. Morphologies and structural properties of the carbon nanotubes and rings have also been examined in detail.

  14. Comparative study of multi walled carbon nanotubes-based electrodes in micellar media and their application to micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chicharro, Manuel; Arribas, Alberto Sánchez; Moreno, Mónica; Bermejo, Esperanza; Zapardiel, Antonio

    2007-12-15

    This work reports on a comparative study of the electrochemical performance of carbon nanotubes-based electrodes in micellar media and their application for amperometric detection in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) separations. These electrodes were prepared in two different ways: immobilization of a layer of carbon nanotubes dispersed in polyethylenimine (PEI), ethanol or Nafion onto glassy carbon electrodes or preparation of paste electrodes using mineral oil as binder. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed for surface morphology characterization while cyclic voltammetry of background electrolyte was used for capacitance estimation. The amperometric responses to hydrogen peroxide, amitrol, diuron and 2,3-dichlorophenol (2,3CP) in the presence and in the absence of sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) were studied by flow injection analysis (FIA), demonstrating that the electrocatalytic activity, background current and electroanalytical performance were strongly dependent on the electrodes preparation procedure. Glassy carbon electrodes modified with carbon nanotubes dispersed in PEI (GC/(CNT/PEI)) displayed the most adequate performance in micellar media, maintaining good electrocatalytic properties combined with acceptable background currents and resistance to passivation. The advantages of using GC/(CNT/PEI) as detectors in capillary electrophoresis were illustrated for the MEKC separations of phenolic pollutants (phenol, 3-chlorophenol, 2,3-dichlorophenol and 4-nitrophenol) and herbicides (amitrol, asulam, diuron, fenuron, monuron and chlortoluron).

  15. INTERSTELLAR ANALOGS FROM DEFECTIVE CARBON NANOSTRUCTURES ACCOUNT FOR INTERSTELLAR EXTINCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Zhenquan; Abe, Hiroya; Sato, Kazuyoshi; Ohara, Satoshi; Chihara, Hiroki; Koike, Chiyoe; Kaneko, Kenji

    2010-11-15

    Because interstellar dust is closely related to the evolution of matter in the galactic environment and many other astrophysical phenomena, the laboratory synthesis of interstellar dust analogs has received significant attention over the past decade. To simulate the ultraviolet (UV) interstellar extinction feature at 217.5 nm originating from carbonaceous interstellar dust, many reports focused on the UV absorption properties of laboratory-synthesized interstellar dust analogs. However, no general relation has been established between UV interstellar extinction and artificial interstellar dust analogs. Here, we show that defective carbon nanostructures prepared by high-energy collisions exhibit a UV absorption feature at 220 nm which we suggest accounts for the UV interstellar extinction at 217.5 nm. The morphology of some carbon nanostructures is similar to that of nanocarbons discovered in the Allende meteorite. The similarity between the absorption feature of the defective carbon nanostructures and UV interstellar extinction indicates a strong correlation between the defective carbon nanostructures and interstellar dust.

  16. Design and adaptation of miniaturized electrochemical devices integrating carbon nanotube-based sensors to commercial CE equipment.

    PubMed

    Arribas, Alberto Sánchez; Moreno, Mónica; Bermejo, Esperanza; Angeles Lorenzo, M; Zapardiel, Antonio; Chicharro, Manuel

    2009-10-01

    The design of new electrochemical devices integrating carbon nanotube sensors and their adaptation to commercial CE equipments are described. One of these designs was made for using commercial screen-printed electrodes, whereas the second was projected for coupling commercial glassy carbon electrodes. The electrochemical characterization of these devices revealed that their hydrodynamic behaviour is strongly influenced by the electrode modification with multi-wall carbon nanotubes that provided faster and/or more sensitive signals. The analytical applicability of these devices was illustrated for the CZE separation of chlorinated phenols and the MEKC separation of endocrine disruptors, where the use of carbon nanotube sensors has proved to be advantageous when compared with unmodified ones, with good electrocatalytic properties combined with acceptable background currents and a remarkable resistance to passivation.

  17. Sensitive sepiolite-carbon nanotubes based disposable electrodes for direct detection of DNA and anticancer drug-DNA interactions.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Arzum; Kuralay, Filiz; Çubukçu, H Evren; Congur, Gulsah; Karadeniz, Hakan; Canavar, Ece

    2012-09-01

    A new surface based on the natural clay mineral sepiolite and a single-walled carbon nanotubes-modified graphite electrode was developed for the electrochemical detection of DNA, and also for anticancer drug-DNA interactions.

  18. Single-walled carbon nanotube-based polymer monoliths for the enantioselective nano-liquid chromatographic separation of racemic pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Marwa; Yajadda, Mir Massoud Aghili; Han, Zhao Jun; Su, Dawei; Wang, Guoxiu; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken; Ghanem, Ashraf

    2014-09-19

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes were encapsulated into different polymer-based monolithic backbones. The polymer monoliths were prepared via the copolymerization of 20% monomers, glycidyl methacrylate, 20% ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and 60% porogens (36% 1-propanol, 18% 1,4-butanediol) or 16.4% monomers (16% butyl methacrylate, 0.4% sulfopropyl methacrylate), 23.6% ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and 60% porogens (36% 1-propanol, 18% 1,4-butanediol) along with 6% single-walled carbon nanotubes aqueous suspension. The effect of single-walled carbon nanotubes on the chiral separation of twelve classes of pharmaceutical racemates namely; α- and β-blockers, antiinflammatory drugs, antifungal drugs, dopamine antagonists, norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors, catecholamines, sedative hypnotics, diuretics, antihistaminics, anticancer drugs and antiarrhythmic drugs was investigated. The enantioselective separation was carried out under multimodal elution to explore the chiral recognition capabilities of single-walled carbon nanotubes using reversed phase, polar organic and normal phase chromatographic conditions using nano-liquid chromatography. Baseline separation was achieved for celiprolol, chlorpheniramine, etozoline, nomifensine and sulconazole under multimodal elution conditions. Satisfactory repeatability was achieved through run-to-run, column-to-column and batch-to-batch investigations. Our findings demonstrate that single-walled carbon nanotubes represent a promising stationary phase for the chiral separation and may open the field for a new class of chiral selectors.

  19. Determination of the effective Young's modulus of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays: a simple nanotube-based varactor.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Niklas; Ek-Weis, Johan; Eriksson, Anders; Idda, Tonio; Campbell, Eleanor E B

    2009-09-23

    The electromechanical properties of arrays of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes were studied in a parallel plate capacitor geometry. The electrostatic actuation was visualized using both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and highly reproducible behaviour was achieved for actuation voltages below the pull-in voltage. The walls of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes behave as solid cohesive units. The effective Young's modulus for the carbon nanotube arrays was determined by comparing the actuation results with the results of electrostatic simulations and was found to be exceptionally low, of the order of 1-10 MPa. The capacitance change and Q-factor were determined by measuring the frequency dependence of the radio-frequency transmission. Capacitance changes of over 20% and Q-factors in the range 100-10 were achieved for a frequency range of 0.2-1.5 GHz.

  20. Biotemplate synthesis of carbon nanostructures using bamboo as both the template and the carbon source

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Xiaodan; Yang, Qian; Zheng, Yifan; Mo, Weimin; Hu, Jianguan; Huang, Wanzhen

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new method for the in situ growth of carbon nanostructures was demonstrated. • The bamboo was selected as both the green carbon source and the biotemplate. • Four distinct structural types of carbon nanostructure have been identified. • The corresponding growth mechanism of each carbon nanostructure was proposed. - Abstract: A series of carbon nanostructures were prepared via a biotemplate method by catalytic decomposition of bamboo impregnated with ferric nitrate. The natural nanoporous bamboo was used as both the green carbon source and the template for the in situ growth of carbon nanostructures. Scanning electron microscope, field emission transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope were used to characterize the product. Four distinct structural types of carbon nanostructures have been identified, namely nanofibers, hollow carbon nanospheres, herringbone and bamboo-shaped nanotubes. The effect of reaction temperature (from 600 to 900 °C) on the growth behavior of carbon nanostructures was investigated and the corresponding growth mechanism was proposed. At low temperature the production of nanofibers was favored, while higher temperature led to bamboo-shaped nanostructures.

  1. Carbon Nanotube-Based Supercapacitors with Excellent ac Line Filtering and Rate Capability via Improved Interfacial Impedance.

    PubMed

    Rangom, Yverick; Tang, Xiaowu Shirley; Nazar, Linda F

    2015-07-28

    We report the fabrication of high-performance, self-standing composite sp(2)-carbon supercapacitor electrodes using single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as conductive binder. The 3-D mesoporous mesh architecture of CNT-based composite electrodes grants unimpaired ionic transport throughout relatively thick films and allows superior performance compared to graphene-based devices at an ac line frequency of 120 Hz. Metrics of 601 μF/cm(2) with a -81° phase angle and a rate capability (RC) time constant of 199 μs are obtained for thin carbon films. The free-standing carbon films were obtained from a chlorosulfonic acid dispersion and interfaced to stainless steel current collectors with various surface treatments. CNT electrodes were able to cycle at 200 V/s and beyond, still showing a characteristic parallelepipedic cyclic votammetry shape at 1 kV/s. Current densities are measured in excess of 6400 A/g, and the electrodes retain more than 98% capacity after 1 million cycles. These promising results are attributed to a reduction of series resistance in the film through the CNT conductive network and especially to the surface treatment of the stainless steel current collector. PMID:26046685

  2. Carbon Nanotube-Based Supercapacitors with Excellent ac Line Filtering and Rate Capability via Improved Interfacial Impedance.

    PubMed

    Rangom, Yverick; Tang, Xiaowu Shirley; Nazar, Linda F

    2015-07-28

    We report the fabrication of high-performance, self-standing composite sp(2)-carbon supercapacitor electrodes using single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as conductive binder. The 3-D mesoporous mesh architecture of CNT-based composite electrodes grants unimpaired ionic transport throughout relatively thick films and allows superior performance compared to graphene-based devices at an ac line frequency of 120 Hz. Metrics of 601 μF/cm(2) with a -81° phase angle and a rate capability (RC) time constant of 199 μs are obtained for thin carbon films. The free-standing carbon films were obtained from a chlorosulfonic acid dispersion and interfaced to stainless steel current collectors with various surface treatments. CNT electrodes were able to cycle at 200 V/s and beyond, still showing a characteristic parallelepipedic cyclic votammetry shape at 1 kV/s. Current densities are measured in excess of 6400 A/g, and the electrodes retain more than 98% capacity after 1 million cycles. These promising results are attributed to a reduction of series resistance in the film through the CNT conductive network and especially to the surface treatment of the stainless steel current collector.

  3. The effects of ionic liquid on the electrochemical sensing performance of graphene- and carbon nanotube-based electrodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chueh-Han; Wu, Cheng-Hung; Wu, Jia-Wun; Lee, Ming-Tsung; Chang, Jeng-Kuei; Ger, Ming-Der; Sun, Chia-Liang

    2013-01-21

    The electrochemical sensing properties of graphene-based and carbon nanotube (CNT)-based electrodes towards ascorbic acid, dopamine, uric acid, and glucose are systematically compared. Nano-sized Pd catalyst particles are uniformly dispersed on both carbon supports using a supercritical fluid deposition technique to increase the sensing performance. The CNT/Pd electrode shows higher detection current than that of the graphene/Pd electrode, which is attributed to the three-dimensional architecture interwoven by the CNTs that creates a larger number of reaction sites. With the incorporation of ionic liquid (IL), the detection sensitivity of the IL/graphene/Pd electrode significantly increases, becoming noticeably higher than that of the IL/CNT/Pd counterpart. The synergistic interactions between graphene and IL that lead to the superior sensing performance are demonstrated and discussed. PMID:23172364

  4. Optimization of Designs for Nanotube-based Scanning Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harik, V. M.; Gates, T. S.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Optimization of designs for nanotube-based scanning probes, which may be used for high-resolution characterization of nanostructured materials, is examined. Continuum models to analyze the nanotube deformations are proposed to help guide selection of the optimum probe. The limitations on the use of these models that must be accounted for before applying to any design problem are presented. These limitations stem from the underlying assumptions and the expected range of nanotube loading, end conditions, and geometry. Once the limitations are accounted for, the key model parameters along with the appropriate classification of nanotube structures may serve as a basis for the design optimization of nanotube-based probe tips.

  5. In situ Raman spectroscopy study of oxidation of nanostructured carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osswald, Sebastian

    The ability to synthesize carbon nanostructures, such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, nanodiamond, and mesoporous carbon; functionalize their surface; or assemble them into three-dimensional networks has opened new avenues for material design. Carbon nanostructures possess tunable optical, electrical or mechanical properties, making them ideal candidates for numerous applications ranging from composite structures and chemical sensors to electronic devices and medical implants. Unfortunately, current synthesis techniques typically lead to a mixture of different types of carbon rather than a particular nanostructure with defined size and properties. In order to fully exploit the great potential of carbon nanostructures, one needs to provide purification procedures that allow a selective separation of carbon nanostructures, and methods which enable a control of size and surface functionalization. Oxidation is a frequently used method for purification of carbon materials, but it can also damage or destroy the sample. In situ Raman spectroscopy during heating in a controlled environment allows a time-resolved investigation of the oxidation kinetics and can identify the changes in material structure and composition, thus helping to accurately determine optimal purification conditions. However, while carbon allotropes such as graphite and diamond show unique Raman signals and allow a fast and straightforward identification, the interpretation of Raman spectra recorded from nanostructures containing mixtures of sp, sp2 and sp3 bonded carbon is more complex and the origin of some peaks in Raman spectra of nanocarbons is not yet fully understood. In this study we applied in situ Raman spectroscopy to determine conditions for selective oxidation of carbon nanostructures, such as nanodiamond, nanotubes, carbide-derived carbon and carbon onions; accurately measure and control the crystal size; and improve the fundamental understanding of effects of temperature, quantum

  6. Single Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Electrical Biosensor for the Label-Free Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung Min; Baek, Youn-Kyoung; Shin, SunHaeRa; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Jung, Hee-Tae; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-06-01

    We herein describe the development of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based electrical biosensor consisting of a two-terminal resistor, and report its use for the specific, label-free detection of pathogenic bacteria via changes in conductance. The ability of this biosensor to recognize different pathogenic bacteria was analyzed, and conditions were optimized with different probe concentrations. Using this system, the reference strains and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were successfully detected; in both cases, the sensor showed a detection limit of 10 CFU. This SWNT-based electrical biosensor will prove useful for the development of highly sensitive and specific handheld pathogen detectors.

  7. Enhancement of NH3 Gas Sensitivity at Room Temperature by Carbon Nanotube-Based Sensor Coated with Co Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Lich Quang; Phan, Pho Quoc; Duong, Huyen Ngoc; Nguyen, Chien Duc; Nguyen, Lam Huu

    2013-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) film has been fabricated onto Pt-patterned alumina substrates using the chemical vapor deposition method for NH3 gas sensing applications. The MWCNT-based sensor is sensitive to NH3 gas at room temperature. Nanoclusters of Co catalysts have been sputtered on the surface of the MWCNT film to enhance gas sensitivity with respect to unfunctionalized CNT films. The gas sensitivity of Co-functionalized MWCNT-based gas sensors is thus significantly improved. The sensor exhibits good repeatability and high selectivity towards NH3, compared with alcohol and LPG. PMID:23364198

  8. Sensitivity enhancement of carbon nanotube based ammonium ion sensors through surface modification by using oxygen plasma treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, Sanghak; Woong Jang, Chi; Lee, Seok; Min Jhon, Young; Choi, Changrok

    2013-02-18

    We have shown that the sensitivity of carbon nanotube (CNT) based sensors can be enhanced as high as 74 times through surface modification by using the inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition method with oxygen. The plasma treatment power was maintained as low as 10 W within 20 s, and the oxygen plasma was generated far away from the sensors to minimize the plasma damage. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, we found that the concentration of oxygen increased with the plasma treatment time, which implies that oxygen functional groups or defect sites were generated on the CNT surface.

  9. Size-dependent characteristics of electrostatically actuated fluid-conveying carbon nanotubes based on modified couple stress theory.

    PubMed

    Fakhrabadi, Mir Masoud Seyyed; Rastgoo, Abbas; Ahmadian, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the effects of fluid flow on the static and dynamic properties of carbon nanotubes that convey a viscous fluid. The mathematical model is based on the modified couple stress theory. The effects of various fluid parameters and boundary conditions on the pull-in voltages are investigated in detail. The applicability of the proposed system as nanovalves or nanosensors in nanoscale fluidic systems is elaborated. The results confirm that the nanoscale system studied in this paper can be properly applied for these purposes.

  10. DNA-decorated carbon nanotube-based FETs as ultrasensitive chemical sensors: Discrimination of homologues, structural isomers, and optical isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamis, S. M.; Jones, R. A.; Johnson, A. T. C.; Preti, G.; Kwak, J.; Gelperin, A.

    2012-06-01

    We have explored the abilities of all-electronic DNA-carbon nanotube (DNA-NT) vapor sensors to discriminate very similar classes of molecules. We screened hundreds of DNA-NT devices against a panel of compounds chosen because of their similarities. We demonstrated that DNA-NT vapor sensors readily discriminate between series of chemical homologues that differ by single methyl groups. DNA-NT devices also discriminate among structural isomers and optical isomers, a trait common in biological olfactory systems, but only recently demonstrated for electronic FET based chemical sensors.

  11. Flexural fatigue performance and electrical resistance response of carbon nanotube-based polymer composites at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhijuan; Takeda, Tomo; Narita, Fumio; Shindo, Yasuhide

    2014-01-01

    We study the flexural failure and electrical resistance change of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based polymer composites under cyclic loading at cryogenic temperatures. Fatigue tests were performed on CNT/polycarbonate composites at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K) using the three-point bending method, and the measurements of the specimen electrical resistance were made during the tests. Also, the specimen fracture surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to verify the failure mechanisms of the nanocomposites. The dependence of the mechanical and electrical responses of the nanocomposites on the temperature and the nanotube content was then discussed.

  12. Assembly of carbon tube-in-tube nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, D. S.; Zhu, Z. P.; Liu, X.; Weinberg, G.; Wang, N.; Schlögl, R.

    2005-09-01

    Tube-in-tube carbon nanostructures were prepared by reorganization of graphitic impurity nanoparticles outside or inside of the pristine carbon nanotubes. Graphitic impurity nanoparticles were first disintegrated into small graphene fragments by a chemical oxidation with nitric acid, which also modifies the graphene fragments with carboxyl and hydroxyl groups at their edges. The functionalized graphene fragments were then reintegrated outside or inside of pristine carbon nanotubes to construct into tube-in-tube nanostructures. The combination of oxidatively functionalized graphene units, their solvate in a polar organic medium allowing for dispersive forces to effect supramolecular organization with carbon nanotubes acting as templates and their polycondensation by acid-catalysed esterification followed by pyrolysis of the oxygen functionalities lead to complex nanostructures inaccessible by direct synthesis.

  13. Enhancement of Platinum Mass Activity on the Surface of Polymer-wrapped Carbon Nanotube-Based Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Hafez, Inas H.; Berber, Mohamed R.; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2014-01-01

    Cost reduction and improved durability are the two major targets for accelerating the commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEFCs). To achieve these goals, the development of a novel method to fabricate platinum (Pt)-based electrocatalysts with a high mass activity, deposited on durable conductive support materials, is necessary. In this study, we describe a facile approach to grow homogeneously dispersed Pt nanoparticles (Pt) with a narrow diameter distribution in a highly controllable fashion on polymer-wrapped carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A PEFC cell employing a composite with the smallest Pt nanoparticle size (2.3 nm diameter) exhibited a ~8 times higher mass activity compared to a cell containing Pt with a 3.7 nm diameter. This is the first example of the diamter control of Pt on polymer-wrapped carbon supporting materials, and the study opens the door for the development of a future-generation of PEFCs using a minimal amount of Pt. PMID:25221915

  14. Outstanding field emission properties of wet-processed titanium dioxide coated carbon nanotube based field emission devices

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jinzhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei Chen, Xiaohong; Guo, Pingsheng; Piao, Xianqing; Sun, Zhuo; Xu, Peng; Wang, Miao; Li, Jun

    2015-02-16

    Field emission devices using a wet-processed composite cathode of carbon nanotube films coated with titanium dioxide exhibit outstanding field emission characteristics, including ultralow turn on field of 0.383 V μm{sup −1} and threshold field of 0.657 V μm{sup −1} corresponding with a very high field enhancement factor of 20 000, exceptional current stability, and excellent emission uniformity. The improved field emission properties are attributed to the enhanced edge effect simultaneously with the reduced screening effect, and the lowered work function of the composite cathode. In addition, the highly stable electron emission is found due to the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the carbon nanotubes, which prohibits the cathode from the influence of ions and free radical created in the emission process as well as residual oxygen gas in the device. The high-performance solution-processed composite cathode demonstrates great potential application in vacuum electronic devices.

  15. Doped carbon nanostructure field emitter arrays for infrared imaging

    DOEpatents

    Korsah, Kofi [Knoxville, TN; Baylor, Larry R [Farragut, TN; Caughman, John B [Oak Ridge, TN; Kisner, Roger A [Knoxville, TN; Rack, Philip D [Knoxville, TN; Ivanov, Ilia N [Knoxville, TN

    2009-10-27

    An infrared imaging device and method for making infrared detector(s) having at least one anode, at least one cathode with a substrate electrically connected to a plurality of doped carbon nanostructures; and bias circuitry for applying an electric field between the anode and the cathode such that when infrared photons are adsorbed by the nanostructures the emitted field current is modulated. The detectors can be doped with cesium to lower the work function.

  16. Nanoscale adhesion interactions in carbon nanotube based systems and experimental study of the mechanical properties of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Meng

    Part I: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a type of 1D nanostructures, which possess extraordinary mechanical, electrical, thermal, and chemical properties and are promising for a number of applications. For many of their applications, CNTs will be assembled into micro or macro-scale structures (e.g. thin-films and yarns), or integrated with other bulk materials to form heterogeneous material systems and devices (e.g. nanocomposites and solid-state electronics). The interfaces formed among CNTs themselves and between the CNT and other material surfaces play crucial roles in the functioning and performance of CNT-based material systems and devices. Therefore, characterization of the interfacial interaction in CNT-based systems is a critical step to understand the nanoscale interface and tune the system and device design and manufacturing for optimal functioning and performance. In this part of dissertation, a combination of both mechanical and theoretical methods was employed to study the adhesion interactions in CNT-based systems. Part II: Both CNTs and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) possess superb mechanical properties and are promising for a great many applications. They can be used in similar applications, such as reinforcing fibers in polymer composites based on their similar mechanical and thermal properties. CNTs are promising for electronics and sensors while BNNTs can be used as electrical insulators due to the tremendous differences of the electrical property. Furthermore, BNNTs can survive in high temperature and hazardous environments because of their resistant to oxidation and harsh chemicals. In order to optimize their applications, their mechanical properties should be fully understood. In this part of the dissertation research, first, the radial elasticity of single-walled CNTs and BNNTs was investigated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM); secondly, the engineering radial deformations in single walled CNTs and BNNTs covered by monolayer grapheme

  17. Conducting polymer functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube based chemiresistive biosensor for the detection of human cardiac myoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Puri, Nidhi; Niazi, Asad; Biradar, Ashok M.; Rajesh E-mail: adani@engr.ucr.edu; Mulchandani, Ashok E-mail: adani@engr.ucr.edu

    2014-10-13

    We report the fabrication of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) based ultrasensitive label-free chemiresistive biosensor for the detection of human cardiac biomarker, myoglobin (Ag-cMb). Poly(pyrrole-co-pyrrolepropylic acid) with pendant carboxyl groups was electrochemically deposited on electrophoretically aligned SWNT channel, as a conducting linker, for biomolecular immobilization of highly specific cardiac myoglobin antibody. The device was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, source-drain current-voltage (I-V), and charge-transfer characteristic studies. The device exhibited a linear response with a change in conductance in SWNT channel towards the target, Ag-cMb, over the concentration range of 1.0 to 1000 ng ml{sup −1} with a sensitivity of ∼118% per decade with high specificity.

  18. High-performance carbon-nanotube-based complementary field-effect-transistors and integrated circuits with yttrium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Shibo; Zhang, Zhiyong Si, Jia; Zhong, Donglai; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2014-08-11

    High-performance p-type carbon nanotube (CNT) transistors utilizing yttrium oxide as gate dielectric are presented by optimizing oxidization and annealing processes. Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) field-effect-transistors (FETs) are then fabricated on CNTs, and the p- and n-type devices exhibit symmetrical high performances, especially with low threshold voltage near to zero. The corresponding CMOS CNT inverter is demonstrated to operate at an ultra-low supply voltage down to 0.2 V, while displaying sufficient voltage gain, high noise margin, and low power consumption. Yttrium oxide is proven to be a competitive gate dielectric for constructing high-performance CNT CMOS FETs and integrated circuits.

  19. Single Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Electrical Biosensor for the Label-Free Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung Min; Baek, Youn-Kyoung; Shin, SunHaeRa; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Jung, Hee-Tae; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-06-01

    We herein describe the development of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based electrical biosensor consisting of a two-terminal resistor, and report its use for the specific, label-free detection of pathogenic bacteria via changes in conductance. The ability of this biosensor to recognize different pathogenic bacteria was analyzed, and conditions were optimized with different probe concentrations. Using this system, the reference strains and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were successfully detected; in both cases, the sensor showed a detection limit of 10 CFU. This SWNT-based electrical biosensor will prove useful for the development of highly sensitive and specific handheld pathogen detectors. PMID:27427746

  20. Dynamic analysis of fixed-free single-walled carbon nanotube-based bio-sensors because of various viruses.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Joshi, A Y; Sharma, S C; Harsha, S P

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, the vibrations of the fixed-free single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) with attached bacterium/virus on the tip have been investigated. To explore the suitability of the SWCNT as a bacterium/virus detector device, first the various types of virus have been taken for the study and then the resonant frequencies of fixed-free SWCNT with attachment of those viruses have been simulated. These resonant frequencies are compared with the published analytical data, and it is shown that the finite element method (FEM) simulation results are in good agreement with the analytical data. The results showed the sensitivity and suitability of the SWCNT having different length and different masses (attached at the tip SWCNT) to identify the bacterium or virus.

  1. A styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/carbon nanotube-based smart force sensor for automotive tire deformation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Min-Young; Kim, Ji-Sik; Lee, Ho-Geun; Choi, Seung-Bok; Kim, Gi-Woo

    2016-04-01

    This paper provides a preliminary study on the piezoresistive effect of a styrene-butadiene Rubber (SBR), one of the main ingredients of automotive tire, dispersed with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to explore its feasibility as a force sensor embedded in automotive tires. Typically, the application of CNTs has been successfully applied to the mechanical sensing technology such as a stress/strain and impact sensor. In this study, the potential of using the SBR/CNT as a force sensor for monitoring automotive tire deformation is evaluated for the first time. Experimental results show that the electrical resistance of the SBR/CNT composite changes in response to the sinusoidal loading, as well as static compressive load. These piezoresistive responses of the SBR/CNT composite will be used for sensing the tire deformation caused by the vehicle loading or cracks of tires.

  2. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Near-Infrared Optical Glucose Sensors toward In Vivo Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Kyungsuk; McNicholas, Thomas P.; Mu, Bin; Strano, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews research efforts on developing single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based near-infrared (NIR) optical glucose sensors toward long-term in vivo continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). We first discuss the unique optical properties of SWNTs and compare SWNTs with traditional organic and nanoparticle fluorophores regarding in vivo glucose-sensing applications. We then present our development of SWNT-based glucose sensors that use glucose-binding proteins and boronic acids as a high-affinity molecular receptor for glucose and transduce binding events on the receptors to modulate SWNT fluorescence. Finally, we discuss opportunities and challenges in translating the emerging technology of SWNT-based NIR optical glucose sensors into in vivo CGM for practical clinical use. PMID:23439162

  3. A phenomenological model for selective growth of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes based on catalyst deactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Shunsuke; Yamada, Maho; Sakurai, Hiroko; Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Futaba, Don N.; Hata, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    A method for the selective semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) growth over a continuous range from 67% to 98%, within the diameter range of 0.8-1.2 nm, by the use of a ``catalyst conditioning process'' prior to growth is reported. Continuous control revealed an inverse relationship between the selectivity and the yield as evidenced by a 1000-times difference in yield between the highest selectivity and non-selectivity. Further, these results show that the selectivity is highly sensitive to the presence of a precise concentration of oxidative and reductive gases (i.e. water and hydrogen), and the highest selectivity occurred along the border between the conditions suitable for high yield and no-growth. Through these results, a phenomenological model has been constructed to explain the inverse relationship between yield and selectivity based on catalyst deactivation. We believe our model to be general, as the fundamental mechanisms limiting selective semiconducting SWCNT growth are common to the previous reports of limited yield.A method for the selective semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) growth over a continuous range from 67% to 98%, within the diameter range of 0.8-1.2 nm, by the use of a ``catalyst conditioning process'' prior to growth is reported. Continuous control revealed an inverse relationship between the selectivity and the yield as evidenced by a 1000-times difference in yield between the highest selectivity and non-selectivity. Further, these results show that the selectivity is highly sensitive to the presence of a precise concentration of oxidative and reductive gases (i.e. water and hydrogen), and the highest selectivity occurred along the border between the conditions suitable for high yield and no-growth. Through these results, a phenomenological model has been constructed to explain the inverse relationship between yield and selectivity based on catalyst deactivation. We believe our model to be general, as the

  4. Analysis of malachite green in aquatic products by carbon nanotube-based molecularly imprinted - matrix solid phase dispersion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Chen, Ligang

    2015-10-01

    A simple method based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as sorbents for selective extraction of malachite green (MG) from aquatic products was developed. The MIPs were prepared by using carbon nanotube as support, MG as template, methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as crosslinker and methylene chloride as solvent. The MIPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. The isothermal adsorption, kinetics absorption and selective adsorption experiments were carried out. We optimized the extraction conditions as follows: the ratio of MIPs to sample was 2:3, the dispersion time was 15min, washing solvent was 4mL 50% aqueous methanol and elution solvent was 3mL methanol-acetic acid (98: 2, v/v). Once the MSPD process was completed, the MG extracted from aquatic products was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The detection limit of MG was 0.7μgkg(-1). The relative standard deviations of intra-day and inter-day were obtained in the range of 0.9%-4.7% and 3.4%-9.8%, respectively. In order to evaluate the applicability and reliability of the proposed method, it was applied to determine MG in different aquatic products samples including fish, shrimp, squid and crabs. The satisfied recoveries were in the range of 89.2%-104.6%. The results showed that this method is faster, simpler and makes extraction and purification in the same system.

  5. Near-IR laser-triggered target cell collection using a carbon nanotube-based cell-cultured substrate.

    PubMed

    Sada, Takao; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Niidome, Yasuro; Nakazawa, Kohji; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2011-06-28

    Unique near-IR optical properties of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNTs) are of interest in many biological applications. Here we describe the selective cell detachment and collection from an SWNT-coated cell-culture dish triggered by near-IR pulse laser irradiation. First, HeLa cells were cultured on an SWNT-coated dish prepared by a spraying of an aqueous SWNT dispersion on a glass dish. The SWNT-coated dish was found to show a good cell adhesion behavior as well as a cellular proliferation rate similar to a conventional glass dish. We discovered, by near-IR pulse laser irradiation (at the laser power over 25 mW) to the cell under optical microscopic observation, a quick single-cell detachment from the SWNT-coated surface. Shockwave generation from the irradiated SWNTs is expected to play an important role for the cell detachment. Moreover, we have succeeded in catapulting the target single cell from the cultured medium when the depth of the medium was below 150 μm and the laser power was stronger than 40 mW. The captured cell maintained its original shape. The retention of the genetic information of the cell was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. A target single-cell collection from a culture medium under optical microscopic observation is significant in wide fields of single-cell studies in biological areas.

  6. Single-walled carbon nanotubes based chemiresistive genosensor for label-free detection of human rheumatic heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Swati; Kumar, Ashok; Khare, Shashi; Mulchandani, Ashok; Rajesh

    2014-11-01

    A specific and ultrasensitive, label free single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) based chemiresistive genosensor was fabricated for the early detection of Streptococcus pyogenes infection in human causing rheumatic heart disease. The mga gene of S. pyogenes specific 24 mer ssDNA probe was covalently immobilized on SWNT through a molecular bilinker, 1-pyrenemethylamine, using carbodiimide coupling reaction. The sensor was characterized by the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve and scanning electron microscopy. The sensing performance of the sensor was studied with respect to changes in conductance in SWNT channel based on hybridization of the target S. pyogenes single stranded genomic DNA (ssG-DNA) to its complementary 24 mer ssDNA probe. The sensor shows negligible response to non-complementary Staphylococcus aureus ssG-DNA, confirming the specificity of the sensor only with S. pyogenes. The genosensor exhibited a linear response to S. pyogenes G-DNA from 1 to1000 ng ml-1 with a limit of detection of 0.16 ng ml-1.

  7. Robotic voltammetry with carbon nanotube-based sensors: a superb blend for convenient high-quality antimicrobial trace analysis

    PubMed Central

    Theanponkrang, Somjai; Suginta, Wipa; Weingart, Helge; Winterhalter, Mathias; Schulte, Albert

    2015-01-01

    A new automated pharmacoanalytical technique for convenient quantification of redox-active antibiotics has been established by combining the benefits of a carbon nanotube (CNT) sensor modification with electrocatalytic activity for analyte detection with the merits of a robotic electrochemical device that is capable of sequential nonmanual sample measurements in 24-well microtiter plates. Norfloxacin (NFX) and ciprofloxacin (CFX), two standard fluoroquinolone antibiotics, were used in automated calibration measurements by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and accomplished were linear ranges of 1–10 μM and 2–100 μM for NFX and CFX, respectively. The lowest detectable levels were estimated to be 0.3±0.1 μM (n=7) for NFX and 1.6±0.1 μM (n=7) for CFX. In standard solutions or tablet samples of known content, both analytes could be quantified with the robotic DPV microtiter plate assay, with recoveries within ±4% of 100%. And recoveries were as good when NFX was evaluated in human serum samples with added NFX. The use of simple instrumentation, convenience in execution, and high effectiveness in analyte quantitation suggest the merger between automated microtiter plate voltammetry and CNT-supported electrochemical drug detection as a novel methodology for antibiotic testing in pharmaceutical and clinical research and quality control laboratories. PMID:25670899

  8. A fully roll-to-roll gravure-printed carbon nanotube-based active matrix for multi-touch sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wookyu; Koo, Hyunmo; Sun, Junfeng; Noh, Jinsoo; Kwon, Kye-Si; Yeom, Chiseon; Choi, Younchang; Chen, Kevin; Javey, Ali; Cho, Gyoujin

    2015-01-01

    Roll-to-roll (R2R) printing has been pursued as a commercially viable high-throughput technology to manufacture flexible, disposable, and inexpensive printed electronic devices. However, in recent years, pessimism has prevailed because of the barriers faced when attempting to fabricate and integrate thin film transistors (TFTs) using an R2R printing method. In this paper, we report 20 × 20 active matrices (AMs) based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with a resolution of 9.3 points per inch (ppi) resolution, obtained using a fully R2R gravure printing process. By using SWCNTs as the semiconducting layer and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) as the substrate, we have obtained a device yield above 98%, and extracted the key scalability factors required for a feasible R2R gravure manufacturing process. Multi-touch sensor arrays were achieved by laminating a pressure sensitive rubber onto the SWCNT-TFT AM. This R2R gravure printing system overcomes the barriers associated with the registration accuracy of printing each layer and the variation of the threshold voltage (Vth). By overcoming these barriers, the R2R gravure printing method can be viable as an advanced manufacturing technology, thus enabling the high-throughput production of flexible, disposable, and human-interactive cutting-edge electronic devices based on SWCNT-TFT AMs. PMID:26635237

  9. Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Fuel Cell Benchmarked Against US DOE 2017 Technical Targets

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Neetu; Ramesh, Palanisamy; Bekyarova, Elena; Tian, Xiaojuan; Wang, Feihu; Itkis, Mikhail E.; Haddon, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Chemically modified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with varying degrees of functionalization were utilized for the fabrication of SWNT thin film catalyst support layers (CSLs) in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), which were suitable for benchmarking against the US DOE 2017 targets. Use of the optimum level of SWNT -COOH functionality allowed the construction of a prototype SWNT-based PEMFC with total Pt loading of 0.06 mgPt/cm2 - well below the value of 0.125 mgPt/cm2 set as the US DOE 2017 technical target for total Pt group metals (PGM) loading. This prototype PEMFC also approaches the technical target for the total Pt content per kW of power (<0.125 gPGM/kW) at cell potential 0.65 V: a value of 0.15 gPt/kW was achieved at 80°C/22 psig testing conditions, which was further reduced to 0.12 gPt/kW at 35 psig back pressure. PMID:23877112

  10. A fully roll-to-roll gravure-printed carbon nanotube-based active matrix for multi-touch sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wookyu; Koo, Hyunmo; Sun, Junfeng; Noh, Jinsoo; Kwon, Kye-Si; Yeom, Chiseon; Choi, Younchang; Chen, Kevin; Javey, Ali; Cho, Gyoujin

    2015-12-01

    Roll-to-roll (R2R) printing has been pursued as a commercially viable high-throughput technology to manufacture flexible, disposable, and inexpensive printed electronic devices. However, in recent years, pessimism has prevailed because of the barriers faced when attempting to fabricate and integrate thin film transistors (TFTs) using an R2R printing method. In this paper, we report 20 × 20 active matrices (AMs) based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with a resolution of 9.3 points per inch (ppi) resolution, obtained using a fully R2R gravure printing process. By using SWCNTs as the semiconducting layer and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) as the substrate, we have obtained a device yield above 98%, and extracted the key scalability factors required for a feasible R2R gravure manufacturing process. Multi-touch sensor arrays were achieved by laminating a pressure sensitive rubber onto the SWCNT-TFT AM. This R2R gravure printing system overcomes the barriers associated with the registration accuracy of printing each layer and the variation of the threshold voltage (Vth). By overcoming these barriers, the R2R gravure printing method can be viable as an advanced manufacturing technology, thus enabling the high-throughput production of flexible, disposable, and human-interactive cutting-edge electronic devices based on SWCNT-TFT AMs.

  11. Single-walled carbon nanotubes based chemiresistive genosensor for label-free detection of human rheumatic heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Swati; Kumar, Ashok E-mail: ashokigib@rediffmail.com; Khare, Shashi; Mulchandani, Ashok; Rajesh E-mail: ashokigib@rediffmail.com

    2014-11-24

    A specific and ultrasensitive, label free single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) based chemiresistive genosensor was fabricated for the early detection of Streptococcus pyogenes infection in human causing rheumatic heart disease. The mga gene of S. pyogenes specific 24 mer ssDNA probe was covalently immobilized on SWNT through a molecular bilinker, 1-pyrenemethylamine, using carbodiimide coupling reaction. The sensor was characterized by the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve and scanning electron microscopy. The sensing performance of the sensor was studied with respect to changes in conductance in SWNT channel based on hybridization of the target S. pyogenes single stranded genomic DNA (ssG-DNA) to its complementary 24 mer ssDNA probe. The sensor shows negligible response to non-complementary Staphylococcus aureus ssG-DNA, confirming the specificity of the sensor only with S. pyogenes. The genosensor exhibited a linear response to S. pyogenes G-DNA from 1 to1000 ng ml{sup −1} with a limit of detection of 0.16 ng ml{sup −1}.

  12. Carbon nanotube-based labels for highly sensitive colorimetric and aggregation-based visual detection of nucleic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ai Cheng; Ye, Jian-Shan; Ngin Tan, Swee; Poenar, Daniel P.; Sheu, Fwu-Shan; Kiat Heng, Chew; Meng Lim, Tit

    2007-11-01

    A novel carbon nanotube (CNT) derived label capable of dramatic signal amplification of nucleic acid detection and direct visual detection of target hybridization has been developed. Highly sensitive colorimetric detection of human acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) related oncogene sequences amplified by the novel CNT-based label was demonstrated. Atomic force microscope (AFM) images confirmed that a monolayer of horseradish peroxidase and detection probe molecules was immobilized along the carboxylated CNT carrier. The resulting CNT labels significantly enhanced the nucleic acid assay sensitivity by at least 1000 times compared to that of conventional labels used in enzyme-linked oligosorbent assay (ELOSA). An excellent detection limit of 1 × 10-12 M (60 × 10-18 mol in 60 µl) and a four-order wide dynamic range of target concentration were achieved. Hybridizations using these labels were coupled to a concentration-dependent formation of visible dark aggregates. Targets can thus be detected simply with visual inspection, eliminating the need for expensive and sophisticated detection systems. The approach holds promise for ultrasensitive and low cost visual inspection and colorimetric nucleic acid detection in point-of-care and early disease diagnostic application.

  13. A fully roll-to-roll gravure-printed carbon nanotube-based active matrix for multi-touch sensors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wookyu; Koo, Hyunmo; Sun, Junfeng; Noh, Jinsoo; Kwon, Kye-Si; Yeom, Chiseon; Choi, Younchang; Chen, Kevin; Javey, Ali; Cho, Gyoujin

    2015-12-04

    Roll-to-roll (R2R) printing has been pursued as a commercially viable high-throughput technology to manufacture flexible, disposable, and inexpensive printed electronic devices. However, in recent years, pessimism has prevailed because of the barriers faced when attempting to fabricate and integrate thin film transistors (TFTs) using an R2R printing method. In this paper, we report 20 × 20 active matrices (AMs) based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with a resolution of 9.3 points per inch (ppi) resolution, obtained using a fully R2R gravure printing process. By using SWCNTs as the semiconducting layer and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) as the substrate, we have obtained a device yield above 98%, and extracted the key scalability factors required for a feasible R2R gravure manufacturing process. Multi-touch sensor arrays were achieved by laminating a pressure sensitive rubber onto the SWCNT-TFT AM. This R2R gravure printing system overcomes the barriers associated with the registration accuracy of printing each layer and the variation of the threshold voltage (Vth). By overcoming these barriers, the R2R gravure printing method can be viable as an advanced manufacturing technology, thus enabling the high-throughput production of flexible, disposable, and human-interactive cutting-edge electronic devices based on SWCNT-TFT AMs.

  14. Heating-Rate-Triggered Carbon-Nanotube-based 3-Dimensional Conducting Networks for a Highly Sensitive Noncontact Sensing Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Yanlong; Lubineau, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, flexible and transparent conductive films (TCFs) are drawing more attention for their central role in future applications of flexible electronics. Here, we report the controllable fabrication of TCFs for moisture-sensing applications based on heating-rate-triggered, 3-dimensional porous conducting networks through drop casting lithography of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) ink. How ink formula and baking conditions influence the self-assembled microstructure of the TCFs is discussed. The sensor presents high-performance properties, including a reasonable sheet resistance (2.1 kohm/sq), a high visible-range transmittance (>69%, PET = 90%), and good stability when subjected to cyclic loading (>1000 cycles, better than indium tin oxide film) during processing, when formulation parameters are well optimized (weight ratio of SWCNT to PEDOT:PSS: 1:0.5, SWCNT concentration: 0.3 mg/ml, and heating rate: 36 °C/minute). Moreover, the benefits of these kinds of TCFs were verified through a fully transparent, highly sensitive, rapid response, noncontact moisture-sensing device (5 × 5 sensing pixels).

  15. Voltage-Gated Transport of Nanoparticles across Free-Standing All-Carbon-Nanotube-Based Hollow-Fiber Membranes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Gaoliang; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Fan, Xinfei; Yu, Hongtao; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-07-15

    Understanding the mechanism underlying controllable transmembrane transport observed in biological membranes benefits the development of next-generation separation membranes for a variety of important applications. In this work, on the basis of common structural features of cell membranes, a very simple biomimetic membrane system exhibiting gated transmembrane performance has been constructed using all-carbon-nanotube (CNT)-based hollow-fiber membranes. The conductive CNT membranes with hydrophobic pore channels can be positively or negatively charged and are consequently capable of regulating the transport of nanoparticles across their pore channels by their "opening" or "closing". The switch between penetration and rejection of nanoparticles through/by CNT membranes is of high efficiency and especially allows dynamic control. The underlying mechanism is that CNT pore channels with different polarities can prompt or prevent the formation of their noncovalent interactions with charged nanoparticles, resulting in their rejection or penetration by/through the CNT membranes. The theory about noncovalent interactions and charged pore channels may provide new insight into understanding the complicated ionically and bimolecularly gated transport across cell membranes and can contribute to many other important applications beyond the water purification and resource recovery demonstrated in this study. PMID:26103999

  16. A New Carbon Nanotube-Based Breast Cancer Drug Delivery System: Preparation and In Vitro Analysis Using Paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wei; Paul, Arghya; Rodes, Laetitia; Prakash, Satya

    2015-04-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is one of the most important drugs for breast cancer; however, the drug effects are limited by its systematic toxicity and poor water solubility. Nanoparticles have been applied for delivery of cancer drugs to overcome their limitations. Toward this goal, a novel single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based drug delivery system was developed by conjugation of human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles for loading of antitumor agent PTX. The nanosized macromolecular SWNT-drug carrier (SWNT-HSA) was characterized by TEM, UV-Vis-NIR spectrometry, and TGA. The SWNT-based drug carrier displayed high intracellular delivery efficiency (cell uptake rate of 80%) in breast cancer MCF-7 cells, as examined by fluorescence-labeled drug carriers, suggesting the needle-shaped SWNT-HSA drug carrier was able to transport drugs across cell membrane despite its macromolecular structure. The drug loading on SWNT-based drug carrier was through high binding affinity of PTX to HSA proteins. The PTX formulated with SWNT-HSA showed greater growth inhibition activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells than PTX formulated with HSA nanoparticle only (cell viability of 63 vs 70% in 48 h and 53 vs 62% in 72 h). The increased drug efficacy could be driven by SWNT-mediated cell internalization. These data suggest that the developed SWNT-based antitumor agent is functional and effective. However, more studies for in vivo drug delivery efficacy and other properties are needed before this delivery system can be fully realized. PMID:27101155

  17. Analysis of malachite green in aquatic products by carbon nanotube-based molecularly imprinted - matrix solid phase dispersion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Chen, Ligang

    2015-10-01

    A simple method based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as sorbents for selective extraction of malachite green (MG) from aquatic products was developed. The MIPs were prepared by using carbon nanotube as support, MG as template, methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as crosslinker and methylene chloride as solvent. The MIPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. The isothermal adsorption, kinetics absorption and selective adsorption experiments were carried out. We optimized the extraction conditions as follows: the ratio of MIPs to sample was 2:3, the dispersion time was 15min, washing solvent was 4mL 50% aqueous methanol and elution solvent was 3mL methanol-acetic acid (98: 2, v/v). Once the MSPD process was completed, the MG extracted from aquatic products was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The detection limit of MG was 0.7μgkg(-1). The relative standard deviations of intra-day and inter-day were obtained in the range of 0.9%-4.7% and 3.4%-9.8%, respectively. In order to evaluate the applicability and reliability of the proposed method, it was applied to determine MG in different aquatic products samples including fish, shrimp, squid and crabs. The satisfied recoveries were in the range of 89.2%-104.6%. The results showed that this method is faster, simpler and makes extraction and purification in the same system. PMID:26319302

  18. Self-Adhesive and Capacitive Carbon Nanotube-Based Electrode to Record Electroencephalograph Signals From the Hairy Scalp.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Jeong Hun; Park, Cheolsoo; Hwang, Ji-Young; Hong, Joung Sook; Lee, Kwang Ho; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    We fabricated a carbon nanotube (CNT)/adhesive polydimethylsiloxane (aPDMS) composite-based dry electroencephalograph (EEG) electrode for capacitive measuring of EEG signals. As research related to brain-computer interface applications has advanced, the presence of hairs on a patient's scalp has continued to present an obstacle to recorder EEG signals using dry electrodes. The CNT/aPDMS electrode developed here is elastic, highly conductive, self-adhesive, and capable of making conformal contact with and attaching to a hairy scalp. Onto the conductive disk, hundreds of conductive pillars coated with Parylene C insulation layer were fabricated. A CNT/aPDMS layer was attached on the disk to transmit biosignals to the pillar. The top of disk was designed to be solderable, which enables the electrode to connect with a variety of commercial EEG acquisition systems. The mechanical and electrical characteristics of the electrode were tested, and the performances of the electrodes were evaluated by recording EEGs, including alpha rhythms, auditory-evoked potentials, and steady-state visually-evoked potentials. The results revealed that the electrode provided a high signal-to-noise ratio with good tolerance for motion. Almost no leakage current was observed. Although preamplifiers with ultrahigh input impedance have been essential for previous capacitive electrodes, the EEGs were recorded here by directly connecting a commercially available EEG acquisition system to the electrode to yield high-quality signals comparable to those obtained using conventional wet electrodes.

  19. A complete carbon-nanotube-based on-chip cooling solution with very high heat dissipation capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yifeng; Nabiollahi, Nabi; Wang, Teng; Wang, Shun; Hu, Zhili; Carlberg, Björn; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xiaojing; Liu, Johan

    2012-02-01

    Heat dissipation is one of the factors limiting the continuous miniaturization of electronics. In the study presented in this paper, we designed an ultra-thin heat sink using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as micro cooling fins attached directly onto a chip. A metal-enhanced CNT transfer technique was utilized to improve the interface between the CNTs and the chip surface by minimizing the thermal contact resistance and promoting the mechanical strength of the microfins. In order to optimize the geometrical design of the CNT microfin structure, multi-scale modeling was performed. A molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) was carried out to investigate the interaction between water and CNTs at the nanoscale and a finite element method (FEM) modeling was executed to analyze the fluid field and temperature distribution at the macroscale. Experimental results show that water is much more efficient than air as a cooling medium due to its three orders-of-magnitude higher heat capacity. For a hotspot with a high power density of 5000 W cm-2, the CNT microfins can cool down its temperature by more than 40 °C. The large heat dissipation capacity could make this cooling solution meet the thermal management requirement of the hottest electronic systems up to date.

  20. A complete carbon-nanotube-based on-chip cooling solution with very high heat dissipation capacity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yifeng; Nabiollahi, Nabi; Wang, Teng; Wang, Shun; Hu, Zhili; Carlberg, Björn; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xiaojing; Liu, Johan

    2012-02-01

    Heat dissipation is one of the factors limiting the continuous miniaturization of electronics. In the study presented in this paper, we designed an ultra-thin heat sink using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as micro cooling fins attached directly onto a chip. A metal-enhanced CNT transfer technique was utilized to improve the interface between the CNTs and the chip surface by minimizing the thermal contact resistance and promoting the mechanical strength of the microfins. In order to optimize the geometrical design of the CNT microfin structure, multi-scale modeling was performed. A molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) was carried out to investigate the interaction between water and CNTs at the nanoscale and a finite element method (FEM) modeling was executed to analyze the fluid field and temperature distribution at the macroscale. Experimental results show that water is much more efficient than air as a cooling medium due to its three orders-of-magnitude higher heat capacity. For a hotspot with a high power density of 5000 W cm(-2), the CNT microfins can cool down its temperature by more than 40 °C. The large heat dissipation capacity could make this cooling solution meet the thermal management requirement of the hottest electronic systems up to date. PMID:22222357

  1. Flow-induced vibration and instability of embedded double-walled carbon nanotubes based on a modified couple stress theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Liao-Liang; Wang, Yue-Sheng

    2011-03-01

    Vibration and instability of fluid-conveying double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) are investigated in this paper based on the modified couple stress theory and the Timoshenko beam theory. The microstructure-dependent Timoshenko beam model, which contains a material length scale parameter and can take the size effect into account, is employed. The Poisson's ratio effect is also included in this model. The surrounding elastic medium is described as the Winkler model characterized by the spring. The higher-order governing equations and boundary conditions are derived by using Hamilton's principle. The differential quadrature (DQ) method is employed to discretize the governing equations, which are then solved to obtain the resonant frequencies of fluid-conveying DWNTs with different boundary conditions. A detailed parametric study is conducted to study the influences of length scale parameter, Poisson's ratio, spring constant, aspect ratio of the DWNTs, velocity of the fluid and end supports on the vibration and flow-induced instability of DWNTs. Results show that the imaginary component of the frequency and the critical flow velocity of the fluid-conveying DWNTs increase with increase in the length scale parameter.

  2. Effect of a concave grid mesh in a carbon nanotube-based field emission X-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun Suk; Castro, Edward Joseph D.; Lee, Choong Hun

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Successful design using a concave grid mesh for the focusing electron. • Much better X-ray image due to the concave grid mesh. • Higher anode current efficiency using the concave grid mesh versus a flat grid mesh. - Abstract: This study introduces a simple approach to improve the X-ray image quality produced by the carbon nanotube (CNT) field emitter X-ray source by altering the geometrical shape of the grid mesh from the conventional flat shape to a concave one in a typical triode structure. The concave shape of the grid electrode increases the effective number of the grid cells in the mesh, which exerted an electric field in the direction of the emitted electrons, thereby increasing the emission current reaching the anode. Furthermore, the curved mesh (concave grid mesh), which was responsible for the extraction of electrons from the field emitter, exhibited a focusing effect on the electron beam trajectory thereby, reducing the focal spot size impinging on the anode and resulted in a better spatial resolution of the X-ray images produced.

  3. Robotic voltammetry with carbon nanotube-based sensors: a superb blend for convenient high-quality antimicrobial trace analysis.

    PubMed

    Theanponkrang, Somjai; Suginta, Wipa; Weingart, Helge; Winterhalter, Mathias; Schulte, Albert

    2015-01-01

    A new automated pharmacoanalytical technique for convenient quantification of redox-active antibiotics has been established by combining the benefits of a carbon nanotube (CNT) sensor modification with electrocatalytic activity for analyte detection with the merits of a robotic electrochemical device that is capable of sequential nonmanual sample measurements in 24-well microtiter plates. Norfloxacin (NFX) and ciprofloxacin (CFX), two standard fluoroquinolone antibiotics, were used in automated calibration measurements by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and accomplished were linear ranges of 1-10 μM and 2-100 μM for NFX and CFX, respectively. The lowest detectable levels were estimated to be 0.3±0.1 μM (n=7) for NFX and 1.6±0.1 μM (n=7) for CFX. In standard solutions or tablet samples of known content, both analytes could be quantified with the robotic DPV microtiter plate assay, with recoveries within ±4% of 100%. And recoveries were as good when NFX was evaluated in human serum samples with added NFX. The use of simple instrumentation, convenience in execution, and high effectiveness in analyte quantitation suggest the merger between automated microtiter plate voltammetry and CNT-supported electrochemical drug detection as a novel methodology for antibiotic testing in pharmaceutical and clinical research and quality control laboratories. PMID:25670899

  4. Voltage-Gated Transport of Nanoparticles across Free-Standing All-Carbon-Nanotube-Based Hollow-Fiber Membranes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Gaoliang; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Fan, Xinfei; Yu, Hongtao; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-07-15

    Understanding the mechanism underlying controllable transmembrane transport observed in biological membranes benefits the development of next-generation separation membranes for a variety of important applications. In this work, on the basis of common structural features of cell membranes, a very simple biomimetic membrane system exhibiting gated transmembrane performance has been constructed using all-carbon-nanotube (CNT)-based hollow-fiber membranes. The conductive CNT membranes with hydrophobic pore channels can be positively or negatively charged and are consequently capable of regulating the transport of nanoparticles across their pore channels by their "opening" or "closing". The switch between penetration and rejection of nanoparticles through/by CNT membranes is of high efficiency and especially allows dynamic control. The underlying mechanism is that CNT pore channels with different polarities can prompt or prevent the formation of their noncovalent interactions with charged nanoparticles, resulting in their rejection or penetration by/through the CNT membranes. The theory about noncovalent interactions and charged pore channels may provide new insight into understanding the complicated ionically and bimolecularly gated transport across cell membranes and can contribute to many other important applications beyond the water purification and resource recovery demonstrated in this study.

  5. Heating-Rate-Triggered Carbon-Nanotube-based 3-Dimensional Conducting Networks for a Highly Sensitive Noncontact Sensing Device

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Yanlong; Lubineau, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, flexible and transparent conductive films (TCFs) are drawing more attention for their central role in future applications of flexible electronics. Here, we report the controllable fabrication of TCFs for moisture-sensing applications based on heating-rate-triggered, 3-dimensional porous conducting networks through drop casting lithography of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) ink. How ink formula and baking conditions influence the self-assembled microstructure of the TCFs is discussed. The sensor presents high-performance properties, including a reasonable sheet resistance (2.1 kohm/sq), a high visible-range transmittance (>69%, PET = 90%), and good stability when subjected to cyclic loading (>1000 cycles, better than indium tin oxide film) during processing, when formulation parameters are well optimized (weight ratio of SWCNT to PEDOT:PSS: 1:0.5, SWCNT concentration: 0.3 mg/ml, and heating rate: 36 °C/minute). Moreover, the benefits of these kinds of TCFs were verified through a fully transparent, highly sensitive, rapid response, noncontact moisture-sensing device (5 × 5 sensing pixels). PMID:26818091

  6. Development of a Carbon Nanotube-Based Touchscreen Capable of Multi-Touch and Multi-Force Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wonhyo; Oh, Haekwan; Kwak, Yeonhwa; Park, Kwangbum; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Kim, Kunnyun

    2015-01-01

    A force sensing touchscreen, which detects touch point and touch force simultaneously by sensing a change in electric capacitance, was designed and fabricated. It was made with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) which have better mechanical and chemical characteristics than the indium-tin-oxide transparent electrodes used in most contemporary touchscreen devices. The SWCNTs, with a transmittance of about 85% and electric conductivity of 400 Ω per square; were coated and patterned on glass and polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) film substrates. The constructed force sensing touchscreen has a total size and thickness of 62 mm × 100 mm × 1.4 mm, and is composed of 11 driving line and 19 receiving line channels. The gap between the channels was designed to be 20 µm, taking visibility into consideration, and patterned by a photolithography and plasma etching processes. The mutual capacitance formed by the upper and lower transparent electrodes was initially about 2.8 pF and, on applying a 500 gf force with a 3 mm diameter tip, it showed a 25% capacitance variation. Furthermore, the touchscreen can detect multiple touches and forces simultaneously and is unaffected by touch material characteristics, such as conductance or non-conductance. PMID:26580617

  7. Impact of cation-π interactions on the cell voltage of carbon nanotube-based Li batteries.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shaohua; Shi, Guosheng; Fang, Haiping

    2016-01-21

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based Li batteries have attracted wide attention because of their high capacity, high cyclability and high energy density and are believed to be one of the most promising electrochemical energy storage systems. In CNT-based Li batteries, the main interaction between the Li(+) ions and the CNT is the cation-π interaction. However, up to now, it is still not clear how this interaction affects the storage characteristics of CNT-based Li batteries. Here, using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we report a highly favorable impact of cation-π interactions on the cell voltage of CNT-based Li batteries. Considering both Li(+)-π interaction and Li-π interaction, we show that cell voltage enhances with the increase of the CNT diameter. In addition, when the Li(+) ion adsorbs on the external wall, the cell voltage is larger than that when it adsorbs on the internal wall. This suggests that CNTs with a large diameter and a low array density are more advantageous to enhance storage performance of CNT-based Li batteries. Compared with Li(+) ions on the (4,4) CNT internal wall, the cell voltage of Li(+) on the (10,10) CNT external wall is 0.55 V higher, which indicates an improvement of about 38%. These results will be helpful for the design of more efficient CNT-based Li batteries.

  8. Process synthesis and optimization for the production of carbon nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Iyuke, S E; Mamvura, T A; Liu, K; Sibanda, V; Meyyappan, M; Varadan, V K

    2009-09-16

    A swirled fluidized bed chemical vapour deposition (SFCVD) reactor has been manufactured and optimized to produce carbon nanostructures on a continuous basis using in situ formation of floating catalyst particles by thermal decomposition of organometallic ferrocene. During the process optimization, carbon nanoballs were produced in the absence of a catalyst at temperatures higher than 1000 degrees C, while carbon nanofibres, single-walled carbon nanotubes, helical carbon nanotubes, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and carbon nanofibres (CNFs) were produced in the presence of a catalyst at lower temperatures of between 750 and 900 degrees C. The optimum conditions for producing carbon nanostructures were a temperature of 850 degrees C, acetylene flow rate of 100 ml min(-1), and acetylene gas was used as the carbon source. All carbon nanostructures produced have morphologies and diameters ranging from 15 to 200 nm and wall thicknesses between 0.5 and 0.8 nm. In comparison to the quantity of MWCNTs produced with other methods described in the literature, the SFCVD technique was superior to floating catalytic CVD (horizontal fixed bed) and microwave CVD but inferior to rotary tube CVD. PMID:19706958

  9. Process synthesis and optimization for the production of carbon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyuke, S. E.; Mamvura, T. A.; Liu, K.; Sibanda, V.; Meyyappan, M.; Varadan, V. K.

    2009-09-01

    A swirled fluidized bed chemical vapour deposition (SFCVD) reactor has been manufactured and optimized to produce carbon nanostructures on a continuous basis using in situ formation of floating catalyst particles by thermal decomposition of organometallic ferrocene. During the process optimization, carbon nanoballs were produced in the absence of a catalyst at temperatures higher than 1000 °C, while carbon nanofibres, single-walled carbon nanotubes, helical carbon nanotubes, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and carbon nanofibres (CNFs) were produced in the presence of a catalyst at lower temperatures of between 750 and 900 °C. The optimum conditions for producing carbon nanostructures were a temperature of 850 °C, acetylene flow rate of 100 ml min-1, and acetylene gas was used as the carbon source. All carbon nanostructures produced have morphologies and diameters ranging from 15 to 200 nm and wall thicknesses between 0.5 and 0.8 nm. In comparison to the quantity of MWCNTs produced with other methods described in the literature, the SFCVD technique was superior to floating catalytic CVD (horizontal fixed bed) and microwave CVD but inferior to rotary tube CVD.

  10. Impact of cation-π interactions on the cell voltage of carbon nanotube-based Li batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shaohua; Shi, Guosheng; Fang, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based Li batteries have attracted wide attention because of their high capacity, high cyclability and high energy density and are believed to be one of the most promising electrochemical energy storage systems. In CNT-based Li batteries, the main interaction between the Li+ ions and the CNT is the cation-π interaction. However, up to now, it is still not clear how this interaction affects the storage characteristics of CNT-based Li batteries. Here, using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we report a highly favorable impact of cation-π interactions on the cell voltage of CNT-based Li batteries. Considering both Li+-π interaction and Li-π interaction, we show that cell voltage enhances with the increase of the CNT diameter. In addition, when the Li+ ion adsorbs on the external wall, the cell voltage is larger than that when it adsorbs on the internal wall. This suggests that CNTs with a large diameter and a low array density are more advantageous to enhance storage performance of CNT-based Li batteries. Compared with Li+ ions on the (4,4) CNT internal wall, the cell voltage of Li+ on the (10,10) CNT external wall is 0.55 V higher, which indicates an improvement of about 38%. These results will be helpful for the design of more efficient CNT-based Li batteries.Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based Li batteries have attracted wide attention because of their high capacity, high cyclability and high energy density and are believed to be one of the most promising electrochemical energy storage systems. In CNT-based Li batteries, the main interaction between the Li+ ions and the CNT is the cation-π interaction. However, up to now, it is still not clear how this interaction affects the storage characteristics of CNT-based Li batteries. Here, using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we report a highly favorable impact of cation-π interactions on the cell voltage of CNT-based Li batteries. Considering both Li+-π interaction and Li

  11. Dual stimulation of antigen presenting cells using carbon nanotube-based vaccine delivery system for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hatem A F M; Smyth, Lesley; Wang, Julie T-W; Costa, Pedro M; Ratnasothy, Kulachelvy; Diebold, Sandra S; Lombardi, Giovanna; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T

    2016-10-01

    Although anti-cancer immuno-based combinatorial therapeutic approaches have shown promising results, efficient tumour eradication demands further intensification of anti-tumour immune response. With the emerging field of nanovaccinology, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have manifested prominent potentials as tumour antigen nanocarriers. Nevertheless, the utilization of MWNTs in co-delivering antigen along with different types of immunoadjuvants to antigen presenting cells (APCs) has not been investigated yet. We hypothesized that harnessing MWNT for concurrent delivery of cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG) and anti-CD40 Ig (αCD40), as immunoadjuvants, along with the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) could potentiate immune response induced against OVA-expressing tumour cells. We initially investigated the effective method to co-deliver OVA and CpG using MWNT to the APC. Covalent conjugation of OVA and CpG prior to loading onto MWNTs markedly augmented the CpG-mediated adjuvanticity, as demonstrated by the significantly increased OVA-specific T cell responses in vitro and in C57BL/6 mice. αCD40 was then included as a second immunoadjuvant to further intensify the immune response. Immune response elicited in vitro and in vivo by OVA, CpG and αCD40 was significantly potentiated by their co-incorporation onto the MWNTs. Furthermore, MWNT remarkably improved the ability of co-loaded OVA, CpG and αCD40 in inhibiting the growth of OVA-expressing B16F10 melanoma cells in subcutaneous or lung pseudo-metastatic tumour models. Therefore, this study suggests that the utilization of MWNTs for the co-delivery of tumour-derived antigen, CpG and αCD40 could be a competent approach for efficient tumours eradication.

  12. A continuum model with a percolation threshold and tunneling-assisted interfacial conductivity for carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yang; Weng, George J.; Meguid, Shaker A.; Hamouda, Abdel Magid

    2014-05-21

    A continuum model that possesses several desirable features of the electrical conduction process in carbon-nanotube (CNT) based nanocomposites is developed. Three basic elements are included: (i) percolation threshold, (ii) interface effects, and (iii) tunneling-assisted interfacial conductivity. We approach the first one through the selection of an effective medium theory. We approach the second one by the introduction of a diminishing layer of interface with an interfacial conductivity to build a 'thinly coated' CNT. The third one is introduced through the observation that interface conductivity can be enhanced by electron tunneling which in turn can be facilitated with the formation of CNT networks. We treat this last issue in a continuum fashion by taking the network formation as a statistical process that can be represented by Cauchy's probability density function. The outcome is a simple and yet widely useful model that can simultaneously capture all these fundamental characteristics. It is demonstrated that, without considering the interface effect, the predicted conductivity would be too high, and that, without accounting for the additional contribution from the tunneling-assisted interfacial conductivity, the predicted conductivity beyond the percolation threshold would be too low. It is with the consideration of all three elements that the theory can fully account for the experimentally measured data. We further use the developed model to demonstrate that, despite the anisotropy of the intrinsic CNT conductivity, it is its axial component along the CNT direction that dominates the overall conductivity. This theory is also proved that, even with a totally insulating matrix, it is still capable of delivering non-zero conductivity beyond the percolation threshold.

  13. Development of tomographic imaging systems using carbon-nanotube-based field-emission x-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian

    2005-11-01

    Conventional thermionic x-ray sources use hot filament cathodes to generate electrons for x-ray production. The thermionic technology has several inherent limitations such as high operating temperature, slow response time, and difficulty for miniaturization. On the other hand, field emission provides an alternative to generate electrons without all these limitations. The concept of field emission x-ray source has been proposed and tested in the early 1970s. Unfortunately all of the early field emission x-ray systems failed due primarily to the limitations on the electron field emitters. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have recently emerged as a promising class of electron emissive materials and field emission x-ray source based on CNTs are expected to have significantly improved properties. We have recently developed a CNT-based field emission micro-focus x-ray source. It shows stable tube current under high operating voltage, extraordinary dynamic imaging capability, and excellent potential for miniaturization. All of these new features make it very attractive for various potential industrial and medical applications. In order to demonstrate its applications, two sets of x-ray imaging systems using this field emission x-ray source were constructed in our lab. One is a micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging system using a single field emission x-ray source for dynamic radiographic and tomographic imaging applications. It shows great potential for the future development of dynamic micro-CT scanner. The other one is a multi-beam field emission x-ray source with multiple addressable focal spots which can provide scanning x-ray beams without mechanical movement. It can lead to fast data acquisition rates for future tomographic imaging systems with a simplified experimental set-up.

  14. Recycled diesel carbon nanoparticles for nanostructured battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuming; Liu, Chang; Sun, Xiaoxuan; Ye, Han; Cheung, Chunshun; Zhou, Limin

    2015-02-01

    Considerable attention has been devoted to using rational nanostructure design to address critical carbonaceous anode material issues for next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, the fabrication of nanostructured carbonaceous anode materials often involves complex processes and expensive starting materials. Diesel engine is an important source of nanostructured carbon particles with diameters ranging 20 nm-60 nm suspended in air, resulting in a serious scourge of global climate and a series of diseases such as lung cancer, asthma, and cardiovascular disease. Here, we show that diesel carbon nanoparticles collected from diesel engines can be chemically activated to create a porous structure. The resulting nanostructured carbon electrodes have a high specific capacity of 936 mAh g-1 after 40 cycles at 0.05 A/g, and excellent cycle stability while retaining a capacity of ∼210 mAh g-1 after 1200 cycles at 5 A/g. As recycled diesel carbon nanoparticles are readily available due to the several billion tons of diesel fuel consumed every year by diesel engines, their use represents an exciting source for nanostructured carbonaceous anode materials for high-performance LIBs and improves our environment and health.

  15. Treating Brain Tumor with Microbeam Radiation Generated by a Compact Carbon-Nanotube-Based Irradiator: Initial Radiation Efficacy Study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hong; Zhang, Lei; Frank, Jonathan E.; Inscoe, Christina R.; Burk, Laurel M.; Hadsell, Mike; Lee, Yueh Z.; Lu, Jianping; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Microbeam radiation treatment (MRT) using synchrotron radiation has shown great promise in the treatment of brain tumors, with a demonstrated ability to eradicate the tumor while sparing normal tissue in small animal models. With the goal of expediting the advancement of MRT research beyond the limited number of synchrotron facilities in the world, we recently developed a compact laboratory-scale microbeam irradiator using carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission-based X-ray source array technology. The focus of this study is to evaluate the effects of the microbeam radiation generated by this compact irradiator in terms of tumor control and normal tissue damage in a mouse brain tumor model. Mice with U87MG human glioblastoma were treated with sham irradiation, low-dose MRT, high-dose MRT or 10 Gy broad-beam radiation treatment (BRT). The microbeams were 280 µm wide and spaced at 900 µm center-to-center with peak dose at either 48 Gy (low-dose MRT) or 72 Gy (high-dose MRT). Survival studies showed that the mice treated with both MRT protocols had a significantly extended life span compared to the untreated control group (31.4 and 48.5% of life extension for low- and high-dose MRT, respectively) and had similar survival to the BRT group. Immunostaining on MRT mice demonstrated much higher DNA damage and apoptosis level in tumor tissue compared to the normal brain tissue. Apoptosis in normal tissue was significantly lower in the low-dose MRT group compared to that in the BRT group at 48 h postirradiation. Interestingly, there was a significantly higher level of cell proliferation in the MRT-treated normal tissue compared to that in the BRT-treated mice, indicating rapid normal tissue repairing process after MRT. Microbeam radiation exposure on normal brain tissue causes little apoptosis and no macrophage infiltration at 30 days after exposure. This study is the first biological assessment on MRT effects using the compact CNT-based irradiator. It provides an alternative

  16. Hierarchical carbon nanostructure design: ultra-long carbon nanofibers decorated with carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mel, A. A.; Achour, A.; Xu, W.; Choi, C. H.; Gautron, E.; Angleraud, B.; Granier, A.; Le Brizoual, L.; Djouadi, M. A.; Tessier, P. Y.

    2011-10-01

    Hierarchical carbon nanostructures based on ultra-long carbon nanofibers (CNF) decorated with carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been prepared using plasma processes. The nickel/carbon composite nanofibers, used as a support for the growth of CNT, were deposited on nanopatterned silicon substrate by a hybrid plasma process, combining magnetron sputtering and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of spherical nanoparticles randomly dispersed within the carbon nanofibers. The nickel nanoparticles have been used as a catalyst to initiate the growth of CNT by PECVD at 600 °C. After the growth of CNT onto the ultra-long CNF, SEM imaging revealed the formation of hierarchical carbon nanostructures which consist of CNF sheathed with CNTs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that reducing the growth temperature of CNT to less than 500 °C leads to the formation of carbon nanowalls on the CNF instead of CNT. This simple fabrication method allows an easy preparation of hierarchical carbon nanostructures over a large surface area, as well as a simple manipulation of such material in order to integrate it into nanodevices.

  17. Hierarchical carbon nanostructure design: ultra-long carbon nanofibers decorated with carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    El Mel, A A; Achour, A; Xu, W; Choi, C H; Gautron, E; Angleraud, B; Granier, A; Le Brizoual, L; Djouadi, M A; Tessier, P Y

    2011-10-28

    Hierarchical carbon nanostructures based on ultra-long carbon nanofibers (CNF) decorated with carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been prepared using plasma processes. The nickel/carbon composite nanofibers, used as a support for the growth of CNT, were deposited on nanopatterned silicon substrate by a hybrid plasma process, combining magnetron sputtering and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of spherical nanoparticles randomly dispersed within the carbon nanofibers. The nickel nanoparticles have been used as a catalyst to initiate the growth of CNT by PECVD at 600°C. After the growth of CNT onto the ultra-long CNF, SEM imaging revealed the formation of hierarchical carbon nanostructures which consist of CNF sheathed with CNTs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that reducing the growth temperature of CNT to less than 500°C leads to the formation of carbon nanowalls on the CNF instead of CNT. This simple fabrication method allows an easy preparation of hierarchical carbon nanostructures over a large surface area, as well as a simple manipulation of such material in order to integrate it into nanodevices. PMID:21971265

  18. Microstructures and Nanostructures for Environmental Carbon Nanotubes and Nanoparticulate Soots

    PubMed Central

    Murr, L. E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the microstructures and nanostructures for natural (mined) chrysotile asbestos nanotubes (Mg3 Si2O5 (OH)4) in comparison with commercial multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), utilizing scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Black carbon (BC) and a variety of specific soot particulate (aggregate) microstructures and nanostructures are also examined comparatively by SEM and TEM. A range of MWCNTs collected in the environment (both indoor and outdoor) are also examined and shown to be similar to some commercial MWCNTs but to exhibit a diversity of microstructures and nanostructures, including aggregation with other multiconcentric fullerenic nanoparticles. MWCNTs formed in the environment nucleate from special hemispherical graphene “caps” and there is evidence for preferential or energetically favorable chiralities, tube growth, and closing. The multiconcentric graphene tubes (∼5 to 50 nm diameter) differentiate themselves from multiconcentric fullerenic nanoparticles and especially turbostratic BC and carbonaceous soot nanospherules (∼8 to 80 nm diameter) because the latter are composed of curved graphene fragments intermixed or intercalated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) isomers of varying molecular weights and mass concentrations; depending upon combustion conditions and sources. The functionalizing of these nanostructures and photoxidation and related photothermal phenomena, as these may influence the cytotoxicities of these nanoparticulate aggregates, will also be discussed in the context of nanostructures and nanostructure phenomena, and implications for respiratory health. PMID:19151426

  19. Carbon Nanostructures Grown on Fe-Cr-Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čaplovičová, Mária; Čaplovič, Ľubomír; Búc, Dalibor; Vinduška, Peter; Janík, Ján

    2010-11-01

    The morphology and nanostructure of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), synthesized directly on Fe-Cr-Al-based alloy substrate using an alcohol catalytic chemical vapour deposition method (ACCVD), were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The grown CNTs were entangled with chain-like, bamboo-like, and necklace-like morphologies. The CNT morphology was affected by the elemental composition of catalysts and local instability of deposition process. Straight and bended CNTs with bamboo-like nanostructure grew mainly on γ-Fe and Fe3C particles. The synthesis of necklace-like nanostructures was influenced by silicon oxide, and growth of chain-like nanostructures was supported by a catalysts consisting of Fe, Si, oxygen and trace of Cr. Most of nanotubes grew according to base growth mechanism.

  20. Thermal properties of graphene and nanostructured carbon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balandin, Alexander A.

    2011-08-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid growth of interest by the scientific and engineering communities in the thermal properties of materials. Heat removal has become a crucial issue for continuing progress in the electronic industry, and thermal conduction in low-dimensional structures has revealed truly intriguing features. Carbon allotropes and their derivatives occupy a unique place in terms of their ability to conduct heat. The room-temperature thermal conductivity of carbon materials span an extraordinary large range -- of over five orders of magnitude -- from the lowest in amorphous carbons to the highest in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Here, I review the thermal properties of carbon materials focusing on recent results for graphene, carbon nanotubes and nanostructured carbon materials with different degrees of disorder. Special attention is given to the unusual size dependence of heat conduction in two-dimensional crystals and, specifically, in graphene. I also describe the prospects of applications of graphene and carbon materials for thermal management of electronics.

  1. Carbon nanotubes for stabilization of nanostructured lipid particles.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, Nicholas P; Patil-Sen, Yogita; Baker, Matthew J; Kulkarni, Chandrashekhar V

    2015-01-21

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are increasingly studied for innovative biotechnological applications particularly where they are combined with essential biological materials like lipids. Lipids have been used earlier for enhancing the dispersibility of CNTs in aqueous solutions. Here we report a novel application of CNTs for stabilization of internally self-assembled nanostructured lipid particles of 2-5 μm size. Single-walled (pristine) as well as -OH and -COOH functionalized multi-walled CNTs were employed to produce nanostructured emulsions which stayed stable for months and could be re-dispersed after complete dehydration. Concentrations of CNTs employed for stabilization were very low; moreover CNTs were well-decorated with lipid molecules. These features contribute towards reducing their toxicity and improving biocompatibility for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Our approach paves the way for future development of combination therapies employing both CNTs and nanostructured lipid self-assembly together as carriers of different drugs.

  2. Growth of Carbon Nanostructure Materials Using Laser Vaporization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehozeky, S.

    2000-01-01

    Since the potential applications of carbon nanotubes (CNT) was discovered in many fields, such as non-structure electronics, lightweight composite structure, and drug delivery, CNT has been grown by many techniques in which high yield single wall CNT has been produced by physical processes including arc vaporization and laser vaporization. In this presentation, the growth mechanism of the carbon nanostructure materials by laser vaporization is to be discussed. Carbon nanoparticles and nanotubes have been synthesized using pulsed laser vaporization on Si substrates in various temperatures and pressures. Two kinds of targets were used to grow the nanostructure materials. One was a pure graphite target and the other one contained Ni and Co catalysts. The growth temperatures were 600-1000 C and the pressures varied from several torr to 500 torr. Carbon nanoparticles were observed when a graphite target was used, although catalysts were deposited on substrates before growing carbon films. When the target contains catalysts, carbon nanotubes (CNT) are obtained. The CNT were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, optical absorption and transmission, and Raman spectroscopy. The temperature-and pressure-dependencies of carbon nanotubes' growth rate and size were investigated.

  3. Integrated Carbon Nanostructures for Detection of Neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Sainio, Sami; Palomäki, Tommi; Tujunen, Noora; Protopopova, Vera; Koehne, Jessica; Kordas, Krisztian; Koskinen, Jari; Meyyappan, M; Laurila, Tomi

    2015-10-01

    Carbon-based materials, such as diamond-like carbon (DLC), carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), are inherently interesting for neurotransmitter detection due to their good biocompatibility, low cost and relatively simple synthesis. In this paper, we report on new carbon-hybrid materials, where either CNTs or CNFs are directly grown on top of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C). We show that these hybrid materials have electrochemical properties that not only combine the best characteristics of the individual "building blocks" but their synergy makes the electrode performance superior compared to conventional carbon based electrodes. By combining ta-C with CNTs, we were able to realize electrode materials that show wide and stable water window, almost reversible electron transfer properties and high sensitivity and selectivity for detecting dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid. Furthermore, the sensitivity of ta-C + CNF hybrids towards dopamine as well as glutamate has been found excellent paving the road for actual in vivo measurements. The wide and stable water window of these sensors enables detection of other neurotransmitters besides DA as well as capability of withstanding higher potentials without suffering from oxygen and hydrogen evolution. PMID:26093378

  4. Electron Field Emission from Nanostructured Carbon Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sanju

    2005-03-01

    Fabricating small structures has almost become fashionable and the rationale is that reducing one or more dimensions below some critical length changes the systems' physical properties drastically, where nanocrystalline diamond (n-D) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the class of advanced carbon materials serve model examples. Emission of electrons at room temperature - cold electron emitters - are of vital importance for a variety of vacuum microelectronic devices - electron microscopes, photo multipliers, X-ray generators, lamps, and flat panel displays and microwave cathodes. Electron emitters may lead to otherwise difficult to obtain advantages in performance and/or design. This is the driving force to investigate the carbon-related materials as cold cathodes. In this talk, the performance of various forms of carbon in thin film form including diamond, n-D, and vertically aligned CNTs as cold cathodes for their potential use in field emission displays (FEDs) in terms of I-V characteristics and corresponding spatial imaging will be presented. Physics based models such as, NEA, surface modification, geometric enhancement, and microstructure alteration due to particle bombardment, and doping, will be described to support the experimental observations of electron field enhancement (low turn-on voltage, high current and emission site density) and its reliability from the abovementioned carbon-related materials. Other vacuum device applications such as thermionic power generators will be mentioned briefly.

  5. Quantifying Energetics of Topological Frustration in Carbon Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Bullard, Zachary; Costa Girao, Eduardo; Daniels, Colin; Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, V.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a graph theoretical formalism to account for the fact that sp2 carbon can become spin ordered or generate free radicals for purely topological reasons. The graph theory method is combined with open-density-functional theory calculations to establish the existence of a universal energy of frustration term that is shown to greatly improve the description of carbon nanostructure energetics using classical force-fields. The methodology is illustrated for a number of systems and, owing to the small computational overhead associated, is shown to be easily integratable into any modeling approach based on an adjacency matrix.

  6. Equilibrium Configurations of Lipid Bilayer Membranes and Carbon Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivaïlo, M. Mladenov; Peter, A. Djondjorov; Mariana, Ts. Hadzhilazova; Vassil, M. Vassilev

    2013-02-01

    The present article concerns the continuum modelling of the mechanical behaviour and equilibrium shapes of two types of nano-scale objects: fluid lipid bilayer membranes and carbon nanostructures. A unified continuum model is used to handle four different case studies. Two of them consist in representing in analytic form cylindrical and axisymmetric equilibrium configurations of single-wall carbon nanotubes and fluid lipid bilayer membranes subjected to uniform hydrostatic pressure. The third one is concerned with determination of possible shapes of junctions between a single-wall carbon nanotube and a fiat graphene sheet or another single-wall carbon nanotube. The last one deals with the mechanical behaviour of closed fluid lipid bilayer membranes (vesicles) adhering onto a fiat homogeneous rigid substrate subjected to micro-injection and uniform hydrostatic pressure.

  7. Controlled modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with Zno nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiuying; Xia Baiying; Zhu Xingfu; Chen Jiesheng; Qiu Shilun; Li Jixue

    2008-04-15

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been successfully modified with ZnO nanostructures by zinc-ammonitum complex ion covalently attached to the MWNTs through the C-N bonds. Flower-like ZnO on the tips of MWNTs and ZnO nanoparticles on the surface of MWNTs have been obtained, respectively, via adjusting the reaction time. The modified MWNTs have been characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. A growth mechanism has been proposed in which the soaking time plays a key role in controlling the size, morphology, and site of ZnO nanostructures. Photoluminescence properties of the as-synthesized products have also been investigated. - Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT)/flower-like ZnO heterojunctions and MWNT/ZnO nanoparticle composites were prepared by zinc-ammonitum complex ion covalently attached to the MWNTs through the C-N bonds via adjusting the reaction time. A growth mechanism has been proposed in which the soaking time plays a key role in controlling the size, morphology, and site of ZnO nanostructures.

  8. Hybrid Carbon-Based Nanostructured Platforms for the Advanced Bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Levchenko, I; Mai-Prochnow, A; Yick, S; Bilek, M M M; Kondyurin, A; Han, Z J; Fang, J; Cvelbar, U; Mariotti, D; Ostrikov, K

    2015-12-01

    Mankind faces several global challenges such as chronic and acute hunger, global poverty, energy deficiency and environment conservation. Common biotechnologies based on batch, fluidbed and other similar processes are now extensively used for the production of a wide range of products such as antibiotics, biofuels, cultured and fermented food products. Unfortunately, these processes suffer from low efficiency, high energy demand, low controllability and rapid biocatalyst degradation by microbiological attack, and thus still are not capable of seriously addressing the global hunger and energy deficiency challenges. Moreover, sustainable future technologies require minimizing the environmental impact of toxic by-products by implementing the "life produces organic matter, organic matter sustains life" principle. Nanostructure-based biotechnology is one of the most promising approaches that can help to solve these challenges. In this work we briefly review the unique features of the carbon-based nanostructured platforms, with some attention paid to other nanomaterials. We discuss the main building blocks and processes to design and fabricate novel platforms, with a focus on dense arrays of the vertically-aligned nanostructures, mainly carbon nanotubes and graphene. Advantages and disadvantages of these systems are considered. PMID:26682454

  9. Fabrication and characterization of carbon and boron carbide nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynaud, Sara

    Carbon is present in nature in a variety of allotropes and chemical compounds. Due to reduced dimensionality, nanostructured carbon materials, i.e. single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), are characterized by unique physical and chemical properties. There is a potential for SWNTs use as biological probes and assists for tunable tissue growth in biomedical applications. However, the presumed cytotoxicity of SWNTs requires investigation of the risks of their incorporation into living systems. Boron is not found in nature in elementary form. Boron based materials are chemically complex and exist in various polymorphic forms, i.e. boron carbide (BC). Because BC is a lightweight material with exceptional mechanical and elastic properties, it is the ideal candidate for armor and ballistic applications. However, practical use of BC as armor material is limited because of its anomalous glass-like behaviour at high velocity impacts, which has been linked to stress-induced structural instability in one of BC polymorphs, B12(CCC). Theoretical calculations suggest that formation of B12(CCC) in BC could be suppressed by silicon doping. In the first part of this thesis, biocompatibility of SWNTs is investigated. It is shown that under normal cell implantation conditions, the electrical conductivity of the SWNTs decreases due to an increase in structural disorder. This research suggests that SWNTs can be functionalized by protein and biological cells reducing the risk of cytotoxicity. In the second part of this thesis, boron carbide nanostructured materials are synthesized and investigated. Radio frequency sputtering deposition technique is employed for fabrication of BC (Si free) and BC:Si thin films. Variation of plasma conditions and temperature are found to affect chemical composition, adhesion to the substrate and morphology of the films. It is shown that BC films are predominantly amorphous and a small addition of Si largely improves their mechanical properties. In addition

  10. Passivity and electrocatalysis of nanostructured nickel encapsulated in carbon.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Gareth E; Chin, Xiao-Yao; Burstein, G Tim

    2011-07-28

    Metallic nickel is a powerful electrocatalyst in alkaline solution and is able to be used in the alkaline fuel cell. However, in acidic solution, electrocatalysis is impossible because the metal is subject to rapid corrosion at low pH for all potentials at which an acidic fuel cell would operate. Here we report the synthesis and passive nature of a nickel-carbon nanostructured material which shows electrocatalytic activity. A thin film composed of nickel and carbon prepared by co-sputtering a graphite target partially covered with a nickel foil shows remarkable passivity against corrosion when polarized in hot sulphuric acid. The film, which contains 21 atom-% nickel, also shows significant electrocatalysis of the hydrogen oxidation reaction, and therefore forms the basis of a new type of fuel cell anode catalyst. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) reveals a nanostructure of carbon-encapsulated nickel nanocrystals of ≤ca. 4 nm diameter. The passive nature of the material against corrosion is due to protection generated by the presence of a very thin carbon-rich layer encapsulating the nanoparticulate catalyst: this is a new form of passivation. PMID:21695331

  11. Structurally uniform and atomically precise carbon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segawa, Yasutomo; Ito, Hideto; Itami, Kenichiro

    2016-01-01

    Nanometre-sized carbon materials consisting of benzene units oriented in unique geometric patterns, hereafter named nanocarbons, conduct electricity, absorb and emit light, and exhibit interesting magnetic properties. Spherical fullerene C60, cylindrical carbon nanotubes and sheet-like graphene are representative forms of nanocarbons, and theoretical simulations have predicted several exotic 3D nanocarbon structures. At present, synthetic routes to nanocarbons mainly lead to mixtures of molecules with a range of different structures and properties, which cannot be easily separated or refined into pure forms. Some researchers believe that it is impossible to synthesize these materials in a precise manner. Obtaining ‘pure’ nanocarbons is a great challenge in the field of nanocarbon science, and the construction of structurally uniform nanocarbons, ideally as single molecules, is crucial for the development of functional materials in nanotechnology, electronics, optics and biomedical applications. This Review highlights the organic chemistry approach — more specifically, bottom-up construction with atomic precision — that is currently the most promising strategy towards this end.

  12. Carbon nanotubes for stabilization of nanostructured lipid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaunt, Nicholas P.; Patil-Sen, Yogita; Baker, Matthew J.; Kulkarni, Chandrashekhar V.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are increasingly studied for innovative biotechnological applications particularly where they are combined with essential biological materials like lipids. Lipids have been used earlier for enhancing the dispersibility of CNTs in aqueous solutions. Here we report a novel application of CNTs for stabilization of internally self-assembled nanostructured lipid particles of 2-5 μm size. Single-walled (pristine) as well as -OH and -COOH functionalized multi-walled CNTs were employed to produce nanostructured emulsions which stayed stable for months and could be re-dispersed after complete dehydration. Concentrations of CNTs employed for stabilization were very low; moreover CNTs were well-decorated with lipid molecules. These features contribute towards reducing their toxicity and improving biocompatibility for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Our approach paves the way for future development of combination therapies employing both CNTs and nanostructured lipid self-assembly together as carriers of different drugs.Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are increasingly studied for innovative biotechnological applications particularly where they are combined with essential biological materials like lipids. Lipids have been used earlier for enhancing the dispersibility of CNTs in aqueous solutions. Here we report a novel application of CNTs for stabilization of internally self-assembled nanostructured lipid particles of 2-5 μm size. Single-walled (pristine) as well as -OH and -COOH functionalized multi-walled CNTs were employed to produce nanostructured emulsions which stayed stable for months and could be re-dispersed after complete dehydration. Concentrations of CNTs employed for stabilization were very low; moreover CNTs were well-decorated with lipid molecules. These features contribute towards reducing their toxicity and improving biocompatibility for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Our approach paves the way for future development

  13. Functionalized carbon nanostructures for hydrogen catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lung-Hao

    Sodium borohydride, NaBH4, is widely used as a source of pure hydrogen. Hydrogen is of interest because it is a source of clean energy. It can be converted directly into electrical energy by means of fuel cells. One of the objectives of this thesis was to develop a new catalytic process to (i) enhance the rate of hydrogen generation, and (ii) to achieve hydrogen generation equal to 100% of the theoretically expected value. The catalyst investigated in this research is constructed by starting from single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT). This material has a very high specific surface area and good conductivity. The SWNT were formed into a paper by a special filtration process. Polysilazane, a polymeric precursor (Ceraset(TM)-SN from KiON Corp., Wiesbaden, Germany) was diluted by acetone and then layered onto SWNT paper. The Ceraset coated SWNT was then pyrolyzed at 1100°C for three hours to form a silicon carbonitride (SiCN), polymer derived ceramic (PDC), layer on the surface of SWNT filtered paper. This functionalized SiCN carbon nanotube paper (SiCN/CNT) was used as the substrate for catalyst dispersions. The catalyst consisted of transition metals, Pt/Pd/Ru. Suspension solutions of Pt, Pd and Ru were impregnated onto the SiCN/CNT paper with the expectation of creating a monolayer of these transition metals on surface of the SiCN/CNT substrate. It is likely that an interaction could occur between the transition metals and the silicon atoms present in the SiCN layer on the surface of the carbon nanotubes. It is known that transition metals and silicon react to form silicides, suggesting the formation of a strong Si-transition metal bond. Therefore, it is possible that this bond could provide good wetting of metal atoms on SiCN functionalized carbon nanotube substrate. In the limit a monolayer of the transition metals may be achieved, which would correspond to a near zero dihedral angle between the substrate and the cluster of transition metals. In such a scenario a

  14. Benzoxazine resin/carbon nanotube nanostructured composite's degradation kinetic.

    PubMed

    Untem, Flávia O; Botelho, Edson C; Rezende, Mirabel C; Costa, Michelle Leali

    2014-07-01

    In the last decades a new class of thermoset phenolic resin is emerging as a substitute of the traditional epoxy and phenolic resins in the aircraft industry. This new class is called polybenzoxazines and its associates the epoxy resin's mechanical properties and phenolic resin's thermal and flame retardant properties, resulting in a resin with superior properties when analyzed with the others singly. The introduction of carbon nanotubes in low concentration into polymeric matrices can produce nanostructured materials with good properties. Thus, in this study, nanostructured composites of benzoxazine resin were processed with different concentration of carbon nanotubes (0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% w/w). In order to evaluate the thermostability of the benzoxazine resin and its nanostructured composites, it was performed a degradation kinetic study using the thermogravimetric technique. For that, the analysis have been done with the temperature ranging from 25 degrees C to 1000 degrees C at nitrogen atmosphere (100 mL x min(-1)) and in different heating rates (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 20 degrees C x min(-1)), in order to obtain the kinetic parameters (activation energy, E(a), and pre-exponential factor, A), based on Ozawa-Wall-Flynn model. The results showed excellent agreement between the thermogravimetric curves obtained and the Ozawa-Wall-Flynn method. The degradation kinetic study showed that the introduction of carbon nanotubes in the benzoxazine matrix does not change the thermostability of the resin, so that it does not have a significant influence in the shelf life of the material.

  15. Fluid flow through carbon nanotubes and graphene based nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmassebi, Amirhessam

    The investigation into the behavior of the fluids in nanoscale channels, such as carbon nanotubes leads us to a new approach in the field of nanoscience. This is referred to as nano-fluidics, which can be used in nano-scale filtering and as nano-pipes for conveying fluids. The behavior of fluids in nano-fluidic devices is very different from the corresponding behavior in microscopic and macroscopic channels. In this study, we investigate the fluid flow through carbon nanotubes and graphene based nanostructures using a molecular dynamics (MD) method at a constant temperature. Three different models were created which contain single-walled carbon nanotube, graphene, and a combination of both. Liquid argon is used as fluid in the system. In the previous investigations, they were considered bombarding the atoms towards the carbon nanotubes like bullets from a gun, and due to the interactions, they lost most of their momentum. Thus, the chance for the atoms to pass through the carbon nanotube was very low. Here, we employed a new approach using a moving graphene wall to push the argon fluid towards the confinements of the systems. By performing this method, we have tried to make a continuum flow to find out how the physical quantities such as, position, velocity, pressure, and energy change when the fluid flow reaches the confinements of the systems.

  16. Nanostructured carbon and carbon nanocomposites for electrochemical energy storage applications.

    PubMed

    Su, Dang Sheng; Schlögl, Robert

    2010-02-22

    Electrochemical energy storage is one of the important technologies for a sustainable future of our society, in times of energy crisis. Lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors with their high energy or power densities, portability, and promising cycling life are the cores of future technologies. This Review describes some materials science aspects on nanocarbon-based materials for these applications. Nanostructuring (decreasing dimensions) and nanoarchitecturing (combining or assembling several nanometer-scale building blocks) are landmarks in the development of high-performance electrodes for with long cycle lifes and high safety. Numerous works reviewed herein have shown higher performances for such electrodes, but mostly give diverse values that show no converging tendency towards future development. The lack of knowledge about interface processes and defect dynamics of electrodes, as well as the missing cooperation between material scientists, electrochemists, and battery engineers, are reasons for the currently widespread trial-and-error strategy of experiments. A concerted action between all of these disciplines is a prerequisite for the future development of electrochemical energy storage devices.

  17. Wire Up on Carbon Nanostructures! How To Play a Winning Game.

    PubMed

    Marchesan, Silvia; Melchionna, Michele; Prato, Maurizio

    2015-10-27

    Carbon nanotubes and graphene possess a unique extended π-system that makes them stand out among carbon nanostructures. The resulting electronic properties enable electron or charge flow along one or two directions, respectively, thus offering the opportunity to connect electronically different entities that come into contact, be they living cells or catalytic systems. Using these carbon nanostructures thus holds great promise in providing innovative solutions to address key challenges in the fields of medicine and energy. Here, we discuss how chemical functionalization of these carbon nanostructures is a crucial tool to master their properties and deliver innovation. PMID:26390071

  18. Improvement of capacitive performances of symmetric carbon/carbon supercapacitors by addition of nanostructured polypyrrole powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhaddad, L.; Gamby, J.; Makhloufi, L.; Pailleret, A.; Pillier, F.; Takenouti, H.

    2016-03-01

    A nanostructured polypyrrole powder was synthesized in a previous work from the oxidation of pyrrole by a nanostructured MnO2 powder used simultaneously as an oxidizing agent and a sacrificial template in a redox heterogeneous mechanism. In this study, this original PPy powder was used as an active additive material with different ratio in carbon/carbon symmetrical supercapacitors whose performances were studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using a Swagelok-type cell. From the EIS spectra, the complex capacitance was extracted using a model involving two Cole-Cole type complex capacitances linked in series. The specific capacitance values evaluated by EIS and cyclic voltammetry are in a good agreement between them. The results show that the addition of nanostructured polypyrrole powder improves significantly the specific capacitance of the carbon electrode and consequently the performances of carbon/carbon supercapacitors. The original and versatile synthesis method used to produce this polypyrrole powder appears to be attractive for large scale production of promising additives for electrode materials of supercapacitors.

  19. Modification of nanostructured calcium carbonate for efficient gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong; Wang, Chao-Qun; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Cheng, Si-Xue

    2014-06-01

    In this study, a facile method to modify nanostructured calcium carbonate (CaCO3) gene delivery systems by adding calcium phosphate (CaP) component was developed. CaCO3/CaP/DNA nanoparticles were prepared by the co-precipitation of Ca(2+) ions with plasmid DNA in the presence of carbonate and phosphate ions. For comparison, CaCO3/DNA nanoparticles and CaP/DNA co-precipitates were also prepared. The effects of carbonate ion/phosphate ion (CO3(2-)/PO4(3-)) ratio on the particle size and gene delivery efficiency were investigated. With an appropriate CO3(2-)/PO4(3-) ratio, the co-existence of carbonate and phosphate ions could control the size of co-precipitates effectively, and CaCO3/CaP/DNA nanoparticles with a decreased size and improved stability could be obtained. The in vitro gene transfections mediated by different nanoparticles in 293T cells and HeLa cells were carried out, using pGL3-Luc as a reporter plasmid. The gene transfection efficiency of CaCO3/CaP/DNA nanoparticles could be significantly improved as compared with CaCO3/DNA nanoparticles and CaP/DNA co-precipitates. The confocal microscopy study indicated that the cellular uptake and nuclear localization of CaCO3/CaP/DNA nanoparticles were significantly enhanced as compared with unmodified CaCO3/DNA nanoparticles.

  20. Selective Cell Growth on Fibronectin-Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namgung, Seon; Park, Sung Young; Lee, Byung Yang; Lee, Minbaek; Nam, Jwa-Min; Hong, Seunghun

    2008-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been considered a promising material for biological applications including biosensors, therapeutic application, and nano-structured scaffolds. However, there are still controversies associated with toxicity and biocompatibility of CNTs on live cells. Here, we report general strategy to functionalize CNTs with cell adhesion molecules (fibronectins) for selective and stable adhesion of cells on CNTs. Interestingly, more fibronectins were adsorbed and activated on CNTs rather than on hydrophobic self assembled monolayers (SAMs) or bare substrates (SiO2). We demonstrate the functionality of fibronectins on CNTs with immunofluorescence and molecule-level force measurement study using atomic force microscopy (AFM). These fibronectin-CNT hybrid nanostructures were successfully applied to attract cells selectively onto predefined regions on the substrate. Our strategy was generally available on various cell types including mesenchymal stem cells, KB cells, and NIH3T3 fibroblast cells (Advanced Materials 19, 2530-2534 (2007)). We will also discuss about its impacts on cell biology combined with CNTs.

  1. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-μm-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100-270 nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500 nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600 nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies.

  2. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-μm-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100–270 nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500 nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600 nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies. PMID:26568414

  3. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-μm-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100-270 nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500 nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600 nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies. PMID:26568414

  4. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-11-01

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-μm-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100-270 nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500 nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600 nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies.

  5. Magnetic carbon nanostructures: microwave energy-assisted pyrolysis vs. conventional pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiahua; Pallavkar, Sameer; Chen, Minjiao; Yerra, Narendranath; Luo, Zhiping; Colorado, Henry A; Lin, Hongfei; Haldolaarachchige, Neel; Khasanov, Airat; Ho, Thomas C; Young, David P; Wei, Suying; Guo, Zhanhu

    2013-01-11

    Magnetic carbon nanostructures from microwave assisted- and conventional-pyrolysis processes are compared. Unlike graphitized carbon shells from conventional heating, different carbon shell morphologies including nanotubes, nanoflakes and amorphous carbon were observed. Crystalline iron and cementite were observed in the magnetic core, different from a single cementite phase from the conventional process.

  6. Preparation and characterization of photocatalytic carbon dots-sensitized electrospun titania nanostructured fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Haopeng; Zhu, Yihua; Cao, Huimin; Yang, Xiaoling; Li, Chunzhong

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► The TiO{sub 2}-CDs nanostructured fibers are fabricated by using APS combining the electrospinning TiO{sub 2} nanostructured fibers and CDs. ► The CD can work as a photosensitizer in the degradation of rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. ► The TiO{sub 2}-CDs nanostructured fibers exhibit enhanced photocatalytic efficiency and can be easily handled and recycled. -- Abstract: The carbon dots (CDs) are new functional carbon-aceous materials. Compared to conventional dye molecules and semiconductor quantum dots, CDs are superior in chemical inertness and low toxicity. The TiO{sub 2}-CDs nanostructured fibers were fabricated by combining the electrospinning technique and reflux method. Compared with the pure TiO{sub 2} nanostructured fibers and P25, the TiO{sub 2}-CDs nanostructured fibers exhibited enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}-CDs nanostructured fibers could be attributed to the presence of CDs embedded in TiO{sub 2} nanostructured fibers. The CD can work as a photosensitizer in the degradation. Furthermore, the TiO{sub 2}-CDs nanostructured fibers could be easily handled and recycled due to their one-dimensional nanostructural property.

  7. Self-assembly of double helical nanostructures inside carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Cheng; Xue, Qingzhong; Shan, Meixia; Jing, Nuannuan; Ling, Cuicui; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Jiao, Zhiyong; Xing, Wei; Yan, Zifeng

    2013-05-01

    We use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to show that a DNA-like double helix of two poly(acetylene) (PA) chains can form inside single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The computational results indicate that SWNTs can activate and guide the self-assembly of polymer chains, allowing them to adopt a helical configuration in a SWNT through the combined action of the van der Waals potential well and the π-π stacking interaction between the polymer and the inner surface of SWNTs. Meanwhile both the SWNT size and polymer chain stiffness determine the outcome of the nanostructure. Furthermore, we also found that water clusters encourage the self-assembly of PA helical structures in the tube. This molecular model may lead to a better understanding of the formation of a double helix biological molecule inside SWNTs. Alternatively, it could form the basis of a novel nanoscale material by utilizing the `empty' spaces of SWNTs.We use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to show that a DNA-like double helix of two poly(acetylene) (PA) chains can form inside single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The computational results indicate that SWNTs can activate and guide the self-assembly of polymer chains, allowing them to adopt a helical configuration in a SWNT through the combined action of the van der Waals potential well and the π-π stacking interaction between the polymer and the inner surface of SWNTs. Meanwhile both the SWNT size and polymer chain stiffness determine the outcome of the nanostructure. Furthermore, we also found that water clusters encourage the self-assembly of PA helical structures in the tube. This molecular model may lead to a better understanding of the formation of a double helix biological molecule inside SWNTs. Alternatively, it could form the basis of a novel nanoscale material by utilizing the `empty' spaces of SWNTs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr33157h

  8. Remarkable enhancement of the electrical conductivity of carbon nanostructured thin films after compression.

    PubMed

    Georgakilas, Vasilios; Koutsioukis, Apostolos; Petr, Martin; Tucek, Jiri; Zboril, Radek

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a significant improvement in the electrical conductivity of carbon nanostructured thin films, composed of graphene nanosheets and multiwalled carbon nanotubes, by compression/polishing. It is shown that the sheet resistance of compressed thin films of carbon nanostructures and hybrids is remarkably decreased in comparison with that of as-deposited films. The number of the interconnections, the distance between the nanostructures as well as their orientation are highly altered by the compression favoring the electrical conductivity of the compressed samples.

  9. Integration of inorganic nanostructures with polydopamine-derived carbon: tunable morphologies and versatile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Junhua; Seyed Shahabadi, Seyed Ismail; Lu, Xuehong

    2016-01-01

    Polydopamine (PDA), a mussel adhesive-inspired biomimetic polymer, has attracted tremendous attention owing to its extremely versatile adhesion properties, facile aqueous coating process, capability of self-assembly to form nanostructures, and abundant surface functional groups for secondary modification. PDA is also a fantastic carbon source because it gives nitrogen (N)-doped graphite-like carbon in high yield, and the carbonized PDA (C-PDA) thin coatings have similar properties to those of N-doped multilayered graphene, i.e., they exhibit high electrical conductivity, and good electrochemical and mechanical properties. In comparison with other carbon sources, an outstanding feature of PDA lies in its ease of integration with inorganic nanostructures and capability for easy tailoring the structure and morphology of the resultant composite nanostructures. In this article, different routes for the preparation of C-PDA-based composite nanostructures, such as carbon/metal oxide and carbon/Si hollow, mesoporous, core-shell, yolk-shell nanostructures, are introduced with typical examples. The structures, morphologies and properties of the C-PDA-based composite nanostructures are also reviewed, and their potential applications in various engineering fields, such as energy storage, solar water splitting, flexible electronics, catalysis, sensing and environmental engineering, are highlighted. Finally a future outlook for this fascinating composite-nanostructure enabler is also presented.

  10. Preparation and electrochemical characterization of NiO nanostructure-carbon nanowall composites grown on carbon cloth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsuan-Chen; Chang, Hsin-Yueh; Su, Wei-Jhih; Lee, Kuei-Yi; Shih, Wen-Ching

    2012-09-01

    This study provided a simple method to form NiO nanostructures onto the carbon nanowalls (CNWs) surface to enhance the performance of electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) characteristics. The CNWs were synthesized on carbon cloth by rf magnetron sputtering without any catalyst. Ni film was then deposited on the synthesized CNWs by e-beam evaporator. Subsequently, the vacuum annealing process and oxygen plasma treatment were used to form the NiO nanostructures. The crystallize structures of NiO nanostructures and CNWs were examined by Raman scattering spectroscopy. To realize the electrochemical properties of NiO/CNWs/carbon cloth composite, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests were investigated. Due to the relatively larger surface area of CNWs and the quickly reversible redox reaction and pseudo-capacitive properties of NiO nanostructures, the measured results demonstrated that the NiO/CNWs/carbon cloth is a suitable electrode material for EDLC applications.

  11. Growth of hybrid carbon nanostructures on iron-decorated ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbuyisa, Puleng N.; Rigoni, Federica; Sangaletti, Luigi; Ponzoni, Stefano; Pagliara, Stefania; Goldoni, Andrea; Ndwandwe, Muzi; Cepek, Cinzia

    2016-04-01

    A novel carbon-based nanostructured material, which includes carbon nanotubes (CNTs), porous carbon, nanostructured ZnO and Fe nanoparticles, has been synthetized using catalytic chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of acetylene on vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs). The deposition of Fe before the CVD process induces the presence of dense CNTs in addition to the variety of nanostructures already observed on the process done on the bare NRs, which range from amorphous graphitic carbon up to nanostructured dendritic carbon films, where the NRs are partially or completely etched. The combination of scanning electron microscopy and in situ photoemission spectroscopy indicate that Fe enhances the ZnO etching, and that the CNT synthesis is favoured by the reduced Fe mobility due to the strong interaction between Fe and the NRs, and to the presence of many defects, formed during the CVD process. Our results demonstrate that the resulting new hybrid shows a higher sensitivity to ammonia gas at ambient conditions (∼60 ppb) than the carbon nanostructures obtained without the aid of Fe, the bare ZnO NRs, or other one-dimensional carbon nanostructures, making this system of potential interest for environmental ammonia monitoring. Finally, in view of the possible application in nanoscale optoelectronics, the photoexcited carrier behaviour in these hybrid systems has been characterized by time-resolved reflectivity measurements.

  12. Growth of hybrid carbon nanostructures on iron-decorated ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Mbuyisa, Puleng N; Rigoni, Federica; Sangaletti, Luigi; Ponzoni, Stefano; Pagliara, Stefania; Goldoni, Andrea; Ndwandwe, Muzi; Cepek, Cinzia

    2016-04-01

    A novel carbon-based nanostructured material, which includes carbon nanotubes (CNTs), porous carbon, nanostructured ZnO and Fe nanoparticles, has been synthetized using catalytic chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of acetylene on vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs). The deposition of Fe before the CVD process induces the presence of dense CNTs in addition to the variety of nanostructures already observed on the process done on the bare NRs, which range from amorphous graphitic carbon up to nanostructured dendritic carbon films, where the NRs are partially or completely etched. The combination of scanning electron microscopy and in situ photoemission spectroscopy indicate that Fe enhances the ZnO etching, and that the CNT synthesis is favoured by the reduced Fe mobility due to the strong interaction between Fe and the NRs, and to the presence of many defects, formed during the CVD process. Our results demonstrate that the resulting new hybrid shows a higher sensitivity to ammonia gas at ambient conditions (∼60 ppb) than the carbon nanostructures obtained without the aid of Fe, the bare ZnO NRs, or other one-dimensional carbon nanostructures, making this system of potential interest for environmental ammonia monitoring. Finally, in view of the possible application in nanoscale optoelectronics, the photoexcited carrier behaviour in these hybrid systems has been characterized by time-resolved reflectivity measurements. PMID:26916977

  13. Self-rewetting fluids with suspended carbon nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Savino, R; Di Paola, R; Gattia, D Mirabile; Marazzi, R; Antisari, M Vittori

    2011-10-01

    Thermal management is very important in modern electronic systems. Recent researches have been dedicated to the study of the heat transfer performances of binary or multi-component heat transfer fluids with peculiar surface tension properties and in particular to "self-rewetting fluids," i.e., liquids with a surface tension increasing with temperature and concentration. Thermophysical properties like surface tension, wettability and thermal conductivity, at different temperatures, have been measured not only for binary mixtures, but also for a number of ternary aqueous solutions with relatively low freezing point and for nanoparticles suspensions (so called nanofluids). Some of them interestingly exhibit the same anomalous positive surface tension gradient with temperature as binary self-rewetting solutions. Since in the course of liquid/vapour phase change, self-rewetting fluids behaviour induces a rather strong liquid inflow (caused by both temperature and concentration gradients) from the cold region (where liquid condensates) to the hot evaporator region, several interesting applications may be envisaged, e.g., the development of advanced wickless heat pipes for utilization in reduced gravity environments. The present work is dedicated to the study of the thermophysical properties of nanofluids based on water/alcohol solutions with suspended carbon nanostructures, in particular single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWNH), synthesised by an homemade apparatus with an AC arc discharge in open air. The potential interest of the proposed studies stems from the large number of possible industrial applications, including space technologies and terrestrial applications, such as cooling of electronic components. PMID:22400286

  14. Saturated vs. unsaturated hydrocarbon interactions with carbon nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Umadevi, Deivasigamani; Sastry, G. Narahari

    2014-01-01

    The interactions of various acyclic and cyclic hydrocarbons in both saturated and unsaturated forms with the carbon nanostructures (CNSs) have been explored by using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Model systems representing armchair and zigzag carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have been considered to investigate the effect of chirality and curvature of the CNSs toward these interactions. Results of this study reveal contrasting binding nature of the acyclic and cyclic hydrocarbons toward CNSs. While the saturated molecules show stronger binding affinity in acyclic hydrocarbons; the unsaturated molecules exhibit higher binding affinity in cyclic hydrocarbons. In addition, acyclic hydrocarbons exhibit stronger binding affinity toward the CNSs when compared to their corresponding cyclic counterparts. The computed results excellently corroborate the experimental observations. The interaction of hydrocarbons with graphene is more favorable when compared with CNTs. Bader's theory of atoms in molecules has been invoked to characterize the noncovalent interactions of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Our results are expected to provide useful insights toward the development of rational strategies for designing complexes with desired noncovalent interaction involving CNSs. PMID:25232539

  15. Saturated versus unsaturated hydrocarbon interactions with carbon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umadevi, Deivasigamani; Sastry, G. Narahari

    2014-09-01

    The interactions of various acyclic and cyclic hydrocarbons in both saturated and unsaturated forms with the carbon nanostructures (CNSs) have been explored by using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Model systems representing armchair and zigzag carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have been considered to investigate the effect of chirality and curvature of the CNSs towards these interactions. Results of this study reveal contrasting binding nature of the acyclic and cyclic hydrocarbons towards CNSs. While the saturated molecules show stronger binding affinity in acyclic hydrocarbons; the unsaturated molecules exhibit higher binding affinity in cyclic hydrocarbons. In addition, acyclic hydrocarbons exhibit stronger binding affinity towards the CNSs when compared to their corresponding cyclic counterparts. The computed results excellently corroborate the experimental observations. The interaction of hydrocarbons with graphene is more favourable when compared with CNTs. Bader’s theory of atoms in molecules has been invoked to characterize the noncovalent interactions of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Our results are expected to provide useful insights towards the development of rational strategies for designing complexes with desired noncovalent interaction involving CNSs.

  16. Free-Standing 2-D Graphene Carbon Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Brian; Quinlan, Ronald; Hou, Kun

    2008-03-01

    Carbon nanosheets -- a new, free-standing, two-dimensional carbon nanostructure -- have been deposited on a metal, semiconductor, and insulating substrates by RF PECVD. Raman, SEM, TEM, SAED, XPS, AES, FTIR, and XRD all indicate that nanosheets are graphite sheets up to 8 μm in height but <=1 nm in edge thickness. The nanosheets stand off the growth substrate in a manner similar to aligned nanotubes grown by CVD. In contrast to nanotubes, nanosheets do not require catalyst for growth and can be patterned after deposition using standard lithographic techniques. Hydrogen etching promotes the formation of the atomically thin structures while the anisotropic dipole created in the graphene planes by the plasma sheath promotes the vertical orientation. Due to their uniform height and the large number of edge emission sites, nanosheets have proven to be excellent field emitters. Nanosheet samples have produced up to 33 mA of current (32 mm^2 sample area); similar nanosheet samples have sustained 1.3 mA of current over 200 hours of testing with no degradation.

  17. Electrochemical Behavior of Carbon Nanostructured Electrodes: Graphene, Carbon Nanotubes, and Nanocrystalline Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raut, Akshay Sanjay

    The primary goals of this research were to investigate the electrochemical behavior of carbon nanostructures of varying morphology, identify morphological characteristics that improve electrochemical capacitance for applications in energy storage and neural stimulation, and engineer and characterize a boron-­doped diamond (BDD) electrode based electrochemical system for disinfection of human liquid waste. Carbon nanostructures; ranging from vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphenated carbon nanotubes (g-­CNTs) to carbon nanosheets (CNS); were synthesized using a MPECVD system. The nanostructures were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. In addition to employing commonly used electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), a new technique was developed to evaluate the energy and power density of individual electrodes. This facilitated comparison of a variety of electrode materials without having to first develop complex device packaging schemes. It was found that smaller pore size and higher density of carbon foliates on a three-dimensional scaffold of carbon nanotubes increased specific capacitance. A design of experiments (DOE) study was conducted to explore the parametric space of the MWCNT system. A range of carbon nanostructures of varying morphology were obtained. It was observed that the capacitance was dependent on defect density. Capacitance increased with defect density. A BDD electrode was characterized for use in a module designed to disinfect human liquid waste as a part of a new advanced energy neutral, water and additive-free toilet designed for treating waste at the point of source. The electrode was utilized in a batch process system that generated mixed oxidants from ions present in simulated urine and inactivated E. Coli bacteria. Among the mixed oxidants, the concentration of chlorine species was measured and was

  18. Nanostructured copper phthalocyanine-sensitized multiwall carbon nanotube films.

    PubMed

    Hatton, Ross A; Blanchard, Nicholas P; Stolojan, Vlad; Miller, Anthony J; Silva, S Ravi P

    2007-05-22

    We report a detailed study of the interaction between surface-oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (o-MWCNTs) and the molecular semiconductor tetrasulfonate copper phthalocyanine (TS-CuPc). Concentrated dispersions of o-MWCNT in aqueous solutions of TS-CuPc are stable toward nanotube flocculation and exhibit spontaneous nanostructuring upon rapid drying. In addition to hydrogen-bonding interactions, the compatibility between the two components is shown to result from a ground-state charge-transfer interaction with partial charge transfer from o-MWCNT to TS-CuPc molecules orientated such that the plane of the macrocycle is parallel to the nanotube surface. The electronegativity of TS-CuPc as compared to unsubsubtituted copper phthalocyanine is shown to result from the electron-withdrawing character of the sulfonate substituents, which increase the molecular ionization potential and promote cofacial molecular aggregation upon drying. Upon spin casting to form uniform thin films, the experimental evidence is consistent with an o-MWCNT scaffold decorated with phthalocyanine molecules self-assembled into extended aggregates reminiscent of 1-D linearly stacked phthalocyanine polymers. Remarkably, this self-organization occurs in a fraction of a second during the spin-coating process. To demonstrate the potential utility of this hybrid material, it is successfully incorporated into a model organic photovoltaic cell at the interface between a poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester bulk heterojunction layer and an indium-tin oxide-coated glass electrode to increase the light-harvesting capability of the device and facilitate hole extraction. The resulting enhancement in power conversion efficiency is rationalized in terms of the electronic, optical, and morphological properties of the nanostructured thin film. PMID:17439261

  19. Nanostructured copper phthalocyanine-sensitized multiwall carbon nanotube films.

    PubMed

    Hatton, Ross A; Blanchard, Nicholas P; Stolojan, Vlad; Miller, Anthony J; Silva, S Ravi P

    2007-05-22

    We report a detailed study of the interaction between surface-oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (o-MWCNTs) and the molecular semiconductor tetrasulfonate copper phthalocyanine (TS-CuPc). Concentrated dispersions of o-MWCNT in aqueous solutions of TS-CuPc are stable toward nanotube flocculation and exhibit spontaneous nanostructuring upon rapid drying. In addition to hydrogen-bonding interactions, the compatibility between the two components is shown to result from a ground-state charge-transfer interaction with partial charge transfer from o-MWCNT to TS-CuPc molecules orientated such that the plane of the macrocycle is parallel to the nanotube surface. The electronegativity of TS-CuPc as compared to unsubsubtituted copper phthalocyanine is shown to result from the electron-withdrawing character of the sulfonate substituents, which increase the molecular ionization potential and promote cofacial molecular aggregation upon drying. Upon spin casting to form uniform thin films, the experimental evidence is consistent with an o-MWCNT scaffold decorated with phthalocyanine molecules self-assembled into extended aggregates reminiscent of 1-D linearly stacked phthalocyanine polymers. Remarkably, this self-organization occurs in a fraction of a second during the spin-coating process. To demonstrate the potential utility of this hybrid material, it is successfully incorporated into a model organic photovoltaic cell at the interface between a poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester bulk heterojunction layer and an indium-tin oxide-coated glass electrode to increase the light-harvesting capability of the device and facilitate hole extraction. The resulting enhancement in power conversion efficiency is rationalized in terms of the electronic, optical, and morphological properties of the nanostructured thin film.

  20. Non-faradic carbon nanotube-based supercapacitors: state of the art. Analysis of all the main scientific contributions from 1997 to our days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondavalli, P.; Pribat, D.; Schnell, J.-P.; Delfaure, C.; Gorintin, L.; Legagneux, P.; Baraton, L.; Galindo, C.

    2012-10-01

    This contribution deals with the state of the art of studies concerning the fabrication of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) also called super- or ultracapacitors and obtained using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) without exploiting Faradic reactions. From the first work published in 1997, EDLCs fabricated using carbon nanotubes as constitutive material for electrodes showed very interesting characteristics. It appeared that they could potentially outperform traditional technologies based on activated carbon. Different methods to fabricate the CNT-based electrodes have been proposed in order to improve the performances (mainly energy densities and power densities), for example filtration, direct growth on metal collector or deposition using an air-brush technique. In this contribution we will introduce the main works in the field. Finally, we will point out an emerging interest for supercapacitors fabricated on flexible substrates, exploiting the outstanding mechanical performances of CNTs, for new kinds of applications such as portable electronics.

  1. Electrodes synthesized from carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal metal adlayer

    DOEpatents

    Adzic, Radoslav; Harris, Alexander

    2014-04-15

    High-surface-area carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin metal films and their method of manufacture are described. The preferred manufacturing process involves the initial oxidation of the carbon nanostructures followed by a surface preparation process involving immersion in a solution with the desired pH to create negative surface dipoles. The nanostructures are subsequently immersed in an alkaline solution containing a suitable quantity of non-noble metal ions which adsorb at surface reaction sites. The metal ions are then reduced via chemical or electrical means. The nanostructures are exposed to a solution containing a salt of one or more noble metals which replace adsorbed non-noble surface metal atoms by galvanic displacement. The process can be controlled and repeated to obtain a desired film coverage. The resulting coated nanostructures may be used, for example, as high-performance electrodes in supercapacitors, batteries, or other electric storage devices.

  2. Synthesis and chemical modification of carbon nanostructures for materials applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginbotham, Amanda Lynn

    This dissertation explores the structure, chemical reactivities, electromagnetic response, and materials properties of various carbon nanostructures, including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphite, and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Efficient production and modification of these unique structures, each with their own distinct properties, will make them more accessible for applications in electronics, materials, and biology. A method is reported for controlling the permittivity from 1--1000 MHz of SWCNT-polymer composites (0.5 wt%) for radio frequency applications including passive RF antenna structures and EMI shielding. The magnitude of the real permittivity varied between 20 and 3.3, decreasing as higher fractions of functionalized-SWCNTs were added. The microwave absorbing properties and subsequent heating of carbon nanotubes were used to rapidly cure ceramic composites. With less than 1 wt% carbon nanotube additives and 30--40 W of directed microwave power (2.45 GHz), bulk composite samples reached temperatures above 500°C within 1 min. Graphite oxide (GO) polymer nanocomposites were developed at 1, 5, and 10 wt% for the purpose of evaluating the flammability reduction and materials properties of the resulting systems. Microscale oxygen consumption calorimetry revealed that addition of GO reduced the total heat release in all systems, and GO-polycarbonate composites demonstrated very fast self-extinguishing times in vertical open flame tests. A simple solution-based oxidative process using potassium permanganate in sulfuric acid was developed for producing nearly 100% yield of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) by lengthwise cutting and unraveling of MWCNT sidewalls. Subsequent chemical reduction of the GNRs resulted in restoration of electrical conductivity. The GNR synthetic conditions were investigated in further depth, and an improved method which utilized a two-acid reaction medium was found to produce GNRs with

  3. Developments in Analytical Chemistry: Acoustically Levitated Drop Reactors for Enzyme Reaction Kinetics and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Sensors for Detection of Toxic Organic Phosphonates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Christopher Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Developments in analytical chemistry were made using acoustically levitated small volumes of liquid to study enzyme reaction kinetics and by detecting volatile organic compounds in the gas phase using single-walled carbon nanotubes. Experience gained in engineering, electronics, automation, and software development from the design and…

  4. Formation of Carbon Nanostructures in Cobalt- and Nickel-Doped Carbon Aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, R; Baumann, T F; Cronin, S; Dresselhaus, G; Dresselhaus, M; Satcher, Jr., J H

    2004-11-09

    We have prepared carbon aerogels (CAs) doped with cobalt or nickel through sol-gel polymerization of formaldehyde with the potassium salt of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, followed by ion-exchange with M(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} (where M = Co{sup 2+} or Ni{sup 2+}), supercritical drying with liquid CO{sub 2} and carbonization at temperatures between 400 C and 1050 C under an N{sub 2} atmosphere. The nanostructures of these metal-doped carbon aerogels were characterized by elemental analysis, nitrogen adsorption, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Metallic nickel and cobalt nanoparticles are generated during the carbonization process at about 400 C and 450 C, respectively, forming nanoparticles that are {approx}4 nm in diameter. The sizes and size dispersion of the metal particles increase with increasing carbonization temperatures for both materials. The carbon frameworks of the Ni- and Co-doped aerogels carbonized below 600 C mainly consist of interconnected carbon particles with a size of 15 to 30 nm. When the samples are pyrolyzed at 1050 C, the growth of graphitic nanoribbons with different curvatures is observed in the Ni and Co-doped carbon aerogel materials. The distance of graphite layers in the nanoribbons is about 0.38 nm. These metal-doped CAs retain the overall open cell structure of metal-free CAs, exhibiting high surface areas and pore diameters in the micro and mesoporic region.

  5. Non-covalently functionalized carbon nanostructures for synthesizing carbon-based hybrid nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiqing; Song, Sing I; Song, Ga Young; Kim, Il

    2014-02-01

    Carbon nanostructures (CNSs) such as carbon nanotubes, graphene sheets, and nanodiamonds provide an important type of substrate for constructing a variety of hybrid nanomaterials. However, their intrinsic chemistry-inert surfaces make it indispensable to pre-functionalize them prior to immobilizing additional components onto their surfaces. Currently developed strategies for functionalizing CNSs include covalent and non-covalent approaches. Conventional covalent treatments often damage the structure integrity of carbon surfaces and adversely affect their physical properties. In contrast, the non-covalent approach offers a non-destructive way to modify CNSs with desired functional surfaces, while reserving their intrinsic properties. Thus far, a number of surface modifiers including aromatic compounds, small-molecular surfactants, amphiphilic polymers, and biomacromolecules have been developed to non-covalently functionalize CNS surfaces. Mediated by these surface modifiers, various functional components such as organic species and inorganic nanoparticles were further decorated onto their surfaces, resulting in versatile carbon-based hybrid nanomaterials with broad applications in chemical engineering and biomedical areas. In this review, the recent advances in the generation of such hybrid nanostructures based on non-covalently functionalized CNSs will be reviewed. PMID:24749433

  6. Hydrogenation of carbon monoxide over nanostructured systems: A mechanochemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulas, Gabriele; Campesi, Renato; Garroni, Sebastiano; Delogu, Francesco; Milanese, Chiara

    2011-07-01

    In this study we investigated the mechanochemical hydrogenation of carbon monoxide over nanostructured FeCo- and Mg 2Ni-based catalysts. To this aim powdered materials, prepared by mechanical alloying, were subjected to mechanical treatment under CO + H 2 atmosphere. A methodology to evaluate the activity of the solid catalysts on an absolute basis was developed. Conversion data were, indeed, expressed as turnover frequency, TOF, and related to the occurrence of ball to powder collision events through the mechanochemical turnover frequency parameter, MTOF. Differences in the catalytic activity and selectivity were observed for the two FeCo-based studied systems, the solid solution Fe 50Co 50 and its dispersion on TiO 2 support. As for the Mg 2Ni system, we explored the possibility to estimate the specific role of hydrogen pre-activation step. The catalytic properties of the mechanically alloyed Mg 2Ni system were compared with the conversion data shown by the same system pre-hydrogenated and subsequently milled under CO atmosphere.

  7. Nanostructured membranes and electrodes with sulfonic acid functionalized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Bijay P.; Schieda, M.; Shahi, Vinod K.; Nunes, Suzana P.

    Herein we report the covalent functionalization of multiwall carbon nanotubes by grafting sulfanilic acid and their dispersion into sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The nanocomposites were explored as an option for tuning the proton and electron conductivity, swelling, water and alcohol permeability aiming at nanostructured membranes and electrodes for application in alcohol or hydrogen fuel cells and other electrochemical devices. The nanocomposites were extensively characterized, by studying their physicochemical and electrochemical properties. They were processed as self-supporting films with high mechanical stability, proton conductivity of 4.47 × 10 -2 S cm -1 at 30 °C and 16.8 × 10 -2 S cm -1 at 80 °C and 100% humidity level, electron conductivity much higher than for the plain polymer. The methanol permeability could be reduced to 1/20, keeping water permeability at reasonable values. The ratio of bound water also increases with increasing content of sulfonated filler, helping in keeping water in the polymer in conditions of low external humidity level.

  8. Nanostructured carbon materials based electrothermal air pump actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qing; Liu, Luqi; Kuang, Jun; Dai, Zhaohe; Han, Jinhua; Zhang, Zhong

    2014-05-01

    Actuator materials can directly convert different types of energy into mechanical energy. In this work, we designed and fabricated electrothermal air pump-type actuators by utilization of various nanostructured carbon materials, including single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), and graphene oxide (GO)/SWCNT hybrid films as heating elements to transfer electrical stimulus into thermal energy, and finally convert it into mechanical energy. Both the actuation displacement and working temperature of the actuator films show the monotonically increasing trend with increasing driving voltage within the actuation process. Compared with common polymer nanocomposites based electrothermal actuators, our actuators exhibited better actuation performances with a low driving voltage (<10 V), large generated stress (tens of MPa), high gravimetric density (tens of J kg-1), and short response time (few hundreds of milliseconds). Besides that, the pump actuators exhibited excellent stability under cyclic actuation tests. Among these actuators, a relatively larger actuation strain was obtained for the r-GO film actuator due to the intrinsic gas-impermeability nature of graphene platelets. In addition, the high modulus of the r-GO and GO/SWCNT films also guaranteed the large generated stress and high work density. Specifically, the generated stress and gravimetric work density of the GO/SWCNT hybrid film actuator could reach up to more than 50 MPa and 30 J kg-1, respectively, under a driving voltage of 10 V. The resulting stress value is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that of natural muscles (~0.4 MPa).Actuator materials can directly convert different types of energy into mechanical energy. In this work, we designed and fabricated electrothermal air pump-type actuators by utilization of various nanostructured carbon materials, including single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), and graphene oxide (GO)/SWCNT hybrid

  9. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube-based bilayer thin film as transparent counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

    PubMed

    Tantang, Hosea; Kyaw, Aung Ko Ko; Zhao, Yu; Chan-Park, Mary B; Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong; Hu, Zheng; Li, Lain-Jong; Sun, Xiao Wei; Zhang, Qichun

    2012-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely considered as one of the promising candidates for replacing fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/platinum (Pt) electrodes to reduce the fabrication cost of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Here, we report that a bilayer transparent film containing N-doped CNTs (which are highly catalytic) and normal CNTs (which are highly conductive) as a counter electrode in DSSCs results in efficiencies up to 2.18%, yet still maintains a good transparency with a transmittance of approximately 57% at 550 nm.

  10. Emission spectra analysis of arc plasma for synthesis of carbon nanostructures in various magnetic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jian; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Shashurin, Alexey; Keidar, Michael

    2012-07-15

    Arc discharge supported by the erosion of anode materials is one of the most practical and efficient methods to synthesize various high-quality carbon nanostructures. By introducing a non-uniform magnetic field in arc plasmas, high-purity single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and large-scale graphene flakes can be obtained in a single step. In this paper, ultraviolet-visible emission spectra of arc in different spots under various magnetic conditions are analyzed to provide an in situ investigation for transformation processes of evaporated species and growth of carbon nanostructures in arc. Based on the arc spectra of carbon diatomic Swan bands, vibrational temperature in arc is determined. The vibrational temperature in arc center was measured around 6950 K, which is in good agreement with our simulation results. Experimental and simulation results suggest that SWCNT are formed in the arc periphery region. Transmission electronic microscope and Raman spectroscope are also employed to characterize the properties of carbon nanostructures.

  11. Normally-ON and Normally-OFF Carbon Nanotube-based Ionic-Liquid Supercapacitor-Gated Vertical Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, Jonathan; Cook, Alexander; Bykova, Julia; Srivastav, Vidisha; Micheli, Joseph; Zakhidov, Anvar

    2014-03-01

    We report on novel implementations of the vertical organic field effect transistor (VOFET). Instead of a typical capacitor below the organic diode, a carbon nanotube (CNT) based ionic-liquid supercapacitor (or ionic gate) is on top. The present work has been motivated by the discovery that the conductivity and work function of carbon nanotubes can be strongly modified by electric double layer charging (EDLC) in an electrolyte as much as +/-0.7eV. The conductivity of EDLC CNT is enhanced by a factor of two. By coupling the ionic gate with an organic diode, charge injection into the diode can be controlled via modulation of the workfunction of the CNT electrode, resulting in transistor-like behavior. Additionally, the high capacitance of the supercapacitor will enable the VOFET to be operated at low voltages. The entire device is processed under ambient conditions with no vacuum equipment used. We have tested VOFETs with two different materials, p-type P3HT and n-type PC70BM. The polarity of the charge transported in the material determines the charge injection rate and whether the device is a normally-ON or a normally-OFF transistor. Both devices have high current transport, excellent output characteristics, good on-off ratios and low operation voltages. We believe that these novel VOFETs will have exciting potential for various future electronic applications.

  12. Properties of carbon deposits on tungsten nano-structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaji, Y.; Miyata, K.; Wada, T.; Ohtsuka, Y.; Ueda, Y.

    2013-07-01

    C deposition characteristics on W nano-structure by two different deposition methods are investigated to study C deposition mechanisms on W nano-structure and its characteristics. The two methods were as follows: irradiation by mixed D and C ion beam, and deposition by magnetron sputtering. Differences on deposition condition such as deposition temperature, incident species and energy affected properties of C deposits. Structure of C deposits was investigated by SEM and Raman spectroscopy. D retention properties were investigated by thermal desorption spectroscopy. It was found that C deposits on nano-structured surface have low internal stress and porous structure compared with C deposits on flat surfaces. Increase of CD4 release from C deposition layers on nano-structured surface was investigated by TDS. These results showed the effects of nano-structure on structure and thermal desorption properties of C deposits.

  13. Label-free detection of cardiac troponin-I using gold nanoparticles functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes based chemiresistive biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, Sharma, Vikash; Puri, Nitin K.; Singh, Rajiv K.; Biradar, Ashok M.; Mulchanadani, Ashok

    2013-11-01

    We report a specific and ultrasensitive, label-free chemiresistive biosensor based on mercaptopropionic acid capped gold nanoparticles (GNP) functionalized single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) hybrid for the detection of cardiac specific biomarker troponin-I (cTnI). GNPs were attached to SWNTs through a molecular linker 1-pyrenemethylamine. The highly specific cTnI antibody was covalently immobilized on GNPs through capping agent using carbodiimide coupling reaction. The cTnI interaction to its corresponding antibody was studied with respect to changes in conductance in SWNTs channel, and a detailed field-effect transistor characteristic was delineated. The device exhibited a linear response to cTnI from 0.01 to 10 ng ml-1.

  14. Poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(L-lactide) diblock copolymer/carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites: LiCl as supramolecular structure-directing agent.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Franck; Raquez, Jean-Marie; Verge, Pierre; Martínez de Arenaza, Inger; Coto, Borja; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Meaurio, Emilio; Dervaux, Bart; Sarasua, Jose-Ramon; Du Prez, Filip; Dubois, Philippe

    2011-11-14

    This work relies on the CNT dispersion in either solution or a polymer matrix through the formation of a three-component supramolecular system composed of PEO-b-PLLA diblock copolymer, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and lithium chloride. According to a one-pot procedure in solution, the "self-assembly" concept has demonstrated its efficiency using suspension tests of CNTs. Characterizations of the supramolecular system by photon correlation spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations highlight the charge transfer interaction from the CNTs toward the PEO-b-PLLA/LiCl complex. Finally, this concept was successfully extended in bulk (absence of solvent) via melt-processing techniques by dispersing these complexes in a commercial polylactide (PLA) matrix. Electrical conductivity measurements and transmission electron microscopy attested for the remarkable dispersion of CNTs, confirming the design of high-performance PLA-based materials. PMID:21936499

  15. Toward Carbon-Nanotube-Based Theranostic Agents for Microwave Detection and Treatment of Breast Cancer: Enhanced Dielectric and Heating Response of Tissue-Mimicking Materials

    PubMed Central

    Mashal, Alireza; Sitharaman, Balaji; Li, Xu; Avti, Pramod; Sahakian, Alan V.; Booske, John H.; Hagness, Susan C.

    2010-01-01

    The experimental results reported in this letter suggest that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have the potential to enhance dielectric contrast between malignant and normal tissue for microwave detection of breast cancer and facilitate selective heating of malignant tissue for microwave hyperthermia treatment of breast cancer. In this study, we constructed tissue-mimicking materials with varying concentrations of SWCNTs and characterized their dielectric properties and heating response. At SWCNT concentrations of less than 0.5% by weight, we observed significant increases in the relative permittivity and effective conductivity. In microwave heating experiments, we observed significantly greater temperature increases in mixtures containing SWCNTs. These temperature increases scaled linearly with the effective conductivity of the mixtures. This work is a first step towards the development of functionalized, tumor-targeting SWCNTs as theranostic (integrated therapeutic and diagnostic) agents for microwave breast cancer detection and treatment. PMID:20176534

  16. Carbon-assisted morphological manipulation of CdS nanostructures and their cathodoluminescence properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Meng; Zhai, Tianyou; Wang Xi; Liao Qing; Ma Ying; Yao, Jiannian

    2009-11-15

    CdS nanostructures with different morphologies and sizes were successfully fabricated through a facile and effective carbon-assisted thermal evaporation method. Through simply changing the positions of silicon substrates, the temperatures and the effects of carbon in different zones were modified, and thus the morphologies of CdS nanostructures were varied from multipods to nanobrushes to nanocups. These nanostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Cathodoluminescence (CL) measurement shows that the as-grown CdS nanostructures display different luminescent properties. CdS multipods and nanocups show mainly green emission centered at {approx}496 nm. However, nanobrushes exhibit predominant red emission band peaking at {approx}711 nm. These interesting results show that carbon not only affected the growth process but also influenced the properties of CdS nanostructures. - Graphical abstract: A facile and effective carbon-assisted thermal evaporation method is explored to synthesize CdS multipods, nanobrushes and nanocups. These CdS nanostructures display very different optical properties.

  17. Biofunctionalization of carbon nanostructures through enzyme immobilization in colloidal silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulet, Evan M.

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) and carbon nanopipettes (CNP) provide interesting high aspect ratio scaffolds on which to base functionally gradient materials. In this dissertation, we present a general method for the production of an enzymatically active composite material based on MWNTs. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) was applied to purified MWNTs, generating a positive electrostatic potential on the MWNTs. This positive potential was used to apply negatively charged colloidal silica particle in the presence of a high concentration of enzyme. The silica coating continued to grow via localized condensation of silica particles driven by the buffered saline conditions, immobilizing the enzyme within the coating. The mesoporous nanostructure was characterized via transmission electron microscopy. Optical spectroscopy experiments on the material employed as an active suspension showed that the immobilized enzymes horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and tyrosinase (TV) retained their activity upon incorporation into the material. Using HRP as a model enzyme, it was determined that the MWNT-HRP-Silica material showed similar pH and temperature dependencies in activity to those of free HRP in solution. An examination of the Michaelis-Menten kinetics showed that the material had a slightly higher value of KM than did free HRP. The MWNT-HRP-Silica material was also employed as an active filter membrane, which allowed us to explore the reusable nature of the material. We were able to show the denaturation of the filter due to the loss of Ca2+ cations at low pH and then restore the activity by soaking the filter membrane in 1 mM CaCl2. The MWNT-HRP-Silica material was used to modify a carbon microelectrode and produce a functioning electrochemical sensor for H2O2 . Utilizing cyclic voltammetry, the sensor was shown to have a linear response in limiting current versus concentration of H2O2 of 4.26 pA/microM. We also determined a lower detection limit of 0.67 microM H2O2. CNPs were

  18. [Determination of 21 organophosphorus pesticides in tea by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes based on dispersive solid-phase extraction].

    PubMed

    Rong, Jiefeng; Wei, Hang; Li, Yijun; Huang, Huoshui; Xu, Meizhu

    2016-02-01

    A rapid determination method of 21 organophosphorus pesticides in tea was developed by QuEChERS method using modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-OH), primary-secondary amine (PSA) and MgSO4 coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The pesticide residues in tea were extracted with a hexane-acetone (2:1, v/v) mixture, and cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction using MWCNTs-OH and primary-secondary amine (PSA) as the sorbents. After centrifugation and filtration, the target compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantified by the external standard method. Under the optimized conditions, good linearities were obtained in the range of 0. 01- 0. 50 mg/kg. The average recoveries were in the range of 81. 5% -109. 4% at three spiked levels, with relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 5 ) of 2. 3% - 10. 6%. The limits of quantification were 0. 001-0. 040 mg/kg. This method is simple, fast, sensitive, cheap, and can meet the requirements of the rapid detection of organophosphorus pesticides in tea.

  19. Highly enhanced gas sensing in single-walled carbon nanotube-based thin-film transistor sensors by ultraviolet light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tingting; Wei, Liangming; Zhou, Zhihua; Shi, Diwen; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Jiang; Yu, Yuan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yafei

    2012-11-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) random networks are easily fabricated on a wafer scale, which provides an attractive path to large-scale SWCNT-based thin-film transistor (TFT) manufacturing. However, the mixture of semiconducting SWCNTs and metallic SWCNTs (m-SWCNTs) in the networks significantly limits the TFT performance due to the m-SWCNTs dominating the charge transport. In this paper, we have achieved a uniform and high-density SWCNT network throughout a complete 3-in. Si/SiO2 wafer using a solution-based assembly method. We further utilized UV radiation to etch m-SWCNTs from the networks, and a remarkable increase in the channel current on/off ratio ( I on/ I off) from 11 to 5.6 × 103 was observed. Furthermore, we used the SWCNT-TFTs as gas sensors to detect methyl methylphosphonate, a stimulant of benchmark threats. It was found that the SWCNT-TFT sensors treated with UV radiation show a much higher sensitivity and faster response to the analytes than those without treatment with UV radiation.

  20. Functional single-walled carbon nanotubes based on an integrin αvβ3 monoclonal antibody for highly efficient cancer cell targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Zhongmin; Wu, Baoyan; Xing, Da; Zhou, Feifan; Wang, Huiying; Tang, Yonghong

    2009-03-01

    The application of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in the field of biomedicine is becoming an entirely new and exciting topic. In this study, a novel functional SWNT based on an integrin αvβ3 monoclonal antibody was developed and was used for cancer cell targeting in vitro. SWNTs were first modified by phospholipid-bearing polyethylene glycol (PL-PEG). The PL-PEG functionalized SWNTs were then conjugated with protein A. A SWNT-integrin αvβ3 monoclonal antibody system (SWNT-PEG-mAb) was thus constructed by conjugating protein A with the fluorescein labeled integrin αvβ3 monoclonal antibody. In vitro study revealed that SWNT-PEG-mAb presented a high targeting efficiency on integrin αvβ3-positive U87MG cells with low cellular toxicity, while for integrin αvβ3-negative MCF-7 cells, the system had a low targeting efficiency, indicating that the high targeting to U87MG cells was due to the specific integrin targeting of the monoclonal antibody. In conclusion, SWNT-PEG-mAb developed in this research is a potential candidate for cancer imaging and drug delivery in cancer targeting therapy.

  1. [Determination of 21 organophosphorus pesticides in tea by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes based on dispersive solid-phase extraction].

    PubMed

    Rong, Jiefeng; Wei, Hang; Li, Yijun; Huang, Huoshui; Xu, Meizhu

    2016-02-01

    A rapid determination method of 21 organophosphorus pesticides in tea was developed by QuEChERS method using modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-OH), primary-secondary amine (PSA) and MgSO4 coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The pesticide residues in tea were extracted with a hexane-acetone (2:1, v/v) mixture, and cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction using MWCNTs-OH and primary-secondary amine (PSA) as the sorbents. After centrifugation and filtration, the target compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantified by the external standard method. Under the optimized conditions, good linearities were obtained in the range of 0. 01- 0. 50 mg/kg. The average recoveries were in the range of 81. 5% -109. 4% at three spiked levels, with relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 5 ) of 2. 3% - 10. 6%. The limits of quantification were 0. 001-0. 040 mg/kg. This method is simple, fast, sensitive, cheap, and can meet the requirements of the rapid detection of organophosphorus pesticides in tea. PMID:27382726

  2. Carbon nanotube-based substrates promote cardiogenesis in brown adipose-derived stem cells via β1-integrin-dependent TGF-β1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hongyu; Mou, Yongchao; Li, Yi; Li, Xia; Chen, Zi; Duval, Kayla; Huang, Zhu; Dai, Ruiwu; Tang, Lijun; Tian, Fuzhou

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapy remains one of the promising approaches for cardiac repair and regeneration. However, its applications are restricted by the limited efficacy of cardiac differentiation. To address this issue, we examined whether carbon nanotubes (CNTs) would provide an instructive extracellular microenvironment to facilitate cardiogenesis in brown adipose-derived stem cells (BASCs) and to elucidate the underlying signaling pathways. In this study, we systematically investigated a series of cellular responses of BASCs due to the incorporation of CNTs into collagen (CNT-Col) substrates that promoted cell adhesion, spreading, and growth. Moreover, we found that CNT-Col substrates remarkably improved the efficiency of BASCs cardiogenesis by using fluorescence staining and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Critically, CNTs in the substrates accelerated the maturation of BASCs-derived cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, the underlying mechanism for promotion of BASCs cardiac differentiation by CNTs was determined by immunostaining, quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting assay. It is notable that β1-integrin-dependent TGF-β1 signaling pathway modulates the facilitative effect of CNTs in cardiac differentiation of BASCs. Therefore, it is an efficient approach to regulate cardiac differentiation of BASCs by the incorporation of CNTs into the native matrix. Importantly, our findings can not only facilitate the mechanistic understanding of molecular events initiating cardiac differentiation in stem cells, but also offer a potentially safer source for cardiac regenerative medicine.

  3. Carbon nanotube-based substrates promote cardiogenesis in brown adipose-derived stem cells via β1-integrin-dependent TGF-β1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hongyu; Mou, Yongchao; Li, Yi; Li, Xia; Chen, Zi; Duval, Kayla; Huang, Zhu; Dai, Ruiwu; Tang, Lijun; Tian, Fuzhou

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapy remains one of the promising approaches for cardiac repair and regeneration. However, its applications are restricted by the limited efficacy of cardiac differentiation. To address this issue, we examined whether carbon nanotubes (CNTs) would provide an instructive extracellular microenvironment to facilitate cardiogenesis in brown adipose-derived stem cells (BASCs) and to elucidate the underlying signaling pathways. In this study, we systematically investigated a series of cellular responses of BASCs due to the incorporation of CNTs into collagen (CNT-Col) substrates that promoted cell adhesion, spreading, and growth. Moreover, we found that CNT-Col substrates remarkably improved the efficiency of BASCs cardiogenesis by using fluorescence staining and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Critically, CNTs in the substrates accelerated the maturation of BASCs-derived cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, the underlying mechanism for promotion of BASCs cardiac differentiation by CNTs was determined by immunostaining, quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting assay. It is notable that β1-integrin-dependent TGF-β1 signaling pathway modulates the facilitative effect of CNTs in cardiac differentiation of BASCs. Therefore, it is an efficient approach to regulate cardiac differentiation of BASCs by the incorporation of CNTs into the native matrix. Importantly, our findings can not only facilitate the mechanistic understanding of molecular events initiating cardiac differentiation in stem cells, but also offer a potentially safer source for cardiac regenerative medicine. PMID:27660434

  4. Rapid extraction and quantitative detection of the herbicide diuron in surface water by a hapten-functionalized carbon nanotubes based electrochemical analyzer.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priyanka; Bhalla, Vijayender; Tuteja, Satish; Kukkar, Manil; Suri, C Raman

    2012-05-21

    A solid phase extraction micro-cartridge containing a non-polar polystyrene absorbent matrix was coupled with an electrochemical immunoassay analyzer (EIA) and used for the ultra-sensitive detection of the phenyl urea herbicide diuron in real samples. The EIA was fabricated by using carboxylated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) functionalized with a hapten molecule (an amine functionalized diuron derivative). Screen printed electrodes (SPE) were modified with these haptenized CNTs and specific in-house generated anti diuron antibodies were used for bio-interface development. The immunodetection was realized in a competitive electrochemical immunoassay format using alkaline phosphatase labeled secondary anti-IgG antibody. The addition of 1-naphthyl phosphate substrate resulted in the production of an electrochemically active product, 1-naphthol, which was monitored by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The assay exhibited excellent sensitivity and specificity having a dynamic response range of 0.01 pg mL(-1) to 10 μg mL(-1) for diuron with a limit of detection of around 0.1 pg mL(-1) (n = 3) in standard water samples. The micro-cartridge coupled hapten-CNTs modified SPE provided an effective and efficient electrochemical immunoassay for the real-time monitoring of pesticides samples with a very high degree of sensitivity.

  5. Optical, morphology and electrical properties of In2O3 incorporating acid-treated single-walled carbon nanotubes based DSSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahalingam, S.; Abdullah, H.; Ashaari, I.; Shaari, S.; Muchtar, A.

    2016-02-01

    This study focuses on the influence of an acid treatment process of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in In2O3-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Pure In2O3, In2O3-SWCNTs with acid treatment and In2O3-SWCNTs without acid treatment were prepared using the sol-gel method via a spin coating technique annealed at 450 °C. The optical, morphology and electrical properties of the photoanodes were characterized by means of UV-Vis analysis, atomic force microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and J-V curve measurements, respectively. The optical band gap obtained through UV-Vis analysis showed that the acid treatment process modified the band gap of the photoanode, which enhances the V oc of the DSSCs. In addition, In2O3-SWCNTs with acid treatment possess a porous structure that improves the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the DSSCs. In addition, the diameter of acid-treated SWCNTs was reduced compared to pristine SWCNTs. In2O3-SWCNTs with acid treatment exhibited the highest PCE of 1.40% with J sc of 7.6 mA cm-2, V oc of 0.51 V, and fill factor of 0.36. The increment in V oc is due to the higher band gap obtained through the UV-Vis absorption spectrum. Moreover, In2O3-SWCNTs with acid treatment has a higher electron lifetime with a higher effective diffusion coefficient that slows down the recombination rate and speeds up the electron transport process.

  6. Single- and double-walled carbon nanotube based saturable absorbers for passive mode-locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kuang-Nan; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2013-04-01

    The passive mode-locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with a medium gain is demonstrated and compared by using three different types of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) doped in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films. Nano-scale clay is used to disperse the CNTs doped in the PVA polymer aqueous solution to serve as a fast saturable absorber to initiate passive mode-locking. The three types of CNT based saturable absorbers, namely single-walled (SW), double-walled (DW) and multi-walled (MW), are characterized by Raman scattering and optical absorption spectroscopy. The SW-CNTs with a diameter of 1.26 nm have two absorption peaks located around 1550 ± 70 and 860 ± 50 nm. In contrast, the DW-CNTs with a diameter of 1.33 nm reveal two absorption peaks located at 1580 ± 40 and 920 ± 50 nm. By using the SW-CNT based saturable absorber, the passively mode-locked EDFL exhibits a pulsewidth of 1.28 ps and a spectral linewidth of 1.99 nm. Due to the increased linear absorption of the DW-CNT based saturable absorber, the intra-cavity net gain of the EDFL is significantly attenuated to deliver an incompletely mode-locked pulsewidth of 6.8 ps and a spectral linewidth of 0.62 nm. No distinct pulse-train is produced by using the MW-CNT film as the saturable absorber, which is attributed to the significant insertion loss of the EDFL induced by the large linear absorption of the MW-CNT film.

  7. A reusable DNA single-walled carbon-nanotube-based fluorescent sensor for highly sensitive and selective detection of Ag+ and cysteine in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao; Qu, Konggang; Song, Yujun; Xu, Can; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2010-07-19

    Here we report a reusable DNA single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based fluorescent sensor for highly sensitive and selective detection of Ag(+) and cysteine (Cys) in aqueous solution. SWNTs can effectively quench the fluorescence of dye-labeled single-stranded DNA due to their strong pi-pi stacking interactions. However, upon incubation with Ag(+), Ag(+) can induce stable duplex formation mediated by C-Ag(+)-C (C=cytosine) coordination chemistry, which has been further confirmed by DNA melting studies. This weakens the interactions between DNA and SWNTs, and thus activates the sensor fluorescence. On the other hand, because Cys is a strong Ag(+) binder, it can remove Ag(+) from C-Ag(+)-C base pairs and deactivates the sensor fluorescence by rewrapping the dye-labeled oligonucleotides around the SWNT. In this way, the fluorescence signal-on and signal-off of a DNA/SWNT sensor can be used to detect aqueous Ag(+) and Cys, respectively. This sensing platform exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity toward Ag(+) and Cys versus other metal ions and the other 19 natural amino acids, with a limit of detection of 1 nM for Ag(+) and 9.5 nM for Cys. Based on these results, we have constructed a reusable fluorescent sensor by using the covalent-linked SWNT-DNA conjugates according to the same sensing mechanism. There is no report on the use of SWNT-DNA assays for the detection of Ag(+) and Cys. This assay is simple, effective, and reusable, and can in principle be used to detect other metal ions by substituting C-C base pairs with other native or artificial bases that selectively bind to other metal ions. PMID:20512822

  8. Multiwalled carbon nanotube based molecular imprinted polymer for trace determination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyaceticacid in natural water samples using a potentiometric method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anirudhan, Thayyath S.; Alexander, Sheeba

    2014-06-01

    A novel potentiometric sensor based on ion imprinted polymer inclusion membrane (IPIM) was prepared from the modification of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) based molecularly imprinted polymer for the trace determination of the pesticide 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) in natural water samples. MWCNTs are initially functionalized with vinyl groups through nitric acid oxidation along with reacting by allylamine. MWCNT based imprinted polymer (MWCNT-MIP) was synthesized by means of methacrylic acid (MAA) as the monomer, trimethylol propane trimethacrylate (TRIM) as the cross linker, α,α‧-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the initiator and 2,4-D an organochlorine pesticide molecule as the template. Organized material was characterized by means of FTIR, XRD and SEM analyses. The sensing membrane was developed by the inclusion of 2,4-D imprinted polymer materials in the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) matrix. The optimization of operational parameters normally used such as amount and nature of plasticizers sensing material, pH and response time was conducted. From the non-imprinted (NIPIM) and imprinted polymer inclusion membrane (IPIM) sensors the response behavior of 2,4-D was compared under optimum conditions. The IPIM sensor responds in the range of 1 × 10-9-1 × 10-5 M and the detection limit was found to be 1.2 × 10-9 M. The stability of MWCNT-IPIM sensor was checked by various methods and it is found to be 3 months and it can be reused many times without losing its sensitivity. For the application of sensor experiments with ground and tap water samples were performed.

  9. Formation of carbonic nanostructures using PECVD and glow-discharge plasma at direct current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, D. G.; Gavrilov, S. A.; Dubkov, S. V.

    2010-02-01

    In this research the process of formation carbonic nanostructures using low temperatures was studied. Nanostructures were formed using PECVD and glow-discharge plasma. The research was carried out at temperature range between 300°C - 700°C. The influence of Ni catalyst thickness and concentration of carbon-containing component in vapour phase on the structure of carbonic deposit was studied. Consequently we attained productive growth of both the homogeneous vertical nanotubes and graphene flakes array at low temperature (350°C). Electrophysical features of obtained structures were examined.

  10. Formation of carbonic nanostructures using PECVD and glow-discharge plasma at direct current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, D. G.; Gavrilov, S. A.; Dubkov, S. V.

    2009-10-01

    In this research the process of formation carbonic nanostructures using low temperatures was studied. Nanostructures were formed using PECVD and glow-discharge plasma. The research was carried out at temperature range between 300°C - 700°C. The influence of Ni catalyst thickness and concentration of carbon-containing component in vapour phase on the structure of carbonic deposit was studied. Consequently we attained productive growth of both the homogeneous vertical nanotubes and graphene flakes array at low temperature (350°C). Electrophysical features of obtained structures were examined.

  11. Carbon Nanostructures for Electromagnetic Shielding and Lightning Strike Protection Applications in Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, T.; Jones, M.; Alberding, M.; Laszewski, M.

    2012-05-01

    Applied NanoStructured Solutions, LLC (ANS) has developed a unique Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process for the growth of Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) onto various fiber substrates including carbon, glass, ceramics and aramids. This process is continuous and operates at atmospheric pressures enabling high volume/low cost manufacturing. This process infuses conductive CNTs in a highly entangled form referred to as Carbon Nanostructures (CNS) onto the surface of the normally insulative fiber making it highly conductive overall. Composites made from this CNS-infused filler then have unique Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) shielding and Lightening Strike Protection (LSP) properties.

  12. Influence of size and morphology on the optical properties of carbon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Hajar; Dorranian, Davoud

    2016-03-01

    Optical properties of carbon nanostructures produced by laser ablation method in different liquid environments have been studied experimentally. In this work we used a 7 ns fundamental wavelength of pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm and 10 Hz repetition rate to produce carbon nanostructures including graphene in distilled water, acetone, alcohol, and CTAB. Structure and morphology of carbon nanostructures were studied using their UV-Vis-NIR spectrum, TEM images, and Raman scattering spectrum. Results show that in our experimental condition distilled water was the most capable medium for producing graphene. Color of suspensions varied with the amount of carbon nanoparticles in the suspension while the bandgap energy of samples decreases with increasing the amount of graphene.

  13. Formation of Carbon Nanotube Based Gears: Quantum Chemistry and Molecular Mechanics Study of the Electrophilic Addition of o-Benzyne to Fullerenes, Graphene, and Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard; Han, Jie; Globus, Al; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in recent years in chemical functionalization of fullerene molecules. In some cases, the predominant reaction products are different from those obtained (using the same reactants) from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). One such example is the cycloaddition of o-benzyne to C60. It is well established that benzyne adds across one of the rings in naphthalene, anthracene and other PAHs forming the [2+4] cycloaddition product (benzobicyclo[2.2.2.]-octatriene with naphthalene and triptycene with anthracene). However, Hoke et al demonstrated that the only reaction path for o-benzyne with C60 leads to the [2+2] cycloaddition product in which benzyne adds across one of the interpentagonal bonds (forming a cyclobutene ring in the process). Either reaction product results in a loss of aromaticity and distortion of the PAH or fullerene substrate, and in a loss of strain in the benzyne. It is not clear, however, why different products are preferred in these cases. In the current paper, we consider the stability of benzyne-nanotube adducts and the ability of Brenner's potential energy model to describe the structure and stability of these adducts. The Brenner potential has been widely used for describing diamondoid and graphitic carbon. Recently it has also been used for molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics simulations of fullerenes and nanotubes. However, it has not been tested for the case of functionalized fullerenes (especially with highly strained geometries). We use the Brenner potential for our companion nanogear simulations and believe that it should be calibrated to insure that those simulations are physically reasonable. In the present work, Density Functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to determine the preferred geometric structures and energetics for this calibration. The DFT method is a kind of ab initio quantum chemistry method for determining the electronic structure of molecules. For a given basis set

  14. Carbon fiber CVD coating by carbon nanostructured for space materials protection against atomic oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Roberto; Bueno Morles, Ramon; Micheli, Davide

    2016-07-01

    adhesion and durability in the environment. Though these coatings are efficient in protecting polymer composites, their application imposes severe constraints. Their thermal expansion coefficients may differ markedly from those of polymer composite substrates: as a result, cracks develop in the coatings on thermal cycling and AO can penetrate through them to the substrate. In addition to the technicalities of forming an effective barrier, such factors as cost, convenience of application and ease of repair are important considerations in the selection of a coating for a particular application. The latter issues drive the aerospace research toward the development of novel light composite materials, like the so called polymer nanocomposites, which are materials with a polymer matrix and a filler with at least one dimension less than 100 nanometers. Current interest in nanocomposites has been generated and maintained because nanoparticle-filled polymers exhibit unique combinations of properties not achievable with traditional composites. These combinations of properties can be achieved because of the small size of the fillers, the large surface area the fillers provide, and in many cases the unique properties of the fillers themselves. In particular, the carbon fiber-based polymeric composite materials are the basic point of interest: the aim of the present study is to find new solution to produce carbon fiber-based composites with even more upgraded performances. One intriguing strategy to tackle such an issue has been picked out in the coupling between the carbon fibers and the carbon nanostructures. That for two main reasons: first, carbon nanostructures have shown fancy potentialities for any kind of technological applications since their discovery, second, the chemical affinity between fiber and nanostructure (made of the same element) should be a likely route to approach the typical problems due to thermo-mechanical compatibility. This work is joined in such framework

  15. Carbon fiber CVD coating by carbon nanostructured for space materials protection against atomic oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Roberto; Bueno Morles, Ramon; Micheli, Davide

    2016-07-01

    adhesion and durability in the environment. Though these coatings are efficient in protecting polymer composites, their application imposes severe constraints. Their thermal expansion coefficients may differ markedly from those of polymer composite substrates: as a result, cracks develop in the coatings on thermal cycling and AO can penetrate through them to the substrate. In addition to the technicalities of forming an effective barrier, such factors as cost, convenience of application and ease of repair are important considerations in the selection of a coating for a particular application. The latter issues drive the aerospace research toward the development of novel light composite materials, like the so called polymer nanocomposites, which are materials with a polymer matrix and a filler with at least one dimension less than 100 nanometers. Current interest in nanocomposites has been generated and maintained because nanoparticle-filled polymers exhibit unique combinations of properties not achievable with traditional composites. These combinations of properties can be achieved because of the small size of the fillers, the large surface area the fillers provide, and in many cases the unique properties of the fillers themselves. In particular, the carbon fiber-based polymeric composite materials are the basic point of interest: the aim of the present study is to find new solution to produce carbon fiber-based composites with even more upgraded performances. One intriguing strategy to tackle such an issue has been picked out in the coupling between the carbon fibers and the carbon nanostructures. That for two main reasons: first, carbon nanostructures have shown fancy potentialities for any kind of technological applications since their discovery, second, the chemical affinity between fiber and nanostructure (made of the same element) should be a likely route to approach the typical problems due to thermo-mechanical compatibility. This work is joined in such framework

  16. Synthesis of carbon onionlike nanostructures from methane in plasma flow of induction plasmatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchukov, K. E.; Zalogin, G. N.; Krasil'nikov, A. V.; Popov, M. Yu.; Kul'nitskii, B. A.

    2015-11-01

    The results of synthesis of carbon onionlike nanostructures from methane in plasma flow of inert gas (argon) generated in induction high-frequency plasmatron are considered and discussed. Carbon vapor obtained via dissociation of methane in plasma flow was condensed on copper substrates placed in a working chamber of the setup. The content of the synthesized soot was analyzed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. As a result of the performed experiments, carbon onionlike structures with 20- to 100-nm sizes were obtained.

  17. Separating weak-localization and electron-electron-interaction contributions to the conductivity of carbon nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Tkachev, E. N. Romanenko, A. I.; Anikeeva, O. B.; Buryakov, T. I.; Fedorov, V. E.; Nazarov, A. S.; Makotchenko, V. G.; Kuznetsov, V. L.; Usol'tseva, A. N.

    2007-07-15

    The effect of the modification of curvilinear carbon nanostructures (nanotubes) on their electrical properties has been studied. The samples were prepared using a special method of synthesis, which excluded the formation of amorphous carbon particles in multiwalled carbon nanotubes and in expanded graphite. Such materials exhibit a quadratic growth in the positive magnetoconductivity in the fields of up to B {approx} 1 T, which is not observed in the samples synthesized by usual methods.

  18. On the effect of sulphur on the formation of carbon nanotubes and multibranched carbon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McRae, E.; Devaux, X.; Tsareva, S. Yu; Kovalenko, A. N.; Zaramenskih, K. S.; Zharikov, E. V.

    2013-03-01

    While sulphur is a ubiquitous element in the field of carbon nanotube (CNT) synthesis, a full understanding of its role is still open to question. A perusal of the literature reveals that it is sometimes referred to as being a "triggering element" for CNT branching [1], a "growth promoter" [2], a means of fragmenting larger-sized catalyst particles to enhance catalytic activity [3], an element which allows controlling both the number of layers in multi-walled CNTs as well as the overall CNT yield [4]. Sulphur has been put forward as an essential means of enhancing nucleation of CNT growth [5] and as having strong effects on the overall morphology of CVD-synthesised carbon nanostructures [6, 7]. In spite of these obviously beneficial effects, sulphur can also be a catalyst poison, depending on its concentration. All these different potential roles are further complicated by the fact that they depend on the synthesis route and the catalyst used. Using highly sensitive investigation tools is vital since even very minute quantities of sulphur may be of critical importance. After a brief overview of the above-mentioned background literature, we will present experimental results obtained for catalytic decomposition of benzene on iron nanoparticles in the presence of CS2. Depending on the exact synthesis conditions, carbon nanoballs, single-walled CNTs, multi-walled CNTs, thick fibres, and/or multibranched nanostructures have been observed. Based on extensive electron microscopy investigations (SEM, TEM, and HRTEM) and on a comprehensive analysis of our CVD process, we propose a phenomenological growth model.

  19. Raman spectroscopic studies of thin film carbon nanostructures deposited using electro deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayal, Saurabh; Sasi, Arshali; Jhariya, Sapna; Sasikumar, C.

    2016-05-01

    In the present work our focus is to synthesize carbon nanostructures (CNS) by electro deposition technique without using any surface pretreatment or catalyst preparation before CNS formation. The process were carried out at significantly low voltage and at low temperature as reported elsewhere. Further the samples were characterized using different characterization tools such as SEM and Raman spectroscopy. The SEM results showed the fibres or tubular like morphology. Raman spectra shows strong finger print at 1600 cm-1 (G peak), 1350 cm-1 (D peak) along with the radial breathing mode (RBM) between 150cm-1 to 300 cm-1. This confirms the formation of tubular carbon nanostructures.

  20. Bond topography and nanostructure of hydrogenated fullerene-like carbon films: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongfu; Gao, Kaixiong; Shi, Jing; Zhang, Junyan

    2016-09-01

    Fullerene-like nanostructural hydrogenated amorphous carbon (FL-C:H) films were prepared by dc- and pulse- plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (PECVD). Both the films exhibit relatively stresses (0.63 GPa) in spite of their FL features and nanostructural bonding configurations, especially the pentagonal carbon rings. The creation of pentagonal rings is not fully driven by thermodynamics, but is closely related to compressive stress determined by the ion bombardment at the discharged state of the pulse- and dc- discharged plasmas methods. The dc method leads to FL's basal planes which contain less cross-linkages, and causes amorphous strongly hydrogenated structures.

  1. Nanostructured water and carbon dioxide inside collapsing carbon nanotubes at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wenwen; Cerqueira, Tiago F T; Botti, Silvana; Marques, Miguel A L; San-Miguel, Alfonso

    2016-07-20

    We present simulations of the collapse under hydrostatic pressure of carbon nanotubes containing either water or carbon dioxide. We show that the molecules inside the tube alter the dynamics of the collapse process, providing either mechanical support and increasing the collapse pressure, or reducing mechanical stability. At the same time the nanotube acts as a nanoanvil, and the confinement leads to the nanostructuring of the molecules inside the collapsed tube. In this way, depending on the pressure and on the concentration of water or carbon dioxide inside the nanotube, we observe the formation of 1D molecular chains, 2D nanoribbons, and even molecular single and multi-walled nanotubes. The structure of the encapsulated molecules correlates with the mechanical response of the nanotube, opening up opportunities for the development of new devices or composite materials. Our analysis is quite general and it can be extended to other molecules in carbon nanotube nanoanvils, providing a strategy to obtain a variety of nano-objects with controlled features. PMID:27400409

  2. Concentration gradient induced morphology evolution of silica nanostructure growth on photoresist-derived carbon micropatterns

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of silica nanostructure morphology induced by local Si vapor source concentration gradient has been investigated by a smart design of experiments. Silica nanostructure or their assemblies with different morphologies are obtained on photoresist-derived three-dimensional carbon microelectrode array. At a temperature of 1,000°C, rope-, feather-, and octopus-like nanowire assemblies can be obtained along with the Si vapor source concentration gradient flow. While at 950°C, stringlike assemblies, bamboo-like nanostructures with large joints, and hollow structures with smaller sizes can be obtained along with the Si vapor source concentration gradient flow. Both vapor–liquid-solid and vapor-quasiliquid-solid growth mechanisms have been applied to explain the diverse morphologies involving branching, connecting, and batch growth behaviors. The present approach offers a potential method for precise design and controlled synthesis of nanostructures with different features. PMID:22938090

  3. Concentration gradient induced morphology evolution of silica nanostructure growth on photoresist-derived carbon micropatterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Shi, Tielin; Xi, Shuang; Lai, Wuxing; Liu, Shiyuan; Li, Xiaoping; Tang, Zirong

    2012-09-01

    The evolution of silica nanostructure morphology induced by local Si vapor source concentration gradient has been investigated by a smart design of experiments. Silica nanostructure or their assemblies with different morphologies are obtained on photoresist-derived three-dimensional carbon microelectrode array. At a temperature of 1,000°C, rope-, feather-, and octopus-like nanowire assemblies can be obtained along with the Si vapor source concentration gradient flow. While at 950°C, stringlike assemblies, bamboo-like nanostructures with large joints, and hollow structures with smaller sizes can be obtained along with the Si vapor source concentration gradient flow. Both vapor-liquid-solid and vapor-quasiliquid-solid growth mechanisms have been applied to explain the diverse morphologies involving branching, connecting, and batch growth behaviors. The present approach offers a potential method for precise design and controlled synthesis of nanostructures with different features.

  4. Ambient carbon dioxide capture by different dimensional AlN nanostructures: A comparative DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Nurazar, Roghaye; Nematollahi, Parisa

    2016-08-01

    Strong binding of an isolated carbon dioxide molecule over three different aluminium nitride (AlN) nanostructures (nanocage, nanotube and nanosheet) is verified using density functional calculations. Equilibrium geometries, electronic properties, adsorption energies and thermodynamic stability of each adsorbed configuration are also identified. Optimized configurations are shown at least one corresponding physisorption and chemisorption of CO2 molecule over different AlN nanostructures. Also, the effect of chirality on the adsorption of CO2 molecule is studied over two different finite-sized zigzag (6,0) and armchair (4,4) AlN nanotubes. It is found that the electronic properties of the Al12N12 nanocage are more sensitive to the CO2 molecule than other AlN nanostructures. This indicates the significant potential of Al12N12 nanocage toward the CO2 adsorption, fixation and catalytic applications in contrast to other AlN nanostructures.

  5. Selective growth of palladium and titanium dioxide nanostructures inside carbon nanotube membranes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid nanostructured arrays based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) and palladium or titanium dioxide materials have been synthesized using self-supported and silicon-supported anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) as nanoporous template. It is well demonstrated that carbon nanotubes can be grown using these membranes and hydrocarbon precursors that decompose at temperatures closer to 600°C without the use of a metal catalyst. In this process, carbonic fragments condensate to form stacked graphitic sheets, which adopt the shape of the pores, yielding from these moulds' multi-walled carbon nanotubes. After this process, the ends of the tubes remain open and accessible to other substances, whereas the outer walls are protected by the alumina. Taking advantage of this fact, we have performed the synthesis of palladium and titanium dioxide nanostructures selectively inside carbon nanotubes using these CNT-AAO membranes as nanoreactors. PMID:22731888

  6. Covalent functionalization of metal oxide and carbon nanostructures with polyoctasilsesquioxane (POSS) and their incorporation in polymer composites

    SciTech Connect

    Gomathi, A.; Gopalakrishnan, K.; Rao, C.N.R.

    2010-12-15

    Polyoctasilsesquioxane (POSS) has been employed to covalently functionalize nanostructures of TiO{sub 2}, ZnO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as well as carbon nanotubes, nanodiamond and graphene to enable their dispersion in polar solvents. Covalent functionalization of these nanostructures with POSS has been established by electron microscopy, EDAX analysis and infrared spectroscopy. On heating the POSS-functionalized nanostructures, silica-coated nanostructures are obtained. POSS-functionalized nanoparticles of TiO{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and graphite were utilized to prepare polymer-nanostructure composites based on PVA and nylon-6,6.

  7. Carbon Nanostructure-Based Field-Effect Transistors for Label-Free Chemical/Biological Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Hu, PingAn; Zhang, Jia; Li, Le; Wang, Zhenlong; O’Neill, William; Estrela, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, electrical detection of chemical and biological species using novel nanostructure-based devices has attracted significant attention for chemical, genomics, biomedical diagnostics, and drug discovery applications. The use of nanostructured devices in chemical/biological sensors in place of conventional sensing technologies has advantages of high sensitivity, low decreased energy consumption and potentially highly miniaturized integration. Owing to their particular structure, excellent electrical properties and high chemical stability, carbon nanotube and graphene based electrical devices have been widely developed for high performance label-free chemical/biological sensors. Here, we review the latest developments of carbon nanostructure-based transistor sensors in ultrasensitive detection of chemical/biological entities, such as poisonous gases, nucleic acids, proteins and cells. PMID:22399927

  8. In Situ Mechanical Property Measurements of Amorphous Carbon-Boron Nitride Nanotube Nanostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Lin, Yi; Nunez, Jennifer Carpena; Siochi, Emilie J.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Connell, John W.; Smith, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    To understand the mechanical properties of amorphous carbon (a-C)/boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) nanostructures, in situ mechanical tests are conducted inside a transmission electron microscope equipped with an integrated atomic force microscope system. The nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation. We demonstrate multiple in situ tensile, compressive, and lap shear tests with a-C/BNNT hybrid nanostructures. The tensile strength of the a-C/BNNT hybrid nanostructure is 5.29 GPa with about 90 vol% of a-C. The tensile strength and strain of the end-to-end joint structure with a-C welding is 0.8 GPa and 5.2% whereas the lap shear strength of the side-by-side joint structure with a-C is 0.25 GPa.

  9. Nanotube-based nanoelectromechanical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lozovik, Yu. E. Nikolaev, A. G.; Popov, A. M.

    2006-09-15

    Nanoelectromechanical systems based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes are considered. Control of motion and modes of operation of these systems are discussed. The structure of double-walled carbon nanotubes with atomic structural defects that can be used as bolt-nut pairs is analyzed. Energy barriers and threshold forces for relative motion of walls along and across the 'thread' are computed for double-walled nanotubes with various types of defects. It is found that the qualitative characteristics of the thread are independent of the type of defect. Feasibility of fabricating double-walled nanotubes for use as bolt-nut pairs by self-organization is discussed.

  10. Self-Assembled, Nanostructured Carbon for Energy Storage and Water Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to translate a unique approach for the synthesis of self-assembled nanostructured carbon into industrially viable technologies for two important, large-scale applications: electrochemical double-layer capacitors (also referred to as ultracapacitors) for electrical energy storage, and capacitive deionization (CDI) systems for water treatment and desalination.

  11. Formation Monocrystalline Carbon Micro-and Nanostructures Under Femtosecond Laser Irradiation of graphite in Liquid Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorkov, Kirill S.; Abramov, Dmitrii V.; Kochuev, Dmitriy A.; Arakelian, Sergey M.; Prokoshev, Valery G.

    The combination of high energy and ultra short duration of femtosecond laser pulses allow to reach in the area of impact the local conditions which can change the phase composition of irradiated material. Traditional methods of structural phase transformation of the graphite at high pressures do not provide the abrupt simultaneous cancellation of the applied pressure and temperature. As a result, some of the synthesized nanostructures and metastable forms of carbon are destroyed. The suggested method allows to eliminate this disadvantage. Femtosecond laser radiation provides ultrafast heating of the target material, and the use of liquid nitrogen dramatically accelerates the process of it cooling. The formation of new carbon micro- and nanostructures has been registered at experimental approbation of the proposed method. The check of elemental composition of the created crystals showed that they are formed solely of carbon. The experimental results show the possibility of creation of new (less studied) carbon forms with a variety of properties.

  12. Interfacial properties of a carbyne-rich nanostructured carbon thin film in ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Bettini, Luca Giacomo; Della Foglia, Flavio; Piseri, Paolo; Milani, Paolo

    2016-03-18

    Nanostructured carbon sp(2) (ns-C) thin films with up to 30% of sp-coordinated atoms (carbynes) were produced in a high vacuum by the low kinetic energy deposition of carbon clusters produced in the gas phase and accelerated by a supersonic expansion. Immediately after deposition the ns-C films were immersed in situ in an ionic liquid electrolyte. The interfacial properties of ns-C films in the ionic liquid electrolyte were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The so-prepared carbyne-rich electrodes showed superior electric double layer (EDL) capacitance and electric conductivity compared to ns-C electrodes containing only sp(2) carbon, showing the substantial influence of carbynes on the electrochemical properties of nanostructured carbon electrodes.

  13. Platinum-based electrocatalysts synthesized by depositing contiguous adlayers on carbon nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Adzic, Radoslav R.; Harris, Alexander

    2015-10-06

    High-surface-area carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin metal films and their method of manufacture are described. The manufacturing process may involve initial oxidation of the carbon nanostructures followed by immersion in a solution with the desired pH to create negative surface dipoles. The nanostructures are subsequently immersed in an alkaline solution containing non-noble metal ions which adsorb at surface reaction sites. The metal ions are then reduced via chemical or electrical means and the nanostructures are exposed to a solution containing a salt of one or more noble metals which replace adsorbed non-noble surface metal atoms by galvanic displacement. Subsequent film growth may be performed via the initial quasi-underpotential deposition of a non-noble metal followed by immersion in a solution comprising a more noble metal. The resulting coated nanostructures may be used, for example, as high-performance electrodes in supercapacitors, batteries, or other electric storage devices.

  14. Platinum-based electrocatalysts synthesized by depositing contiguous adlayers on carbon nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Adzic, Radoslav; Harris, Alexander

    2013-03-26

    High-surface-area carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin metal films and their method of manufacture are described. The preferred manufacturing process involves the initial oxidation of the carbon nanostructures followed by immersion in a solution with the desired pH to create negative surface dipoles. The nanostructures are subsequently immersed in an alkaline solution containing non-noble metal ions which adsorb at surface reaction sites. The metal ions are then reduced via chemical or electrical means and the nanostructures are exposed to a solution containing a salt of one or more noble metals which replace adsorbed non-noble surface metal atoms by galvanic displacement. Subsequent film growth may be performed via the initial quasi-underpotential deposition of a non-noble metal followed by immersion in a solution comprising a more noble metal. The resulting coated nanostructures may be used, for example, as high-performance electrodes in supercapacitors, batteries, or other electric storage devices.

  15. Maria Goeppert Mayer Award Lecture: Spectroscopy of Hybrid Superconductor-Carbon Nanostructure Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Nadya

    2012-02-01

    The electronic properties of carbon nanotubes and graphene have excited much interest, for both fundamental science and technological applications. In this talk, I will discuss how coupling superconductors to these carbon nanostructures can enable new spectroscopic tools. In particular, I will discuss our experiments demonstrating that superconducting probes on carbon nanotube quantum dots can enhance weak spectroscopic features. I will also show how superconducting tunnel probes enable direct measurements of electron-electron interactions in carbon nanotubes. Finally, I will present data showing that connecting graphene to superconductors allows for the spectroscopy of individual, tunable superconducting (Andreev) bound states.

  16. HRTEM study of Popigai impact diamond: heterogeneous diamond nanostructures in native amorphous carbon matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kis, Viktoria K.; Shumilova, Tatyana; Masaitis, Victor

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was applied for the detailed nanostructural investigation of Popigai impact diamonds with the aim of revealing the nature of the amorphous carbon of the matrix. The successful application of two complementary specimen preparation methods, focused ion beam (FIB) milling and mechanical cleavage, allowed direct imaging of nanotwinned nanodiamond crystals embedded in a native amorphous carbon matrix for the first time. Based on its stability under the electron beam, native amorphous carbon can be easily distinguished from the amorphous carbon layer produced by FIB milling during specimen preparation. Electron energy loss spectroscopy of the native amorphous carbon revealed the dominance of sp 2-bonded carbon and the presence of a small amount of oxygen. The heterogeneous size distribution and twin density of the nanodiamond crystals and the structural properties of the native amorphous carbon are presumably related to non-graphitic (organic) carbon precursor material.

  17. HRTEM study of Popigai impact diamond: heterogeneous diamond nanostructures in native amorphous carbon matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kis, Viktoria K.; Shumilova, Tatyana; Masaitis, Victor

    2016-07-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was applied for the detailed nanostructural investigation of Popigai impact diamonds with the aim of revealing the nature of the amorphous carbon of the matrix. The successful application of two complementary specimen preparation methods, focused ion beam (FIB) milling and mechanical cleavage, allowed direct imaging of nanotwinned nanodiamond crystals embedded in a native amorphous carbon matrix for the first time. Based on its stability under the electron beam, native amorphous carbon can be easily distinguished from the amorphous carbon layer produced by FIB milling during specimen preparation. Electron energy loss spectroscopy of the native amorphous carbon revealed the dominance of sp 2-bonded carbon and the presence of a small amount of oxygen. The heterogeneous size distribution and twin density of the nanodiamond crystals and the structural properties of the native amorphous carbon are presumably related to non-graphitic (organic) carbon precursor material.

  18. Electrodeposited manganese dioxide nanostructures on electro-etched carbon fibers: High performance materials for supercapacitor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kazemi, Sayed Habib; Maghami, Mostafa Ghaem; Kiani, Mohammad Ali

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We report a facile method for fabrication of MnO{sub 2} nanostructures on electro-etched carbon fiber. • MnO{sub 2}-ECF electrode shows outstanding supercapacitive behavior even at high discharge rates. • Exceptional cycle stability was achieved for MnO{sub 2}-ECF electrode. • The coulombic efficiency of MnO{sub 2}-ECF electrode is nearly 100%. - Abstract: In this article we introduce a facile, low cost and additive/template free method to fabricate high-rate electrochemical capacitors. Manganese oxide nanostructures were electrodeposited on electro-etched carbon fiber substrate by applying a constant anodic current. Nanostructured MnO{sub 2} on electro-etched carbon fiber was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The electrochemical behavior of MnO{sub 2} electro-etched carbon fiber electrode was investigated by electrochemical techniques including cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A maximum specific capacitance of 728.5 F g{sup −1} was achieved at a scan rate of 5 mV s{sup −1} for MnO{sub 2} electro-etched carbon fiber electrode. Also, this electrode showed exceptional cycle stability, suggesting that it can be considered as a good candidate for supercapacitor electrodes.

  19. Nanostructure Of Carbon Dust Generated In Plasmas Of Different Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Arnas, C.; Mouberi, A.; Hassouni, K.; Michaud, A.; Benedic, F.; Lombardi, G.; Bonnin, X.

    2008-09-07

    Carbon nanoparticles are produced in supersaturated carbon vapors of sputtering discharges as well as from complex reactions between hydrocarbon radicals in Ar/CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} microwave discharges. A summary of their formation is reported. Despite different molecular precursors, it is shown that they can exhibit similar carbon concentric microtexture. Correlations are established between the final nanoparticle solid state and the heating mechanisms which are characteristic of each discharge.

  20. Perspectives on the Growth of High Edge Density Carbon Nanostructures: Transitions from Vertically Oriented Graphene Nanosheets to Graphenated Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Ubnoske, Stephen M; Raut, Akshay S; Brown, Billyde; Parker, Charles B; Stoner, Brian R; Glass, Jeffrey T

    2014-07-24

    Insights into the growth of high edge density carbon nanostructures were achieved by a systematic parametric study of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Such structures are important for electrode performance in a variety of applications such as supercapacitors, neural stimulation, and electrocatalysis. A morphological trend was observed as a function of temperature whereby graphenated carbon nanotubes (g-CNTs) emerged as an intermediate structure between carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at lower temperatures and vertically oriented carbon nanosheets (CNS), composed of few-layered graphene, at higher temperatures. This is the first time that three distinct morphologies and dimensionalities of carbon nanostructures (i.e., 1D CNTs, 2D CNSs, and 3D g-CNTs) have been synthesized in the same reaction chamber by varying only a single parameter (temperature). A design of experiments (DOE) approach was utilized to understand the range of growth permitted in a microwave PECVD reactor, with a focus on identifying graphenated carbon nanotube growth within the process space. Factors studied in the experimental design included temperature, gas ratio, catalyst thickness, pretreatment time, and deposition time. This procedure facilitates predicting and modeling high edge density carbon nanostructure characteristics under a complete range of growth conditions that yields various morphologies of nanoscale carbon. Aside from the morphological trends influenced by temperature, a relationship between deposition temperature and specific capacitance emerged from the DOE study. Transmission electron microscopy was also used to understand the morphology and microstructure of the various high edge density structures. From these results, a new graphene foliate formation mechanism is proposed for synthesis of g-CNTs in a single deposition process. PMID:25089165

  1. Perspectives on the Growth of High Edge Density Carbon Nanostructures: Transitions from Vertically Oriented Graphene Nanosheets to Graphenated Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Insights into the growth of high edge density carbon nanostructures were achieved by a systematic parametric study of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Such structures are important for electrode performance in a variety of applications such as supercapacitors, neural stimulation, and electrocatalysis. A morphological trend was observed as a function of temperature whereby graphenated carbon nanotubes (g-CNTs) emerged as an intermediate structure between carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at lower temperatures and vertically oriented carbon nanosheets (CNS), composed of few-layered graphene, at higher temperatures. This is the first time that three distinct morphologies and dimensionalities of carbon nanostructures (i.e., 1D CNTs, 2D CNSs, and 3D g-CNTs) have been synthesized in the same reaction chamber by varying only a single parameter (temperature). A design of experiments (DOE) approach was utilized to understand the range of growth permitted in a microwave PECVD reactor, with a focus on identifying graphenated carbon nanotube growth within the process space. Factors studied in the experimental design included temperature, gas ratio, catalyst thickness, pretreatment time, and deposition time. This procedure facilitates predicting and modeling high edge density carbon nanostructure characteristics under a complete range of growth conditions that yields various morphologies of nanoscale carbon. Aside from the morphological trends influenced by temperature, a relationship between deposition temperature and specific capacitance emerged from the DOE study. Transmission electron microscopy was also used to understand the morphology and microstructure of the various high edge density structures. From these results, a new graphene foliate formation mechanism is proposed for synthesis of g-CNTs in a single deposition process. PMID:25089165

  2. Equilibrium Limit of Boundary Scattering in Carbon Nanostructures: Molecular Dynamics Calculations of Thermal Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskins, Justin; Kinaci, Alper; Sevik, Cem; Cagin, Tahir

    2012-01-01

    It is widely known that graphene and many of its derivative nanostructures have exceedingly high reported thermal conductivities (up to 4000 W/mK at 300 K). Such attractive thermal properties beg the use of these structures in practical devices; however, to implement these materials while preserving transport quality, the influence of structure on thermal conductivity should be thoroughly understood. For graphene nanostructures, having average phonon mean free paths on the order of one micron, a primary concern is how size influences the potential for heat conduction. To investigate this, we employ a novel technique to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity from the Green-Kubo relations and equilibrium molecular dynamics in systems where phonon-boundary scattering dominates heat flow. Specifically, the thermal conductivities of graphene nanoribbons and carbon nanotubes are calculated in sizes up to 3 microns, and the relative influence of boundary scattering on thermal transport is determined to be dominant at sizes less than 1 micron, after which the thermal transport largely depends on the quality of the nanostructure interface. The method is also extended to carbon nanostructures (fullerenes) where phonon confinement, as opposed to boundary scattering, dominates, and general trends related to the influence of curvature on thermal transport in these materials are discussed.

  3. Synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbon nanostructures from polyurethane sponge for bioimaging and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Zhang, Jingchao; Zhuang, Jing; Wang, Xun

    2015-08-01

    A facile and environmentally friendly method was developed for the fabrication of N-doped carbon nanomaterials by hydrothermal treatment using polyurethane (PU) sponge as a carbon source. We have demonstrated that the hydrothermal decomposition of PU sponge involves top-down hydrolysis and bottom-up polymerization processes for the synthesis of N-doped carbon dots (N-CDs). Fluorescence spectroscopy and cytotoxicity studies indicated that these highly-soluble N-CDs show excellent photoluminescence properties and low cytotoxicity, and can be used as good probes for cellular imaging. Additionally, the N-doped hollow carbon nanostructures can be designed using a simple template method. The prepared N-doped double-shelled hollow carbon nanotubes exhibited excellent ORR electrocatalytic activity and superior durability. Indeed, our method described here can provide an efficient way to synthesize N-doped carbon-based materials for a broad range of applications.

  4. Capacitance behavior of nanostructured ɛ-MnO2/C composite electrode using different carbons matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Van Man; Ha, An The; Loan Phung Le, My

    2014-06-01

    In this work nanostructured ɛ-MnO2/C composite electrode was synthesized via the reduction reaction of potassium permanganate. A wide range of carbons such as mesoporous carbon (MC), graphite (GC), super P carbon (super P) and Vulcan carbon (VC) were used in order to enhance the interfacial electrical conductivity and the electrochemical capacitance of the composite electrodes. Physical properties, structure and specific surface area of electrode materials were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption measurements. The capacitance behavior of MnO2/C materials was studied in aqueous and non-aqueous solution using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and impedance spectroscopy measurements. The composite electrode exhibits the highest capacitance at 30 wt% activated carbon. Among different carbons used, the maximum capacitance of MnO2/super P electrode is as high as 205 F g-1 at 50 mV s-1 and retains 98% after 300 cycles.

  5. Synchrotron soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of carbon and silicon nanostructures for energy applications.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jun; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Xuhui; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2014-12-10

    Carbon and silicon materials are two of the most important materials involved in the history of the science and technology development. In the last two decades, C and Si nanoscale materials, e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene, and silicon nanowires, and quantum dots, have also emerged as the most interesting nanomaterials in nanoscience and nanotechnology for their myriad promising applications such as for electronics, sensors, biotechnology, etc. In particular, carbon and silicon nanostructures are being utilized in energy-related applications such as catalysis, batteries, solar cells, etc., with significant advances. Understanding of the nature of surface and electronic structures of nanostructures plays a key role in the development and improvement of energy conversion and storage nanosystems. Synchrotron soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and related techniques, such as X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), show unique capability in revealing the surface and electronic structures of C and Si nanomaterials. In this review, XAS is demonstrated as a powerful technique for probing chemical bonding, the electronic structure, and the surface chemistry of carbon and silicon nanomaterials, which can greatly enhance the fundamental understanding and also applicability of these nanomaterials in energy applications. The focus is on the unique advantages of XAS as a complementary tool to conventional microscopy and spectroscopy for effectively providing chemical and structural information about carbon and silicon nanostructures. The employment of XAS for in situ, real-time study of property evolution of C and Si nanostructures to elucidate the mechanisms in energy conversion or storage processes is also discussed.

  6. Synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbon nanostructures from polyurethane sponge for bioimaging and catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong; Zhang, Jingchao; Zhuang, Jing; Wang, Xun

    2015-07-01

    A facile and environmentally friendly method was developed for the fabrication of N-doped carbon nanomaterials by hydrothermal treatment using polyurethane (PU) sponge as a carbon source. We have demonstrated that the hydrothermal decomposition of PU sponge involves top-down hydrolysis and bottom-up polymerization processes for the synthesis of N-doped carbon dots (N-CDs). Fluorescence spectroscopy and cytotoxicity studies indicated that these highly-soluble N-CDs show excellent photoluminescence properties and low cytotoxicity, and can be used as good probes for cellular imaging. Additionally, the N-doped hollow carbon nanostructures can be designed using a simple template method. The prepared N-doped double-shelled hollow carbon nanotubes exhibited excellent ORR electrocatalytic activity and superior durability. Indeed, our method described here can provide an efficient way to synthesize N-doped carbon-based materials for a broad range of applications.A facile and environmentally friendly method was developed for the fabrication of N-doped carbon nanomaterials by hydrothermal treatment using polyurethane (PU) sponge as a carbon source. We have demonstrated that the hydrothermal decomposition of PU sponge involves top-down hydrolysis and bottom-up polymerization processes for the synthesis of N-doped carbon dots (N-CDs). Fluorescence spectroscopy and cytotoxicity studies indicated that these highly-soluble N-CDs show excellent photoluminescence properties and low cytotoxicity, and can be used as good probes for cellular imaging. Additionally, the N-doped hollow carbon nanostructures can be designed using a simple template method. The prepared N-doped double-shelled hollow carbon nanotubes exhibited excellent ORR electrocatalytic activity and superior durability. Indeed, our method described here can provide an efficient way to synthesize N-doped carbon-based materials for a broad range of applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI

  7. First-Principles Theoretical Analysis of Carbon Allotropes and Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Tejinder; Behr, Michael J.; Aydil, Eray S.; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2008-03-01

    We analyze the various crystalline phases of C observed upon exposing carbon nanotubes to H2 plasmas, which produces an amorphous carbon matrix with carbon nanocrystalls embedded in it. Structural characterization with electron diffraction and high-resolution TEM yields three distinct crystalline phases of C consistent with a fcc lattice with lattice parameter a = 4.25 å, a bcc lattice with a = 3.0 å, and a diamond lattice with a = 3.57 å. Using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we have analyzed the structure of several allotropes of pure carbon and we discuss our results in the context of the experimental findings. In addition, we consider the possibility of H incorporation in these C phases. According to our DFT calculations, incorporation at proper concentrations of H in interstitial sites of cubic phases of C provides interpretations for the experimentally observed crystalline C phases.

  8. Synthesis of carbon nanostructures in an RF induction plasmatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalogin, G. N.; Krasil'nikov, A. V.; Rudin, N. F.; Popov, M. Yu.; Kul'nitskii, B. A.; Kirichenko, A. N.

    2015-05-01

    The method and results of synthesizing carbon nanotubes and onion-like structures by the sublimation of a mixture of a carbon powder with a catalyst (Y2(CO3)3) in the plasma flow of an inert gas (argon) generated in an rf plasmatron are described. Carbon vapors are condensed into fullerene-containing soot onto various materials (Al, Cu, Ti, stainless steel) placed in the working chamber of an experimental setup. The composition of the synthesized soot is analyzed by modern highly informative methods (Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction). Single-wall carbon nanotubes of a small diameter (1.2 nm) and onion-like structures 10-20 nm in size are formed in experiments. In a reference experiment on a mixture of argon and methane, a material, which consists of a mixture of amorphous carbon, nanosized graphite, and graphite with a crystallite size of several microns, is synthesized. The effect of the substrate material, the gas pressure, and the plasma flow velocity on the formation of carbon nanotubes is studied.

  9. Hydrogen peroxide sensing at MnO2/carbonized nanostructured polyaniline electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šljukić, B.; Stojković, I.; Cvijetićanin, N.; Ćirić-Marjanović, G.

    2011-12-01

    Manganese dioxide modified carbonized nanostructured polyaniline (MnO2/Carb-nanoPANI) was prepared via a novel hydrothermal procedure. The synthesized material was characterized using XRD, SEM and TG-DTA analysis. Furthermore, MnO2/Carb-nanoPANI was examined as electrode material for potential application in the field of electroanalysis. It showed a high electrocatalytic activity for the sensing of hydrogen peroxide in an aqueous media.

  10. Pyrolytic deposition of nanostructured titanium carbide coatings on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremlev, K. V.; Ob"edkov, A. M.; Ketkov, S. Yu.; Kaverin, B. S.; Semenov, N. M.; Gusev, S. A.; Tatarskii, D. A.; Yunin, P. A.

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured titanium carbide coatings have been deposited on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by the MOCVD method with bis(cyclopentadienyl)titanium dichloride precursor. The obtained TiC/MWCNT hybrid materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is established that a TiC coating deposits onto the MWCNT surface with the formation of a core-shell (MWSNT-TiC) type structure.

  11. Dopant-specific unzipping of carbon nanotubes for intact crystalline graphene nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Joonwon; Narayan Maiti, Uday; Kim, Na-Young; Narayan, Rekha; Jun Lee, Won; Sung Choi, Dong; Oh, Youngtak; Min Lee, Ju; Yong Lee, Gil; Hun Kang, Seok; Kim, Hyunwoo; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Ouk Kim, Sang

    2016-01-01

    Atomic level engineering of graphene-based materials is in high demand to enable customize structures and properties for different applications. Unzipping of the graphene plane is a potential means to this end, but uncontrollable damage of the two-dimensional crystalline framework during harsh unzipping reaction has remained a key challenge. Here we present heteroatom dopant-specific unzipping of carbon nanotubes as a reliable and controllable route to customized intact crystalline graphene-based nanostructures. Substitutional pyridinic nitrogen dopant sites at carbon nanotubes can selectively initiate the unzipping of graphene side walls at a relatively low electrochemical potential (0.6 V). The resultant nanostructures consisting of unzipped graphene nanoribbons wrapping around carbon nanotube cores maintain the intact two-dimensional crystallinity with well-defined atomic configuration at the unzipped edges. Large surface area and robust electrical connectivity of the synergistic nanostructure demonstrate ultrahigh-power supercapacitor performance, which can serve for AC filtering with the record high rate capability of -85° of phase angle at 120 Hz.

  12. Mesoporous wormholelike carbon with controllable nanostructure for lithium ion batteries application

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Li, Xinxi; Li, Zhenghui; Zhang, Guoqing; Wu, Dingcai

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Wormholelike carbon (WMC) with controllable nanostructure is prepared by sol–gel method. • The reversible capacity of WMC is much higher than that of many other reported nanocarbons. • The effect of pore diameter on Li storage capacity is investigated. - Abstract: A class of mesoporous wormholelike carbon (WMC) with controllable nanostructure was prepared by sol–gel method and then used as the anode material of lithium-ion batteries. Based on the experimental results, it is found that the nanostructure of the as-prepared WMC plays an important role in the electrochemical performances. A suitable mesopore size is necessary for a high performance carbon-based anode material since it can not only guarantee effective mass transport channels but also provide large surface area. As a result, F30 with a mesopore size of 4.4 nm coupled with high surface area of 1077 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} shows a reversible capacity of 630 mAh g{sup −1}, much higher than commercial graphite and many other reported nanocarbons.

  13. Dopant-specific unzipping of carbon nanotubes for intact crystalline graphene nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Joonwon; Narayan Maiti, Uday; Kim, Na-Young; Narayan, Rekha; Jun Lee, Won; Sung Choi, Dong; Oh, Youngtak; Min Lee, Ju; Yong Lee, Gil; Hun Kang, Seok; Kim, Hyunwoo; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Ouk Kim, Sang

    2016-01-01

    Atomic level engineering of graphene-based materials is in high demand to enable customize structures and properties for different applications. Unzipping of the graphene plane is a potential means to this end, but uncontrollable damage of the two-dimensional crystalline framework during harsh unzipping reaction has remained a key challenge. Here we present heteroatom dopant-specific unzipping of carbon nanotubes as a reliable and controllable route to customized intact crystalline graphene-based nanostructures. Substitutional pyridinic nitrogen dopant sites at carbon nanotubes can selectively initiate the unzipping of graphene side walls at a relatively low electrochemical potential (0.6 V). The resultant nanostructures consisting of unzipped graphene nanoribbons wrapping around carbon nanotube cores maintain the intact two-dimensional crystallinity with well-defined atomic configuration at the unzipped edges. Large surface area and robust electrical connectivity of the synergistic nanostructure demonstrate ultrahigh-power supercapacitor performance, which can serve for AC filtering with the record high rate capability of −85° of phase angle at 120 Hz. PMID:26796993

  14. Tunneling spectroscopy of carbon nanostructures: A romance in many dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirks, Travis Lee

    In this dissertation we present results from various methods of tunneling spectroscopy in carbon nanotubes, which shed light on electron -- electron interaction in carbon nanotubes and low dimensional systems in general. We also apply those methods to two dimensional graphene sheets. We first review the fabrication techniques used to make the devices studied here. Some of the techniques are standard in nanofabrication, and some were developed in-house to make the particular device geometries studied here possible. In particular, we developed recipes for the growth and contact of clean, ultra-long carbon nanotubes as well as for the fabrication of non-invasive top tunnel probes. We then present results on normal metal tunneling spectroscopy of carbon nanotube devices of varying length. We measure the exponent of the conductance power law in the density of states as a function of device length over two orders of magnitude and find unexpected evidence of finite size effects in long devices. Next, we present results from the first measurement of the non-equilibrium electron energy distribution function in carbon nanotubes measured via non-equilibrium superconducting tunneling spectroscopy and find little evidence of scattering at low temperatures, which is consistent with a clean, strongly interacting Luttinger liquid. In addition, we discuss two ways we are working to extend this powerful technique. We also present results of superconducting tunneling spectroscopy of a clean carbon nanotube quantum dot. We are able to characterize the energy spectrum of the quantum dot and distinguish between spin singlet and spin triplet shell filling. We observe elastic and inelastic co-tunneling features which are not visible when the probe is made normal by a magnetic field. These co-tunneling rates have important technological implications for carbon nanotubes as single electron transistors. We also observe an energetically forbidden conductance inside the superconducting gap

  15. Application of DC plasma torch for synthesis of carbon nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavelkina, M. B.; Amirov, R. H.; Katarzhis, V. A.; Kiselev, V. I.

    2016-09-01

    The results of the synthesis of carbon nanostructures at high temperatures using a DC plasma torch are presented. Plasma was generated by introduction of argon, nitrogen and helium into the plasma torch with an anode in the form of an expanding channel. Sustainable modes of the plasma torch operation have been achieved by simultaneous tangential input of a plasma gas with a carbon source. Obtained solid products were studied using electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction to characterize their properties and morphological structures.

  16. Electrodeposition of Various Au Nanostructures on Aligned Carbon Nanotubes as Highly Sensitive Nanoelectrode Ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayazfar, H.; Afshar, A.; Dolati, A.

    2015-05-01

    An efficient method has been developed to synthesize well-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on a conductive Ta substrate by chemical vapor deposition. Free-standing MWCNTs arrays were functionalized through electrochemical oxidation with the formation of hydroxyl and carboxyl functional groups. Facile template-free electrochemical routes were then developed for the shape-selective synthesis of less-common Au nanostructures, including flower, sphere, dendrite, rod, sheet, and cabbage onto the aligned MWCNTs at room temperature. Especially, among all the synthesis methods for Au nanocrystals, this is the first report using electrochemical technique to synthesize wide variety shapes of gold nanostructures (GNs) onto the aligned MWCNTs. The morphology of electrodeposited Au nanostructures was controlled by adjustment of the deposition time and potential, the number of potential cycles, the kind of deposition bath, and electrodeposition method. Transmission electron microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the products. Cyclic voltammograms showed that the MWCNT/Ta electrodes modified with GNs have higher sensitivity compared to the unmodified electrodes in the presence of Fe2+/Fe3+ redox couple. These kinds of aligned-CNT/Au nanostructure hybrid materials introduced by these efficient and simple electrochemical methods could lead to the development of a new generation device for ultrasensitive catalytic and biological application.

  17. Electrochemical Decoration of Carbon Nanotubes with Au Nanostructure for the Electroanalysis of Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Raj, C Retna

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical route for the decoration of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with anisotropic Au nanostructures and the electroanalytical application of decorated MWCNTs are described. MWCNTs were electrochemically decorated with flowers and buds-like Au nanostructures in aqueous solution in the presence of KI. The flowers and buds-like nanostructures had an average size of 80 nm with a predominant Au(111) plane. The analytical application of the decorated MWCNTs in the electroanalysis of biologically important analytes, such as uric acid (UA), epinephrine (EN) and ascorbic acid (AA), was studied. The nanoparticles of flower-like morphology efficiently catalyze the oxidation of the bioanalytes at a less-positive potential. Simultaneous electroanalysis of AA, UA and EN have been achieved. Well separated individual voltammetric peaks were obtained in their coexistence. The decorated MWCNT modified electrode is very stable and highly sensitive towards UA and EN. It could detect micromolar levels of bioanalytes without any interference. The catalytic property of the nanostructures is superior to that of the conventional spherical nanoparticle. The morphology of the nanoparticle controls the electrocatalytic activity.

  18. Surface topography effects in protein adsorption on nanostructured carbon allotropes.

    PubMed

    Raffaini, Giuseppina; Ganazzoli, Fabio

    2013-04-16

    We report a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study of protein adsorption on the surface of nanosized carbon allotropes, namely single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) considering both the convex outer surface and the concave inner surface, together with a graphene sheet for comparison. These systems are chosen to investigate the effect of the surface curvature on protein adsorption at the same surface chemistry, given by sp(2) carbon atoms in all cases. The simulations show that proteins do favorably interact with these hydrophobic surfaces, as previously found on graphite which has the same chemical nature. However, the main finding of the present study is that the adsorption strength does depend on the surface topography: in particular, it is slightly weaker on the outer convex surfaces of SWNT and is conversely enhanced on the inner concave SWNT surface, being therefore intermediate for flat graphene. We additionally find that oligopeptides may enter the cavity of common SWNT, provided their size is small enough and the tube diameter is large enough for both entropic and energetic reasons. Therefore, we suggest that proteins can effectively be used to solubilize in water single-walled (and by analogy also multiwalled) carbon nanotubes through adsorption on the outer surface, as indeed experimentally found, and to functionalize them after insertion of oligopeptides within the cavity of nanotubes of appropriate size. PMID:23517008

  19. Metal encapsulating carbon nanostructures from oligoalkyne metal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Dosa, P.I.; Erben, C.; Iyer, V.S.; Vollhardt, K.P.C.; Wasser, I.M.

    1999-11-10

    Carbon nanotubes, onions, and related closed-shell carbon particles have commanded extensive recent attention because of their potential applications as unique electronic, magnetic, and mechanically robust materials. When filled with metals, such nanocapsules have additional promise as magnetic particles, contrasting agents, protecting cloaks, and catalysts and in other applications. Among the various methods for their preparation, the transition metal (especially Fe, Co, and Ni) catalyzed pyrolysis of small organic molecules has shown promise for larger scale production and in structural control. While the use of organometallic complexes as solid catalyst precursors or copyrolytic gaseous ingredients has been reported, all of these studies have been limited to gas-phase experiments at relatively high temperatures. There is very little literature that deals with the organic solid-state generation of carbon nanotubes. The latter suffers from extreme conditions, poor yields, or not readily modifiable starting materials. Development of synthetic organic approaches to closed shell large carbon structures is desirable but in its infancy. Here the authors present a significant step in its progress.

  20. Structure and properties of composites based chitosan and carbon nanostructures: atomistic and coarse-grained simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Kolesnikova, A. S.; Grishina, O. A.; Slepchenkov, M. M.

    2015-03-01

    At the present time actual task of the modern materials is the creation of biodegradable biocompatible composite materials possessing high strength properties for medical purposes. One of the most promising biomaterials from a position of creation on their basis super strong nanofibres is chitosan. The aim of this work is a theoretical study of the structural features and physico-mechanical properties of biocomposite materials based on chitosan and carbon nanostructures. As matrix nanocomposite we considered various carbon nano-objects, namely carbon nanotubes and graphene. Using the developed original software complex KVAZAR we built atomistic and coarse-grained models of the biocomposite material. To identify regularities of influence of the configuration of the carbon matrix on the mechanical and electronic properties of biocomposite we carried out a series of numerical experiments using a classical algorithm of molecular dynamics and semi-empirical methods. The obtained results allow us to suggest that the generated biocomposite based on chitosan and carbon nanostructures has high stability and strength characteristics. Such materials can be used in biomedicine as a base material for creating of artificial limbs.

  1. Application of carbon-aluminum nanostructures in divertor coatings from fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciupina, V.; Lungu, C. P.; Vladoiu, R.; Epure, T. D.; Prodan, G.; Porosnicu, C.; Prodan, M.; Stanescu, I. M.; Contulov, M.; Mandes, A.; Dinca, V.; Zarovschi, V.

    2012-10-01

    Nanostructured carbon materials have increasingly attracted the interest of the scientific community, because of their fascinating physical properties and potential applications in high-tech devices. In the current ITER design, the tiles made of carbon fiber composites (CFCs) are foreseen for the strike point zone and tungsten (W) for other parts of the divertor region. This choice is a compromise based mainly on experience with individual materials in many different tokamaks. Also Carbon-Aluminum composites are the candidate material for the First Wall in ITER. In order to prepare nanostructured carbon-aluminum nanocomposite for the divertor part in fusion applications, the original method thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) was used in two electronic guns configuration. One of the main advantages of this technology is the bombardment of the growing thin film just by the ions of the depositing film. Moreover, the energy of ions can be controlled. Thermo-electrons emitted by an externally heated cathode and focused by a Wehnelt focusing cylinder are strongly accelerated towards the anode whose material is evaporated and bright plasma is ignited by a high voltage DC supply. The nanostructured C-Al films were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Tribological properties in dry sliding were evaluated using a CSM ball-on-disc tribometer. The carbon - aluminum films were identified as a nanocrystals complex (from 2nm to 50 nm diameters) surrounded by amorphous structures with a strong graphitization tendency, allowing the creating of adherent and wear resistant films. The friction coefficients (0.1 - 0.2, 0.5) of the C-Al coatings was decreased more than 2-5 times in comparison with the uncoated substrates proving excellent tribological properties. C-Al nanocomposites coatings were designed to have excellent tribological properties while the structure is composed by nanocrystals complex surrounded by amorphous structures

  2. 3D porous and ultralight carbon hybrid nanostructure fabricated from carbon foam covered by monolayer of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for high performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shuijian; Hou, Haoqing; Chen, Wei

    2015-04-01

    3D porous and self-supported carbon hybrids are promising electrode materials for supercapacitor application attributed to their prominent properties such as binder-free electrode fabrication process, excellent electric conductivity and high power density etc. We present here a facile chemical vapor deposition method to fabricate a novel 3D flexible carbon hybrid nanostructure by growing a monolayer of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes on the skeleton of carbon foam (N-CNTs/CF) with Fe nanoparticle as catalyst. With such 3D porous, flexible and ultralight carbon nanostructure as binder-free electrode material, large surface area is available and fast ionic transport is facilitated. Moreover, the carbon-based network can provide excellent electronic conductivity. The electrochemical studies demonstrate that the supercapacitor constructed from the N-CNTs/CF hybrid exhibit high power density of 69.3 kW kg-1 and good stability with capacitance retention ration above 95% after cycled at 50 A g-1 for 5000 cycles. Therefore, the prepared porous N-CNTs/CF nanostructure is expected to be a type of excellent electrode material for electrical double layer capacitors.

  3. Carbon Nanosheets and Nanostructured Electrodes in Organic Photovoltaic Devices: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-321

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.

    2012-04-01

    Carbon nanosheet thin films were employed as nanostructured electrodes in organic solar cells. Due to the nanostructured texture of the carbon nanosheet electrodes, there was an increase in performance over standard ITO electrodes with very thick active layers. ZnO deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used as a hole blocking layer to provide for carrier selectivity of the carbon nanosheets.

  4. Nanostructured Carbon Allotropes with Weyl-like Loops and Points.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanping; Xie, Yuee; Yang, Shengyuan A; Pan, Hui; Zhang, Fan; Cohen, Marvin L; Zhang, Shengbai

    2015-10-14

    Carbon allotropes are subject of intense investigations for their superb structural, electronic, and chemical properties, but not for topological band properties because of the lack of strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Here, we show that conjugated p-orbital interactions, common to most carbon allotropes, can in principle produce a new type of topological band structure, forming the so-called Weyl-like semimetal in the absence of SOC. Taking a structurally stable interpenetrated graphene network (IGN) as example, we show, by first-principles calculations and tight-binding modeling, that its Fermi surface is made of two symmetry-protected Weyl-like loops with linear dispersion along perpendicular directions. These loops are reduced to Weyl-like points upon breaking of the inversion symmetry. Because of the topological properties of these band-structure anomalies, remarkably, at a surface terminated by vacuum there emerges a flat band in the loop case and two Fermi arcs in the point case. These topological carbon materials may also find applications in the fields of catalysts.

  5. Electron transport study of single wall nanotubes based on group 14 elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivasathya, S.; Thiruvadigal, D. John

    2012-06-01

    By applying non-equilibrium Green's functions in combination with density functional theory, we investigate the transport behaviours of single wall nanotubes based on group14 elements. The transmission spectrum and density of states for single wall nanotubes such as Lead nanotube(PbNT), Germanium nanotube(GeNT), Silicon nanotube(SiNT), Tin nanotube(SnNT) and Carbon nanotube(CNT) are compared.

  6. Nanotribological properties of nanostructured hard carbon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grierson, David S.

    Hard carbon thin films are important candidate materials to improve the tribological performance of mechanical components ranging from the macro- to the nanoscale. Extensive study at the macroscale has established their excellent tribomechanical properties, but little is known about their nanoscale properties. We investigated three carbon-based films: ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD), tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C), and diamond-like carbon (DLC). We used near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy to determine the chemical composition and the nature of the surface bonds. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to measure the work of adhesion and frictional forces between diamond tips (microcrystalline and UNCD) and both UNCD and ta-C surfaces, and between fluorinated DLC (F-DLC) tips and both F-DLC and silicon-containing DLC (Si-DLC). For UNCD, we were able to reach van der Waals's limit of adhesion for hydrocarbons (˜30 mJ/m2) and reduce nanoscale friction forces by terminating defective surfaces with hydrogen. This is particularly important for the underside of UNCD films, which we studied by etching away their underlying substrates. We found that this underside had a higher percentage of sp2 bonding and oxygen than the upper surface, but exposure to hydrogen plasma restored the sp3 character and improved the nanotribological properties. We studied ta-C films annealed from 200°C - 1000°C, and found that thermal annealing increased the sp2 bonding percentage. Above 600°C, the conversion from sp3→sp2 bonding increased dramatically. When the as-deposited films were oxygen-free, we observed no change in the work of adhesion (which is low at ˜40 mJ/m 2) as a function of thermal annealing, but we did see a reduction in nano scale friction. F-DLC and Si-DLC films were investigated before and after thermally annealing them at 300°C in air. The NEXAFS and AFM results demonstrated that Si-DLC is stable, both chemically and

  7. Capacitive energy storage in nanostructured carbon-electrolyte systems.

    PubMed

    Simon, P; Gogotsi, Y

    2013-05-21

    Securing our energy future is the most important problem that humanity faces in this century. Burning fossil fuels is not sustainable, and wide use of renewable energy sources will require a drastically increased ability to store electrical energy. In the move toward an electrical economy, chemical (batteries) and capacitive energy storage (electrochemical capacitors or supercapacitors) devices are expected to play an important role. This Account summarizes research in the field of electrochemical capacitors conducted over the past decade. Overall, the combination of the right electrode materials with a proper electrolyte can successfully increase both the energy stored by the device and its power, but no perfect active material exists and no electrolyte suits every material and every performance goal. However, today, many materials are available, including porous activated, carbide-derived, and templated carbons with high surface areas and porosities that range from subnanometer to just a few nanometers. If the pore size is matched with the electrolyte ion size, those materials can provide high energy density. Exohedral nanoparticles, such as carbon nanotubes and onion-like carbon, can provide high power due to fast ion sorption/desorption on their outer surfaces. Because of its higher charge-discharge rates compared with activated carbons, graphene has attracted increasing attention, but graphene had not yet shown a higher volumetric capacitance than porous carbons. Although aqueous electrolytes, such as sodium sulfate, are the safest and least expensive, they have a limited voltage window. Organic electrolytes, such as solutions of [N(C2H5)4]BF4 in acetonitrile or propylene carbonate, are the most common in commercial devices. Researchers are increasingly interested in nonflammable ionic liquids. These liquids have low vapor pressures, which allow them to be used safely over a temperature range from -50 °C to at least 100 °C and over a larger voltage window

  8. Capacitive energy storage in nanostructured carbon-electrolyte systems.

    PubMed

    Simon, P; Gogotsi, Y

    2013-05-21

    Securing our energy future is the most important problem that humanity faces in this century. Burning fossil fuels is not sustainable, and wide use of renewable energy sources will require a drastically increased ability to store electrical energy. In the move toward an electrical economy, chemical (batteries) and capacitive energy storage (electrochemical capacitors or supercapacitors) devices are expected to play an important role. This Account summarizes research in the field of electrochemical capacitors conducted over the past decade. Overall, the combination of the right electrode materials with a proper electrolyte can successfully increase both the energy stored by the device and its power, but no perfect active material exists and no electrolyte suits every material and every performance goal. However, today, many materials are available, including porous activated, carbide-derived, and templated carbons with high surface areas and porosities that range from subnanometer to just a few nanometers. If the pore size is matched with the electrolyte ion size, those materials can provide high energy density. Exohedral nanoparticles, such as carbon nanotubes and onion-like carbon, can provide high power due to fast ion sorption/desorption on their outer surfaces. Because of its higher charge-discharge rates compared with activated carbons, graphene has attracted increasing attention, but graphene had not yet shown a higher volumetric capacitance than porous carbons. Although aqueous electrolytes, such as sodium sulfate, are the safest and least expensive, they have a limited voltage window. Organic electrolytes, such as solutions of [N(C2H5)4]BF4 in acetonitrile or propylene carbonate, are the most common in commercial devices. Researchers are increasingly interested in nonflammable ionic liquids. These liquids have low vapor pressures, which allow them to be used safely over a temperature range from -50 °C to at least 100 °C and over a larger voltage window

  9. Nanostructuring carbon fibre probes for use in central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Li, Meixian; Phair, Jolene; Cardosi, Marco F; Davis, James

    2014-02-17

    A carbon fibre probe is described which utilises the oxidation of an endogenous biomarker to provide diagnostic information on the condition of intravascular access lines. The probe surface was modified through anodic oxidation to provide a high selectivity towards urate which was used as a redox probe through which the pH could be determined. A Nernstian response (-60 mV/pH) was obtained which was free from the interference of other redox species common to biofluids. The electroanalytical performance of the probe has been optimised and the applicability of the approach demonstrated through testing the responses in whole blood.

  10. Transport spectroscopy of chemical nanostructures: the case of metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenjie; Bockrath, Marc; Park, Hongkun

    2005-01-01

    Transport spectroscopy, a technique based on current-voltage measurements of individual nanostructures in a three-terminal transistor geometry, has emerged as a powerful new tool to investigate the electronic properties of chemically derived nanostructures. In this review, we discuss the utility of this approach using the recent studies of single-nanotube transistors as an example. Specifically, we discuss how transport measurements can be used to gain detailed insight into the electronic motion in metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes in several distinct regimes, depending on the coupling strength of the contacts to the nanotubes. Measurements of nanotube devices in these different conductance regimes have enabled a detailed analysis of the transport properties, including the experimental determination of all Hartree-Fock parameters that govern the electronic structure of metallic nanotubes and the demonstration of Fabry-Perot resonators based on the interference of electron waves.

  11. TRANSPORT SPECTROSCOPY OF CHEMICAL NANOSTRUCTURES: The Case of Metallic Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Wenjie; Bockrath, Marc; Park, Hongkun

    2005-05-01

    Transport spectroscopy, a technique based on current-voltage measurements of individual nanostructures in a three-terminal transistor geometry, has emerged as a powerful new tool to investigate the electronic properties of chemically derived nanostructures. In this review, we discuss the utility of this approach using the recent studies of single-nanotube transistors as an example. Specifically, we discuss how transport measurements can be used to gain detailed insight into the electronic motion in metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes in several distinct regimes, depending on the coupling strength of the contacts to the nanotubes. Measurements of nanotube devices in these different conductance regimes have enabled a detailed analysis of the transport properties, including the experimental determination of all Hartree-Fock parameters that govern the electronic structure of metallic nanotubes and the demonstration of Fabry-Perot resonators based on the interference of electron waves.

  12. Influence of cluster-assembly parameters on the field emission properties of nanostructured carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducati, C.; Barborini, E.; Piseri, P.; Milani, P.; Robertson, J.

    2002-11-01

    Supersonic cluster beam deposition has been used to produce films with different nanostructures by controlling the deposition parameters such as the film thickness, substrate temperature and cluster mass distribution. The field emission properties of cluster-assembled carbon films have been characterized and correlated to the evolution of the film nanostructure. Threshold fields ranging between 4 and 10 V/mum and saturation current densities as high as 0.7 mA have been measured for samples heated during deposition. A series of voltage ramps, i.e., a conditioning process, was found to initiate more stable and reproducible emission. It was found that the presence of graphitic particles (onions, nanotube embryos) in the films substantially enhances the field emission performance. Films patterned on a micrometer scale have been conditioned spot by spot by a ball-tip anode, showing that a relatively high emission site density can be achieved from the cluster-assembled material.

  13. CVD growth of carbon nanostructures from zirconia: mechanisms and a method for enhancing yield.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Akira; Steiner, Stephen A; Bayer, Bernhard C; Kidambi, Piran R; Hofmann, Stephan; Strano, Michael S; Wardle, Brian L

    2014-12-24

    By excluding metals from synthesis, growth of carbon nanostructures via unreduced oxide nanoparticle catalysts offers wide technological potential. We report new observations of the mechanisms underlying chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of fibrous carbon nanostructures from zirconia nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation reveals distinct differences in morphological features of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers (CNTs and CNFs) grown from zirconia nanoparticle catalysts versus typical oxide-supported metal nanoparticle catalysts. Nanofibers borne from zirconia lack an observable graphitic cage consistently found with nanotube-bearing metal nanoparticle catalysts. We observe two distinct growth modalities for zirconia: (1) turbostratic CNTs 2-3 times smaller in diameter than the nanoparticle localized at a nanoparticle corner, and (2) nonhollow CNFs with approximately the same diameter as the nanoparticle. Unlike metal nanoparticle catalysts, zirconia-based growth should proceed via surface-bound kinetics, and we propose a growth model where initiation occurs at nanoparticle corners. Utilizing these mechanistic insights, we further demonstrate that preannealing of zirconia nanoparticles with a solid-state amorphous carbon substrate enhances growth yield. PMID:25487041

  14. Fulleranes and Carbon Nanostructures in the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias-Groth, Susana; Cataldo, Franco

    We review the potential contribution of single fullerenes and buckyonions to interstellar extinction. Photoabsorption spectra of these molecules are compared with some of the most relevant features of interstellar extinction, the UV bump, the far UV rise and the diffuse interstellar bands. According to semiempirical models, photoabsorption by fullerenes (single and multishell) could explain the shape, width and peak energy of the most prominent feature of the interstellar absorption, the UV bump at 2,175 Å. Other weaker transitions are predicted in the optical and near-infrared providing a potential explanation for diffuse interstellar bands. In particular, several fullerenes could contribute to the well known strong DIB at 4,430 Å comparing cross sections and available data for this DIB and the UV bump we estimate a density of fullerenes in the diffuse interstellar medium of 0.1-0.2 ppm. These molecules could then be a major reservoir for interstellar carbon. We give an estimation of the carbon fraction locked in these molecules. We discuss the rotation rates and electric dipole emission of hydrogenated icosahedral fullerenes in various phases of the interstellar medium. These molecules could be the carriers of the anomalous microwave emission detected by Watson et al. (Astrophys. J. 624:L89, 2005) in the Perseus molecular complex and Cassasus et al. (2006) in the dark cloud LDN 1622. Hydrogenated forms of fullerenes may account for the dust-correlated microwave emission detected in our Galaxy by Cosmic Microwave Background experiments.

  15. Self-catalyzed carbon plasma-assisted growth of tin-doped indium oxide nanostructures by the sputtering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setti, Grazielle O.; de Jesus, Dosil P.; Joanni, Ednan

    2016-10-01

    In this work a new strategy for growth of nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) by RF sputtering is presented. ITO is deposited in the presence of a carbon plasma which reacts with the free oxygen atoms during the deposition, forming species like CO x . These species are removed from the chamber by the pumping system, and one-dimensional ITO nanostructures are formed without the need for a seed layer. Different values of substrate temperature and power applied to the gun containing the carbon target were investigated, resulting in different nanostructure morphologies. The samples containing a higher density of nanowires were covered with gold and evaluated as surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates for detection of dye solutions. The concept might be applied to other oxides, providing a simple method for unidimensional nanostructural synthesis.

  16. Effects of applied radio frequency power on low-temperature catalytic-free nanostructured carbon nitride films by rf PECVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritikos, Richard; Othman, Maisara; Abdul Rahman, Saadah

    2016-06-01

    Low-temperature catalytic-free carbon nitride, CN x nanostructured thin films were produced by using radio frequency (rf) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition employing a parallel-plate electrode configuration. The effects of varying applied rf power, P rf (30-100 W), on the formation of these structures were studied. Aligned nanostructured CN x films were produced at P rf as low as 40 W, but uniform highly vertical-aligned CN x nanorods were produced at P rf of 60 and 80 W. This was induced by the presence of high ion bombardment on the growing films and the preferential bonding of isonitrile to aromatic bonds in the nanostructures. It was also observed that nitrogen incorporation is highest in this range and the structure and bonding in the nanostructure reflects those of typical polymeric/amorphous carbon nitride films.

  17. Hydrogen adsorption in the series of carbon nanostructures: Graphenes-graphene nanotubes-nanocrystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, A. P.; Kirichenko, A. N.; Tat'yanin, E. V.

    2016-07-01

    A comparative analysis of hydrogen absorption capability is performed for the first time for three types of carbon nanostructures: graphenes, oriented carbon nanotubes with graphene walls (OCNTGs), and pyrocarbon nanocrystallites (PCNs) synthesized in the pores of TRUMEM ultrafiltration membranes with mean diameters ( D m) of 50 and 90 nm, using methane as the pyrolized gas. The morphology of the carbon nanostructures is studied by means of powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Hydrogen adsorption is investigated via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in combination with mass-spectrometry. It is shown that only OCNTGs can adsorb and store hydrogen, the desorption of which under atmospheric pressure occurs at a temperature of around 175°C. Hydrogen adsorption by OCNTGs is quantitatively determined and found to be about 1.5% of their mass. Applying certain assumptions, the relationship between the mass of carbon required for the formation of single-wall OCNTGs in membrane pores and the surface area of pores is established. Numerical factor Ψ = m dep/ m calc, where m dep is the actual mass of carbon deposited upon the formation of OCNTGs and mcalc is the calculated mass of carbon necessary for the formation of OCNTGs is introduced. It is found that the dependence of specific hydrogen adsorption on the magnitude of the factor has a maximum at Ψ = 1.2, and OCNTGs can adsorb and store hydrogen in the interval 0.4 to 0.6 < Ψ < 1.5 to 1.7. Possible mechanisms of hydrogen adsorption and its relationship to the structure of carbon nanoformations are examined.

  18. Noncovalent functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes: application in hybrid nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tie; Hu, Xiaoge; Qu, Xiaohu; Dong, Shaojun

    2006-04-01

    We developed a reproducible, noncovalent strategy to functionalize multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) via embedding nanotubes in polysiloxane shells. (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane molecules adsorbed to the nanotube surfaces via hydrophobic interactions are polymerized simply by acid catalysis and form a thin polysiloxane layer. On the basis of the embedded MWNTs, negatively charged gold nanoparticles are anchored to the nanotube surfaces via electrostatic interactions between the protonated amino groups and the gold nanoparticles. Furthermore, these gold nanoparticles can further grow and magnify along the nanotubes through heating in HAuCl4 aqueous solution at 100 degrees C; as a result these nanoparticles are joined to form continuous gold nanowires with MWNTs acting as templates. PMID:16570965

  19. Carbon nanostructures on silicon substrates suitable for nanolithography

    SciTech Connect

    Abdi, Y.; Mohajerzadeh, S.; Hoseinzadegan, H.; Koohsorkhi, J.

    2006-01-30

    We report the application of vertically grown carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for submicron and nanolithography. The growth of CNTs is performed on silicon substrates using a nickel-seeded plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method at a temperature of 650 deg. C and with a mixture of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. The grown CNTs are encapsulated by a titanium-dioxide film and then mechanically polished to expose the buried nanotubes, and a plasma ashing step finalizes the process. The emission of electrons from the encapsulated nanotubes is used to write patterns on a resist-coated substrate placed opposite to the main CNT holding one. Scanning electron microscope has been used to investigate the nanotubes and the formation of nano-metric lines. Also a novel approach is presented to create isolated nanotubes from a previously patterned cluster growth.

  20. The effects of interactions between proline and carbon nanostructures on organocatalysis in the Hajos-Parrish-Eder-Sauer-Wiechert reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rance, G. A.; Khlobystov, A. N.

    2014-09-01

    The non-covalent interactions of S-(-)-proline with the surfaces of carbon nanostructures (fullerene, nanotubes and graphite) change the nucleophilic-electrophilic and acid-base properties of the amino acid, thus tuning its activity and selectivity in the organocatalytic Hajos-Parrish-Eder-Sauer-Wiechert (HPESW) reaction. Whilst our spectroscopy and microscopy measurements show no permanent covalent bonding between S-(-)-proline and carbon nanostructures, a systematic investigation of the catalytic activity and selectivity of the organocatalyst in the HPESW reaction demonstrates a clear correlation between the pyramidalisation angle of carbon nanostructures and the catalytic properties of S-(-)-proline. Carbon nanostructures with larger pyramidalisation angles have a stronger interaction with the nitrogen atom lone pair of electrons of the organocatalyst, thereby simultaneously decreasing the nucleophilicity and increasing the acidity of the organocatalyst. These translate into lower conversion rates but higher selectivities towards the dehydrated product of Aldol addition.The non-covalent interactions of S-(-)-proline with the surfaces of carbon nanostructures (fullerene, nanotubes and graphite) change the nucleophilic-electrophilic and acid-base properties of the amino acid, thus tuning its activity and selectivity in the organocatalytic Hajos-Parrish-Eder-Sauer-Wiechert (HPESW) reaction. Whilst our spectroscopy and microscopy measurements show no permanent covalent bonding between S-(-)-proline and carbon nanostructures, a systematic investigation of the catalytic activity and selectivity of the organocatalyst in the HPESW reaction demonstrates a clear correlation between the pyramidalisation angle of carbon nanostructures and the catalytic properties of S-(-)-proline. Carbon nanostructures with larger pyramidalisation angles have a stronger interaction with the nitrogen atom lone pair of electrons of the organocatalyst, thereby simultaneously decreasing the

  1. Improved photovoltaic performance of multiple carbon-doped ZnO nanostructures under UV and visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianbin; Du, Hejun; Sun, Xiao Wei; Zhan, Zhaoyao; Sun, Gengzhi; Li, Fengji; Zheng, Lianxi; Zhang, Sam

    2014-09-01

    We report synthesis of multiple carbon-doped ZnO nanostructures by using carbon cloth as substrates to obtain multiple hollow ZnO microtube-nanowire structures. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analysis clearly show that carbon is doped into ZnO through substitution of carbon for oxygen in the growth and annealing processes. Upon exposure to 633-nm red laser, a distinct photoresponse can be observed, which indicates that carbon doping in ZnO can well extend its light harvesting to visible light region. Furthermore, a prototype of photovoltaic cell was fabricated to demonstrate the photovoltaic performance of multiple carbon-doped ZnO nanostructures under UV and visible light irradiation. This result shows that carbon-doped ZnO can act as effective photoactive materials for photoelectric components. PMID:25924372

  2. Improved photovoltaic performance of multiple carbon-doped ZnO nanostructures under UV and visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianbin; Du, Hejun; Sun, Xiao Wei; Zhan, Zhaoyao; Sun, Gengzhi; Li, Fengji; Zheng, Lianxi; Zhang, Sam

    2014-09-01

    We report synthesis of multiple carbon-doped ZnO nanostructures by using carbon cloth as substrates to obtain multiple hollow ZnO microtube-nanowire structures. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analysis clearly show that carbon is doped into ZnO through substitution of carbon for oxygen in the growth and annealing processes. Upon exposure to 633-nm red laser, a distinct photoresponse can be observed, which indicates that carbon doping in ZnO can well extend its light harvesting to visible light region. Furthermore, a prototype of photovoltaic cell was fabricated to demonstrate the photovoltaic performance of multiple carbon-doped ZnO nanostructures under UV and visible light irradiation. This result shows that carbon-doped ZnO can act as effective photoactive materials for photoelectric components.

  3. From small aromatic molecules to functional nanostructured carbon by pulsed laser-induced photochemical stitching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, R. R.; Thakare, V. P.; Warule, S.; Lefez, B.; Hannoyer, B.; Jog, J. P.; Ogale, S. B.

    2012-06-01

    A novel route employing UV laser pulses (KrF Excimer, 248 nm) to cleave small aromatic molecules and stitch the generated free radicals into functional nanostructured forms of carbon is introduced. The process differs distinctly from any strategies wherein the aromatic rings are broken in the primary process. It is demonstrated that this pulsed laser-induced photochemical stitching (PLPS) process when applied to routine laboratory solvents (or toxic chemical wastes when discarded) Chlorobenzene and o-Dichlorobenzene yields Carbon Nanospheres (CNSs) comprising of graphene-like sheets assembled in onion-like configurations. This room temperature process implemented under normal laboratory conditions is versatile and clearly applicable to the whole family of haloaromatic compounds without and with additions of precursors or other nanomaterials. We further bring out its applicability for synthesis of metal-oxide based carbon nanocomposites.

  4. Diffraction by DNA, carbon nanotubes and other helical nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Amand A.; Lambin, Philippe

    2005-05-01

    This review discusses the diffraction patterns of x-rays or electrons scattered by fibres of helical biological molecules and by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from the unified point of view of the Fourier-Bessel transform of an atomic helix. This paper is intended for scientists who are not professional crystallographers. X-ray fibre diffraction patterns of Pauling's protein α-helix and of Crick and Pauling's protein coiled-coil are revisited. This is followed by a non-technical comparison between the historic x-ray diffraction patterns of the A and B conformations of DNA, which were crucial for the discovery of the double helix. The qualitative analysis of the diffraction images is supported by novel optical simulation experiments designed to pinpoint the gross structural informational content of the patterns. The spectacular helical structure of the tobacco mosaic virus determined by Rosalind Franklin and co-workers will then be described as an early example of the great power of x-ray crystallography in determining the structure of a large biomolecular edifice. After these mostly historical and didactic case studies, this paper will consider electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy of CNTs of great current interest, focusing particularly on recent data obtained for single-wall, double-wall and scrolled nanotubes. Several points of convergence between the interpretations of the diffraction patterns of biological helices and CNTs will be emphasized.

  5. Control of carbon nanostructure: From nanofiber toward nanotube and back

    SciTech Connect

    Melechko, A. V.; Klein, K. L.; Fowlkes, J. D.; Hensley, D. K.; Merkulov, I. A.; McKnight, T. E.; Rack, P. D.; Horton, J. A.; Simpson, M. L.

    2007-10-01

    The unique properties of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) make them attractive for numerous applications ranging from field emitters to biological probes. In particular, it is the deterministic synthesis of CNFs, which requires precise control over geometrical characteristics such as location, length, diameter, and alignment, that enables the diverse applications. Catalytic plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of vertically aligned CNFs is a growth method that offers substantial control over the nanofiber geometry. However, deterministic synthesis also implies control over the nanofiber's physical and chemical properties that are defined by internal structure. Until now, true deterministic synthesis has remained elusive due to the lack of control over internal graphitic structure. Here we demonstrate that the internal structure of CNFs can be influenced by catalyst preparation and ultimately defined by growth conditions. We have found that when the growth rate is increased by 100-fold, obtained through maximized pressure, plasma power, and temperature, the resulting nanofibers have an internal structure approaching that of multiwalled nanotubes. We further show that the deliberate modulation of growth parameters results in modulation of CNF internal structure, and this property has been used to control the CNF surface along its length for site specific chemistry and electrochemistry.

  6. Laser-induced forward transfer of hybrid carbon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palla-Papavlu, A.; Filipescu, M.; Vizireanu, S.; Vogt, L.; Antohe, S.; Dinescu, M.; Wokaun, A.; Lippert, T.

    2016-06-01

    Chemically functionalized carbon nanowalls (CNWs) are promising materials for a wide range of applications, i.e. gas sensors, membranes for fuel cells, or as supports for catalysts. However, the difficulty of manipulation of these materials hinders their integration into devices. In this manuscript a procedure for rapid prototyping of CNWs and functionalized CNWs (i.e. decorated with SnO2 nanoparticles) is described. This procedure enables the use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) as a powerful technique for printing CNWs and CNW:SnO2 pixels onto rigid and flexible substrates. A morphological study shows that for a large range of laser fluences i.e. 500-700 mJ/cm2 it is possible to transfer thick (4 μm) CNW and CNW:SnO2 pixels. Micro-Raman investigation of the transferred pixels reveals that the chemical composition of the CNWs and functionalized CNWs does not change as a result of the laser transfer. Following these results one can envision that CNWs and CNW:SnO2 pixels obtained by LIFT can be ultimately applied in technological applications.

  7. Electron microscopy characterization of some carbon based nanostructures with application in divertors coatings from fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciupina, V.; Morjan, I.; Lungu, C. P.; Vladoiu, R.; Prodan, G.; Prodan, M.; Zarovschi, V.; Porosnicu, C.; Stanescu, I. M.; Contulov, M.; Mandes, A.; Dinca, V.; Sugiyama, K.

    2011-10-01

    Nanostructured carbon materials have increasingly attracted the interest of the scientific community, because of their fascinating physical properties and potential applications in high-tech devices. In the current ITER design, the tiles made of carbon fiber composites (CFCs) are foreseen for the strike point zone and tungsten (W) for other parts of the divertor region. This choice is a compromise based mainly on experience with individual materials in many different tokamaks. Also Beryllium is the candidate material for the First Wall in ITER. In order to prepare nanostructured carbon-tungsten nanocomposite for the divertor part in fusion applications, the original method thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) was used in two electronic guns configuration. One of the main advantages of this technology is the bombardment of the growing thin film just by the ions of the depositing film. The nanostructured C-W and C-Be films were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The C-W films were identified as a nanocrystals complex (5 nm average diameter) surrounded by amorphous structures with a strong graphitization tendency, allowing the creating of adherent and wear resistant films. The C-Be films are polycrystalline with mean grain size about 15 nm. The friction coefficients (0.15 - 0.35) of the C-W coatings was decreased more than 3-5 times in comparison with the uncoated substrates proving excellent tribological properties. C-W nanocomposites coatings were designed to have excellent tribological properties while the structure is composed by nanocrystals complex surrounded by amorphous structures with a strong graphitization tendency, allowing the creating of adherent and wear resistant films.&updat

  8. The Glitter of Carbon Nanostructures in Hybrid/Composite Hydrogels for Medicinal Use.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Daniel; Bosi, Susanna; Melchionna, Michele; Da Ros, Tatiana; Marchesan, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have witnessed to fast developments in the medicinal field of hydrogels containing various forms of integrated nanostructured carbon that adds interesting mechanical, thermal, and electronic properties. Besides key advances in tissue engineering (especially for conductive tissue, such as for the brain and the heart), there has been innovation also in the area of drug delivery on-demand, with engineered hydrogels capable of repeated response to light, thermal, or electric stimuli. This mini-review focusses on the most promising developments as applied to the gelation of protein/ peptide (including self-assembling amino acids and low-molecular-weight gelators), polysaccharide, and/or synthetic polymer components in medicine. The emerging field of graphene-only hydrogels is also briefly discussed, to give the reader a full flavor of the rising new paradigms in medicine that are made possible through the integration of nanostructured carbon (e.g., carbon nanotubes, nanohorns, nanodiamonds, fullerene, etc.). Nanocarbons are offering great opportunities to bring on a revolution in therapy that the modern medicinal chemist needs to master, to realise their full potential into powerful therapeutic solutions for the patient. PMID:26876524

  9. High Yield Synthesis of Mesoscopic Conductive and Dispersible Carbon Nanostructures via Ultrasonication of Commercial Precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Vikram K; Quinlan, Ronald; Agapov, Alexander L; Kisliuk, Alexander; Bhat, Gajanan; Mays, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    The need to produce large quantities of graphenic materials displaying excellent conductivity, thermal resistance, and tunable properties for industrial applications has spurred interest in new techniques for exfoliating graphite. In this paper, sonication-assisted exfoliation of graphitic precursors in the presence of chloroform is shown to produce chemically and structurally unique exfoliated graphitic materials in high yields. These exfoliated graphites, referred to as mesographite and mesographene, respectively, exhibit unique properties which depend on the number of layers and exfoliation conditions. Structural characterization of mesographene reveals the presence of nanoscale two-dimensional graphene layers, and threedimensional carbon nanostructures sandwiched between layers, similar to those found in ball-milled and intercalated graphites. The conductivities of mesographite and mesographene are 2700 and 2000 S/m, respectively, indicating high conductivity despite flake damage. Optical absorption measurements of mesographite sonicated in various solvents showed significant changes in dispersion characteristics, and also indicated significant changes to mesoscopic colloidal behavior. A mechanism for functionalization and formation of capped carbon nanostructures is proposed by integrating the chemical and structural characterization in relation to the various carbon structures observed by electron microscopy. Composites based on common polymers were prepared by solution processing, and changes in thermal properties indicate improved dispersion of mesographite in polar polymers.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of polyaniline and polyaniline - Carbon nanotubes nanostructures for electrochemical supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavio, Marcela A.; Acosta, Gerardo G.; Kessler, Teresita

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructures of polyaniline (PANI) and PANI with embedded carbon nanotubes (CNT) were synthesized through a chemical method of self-organization. An oxidative polymerization process was performed in the monomer acid solution with the presence of a surfactant and the addition of multi-walled CNT. The CNT were added with and without pretreatment, CNTf and CNTnf, respectively. Furthermore, ammonium persulfate and sodium dodecyl sulfate were incorporated to the reaction solution as dispersant and oxidizing agents, respectively. Different nanostructures such as nanoparticles or nanotubes were obtained depending on the CNT added, and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. Spectroscopy results showed variations in the observed bands of the synthetized nanostructures attributed to changes in the molecular structures, to the state of doped PANI reached during polymerization and to the stabilization of these links by hydrogen bridge interactions. PANI and PANI-CNT composites were evaluated by electrochemical techniques to test their behavior in relation to supercapacitors properties. PANI-CNTf nanocomposites displayed improved capacitive properties in H2SO4 solutions, namely 1744 F g-1at 2 A g-1. Also, the specific capacitance was strongly influenced by the developed morphologies. These characteristics point to their feasible application as supercapacitors materials.

  11. Carbon Nanostructure Examined by Lattice Fringe Analysis of High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWal, Randy L.; Tomasek, Aaron J.; Street, Kenneth; Thompson, William K.

    2002-01-01

    The dimensions of graphitic layer planes directly affect the reactivity of soot towards oxidation and growth. Quantification of graphitic structure could be used to develop and test correlations between the soot nanostructure and its reactivity. Based upon transmission electron microscopy images, this paper provides a demonstration of the robustness of a fringe image analysis code for determining the level of graphitic structure within nanoscale carbon, i.e. soot. Results, in the form of histograms of graphitic layer plane lengths, are compared to their determination through Raman analysis.

  12. Carbon Nanostructure Examined by Lattice Fringe Analysis of High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWal, Randy L.; Tomasek, Aaron J.; Street, Kenneth; Thompson, William K.; Hull, David R.

    2003-01-01

    The dimensions of graphitic layer planes directly affect the reactivity of soot towards oxidation and growth. Quantification of graphitic structure could be used to develop and test correlations between the soot nanostructure and its reactivity. Based upon transmission electron microscopy images, this paper provides a demonstration of the robustness of a fringe image analysis code for determining the level of graphitic structure within nanoscale carbon, i.e., soot. Results, in the form of histograms of graphitic layer plane lengths, are compared to their determination through Raman analysis.

  13. Arc spraying of nano-structured wire on carbon steel: examination of coating microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Al Askandarani, A.; Hashmi, M. S. J.; Yilbas, B. S.

    2011-01-17

    Arc spraying of nano-structured wire (TAFA 95MX) onto carbon steel is carried out. The workpieces coated were heat treated at temperature similar to the operating temperature of the hot-path components of power gas turbines. The morphological and microstructural changes in the coating are examined using optical and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The surface roughness and microhardness of the resulting coatings are measured. It is found that the formation of dimples like structure at surface increased the surface roughness of the coating. The microhardness of the resulting coating is significantly higher than the base material hardness. Heat treatment does not alter the microstructure and microhardness of the coating.

  14. Density functional theory for field emission from carbon nano-structures.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhibing

    2015-12-01

    Electron field emission is understood as a quantum mechanical many-body problem in which an electronic quasi-particle of the emitter is converted into an electron in vacuum. Fundamental concepts of field emission, such as the field enhancement factor, work-function, edge barrier and emission current density, will be investigated, using carbon nanotubes and graphene as examples. A multi-scale algorithm basing on density functional theory is introduced. We will argue that such a first principle approach is necessary and appropriate for field emission of nano-structures, not only for a more accurate quantitative description, but, more importantly, for deeper insight into field emission.

  15. Controlled growth, characterization and thermodynamic behavior of bismuth–tin nanostructures sheathed in carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Namjo; Hwang, Kyo Sik; Yang, SeungCheol; Lee, Soon-pung

    2014-03-01

    We report the controlled synthesis of bismuth–tin (Bi–Sn) nanostructures sheathed in graphitic shells that resemble carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Our approach is based on a simple catalytic chemical vapor deposition over a mixture of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SnO{sub 2} supplied as starting materials. Shape control of the nanostructures strongly relies on the weight ratio of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SnO{sub 2}. Sheathed nanoparticles and nanorods are formed at SnO{sub 2} to Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} weight ratios of less than 4:1. They are composed of two separate crystals: rhombohedral Bi and tetragonal Sn{sub 19}Bi crystals. On the other hand, the sheathed nanowires are formed at SnO{sub 2} to Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} weight ratios above 4:1. The nanowires have only tetragonal Sn{sub 19}Bi structure with a diameter of approximately 100 nm. Elementary analyses support the core/shell heterostructure of the resulting products. A favorable temperature for the Sn-rich Sn{sub 19}Bi nanowires is in the range of 700–800 °C, more specifically around 750 °C. Thermodynamic analysis reveals that the CNTs play a significant role in the protection of the Bi–Sn nanostructures during phase transition by temperature change. This simple and reproducible method may be extended to the fabrication of similar binary or ternary nanostructures. - Highlights: • Controlled growth of Bi–Sn nanostructures sheathed in CNTs relies on MSnO{sub 2}/MBi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Growth mechanism is based on catalytic reaction of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} over an oxide mixture. • Nanoparticles and nanorods consist of rhombohedral Bi and tetragonal Sn{sub 19}Bi. • A favorable temperature for the Sn{sub 19}Bi nanowires is in the range of 700–800 °C. • CNT acts as a protective barrier during phase change of the Bi–Sn nanostructures.

  16. Development of nitrogen enriched nanostructured carbon adsorbents for CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Goel, Chitrakshi; Bhunia, Haripada; Bajpai, Pramod K

    2015-10-01

    Nanostructured carbon adsorbents containing high nitrogen content were developed by templating melamine-formaldehyde resin in the pores of mesoporous silica by nanocasting technique. A series of adsorbents were prepared by altering the carbonization temperature from 400 to 700 °C and characterized in terms of their textural and morphological properties. CO2 adsorption performance was investigated at various temperatures from 30 to 100 °C by using a thermogravimetric analyzer under varying CO2 concentrations. Multiple adsorption-desorption experiments were also carried out to investigate the adsorbent regenerability. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the development of nanostructured materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and elemental analysis indicated the development of carbon adsorbents having high nitrogen content. The surface area and pore volume of the adsorbent carbonized at 700 °C were found to be 266 m(2) g(-1) and 0.25 cm(3) g(-1) respectively. CO2 uptake profile for the developed adsorbents showed that the maximum CO2 adsorption occurred within ca. 100 s. CO2 uptake of 0.792 mmol g(-1) at 30 °C was exhibited by carbon obtained at 700 °C with complete regenerability in three adsorption-desorption cycles. Furthermore, kinetics of CO2 adsorption on the developed adsorbents was studied by fitting the experimental data of CO2 uptake to three kinetic models with best fit being obtained by fractional order kinetic model with error% within range of 5%. Adsorbent surface was found to be energetically heterogeneous as suggested by Temkin isotherm model. Also the isosteric heat of adsorption for CO2 was observed to increase from ca. 30-44 kJ mol(-1) with increase in surface coverage.

  17. Electrochemical Performance of Glucose/Oxygen Biofuel Cells Based on Carbon Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Koo, Min-Hye; Das, Gautam; Yoon, Hyon Hee

    2016-03-01

    The electrochemical performance of glucose/oxygen biofuel cells based on carbon nanostructures was investigated in the present study. Different types of carbon nanomaterials, including multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), functionalized MWCNT (f-MWCNT), carbon nanofibers (CNF), and functionalized CNF (f-CNF) were examined for electrode fabrications. The anode for glucose/oxygen biofuel cells were prepared by sequential coating of carbon nanomaterials, charge transfer complex (CTC), glucose oxidase (GOx) and nafion membrane. The anode was then integrated with a bilirubin oxidase-immobilized cathode for the biofuel cell test. It was found that the electrochemical performance of the enzyme electrodes was remarkably enhanced by the amalgamation of carbon nanomaterials with the CTC. The biofuel cell with anode comprising of f-CNF and the cathode with MWCNT exhibited the best electrochemical performance with a maximum power density of 210 μW/cm2 at a cell voltage of 0.44 V for 20 mM glucose concentration, which is comparable with the best power density value reported earlier. PMID:27455759

  18. Electrochemical Performance of Glucose/Oxygen Biofuel Cells Based on Carbon Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Koo, Min-Hye; Das, Gautam; Yoon, Hyon Hee

    2016-03-01

    The electrochemical performance of glucose/oxygen biofuel cells based on carbon nanostructures was investigated in the present study. Different types of carbon nanomaterials, including multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), functionalized MWCNT (f-MWCNT), carbon nanofibers (CNF), and functionalized CNF (f-CNF) were examined for electrode fabrications. The anode for glucose/oxygen biofuel cells were prepared by sequential coating of carbon nanomaterials, charge transfer complex (CTC), glucose oxidase (GOx) and nafion membrane. The anode was then integrated with a bilirubin oxidase-immobilized cathode for the biofuel cell test. It was found that the electrochemical performance of the enzyme electrodes was remarkably enhanced by the amalgamation of carbon nanomaterials with the CTC. The biofuel cell with anode comprising of f-CNF and the cathode with MWCNT exhibited the best electrochemical performance with a maximum power density of 210 μW/cm2 at a cell voltage of 0.44 V for 20 mM glucose concentration, which is comparable with the best power density value reported earlier.

  19. Meta-code for systematic analysis of chemical addition (SACHA): application to fluorination of C70 and carbon nanostructure growth.

    PubMed

    Ewels, Christopher P; Lier, Gregory Van; Geerlings, Paul; Charlier, Jean-Christophe

    2007-01-01

    We present a new computer program able to systematically study chemical addition to and growth or evolution of carbon nanostructures. SACHA is a meta-code able to exploit a wide variety of pre-existing molecular structure codes, automating the otherwise onerous task of constructing, running, and analyzing the large number of input files that are required when exploring structural isomers and addition paths. By way of examples we consider fluorination of the fullerene cage C70 and carbon nanostructure growth through C2 addition. We discuss the possibilities for extension of this technique to rapidly and efficiently explore structural energy landscapes and application to other areas of chemical and materials research.

  20. Selective and Efficient Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide on Oxide-Derived Nanostructured Silver Electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming; Trześniewski, Bartek J; Xie, Jie; Smith, Wilson A

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the selective electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide on oxide-derived silver electrocatalysts is presented. By a simple synthesis technique, the overall high faradaic efficiency for CO production on the oxide-derived Ag was shifted by more than 400 mV towards a lower overpotential compared to that of untreated Ag. Notably, the Ag resulting from Ag oxide is capable of electrochemically reducing CO2 to CO with approximately 80 % catalytic selectivity at a moderate overpotential of 0.49 V, which is much higher than that (ca. 4 %) of untreated Ag under identical conditions. Electrokinetic studies show that the improved catalytic activity is ascribed to the enhanced stabilization of COOH(.) intermediate. Furthermore, highly nanostructured Ag is likely able to create a high local pH near the catalyst surface, which may also facilitate the catalytic activity for the reduction of CO2 with suppressed H2 evolution.

  1. A method for efficient structural simulation of carbon nanostructures and its application to irradiated graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Colin; Bullard, Zachary; Costa Girão, Eduardo; Meunier, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    Graphene based nanostructures, including defective ones, are of particular interest for many applications. Due to the inherent stochastic nature of defects in real structures, traditional molecular dynamics approaches are ill-suited for examining average behaviors over time scales relevant to realistic experimental conditions. This talk will introduce and discuss the results of the application of an original Monte-Carlo algorithm for the efficient simulation of the time evolution of carbon nanostructures as they are exposed to external stimuli. I will begin with an overview of the algorithm used, including some simple examples, and move on to an in-depth examination of the application of this algorithm to graphene nanoribbons. In particular, I will examine the atomistic restructuring of different types of carbon nanoribbons as they are irradiated and subjected to uniaxial stress, and discuss the novel properties that emerged thereof. Additionally, the examination will shed light on the use of this method in practice and highlight the utility of other methods, used in conjunction with this algorithm, that allowed for fast prototyping of the system's electronic and magnetic properties.

  2. One-dimensional carbon nanostructures for terahertz electron-beam radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantiwanichapan, Khwanchai; Swan, Anna K.; Paiella, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    One-dimensional carbon nanostructures such as nanotubes and nanoribbons can feature near-ballistic electronic transport over micron-scale distances even at room temperature. As a result, these materials provide a uniquely suited solid-state platform for radiation mechanisms that so far have been the exclusive domain of electron beams in vacuum. Here we consider the generation of terahertz light based on two such mechanisms, namely, the emission of cyclotronlike radiation in a sinusoidally corrugated nanowire (where periodic angular motion is produced by the mechanical corrugation rather than an externally applied magnetic field), and the Smith-Purcell effect in a rectilinear nanowire over a dielectric grating. In both cases, the radiation properties of the individual charge carriers are investigated via full-wave electrodynamic simulations, including dephasing effects caused by carrier collisions. The overall light output is then computed with a standard model of charge transport for two particularly suitable types of carbon nanostructures, i.e., zigzag graphene nanoribbons and armchair single-wall nanotubes. Relatively sharp emission peaks at geometrically tunable terahertz frequencies are obtained in each case. The corresponding output powers are experimentally accessible even with individual nanowires, and can be scaled to technologically significant levels using array configurations. These radiation mechanisms therefore represent a promising paradigm for light emission in condensed matter, which may find important applications in nanoelectronics and terahertz photonics.

  3. Low temperature superplasticity and thermal stability of a nanostructured low-carbon microalloyed steel

    PubMed Central

    Hu, J.; Du, L.-X.; Sun, G.-S.; Xie, H.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2015-01-01

    We describe here for the first time the low temperature superplasticity of nanostructured low carbon steel (microalloyed with V, N, Mn, Al, Si, and Ni). Low carbon nanograined/ultrafine-grained (NG/UFG) bulk steel was processed using a combination of cold-rolling and annealing of martensite. The complex microstructure of NG/UFG ferrite and 50–80 nm cementite exhibited high thermal stability at 500 °C with low temperature elongation exceeding 100% (at less than 0.5 of the absolute melting point) as compared to the conventional fine-grained (FG) counterpart. The low temperature superplasticity is adequate to form complex components. Moreover, the low strength during hot processing is favorable for decreasing the spring back and minimize die loss. PMID:26687012

  4. Fabrication and cellular biocompatibility of porous carbonated biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics with a nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Chen, Xuening; Guo, Bo; Wang, Xinlong; Fan, Hongsong; Zhang, Xingdong

    2009-01-01

    Microwave heating was applied to fabricate interconnective porous structured bodies by foaming as-synthesized calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (Ca-deficient HA) precipitate containing H(2)O(2). The porous bodies were sintered by a microwave process with activated carbon as the embedding material to prepare nano- and submicron-structured ceramics. By comparison, conventional sintering was used to produce microstructured ceramics. The precursor particles and bulk ceramics were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and mechanical testing. TEM micrographs and assessment of the size distribution showed that the needle-like precursor particles are on the nanoscale. SEM observation indicated that the ceramics formed by microwave sintering presented a structure of interconnective pores, with average grain sizes of approximately 86 and approximately 167nm. XRD patterns and FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of carbonated biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), and the mechanical tests showed that the ceramics formed by microwave sintering had a compressive strength comparable to that obtained by conventional methods. Rat osteoblasts were cultured on the three kinds of BCP ceramics to evaluate their biocompatibility. Compared with the microscale group formed by conventional sintering, MTT assay and ALP assay showed that nanophase scaffolds promoted cell proliferation and differentiation respectively, and SEM observation showed that the nanoscale group clearly promoted cell adhesion. The results from this study suggest that porous carbonated biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics with a nanostructure promote osteoblast adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. In conclusion, porous carbonated BCP ceramics with a nanostructure are simple and quick to prepare using microwaves and compared with those produced by conventional

  5. Nanostructured Carbon/Antimony Composites as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries with Long Life.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yong; Yi, Zheng; Wang, Chunli; Wang, Lidong; Wu, Yaoming; Wang, Limin

    2016-08-01

    A series of nanostructured carbon/antimony composites have been successfully synthesized by a simple sol-gel, high-temperature carbon thermal reduction process. In the carbon/antimony composites, antimony nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed in the pyrolyzed nanoporous carbon matrix. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the C/Sb10 composite displays a high initial discharge capacity of 1214.6 mAh g(-1) and a reversible charge capacity of 595.5 mAh g(-1) with a corresponding coulombic efficiency of 49 % in the first cycle. In addition, it exhibits a high reversible discharge capacity of 466.2 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) after 200 cycles and a high rate discharge capacity of 354.4 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 1000 mA g(-1) . The excellent cycling stability and rate discharge performance of the C/Sb10 composite could be due to the uniform dispersion of antimony nanoparticles in the porous carbon matrix, which can buffer the volume expansion and maintain the integrity of the electrode during the charge-discharge cycles. PMID:27310879

  6. Anisotropic Thermal Properties of Nanostructured Magnetic, Carbon and Hybrid Magnetic - Carbon Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Sylvester

    In this dissertation research we investigated thermal properties of three groups of nanostructured materials: (i) magnetic; (ii) reduced graphene oxide films; and (iii) hybrid magnetic -- graphite -- graphene composites. The thermal measurements were conducted using the transient "hot disk" and "laser flash" techniques. The rare-earth free nanostructured SrFe12O19 permanent magnets were produced by the current activated pressure assisted densification technique. The thermal conductivity of the nanostructured bulk magnets was found to range from 3.8 to 5.6 W/mK for the in-plane and 2.36 W/mk to 2.65 W/mK for the cross-plane directions, respectively. The heat conduction was dominated by phonons near the room temperature. The anisotropy of heat conduction was explained by the brick-like alignment of crystalline grains with the longer grain size in-plane direction. The thermal conductivity scales up with the average grain size and mass density of the material revealing weak temperature dependence. Using the nanostructured ferromagnetic Fe3O4 composites as an example system, we incorporated graphene and graphite fillers into magnetic material without changing their morphology. It was demonstrated that addition of 5 wt. % of equal mixture of graphene and graphite flakes to the composite results in a factor of x2.6 enhancement of the thermal conductivity without significant degradation of the saturation magnetization. We investigated thermal conductivity of free-standing reduced graphene oxide films subjected to a high-temperature treatment of up to 1000°C. It was found that the high-temperature annealing dramatically increased the in-plane thermal conductivity, K, of the films from ˜3 W/mK to ˜61 W/mK at room temperature. The cross-plane thermal conductivity, K⊥, revealed an interesting opposite trend of decreasing to a very small value of ˜0.09 W/mK in the reduced graphene oxide films annealed at 1000°C. The obtained films demonstrated an exceptionally strong

  7. Physical properties of low-dimensional sp 2 -based carbon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, V.; Souza Filho, A. G.; Barros, E. B.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    The last two decades have witnessed a tremendous growth in the development and understanding of sp 2 carbon-based nanostructures. The impact of this research has led to a number of fundamental discoveries that have played a central role in the understanding of many aspects of materials physics and their applications. Much of this progress has been enabled by the development of new techniques to prepare, modify, and assemble low-dimensional materials into devices. The field has also benefited greatly from much progress in theoretical and computational modeling, as well as from advances in characterization techniques developed to probe and manipulate single atomic layers, nanoribbons, and nanotubes. Some of the most fundamental physical properties of sp2 carbon-based nanostructures are reviewed and their role as model systems for solid-state physics in one and two dimensions is highlighted. The objective of this review is to provide a thorough account on current understanding of how the details of the atomic structure affect phonons, electrons, and transport in these nanomaterials. The review starts with a description of the behavior of single-layer and few-layer graphene and then expands into the analysis of nanoribbons and nanotubes in terms of their reduced dimensionality and curvature. How the properties can be modified and tailored for specific applications is then discussed. The review concludes with a historical perspective and considers some open questions concerning future directions in the physics of low-dimensional systems and their impact on continued advances in solid-state physics, and also looks beyond carbon nanosystems.

  8. First-principles study of the stability of calcium-decorated carbon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazorla, C.; Shevlin, S. A.; Guo, Z. X.

    2010-10-01

    In view of the interest in calcium-decorated carbon nanostructures motivated by potential biotechnological and nanotechnological applications, we have carried out a systematic and thorough first-principles computational study of the energetic and structural properties of these systems. We use density-functional theory (DFT) and ab initio molecular dynamic simulations to determine minimum energy configurations, binding energy profiles and the thermodynamic stability of Ca-decorated graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNT) as function of doping concentration. In graphene, we predict the existence of an equilibrium (3×3)R30° commensurate CaC6 monolayer that remains stable without clustering at low and room temperatures. For carbon nanotubes, we demonstrate that uniformly Ca-decorated zigzag (n≤10,0) CNT become stable against clustering at moderately large doping concentrations while Ca-coated armchair (n,n) CNT exhibit a clear thermodynamic tendency for Ca aggregation. In both Ca-doped graphene and CNT systems, we estimate large energy barriers (˜1eV) for atomic aggregation processes, which indicates that Ca clustering in carbon nanosurfaces may be kinematically hindered. Finally, we demonstrate via comparison of DFT and Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation calculations that DFT underestimates significantly the weak interaction between a Ca dopant and a coronene molecule, and also that the Ca-coronene system is not physically comparable to Ca-doped graphene due to lack of electronic π-d orbitals hybridization near the Fermi energy level.

  9. Laser nanostructuring 3-D bioconstruction based on carbon nanotubes in a water matrix of albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimenko, Alexander Y.; Ichkitidze, Levan P.; Podgaetsky, Vitaly M.; Savelyev, Mikhail S.; Selishchev, Sergey V.

    2016-04-01

    3-D bioconstructions were created using the evaporation method of the water-albumin solution with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by the continuous and pulsed femtosecond laser radiation. It is determined that the volume structure of the samples created by the femtosecond radiation has more cavities than the one created by the continuous radiation. The average diameter for multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) samples was almost two times higher (35-40 nm) than for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) samples (20-30 nm). The most homogenous 3-D bioconstruction was formed from MWCNTs by the continuous laser radiation. The hardness of such samples totaled up to 370 MPa at the nanoscale. High strength properties and the resistance of the 3-D bioconstructions produced by the laser irradiation depend on the volume nanotubes scaffold forming inside them. The scaffold was formed by the electric field of the directed laser irradiation. The covalent bond energy between the nanotube carbon molecule and the oxygen of the bovine serum albumin aminoacid residue amounts 580 kJ/mol. The 3-D bioconstructions based on MWCNTs and SWCNTs becomes overgrown with the cells (fibroblasts) over the course of 72 hours. The samples based on the both types of CNTs are not toxic for the cells and don't change its normal composition and structure. Thus the 3-D bioconstructions that are nanostructured by the pulsed and continuous laser radiation can be applied as implant materials for the recovery of the connecting tissues of the living body.

  10. Electrochemical and DFT study of an anticancer and active anthelmintic drug at carbon nanostructured modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Ghalkhani, Masoumeh; Beheshtian, Javad; Salehi, Maryam

    2016-12-01

    The electrochemical response of mebendazole (Meb), an anticancer and effective anthelmintic drug, was investigated using two different carbon nanostructured modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE). Although, compared to unmodified GCE, both prepared modified electrodes improved the voltammetric response of Meb, the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modified GCE showed higher sensitivity and stability. Therefore, the CNTs-GCE was chosen as a promising candidate for the further studies. At first, the electrochemical behavior of Meb was studied by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse and square wave voltammetry. A one step reversible, pH-dependent and adsorption-controlled process was revealed for electro-oxidation of Meb. A possible mechanism for the electrochemical oxidation of Meb was proposed. In addition, electronic structure, adsorption energy, band gap, type of interaction and stable configuration of Meb on the surface of functionalized carbon nanotubes were studied by using density functional theory (DFT). Obtained results revealed that Meb is weakly physisorbed on the CNTs and that the electronic properties of the CNTs are not significantly changed. Notably, CNTs could be considered as a suitable modifier for preparation of the modified electrode for Meb analysis. Then, the experimental parameters affecting the electrochemical response of Meb were optimized. Under optimal conditions, high sensitivity (b(Meb)=dIp,a(Meb)/d[Meb]=19.65μAμM(-1)), a low detection limit (LOD (Meb)=19nM) and a wide linear dynamic range (0.06-3μM) was resulted for the voltammetric quantification of Meb. PMID:27612835

  11. Carbon nanotubes/heteroatom-doped carbon core-sheath nanostructures as highly active, metal-free oxygen reduction electrocatalysts for alkaline fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Sa, Young Jin; Park, Chiyoung; Jeong, Hu Young; Park, Seok-Hee; Lee, Zonghoon; Kim, Kyoung Taek; Park, Gu-Gon; Joo, Sang Hoon

    2014-04-14

    A facile, scalable route to new nanocomposites that are based on carbon nanotubes/heteroatom-doped carbon (CNT/HDC) core-sheath nanostructures is reported. These nanostructures were prepared by the adsorption of heteroatom-containing ionic liquids on the walls of CNTs, followed by carbonization. The design of the CNT/HDC composite allows for combining the electrical conductivity of the CNTs with the catalytic activity of the heteroatom-containing HDC sheath layers. The CNT/HDC nanostructures are highly active electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction and displayed one of the best performances among heteroatom-doped nanocarbon catalysts in terms of half-wave potential and kinetic current density. The four-electron selectivity and the exchange current density of the CNT/HDC nanostructures are comparable with those of a Pt/C catalyst, and the CNT/HDC composites were superior to Pt/C in terms of long-term durability and poison tolerance. Furthermore, an alkaline fuel cell that employs a CNT/HDC nanostructure as the cathode catalyst shows very high current and power densities, which sheds light on the practical applicability of these new nanocomposites.

  12. Graphitic carbon in a nanostructured titanium oxycarbide thin film to improve implant osseointegration.

    PubMed

    Zanoni, R; Ioannidu, C A; Mazzola, L; Politi, L; Misiano, C; Longo, G; Falconieri, M; Scandurra, R

    2015-01-01

    A nanostructured coating layer on titanium implants, able to improve their integration into bones and to protect against the harsh conditions of body fluids, was obtained by Ion Plating Plasma Assisted, a method suitable for industrial applications. A titanium carbide target was attached under vacuum to a magnetron sputtering source powered with a direct current in the 500-1100 W range, and a 100 W radio frequency was applied to the sample holder. The samples produced at 900 W gave the best biological response in terms of overexpression of some genes of proteins involved in bone turnover. We report the characterization of a reference and of an implant sample, both obtained at 900 W. Different micro/nanoscopic techniques evidenced the morphology of the substrates, and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy was used to disclose the surface composition. The layer is a 500 nm thick hard nanostructure, composed of 60% graphitic carbon clustered with 15% TiC and 25% Ti oxides. PMID:25492005

  13. Fullerenes, PAH, Carbon Nanostructures, and Soot in Low Pressure Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grieco, William J.; Lafleur, Arthur L.; Rainey, Lenore C.; Taghizadeh, Koli; VanderSande, John B.; Howard, Jack B.

    1997-01-01

    The formation of fullerenes C60 and C7O is known to occur in premixed laminar benzene/oxygen/argon flames operated at reduced pressures. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images of material collected from these flames has identified a variety of multishelled nanotubes and fullerene 'onions' as well as some trigonous structures. These fullerenes and nanostructures resemble the material that results from commercial fullerene production systems using graphite vaporization. As a result, combustion is an interesting method for fullerenes synthesis. If commercial scale operation is to be considered, the use of diffusion flames might be safer and less cumbersome than premixed flames. However, it is not known whether diffusion flames produce the types and yields of fullerenes obtained from premixed benzene/oxygen flames. Therefore, the formation of fullerenes and carbon nanostructures, as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot, in acetylene and benzene diffusion flames is being studied using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM).

  14. Carbon Nanostructure: Its Evolution During its Impact Upon Soot Growth and Oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The proposed work is a ground-based study to define and quantify soot nanostructural changes in response to growth conditions, thermal and oxidative treatments and to quantify their impact upon further oxidation and growth of highly ordered carbon materials. Experimental data relating soot oxidation rates to multiple oxidizing species concentrations will directly test for additive or synergistic soot oxidation rates. Such validation is central for assessing the applicability of individual soot oxidation rates and designing oxidative strategies for controlling soot loadings in and emissions from turbulent combustion processes. Through these experiments, new insights into soot nanostructure evolution during and its impact upon oxidation by O2 and OH will be realized. It is expected that the results of this effort will spawn new research directions in future microgravity and 1g environments. Issues raised by positive or even negative demonstration of the hypotheses of this proposal have direct bearing on modelling and controlling soot formation and its destruction in nearly every combustion process producing soot.

  15. Templating the self-assembly of pristine carbon nanostructures in water.

    PubMed

    Mba, Miriam; Jiménez, Ana I; Moretto, Alessandro

    2014-04-01

    The low solubility of carbon nanostructures (CNs) in water and the need of ordered architectures at the nanoscale level are two major challenges for materials chemistry. Here we report that a novel amino acid based low-molecular-weight gelator (LMWG) can be used to effectively disperse pristine CNs in water and to drive their ordered self-assembly into supramolecular hydrogels. A non-covalent mechanochemical approach has been used, so the π-extended system of the CNs remains intact. Optical spectroscopy and electron microscopy confirmed the effective dispersion of the CNs in water. Electron microscopy of the hydrogels showed the formation of an ordered, LMWG-assisted, self-assembled architecture. Moreover, the very same strategy allows the solubilization and self-assembly in water of a variety of hydrophobic molecules.

  16. Li and Ca Co-decorated carbon nitride nanostructures as high-capacity hydrogen storage media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yusheng; Ji, Yong; Li, Meng; Yuan, Pengfei; Sun, Qiang; Jia, Yu

    2011-11-01

    Using first-principles method based on density functional theory, we perform a detailed study of the hydrogen storage properties of Li and Ca co-decorated graphene-like carbon nitride (g-CN) nanostructures. The results show that the average adsorption energy of the molecular hydrogen is ˜0.26 eV/H2, which is acceptable for reversible H2 adsorption/desorption near ambient temperature. Moreover, the findings also show that the storage capacity of the Li and Ca co-decorated g-CN can reach up to 9.17 wt %, presenting a good potential as hydrogen storage material. Regarding the H2 adsorption mechanism, it is demonstrated that the Li adatoms become positively charged through charge transferring to g-CN and then bind hydrogen molecules via the polarization mechanism.

  17. Correlation between macro- and nano-scopic measurements of carbon nanostructured paper elastic modulus

    SciTech Connect

    Omar, Yamila M.; Al Ghaferi, Amal E-mail: mchiesa@masdar.ac.ae; Chiesa, Matteo E-mail: mchiesa@masdar.ac.ae

    2015-07-20

    Extensive work has been done in order to determine the bulk elastic modulus of isotropic samples from force curves acquired with atomic force microscopy. However, new challenges are encountered given the development of new materials constructed of one-dimensional anisotropic building blocks, such as carbon nanostructured paper. In the present work, we establish a reliable framework to correlate the elastic modulus values obtained by amplitude modulation atomic force microscope force curves, a nanoscopic technique, with that determined by traditional macroscopic tensile testing. In order to do so, several techniques involving image processing, statistical analysis, and simulations are used to find the appropriate path to understand how macroscopic properties arise from anisotropic nanoscale components, and ultimately, being able to calculate the value of bulk elastic modulus.

  18. Geometric dependence of transport and universal behavior in three dimensional carbon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Leizhi; Yin, Ming; Jaroszynski, Jan; Park, Ju-Hyun; Mbamalu, Godwin; Datta, Timir

    2016-09-01

    Carbon nanostructures with the spherical voids exhibit interesting temperature and magnetic field dependent transport properties. By increasing the void size, the structures are tuned from metallic to insulating; in addition, the magnetoresistance (MR) is enhanced. Our investigation in the magnetic fields (B) up to 18 T at temperatures (T) from 250 mK to 20 K shows that at high temperatures (T > 2 K), the MR crosses over from quadratic to a non-saturating linear dependence with increasing magnetic field. Furthermore, all MR data in this temperature regime collapse onto a single curve as a universal function of B/T, following Kohler's rule. Remarkably, the MR also exhibits orientation insensitivity, i.e., it displays a response independent of the direction on the magnetic field.

  19. Optical properties of carbon nanostructures produced by laser irradiation on chemically modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, Enrique Vigueras; López, Susana Hernández; Camacho López, Marco A.; Contreras, Delfino Reyes; Farías-Mancilla, Rurik; Flores-Gallardo, Sergio G.; Hernández-Escobar, Claudia A.; Zaragoza-Contreras, E. Armando

    2016-10-01

    This research focused on the nanosecond (Nd: YAG-1064 nm) laser pulse effect on the optical and morphological properties of chemically modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Two suspensions of MWCNT in tetrahydrofuran (THF) were prepared, one was submitted to laser pulses for 10 min while the other (blank) was only mechanically homogenized during the same time. Following the laser irradiation, the suspension acquired a yellow-amber color, in contrast to the black translucent appearance of the blank. UV-vis spectroscopy confirmed this observation, showing the blank a higher absorption. Additionally, photoluminescence measurements exhibited a broad blue-green emission band both in the blank and irradiated suspension when excited at 369 nm, showing the blank a lower intensity. However, a modification in the excitation wavelength produced a violet to green tuning in the irradiated suspension, which did not occur in the blank. Lastly, the electron microscopy analysis of the treated nanotubes showed the abundant formation of amorphous carbon, nanocages, and nanotube unzipping, exhibiting the intense surface modification produced by the laser pulse. Nanotube surface modification and the coexistence with the new carbon nanostructures were considered as the conductive conditions for optical properties modification.

  20. Magnetic amphiphilic hybrid carbon nanotubes containing N-doped and undoped sections: powerful tensioactive nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purceno, Aluir D.; Machado, Bruno F.; Teixeira, Ana Paula C.; Medeiros, Tayline V.; Benyounes, Anas; Beausoleil, Julien; Menezes, Helvecio C.; Cardeal, Zenilda L.; Lago, Rochel M.; Serp, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    In this work, unique amphiphilic magnetic hybrid carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are synthesized and used as tensioactive nanostructures in different applications. These CNTs interact very well with aqueous media due to the hydrophilic N-doped section, whereas the undoped hydrophobic one has strong affinity for organic molecules. The amphiphilic character combined with the magnetic properties of these CNTs opens the door to completely new and exciting applications in adsorption science and catalysis. These amphiphilic N-doped CNTs can also be used as powerful tensioactive emulsification structures. They can emulsify water/organic mixtures and by a simple magnetic separation the emulsion can be easily broken. We demonstrate the application of these CNTs in the efficient adsorption of various molecules, in addition to promoting biphasic processes in three different reactions, i.e. transesterification of soybean oil, quinoline extractive oxidation with H2O2 and a metal-catalyzed aqueous oxidation of heptanol with molecular oxygen.In this work, unique amphiphilic magnetic hybrid carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are synthesized and used as tensioactive nanostructures in different applications. These CNTs interact very well with aqueous media due to the hydrophilic N-doped section, whereas the undoped hydrophobic one has strong affinity for organic molecules. The amphiphilic character combined with the magnetic properties of these CNTs opens the door to completely new and exciting applications in adsorption science and catalysis. These amphiphilic N-doped CNTs can also be used as powerful tensioactive emulsification structures. They can emulsify water/organic mixtures and by a simple magnetic separation the emulsion can be easily broken. We demonstrate the application of these CNTs in the efficient adsorption of various molecules, in addition to promoting biphasic processes in three different reactions, i.e. transesterification of soybean oil, quinoline extractive oxidation with H2O2 and

  1. Theoretical studies of structure-property relations in graphene-based carbon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2014-03-01

    This presentation focuses on establishing relations between atomic structure, electronic structure, and properties in graphene-based carbon nanostructures through first-principles density functional theory calculations and molecular-dynamics simulations. We have analyzed carbon nanostructure formation from twisted bilayer graphene, upon creation of interlayer covalent C-C bonds due to patterned hydrogenation or fluorination. For small twist angles and twist angles near 30 degrees, interlayer covalent bonding generates superlattices of diamond-like nanocrystals and of fullerene-like configurations, respectively, embedded within the graphene layers. The electronic band gaps of these superlattices can be tuned through selective chemical functionalization and creation of interlayer bonds, and range from a few meV to over 1.2 eV. The mechanical properties of these superstructures also can be precisely tuned by controlling the extent of chemical functionalization. Importantly, the shear modulus is shown to increase monotonically with the fraction of sp3-hybridized C-C bonds. We have also studied collective interactions of multiple defects such as random distributions of vacancies in single-layer graphene (SLG). We find that a crystalline-to-amorphous structural transition occurs at vacancy concentrations of 5-10% over a broad temperature range. The structure of our defect-induced amorphized graphene is in excellent agreement with experimental observations of SLG exposed to a high electron irradiation dose. Simulations of tensile tests on these irradiated graphene sheets identify trends for the ultimate tensile strength, failure strain, and toughness as a function of vacancy concentration. The vacancy-induced amorphization transition is accompanied by a brittle-to-ductile transition in the failure response of irradiated graphene sheets and even heavily damaged samples exhibit tensile strengths near 30 GPa, in significant excess of those typical of engineering materials.

  2. ‘Laser chemistry’ synthesis, physicochemical properties, and chemical processing of nanostructured carbon foams

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Laser ablation of selected coordination complexes can lead to the production of metal-carbon hybrid materials, whose composition and structure can be tailored by suitably choosing the chemical composition of the irradiated targets. This ‘laser chemistry’ approach, initially applied by our group to the synthesis of P-containing nanostructured carbon foams (NCFs) from triphenylphosphine-based Au and Cu compounds, is broadened in this study to the production of other metal-NCFs and P-free NCFs. Thus, our results show that P-free coordination compounds and commercial organic precursors can act as efficient carbon source for the growth of NCFs. Physicochemical characterization reveals that NCFs are low-density mesoporous materials with relatively low specific surface areas and thermally stable in air up to around 600°C. Moreover, NCFs disperse well in a variety of solvents and can be successfully chemically processed to enable their handling and provide NCF-containing biocomposite fibers by a wet-chemical spinning process. These promising results may open new and interesting avenues toward the use of NCFs for technological applications. PMID:23679938

  3. Flexible supercapacitors with high areal capacitance based on hierarchical carbon tubular nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haitao; Su, Hai; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Binbin; Chun, Fengjun; Chu, Xiang; He, Weidong; Yang, Weiqing

    2016-11-01

    Hierarchical structure design can greatly enhance the unique properties of primary material(s) but suffers from complicated preparation process and difficult self-assembly of materials with different dimensionalities. Here we report on the growth of single carbon tubular nanostructures with hierarchical structure (hCTNs) through a simple method based on direct conversion of carbon dioxide. Resorting to in-situ transformation and self-assembly of carbon micro/nano-structures, the obtained hCTNs are blood-like multichannel hierarchy composed of one large channel across the hCTNs and plenty of small branches connected to each other. Due to the unique pore structure and high surface area, these hCTN-based flexible supercapacitors possess the highest areal capacitance of ∼320 mF cm-2, as well as good rate-capability and excellent cycling stability (95% retention after 2500 cycles). It was established that this method can control the morphology, size, and density of hCTNs and effectively construct hCTNs well anchored to the various substrates. Our work unambiguously demonstrated the potential of hCTNs for large flexible supercapacitors and integrated energy management electronics.

  4. Applications of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Zhou, Otto Z.

    Carbon nanotubes have attracted the fancy of many scientists worldwide. The small dimensions, strength and the remarkable physical properties of these structures make them a very unique material with a whole range of promising applications. In this review we describe some of the important materials science applications of carbon nanotubes. Specifically we discuss the electronic and electrochemical applications of nanotubes, nanotubes as mechanical reinforcements in high performance composites, nanotube-based field emitters, and their use as nanoprobes in metrology and biological and chemical investigations, and as templates for the creation of other nanostructures. Electronic properties and device applications of nanotubes are treated elsewhere in the book. The challenges that ensue in realizing some of these applications are also discussed from the point of view of manufacturing, processing, and cost considerations.

  5. Nanostructured metal/carbon hybrids for electrocatalysis by direct carbonization of inverse micelle multilayers.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yu Jin; Jang, Yoon Hee; Han, Sang-Beom; Khatua, Dibyendu; Hess, Claudia; Ahn, Hyungju; Ryu, Du Yeol; Shin, Kwanwoo; Park, Kyung-Won; Steinhart, Martin; Kim, Dong Ha

    2013-02-26

    A synthetic strategy for the fabrication of graphitic carbon nanomaterials containing highly dispersed arrays of metal nanoparticles is reported. This synthetic strategy involves successive deposition of inverse micelle monolayers containing a metal precursor and reduction of the latter, followed by direct carbonization of the obtained multilayer structure of inverse micelles containing metal nanoparticles. Thus, a "direct-carbonization" concept, in which the block copolymer simultaneously serves as soft template and as carbon source, was combined with a multilayer buildup protocol. The inner architecture of the multilayer structures consisting of carbon and metal nanoparticles was studied by X-ray reflectivity, grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy imaging. The hexagonal near ordering of the metal nanoparticles in the block copolymer micelle multilayers was by and large conserved after carbonization. The resulting carbon structures containing multilayers of highly dispersed metal nanoparticles exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity in formic acid and methanol oxidation, suggesting that they are promising electrode materials for fuel cells.

  6. Flattened Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube with Multi-Layered Structure.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Hideo; Hasegawa, Takayuki; Ichikawa, Satoshi

    2015-08-01

    Fabrication of novel nanostructures based on carbon nanotubes has been a focus of recent interest since they are expected to inherit excellent properties of carbon nanotube. To find new nanotube-based nanostructures, it is important to find a new growth mode or process. This paper reports the formation of a multiwalled carbon nanotube that has bi-layered structure and is partly flattened. Transmission electron microscopy observations suggest that the outer multiwalled layer was formed first from a Fe catalyst nanoparticle, and was partly flattened during the growth. Then the catalyst nanoparticle worked again to form the inner multiwalled tube moving inside the outer tube and became flattened at the same position of the outer tube. It is likely that the inner growth gave an expansion stress against the flattened outer tube; nevertheless, the flattened part of the outer tube remained. This observation evidences that the flattening of the nanotube occurred simultaneously during the growth and was stabilized by structural defect.

  7. Laser-induced synthesis of a nanostructured polymer-like metal-carbon complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakelian, S.; Kutrovskaya, S.; Kucherik, A.; Osipov, A.; Povolotckaia, A.; Povolotskiy, A.; Manshina, A.

    2016-04-01

    Synthesis of nanotructured metal-carbon materials by laser irradiation is an actual branch of laser physics and nanotechnology. Laser sources with different pulse duration allow changing the heating rate with realization of different transition scenarios and synthesis materials with various physical properties. We study the process of the formation of nanostructured metal-clusters and complexes using laser irradiation of colloidal systems which were consisted of carbon micro- nanoparticles and nanoparticles of noble metals. For carbon nanoparticles synthesis we use the method of laser ablation in liquid. For the realization of different regimes of laser surface modification of the target (glassycarbon and shungite) and the formation of micro- nanoparticles in a liquid the YAG:Nd laser with a pulse duration from 0.5 ms up to 20 ms (pulse energy up to 50J) was applied. We have used the CW-laser with moderate intensity in liquid (water or ethanol) for nanoparticle of noble metals synthesis. Thus, colloidal systems were obtained by using CW-laser with λ = 1.06 μm, I ~ 105-6 W/cm2, and t = 10 min. The average size of resulting particles was approximately about 10 to 100 nm. The nanoparticle obtaining was provided in the colloidal solution with different laser parameters. In this work we have investigated the mechanism of the metal-carbon cluster formation during the process of irradiation of colloidal system which were consisted of separate carbon, silver and gold nanoparticles. This system was irradiated by nanosecond laser (100 ns) with average power up to 50W.

  8. Ion-modulated nonlinear electronic transport in carbon nanotube bundle/RbAg4I5 thin film composite nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jia-Lin; Zhang, Wei; Wei, Jinquan; Gu, Bingfu

    2014-01-01

    We have explored the ion-modulated electronic transport properties of mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) composite nanostructures made of superionic conductor RbAg4I5 films and carbon nanotube (CNT) bundle spiderwebs. Our experimental and theoretical studies indicate that the formation of ion-electron bound states (IEBSs) leads to strong ion-electron interference effect and interesting electronic transport of CNT, such as nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and novel temperature dependence of the current. With increasing temperature, the hybrid nanostructures show rich phases with different dependence of current on temperature, which is related to the structural phase transition of RbAg4I5 and the transition of dissociation of IEBSs. The ion-modulation of the electric conductivity in such MIEC composite nanostructures with great tunability has been used to design new ionic-electronic composite nano-devices with function like field effect transistor.

  9. Investigation of the properties of carbon-base nanostructures doped YBa2Cu3O7-δ high temperature superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadras, Sedigheh; Ghavamipour, Mahshid

    2016-03-01

    In this research, we have investigated the effects of three samples of carbon-base nanostructures (carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and silicon carbide nanoparticles) doping on the properties of Y1Ba2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) high temperature superconductor. The pure and doped YBCO samples were synthesized by sol-gel method and characterized by resistivity versus temperature (ρ-T), current versus voltage (I-V), through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. The results confirmed that for all the samples, the orthorhombic phase of YBCO compound is formed. We found that the pinning energy and critical current density of samples increase by adding carbon nanostructures to YBCO compound. Also critical temperature is improved by adding carbon nanotubes to YBCO compound, while it does not change much for carbon and silicon carbide nanoparticles doped compounds. Furthermore, the samples were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy in 300 K and the band gap of the samples was determined. We found that the carbon nanotubes doping decreases YBCO band gap in normal state from 1.90 eV to 1.68 eV, while carbon and SiC nanoparticles doping increases it to 2.20 and 3.37 eV respectively.

  10. Aerosol synthesis of self-organized nanostructured hollow and porous carbon particles using a dual polymer system.

    PubMed

    Balgis, Ratna; Ogi, Takashi; Wang, Wei-Ning; Anilkumar, Gopinathan M; Sago, Sumihito; Okuyama, Kikuo

    2014-09-30

    A facile method for designing and synthesizing nanostructured carbon particles via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of a self-organized dual polymer system comprising phenolic resin and charged polystyrene latex is reported. The method produces either hollow carbon particles, whose CO2 adsorption capacity is 3.0 mmol g(-1), or porous carbon particles whose CO2 adsorption capacity is 4.8 mmol g(-1), although the two particle types had similar diameters of about 360 nm. We investigate how the zeta potential of the polystyrene latex particles, and the resulting electrostatic interaction with the negatively charged phenolic resin, influences the particle morphology, pore structure, and CO2 adsorption capacity. PMID:25211031

  11. Precisely controlled resorcinol-formaldehyde resin coating for fabricating core-shell, hollow, and yolk-shell carbon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Shengjie; Zang, Jun; Xu, Chaofa; Zheng, Ming-Sen; Dong, Quan-Feng; Sun, Daohua; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2013-07-01

    This work provides a facile one-step sol-gel route to synthesize high-quality resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin coated nanocomposites that can be further used to fabricate desired carbon nanostructures. Colloidal particles with different morphologies and sizes can be coated with high-quality RF resin shells by the proposed cationic surfactant assisted RF resin coating strategy. The as-synthesized RF resin coated nanocomposites are ideal candidates for selective synthesis of core-shell, hollow, and yolk-shell carbon nanostructures. Based on the carboxylic functional RF resin coating, graphitic carbon nanostructures can also be synthesized by employing the graphitization catalyst. The as-synthesized carbon nanostructures show the advantageous performances in several applications. Hollow carbon spheres are potential electrode materials for lithium-sulfur batteries. Hollow graphitic spheres are promising catalyst supports for oxygen reduction reaction. And yolk-shell structured Au@HCS nanoreactors with ultrathin shells exhibit high catalytic activity and recyclability in confined catalysis.This work provides a facile one-step sol-gel route to synthesize high-quality resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin coated nanocomposites that can be further used to fabricate desired carbon nanostructures. Colloidal particles with different morphologies and sizes can be coated with high-quality RF resin shells by the proposed cationic surfactant assisted RF resin coating strategy. The as-synthesized RF resin coated nanocomposites are ideal candidates for selective synthesis of core-shell, hollow, and yolk-shell carbon nanostructures. Based on the carboxylic functional RF resin coating, graphitic carbon nanostructures can also be synthesized by employing the graphitization catalyst. The as-synthesized carbon nanostructures show the advantageous performances in several applications. Hollow carbon spheres are potential electrode materials for lithium-sulfur batteries. Hollow graphitic

  12. Ultimate Osmosis Engineered by the Pore Geometry and Functionalization of Carbon Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhigong; Xu, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Osmosis is the key process in establishing versatile functions of cellular systems and enabling clean-water harvesting technologies. Membranes with single-atom thickness not only hold great promises in approaching the ultimate limit of these functions, but also offer an ideal test-bed to explore the underlying physical mechanisms. In this work, we explore diffusive and osmotic transport of water and ions through carbon nanotube and porous graphene based membranes by performing molecular dynamics simulations. Our comparative study shows that the cylindrical confinement in carbon nanotubes offers much higher salt rejection at similar permeability in osmosis compared to porous graphene. Moreover, chemical functionalization of the pores modulates the membrane performance by its steric and electrostatic nature, especially at small-size pores due to the fact that the optimal transport is achieved by ordered water transport near pore edges. These findings lay the ground for the ultimate design of forward osmosis membranes with optimized performance trade-off, given the capability of nano-engineering nanostructures by their geometry and chemistry. PMID:26037602

  13. Preferential enhancement of laser-driven carbon ion acceleration from optimized nanostructured surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Dalui, Malay; Wang, W.-M.; Trivikram, T. Madhu; Sarkar, Subhrangshu; Tata, Sheroy; Jha, J.; Ayyub, P.; Sheng, Z. M.; Krishnamurthy, M.

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity ultrashort laser pulses focused on metal targets readily generate hot dense plasmas which accelerate ions efficiently and can pave way to compact table-top accelerators. Laser-driven ion acceleration studies predominantly focus on protons, which experience the maximum acceleration owing to their highest charge-to-mass ratio. The possibility of tailoring such schemes for the preferential acceleration of a particular ion species is very much desired but has hardly been explored. Here, we present an experimental demonstration of how the nanostructuring of a copper target can be optimized for enhanced carbon ion acceleration over protons or Cu-ions. Specifically, a thin (≈0.25 μm) layer of 25–30 nm diameter Cu nanoparticles, sputter-deposited on a polished Cu-substrate, enhances the carbon ion energy by about 10-fold at a laser intensity of 1.2×1018  W/cm2. However, particles smaller than 20 nm have an adverse effect on the ion acceleration. Particle-in-cell simulations provide definite pointers regarding the size of nanoparticles necessary for maximizing the ion acceleration. The inherent contrast of the laser pulse is found to play an important role in the species selective ion acceleration. PMID:26153048

  14. Semiconducting Properties of Nanostructured Amorphous Carbon Thin Films Incorporated with Iodine by Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruzaman, Dayana; Ahmad, Nurfadzilah; Annuar, Ishak; Rusop, Mohamad

    2013-11-01

    Nanostructured iodine-post doped amorphous carbon (a-C:I) thin films were prepared from camphor oil using a thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD) technique at different doping temperatures. The structural properties of the films were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Raman, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies. FESEM and EDS studies showed successful iodine doping. FTIR and Raman studies showed that the a-C:I thin films consisted of a mixture of sp2- and sp3-bonded carbon atoms. The optical and electrical properties of a-C:I thin films were determined by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy and current-voltage (I-V) measurement respectively. The optical band gap of a-C thin films decreased upon iodine doping. The highest electrical conductivity was found at 400 °C doping. Heterojunctions are confirmed by rectifying the I-V characteristics of an a-C:I/n-Si junction.

  15. Preferential enhancement of laser-driven carbon ion acceleration from optimized nanostructured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dalui, Malay; Wang, W-M; Trivikram, T Madhu; Sarkar, Subhrangsu; Sarkar, Subhrangshu; Tata, Sheroy; Jha, J; Ayyub, P; Sheng, Z M; Krishnamurthy, M

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity ultrashort laser pulses focused on metal targets readily generate hot dense plasmas which accelerate ions efficiently and can pave way to compact table-top accelerators. Laser-driven ion acceleration studies predominantly focus on protons, which experience the maximum acceleration owing to their highest charge-to-mass ratio. The possibility of tailoring such schemes for the preferential acceleration of a particular ion species is very much desired but has hardly been explored. Here, we present an experimental demonstration of how the nanostructuring of a copper target can be optimized for enhanced carbon ion acceleration over protons or Cu-ions. Specifically, a thin (≈ 0.25 μm) layer of 25-30 nm diameter Cu nanoparticles, sputter-deposited on a polished Cu-substrate, enhances the carbon ion energy by about 10-fold at a laser intensity of 1.2 × 10(18)  W/cm(2). However, particles smaller than 20 nm have an adverse effect on the ion acceleration. Particle-in-cell simulations provide definite pointers regarding the size of nanoparticles necessary for maximizing the ion acceleration. The inherent contrast of the laser pulse is found to play an important role in the species selective ion acceleration. PMID:26153048

  16. Modified glassy carbon electrodes based on carbon nanostructures for ultrasensitive electrochemical determination of furazolidone.

    PubMed

    Shahrokhian, Saeed; Naderi, Leila; Ghalkhani, Masoumeh

    2016-04-01

    The electrochemical behavior of Furazolidone (Fu) was investigated on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode modified with different carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanoparticles (CNPs), nanodiamond-graphite (NDG), graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and RGO-CNT hybrids (various ratios) using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The results of voltammetric studies exhibited a considerable increase in the cathodic peak current of Fu at the RGO modified GCE, compared to other modified electrodes and also bare GCE. The surface morphology and nature of the RGO film was thoroughly characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The modified electrode showed two linear dynamic ranges of 0.001-2.0 μM and 2.0-10.0 μM with a detection limit of 0.3 nM for the voltammetric determination of Fu. This sensor was used successfully for Fu determination in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations.

  17. Surface Anchoring of Nematic Phase on Carbon Nanotubes: Nanostructure of Ultra-High Temperature Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ogale, Amod A

    2012-04-27

    consisting of strong carbon fibers embedded in a carbon matrix are needed. Such carbon/carbon (C/C) composites have been used in aerospace industry to produce missile nose cones, space shuttle leading edge, and aircraft brake-pads. However, radiation-tolerance of such materials is not adequately known because only limited radiation studies have been performed on C/C composites, which suggest that pitch-based carbon fibers have better dimensional stability than that of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based fibers [4]. The thermodynamically-stable state of graphitic crystalline packing of carbon atoms derived from mesophase pitch leads to a greater stability during neutron irradiation [5]. The specific objectives of this project were: (i) to generating novel carbonaceous nanostructures, (ii) measure extent of graphitic crystallinity and the extent of anisotropy, and (iii) collaborate with the Carbon Materials group at Oak Ridge National Lab to have neutron irradiation studies and post-irradiation examinations conducted on the carbon fibers produced in this research project.

  18. Towards lightweight nanocomposite coatings for corrosion inhibition: Graphene, carbon nanotubes, and nanostructured magnesium as case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Robert Vincent, III

    The field of nanocomposites is a burgeoning area of research due to the interest in the remarkable properties which can be achieved through their use in a variety of applications, including corrosion resistant coatings. Lightweighting is of increasing importance in the world today due to the ever growing push towards energy efficiency and the green movement and in recent years there has been a vast amount of research performed in the area of developing lightweight nanocomposites for corrosion inhibition. Many new composite materials have been developed through the use of newly developed nanomaterials (including carbonaceous and metallic constituents) and their specialized incorporation in the coating matrix materials. We start with a general review on the development of hybrid nanostructured composites for corrosion protection of base metals from a sustainability perspective in Chapter 1. This review demonstrates the ever swelling requirements for a paradigm shift in the way that we protect metals against corrosion due to the costs and environmental concerns that exist with currently used technology. In Chapter 2, we delve into the much required understanding of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide through near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy measurements to elucidate information about the electronic structure upon incorporation of nitrogen within the structure. For successful integration of the carbonaceous nanomaterials into a composite coating, a full swath of knowledge is necessary. Within this work we have shown that upon chemical defunctionalization of graphene oxide to reduced graphene oxide by means of hydrazine treatment, nitrogen is incorporated into the structure in the form of a pyrazole ring. In Chapter 3, we demonstrate that by way of in situ polymerization, graphene and multiwalled carbon nanotubes can be incorporated within a polymer (polyetherimide, PEI) matrix. Two systems have been developed including graphene and

  19. Nanostructural evolution during emission of CsI-coated carbon fiber cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummy, Lawrence F.; Apt, Scott; Shiffler, Don; Golby, Ken; LaCour, Matt; Maruyama, Benji; Vaia, Richard A.

    2010-06-01

    Carbon-based nanofiber and microfiber cathodes exhibit very low voltages for the onset of electron emission, and thus provide exciting opportunities for applications ranging from high power microwave sources to field emission displays. CsI coatings have been experimentally shown to lower the work function for emission from the fiber tips, although little is known about the microstructure of the fibers themselves in their as-received state, after coating with CsI, or after being subjected to high voltage cycling. Longitudinal cross sections of the original, unused CsI-coated fibers produced by focused ion beam lift-out revealed a nanostructured graphitic core surrounded by an amorphous carbon shell with submicron sized islands of crystalline CsI on the outer surface. Aberration-corrected high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) of the fiber core achieved 0.10 nm resolution, with the graphite (200) clearly visible in digital fast Fourier transformations of the 2-4 nm highly ordered graphitic domains. As the cathode fibers are cycled at high voltage, HREM demonstrates that the graphitic ordering of the core increases with the number of cycles, however the structure and thickness of the amorphous carbon layer remains unchanged. These results are consistent with micro-Raman measurements of the fiber disordered/graphitic (D/G) band ratios. After high voltage cycling, a uniform ˜100 nm film at the fiber tip was evident in both bright field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high angle annular dark field scanning TEM (STEM). Low-dose electron diffraction techniques confirmed the amorphous nature of this film, and STEM with elemental mapping via x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy indicates this layer is composed of CsIO. The oxidative evolution of tip composition and morphology due to impurities in the chamber, along with increased graphitization of the fiber core, contributes to changes in emission behavior with cycling.

  20. Nanostructured carbon-supported Pd electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation: synthesis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gacutan, E. M.; Climaco, M. I.; Telan, G. J.; Malijan, F.; Hsu, H. Y.; Garcia, J.; Fulo, H.; Tongol, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    The need to lower the construction cost of fuel cells calls for the development of non-Pt based electrocatalysts. Among others, Pd has emerged as a promising alternative to Pt for fuel cell catalysis. This research aims to investigate the synthesis and characterization of nanostructured Pd-based catalysts dispersed on carbon support as anode materials in direct ethanol fuel cells. For the preparation of the first Pd-based electrocatalyst, palladium nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via oleylamine (OAm)-mediated synthesis and precursor method with a mean particle size of 3.63 ± 0.59 nm as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Carbon black was used as a supporting matrix for the OAm-capped Pd NPs. Thermal annealing and acetic acid washing were used to remove the OAm capping agent. To evaluate the electrocatalytic activity of the prepared electrocatalyst towards ethanol oxidation, cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies were performed using 1.0 M ethanol in basic medium. The CV data revealed the highest peak current density of 11.05 mA cm-2 for the acetic acid-washed Pd/C electrocatalyst. Meanwhile, the fabrication of the second Pd-based electrocatalyst was done by functionalization of the carbon black support using 3:1 (v/v) H2SO4:HNO3. The metal oxide, NiO, was deposited using precipitation method while polyol method was used for the deposition of Pd NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the estimated particle size of the synthesized catalysts was at around 9.0-15.0 nm. CV results demonstrated a 36.7% increase in the catalytic activity of Pd-NiO/C (functionalized) catalyst towards ethanol oxidation compared to the non-functionalized catalyst.

  1. Fabrication of transition metal-containing nanostructures via polymer templates for a multitude of applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jennifer Qing

    Nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes and semiconducting nanowires offer great technological promise due to their remarkable properties. The lack of a rational synthesis method prevents fabricating these nanostructures with desirable and consistent properties at predefined locations for device applications. In this thesis, employing polymer templates, a variety of highly ordered catalytically active transition metal nanostructures, ranging from single metallic nanoparticles of Fe, Co, Ni, Au and bimetallic nanoparticles of Ni/Fe and Co/Mo to Fe-rich silicon oxide nanodomains with uniform and tunable size and spacing have been successfully synthesized. These nanostructures have been demonstrated to be excellent catalyst systems for the synthesis of carbon nanotube and silicon nanowire. High quality, small diameter carbon nanotubes and nanowires with narrow size distribution have been successfully attained. Because these catalytically active nanostructures are uniformly distributed and do not agglomerate at the growth temperatures, uniform, high density and high quality carbon nanotube mats have been obtained. Since this polymer template approach is fully compatible with conventional top-down photolithography, lithographically selective growth of carbon nanotubes on a surface or suspended carbon nanotubes across trenches have been produced by using existing semiconductor processing. We have also shown the feasibility of producing carbon nanotubes and silicon nanowires at predefined locations on a wafer format and established a wafer-level carbon nanotube based device fabrication process. The ability of the polymer template approach to control catalyst systems at the nano-, micro- and macro-scales paves a pathway for commercialization of these 1D nanostructure-enabled devices. Beside producing well-defined, highly ordered discrete catalytically active metal-containing nanostructures by the polymer template approach, Au and Ag nanotextured surfaces have also been

  2. State Estimation of the Time-Varying and Spatially Localized Concentration of Signal Molecules from the Stochastic Adsorption Dynamics on the Carbon Nanotube-Based Sensors and Its Application to Tumor Cell Detection.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hong; Lee, Jay H; Braatz, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses a problem of estimating time-varying, local concentrations of signal molecules with a carbon-nanotube (CNT)-based sensor array system, which sends signals triggered by monomolecular adsorption/desorption events of proximate molecules on the surfaces of the sensors. Such sensors work on nano-scale phenomena and show inherently stochastic non-Gaussian behavior, which is best represented by the chemical master equation (CME) describing the time evolution of the probabilities for all the possible number of adsorbed molecules. In the CME, the adsorption rate on each sensor is linearly proportional to the local concentration in the bulk phase. State estimators are proposed for these types of sensors that fully address their stochastic nature. For CNT-based sensors motivated by tumor cell detection, the particle filter, which is nonparametric and can handle non-Gaussian distributions, is compared to a Kalman filter that approximates the underlying distributions by Gaussians. In addition, the second-order generalized pseudo Bayesian estimation (GPB2) algorithm and the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm are incorporated into KF and PF respectively, for detecting latent drift in the concentration affected by different states of a cell.

  3. Oriented carbon nanostructures grown by hot-filament plasma-enhanced CVD from self-assembled Co-based catalyst on Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleaca, Claudiu Teodor; Morjan, Ion; Rodica, Alexandrescu; Dumitrache, Florian; Soare, Iuliana; Gavrila-Florescu, Lavinia; Sandu, Ion; Dutu, Elena; Le Normand, François; Faerber, Jacques

    2012-03-01

    We report the synthesis of coral- and caterpillar-like carbon nanostructures assemblies starting from cobalt nitrate ethanol solutions deposited by drop-casting onto blank or carbon nanoparticles film covered Si(1 0 0) substrates. The seeded films were pre-treated with glow discharge hydrogen plasma aided by hot-filaments at 550 °C followed by introduction of acetylene at 700 °C. The resultant carbon nanostructure assemblies contain a high density of aligned carbon nanotubes/nanofibers (CNTs/CNFs). The influence of the forces that act during liquid-mediated self-assembly of Co catalyst precursor is discussed.

  4. Etude du stockage de l'hydrogene sur des nanostructures de carbone microporeuses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Eric

    2007-12-01

    Le stockage de l'hydrogene par adsorption sur des adsorbants nano-structures a ete etudie sous differentes conditions de pression et de temperature. Les adsorbants etudies sont principalement des nanotubes de carbone a simple paroi ainsi que des structures metallo-organiques. Les mesures ont ete realisees a l'aide de systemes gravimetriques et volumetriques tres sensibles specialement mis au point pour de petits echantillons necessitant un degazage in situ. Les appareils developpes, au nombre de quatre, comprennent deux systemes gravimetriques et deux systemes volumetriques. Ensemble, ces systemes couvrent la plage de pressions (0-100) bars ainsi que la plage de temperatures (77-295) K. Les differentes analyses montrent que l'adsorption d'hydrogene sur les adsorbants nano-structures etudies est maximale a 77 K et varie entre environ (1.5 et 4) % masse. A temperature ambiante, l'adsorption croit lineairement avec la pression et demeure sous les 1% masse pour des pressions inferieures a 100 bars. L'adsorption d'hydrogene sur ces materiaux dans ces conditions se compare notamment a celle obtenue sur des charbons actives. La modelisation de l'adsorption a egalement ete realisee dans des conditions cryogeniques a l'aide du modele de Dubinin-Astakhov sous une forme adaptee pour l'adsorption supercritique. Les enthalpies d'adsorption calculees a partir de ce modele varient sous les 6 kJ/mole et sont donc consistantes avec des processus de physisorption. L'applicabilite du modele de Dubinin-Astakhov suggere que l'adsorption d'hydrogene puisse etre representee par un processus de remplissage des pores par un pseudo-liquide. Ces travaux s'inscrivent dans un contexte ou la capacite d'adsorption reelle des nanostructures de carbone est sujette a la controverse. En consequence, l'approche experimentale adoptee se distingue par les differentes demarches mises de l'avant pour l'obtention de mesures fiables sur des echantillons de faibles masses ainsi que par son caractere

  5. Effective load transfer by a chromium carbide nanostructure in a multi-walled carbon nanotube/copper matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seungchan; Kikuchi, Keiko; Kawasaki, Akira; Kwon, Hansang; Kim, Yangdo

    2012-08-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforced copper (Cu) matrix composites, which exhibit chromium (Cr) carbide nanostructures at the MWCNT/Cu interface, were prepared through a carbide formation using CuCr alloy powder. The fully densified and oriented MWCNTs dispersed throughout the composites were prepared using spark plasma sintering (SPS) followed by hot extrusion. The tensile strengths of the MWCNT/CuCr composites increased with increasing MWCNTs content, while the tensile strength of MWCNT/Cu composite decreased from that of monolithic Cu. The enhanced tensile strength of the MWCNT/CuCr composites is a result of possible load-transfer mechanisms of the interfacial Cr carbide nanostructures. The multi-wall failure of MWCNTs observed in the fracture surface of the MWCNT/CuCr composites indicates an improvement in the load-bearing capacity of the MWCNTs. This result shows that the Cr carbide nanostructures effectively transferred the tensile load to the MWCNTs during fracture through carbide nanostructure formation in the MWCNT/Cu composite.

  6. Effective load transfer by a chromium carbide nanostructure in a multi-walled carbon nanotube/copper matrix composite.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seungchan; Kikuchi, Keiko; Kawasaki, Akira; Kwon, Hansang; Kim, Yangdo

    2012-08-10

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforced copper (Cu) matrix composites, which exhibit chromium (Cr) carbide nanostructures at the MWCNT/Cu interface, were prepared through a carbide formation using CuCr alloy powder. The fully densified and oriented MWCNTs dispersed throughout the composites were prepared using spark plasma sintering (SPS) followed by hot extrusion. The tensile strengths of the MWCNT/CuCr composites increased with increasing MWCNTs content, while the tensile strength of MWCNT/Cu composite decreased from that of monolithic Cu. The enhanced tensile strength of the MWCNT/CuCr composites is a result of possible load-transfer mechanisms of the interfacial Cr carbide nanostructures. The multi-wall failure of MWCNTs observed in the fracture surface of the MWCNT/CuCr composites indicates an improvement in the load-bearing capacity of the MWCNTs. This result shows that the Cr carbide nanostructures effectively transferred the tensile load to the MWCNTs during fracture through carbide nanostructure formation in the MWCNT/Cu composite. PMID:22797555

  7. Improving Osteoblast Response In Vitro by a Nanostructured Thin Film with Titanium Carbide and Titanium Oxides Clustered around Graphitic Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Giovanni; Ioannidu, Caterina Alexandra; Scotto d’Abusco, Anna; Superti, Fabiana; Misiano, Carlo; Zanoni, Robertino; Politi, Laura; Mazzola, Luca; Iosi, Francesca; Mura, Francesco; Scandurra, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recently, we introduced a new deposition method, based on Ion Plating Plasma Assisted technology, to coat titanium implants with a thin but hard nanostructured layer composed of titanium carbide and titanium oxides, clustered around graphitic carbon. The nanostructured layer has a double effect: protects the bulk titanium against the harsh conditions of biological tissues and in the same time has a stimulating action on osteoblasts. Results The aim of this work is to describe the biological effects of this layer on osteoblasts cultured in vitro. We demonstrate that the nanostructured layer causes an overexpression of many early genes correlated to proteins involved in bone turnover and an increase in the number of surface receptors for α3β1 integrin, talin, paxillin. Analyses at single-cell level, by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and single cell force spectroscopy, show how the proliferation, adhesion and spreading of cells cultured on coated titanium samples are higher than on uncoated titanium ones. Finally, the chemistry of the layer induces a better formation of blood clots and a higher number of adhered platelets, compared to the uncoated cases, and these are useful features to improve the speed of implant osseointegration. Conclusion In summary, the nanostructured TiC film, due to its physical and chemical properties, can be used to protect the implants and to improve their acceptance by the bone. PMID:27031101

  8. Cellular interactions and stimulated biological functions mediated by nanostructured carbon for tissue reconstruction and tracheal tubes and sutures.

    PubMed

    Misra, R D K; Chaudhari, P M

    2013-02-01

    Nylon 6,6 is used for biological applications including gastrointestinal segments, tracheal tubes and sutures, vascular graft, and for hard tissue reconstruction. While it is a relatively inexpensive polymer, it is not widely acceptable as a preferred biomaterial because of bioactivity. To this end, we have discovered the exciting evidence that introduction of a novel nanostructured carbon, graphene, in the void space between the nylon chains and processing at elevated pressure favorably stimulates cellular functions and provides high degree of cytocompatibility. The cell-substrate interactions on stand alone Nylon 6,6 and Nylon 6,6-graphene oxide hybrid system were investigated in terms of cell attachment, viability, proliferation, and assessment of proteins, actin, vinculin, and fibronectin. The enhanced biological functions in the nanostructured hybrid system are attributed to relatively superior hydrophilicity of the surface and to the presence of graphene. Furthermore, it is proposed that the negatively charged graphene interacts with the polar nature of cells and the culture medium, such that the interaction is promoted through polar forces. This is accomplished by investigating cell attachment, proliferation, and morphology, including cytomorphometry evaluation, and quantitative assessment of prominent proteins, actin, vinculin, and fibronectin that are sensitive to cell-substrate interactions. Osteoblasts were studied to establish the practical viability of the hybrid nanostructured biomaterial. The study strengthens the foundation for utilizing nano- or quantum-size effects of nanostructured biomaterials.

  9. Nanostructured sensor based on carbon nanotubes and clavanin A for bacterial detection.

    PubMed

    Andrade, César A S; Nascimento, Jéssica M; Oliveira, Idjane S; de Oliveira, Carlos V J; de Melo, Celso P; Franco, Octávio L; Oliveira, Maria D L

    2015-11-01

    Unusual methods for specific detection of pathogenic bacteria are becoming key points for control and identification of problems related to health and (bio)safety. In this context, this work aims to propose a new approach for the development of nanostructured biosensors based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and antimicrobial peptides for bacterial detection. Firstly, the antimicrobial peptide clavanin A (ClavA) was chemically immobilized on CNTs and surface-immobilized ClavA was used to detect Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis in a direct assay format. We used electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique to evaluate the effectiveness and sensitivity of the ClavA-based biosensors by measuring the modifications in their electrochemical responses before and after incubation in presence of different bacteria concentrations. The biosensor was able to discriminate between bacteria concentrations in the 10(2)-10(6)CFU mL(-1) range. Atomic force microscopy analysis confirmed the biosensor functionality for bacterial recognition. This new sensor system was capable of differentiating between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, since ClavA showed different affinities toward the pathogenic bacteria species. PMID:25847459

  10. Interface study between nanostructured tantalum nitride films and carbon nanotubes grown by chemical vapour deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet-Fabre, B.; Pinault, M.; Foy, E.; Hugon, M. C.; Minéa, T.; Mayne-L'Hermite, M.

    2014-10-01

    We present the role of nitrogen content in tantalum nitride ultra-thin buffers, on the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) growth by chemical vapour deposition at 850 °C, assisted by ferrocene as catalyst source. Tantalum nitride (TaNx) films with a very large range of concentration x = [0, 1.8] and various nanostructures, from amorphous Ta(N) to Ta3N5, were deposited by Highly Pulsed Plasma Magnetron Sputtering. The buffer films are characterized after heat treatment at 850 °C, and after the CNT growth, by wide angle X-ray scattering in grazing incidence and scanning electron microscopy. The CNT diameter explored by transition electron microscopy shows an all-out value for under stoichiometric thin films (Ta1-N1-δ, Ta3-N5-δ) and a minimum value just above the stoichiometric phases (Ta1-N1+δ, Ta3-N5+δ). Firstly one shows that the buffer films under the heat treatment present surface modification highly dependent on their initial state, which influences the catalyst particles diffusion. Secondly at the stoichiometric TaN phase we show that a specific ternary phase FeTa2O6 is formed at the interface CNT/buffer, not present in the other cases, leading to a special CNT growth condition.

  11. High capacity tin-iron oxide-carbon nanostructured anode for advanced lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrelli, Roberta; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-12-01

    A novel nanostructured Sn-Fe2O3-C anode material, prepared by high-energy ball milling, is here originally presented. The anode benefits from a unique morphology consisting in Fe2O3 and Sn active nanoparticles embedded in a conductive buffer carbon matrix of micrometric size. Furthermore, the Sn metal particles, revealed as amorphous according to X-ray diffraction measurement, show a size lower than 10 nm by transmission electron microscopy. The optimal combination of nano-scale active materials and micrometric electrode configuration of the Sn-Fe2O3-C anode reflects into remarkable electrochemical performances in lithium cell, with specific capacity content higher than 900 mAh g-1 at 1C rate (810 mA g-1) and coulombic efficiency approaching 100% for 100 cycles. The anode, based on a combination of lithium conversion, alloying and intercalation reactions, exhibits exceptional rate-capability, stably delivering more than 400 mAh g-1 at the very high current density of 4 A g-1. In order to fully confirm the suitability of the developed Sn-Fe2O3-C material as anode for lithium ion battery, the electrode is preliminarily studied in combination with a high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode in a full cell stably and efficiently operating with a 3.7 V working voltage and a capacity exceeding 100 mAh g-1.

  12. Longitudinal vibration and instabilities of carbon nanotubes conveying fluid considering size effects of nanoflow and nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oveissi, Soheil; Eftekhari, S. Ali; Toghraie, Davood

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the effects of small-scale of the both nanoflow and nanostructure on the vibrational response of fluid flowing single-walled carbon nanotubes are investigated. To this purpose, two various flowing fluids, the air-nano-flow and the water nano-flow using Knudsen number, and two different continuum theories, the nonlocal theory and the strain-inertia gradient theory are studied. Nano-rod model is used to model the fluid-structure interaction, and Galerkin method of weighted residual is utilizing to solve and discretize the governing obtained equations. It is found that the critical flow velocity decreases as the wave number increases, excluding the first mode divergence that it has the least value among of the other instabilities if the strain-inertia gradient theory is employed. Moreover, it is observed that Kn effect has considerable impact on the reduction of critical velocities especially for the air-flow flowing through the CNT. In addition, by increasing a nonlocal parameter and Knudsen number the critical flow velocity decreases but it increases as the characteristic length related to the strain-inertia gradient theory increases.

  13. Engineering nanostructures by binding single molecules to single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, J Joseph; Stranks, Samuel D; Huang, Jian; Alexander-Webber, Jack A; Nicholas, Robin J

    2014-12-23

    Organic and hybrid organic-inorganic systems are promising candidates for low cost photovoltaics. Recently, perovskite-based systems have been attracting a large amount of research attention, where the highest performing devices employ a small molecule (2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene) (Spiro-OMeTAD) hole transporter. Here, we demonstrate the production of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/single molecule nanostructures using a simple solution processing technique for effective and strong binding of Spiro-OMeTAD to individual polymer-wrapped SWNTs. These small molecules bind very strongly, which causes both large mechanical strain of the nanotubes and also improves the separation of individual SWNTs, thus improving the nanotube photoluminescence quantum efficiency by 1 order of magnitude compared to simple polymer-nanotube nanohybrids. Using absorption and photoluminescence measurements, we show that there is a dramatic variation in the electronic properties of the polymer-NT nanocomposites due to the band alignment formed with Spiro-OMeTAD. These self-assembled nanocomposites offer the potential for integration into high performance optoelectronic such as photovoltaic cells and light emission devices.

  14. Controlling synthesis of carbon nanostructures by plasma means in arc discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volotskova, Olga; Shashurin, Alexey; Torrey, Jon; Raitses, Yevgeny; Keidar, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Thermal stability of SWNTs at conditions of atmospheric arc is crucial for determination of region of their synthesis in arc and in general for clarification of the thermal regime of SWNT in arc plasmas. We investigated electrical resistance dependence on temperature of mats of SWNTs under variable pressures in helium atmosphere, in the air and in vacuum in high temperature ranges (300-1200K) which closely mimic conditions during the synthesis in arc discharge. Dependence of SWNT resistance on temperature exhibits similar ``V-shape'' behavior for all applied conditions which characterized by two temperatures: Tmin (temperature of the minimum of resistance) and Tcr (temperature of destruction of SWNT bundles). It is found that Tmin and Tcr increased with helium pressure, so that at 500 Torr Tcr was 1100K, while Tmin -900K. This is the temperature that corresponds to buffer region between the arc plasma and helium background in arc discharge. Based on that it can be suggested that region of formation of SWNTs in arc should be close to arc periphery. Our study also demonstrates a strong effect of electric and magnetic fields on properties and growth conditions of SWNTs and other carbon nanostructures such as graphene. These effects are quantified by variety of diagnostics tools: SEM, TEM, AFM - microcopies, TGA, RAMAN and UV-vis-NIR.

  15. Sub-5 nm nanostructures fabricated by atomic layer deposition using a carbon nanotube template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Ju Yeon; Han, Hyo; Kim, Ji Weon; Lee, Seung-Mo; Ha, Jeong Sook; Shim, Joon Hyung; Han, Chang-Soo

    2016-07-01

    The fabrication of nanostructures having diameters of sub-5 nm is very a important issue for bottom-up nanofabrication of nanoscale devices. In this work, we report a highly controllable method to create sub-5 nm nano-trenches and nanowires by combining area-selective atomic layer deposition (ALD) with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as templates. Alumina nano-trenches having a depth of 2.6 ∼ 3.0 nm and SiO2 nano-trenches having a depth of 1.9 ∼ 2.2 nm fully guided by the SWNTs have been formed on SiO2/Si substrate. Through infilling ZnO material by ALD in alumina nano-trenches, well-defined ZnO nanowires having a thickness of 3.1 ∼ 3.3 nm have been fabricated. In order to improve the electrical properties of ZnO nanowires, as-fabricated ZnO nanowires by ALD were annealed at 350 °C in air for 60 min. As a result, we successfully demonstrated that as-synthesized ZnO nanowire using a specific template can be made for various high-density resistive components in the nanoelectronics industry.

  16. The hybrid nanostructure of MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle/carbon aerogel for symmetric supercapacitors with high energy density.

    PubMed

    Hao, Pin; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Li, Liyi; Tuan, Chia-Chi; Li, Haidong; Sang, Yuanhua; Jiang, Huaidong; Wong, C P; Liu, Hong

    2015-09-14

    Current applications of carbon-based supercapacitors are limited by their low energy density. One promising strategy to enhance the energy density is to couple metal oxides with carbon materials. In this study, a porous MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructure was synthesized by assembling MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle arrays on the surface of channel walls of hierarchical porous carbon aerogels derived from chitosan for the supercapacitor application. The synthetic process of the hybrid nanostructure involves two steps, i.e. the growth of Mn-Co precursors on carbon aerogel by a hydrothermal process and the conversion of the precursor into MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedles by calcination. The carbon aerogel exhibits a high electrical conductivity, high specific surface area and porous structure, ensuring high electrochemical performance of the hybrid nanostructure when coupled with the porous MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedles. The symmetric supercapacitor using the MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructure as the active electrode material exhibits a high energy density of about 84.3 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 600 W kg(-1). The voltage window is as high as 1.5 V in neutral aqueous electrolytes. Due to the unique nanostructure of the electrodes, the capacitance retention reaches 86% over 5000 cycles.

  17. Terahertz Imaging and Spectroscopy of Carbon-Based and Semiconductor Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaino, Joseph L.

    This thesis will cover work that I have completed relating to the field of terahertz (THz) science. My work has consisted of generating tunable, narrowband THz pulses in a table-top optical setup and using both narrow- and broadband THz pulses to study various material systems. Broadband THz pulses were used to study the transmission properties of a large-area graphene monolayer and vertically grown carbon nanotube forests. We performed raster scans to image our optically invisible graphene sample, which was clearly distinguished from its silicon substrate. From these studies, we were able to calculate the sheet conductivity/resistivity of the graphene using a contactless, non-damaging method that is immune to difficulties arising from local defects within the sample. It also opens up the possibility of studying the material properties of a sample enclosed within certain structures without having to remove the sample and/or damage the encasement. Further, we have discovered that vertically grown carbon nanotubes respond strongly to THz radiation. Preliminary simulations suggest that they respond in a very counterintuitive way and while much remains to be done before we can state with certainty exactly what is physically occurring, the prospect of uncovering such an unanticipated result is tantalizing on its own. I used difference frequency generation of orthogonal, temporally offset, chirped optical pulses to create our narrowband THz pulses. The variable time delay between these pulses was used to adjust the pulse's central frequency. THz time domain spectroscopy and calorimeter-based measurements were used to study the temporal and spectral composition and field strength of the THz pulses. These pulses, along with their broadband counterparts, were used to study electron dynamics within semiconductor nanostructures, both bare quantum wells and quantum wells grown inside of a microcavity. The dynamics of exciton and exciton-polariton polarizations were studied

  18. Using the carbon nanotube (CNT)/CNT interaction to obtain hybrid conductive nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J.; Silva, A.; Bretas, R.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) combine unique physical, electrical, chemical, thermal and mechanical properties with a huge surface area that qualify them to a broad range of applications. These potential applications, however, are often limited due to the strong inter-tubes van der Waals interactions, which results in poor dispersion in polymeric matrixes or solvents in general. Thus, the goal of this work was to use this limitation as an advantage, to produce novel conductive hybrid nanostructures, which consist of nonwoven Nylon 6 (PA6) mats of electrospun nanofibers with a large amount of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) strongly attached and adsorbed on the nanofiberś surfaces. To produce such structures, the MWCNT were previously functionalized with carboxylic groups and subsequently incorporated in the nanofibers by two subsequent steps: i) preparation of nonwoven mats of PA6/MWCNT by electrospinning and ii) treatment of the mats in an aqueous dispersion of MWCNT/Triton X-100. Analyses of UV-visible light showed that carboxylic groups were actually inserted in the MWCNT. Thermogravimetric analyzes (TGA) showed that the amount of adsorbed MWCNT on the fiberś surfaces at the end of the procedure was approximately 12 times higher than after the first step. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed this result and electrical conductivities measurements of the MWCNT/PA6, after the treatment in the aqueous solution, showed that these structures had conductivity of 10-2 S/m. It was concluded that the adhesion of CNTs at the surface of the nanofibers occurred due a combination of two types of bonding: hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic groups of the functionalized CNT and the PA6 and van der Waals interactions between the CNTs.

  19. Using the carbon nanotube (CNT)/CNT interaction to obtain hybrid conductive nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, J.; Silva, A.; Bretas, R. E-mail: bretas@ufscar.br

    2015-05-22

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) combine unique physical, electrical, chemical, thermal and mechanical properties with a huge surface area that qualify them to a broad range of applications. These potential applications, however, are often limited due to the strong inter-tubes van der Waals interactions, which results in poor dispersion in polymeric matrixes or solvents in general. Thus, the goal of this work was to use this limitation as an advantage, to produce novel conductive hybrid nanostructures, which consist of nonwoven Nylon 6 (PA6) mats of electrospun nanofibers with a large amount of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) strongly attached and adsorbed on the nanofibers´ surfaces. To produce such structures, the MWCNT were previously functionalized with carboxylic groups and subsequently incorporated in the nanofibers by two subsequent steps: i) preparation of nonwoven mats of PA6/MWCNT by electrospinning and ii) treatment of the mats in an aqueous dispersion of MWCNT/Triton X–100. Analyses of UV-visible light showed that carboxylic groups were actually inserted in the MWCNT. Thermogravimetric analyzes (TGA) showed that the amount of adsorbed MWCNT on the fibers´ surfaces at the end of the procedure was approximately 12 times higher than after the first step. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed this result and electrical conductivities measurements of the MWCNT/PA6, after the treatment in the aqueous solution, showed that these structures had conductivity of 10-2 S/m. It was concluded that the adhesion of CNTs at the surface of the nanofibers occurred due a combination of two types of bonding: hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic groups of the functionalized CNT and the PA6 and van der Waals interactions between the CNTs.

  20. Highly efficient nonprecious metal catalysts towards oxygen reduction reaction based on three-dimensional porous carbon nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chengzhou; Li, He; Fu, Shaofang; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-02-01

    Developing a low cost, highly active, durable cathode towards an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is one of the high-priority research directions for commercialization of low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). However, the electrochemical performance of PEMFCs is still hindered by the high cost and insufficient durability of the traditional Pt-based cathode catalysts. Under these circumstances, the search for efficient alternatives to replace Pt for constructing highly efficient nonprecious metal catalysts (NPMCs) has been growing intensively and has received great interest. Combining with the compositional effects, the accurate design of NPMCs with 3D porous nanostructures plays a significant role in further enhancing ORR performance. These 3D porous architectures are able to provide higher specific surface areas and larger pore volumes, not only maximizing the availability of electron transfer within the nanosized electrocatalyst surface area but also providing better mass transport of reactants to the electrocatalyst. In this Tutorial Review, we focus on the rational design and synthesis of different 3D porous carbon-based nanomaterials, such as heteroatom-doped carbon, metal-nitrogen-carbon nanostructures and a series of carbon/nonprecious metal-based hybrids. More importantly, their enhanced ORR performances are also demonstrated by virtue of their favorably porous morphologies and compositional effects. Finally, the future trends and perspectives for the highly efficient porous NPMCs regarding the material design are discussed, with an emphasis on substantial development of advanced carbon-based NPMCs for ORR in the near future.

  1. Nanostructures of Boron, Carbon and Magnesium Diboride for High Temperature Superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Pfefferle, Lisa; Fang, Fang; Iyyamperumal, Eswarmoorthi; Keskar, Gayatri

    2013-12-23

    Direct fabrication of MgxBy nanostructures is achieved by employing metal (Ni,Mg) incorporated MCM-41 in the Hybrid Physical-Chemical Vapor Deposition (HPCVD) reaction. Different reaction conditions are tested to optimize the fabrication process. TEM analysis shows the fabrication of MgxBy nanostructures starting at the reaction temperature of 600oC, with the yield of the nanostructures increasing with increasing reaction temperature. The as-synthesized MgxBy nanostructures have the diameters in the range of 3-5nm, which do not increase with the reaction temperature consistent with templated synthesis. EELS analysis of the template removed nanostructures confirms the existence of B and Mg with possible contamination of Si and O. NEXAFS and Raman spectroscopy analysis suggested a concentric layer-by-layer MgxBy nanowire/nanotube growth model for our as-synthesized nanostructures. Ni k-edge XAS indicates that the formation of MgNi alloy particles is important for the Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) growth of MgxBy nanostructures with fine diameters, and the presence of Mg vapor not just Mg in the catalyst is crucial for the formation of Ni-Mg clusters. Physical templating by the MCM-41 pores was shown to confine the diameter of the nanostructures. DC magnetization measurements indicate possible superconductive behaviors in the as-synthesized samples.

  2. Carbon nanotube networks grown on varios carbon nanostructures: SWCNT, MWCNT and Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Youngwoo; Zakhidov, Anvar; Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute Team

    2015-03-01

    Secondary growth of carbon nanotubes (CNT) on the various nanoscale substrates has been performed by using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Spinnable CNT yarns, single wall CNT sheets and graphene flakes, in NMP have been used as scaffolds for such secondary networks, The CNT yarn drawn from spinnable CNT forest is one of the promising applications of the CNT. However, orientation of the yarn and comparatively high sheet resistance make them harder for applications. Processing secondary CVD grows CNTs on the CNT yarn without any orientation of the secondary grown CNTs. Thus, this decreases the effect of the orientation of the CNT yarn and also decreases sheet resistance since the yarn have more contact each other. This after-treating will make more application possible. Furthermore, since CNT yarn does not make perfect surface and have gap between each bundle, arranging yarns to certain directions allows to growth CNT forest with specific pattern such as check pattern. Also it is possible not to make vertical CNT forest to the substrate by stack multi-layer of CNT yarn so that make felt-like-sheet of CNTs. The secondary growth of CNTs on CNTs is the useful method of fabricating of CNT yarn.

  3. Facile one-pot hydrothermal with subsequent carbonization preparation of hollow tin dioxide@carbon nanostructures as high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qinghua; Tian, Yang; Zhang, Zhengxi; Yang, Li; Hirano, Shin-ichi

    2015-04-01

    To overcome the issues of fast capacity fading and poor rate capacity for tin dioxide (SnO2) anode materials, an effective strategy is explored to fabricate nanostructured SnO2@carbon composites (SnO2@C) with large specific surface area, abundant cavity and confined dimension, considering the peculiar nanostructure to achieve increased contact interface between the active materials and the electrolyte, restricted agglomeration of SnO2, buffered volume variation, enhanced structure stability, shortened diffusion distance of lithium-ion and electron and improved electronic conductivity. Herein, two kinds of hollow SnO2@C nanostructures, namely hollow SnO2@C spheres and SnO2@C tubes are prepared by a simple approach. Comparing with general strategies involved templates, the preparation process in our strategy is greatly simplified, and the typical and tedious respective SnO2 coating, polysaccharides coating and template removal are avoided, instead, the three processes are achieved simultaneously. It is believed that our strategy may pave the way for facile preparation of various microstructures of hollow SnO2@C composites with relatively uniform size and to a wide variety of applications. More importantly, when tested as promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, both the two hollow SnO2@C nanostructures exhibited superior electrochemical performance due to the synergistic effect of hollow nanostructure and relatively uniform carbon coating. The SnO2@C tubes delivered a reversible capacity of 587.1 mAh g-1 at 200 mA g-1 after 100 cycles. More importantly, the hollow SnO2@C spheres delivered a reversible capacity of 612.9 mAh g-1 at 200 mA g-1 even after 300 cycles.

  4. Lipid bilayers covalently anchored to carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Dayani, Yasaman; Malmstadt, Noah

    2012-05-29

    The unique physical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes make them an exciting material for applications in various fields such as bioelectronics and biosensing. Due to the poor water solubility of carbon nanotubes, functionalization for such applications has been a challenge. Of particular need are functionalization methods for integrating carbon nanotubes with biomolecules and constructing novel hybrid nanostructures for bionanoelectronic applications. We present a novel method for the fabrication of dispersible, biocompatible carbon nanotube-based materials. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are covalently modified with primary amine-bearing phospholipids in a carbodiimide-activated reaction. These modified carbon nanotubes have good dispersibility in nonpolar solvents. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy shows peaks attributable to the formation of amide bonds between lipids and the nanotube surface. Simple sonication of lipid-modified nanotubes with other lipid molecules leads to the formation of a uniform lipid bilayer coating the nanotubes. These bilayer-coated nanotubes are highly dispersible and stable in aqueous solution. Confocal fluorescence microscopy shows labeled lipids on the surface of bilayer-modified nanotubes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows the morphology of dispersed bilayer-coated MWCNTs. Fluorescence quenching of lipid-coated MWCNTs confirms the bilayer configuration of the lipids on the nanotube surface, and fluorescence anisotropy measurements show that the bilayer is fluid above the gel-to-liquid transition temperature. The membrane protein α-hemolysin spontaneously inserts into the MWCNT-supported bilayer, confirming the biomimetic membrane structure. These biomimetic nanostructures are a promising platform for the integration of carbon nanotube-based materials with biomolecules.

  5. Nanostructured Graphene-Titanium Dioxide Composites Synthesized by a Single-Step Aerosol Process for Photoreduction of Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Ning; Jiang, Yi; Fortner, John D.; Biswas, Pratim

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to hydrocarbons by using nanostructured materials activated by solar energy is a promising approach to recycling CO2 as a fuel feedstock. CO2 photoreduction, however, suffers from low efficiency mainly due to the inherent drawback of fast electron-hole recombination in photocatalysts. This work reports the synthesis of nanostructured composites of titania (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets via an aerosol approach. The role of synthesis temperature and TiO2/GO ratio in CO2 photoreduction was investigated. As-prepared nanocomposites demonstrated enhanced CO2 conversion performance as compared with that of pristine TiO2 NPs due to the strong electron trapping capability of the rGO nanosheets. PMID:25053879

  6. The effect of reactive nanostructured carbon on the superconducting properties of mechanically alloyed MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, M.; Häßler, W.; Mickel, C.; Gruner, W.; Holzapfel, B.; Schultz, L.

    2007-12-01

    Polycrystalline samples of MgB2 doped with reactive nanostructured carbon were synthesized by pressure assisted sintering of mechanically alloyed precursors. Varying the nominal carbon concentration from x = 0 to 0.316, the effects of carbon doping on the lattice parameter, lattice strain, actual amount of incorporated carbon (xactual), grain size, normal state resistivity (ρ), connectivity, superconducting transition (Tc), critical fields (Birr and Bc2) and critical current density (Jc) as well as the pinning force (Fp) were evaluated. An evident solubility limit of carbon within the MgB2 matrix, forming MgB2-xCx with an xactual≈0.125, was observed. In addition to the carbon saturation the superconducting properties, e.g. Tc, Bc2 and Jc, also reflect saturation effects with respect to the actual carbon concentration. Improved electron scattering in MgB2-xCx seems responsible for the observed enhancement of Bc2 to 11.4 T at 20 K. On the other hand, calculations of the flux-pinning forces show a dramatic decrease of Fp,max with increasing carbon concentration. Therefore we conclude the observed improvement in critical current density at applied fields >6 T to result mainly from the raised upper critical field.

  7. Cytocompatibility and biocompatibility of nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite spheres for bone repair

    PubMed Central

    CALASANS-MAIA, Mônica Diuana; de MELO, Bruno Raposo; ALVES, Adriana Terezinha Neves Novellino; RESENDE, Rodrigo Figueiredo de Brito; LOURO, Rafael Seabra; SARTORETTO, Suelen Cristina; GRANJEIRO, José Mauro; ALVES, Gutemberg Gomes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo biological responses to nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/calcium alginate (CHA) microspheres used for alveolar bone repair, compared to sintered hydroxyapatite (HA). Material and Methods The maxillary central incisors of 45 Wistar rats were extracted, and the dental sockets were filled with HA, CHA, and blood clot (control group) (n=5/period/group). After 7, 21 and 42 days, the samples of bone with the biomaterials were obtained for histological and histomorphometric analysis, and the plasma levels of RANKL and OPG were determined via immunoassay. Statistical analysis was performed by Two-Way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey test at 95% level of significance. Results The CHA and HA microspheres were cytocompatible with both human and murine cells on an in vitro assay. Histological analysis showed the time-dependent increase of newly formed bone in control group characterized by an intense osteoblast activity. In HA and CHA groups, the presence of a slight granulation reaction around the spheres was observed after seven days, which was reduced by the 42nd day. A considerable amount of newly formed bone was observed surrounding the CHA spheres and the biomaterials particles at 42-day time point compared with HA. Histomorphometric analysis showed a significant increase of newly formed bone in CHA group compared with HA after 21 and 42 days from surgery, moreover, CHA showed almost 2-fold greater biosorption than HA at 42 days (two-way ANOVA, p<0.05) indicating greater biosorption. An increase in the RANKL/OPG ratio was observed in the CHA group on the 7th day. Conclusion CHA spheres were osteoconductive and presented earlier biosorption, inducing early increases in the levels of proteins involved in resorption. PMID:26814461

  8. Towards nano-organic chemistry: perspectives for a bottom-up approach to the synthesis of low-dimensional carbon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercuri, Francesco; Baldoni, Matteo; Sgamellotti, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Low-dimensional carbon nanostructures, such as nanotubes and graphenes, represent one of the most promising classes of materials, in view of their potential use in nanotechnology. However, their exploitation in applications is often hindered by difficulties in their synthesis and purification. Despite the huge efforts by the research community, the production of nanostructured carbon materials with controlled properties is still beyond reach. Nonetheless, this step is nowadays mandatory for significant progresses in the realization of advanced applications and devices based on low-dimensional carbon nanostructures. Although promising alternative routes for the fabrication of nanostructured carbon materials have recently been proposed, a comprehensive understanding of the key factors governing the bottom-up assembly of simple precursors to form complex systems with tailored properties is still at its early stages. In this paper, following a survey of recent experimental efforts in the bottom-up synthesis of carbon nanostructures, we attempt to clarify generalized criteria for the design of suitable precursors that can be used as building blocks in the production of complex systems based on sp2 carbon atoms and discuss potential synthetic strategies. In particular, the approaches presented in this feature article are based on the application of concepts borrowed from traditional organic chemistry, such as valence-bond theory and Clar sextet theory, and on their extension to the case of complex carbon nanomaterials. We also present and discuss a validation of these approaches through first-principle calculations on prototypical systems. Detailed studies on the processes involved in the bottom-up fabrication of low-dimensional carbon nanostructures are expected to pave the way for the design and optimization of precursors and efficient synthetic routes, thus allowing the development of novel materials with controlled morphology and properties that can be used in

  9. Towards nano-organic chemistry: perspectives for a bottom-up approach to the synthesis of low-dimensional carbon nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, Francesco; Baldoni, Matteo; Sgamellotti, Antonio

    2012-01-21

    Low-dimensional carbon nanostructures, such as nanotubes and graphenes, represent one of the most promising classes of materials, in view of their potential use in nanotechnology. However, their exploitation in applications is often hindered by difficulties in their synthesis and purification. Despite the huge efforts by the research community, the production of nanostructured carbon materials with controlled properties is still beyond reach. Nonetheless, this step is nowadays mandatory for significant progresses in the realization of advanced applications and devices based on low-dimensional carbon nanostructures. Although promising alternative routes for the fabrication of nanostructured carbon materials have recently been proposed, a comprehensive understanding of the key factors governing the bottom-up assembly of simple precursors to form complex systems with tailored properties is still at its early stages. In this paper, following a survey of recent experimental efforts in the bottom-up synthesis of carbon nanostructures, we attempt to clarify generalized criteria for the design of suitable precursors that can be used as building blocks in the production of complex systems based on sp(2) carbon atoms and discuss potential synthetic strategies. In particular, the approaches presented in this feature article are based on the application of concepts borrowed from traditional organic chemistry, such as valence-bond theory and Clar sextet theory, and on their extension to the case of complex carbon nanomaterials. We also present and discuss a validation of these approaches through first-principle calculations on prototypical systems. Detailed studies on the processes involved in the bottom-up fabrication of low-dimensional carbon nanostructures are expected to pave the way for the design and optimization of precursors and efficient synthetic routes, thus allowing the development of novel materials with controlled morphology and properties that can be used in

  10. Ion irradiation of electronic-type-separated single wall carbon nanotubes: A model for radiation effects in nanostructured carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Jamie E.; Cress, Cory D.; Messenger, Scott R.; Weaver, Brad D.; Helenic, Alysha R.; Landi, Brian J.; Schauerman, Chris M.; DiLeo, Roberta A.; Cox, Nathanael D.; Hubbard, Seth M.

    2012-08-01

    The structural and electrical properties of electronic-type-separated (metallic and semiconducting) single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin-films have been investigated after irradiation with 150 keV {sup 11}B{sup +} and 150 keV {sup 31}P{sup +} with fluences ranging from 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. Raman spectroscopy results indicate that the ratio of the Raman D to G Prime band peak intensities (D/G Prime ) is a more sensitive indicator of SWCNT structural modification induced by ion irradiation by one order of magnitude compared to the ratio of the Raman D to G band peak intensities (D/G). The increase in sheet resistance (R{sub s}) of the thin-films follows a similar trend as the D/G Prime ratio, suggesting that the radiation induced variation in bulk electrical transport for both electronic-types is equal and related to localized defect generation. The characterization results for the various samples are compared based on the displacement damage dose (DDD) imparted to the sample, which is material and damage source independent. Therefore, it is possible to extend the analysis to include data from irradiation of transferred CVD-graphene films on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates using 35 keV C{sup +} ions, and compare the observed changes at equivalent levels of ion irradiation-induced damage to that observed in the SWCNT thin-film samples. Ultimately, a model is developed for the prediction of the radiation response of nanostructured carbon materials based on the DDD for any incident ion with low-energy recoil spectra. The model is also related to the defect concentration, and subsequently the effective defect-to-defect length, and yields a maximum defect concentration (minimum defect-to-defect length) above which the bulk electrical transport properties in SWCNT thin-films and large graphene-based electronic devices rapidly degrade when exposed to harsh environments.

  11. Well-dispersed high-loading pt nanoparticles supported by shell-core nanostructured carbon for methanol electrooxidation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Li, Deyu; Dai, Changsong; Wang, Dianlong; Li, Ning

    2008-04-01

    Shell-core nanostructured carbon materials with a nitrogen-doped graphitic layer as a shell and pristine carbon black particle as a core were synthesized by carbonizing the hybrid materials containing in situ polymerized aniline onto carbon black. In an N-doped carbon layer, the nitrogen atoms substitute carbon atoms at the edge and interior of the graphene structure to form pyridinic N and quaternary N structures, respectively. As a result, the carbon structure becomes more compact, showing curvatures and disorder in the graphene stacking. In comparison with nondoped carbon, the N-doped one was proved to be a suitable supporting material to synthesize high-loading Pt catalysts (up to 60 wt %) with a more uniform size distribution and stronger metal-support interactions due to its high electrochemically accessible surface area, richness of disorder and defects, and high electron density. Moreover, the more rapid charge-transfer rates over the N-doped carbon material are evidenced by the high crystallinity of the graphitic shell layer with nitrogen doping as well as the low charge-transfer resistance at the electrolyte/electrode interface. Beneficial roles of nitrogen doping can be found to enhance the CO tolerance of Pt catalysts. Accordingly, an improved performance in methanol oxidation was achieved on a high-loading Pt catalyst supported by N-doped carbon. The enhanced catalytic properties were extensively discussed based on mass activity (Pt utilization) and intrinsic activity (charge-transfer rate). Therefore, N-doped carbon layers present many advantages over nondoped ones and would emerge as an interesting supporting carbon material for fuel cell electrocatalysts.

  12. Room temperature fabrication of 1D carbon-copper composite nanostructures directly on Cu substrate and their field emission properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosmi, Mohamad Saufi; Yaakob, Yazid; Mohd Yusop, Mohd Zamri; Sharma, Subash; Zulkifli, Zurita; Supee, Aizuddin; Kalita, Golap; Tanemura, Masaki

    2016-09-01

    This paper demonstrates a carbon-copper (C-Cu) composite nanostructure directly fabricated on a copper (Cu) substrate using the Ar+ ion irradiation method at room temperature. The morphology of C-Cu composite was controlled by a simultaneous carbon supply during ion irradiation. Conical protrusions formed on the surface of the Cu substrate with the low carbon supply rate (RC), whereas high RC area prominently produced nanoneedle structures. The field electron emission (FEE) tests demonstrated significant improvement between conical protrusions and nanoneedle structures, where the emission current increase from 5.70 μ Acm-2 to 4.37 mAcm-2, while the turn-on field reduced from 5.90 to 2.00 Vμ m-1 .

  13. Carbon-Based Nanostructures as Advanced Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananta Narayanan, Jeyarama S.

    2011-12-01

    Superparamagnetic carbon-based nanostructures are presented as contrast agents (CAs) for advanced imaging applications such as cellular and molecular imaging using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Gadolinium-loaded, ultra-short single-walled carbon nanotubes (gadonanotubes; GNTs) are shown to have extremely high r1 relaxivities (contrast enhancement efficacy), especially at low-magnetic field strengths. The inherent lipophilicity of GNTs provides them the ability to image cells at low magnetic field strength. A carboxylated dextran-coated GNT (GadoDex) has been synthesized and proposed as a new biocompatible high-performance MRI CA. The r1 relaxivity is ca. 20 times greater than for other paramagnetic Gd-based CAs. This enhanced relaxivity for GadoDex is due to the synergistic effects of an increased molecular tumbling time (tauR) and a faster proton exchange rate (taum). GNTs also exhibit very large transverse relaxivities (r2) at high magnetic fields (≥ 3 T). The dependence of the transverse relaxation rates (especially R2*) of labeled cells on GNT concentration offers the possibility to quantify cell population in vivo using R2* mapping. The cell-labeling efficiency and high transverse relaxivities of GNTs has enabled the first non-iron oxide-based single-cell imaging using MRI. The residual metal catalyst particles of SWNT materials also have transverse relaxation properties. All of the SWNT materials exhibit superior transverse relaxation properties. However, purified SWNTs and US-tubes with less residual metal content exhibit better transverse relaxivities (r2), demonstrating the importance of the SWNT structure for enhanced MRI CA performance. A strategy to improve the r1 relaxivity of Gd-CAs by geometrically confining them within porous silicon particles (SiMPs) has been investigated. The enhancement in relaxivity is attributed to the slow diffusion of water molecules through the pores and the increase in the molecular tumbling time of the nanoconstruct

  14. Promotion of water-mediated carbon removal by nanostructured barium oxide/nickel interfaces in solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Choi, YongMan; Qin, Wentao; Chen, Haiyan; Blinn, Kevin; Liu, Mingfei; Liu, Ping; Bai, Jianming; Tyson, Trevor A; Liu, Meilin

    2011-06-21

    The existing Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia anodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) perform poorly in carbon-containing fuels because of coking and deactivation at desired operating temperatures. Here we report a new anode with nanostructured barium oxide/nickel (BaO/Ni) interfaces for low-cost SOFCs, demonstrating high power density and stability in C(3)H(8), CO and gasified carbon fuels at 750°C. Synchrotron-based X-ray analyses and microscopy reveal that nanosized BaO islands grow on the Ni surface, creating numerous nanostructured BaO/Ni interfaces that readily adsorb water and facilitate water-mediated carbon removal reactions. Density functional theory calculations predict that the dissociated OH from H(2)O on BaO reacts with C on Ni near the BaO/Ni interface to produce CO and H species, which are then electrochemically oxidized at the triple-phase boundaries of the anode. This anode offers potential for ushering in a new generation of SOFCs for efficient, low-emission conversion of readily available fuels to electricity.

  15. Noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 with hydrogen accumulated in a hybrid carbon nanostructure in nanosized membrane reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    Studies on the creation of nanosized membrane reactors (NMRs) of a new generation with accumulated hydrogen and a regulated volume of reaction zone were continued at the next stage. Hydrogenation was performed in the pores of ceramic membranes with hydrogen preliminarily adsorbed in mono- and multilayered orientated carbon nanotubes with graphene walls (OCNTGs)—a new hybrid carbon nanostructure formed on the inner pore surface. Quantitative determination of hydrogen adsorption in OCNTGs was performed using TRUMEM ultrafiltration membranes with D av = 50 and 90 nm and showed that hydrogen adsorption was up to ˜1.5% of the mass of OCNTG. The instrumentation and procedure for noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 at 250-350°C using hydrogen accumulated and stored in OCNTG were developed. The conversion of decene-1 into decane was ˜0.2-1.8% at hydrogenation temperatures of 250 and 350°C, respectively. The rate constants and activation energy of hydrogenation were determined. The latter was found to be 94.5 kJ/mol, which is much smaller than the values typical for noncatalytic hydrogenations and very close to the values characteristic for catalytic reactions. The quantitative distribution of the reacting compounds in each pore regarded as a nanosized membrane reactor was determined. The activity of hydrogen adsorbed in a 2D carbon nanostructure was evaluated. Possible mechanisms of noncatalytic hydrogenation were discussed.

  16. Promotion of water-mediated carbon removal by nanostructured barium oxide/nickel interfaces in solid oxide fuel cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lei; Choi, YongMan; Qin, Wentao; Chen, Haiyan; Blinn, Kevin; Liu, Mingfei; Liu, Ping; Bai, Jianming; Tyson, Trevor A.; Liu, Meilin

    2011-01-01

    The existing Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia anodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) perform poorly in carbon-containing fuels because of coking and deactivation at desired operating temperatures. Here we report a new anode with nanostructured barium oxide/nickel (BaO/Ni) interfaces for low-cost SOFCs, demonstrating high power density and stability in C3H8, CO and gasified carbon fuels at 750°C. Synchrotron-based X-ray analyses and microscopy reveal that nanosized BaO islands grow on the Ni surface, creating numerous nanostructured BaO/Ni interfaces that readily adsorb water and facilitate water-mediated carbon removal reactions. Density functional theory calculations predict that the dissociated OH from H2O on BaO reacts with C on Ni near the BaO/Ni interface to produce CO and H species, which are then electrochemically oxidized at the triple-phase boundaries of the anode. This anode offers potential for ushering in a new generation of SOFCs for efficient, low-emission conversion of readily available fuels to electricity. PMID:21694705

  17. Both-end opened nanostructure holes by embedded carbon nanotubes realized on thinned membranes on (1 0 0) silicon substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdi, Y.; Mohajerzadeh, S.; Darbari, S.; Arzi, E.

    2007-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been grown in a DC-PECVD apparatus on quartz membranes. <1 0 0>-oriented Si wafer has been anisotropically etched in a KOH solution. A mixture of acetylene and hydrogen gases is used to grow CNT while Ni acts as the catalyst layer. As-grown structures have been coated by titanium dioxide using chemical vapor deposition at atmospheric pressure. By means of a polishing and ashing process steps followed by total removing of the quartz membrane both ends of CNTs are opened and nano holes are obtained. SEM analysis is used to study the evolution of such nanostructures.

  18. Fabrication of nanostructured metal oxide films with supercritical carbon dioxide: Processing and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Eunyoung

    Nanostructured metal oxide films have many applications in catalysis, microelectronics, microfluidics, photovoltaics and other fields. Since the performance of a device depends greatly on the structure of the material, the development of methodologies that enable prescriptive control of morphology are of great interest. The focus of this work is to control the structure and properties of the nanostructured metal oxide films using novel synthetic schemes in supercritical fluids and to use those films as key building components in alternative energy applications. A supercritical fluid is a substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point. It typically exhibits gas-like transport properties and liquid-like densities. Supercritical fluid deposition (SFD) utilizes these properties of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) to deposit chemically pure metal, oxides and alloys of metal films. SFD is a chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-like process in the sense that it uses similar metal organic precursors and deposits films at elevated temperatures. Instead of vaporizing or subliming the precursors, they are dissolved in supercritical fluids. SFD has typically shown to exhibit higher precursor concentrations, lower deposition temperatures, conformal deposition of films on high aspect ratio features as compared to CVD. In2 O3, ZnO and SnO2 are attractive materials because they are used in transparent conductors. SFD of these materials were studied and In2 O3 deposition kinetics using tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato) In (III) as precursor were determined. Growth rate dependence on the deposition temperature and the precursor concentrations were studied and the physicochemical and optical properties of In2 O3 films were characterized. Metal oxide nanochannels that can potentially be used for microfluidics have been fabricated by sequentially performing nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and SFD. NIL was used to pattern photoresist grating on substrates and SFD of TiO2

  19. Precise 3D printing of micro/nanostructures using highly conductive carbon nanotube-thiol-acrylate composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Xiong, W.; Jiang, L. J.; Zhou, Y. S.; Lu, Y. F.

    2016-04-01

    Two-photon polymerization (TPP) is of increasing interest due to its unique combination of truly three-dimensional (3D) fabrication capability and ultrahigh spatial resolution of ~40 nm. However, the stringent requirements of non-linear resins seriously limit the material functionality of 3D printing via TPP. Precise fabrication of 3D micro/nanostructures with multi-functionalities such as high electrical conductivity and mechanical strength is still a long-standing challenge. In this work, TPP fabrication of arbitrary 3D micro/nanostructures using multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT)-thiolacrylate (MTA) composite resins has been developed. Up to 0.2 wt% MWNTs have been incorporated into thiol-acrylate resins to form highly stable and uniform composite photoresists without obvious degradation for one week at room temperature. Various functional 3D micro/nanostructures including woodpiles, micro-coils, spiral-like photonic crystals, suspended micro-bridges, micro-gears and complex micro-cars have been successfully fabricated. The MTA composite resin offers significant enhancements in electrical conductivity and mechanical strength, and on the same time, preserving high optical transmittance and flexibility. Tightly controlled alignment of MWNTs and the strong anisotropy effect were confirmed. Microelectronic devices including capacitors and resistors made of the MTA composite polymer were demonstrated. The 3D micro/nanofabrication using the MTA composite resins enables the precise 3D printing of micro/nanostructures of high electrical conductivity and mechanical strength, which is expected to lead a wide range of device applications, including micro/nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS), integrated photonics and 3D electronics.

  20. LDRD final report on synthesis of shape-and size-controlled platinum and platinum alloy nanostructures on carbon with improved durability.

    SciTech Connect

    Shelnutt, John Allen; Garcia, Robert M.; Song, Yujiang; Moreno, Andres M.; Stanis, Ronald J.

    2008-10-01

    This project is aimed to gain added durability by supporting ripening-resistant dendritic platinum and/or platinum-based alloy nanostructures on carbon. We have developed a new synthetic approach suitable for directly supporting dendritic nanostructures on VXC-72 carbon black (CB), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The key of the synthesis is to creating a unique supporting/confining reaction environment by incorporating carbon within lipid bilayer relying on a hydrophobic-hydrophobic interaction. In order to realize size uniformity control over the supported dendritic nanostructures, a fast photocatalytic seeding method based on tin(IV) porphyrins (SnP) developed at Sandia was applied to the synthesis by using SnP-containing liposomes under tungsten light irradiation. For concept approval, one created dendritic platinum nanostructure supported on CB was fabricated into membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for durability examination via potential cycling. It appears that carbon supporting is essentially beneficial to an enhanced durability according to our preliminary results.