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Sample records for carbonate fuel cells

  1. Carbonate fuel cell matrix

    DOEpatents

    Farooque, Mohammad; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    1996-01-01

    A carbonate fuel cell matrix comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles.

  2. Carbonate fuel cell matrix

    DOEpatents

    Farooque, M.; Yuh, C.Y.

    1996-12-03

    A carbonate fuel cell matrix is described comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles. 8 figs.

  3. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOEpatents

    Donado, R.A.; Hrdina, K.E.; Remick, R.J.

    1993-04-27

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process is described for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  4. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOEpatents

    Donado, Rafael A.; Hrdina, Kenneth E.; Remick, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  5. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Smith, James L.

    1987-01-01

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas, the cell enclosures collectively providing an enclosure for the array and effectively avoiding the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components, the fuel cell further including an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  6. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  7. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  8. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F [Oakland, CA; Cherepy, Nerine [Oakland, CA

    2012-01-24

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  9. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F [Oakland, CA; Cherepy, Nerine [Oakland, CA

    2011-08-16

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  10. Carbon Fuel Particles Used in Direct Carbon Conversion Fuel Cells

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2008-10-21

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  11. Molten carbonate fuel cell separator

    DOEpatents

    Nickols, R.C.

    1984-10-17

    In a stacked array of molten carbonate fuel cells, a fuel cell separator is positioned between adjacent fuel cells to provide isolation as well as a conductive path therebetween. The center portion of the fuel cell separator includes a generally rectangular, flat, electrical conductor. Around the periphery of the flat portion of the separator are positioned a plurality of elongated resilient flanges which form a gas-tight seal around the edges of the fuel cell. With one elongated flange resiliently engaging a respective edge of the center portion of the separator, the sealing flanges, which are preferably comprised of a noncorrosive material such as an alloy of yttrium, iron, aluminum or chromium, form a tight-fitting wet seal for confining the corrosive elements of the fuel cell therein. This arrangement permits a good conductive material which may be highly subject to corrosion and dissolution to be used in combination with a corrosion-resistant material in the fuel cell separator of a molten carbonate fuel cell for improved fuel cell conductivity and a gas-tight wet seal.

  12. Molten carbonate fuel cell separator

    DOEpatents

    Nickols, Richard C.

    1986-09-02

    In a stacked array of molten carbonate fuel cells, a fuel cell separator is positioned between adjacent fuel cells to provide isolation as well as a conductive path therebetween. The center portion of the fuel cell separator includes a generally rectangular, flat, electrical conductor. Around the periphery of the flat portion of the separator are positioned a plurality of elongated resilient flanges which form a gas-tight seal around the edges of the fuel cell. With one elongated flange resiliently engaging a respective edge of the center portion of the separator, the sealing flanges, which are preferably comprised of a noncorrosive material such as an alloy of yttrium, iron, aluminum or chromium, form a tight-fitting wet seal for confining the corrosive elements of the fuel cell therein. This arrangement permits a good conductive material which may be highly subject to corrosion and dissolution to be used in combination with a corrosion-resistant material in the fuel cell separator of a molten carbonate fuel cell for improved fuel cell conductivity and a gas-tight wet seal.

  13. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F [Oakland, CA

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  14. Surface modification of carbon fuels for direct carbon fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Zhu, Zhonghua; Chen, Jiuling; De Marco, Roland; Dicks, Andrew; Bradley, John; Lu, Gaoqing

    The direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) is a promising power-generation device that has much higher efficiency (80%) and less emissions than conventional coal-fired power plants. Two commercial carbons (activated carbon and carbon black) pre-treated with HNO 3, HCl or air plasma are tested in a DCFC. The correlation between the surface properties and electrochemical performance of the carbon fuels is explored. The HNO 3-treated carbon fuels have the highest electrochemical reactivity in the DCFC due to the largest degree of surface oxygen functional groups. The overall effect on changing the electrochemical reactivity of carbon fuels is in the order HNO 3 > air plasma ≈ HCl. Product gas analysis indicates that complete oxidation of carbon to CO 2 can be achieved at 600-700 °C.

  15. Molten carbonate fuel cell improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blurton, K. F.; Marianowski, L. G.

    It is noted that a molten carbonate fuel cell integrated with a coal gasification power plant is one of the most promising coal-using technologies because of its high efficiency, acceptable cost, and environmental acceptability. For the molten carbonate system to achieve these goals, however, continued development is required which must take into account the operating conditions of the application. The progress made in improving cell performance and life is surveyed, evaluating the effect of contaminants on cell performance and the design of multicell stacks and identifying alternative electrolyte compositions. Also discussed is the status of research on other major areas.

  16. Carbonate fuel cell matrix strengthening

    SciTech Connect

    Yuh, C.Y.; Haung, C.M.; Johnsen, R.

    1995-12-31

    The present baseline electrolyte matrix is a porous ceramic powder bed impregnated with alkali carbonate electrolyte. The matrix provides both ionic conduction and gas sealing. During fuel cell stack operation, the matrix experiences both mechanical and thermal stresses. Different mechanical characteristics of active and wet seal areas generate stress. Thermal stress is generated by nonuniform temperature distribution and thermal cycling. A carbonate fuel cell generally may experience planned and unplanned thermal cycles between 650 C and room temperature during its 40,000h life. During the cycling, the electrolyte matrix expands and contracts at a different rate from other cell components. Furthermore, the change in electrolyte volume associated with freezing/melting may generate additional thermal stress. Strengthening of the matrix may be beneficial for longer-term stability of the carbonate fuel cell with respect to repeated thermal cycling. Several promising strengtheners with improved chemical and mechanical stabilities were identified. Fibers provide the highest strengthening effect, followed by particulates. Matrix fabrication technique was successfully modified for uniformly incorporating the advanced strengtheners, maintaining the desired aspect ratio. Enhanced gas sealing demonstrated using the advanced matrices.

  17. Carbon-based Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Steven S. C. Chuang

    2005-08-31

    The direct use of coal in the solid oxide fuel cell to generate electricity is an innovative concept for power generation. The C-fuel cell (carbon-based fuel cell) could offer significant advantages: (1) minimization of NOx emissions due to its operating temperature range of 700-1000 C, (2) high overall efficiency because of the direct conversion of coal to CO{sub 2}, and (3) the production of a nearly pure CO{sub 2} exhaust stream for the direct CO{sub 2} sequestration. The objective of this project is to determine the technical feasibility of using a highly active anode catalyst in a solid oxide fuel for the direct electrochemical oxidation of coal to produce electricity. Results of this study showed that the electric power generation from Ohio No 5 coal (Lower Kittanning) Seam, Mahoning County, is higher than those of coal gas and pure methane on a solid oxide fuel cell assembly with a promoted metal anode catalyst at 950 C. Further study is needed to test the long term activity, selectivity, and stability of anode catalysts.

  18. Molten carbonate fuel cell matrices

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Wolfgang M.; Smith, Stanley W.

    1985-04-16

    A molten carbonate fuel cell including a cathode electrode of electrically conducting or semiconducting lanthanum containing material and an electrolyte containing matrix of an electrically insulating lanthanum perovskite. In addition, in an embodiment where the cathode electrode is LaMnO.sub.3, the matrix may include LaAlO.sub.3 or a lithium containing material such as LiAlO.sub.2 or Li.sub.2 TiO.sub.3.

  19. Molten carbonate fuel cell matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, W. M.; Smith, S. W.

    1985-04-16

    A molten carbonate fuel cell including a cathode electrode of electrically conducting or semiconducting lanthanum containing material and an electrolyte containing matrix of an electrically insulating lanthanum perovskite. In addition, in an embodiment where the cathode electrode is LaMnO/sub 3/, the matrix may include LaA1O/sub 3/ or a lithium containing material such as LiA1O/sub 2/ or Li/sub 2/TiO/sub 3/.

  20. Carbonate fuel cell power plant systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinstrom, R. M.

    1981-12-01

    Carbonate fuel cells are an attractive means of developing highly efficient power plants capable of achieving low atmospheric emissions. Because carbonate fuel cells can be used with coal derived fuel gases and their operating temperatures allow the use of turbomachinery bottoming cycles, they are well suited for large installations like central utility stations. Presently, system development activity is directed toward evaluating the readiness of gasifier and fuel processor technology, defining candidate cycle configurations, and calculating projected plant efficiencies.

  1. Molten carbonate fuel cells - Technology status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, R. D.

    The functional principles, components, operating conditions, and problems in prototype molten carbonate fuel cell plants are described. Centralized carbonate fuel cells consist of four subsystems: a coal gasifier and gas cleanup system, fuel cell stacks, heat removal and recovery system, and a power conditioner to convert dc to ac current. The fuel in the cells comprises hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and produces current by means of completion of an electrical circuit through transfer of carbonate ions through the electrolyte and electrons from cell to cell and eventually into the external circuit. Electrodes are porous sheets which provide sites for the electrochemical reaction and conduction paths for the reactants and products. The construction of LiAlO2-carbonate electrolyte structures is noted, and the electrolyte distribution and structures, the anodes, cathodes, separator plate, and operational problems are considered.

  2. Cathode for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Mrazek, Franklin C.

    1990-01-01

    A porous sintered cathode for a molten carbonate fuel cell and method of making same, the cathode including a skeletal structure of a first electronically conductive material slightly soluble in the electrolyte present in the molten carbonate fuel cell covered by fine particles of a second material of possibly lesser electronic conductivity insoluble in the electrolyte present in the molten carbonate fuel cell, the cathode having a porosity in the range of from about 60% to about 70% at steady-state cell operating conditions consisting of both macro-pores and micro-pores.

  3. Cathode for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Mrazek, Franklin C.

    1990-01-01

    A porous sintered cathode for a molten carbonate fuel cell and method of making same, the cathode including a skeletal structure of a first electronically conductive material slightly soluble in the electrolyte present in the molten carbonate fuel cell covered by fine particles of a second material of possibly lesser electronic conductivity insoluble in the electrolyte present in the molten carbonate fuel cell, the cathode having a porosity in the range of from about 60% to about 70% at steady-state cell operating conditions consisting of both macro-pores and micro-pores.

  4. Electrolyte reservoir for carbonate fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Iacovangelo, C.D.; Shores, D.A.

    1984-05-23

    An electrode for a carbonate fuel cell and method of making same are described wherein a substantially uniform mixture of an electrode-active powder and porous ceramic particles suitable for a carbonate fuel cell are formed into an electrode with the porous ceramic particles having pores in the range of from about 1 micron to about 3 microns, and a carbonate electrolyte is in the pores of the ceramic particles.

  5. Electrolyte reservoir for carbonate fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Iacovangelo, Charles D.; Shores, David A.

    1985-01-01

    An electrode for a carbonate fuel cell and method of making same wherein a substantially uniform mixture of an electrode-active powder and porous ceramic particles suitable for a carbonate fuel cell are formed into an electrode with the porous ceramic particles having pores in the range of from about 1 micron to about 3 microns, and a carbonate electrolyte is in the pores of the ceramic particles.

  6. Progress in carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Krumpelt, M.; Roche, M.F.

    1995-08-01

    Our objective is to increase both the life and power of the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) by developing improved components and designs. Current activities are as follows: (1) Development of lithium ferrate (LiFeO{sub 2}) and lithium cobaltate (LiCoO{sub 2}) cathodes for extended MCFC life, particularly in pressurized operation, where the present cathode, NiO, provides insufficient life; (2) Development of distributed-manifold MCFC designs for increased volumetric power density and decreased temperature gradients (and, therefore, increased life); (3) Development of components and designs appropriate for high-power-density operation (>2 kW/m{sup 2} and >100 kW/m{sup 3} in an integrated MCFC system); and (4) Studies of pitting corrosion of the stainless-steel interconnects and aluminized seals now being employed in the MCFC (alternative components will also be studied). Each of these activities has the potential to reduce the MCFC system cost significantly. Progress in each activity will be presented during the poster session.

  7. Electrode for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Iacovangelo, Charles D.; Zarnoch, Kenneth P.

    1983-01-01

    A sintered porous electrode useful for a molten carbonate fuel cell is produced which is composed of a plurality of 5 wt. % to 95 wt. % nickel balance copper alloy encapsulated ceramic particles sintered together by the alloy.

  8. Novel carbon-ion fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cocks, F.H.; LaViers, H.

    1995-10-03

    This report details acitvities by the Duke University Department of Mechanical Engineering and Material Science on the Novel Carbon-Ion Fuel Cells for the Department of Energy Advanced Coal Research Program grant for the third quarter of 1995.

  9. Direct carbonate fuel cell power plant operating with logistic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Abens, S.G.; Steinfeld, G.

    1997-12-31

    In response to the US Department of Defense need for power generators which operate with logistic fuels, Energy Research Corporation and its subcontractors, Haldor Topsoe and Fluor Daniel, have conducted design studies and subscale equipment tests toward the development of fuel cell power plants with multifuel capability. A principal objective of this work was the development of a fixed-base carbonate fuel cell power plant design which can utilize both natural gas and military logistic fuels DF-2 and JP-8. To verify ERC`s technical approach, a 32 kW brassboard logistic fuel preprocessing system was assembled and operated with a Direct Carbonate Fuel Cell (DFC) stack. The project was conducted as part of DARPA`s Fuel Cell Power Plant Initiative Program for the development of dual use fuel cell power plants. The logistic fuel preprocessor consisted of a hydrodesulfurization plant which supplied desulfurized feed to an adiabatic prereformer. The methane-rich product gas provides fuel cell performance similar to that with natural gas. A preliminary design of a 3MW multifuel power plant prepared with input from the 32kW brassboard test confirmed that the thermal efficiency of a DFC power plant is nearly as high with logistic fuel (57%) as it is with natural gas (58%).

  10. Carbonate fuel cells: Milliwatts to megawatts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooque, M.; Maru, H. C.

    The carbonate fuel cell power plant is an emerging high efficiency, ultra-clean power generator utilizing a variety of gaseous, liquid, and solid carbonaceous fuels for commercial and industrial applications. The primary mover of this generator is a carbonate fuel cell. The fuel cell uses alkali metal carbonate mixtures as electrolyte and operates at ∼650 °C. Corrosion of the cell hardware and stability of the ceramic components have been important design considerations in the early stages of development. The material and electrolyte choices are founded on extensive fundamental research carried out around the world in the 60s and early 70s. The cell components were developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The present day carbonate fuel cell construction employs commonly available stainless steels. The electrodes are based on nickel and well-established manufacturing processes. Manufacturing process development, scale-up, stack tests, and pilot system tests dominated throughout the 1990s. Commercial product development efforts began in late 1990s leading to prototype field tests beginning in the current decade leading to commercial customer applications. Cost reduction has been an integral part of the product effort. Cost-competitive product designs have evolved as a result. Approximately half a dozen teams around the world are pursuing carbonate fuel cell product development. The power plant development efforts to date have mainly focused on several hundred kW (submegawatt) to megawatt-class plants. Almost 40 submegawatt units have been operating at customer sites in the US, Europe, and Asia. Several of these units are operating on renewable bio-fuels. A 1 MW unit is operating on the digester gas from a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Seattle, Washington (US). Presently, there are a total of approximately 10 MW capacity carbonate fuel cell power plants installed around the world. Carbonate fuel cell products are also being developed to operate on

  11. High power density carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Doyon, J.; Allen, J.

    1996-12-31

    Carbonate fuel cell is a highly efficient and environmentally clean source of power generation. Many organizations worldwide are actively pursuing the development of the technology. Field demonstration of multi-MW size power plant has been initiated in 1996, a step toward commercialization before the turn of the century, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) is planning to introduce a 2.85MW commercial fuel cell power plant with an efficiency of 58%, which is quite attractive for distributed power generation. However, to further expand competitive edge over alternative systems and to achieve wider market penetration, ERC is exploring advanced carbonate fuel cells having significantly higher power densities. A more compact power plant would also stimulate interest in new markets such as ships and submarines where space limitations exist. The activities focused on reducing cell polarization and internal resistance as well as on advanced thin cell components.

  12. Progress in carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Myles, K.M.; Krumpelt, M.; Roche, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Our objective is to increase both the life and power of the molten carbonate fuel (MCFC) by developing improved components and designs. Current activities are as follows: (1)Development of LiFeO{sub 2} and LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes for extended MCFC life, particularly in pressurized operation, where the present cathode, NiO, provides insufficient life (2) Development of distributed-manifold MCFC designs for increased volumetric power density and decreased temperature gradients (and, therefore, increased life) (3) Development of components and designs appropriate for high-power density operation (>2 kW/m{sup 2}and >100 kW/m{sup 3}in an integrated MCFC system) (4)Studies of pitting corrosion of the stainless-steel interconnects and aluminized seals now being employed in the MCFC (alternative components will also be studied). Each of these activities has the potential to reduce the MCFC system cost significantly. Progress in each activity will be presented during the poster session.

  13. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2002-02-01

    The carbonate fuel cell promises highly efficient, cost-effective and environmentally superior power generation from pipeline natural gas, coal gas, biogas, and other gaseous and liquid fuels. FuelCell Energy, Inc. has been engaged in the development of this unique technology, focusing on the development of the Direct Fuel Cell (DFC{reg_sign}). The DFC{reg_sign} design incorporates the unique internal reforming feature which allows utilization of a hydrocarbon fuel directly in the fuel cell without requiring any external reforming reactor and associated heat exchange equipment. This approach upgrades waste heat to chemical energy and thereby contributes to a higher overall conversion efficiency of fuel energy to electricity with low levels of environmental emissions. Among the internal reforming options, FuelCell Energy has selected the Indirect Internal Reforming (IIR)--Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) combination as its baseline design. The IIR-DIR combination allows reforming control (and thus cooling) over the entire cell area. This results in uniform cell temperature. In the IIR-DIR stack, a reforming unit (RU) is placed in between a group of fuel cells. The hydrocarbon fuel is first fed into the RU where it is reformed partially to hydrogen and carbon monoxide fuel using heat produced by the fuel cell electrochemical reactions. The reformed gases are then fed to the DIR chamber, where the residual fuel is reformed simultaneously with the electrochemical fuel cell reactions. FuelCell Energy plans to offer commercial DFC power plants in various sizes, focusing on the subMW as well as the MW-scale units. The plan is to offer standardized, packaged DFC power plants operating on natural gas or other hydrocarbon-containing fuels for commercial sale. The power plant design will include a diesel fuel processing option to allow dual fuel applications. These power plants, which can be shop-fabricated and sited near the user, are ideally suited for distributed power

  14. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2003-03-01

    The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, commercial design development, and prototype system field trials. The program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size field test to the commercial design. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is in the later stage of the multiyear program for development and verification of carbonate fuel cell based power plants supported by DOE/NETL with additional funding from DOD/DARPA and the FuelCell Energy team. FCE has scaled up the technology to full-size and developed DFC{reg_sign} stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment technology to meet product requirements, and acquired high rate manufacturing capabilities to reduce cost. FCE has designed submegawatt (DFC300A) and megawatt (DFC1500 and DFC3000) class fuel cell products for commercialization of its DFC{reg_sign} technology. A significant progress was made during the reporting period. The reforming unit design was optimized using a three-dimensional stack simulation model. Thermal and flow uniformities of the oxidant-In flow in the stack module were improved using computational fluid dynamics based flow simulation model. The manufacturing capacity was increased. The submegawatt stack module overall cost was reduced by {approx}30% on a per kW basis. An integrated deoxidizer-prereformer design was tested successfully at submegawatt scale using fuels simulating digester gas, coal bed methane gas and peak shave (natural) gas.

  15. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2004-08-01

    The ongoing program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) for stationary power plant applications. The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where the fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several FCE sub-megawatt power plants are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste water treatment gas, DFC power plants are ready today and do not require the creation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Product improvement progress made during the reporting period in the areas of technology, manufacturing processes, cost reduction and balance of plant equipment designs is discussed in this report.

  16. Molten carbonate fuel cell matrix tape

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, R.W.; Schroll, C.R.; Reiser, C.A.

    1986-04-08

    A matrix material for a molten carbonate fuel cell is described comprising particles inert to molten carbonate electrolyte having a particle size less than about 1 micron, ceramic particles having a particle size greater than about 25 microns, and an organic polymeric binder material, the binder material being present in an amount at least about 35% by volume, the matrix material being flexible, pliable, and compliant at room temperature.

  17. Direct carbon fuel cell: Fundamentals and recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dianxue; Sun, Yong; Wang, Guiling

    The direct carbon fuel cell is a special type of high temperature fuel cell that directly uses solid carbon as anode and fuel. As an electrical power generator for power plants, it has a higher achievable efficiency (80%) than the molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells, and has less emissions than conventional coal-burning power plants. More importantly, its solid carbon-rich fuels (e.g. coal, biomass, organic garbage) are readily available and abundant. In this review, some fundamental study results of electrochemical oxidation of carbon in molten salts are summarized. Recent developments in direct carbon fuel cell configurations and performance are also discussed.

  18. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    DOEpatents

    Remick, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  19. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    H. C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2003-12-19

    The ongoing program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) for stationary power plant applications. The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations or in distributed locations near the customer, including hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FuelCell Energy has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented Direct FuelCell technology, where the fuel is directly fed to fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating, and air conditioning. Several FCE sub-megawatt power plants are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste water treatment gas, DFC power plants are ready today and do not require the creation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Product improvement progress made during the reporting period in the areas of technology, manufacturing processes, cost reduction and balance of plant equipment designs is discussed in this report. FCE's DFC

  20. Molten carbonate fuel cell stack design options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, T. G.; Petri, R. J.

    Significant strides in molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) life and performance were made duing the last 20 years. Results include single cell performance improvement from 10 watts/sq ft to 120 watts/sq ft, testing of several subscale stacks, and significant reductions in cost. In the 1980s, attention has turned toward stack related issues including component dimensional and structural stability, cathode dissolution, sulfur poisoning, hardware design, electrolyte management, carbon dioxide conservation, internal reforming, and systems considerations. The MCFC stack hardware design options are discussed and a brief introduction to MCFC technology is presented.

  1. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2005-03-01

    The program was designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE, formerly Energy Research Corporation) from an early state of development for stationary power plant applications. The current program efforts were focused on technology and system development, and cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, in Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where a hydrocarbon fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several sub-MW power plants based on the DFC design are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Several one-megawatt power plant design was verified by operation on natural gas at FCE. This plant is currently installed at a customer site in King County, WA under another US government program and is currently in operation. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste

  2. Carbon and fluorinated carbon materials for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, D.; Luczak, F.; Fredley, R.; Cipollini, N.

    1998-07-01

    Carbon and fluorinated carbon materials are major constituents of phosphoric acid fuel cells and PEM fuel cells and the stability of these materials is critical for long life operation. Laboratory corrosion studies of separator plate materials were correlated with separator plate changes in commercial PAFC fuel cells. The addition of thin films of Teflon{trademark} to the separator plates extends the life of the separator plates to 60,000+ hours through the formation of a temporary hydrophobic barrier. ESCA studies show the loss of hydrophobicity with time of PAFC electrodes to be a result of delamination of the Teflon from the carbon and not corrosion of the Teflon by phosphoric acid. The projected life of PAFC power plants has been confirmed by commercial operation of power plants for over 40,000 hours.

  3. Molten carbonate fuel cell technology improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-09-01

    The overall objective of this program is to define a competitive CG/MCFC (Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell) power plant and the associated technology development requirements and to develop an improved cell configuration for molten carbonate fuel cells which has improved performance, has reduced cell creep and electrolyte management consistent with 40,000 hour projected life, reduces existing cell cost, and is adaptable to a range of power plant applications. Component design specifications for the end-cells of the alternative cell configuration were completed. Testing to evaluate new components was performed on 14 cells during this reporting period with eight tests started and terminated, and six tests continuing into the next reporting period. A test and performance summary of all the single cell tests conducted to date on this program is presented. A single cell test to qualify new matrix materials and matrix reinforcement was successfully completed. Integrated cell testing of new anode- and cathode-side components was completed. Single cell tests were conducted to identify the electrolyte fill procedure for the new cell configuration. Methods of fabricating manifold seals from the new candidate materials are being developed. Preparation of construction drawings for the 1-ft(sup 2) short stack was continued. Fabrication of repeating cell components for the 1-ft(sup 2) short stack was initiated. Trials to tape cast electrodes and matrices were initiated, tooling to form current collectors is being fabricated, and existing tooling to form separator plates is being modified. Non-repeat components from the previous 1-ft(sup 2) short stack that are acceptable for re-use were identified. New non-repeat components that are required have been ordered. Preparation of the test stand for the 1-ft(sup 2) short stack test was initiated.

  4. Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Operation With Dual Fuel Flexibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    electrolyte membrane fuel cell ( PEMFC ). At the higher operating temperature, fuel reforming of natural gas can occur internally, eliminating the need...oxygen PAFC Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell PEMFC Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell PDS Propane Desulfurization System ppm parts per million psig

  5. Direct Carbon Fuel Cell System Utilizing Solid Carbonaceous Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Turgut Gur

    2010-04-30

    This 1-year project has achieved most of its objective and successfully demonstrated the viability of the fluidized bed direct carbon fuel cell (FB-DCFC) approach under development by Direct Carbon technologies, LLC, that utilizes solid carbonaceous fuels for power generation. This unique electrochemical technology offers high conversion efficiencies, produces proportionately less CO{sub 2} in capture-ready form, and does not consume or require water for gasification. FB-DCFC employs a specialized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arrangement coupled to a Boudouard gasifier where the solid fuel particles are fluidized and reacted by the anode recycle gas CO{sub 2}. The resulting CO is electrochemically oxidized at the anode. Anode supported SOFC structures employed a porous Ni cermet anode layer, a dense yttria stabilized zirconia membrane, and a mixed conducting porous perovskite cathode film. Several kinds of untreated solid fuels (carbon and coal) were tested in bench scale FBDCFC prototypes for electrochemical performance and stability testing. Single cells of tubular geometry with active areas up to 24 cm{sup 2} were fabricated. The cells achieved high power densities up to 450 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C using a low sulfur Alaska coal char. This represents the highest power density reported in the open literature for coal based DCFC. Similarly, power densities up to 175 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C were demonstrated with carbon. Electrical conversion efficiencies for coal char were experimentally determined to be 48%. Long-term stability of cell performance was measured under galvanostatic conditions for 375 hours in CO with no degradation whatsoever, indicating that carbon deposition (or coking) does not pose any problems. Similar cell stability results were obtained in coal char tested for 24 hours under galvanostatic conditions with no sign of sulfur poisoning. Moreover, a 50-cell planar stack targeted for 1 kW output was fabricated and tested in 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2

  6. Anode composite for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Iacovangelo, Charles D.; Zarnoch, Kenneth P.

    1983-01-01

    An anode composite useful for a molten carbonate fuel cell comprised of a porous sintered metallic anode component having a porous bubble pressure barrier integrally sintered to one face thereof, said barrier being comprised of metal coated ceramic particles sintered together and to said anode by means of said metal coating, said metal coating enveloping said ceramic particle and being selected from the group consisting of nickel, copper and alloys thereof, the median pore size of the barrier being significantly smaller than that of the anode.

  7. Development of internal reforming carbonate fuel cell stack technology

    SciTech Connect

    Farooque, M.

    1990-10-01

    Activities under this contract focused on the development of a coal-fueled carbonate fuel cell system design and the stack technology consistent with the system design. The overall contract effort was divided into three phases. The first phase, completed in January 1988, provided carbonate fuel cell component scale-up from the 1ft{sup 2} size to the commercial 4ft{sup 2} size. The second phase of the program provided the coal-fueled carbonate fuel cell system (CGCFC) conceptual design and carried out initial research and development needs of the CGCFC system. The final phase of the program emphasized stack height scale-up and improvement of stack life. The results of the second and third phases are included in this report. Program activities under Phase 2 and 3 were designed to address several key development areas to prepare the carbonate fuel cell system, particularly the coal-fueled CFC power plant, for commercialization in late 1990's. The issues addressed include: Coal-Gas Related Considerations; Cell and Stack Technology Improvement; Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Design Development; Stack Tests for Design Verification; Full-Size Stack Design; Test Facility Development; Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Cost Assessment; and Coal-Fueled Carbonate Fuel Cell System Design. All the major program objectives in each of the topical areas were successfully achieved. This report is organized along the above-mentioned topical areas. Each topical area has been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  8. Electrolyte paste for molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bregoli, Lawrance J.; Pearson, Mark L.

    1995-01-01

    The electrolyte matrix and electrolyte reservoir plates in a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant stack are filled with electrolyte by applying a paste of dry electrolyte powder entrained in a dissipatable carrier to the reactant flow channels in the current collector plate. The stack plates are preformed and solidified to final operating condition so that they are self sustaining and can be disposed one atop the other to form the power plant stack. Packing the reactant flow channels with the electrolyte paste allows the use of thinner electrode plates, particularly on the anode side of the cells. The use of the packed electrolyte paste provides sufficient electrolyte to fill the matrix and to entrain excess electrolyte in the electrode plates, which also serve as excess electrolyte reservoirs. When the stack is heated up to operating temperatures, the electrolyte in the paste melts, the carrier vaporizes, or chemically decomposes, and the melted electrolyte is absorbed into the matrix and electrode plates.

  9. Fuels for fuel cells: Fuel and catalyst effects on carbon formation

    SciTech Connect

    Borup, R. L.; Inbody, M. A.; Perry, W. L.; Parkinson, W. J. ,

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this research is to explore the effects of fuels, fuel constituents, additives and impurities on the performance of on-board hydrogen generation devices and consequently on the overall performance of fuel cell systems using reformed hydrocarbon fuels. Different fuels and components have been tested in automotive scale, adiabatic autothermal reactors to observe their relative reforming characteristics with various operating conditions. Carbon formation has been modeled and was experimentally monitored in situ during operation by laser measurements of the effluent reformate. Ammonia formation was monitored, and conditions varied to observe under what conditions N H 3 is made.

  10. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    The FCE PDI program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the current full-size field test to the commercial design. The specific objectives selected to attain the overall program goal are: Define power plant requirements and specifications; Establish the design for a multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant; Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial-scale manufacturing facility; Define the stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment packaging arrangement, and module designs; Acquire capability to support developmental testing of stacks and critical BOP equipment to prepare for commercial design; and Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues, and design, build and field test a modular prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness for commercial entry.

  11. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-03-01

    The technical results of a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant evelopment program are presented which establish the necessary technology base and demonstrate readiness to proceed with the fabrication and test of full size prototype stacks for coal fueled molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. The effort covered power plant systems studies, fuel cell component technology development, fuel cell stack design and analysis, manufacturing process definition, and an extensive experimental program. The reported results include: the definition and projected costs for a reference coal fueled power plant system based on user requirements, state-of-the-art advances in anode and electrolyte matrix technology, the detailed description of an internally manifolded stack design concept offering a number of attractive advantages, and the specification of the fabrication processes and methods necessary to produce and assemble this design. Results from the experimental program are documented.

  12. Recovery of carbon dioxide from fuel cell exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, H.C.; Kolodney, M.; Levy, A.H.; Trocciola, P.

    1988-06-14

    An acid fuel cell power plant system operable to produce carbon dioxide as a by-product is described comprising: (a) fuel cell stack means having anode means, cathode means, and fuel cell cooling means, the cooling means using a water coolant; (b) means for delivering a hydrogen-rich fuel gas which contains carbon dioxide to the anode means for consumption of hydrogen by the anode means in an electrochemical reaction in the stack; (c) carbon dioxide absorber means including an absorbent for stripping carbon dioxide from gaseous mixtures thereof; (d) means for delivering hydrogen-depleted exhaust gas containing carbon dioxide from the anode means to the carbon dioxide absorber means for absorption of carbon dioxide from the exhaust gas; (e) an absorbent regenerator; (f) means for delivering carbon dioxide-enriched absorbent from the absorber means to the regenerator for separation of carbon dioxide from the absorbent; (g) means for exhausting carbon dioxide from the regenerator, the means for exhausting further including means for cooling and compressing carbon dioxide exhausted from the regenerator; and (h) means for removing the compressed carbon dioxide from the power plant.

  13. Dynamic simulation of a direct carbonate fuel cell power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest, J.B.; Ghezel-Ayagh, H.; Kush, A.K.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) is commercializing a 2.85 MW Direct carbonate Fuel Cell (DFC) power plant. The commercialization sequence has already progressed through construction and operation of the first commercial-scale DFC power plant on a U.S. electric utility, the 2 MW Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP), and the completion of the early phases of a Commercial Plant design. A 400 kW fuel cell stack Test Facility is being built at Energy Research Corporation (ERC), FCE`s parent company, which will be capable of testing commercial-sized fuel cell stacks in an integrated plant configuration. Fluor Daniel, Inc. provided engineering, procurement, and construction services for SCDP and has jointly developed the Commercial Plant design with FCE, focusing on the balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment outside of the fuel cell modules. This paper provides a brief orientation to the dynamic simulation of a fuel cell power plant and the benefits offered.

  14. Cathode side hardware for carbonate fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Gengfu; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2011-04-05

    Carbonate fuel cathode side hardware having a thin coating of a conductive ceramic formed from one of Perovskite AMeO.sub.3, wherein A is at least one of lanthanum and a combination of lanthanum and strontium and Me is one or more of transition metals, lithiated NiO (Li.sub.xNiO, where x is 0.1 to 1) and X-doped LiMeO.sub.2, wherein X is one of Mg, Ca, and Co.

  15. Fuel cells 101

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschenhofer, J.H.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the various types of fuel cells, the importance of cell voltage, fuel processing for natural gas, cell stacking, fuel cell plant description, advantages and disadvantages of the types of fuel cells, and applications. The types covered include: polymer electrolyte fuel cell, alkaline fuel cell, phosphoric acid fuel cell; molten carbonate fuel cell, and solid oxide fuel cell.

  16. Carbon support oxidation in PEM fuel cell cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maass, S.; Finsterwalder, F.; Frank, G.; Hartmann, R.; Merten, C.

    Oxidation of the cathode carbon catalyst support in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFC) has been examined. For this purpose platinum supported electrodes and pure carbon electrodes were fabricated and tested in membrane-electrode-assemblies (MEAs) in air and nitrogen atmosphere. The in situ experiments account for the fuel cell environment characterized by the presence of a solid electrolyte and water in the gas and liquid phases. Cell potential transients occurring during automotive fuel cell operation were simulated by dynamic measurements. Corrosion rates were calculated from CO 2 and CO concentrations in the cathode exhaust measured by non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy (NDIR). Results from these potentiodynamic measurements indicate that different potential regimes relevant for carbon oxidation can be distinguished. Carbon corrosion rates were found to be higher under dynamic operation and to strongly depend on electrode history. These characteristics make it difficult to predict corrosion rates accurately in an automotive drive cycle.

  17. FUEL PROCESSING FOR FUEL CELLS: EFFECTS ON CATALYST DURABILITY AND CARBON FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. BORUP; M. INBODY; B. MORTON; L. BROWN

    2001-05-01

    On-board production of hydrogen for fuel cells for automotive applications is a challenging developmental task. The fuel processor must show long term durability and under challenging conditions. Fuel processor catalysts in automotive fuel processors will be exposed to large thermal variations, vibrations, exposure to uncontrolled ambient conditions, and various impurities from ambient air and from fuel. For the commercialization of fuel processors, the delineation of effects on catalyst activity and durability are required. We are studying fuels and fuel constituent effects on the fuel processor system as part of the DOE Fuel Cells for Transportation program. Pure fuel components are tested to delineate the fuel component effect on the fuel processor and fuel processor catalysts. Component blends are used to simulate ''real fuels'', with various fuel mixtures being examined such as reformulated gasoline and naptha. The aliphatic, napthenic, olefin and aromatic content are simulated to represent the chemical kinetics of possible detrimental reactions, such as carbon formation, during fuel testing. Testing has examined the fuel processing performance of different fuel components to help elucidate the fuel constituent effects on fuel processing performance and upon catalyst durability. Testing has been conducted with vapor fuels, including natural gas and pure methane. The testing of pure methane and comparable testing with natural gas (97% methane) have shown some measurable differences in performance in the fuel processor. Major gasoline fuel constituents, such as aliphatic compounds, napthanes, and aromatics have been compared for their effect on the fuel processing performance. Experiments have been conducted using high-purity compounds to observe the fuel processing properties of the individual components and to document individual fuel component performance. The relative carbon formation of different fuel constituents have been measured by monitoring carbon via

  18. Processing of carbon composite paper as electrode for fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, R. B.; Maheshwari, Priyanka H.; Dhami, T. L.; Sharma, R. K.; Sharma, C. P.

    The porous carbon electrode in a fuel cell not only acts as an electrolyte and a catalyst support, but also allows the diffusion of hydrogen fuel through its fine porosity and serves as a current-carrying conductor. A suitable carbon paper electrode is developed and possesses the characteristics of high porosity, permeability and strength along with low electrical resistivity so that it can be effectively used in proton-exchange membrane and phosphoric acid fuel cells. The electrode is prepared through a combination of two important techniques, viz., paper-making technology by first forming a porous chopped carbon fibre preform, and composite technology using a thermosetting resin matrix. The study reveals an interdependence of one parameter on another and how judicious choice of the processing conditions are necessary to achieve the desired characteristics. The current-voltage performance of the electrode in a unit fuel cell matches that of a commercially-available material.

  19. Method of making molten carbonate fuel cell ceramic matrix tape

    DOEpatents

    Maricle, Donald L.; Putnam, Gary C.; Stewart, Jr., Robert C.

    1984-10-23

    A method of making a thin, flexible, pliable matrix material for a molten carbonate fuel cell is described. The method comprises admixing particles inert in the molten carbonate environment with an organic polymer binder and ceramic particle. The composition is applied to a mold surface and dried, and the formed compliant matrix material removed.

  20. Coated powder for electrolyte matrix for carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Iacovangelo, Charles D.; Browall, Kenneth W.

    1985-01-01

    A plurality of electrolyte carbonate-coated ceramic particle which does not differ significantly in size from that of the ceramic particle and wherein no significant portion of the ceramic particle is exposed is fabricated into a porous tape comprised of said coated-ceramic particles bonded together by the coating for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell.

  1. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-12-01

    Advanced fuel cell active components have been developed and scaled up from laboratory scale to commercial scale. Full width components of both the stabilized nickel cathodes and the low chrome anodes have been successfully cast on M-C Power's production tape caster. An improved design for a fuel cell separator plate has been developed. The improved design meets the goals of lower cost and manufacturing simplicity, and addresses performance issues of the current commercial area plate. The engineering that the Bechtel Corporation has completed for the MCFC power plant includes a site design, a preliminary site layout, a Process Flow Diagram, and specification for the procurement of some of the major equipment items. Raw materials for anode and cathode components were ordered and received during the first half of 1993. Tape casting of anodes was started in late summer and continued through August. In addition to the technical progress mentioned above, an environment assessment was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). As a result, the PDT has received a categorical exclusion from the Air Pollution Control District permit requirements. The PDT is configured to demonstrate the viability of natural gas-fueled MCFC for the production of electricity and thermal energy in an environmentally benign manner for use in commercial and industrial applications.

  2. Carbon oxides free fuel processing for fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Tushar V.

    Fuel processing represents a very important aspect of fuel cell technology. The widespread utilization of fuel cells will only be possible if CO x-free hydrogen producing technologies are developed. Towards this objective, step-wise reforming of hydrocarbons and catalytic decomposition of ammonia were investigated for hydrogen production. Also, novel Au-based catalysts were synthesized for preferentially eliminating CO in the presence of excess hydrogen. The step-wise reforming of hydrocarbons was investigated for production of CO-free hydrogen for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Proof of concept pulse reactor experiments employing Ni-based catalysts clearly showed the feasibility of the cyclic step-wise reforming process for clean hydrogen production. Under optimum conditions the CO content in the hydrogen was found to be less than 20 ppm by this process (a large amount of CO is obtained as a by-product from conventional methods of hydrogen production). The step-wise reforming process thus greatly simplifies fuel reforming, as expensive and circuitous post-reforming hydrogen purification processes are eliminated. The process was profoundly influenced by the operating temperature, space velocity and nature of the catalyst support. Catalytic ammonia decomposition was investigated for COx-free hydrogen production for alkaline fuel cells. These studies revealed that Ru, Ir and Ni-based catalysts were active for the process with Ru being the most active and Ni the least. The catalyst supports played a decisive role in determining the ammonia decomposition activity. Partial pressure dependence studies of the reaction rate on model Ir (100) catalysts yielded a positive order (0.9 +/- 0.l) with respect to ammonia and negative order (-0.7 +/- 0.l) with respect to hydrogen. The negative order with respect to hydrogen was attributed to the enhancement in the reverse of the ammonia decomposition reaction in the presence of surface hydrogen atoms. Novel nano-Au catalysts

  3. Oxygen electrode reaction in molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Appleby, A.J.; White, R.E.

    1992-07-07

    Molten carbonate fuel cell system is a leading candidate for the utility power generation because of its high efficiency for fuel to AC power conversion, capability for an internal reforming, and a very low environmental impact. However, the performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell is limited by the oxygen reduction reaction and the cell life time is limited by the stability of the cathode material. An elucidation of oxygen reduction reaction in molten alkali carbonate is essential because overpotential losses in the molten carbonate fuel cell are considerably greater at the oxygen cathode than at the fuel anode. Oxygen reduction on a fully-immersed gold electrode in a lithium carbonate melt was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry to determine electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters. The dependences of electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters on gas composition and temperature were examined to determine the reaction orders and the activation energies. The results showed that oxygen reduction in a pure lithium carbonate melt occurs via the peroxide mechanism. A mass transfer parameter, D{sub O}{sup 1/2}C{sub O}, estimated by the cyclic voltammetry concurred with that calculated by the EIS technique. The temperature dependence of the exchange current density and the product D{sub O}{sup 1/2}C{sub O} were examined and the apparent activation energies were determined to be about 122 and 175 kJ/ mol, respectively.

  4. Cathode preparation method for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James L.; Sim, James W.; Kucera, Eugenia H.

    1988-01-01

    A method of preparing a porous cathode structure for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell begins by providing a porous integral plaque of sintered nickel oxide particles. The nickel oxide plaque can be obtained by oxidizing a sintered plaque of nickel metal or by compacting and sintering finely divided nickel oxide particles to the desired pore structure. The porous sintered nickel oxide plaque is contacted with a lithium salt for a sufficient time to lithiate the nickel oxide structure and thus enhance its electronic conductivity. The lithiation can be carried out either within an operating fuel cell or prior to assembling the plaque as a cathode within the fuel cell.

  5. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Remick, R.; Wheeler, D.

    2010-09-01

    This report describes the technical and cost gap analysis performed to identify pathways for reducing the costs of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stationary fuel cell power plants.

  6. All ceramic structure for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James L.; Kucera, Eugenia H.

    1992-01-01

    An all-ceramic molten carbonate fuel cell having a composition formed of a multivalent metal oxide or oxygenate such as an alkali metal, transition metal oxygenate. The structure includes an anode and cathode separated by an electronically conductive interconnect. The electrodes and interconnect are compositions ceramic materials. Various combinations of ceramic compositions for the anode, cathode and interconnect are disclosed. The fuel cell exhibits stability in the fuel gas and oxidizing environments. It presents reduced sealing and expansion problems in fabrication and has improved long-term corrosion resistance.

  7. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design improvement

    SciTech Connect

    P. Voyentzie; T. Leo; A. Kush; L. Christner; G. Carlson; C. Yuh

    1998-12-20

    Drawing on the manufacture, field test, and post-test experience of the sixteen Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) stacks, ERC is finalizing the next generation commercial entry product design. The second generation cells are 50% larger in area, 40% lighter on equal geometric area basis, and 30% thinner than the earlier design. These improvements have resulted in doubling of the full-height stack power. A low-cost and high-strength matrix has also been developed for improving product ruggedness. The low-cost advanced cell design incorporating these improvements has been refined through six short stack tests. Power production per cell of two times the SCDP maximum power operation, over ten thermal cycles, and overall operating flexibility with respect to load and thermal changes have been demonstrated in these short stack tests. An internally insulated stack enclosure has been designed and fabricated to eliminate the need for an inert gas environment during operation. ERC has acquired the capability for testing 400kW full-height direct fuel ceil (DFC) stack and balance-of-plant equipment. With the readiness of the power plant test facility, the cell package design, and the stack module, full-height stack testing has begun. The first full- height stack incorporating the post-SCDP second generation design was completed. The stack reached a power level of 253 kW, setting a world record for the highest power production from the advanced fuel cell system. Excellent performance uniformity at this power level affirmed manufacturing reproducibility of the components at the factory. This unoptimized small size test has achieved pipeline natural gas to DC electricity conversion efficiency of 47% (based on lower heating value - LHV) including the parasitic power consumed by the BOP equipment; that should translate to more than 50% efficiency in commercial operation, before employing cogeneration. The power plant system also operated smoothly. With the success of this

  8. An Innovative Carbonate Fuel Cell Matrix, Abstract #188

    SciTech Connect

    Hilmi, Abdelkader; Surendranath, Arun; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2015-05-28

    The electrolyte matrix in direct carbonate fuel cell (DFC) is a microporous ceramic structure sandwiched between the electrodes to isolate the fuel from the oxidant, store electrolyte and facilitate ionic transport. FCE has advanced DFC electrolyte matrix over the years and demonstrated that the matrix meets the requirements for greater than 5 year life based on accelerated tests and field stack operations. However, development of advanced designs and materials that can further increase the performance and extend cell life will enable accelerated MCFC deployment. This paper will report the progress on the development of an unique and innovative matrix design that offers numerous benefits to the carbonate fuel cell performance and durability. In addition, this paper will also review parameters that affect matrix material stability and approaches to extend cell life.

  9. Molten carbonate fuel cell reduction of nickel deposits

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James L.; Zwick, Stanley A.

    1987-01-01

    A molten carbonate fuel cell with anode and cathode electrodes and an eleolyte formed with two tile sections, one of the tile sections being adjacent the anode and limiting leakage of fuel gas into the electrolyte with the second tile section being adjacent the cathode and having pores sized to permit the presence of oxygen gas in the electrolyte thereby limiting the formation of metal deposits caused by the reduction of metal compositions migrating into the electrolyte from the cathode.

  10. Electrochemical oxidation of carbon-containing fuels and their dynamics in low-temperature fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Krewer, Ulrike; Vidakovic-Koch, Tanja; Rihko-Struckmann, Liisa

    2011-10-04

    Fuel cells can convert the energy that is chemically stored in a compound into electrical energy with high efficiency. Hydrogen could be the first choice for chemical energy storage, but its utilization is limited due to storage and transport difficulties. Carbon-containing fuels store chemical energy with significantly higher energy density, which makes them excellent energy carriers. The electro-oxidation of carbon-containing fuels without prior reforming is a more challenging and complex process than anodic hydrogen oxidation. The current understanding of the direct electro-oxidation of carbon-containing fuels in low-temperature fuel cells is reviewed. Furthermore, this review covers various aspects of electro-oxidation for carbon-containing fuels in non-steady-state reaction conditions. Such dynamic investigations open possibilities to elucidate detailed reaction kinetics, to sense fuel concentration, or to diagnose the fuel-cell state during operation. Motivated by the challenge to decrease the consumption of fossil fuel, the production routes of the fuels from renewable resources also are reviewed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Methods for continuous direct carbon fuel cell operation with a circulating electrolyte slurry

    DOEpatents

    Harjes, Daniel I.; Dineen, Jr., D. Andrew; Guo, Liang; Calo, Joseph M.; Bloomfield, Valerie J.

    2017-02-07

    The present invention relates to methods and systems related to fuel cells, and in particular, to direct carbon fuel cells. The methods and systems relate to cleaning and removal of components utilized and produced during operation of the fuel cell, regeneration of components utilized during operation of the fuel cell, and generating power using the fuel cell.

  12. Carbonate fuel cell system with integrated carbon dioxide/thermal management

    SciTech Connect

    Paetsch, L.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of the present work is to define the stack design and system requirements for a commercial-scale carbonate fuel cell with an integrated carbon dioxide management system. Significant simplification and cost reduction of the system is achieved by direct transfer of the fuel exhaust to the oxidant inlet of the fuel cell, thereby eliminating the anode exhaust converter and high temperature piping utilized in conventional system designs.

  13. Graphitic Carbon Nitride Supported Catalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Graphitic carbon nitrides are investigated for developing highly durable Pt electrocatalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Three different graphitic carbon nitride materials were synthesized with the aim to address the effect of crystallinity, porosity, and composition on the catalyst support properties: polymeric carbon nitride (gCNM), poly(triazine) imide carbon nitride (PTI/Li+Cl–), and boron-doped graphitic carbon nitride (B-gCNM). Following accelerated corrosion testing, all graphitic carbon nitride materials are found to be more electrochemically stable compared to conventional carbon black (Vulcan XC-72R) with B-gCNM support showing the best stability. For the supported catalysts, Pt/PTI-Li+Cl– catalyst exhibits better durability with only 19% electrochemical surface area (ECSA) loss versus 36% for Pt/Vulcan after 2000 scans. Superior methanol oxidation activity is observed for all graphitic carbon nitride supported Pt catalysts on the basis of the catalyst ECSA. PMID:24748912

  14. Graphitic Carbon Nitride Supported Catalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Mansor, Noramalina; Jorge, A Belen; Corà, Furio; Gibbs, Christopher; Jervis, Rhodri; McMillan, Paul F; Wang, Xiaochen; Brett, Daniel J L

    2014-04-03

    Graphitic carbon nitrides are investigated for developing highly durable Pt electrocatalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Three different graphitic carbon nitride materials were synthesized with the aim to address the effect of crystallinity, porosity, and composition on the catalyst support properties: polymeric carbon nitride (gCNM), poly(triazine) imide carbon nitride (PTI/Li(+)Cl(-)), and boron-doped graphitic carbon nitride (B-gCNM). Following accelerated corrosion testing, all graphitic carbon nitride materials are found to be more electrochemically stable compared to conventional carbon black (Vulcan XC-72R) with B-gCNM support showing the best stability. For the supported catalysts, Pt/PTI-Li(+)Cl(-) catalyst exhibits better durability with only 19% electrochemical surface area (ECSA) loss versus 36% for Pt/Vulcan after 2000 scans. Superior methanol oxidation activity is observed for all graphitic carbon nitride supported Pt catalysts on the basis of the catalyst ECSA.

  15. Direct Conversion of Carbon Fuels in a Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Cherepy, N J; Fiet, K J; Krueger, R; Jankowski, A F; Cooper, J F

    2004-01-28

    Anodes of elemental carbon may be discharged in a galvanic cell using a molten carbonate electrolyte, a nickel-foam anode-current collector, and a porous nickel air cathode to achieve power densities of 40-100 mW/cm{sup 2}. We report cell and anode polarization, surface area, primary particle size and a crystallization index for nine particulate carbon samples derived from fuel oil, methane, coal, charred biological material and petroleum coke. At 800 C, current densities of 50-125 mA/cm{sup 2} were measured at a representative cell voltage of 0.8 V. Power densities for cells with two carbon-anode materials were found to be nearly the same on scales of 2.8- and 60 cm{sup 2} active area. Constant current operation of a small cell was accompanied by constant voltage during multiple tests of 10-30 hour duration. Cell voltage fell off after the carbon inventory was consumed. Three different cathode structures are compared, indicating that an LLNL fabricated porous nickel electrode with <10 {micro}m pores provides improved rates compared with nickel foam with 100-300 {micro}m pores. Petroleum coke containing substantial sulfur and ash discharges at a slightly lower rate than purified petroleum coke. The sulfur leads to degradation of the anode current collector over time. A conceptual model for electrochemical reactivity of carbon is presented which indicates the importance of (1) bulk lattice disorder, which continually provides surface reactive sites during anodic dissolution and (2) electrical conductivity, which lowers the ohmic component of anode polarization.

  16. Carbon composite for a PEM fuel cell bipolar plate

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Klett, J.W.; Burchell, T.D.

    1997-12-01

    The current major cost component for proton exchange membrane fuel cells is bipolar plate. An option being explored for replacing the current, nominal machined graphite component is a molded carbon fiber material. One face and the volume of the component will be left porous, while the opposite surface and sides are hermetically sealed via chemical vapor infiltration of carbon. This paper will address initial work on the concept.

  17. Research and development issues for molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Krumpelt, M.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes issues pertaining to the development of molten carbonate fuel cells. In particular, the corrosion resistance and service life of nickel oxide cathodes is described. The resistivity of lithium oxide/iron oxides and improvement with doping is addressed.

  18. A Computer Model for Direct Carbonate Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, J.; Patel, P.S.; Farooque, M.; Maru, H.C.

    1997-04-01

    A 3-D computer model, describing fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, and chemical and electrochemical reaction processes, has been developed for guiding the direct carbonate fuel cell (DFC) stack design. This model is able to analyze the direct internal reforming (DIR) as well as the integrated IIR (indirect internal reforming)-DIR designs. Reasonable agreements between computed and fuel cell tested results, such as flow variations, temperature distributions, cell potentials, and exhaust gas compositions as well as methane conversions, were obtained. Details of the model and comparisons of the modeling results with experimental DFC stack data are presented in the paper.

  19. High efficiency carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, G.

    1995-10-19

    Carbonate fuel cells developed by Energy Research Corporation, in commercial 2.85 MW size, have an efficiency of 57.9 percent. Studies of higher efficiency hybrid power cycles were conducted in cooperation with METC to identify an economically competitive system with an efficiency in excess of 65 percent. A hybrid power cycle was identified that includes a direct carbonate fuel cell, a gas turbine and a steam cycle, which generates power at a LHV efficiency in excess of 70 percent. This new system is called a Tandem Technology Cycle (TTC). In a TTC operating on natural gas fuel, 95 percent of the fuel is mixed with recycled fuel cell anode exhaust, providing water for the reforming of the fuel, and flows to a direct carbonate fuel cell system which generates 72 percent of the power. The portion of the fuel cell anode exhaust which is not recycled, is burned and heat is transferred to the compressed air from a gas turbine, raising its temperature to 1800{degrees}F. The stream is then heated to 2000{degrees}F in the gas turbine burner and expands through the turbine generating 13 percent of the power. Half the exhaust from the gas turbine flows to the anode exhaust burner, and the remainder flows to the fuel cell cathodes providing the O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} needed in the electrochemical reaction. Exhaust from the fuel cells flows to a steam system which includes a heat recovery steam generator and stages steam turbine which generates 15 percent of the TTC system power. Studies of the TTC for 200-MW and 20-MW size plants quantified performance, emissions and cost-of-electricity, and compared the characteristics of the TTC to gas turbine combined cycles. A 200-MW TTC plant has an efficiency of 72.6 percent, and is relatively insensitive to ambient temperature, but requires a heat exchanger capable of 2000{degrees}F. The estimated cost of electricity is 45.8 mills/kWhr which is not competitive with a combined cycle in installations where fuel cost is under $5.8/MMBtu.

  20. Oxygen electrode in molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dave, B.B.; White, R.E. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Srinivasan, S; Appleby, A.J. . Center for Electrochemical Systems and Hydrogen Research)

    1990-01-01

    During this quarter, impedance data were analyzed for oxygen reduction process in molten carbonate electrolyte and a manuscript, Impedance Analysis for Oxygen Reduction in a Lithium Carbonate Melt: Effects of Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide and Temperature,'' was prepared which will be submitted to Journal of the Electrochemical Society for publication. 31 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Effects of H2S on molten carbonate fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remick, R. J.

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes work accomplished to identify the poisoning mechanism(s) responsible for performance losses of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) when operating on sulfur-containing gases. This objective is being addressed by focusing out-of-cell and in-cell experiments on single mechanistic issues, followed by incorporation of the results into a model that correlates cell potential decline to contaminant(s) concentration. When coupled with gas cleanup cost projections, the model can be used to conduct trade-off studies leading to the selection of optimum feed-gas compositions for MCFC power plants. The importance of this program is that the degree to which H2S and other contaminants must be removed from typical MCFC fuels can have a profound effect on the cost of cleaning the fuel gas, especially if contaminant levels lower than 0.1 ppM are required. The anticipated product from the overall program is a justifiable specification for gas cleanup requirements for MCFC power plants. The loss in performance experienced by fuel cells operating on contaminated fuels has been traced to the electrochemical formation of a layer of nickel sulfide on the fuel cell electrode.

  2. Carbonate fuel cell system with thermally integrated gasification

    DOEpatents

    Steinfeld, G.; Meyers, S.J.; Lee, A.

    1996-09-10

    A fuel cell system is described which employs a gasifier for generating fuel gas for the fuel cell of the fuel cell system and in which heat for the gasifier is derived from the anode exhaust gas of the fuel cell. 2 figs.

  3. Electrochemical Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes for Fuel Cell MEA's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panagaris, Jael; Loyselle, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes from different sources have been evaluated before and after sonication to identify structural differences and evaluate electrochemical performance. Raman spectral analysis and cyclic voltammetry in situ with QCM were the principle means of evaluating the tubes. The raman data indicates that sonication in toluene modifies the structural properties of the nanotubes. Sonication also affects the electrochemical performance of single-walled nanotubes and the multi-walled tubes differently. The characterization of different types of carbon nanotubes leads up to identifying a potential candidate for incorporating carbon nanotubes for fuel cell MEA structures.

  4. Electrochemical Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes for Fuel Cell MEA's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panagaris, Jael; Loyselle, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes from different sources have been evaluated before and after sonication to identify structural differences and evaluate electrochemical performance. Raman spectral analysis and cyclic voltammetry in situ with QCM were the principle means of evaluating the tubes. The raman data indicates that sonication in toluene modifies the structural properties of the nanotubes. Sonication also affects the electrochemical performance of single-walled nanotubes and the multi-walled tubes differently. The characterization of different types of carbon nanotubes leads up to identifying a potential candidate for incorporating carbon nanotubes for fuel cell MEA structures.

  5. Carbonate fuel cell and components thereof for in-situ delayed addition of carbonate electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Johnsen, Richard; Yuh, Chao-Yi; Farooque, Mohammad

    2011-05-10

    An apparatus and method in which a delayed carbonate electrolyte is stored in the storage areas of a non-electrolyte matrix fuel cell component and is of a preselected content so as to obtain a delayed time release of the electrolyte in the storage areas in the operating temperature range of the fuel cell.

  6. Direct Carbon Fuel Cells: Assessment of their Potential as Solid Carbon Fuel Based Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wolk, R

    2004-04-23

    Small-scale experimental work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has confirmed that a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) containing a molten carbonate electrolyte completely reacts solid elemental carbon with atmospheric oxygen contained in ambient air at a temperature of 650-800 C. The efficiency of conversion of the chemical energy in the fuel to DC electricity is 75-80% and is a result of zero entropy change for this reaction and the fixed chemical potentials of C and CO{sub 2}. This is about twice as efficient as other forms power production processes that utilize solid fuels such as petroleum coke or coal. These range from 30-40% for coal fired conventional subcritical or supercritical boilers to 38-42% for IGCC plants. A wide range of carbon-rich solids including activated carbons derived from natural gas, petroleum coke, raw coal, and deeply de-ashed coal have been evaluated with similar conversion results. The rate of electricity production has been shown to correlate with disorder in the carbon structure. This report provides a preliminary independent assessment of the economic potential of DCFC for competitive power generation. This assessment was conducted as part of a Director's Research Committee Review of DCFC held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) on April 9, 2004. The key question that this assessment addresses is whether this technology, which appears to be very promising from a scientific standpoint, has the potential to be successfully scaled up to a system that can compete with currently available power generation systems that serve existing electricity markets. These markets span a wide spectrum in terms of the amount of power to be delivered and the competitive cost in that market. For example, DCFC technology can be used for the personal power market where the current competition for delivery of kilowatts of electricity is storage batteries, for the distributed generation market where the competition for on-site power

  7. Determination of optimum electrolyte composition for molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yuh, C.Y.; Pigeaud, A.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the optimum electrolyte composition for molten carbonate fuel cells. To accomplish this, the contractor will provide: (1) Comprehensive reports of on-going efforts to optimize carbonate composition. (2) A list of characteristics affected by electrolyte composition variations (e.g. ionic conductivity, vapor pressure, melting range, gas solubility, exchange current densities on NiO, corrosion and cathode dissolution effects). (3) Assessment of the overall effects that these characteristics have state-of-the-art cell voltage and lifetime.

  8. Advanced fuel cell development. Progress report, July-September 1979. [Molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.D.; Kinoshita, K.; Kucera, G.H.; Poeppel, R.B.; Sim, J.W.; Singh, R.N.

    1980-02-01

    Advanced fuel cell research and development activities at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during the period July-September 1979 are described. These efforts have been directed toward understanding and improving components of the molten carbonate fuel cells operated at temperatures near 925 K. The primary focus has been on the development of electrolyte structures that have good electrolyte retention and mechanical properties as well as long-term stability. A major effort this period has been on the synthesis of LiAlO/sub 2/ particles for the preparation of high-porosity (60%) sintered structures. The major problem has been avoidance of ionic species (unreacted Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ or LiOH) during sintering, which produce structures with excessive particle growth and low porosity. Initial cell tests with sintered electrolyte structures indicate that these structures can survive thermal cycles and that adequate wet seals can be obtained.

  9. The development of a carbon-air semi fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pointon, Kevin; Lakeman, Barry; Irvine, John; Bradley, John; Jain, Sneh

    The increasingly demanding requirements of a number of military applications mean that there is a need for more energy dense power sources that is unlikely to be satisfied with conventional battery chemistries. A high temperature electrochemical power source employing carbon as a fuel has been identified as a technology offering a step change in available energy density. Direct carbon conversion is an approach being pursued by several groups in the US. This paper discusses the state-of-the-art in this technology, and describes work carried out at Dstl and St. Andrews University to establish a new carbon-air semi fuel cell concept. This forms part of a four-year programme to develop a 50 W, 500 Wh demonstration unit.

  10. Industry support for molten carbonate fuel cell commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Nimmons, J.T.

    1996-12-31

    The Alliance to Commercialize Carbonate Technology (ACCT) is a working alliance of utilities and industry, created to help bring molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) technology into commercial markets by the year 2000. Its principal focus is the IMHEX{reg_sign} MCFC power plant under development by the team of M-C Power Corporation, the Institute of Gas Technology, The Bechtel Corporation, and Stewart & Stevenson Services, Inc. (the {open_quotes}Development Team{close_quotes}), although many ACCT members are also interested in other fuel cell technologies. This paper will describe ACCT`s background, mission, approach and activities, as well as opportunities for those interested to join in ACCT`s ongoing work toward MCFC commercialization.

  11. Molten carbonate fuel cell cathode with mixed oxide coating

    DOEpatents

    Hilmi, Abdelkader; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2013-05-07

    A molten carbonate fuel cell cathode having a cathode body and a coating of a mixed oxygen ion conductor materials. The mixed oxygen ion conductor materials are formed from ceria or doped ceria, such as gadolinium doped ceria or yttrium doped ceria. The coating is deposited on the cathode body using a sol-gel process, which utilizes as precursors organometallic compounds, organic and inorganic salts, hydroxides or alkoxides and which uses as the solvent water, organic solvent or a mixture of same.

  12. Development of large scale internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, A.; Shinoki, T.; Matsumura, M.

    1996-12-31

    Internal Reforming (IR) is a prominent scheme for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) power generating systems in order to get high efficiency i.e. 55-60% as based on the Higher Heating Value (HHV) and compact configuration. The Advanced Internal Reforming (AIR) technology has been developed based on two types of the IR-MCFC technology i.e. Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) and Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR).

  13. Recent Advances in Carbon Nanotube-Based Enzymatic Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cosnier, Serge; Holzinger, Michael; Le Goff, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes recent trends in the field of enzymatic fuel cells. Thanks to the high specificity of enzymes, biofuel cells can generate electrical energy by oxidation of a targeted fuel (sugars, alcohols, or hydrogen) at the anode and reduction of oxidants (O2, H2O2) at the cathode in complex media. The combination of carbon nanotubes (CNT), enzymes and redox mediators was widely exploited to develop biofuel cells since the electrons involved in the bio-electrocatalytic processes can be efficiently transferred from or to an external circuit. Original approaches to construct electron transfer based CNT-bioelectrodes and impressive biofuel cell performances are reported as well as biomedical applications. PMID:25386555

  14. Oxygen electrode in molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dave, B.; Adanuvor, P.K.; White, R.E.; Enayetullah, M.A.; Srinivasan, S.; Appleby, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Electrode kinetics of oxygen reduction on gold in molten lithium carbonate was investigated. Steady state cyclic voltammograms were obtained for the peroxide reduction at the gold electrode in Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} melt, results were found to be in good agreement with the data in the literature. Impedance measurements were made as a function of frequency to evaluate the kinetics and mass transfer related parameters. Impedance data were analyzed using a Complex Nonlinear Least Square (CNLS) parameter estimation program and a graphical procedure based upon the Randles-Ershler equivalent circuit. Parameters estimated by both the methods are in good agreement. One of the proposed micro electrodes is a micro ring, which involves a gold film positioned tightly between two alumina roots. As an initial study, the stability of gold films, sputter-deposited on alumina substrates, in the Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} melt was determined.

  15. Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Chao M.; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    1999-01-01

    A matrix for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 .mu.m to 20 .mu.m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling.

  16. Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Huang, C.M.; Yuh, C.Y.

    1999-02-09

    A matrix is described for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 {micro}m to 20 {micro}m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling. 5 figs.

  17. Applications of internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Maru, H.C.; Baker, B.S.

    1986-03-01

    A modified version of the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is being developed which is capable of direct utilization of hydrocarbon fuels such as natural gas, methanol, alcohol, propane, coal-derived synthetic gas and others. This version is termed internal reforming MCFC or Direct Fuel Cell, DFC. The DFC provides an ideal match of heat and mass transfer requirements within the cell, and minimizes external processing equipment. Efficiencies as high as 55 to 60% can be expected, making DFC a unique and practical device. The overall system is expected to be simple and cost effective. Many attractive applications exist for the simple and highly efficient DFC generators. Natural gas fueled dispersed generators in the size range of 500kW to 10 Mw may provide early market entry. DFC applications to smaller-size on-site power plants, large coal-powered central stations and industrial cogeneration applications can follow once the technology is demonstrated and manufacturing base is established. 8 references, 3 figures, 2 table.

  18. Efficiency of non-optimized direct carbon fuel cell with molten alkaline electrolyte fueled by carbonized biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacprzak, A.; Kobyłecki, R.; Włodarczyk, R.; Bis, Z.

    2016-07-01

    The direct carbon fuel cells (DCFCs) belong to new generation of energy conversion devices that are characterized by much higher efficiencies and lower emission of pollutants than conventional coal-fired power plants. In this paper the DCFC with molten hydroxide electrolyte is considered as the most promising type of the direct carbon fuel cells. Binary alkali hydroxide mixture (NaOH-LiOH, 90-10 mol%) is used as electrolyte and the biochar of apple tree origin carbonized at 873 K is applied as fuel. The performance of a lab-scale DCFC with molten alkaline electrolyte is investigated and theoretical, practical, voltage, and fuel utilization efficiencies of the cell are calculated and discussed. The practical efficiency is assessed on the basis of fuel HHV and LHV and the values are estimated at 40% and 41%, respectively. The average voltage efficiency is calculated as roughly 59% (at 0.65 V) and it is in a relatively good agreement with the values obtained by other researchers. The calculated efficiency of fuel utilization exceeds 95% thus indicating a high degree of carbon conversion into the electric power.

  19. Mixed fuel strategy for carbon deposition mitigation in solid oxide fuel cells at intermediate temperatures.

    PubMed

    Su, Chao; Chen, Yubo; Wang, Wei; Ran, Ran; Shao, Zongping; Diniz da Costa, João C; Liu, Shaomin

    2014-06-17

    In this study, we propose and experimentally verified that methane and formic acid mixed fuel can be employed to sustain solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to deliver high power outputs at intermediate temperatures and simultaneously reduce the coke formation over the anode catalyst. In this SOFC system, methane itself was one part of the fuel, but it also played as the carrier gas to deliver the formic acid to reach the anode chamber. On the other hand, the products from the thermal decomposition of formic acid helped to reduce the carbon deposition from methane cracking. In order to clarify the reaction pathways for carbon formation and elimination occurring in the anode chamber during the SOFC operation, O2-TPO and SEM analysis were carried out together with the theoretical calculation. Electrochemical tests demonstrated that stable and high power output at an intermediate temperature range was well-maintained with a peak power density of 1061 mW cm(-2) at 750 °C. With the synergic functions provided by the mixed fuel, the SOFC was running for 3 days without any sign of cell performance decay. In sharp contrast, fuelled by pure methane and tested at similar conditions, the SOFC immediately failed after running for only 30 min due to significant carbon deposition. This work opens a new way for SOFC to conquer the annoying problem of carbon deposition just by properly selecting the fuel components to realize their synergic effects.

  20. Catalytic reduction of carbon dioxide with a hydrogen fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, K.; Migita, C.T.; Imura, H. )

    1990-06-01

    This paper reports the catalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to methanol achieved with a hydrogen fuel cell. This process involves a homogeneous and a heterogeneous catalysis. In the former, the catalyst consisting of a metal complex and methanol were applied, and in the latter Everitt's salt (K{sub 2}Fe{sup II}(Fe{sup II}(CN{sub 6}))) which functions as an electron relay was used. The initial {ital p}H of the catholyte was fixed at 2, and the {ital p}H of the anolyte was required to be higher than 1.75 for the hydrogen fuel cell with CO{sub 2} as oxidant to be feasible thermodynamically.

  1. Catalysis and oxidation of carbon in a hybrid direct carbon fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Cairong; Irvine, John T. S.

    The hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC), combining molten carbonate fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell technology, is capable of converting solid carbon directly into electrical energy without intermediate reforming. Here, we report the investigation of the HDCFC with yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, NiO-YSZ anode and lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathode using the eutectic mixture of 62 mol% Li 2CO 3 and 38 mol% K 2CO 3. An open circuit voltage (OCV) of 0.71 V at 800 °C is recorded without the carbonate which increases to 1.15-1.23 V in the presence of the carbonate at the same temperature. In addition, the cell's OCV is enhanced not only by the thermal history but also by the carbonate, which is in excess of 1.57 V after the high temperature treatment. Electrochemical performance analysis indicates a suitable amount of the carbonate enhanced the carbon oxidation. With 1 mm robust thick electrolyte and commercial carbon, the cell (1.13 cm 2 active area) generates the peak density of 50 mW cm -2 at 800 °C. There are significant losses from electrolyte resistance, which would be overcome by the application of a thinner electrolyte.

  2. Graphitic mesoporous carbon as a durable fuel cell catalyst support

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng; Liang, Chengdu; Shanahan, Paul; Xu, Lianbin; Waje, Mahesh; Yan, Y.S.

    2008-01-01

    Highly stable graphitic mesoporous carbons (GMPCs) are synthesized by heat-treating polymer-templated mesoporous carbon (MPC) at 2600 C. The electrochemical durability of GMPC as Pt catalyst support (Pt/GMPC) is compared with that of carbon black (Pt/XC-72). Comparisons are made using potentiostatic and cyclic voltammetric techniques on the respective specimens under conditions simulating the cathode environment of PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell). The results indicate that the Pt/GMPC is much more stable than Pt/XC-72, with 96% lower corrosion current. The Pt/GMPC also exhibits a greatly reduced loss of catalytic surface area: 14% for Pt/GMPC vs. 39% for Pt/XC-72.

  3. Carbon fiber enhanced bioelectricity generation in soil microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Qian; Wan, Lili; Li, Yongtao; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-11-15

    The soil microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a promising biotechnology for the bioelectricity recovery as well as the remediation of organics contaminated soil. However, the electricity production and the remediation efficiency of soil MFC are seriously limited by the tremendous internal resistance of soil. Conductive carbon fiber was mixed with petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil and significantly enhanced the performance of soil MFC. The maximum current density, the maximum power density and the accumulated charge output of MFC mixed carbon fiber (MC) were 10, 22 and 16 times as high as those of closed circuit control due to the carbon fiber productively assisted the anode to collect the electron. The internal resistance of MC reduced by 58%, 83% of which owed to the charge transfer resistance, resulting in a high efficiency of electron transfer from soil to anode. The degradation rates of total petroleum hydrocarbons enhanced by 100% and 329% compared to closed and opened circuit controls without the carbon fiber respectively. The effective range of remediation and the bioelectricity recovery was extended from 6 to 20cm with the same area of air-cathode. The mixed carbon fiber apparently enhanced the bioelectricity generation and the remediation efficiency of soil MFC by means of promoting the electron transfer rate from soil to anode. The use of conductively functional materials (e.g. carbon fiber) is very meaningful for the remediation and bioelectricity recovery in the bioelectrochemical remediation.

  4. Carbon Material Optimized Biocathode for Improving Microbial Fuel Cell Performance

    PubMed Central

    Tursun, Hairti; Liu, Rui; Li, Jing; Abro, Rashid; Wang, Xiaohui; Gao, Yanmei; Li, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    To improve the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs), the biocathode electrode material of double-chamber was optimized. Alongside the basic carbon fiber brush, three carbon materials namely graphite granules, activated carbon granules (ACG) and activated carbon powder, were added to the cathode-chambers to improve power generation. The result shows that the addition of carbon materials increased the amount of available electroactive microbes on the electrode surface and thus promote oxygen reduction rate, which improved the generation performance of the MFCs. The Output current (external resistance = 1000 Ω) greatly increased after addition of the three carbon materials and maximum power densities in current stable phase increased by 47.4, 166.1, and 33.5%, respectively. Additionally, coulombic efficiencies of the MFC increased by 16.3, 64.3, and 20.1%, respectively. These results show that MFC when optimized with ACG show better power generation, higher chemical oxygen demands removal rate and coulombic efficiency. PMID:26858695

  5. Effects of H2S on molten carbonate fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remick, R. J.; Anderson, G. L.

    1984-04-01

    The results of a literature survey conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) under Phase 1 of a multiphase program to investigate and identify the mechanism(s) responsible for molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) performance losses when operating on sulfur containing gases are discussed. The objective was twofold: to review the reported data on the interaction of H2S with nickel containing materials; and to review reported investigations on the specific effects of H2S on the electrochemical oxidation of H2 in MCFC. The ultimate goal of the literature review was to determine the poisoning mechanism.

  6. Fabrication of catalytic electrodes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James L.

    1988-01-01

    A porous layer of catalyst material suitable for use as an electrode in a molten carbonate fuel cell includes elongated pores substantially extending across the layer thickness. The catalyst layer is prepared by depositing particulate catalyst material into polymeric flocking on a substrate surface by a procedure such as tape casting. The loaded substrate is heated in a series of steps with rising temperatures to set the tape, thermally decompose the substrate with flocking and sinter bond the catalyst particles into a porous catalytic layer with elongated pores across its thickness. Employed as an electrode, the elongated pores provide distribution of reactant gas into contact with catalyst particles wetted by molten electrolyte.

  7. A Direct Carbon Fuel Cell with a Molten Antimony Anode

    SciTech Connect

    Jayakumar, Abhimanyu; Kungas, Rainer; Roy, Sounak; Javadekar, Ashay; Buttrey, Douglas J.; Vohs, John M.; Gorte, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    The direct utilization of carbonaceous fuels is examined in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a molten Sb anode at 973 K. It is demonstrated that the anode operates by oxidation of metallic Sb at the electrolyte interface, with the resulting Sb₂O₃ being reduced by the fuel in a separate step. Although the Nernst Potential for the Sb-Sb₂O₃ mixture is only 0.75 V, the electrode resistance associated with molten Sb is very low, approximately 0.06 Ωcm², so that power densities greater than 350 mW cm⁻² were achieved with an electrolyte-supported cell made from Sc-stabilized zirconia (ScSZ). Temperature programmed reaction measurements of Sb₂O₃ with sugar char, rice starch, carbon black, and graphite showed that the Sb₂O₃ is readily reduced by a range of carbonaceous solids at typical SOFC operating conditions. Finally, stable operation with a power density of 300 mW cm⁻² at a potential of 0.5 V is demonstrated for operation on sugar char.

  8. Carbon deposition thresholds on nickel-based solid oxide fuel cell anodes I. Fuel utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, J.; Kesler, O.

    2015-03-01

    In the first of a two part publication, the effect of fuel utilization (Uf) on carbon deposition rates in solid oxide fuel cell nickel-based anodes was studied. Representative 5-component CH4 reformate compositions (CH4, H2, CO, H2O, & CO2) were selected graphically by plotting the solutions to a system of mass-balance constraint equations. The centroid of the solution space was chosen to represent a typical anode gas mixture for each nominal Uf value. Selected 5-component and 3-component gas mixtures were then delivered to anode-supported cells for 10 h, followed by determination of the resulting deposited carbon mass. The empirical carbon deposition thresholds were affected by atomic carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) fractions of the delivered gas mixtures and temperature. It was also found that CH4-rich gas mixtures caused irreversible damage, whereas atomically equivalent CO-rich compositions did not. The coking threshold predicted by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations employing graphite for the solid carbon phase agreed well with empirical thresholds at 700 °C (Uf ≈ 32%); however, at 600 °C, poor agreement was observed with the empirical threshold of ˜36%. Finally, cell operating temperatures correlated well with the difference in enthalpy between the supplied anode gas mixtures and their resulting thermodynamic equilibrium gas mixtures.

  9. Fabrication of Carbon Nanowalls on Carbon Fiber Paper for Fuel Cell Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, Mineo; Mitsuguchi, Shinji; Horibe, Takeyoshi; Kondo, Hiroki; Hori, Masaru; Kano, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanowalls (CNWs) can be described as self-assembled, vertically standing, few-layered graphene sheet nanostructures. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of CNWs in fuel cell application, CNWs were directly grown on carbon fiber paper (CFP) using the inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD) method. Subsequently, highly dispersed platinum (Pt) nanoparticles were formed on the surface of CNWs using metal-organic chemical fluid deposition (MOCFD) employing a supercritical fluid (SCF). Moreover, a single proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell unit using a Pt-supported CNW/CFP electrode was constructed, and its voltage-current characteristics were measured. This configuration ensures that all the supported Pt nanoparticles are in electrical contact with the external electrical circuit. Such a design would improve Pt utilization and potentially decrease Pt usage. Pt-supported CNWs grown on CFP will be well suited to the application in electrodes of fuel cells.

  10. Carbon nanotube dispersed conductive network for microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, S.; Yamanaka, K.; Ogikubo, H.; Akasaka, H.; Ohtake, N.

    2014-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are promising devices for capturing biomass energy. Although they have recently attracted considerable attention, their power densities are too low for practical use. Increasing their electrode surface area is a key factor for improving the performance of MFC. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which have excellent electrical conductivity and extremely high specific surface area, are promising materials for electrodes. However, CNTs are insoluble in aqueous solution because of their strong intertube van der Waals interactions, which make practical use of CNTs difficult. In this study, we revealed that CNTs have a strong interaction with Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. CNTs attach to the cells and are dispersed in a mixture of water and S. cerevisiae, forming a three-dimensional CNT conductive network. Compared with a conventional two-dimensional electrode, such as carbon paper, the three-dimensional conductive network has a much larger surface area. By applying this conductive network to MFCs as an anode electrode, power density is increased to 176 μW/cm2, which is approximately 25-fold higher than that in the case without CNTs addition. Maximum current density is also increased to approximately 8-fold higher. These results suggest that three-dimensional CNT conductive network contributes to improve the performance of MFC by increasing surface area.

  11. Generation and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Carbon Sequestration in Northwest Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Peavey; Norm Bessette

    2007-09-30

    The objective of the project is to develop the technology capable of capturing all carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from natural gas fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system. In addition, the technology to electrochemically oxidize any remaining carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide will be developed. Success of this R&D program would allow for the generation of electrical power and thermal power from a fossil fuel driven SOFC system without the carbon emissions resulting from any other fossil fueled power generationg system.

  12. Investigation of chemical and electrochemical reactions mechanisms in a direct carbon fuel cell using olive wood charcoal as sustainable fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elleuch, Amal; Halouani, Kamel; Li, Yongdan

    2015-05-01

    Direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) is a high temperature fuel cell using solid carbon as fuel. The use of environmentally friendly carbon material constitutes a promising option for the DCFC future. In this context, this paper focuses on the use of biomass-derived charcoal renewable fuel. A practical investigation of Tunisian olive wood charcoal (OW-C) in planar DCFCs is conducted and good power density (105 mW cm-2) and higher current density (550 mA cm-2) are obtained at 700 °C. Analytical and predictive techniques are performed to explore the relationships between fuel properties and DCFC chemical and electrochemical mechanisms. High carbon content, carbon-oxygen groups and disordered structure, are the key parameters allowing the achieved good performance. Relatively complex chain reactions are predicted to explain the gas evolution within the anode. CO, H2 and CH4 participation in the anodic reaction is proved.

  13. New applications of carbon nanostructures in microbial fuel cells (MFC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaca, W.; Żarnowiec, P.; Keczkowska, Justyna; Suchańska, M.; Czerwosz, E.; Kozłowski, M.

    2014-11-01

    In the studies presented we proposed a new application for nanocomposite carbon films (C-Pd). These films were evaluated as an anode material for Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) used for electrical current generation. The results of characterization of C-Pd films composed of carbon and palladium nanograins were obtained using the Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) method. The film obtained by this method exhibits a multiphase structure composed of fullerene nanograins, amorphous carbon and palladium nanocrystals. Raman Spectroscopy (RS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize the chemical composition, morphology and topography of these films. We observed, for MFC with C-Pd anode, the highest electrochemical activity and maximal voltage density - 458 mV (20,8 mV/cm2) for Proteus mirabilis, 426 mV (19,4 mV/cm2) for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 652 mV (29,6 mV/cm2) for sewage bacteria as the microbial catalyst.

  14. Dynamic characteristics of a molten carbonate fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Akira; Matsumoto, Shuichi; Tanaka, Toshihide; Ohtsuki, Jitsuji

    Dynamic characteristics have been investigated for a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) prototype stack, which is, an eletrochemical energy conversion device for electric power generation. The authors identify the MCFC stack and construct a control strategy for MCFC plants in operation. Both an experimental approach and a theoretical approach are described. Basic data are first obtained with respect to indicial responses of an MCFC stack including a cathode gas recycle loop for cooling use. These data are assumed to be sets of dead time and first-order lag, and a matrix transfer function is derived. A physically based model is then developed to describe the dynamics of the MCFC stack. This model consists of a semiempirical MCFC performance model and a thermodynamical gas flow model. The potential of this model for examining control problems for MCFC plant operations is discussed.

  15. Performance assessment of natural gas and biogas fueled molten carbonate fuel cells in carbon capture configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barelli, Linda; Bidini, Gianni; Campanari, Stefano; Discepoli, Gabriele; Spinelli, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    The ability of MCFCs as carbon dioxide concentrator is an alternative solution among the carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies to reduce the CO2 emission of an existing plant, providing energy instead of implying penalties. Moreover, the fuel flexibility exhibited by MCFCs increases the interest on such a solution. This paper provides the performance characterization of MCFCs operated in CCS configuration and fed with either natural gas or biogas. Experimental results are referred to a base CCS unit constituted by a MCFC stack fed from a reformer and integrated with an oxycombustor. A comparative analysis is carried out to evaluate the effect of fuel composition on energy efficiency and CO2 capture performance. A higher CO2 removal ability is revealed for the natural feeding case, bringing to a significant reduction in MCFC total area (-11.5%) and to an increase in produced net power (+13%). Moreover, the separated CO2 results in 89% (natural gas) and 86.5% (biogas) of the CO2 globally delivered by the CCS base unit. Further investigation will be carried out to provide a comprehensive assessment of the different solutions eco-efficiency considering also the biogas source and availability.

  16. Effect of initial carbon sources on the performance of microbial fuel cells containing Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Kim, N; Choi, Y; Jung, S; Kim, S

    2000-10-05

    Mediator-coupled microbial fuel cells containing Proteus vulgaris were constructed and the cell performance was tested. Fuel cell efficiency depended on the carbon source in the initial medium of the microorganism. Maltose and trehalose were not utilized substantially by P. vulgaris; however, their presence in the initial medium resulted in enhanced cell performance. In particular, galactose showed 63% coulombic efficiency in a biofuel cell after P. vulgaris was cultured in a trehalose-containing medium. This work demonstrates that optimum utilization of carbon sources by microorganisms, which leads to the maximization of fuel cell performance, is possible simply by adjusting initial carbon sources.

  17. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed to develop and verify the design of a prototype molten carbonate fuel cell stack which meets the requirements of a 1990's-competitive, coal-fired, electrical utility central station, or industrial cogeneration power plant. Fabrication of the cell components to be used in the 100-cell stack was completed successfully. Compressive creep of the anode to be used in the 100-cell stack was measured through 720 hours of testing at 1300(0)F. The data continue to support the creep resistance of this component. Anode and bubble barrier pore spectra data obtained after aging at 1300F confirmed the sintering resistance of these components. A parametric study of candidate separator material data obtained from retort corrosion tests was completed. Based on the study, cell testing of treated INCO 825 was begun. A 1000 hour cell test of Ni-201/316SS at accelerated test conditions showed no failure of this separator plate material. Single cell tests to evaluate Co-based and Ti-based alternate cathode materials were conducted. The cell test performance data and post test chemical analysis show both materials are unstable. Cell testing of a doped Fe-based cathode showed a reaction with the matrix used. A repeat test using a different matrix material is planned. Testing of the 20-cell Subscale Stack was completed on schedule following 2000 hours of operation. A post test analysis was begun in order to correlate the diagnostic test data with the physical evidence of component stability, including electrolyte containment.

  18. Lithium-ferrate-based cathodes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lanagan, M.T.; Bloom, I.; Kaun, T.D.

    1996-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing advanced cathodes for pressurized operation of the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) at {approximately}650{degrees}C. To be economically viable for stationary power generation, molten carbonate fuel cells must have lifetimes of more than 25,000 h while exhibiting superior cell performance. In the present technology, lithiated NiO is used as the cathode. Over the lifetime of the cell, however, N{sup 2+} ions tend to transport to the anode, where they are reduced to metallic Ni. With increased CO{sub 2} partial pressure, the transport of Ni increases because of the increased solubility of NiO in the carbonate electrolyte. Although this process is slow in MCFCs operated at 1 atm and a low CO{sub 2} partial pressure (about 0.1 atm), transport of nickel to the anode may be excessive at a higher pressure (e.g., 3 atm) and a high CO{sub 2} partial pressure (e.g., about 0.3 arm). This transport is expected to lead eventually to poor MCFC performance and/or short circuiting. Several alternative cathode compositions have been explored to reduce cathode solubility in the molten salt electrolyte. For example, LiCoO{sub 2} has been studied extensively as a potential cathode material. The LiCoO{sub 2} cathode has a low resistivity, about 10-cm, and can be used as a direct substitute for NiO. Argonne is developing advanced cathodes based on lithium ferrate (LiFeO{sub 2}), which is attractive because of its very low solubility in the molten (Li,K){sub 2}CO{sub 3} electrolyte. Because of its high resistivity (about 3000-cm), however, LiFeO{sub 2} cannot be used as a direct substitute for NiO. Cation substitution is, therefore, necessary to decrease resistivity. We determined the effect of cation substitution on the resistivity and deformation of LiFeO{sub 2}. The substituents were chosen because their respective oxides as well as LiFeO{sub 2} crystallize with the rock-salt structure.

  19. Anode modeling of a molten-carbonate based direct carbon fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chia-Chin; Selman, J. Robert

    2017-06-01

    The Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC) is a type of fuel cell using solid carbon as fuel and molten carbonate as electrolyte. Although the primary anodic reaction is believed to be a 4-electron carbon oxidation reaction, to explain the performance of the DCFC in practice it is necessary to consider the 2-electron CO oxidation reaction as well as the reverse Boudouard reaction. Taking these multiple reactions into account, this work develops a 1-D macrohomogeneous model, and investigates the current and concentration distribution in the DCFC anode. The result shows that the active zone is mostly located on the portion of the anode bed nearest the electrolyte matrix. The dimensionless analysis of the electrode's resistance ratios suggests that the DCFC anode performance is mainly limited by ohmic losses and the relatively slow kinetics of the anodic reactions. To improve the performance of the DCFC, increasing effective electrical conductivity of the carbon particle bed by an order of magnitude, for example by a small fraction of inert metallic additives, can increase the cell efficiency appreciably. Besides causing the anode bed to be fully used, the rise in effective electrical conductivity of the anode bed appreciably improves the power density of DCFC.

  20. Quantification of carbon dioxide poisoning in air breathing alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewari, A.; Sambhy, V.; Urquidi Macdonald, M.; Sen, A.

    Carbon dioxide intolerance has impeded the development of alkaline fuel cells as an alternate source of power supply. The CO 2, in a fuel cell system, could come from the anode side (if "dirty" H 2 is used as fuel), from the cathode side (if air instead of pure O 2 is used as an oxidant) or from inside the electrolyte (if methanol is used as a fuel). In this work, an novel analytical approach is proposed to study and quantify the carbon dioxide poisoning problem. Accelerated tests were carried out in an alkaline fuel cell using methanol as a fuel with different electrical loads and varying the concentration of carbon dioxide in a mixture CO 2/O 2 used as oxidant. Two characteristic quantities, t max and R max, were specified which were shown to comprehensively define the nature and extent of carbon dioxide poisoning in alkaline fuel cells. The poisoning phenomenon was successfully quantified by determining the dependence of these characteristic quantities on the operating parameters, viz. atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and applied electrical load. Such quantification enabled the prediction of the output of a fuel cell operating in a carbon dioxide enriched atmosphere. In addition, static and dynamic analyses of electrolytes were carried out to determine the dependence of cell current on the electrolyte composition in a fuel cell undergoing poisoning. It was observed that there is a critical concentration of KOH in the electrolyte only below which the effect of carbon dioxide poisoning is reflected on the cell performance. Potentiostatic polarization tests confirmed that the underlying reason for the decreased cell performance because of carbon dioxide poisoning is the sluggish kinetics of methanol oxidation in the presence of potassium carbonate in the electrolyte. Moreover, the decreased conductivity of the electrolyte resulting from hydroxide to carbonate conversion was also shown to increase the ohmic loses in an alkaline fuel cell leading to lower

  1. Characteristics of liquid stannum anode fuel cell operated in battery mode and CO/H2/carbon fuel mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongjian; Shi, Yixiang; Cai, Ningsheng

    2014-01-01

    A liquid Stannum (Sn) anode fuel cell is fabricated by using smooth single crystal Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and porous Pt cathode. The cell performance in the battery mode is tested to identify the intrinsic reaction kinetics of the Sn electrochemical oxidation reaction. The cell performance characteristics in the gas fuel mode and carbon fuel mode are experimentally measured to identify limiting steps in different operating modes. The results show that in the battery mode, the SnO2 film formation blocks the transportation path of the liquid Sn and oxygen ions to the reactive interface. In the gas fuel modes, the cell performance operating in the H2 fuel mode is much higher than that in the CO fuel mode which is ascribing to the effective reaction of the formed SnO2 at the reactive interface between electrolyte and anode. In the carbon fuel mode, the carbon black fuel can directly or indirectly reduce part of the SnO2 at the interface between anode and electrolyte. It apparently indicates that the performance improvements of liquid Sn anode direct carbon fuel cell rely on minimizing the effects of formed SnO2 layer and accelerating species transportation processes within the liquid Sn electrode.

  2. Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) product development test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-02-01

    M-C Power Corporation will design, fabricate, install, test, and evaluate a 250 kW Proof-of-Concept Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) Power Plant. The plant is to be located at the Naval Air Station Miramar in San Diego, California. This report summarizes the technical progress that has occurred in conjunction with this project in 1994. M-C Power has completed the tape casting and sintering of cathodes and is proceeding with the tape casting and sintering of anodes for the first 250 cell stack. M-C Power and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) relocated the fuel cell demonstration project to an alternate site at the Naval Air Station Miramar. For the new project location, an Environmental Assessment has been prepared by the Department of Energy in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The Environmental Assessment resulted in a categorical exclusion of the proposed action from all environmental permit requirements. Bechtel Corporation has completed the reformer process design coordination, a Process Description, the Pipe and Instrumentation Diagrams, a Design Criteria Document and General Project Requirement Document. Bechtel developed the requirements for soils investigation report and issued the following equipment bid packages to the suppliers for bids: inverter, reformer, desulfurization vessels, hot gas recycle blower, heat recovery steam generator, and recycle gas cooler. SDG&E has secured necessary site permits, conducted soils investigations, and is working on the construction plan. They are in final negotiations with the US Navy on a site agreement. Site drawings are required for finalization of the agreement.

  3. Carbon nanotube modification of microbial fuel cell electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yazdi, Alireza Ahmadian; D'Angelo, Lorenzo; Omer, Nada; Windiasti, Gracia; Lu, Xiaonan; Xu, Jie

    2016-11-15

    The use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for energy harvesting devices is preferable due to their unique mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. On the other hand, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are promising devices to recover carbon-neutral energy from the organic matters, and have been hindered with major setbacks towards commercialization. Nanoengineered CNT-based materials show remarkable electrochemical properties, and therefore have provided routes towards highly effective modification of MFC compartments to ultimately reach the theoretical limits of biomass energy recovery, low-cost power production, and thus the commercialization of MFCs. Moreover, these CNT-based composites offer significant flexibility in the design of MFCs that enable their use for a broad spectrum of applications ranging from scaled-up power generation to medically related devices. This article reviews the recent advances in the modification of MFCs using CNTs and CNT-based composites, and the extent to which each modification route impacts MFC power and current generation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushnell, C. L.; Davis, C. L.; Dayton, J. E.; Johnson, C. K.; Katz, M.; Krasij, M.; Kunz, H. R.; Maricle, D. L.; Meyer, A. P.; Pivar, J. C.

    1984-09-01

    A prototype molten carbonate fuel cell stack which meets the requirements of a 1990's-competitive, coal-fired electrical utility central station, or industrial cogeneration power plant was developed. Compressive creep testing of the present anode is continuedl the samples and support the earlier data showing improved creep resistance. Testing to define the operating limits that are suitable for extending the life of nickel oxide cathodes to an acceptable level is continuing. The mechanical characteristics of several one-piece cathode current collector candidates are measured for suitability. Metallographic evaluation of stack separators was initiated. Posttest characterization of surface treated INCO 825 was completed, retort corrosion testing of this material is continuing, potentiostatic immersion testing of alternative single piece cathode current collector materials is initiated. The 20-cell Stack No. 3 progressed from completion and delivery of the Test Plan through Design Review, assembly, and initial heat-up for the start of testing. Manufacture of separator plates for the upcoming 20-cell Stack No. 4 has begun. The primary objective of this follow-on test is stack cost reduction.

  5. Progress in IMHEX reg sign molten carbonate fuel cell technology

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, J.B.; Marianowski, L. ); Camara, E.H. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper addresses the status of molten carbonate technology with emphasis on cell stack designs utilizing internal manifolding of the reactant gases. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) and M-C Power Corporation (MCP) are commercializing a design concept, IMHEX{reg sign}, based conceptually on internally manifolded plate-frame heat exchangers. This concept permits the use of inexpensive cell stack components in a way that provides a wider tolerance in component alignment and vertical dimensional changes during operation that result from deformation and compaction. The MCP/IGT commercialization program, funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Gas Research Institute (GRI), and participating gas and electric utilities, will produce a proof-of-concept 250-kW prototype stack in 1993. The tape casting process for manufacturing cell components, electrodes, and electrolyte has been scaled up from 18 in. wide (IGT) to 48 in. wide (MCP), and the cell size is being scaled up from 1 ft{sup 2} (IGT) to approximately 10 ft{sup 2} (MCP). Early design versions of the separator plate have been produced at the 10-ft{sup 2} size. Six fuel cell stacks (1-ft{sup 2} active area) have been assembled and tested at power levels up to 2.5 kW. A 70-cell stack, 1-ft{sup 2} area, was put on test in April of 1991. The stack is still in operation after more than 1500 hours of operation at power levels up to 10 kW. The results of current testing, the details of stack design, and the advantages of the internal manifold concept are reported in this paper. The roles of various program participants and the overall development/commercialization schedule are covered. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Development of Pt-Au-Graphene-Carbon Nanotube Composite for Fuel Cells and Biosensors Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-11

    1 Project Title:- Development of Pt-Au-Graphene- Carbon nanotube composites for fuel cells and biosensors applications Objectives:- This...project addresses the architectures needed for the processing of Pt-Au-graphene- carbon nanotube (Pt-Au/f-G/f-CNT) nanocomposites and aims at the...05-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of Pt-Au-Graphene- Carbon nanotube composite for fuel cells and biosensors applications 5a. CONTRACT

  7. Investigation of Hydrogen Storage in Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Fuel Cells-2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-11

    1 Final Report Title: Investigation of hydrogen storage in Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes for fuel cells - 2 AFOSR/AOARD...SUBTITLE Investigation of hydrogen storage in single walled carbon nanotubes for fuel cells-2 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA23860914157 5b. GRANT NUMBER...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) dispersed in 2-propanol are deposited on the alumina substrate using drop caste

  8. Direct conversion of solid hydrocarbons in a molten carbonate fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predtechensky, M. R.; Varlamov, Yu. D.; Ul'Yankin, S. N.; Dubov, Yu. D.

    2009-12-01

    Electrical characteristics of a molten carbonate fuel cell allowing direct electrochemical oxidation of dispersed hydrocarbons have been examined. As the fuel, graphite, anthracite, and cannel coal samples were used. Data illustrating the effect of electrolyte temperature, fuel type and dispersion, and also reactant gas mixture composition on the performance characteristics of the fuel cell, were obtained. Correlation between the specific characteristics of the fuel cell and the hydrogen content of fuel material was established. The maximum current-density values were achieved with hydrogen-rich cannel coal. For dispersed fuel samples, interparticle contact losses were found to have influence on the cell-generated voltage. The maximum cell opencircuit voltage was reached with stoichiometric oxygen-carbon dioxide mixture blown into the cathode. Yet, the largest current-density values were obtained when carbon dioxide lean mixtures were used. Even at zero carbon dioxide concentration the range of cathode polarizations was less than that observed with stoichiometric mixture. The processes proceeding in the cathode and anode packs of the fuel cell are believed to be interrelated processes. In a model fuel cell fueled with dispersed coal, current densities up to 140 mA/cm2 and specific powers up to 70 mW/cm2 were achieved.

  9. Strategies for Carbon and Sulfur Tolerant Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Materials, Incorporating Lessons from Heterogeneous Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Paul; Ruiz-Trejo, Enrique; Mermelstein, Joshua; Bermúdez Menéndez, José Miguel; Ramı Rez Reina, Tomás; Brandon, Nigel P

    2016-11-23

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are a rapidly emerging energy technology for a low carbon world, providing high efficiency, potential to use carbonaceous fuels, and compatibility with carbon capture and storage. However, current state-of-the-art materials have low tolerance to sulfur, a common contaminant of many fuels, and are vulnerable to deactivation due to carbon deposition when using carbon-containing compounds. In this review, we first study the theoretical basis behind carbon and sulfur poisoning, before examining the strategies toward carbon and sulfur tolerance used so far in the SOFC literature. We then study the more extensive relevant heterogeneous catalysis literature for strategies and materials which could be incorporated into carbon and sulfur tolerant fuel cells.

  10. Assessment of commercial prospects of molten carbonate fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicks, Andrew; Siddle, Angie

    The commercial prospects of molten carbonate fuel cells have been evaluated. Market applications, and the commercial criteria that the MCFC will need to satisfy for these applications, were identified through interviews with leading MCFC developers. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analyses were carried out to critically evaluate the prospects for commercialisation. There are many competing technologies, but it is anticipated that MCFCs can make significant penetration into markets where their attributes, such as quality of power, low emissions and availability, give them a leading position in comparison with, for example, engine and turbine-based power generation systems. Analysis suggests that choosing the size for MCFC plant is more important than the target market sector/niche. Opportunities will exist in many market sectors, though the commercial market would be easier to penetrate initially. Developers are optimistic about the commercial prospects for the MCFC. Most believe that early commercial MCFC plants may start to appear in the first decade of the next century, the earliest date suggested for initial market entry being 2002.

  11. Carbon Ionic Conductors for use in Novel Carbon-Ion Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin H. Cocks; W. Neal Simmons; Paul A. Klenk

    2005-11-01

    Carbon-consuming fuel cells have many potential advantages, including increased efficiency and reduced pollution in power generation from coal. A large amount of work has already been done on coal fuel cells that utilize yttria-stabilized zirconium carbide as an oxygen-ion superionic membrane material. But high-temperature fuel cells utilizing yttria-stabilized zirconium require partial combustion of coal to carbon monoxide before final oxidation to carbon dioxide occurs via utilization of the oxygen- ion zirconia membrane. A carbon-ion superionic membrane material would enable an entirely new class of carbon fuel cell to be developed, one that would use coal directly as the fuel source, without any intervening combustion process. However, a superionic membrane material for carbon ions has not yet been found. Because no partial combustion of coal would be required, a carbon-ion superionic conductor would allow the direct conversion of coal to electricity and pure CO{sub 2} without the formation of gaseous pollutants. The objective of this research was to investigate ionic lanthanide carbides, which have an unusually high carbon-bond ionicity as potential superionic carbide-ion conductors. A first step in this process is the stabilization of these carbides in the cubic structure, and this stabilization has been achieved via the preparation of pseudobinary lanthanide carbides. The diffusion rates of carbon have been measured in these carbides as stabilized to preserve the high temperature cubic structure down to room temperature. To prepare these new compounds and measure these diffusion rates, a novel, oxide-based preparation method and a new C{sup 13}/C{sup 12} diffusion technique have been developed. The carbon diffusion rates in La{sup 0.5}Er{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, Ce{sup 0.5}Er{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, and La{sup 0.5}Y{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, and Ce{sup 0.5}Tm0.5C{sub 2} modified by the addition of 5 wt %Be{sub 2}C, have been determined at temperatures from 850 C to 1150 C. The

  12. Simulated coal-gas-fueled molten carbonate fuel cell development program. Topical report: Cathode compatibility tests

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.H.

    1992-07-01

    In previous work, International Fuel Cells Corporation (EFC) found interactions between molten carbonate fuel cell cathode materials being considered as replacements for the presently used nickel oxide and matrix materials. Consequently, this work was conducted to screen additional new materials for mutual compatibility. As part of this program, experiments were performed to examine the compatibility of several candidate, alternative cathode materials with the standard lithium aluminate matrix material in the presence of electrolyte at cell potentials. Initial cathode candidates were materials lithium ferrite, yttrium iron garnet, lithium manganite and doped ceria which were developed by universities, national laboratories, or contractors to DOE, EPRI, or GRI. These investigations were conducted in laboratory scale experiments. None of the materials tested can directly replace nickel oxide or indicate greater stability of cell performance than afforded by nickel oxide. Specifically: (1) no further work on niobium doped ceria is warranted; (2) cobalt migration was found in the lithium ferrite cathode tested. This could possibly lead to shorting problems similiar to those encountered with nickel oxide; (3) Possible shorting problems may also exist with the proprietary dopant in YIG; (4) lithium ferrite and YIG cathode were not single phase materials. Assessment of the chemical stability, i.e., dopant loss, was severely impeded by dissolution of these second phases in the electrolyte; and (5) Magnesium doped lithium manganite warrants further work. Electrolytes should contain Mg ions to suppress dopant loss.

  13. Simulated coal-gas-fueled molten carbonate fuel cell development program

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.H.

    1992-07-01

    In previous work, International Fuel Cells Corporation (EFC) found interactions between molten carbonate fuel cell cathode materials being considered as replacements for the presently used nickel oxide and matrix materials. Consequently, this work was conducted to screen additional new materials for mutual compatibility. As part of this program, experiments were performed to examine the compatibility of several candidate, alternative cathode materials with the standard lithium aluminate matrix material in the presence of electrolyte at cell potentials. Initial cathode candidates were materials lithium ferrite, yttrium iron garnet, lithium manganite and doped ceria which were developed by universities, national laboratories, or contractors to DOE, EPRI, or GRI. These investigations were conducted in laboratory scale experiments. None of the materials tested can directly replace nickel oxide or indicate greater stability of cell performance than afforded by nickel oxide. Specifically: (1) no further work on niobium doped ceria is warranted; (2) cobalt migration was found in the lithium ferrite cathode tested. This could possibly lead to shorting problems similiar to those encountered with nickel oxide; (3) Possible shorting problems may also exist with the proprietary dopant in YIG; (4) lithium ferrite and YIG cathode were not single phase materials. Assessment of the chemical stability, i.e., dopant loss, was severely impeded by dissolution of these second phases in the electrolyte; and (5) Magnesium doped lithium manganite warrants further work. Electrolytes should contain Mg ions to suppress dopant loss.

  14. Landfill gas cleanup for carbonate fuel cell power generation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfield, G.; Sanderson, R.

    1998-02-01

    Landfill gas represents a significant fuel resource both in the US and worldwide. The emissions of landfill gas from existing landfills has become an environmental liability contributing to global warming and causing odor problems. Landfill gas has been used to fuel reciprocating engines and gas turbines, and may also be used to fuel carbonate fuel cells. Carbonate fuel cells have high conversion efficiencies and use the carbon dioxide present in landfill gas as an oxidant. There are, however, a number of trace contaminants in landfill gas that contain chlorine and sulfur which are deleterious to fuel cell operation. Long-term economical operation of fuel cells fueled with landfill gas will, therefore, require cleanup of the gas to remove these contaminants. The overall objective of the work reported here was to evaluate the extent to which conventional contaminant removal processes could be combined to economically reduce contaminant levels to the specifications for carbonate fuel cells. A pilot plant cleaned approximately 970,000 scf of gas over 1,000 hours of operation. The testing showed that the process could achieve the following polished gas concentrations: less than 80 ppbv hydrogen sulfide; less than 1 ppmv (the detection limit) organic sulfur; less than 300 ppbv hydrogen chloride; less than 20--80 ppbv of any individual chlorinated hydrocarbon; and 1.5 ppm sulfur dioxide.

  15. Humidifier for fuel cell using high conductivity carbon foam

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W.; Stinton, David P.

    2006-12-12

    A method and apparatus of supplying humid air to a fuel cell is disclosed. The extremely high thermal conductivity of some graphite foams lends itself to enhance significantly the ability to humidify supply air for a fuel cell. By utilizing a high conductivity pitch-derived graphite foam, thermal conductivity being as high as 187 W/m.dot.K, the heat from the heat source is more efficiently transferred to the water for evaporation, thus the system does not cool significantly due to the evaporation of the water and, consequently, the air reaches a higher humidity ratio.

  16. Simulated Coal-Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This final report summarizes the technical work performed under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-91MC27393, ``Simulated Coal- Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program.`` This work consists of five major tasks and their respective subtasks as listed below. A brief description of each task is also provided. The Stack Design Requirements task focused on requirements and specification for designing, constructing, and testing a nominal 100-kilowatt integrated stack and on requirements for the balance-of-plant equipment to support a 1000-kilowatt integrated stack demonstrator. The Stack Design Preparation task focused on the mechanical design of a 100-kilowatt stack comprised of 8-ft{sup 2} cells incorporating the new cell configuration and component technology improvements developed in the previous DOE MCFC contract. Electrode Casting focused on developing a faster drying solvent for use in the electrode tape casting process. Electrode Heat Treatment was directed at scaling up the laboratory continuous debinding process to a new full-size IFC debinding oven coupled to a continuous belt furnace that will both debind and sinter the electrodes in one continuous process train. Repeat Part Quality Assurance and Testing provided the appropriate effort to ensure consistent, high-quality, reproducible and comparable repeat parts.

  17. Simulated Coal-Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This final report summarizes the technical work performed under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-91MC27393, Simulated Coal- Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program.'' This work consists of five major tasks and their respective subtasks as listed below. A brief description of each task is also provided. The Stack Design Requirements task focused on requirements and specification for designing, constructing, and testing a nominal 100-kilowatt integrated stack and on requirements for the balance-of-plant equipment to support a 1000-kilowatt integrated stack demonstrator. The Stack Design Preparation task focused on the mechanical design of a 100-kilowatt stack comprised of 8-ft[sup 2] cells incorporating the new cell configuration and component technology improvements developed in the previous DOE MCFC contract. Electrode Casting focused on developing a faster drying solvent for use in the electrode tape casting process. Electrode Heat Treatment was directed at scaling up the laboratory continuous debinding process to a new full-size IFC debinding oven coupled to a continuous belt furnace that will both debind and sinter the electrodes in one continuous process train. Repeat Part Quality Assurance and Testing provided the appropriate effort to ensure consistent, high-quality, reproducible and comparable repeat parts.

  18. Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

  19. Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

  20. Novel carbon-ion fuel cells. Quarterly technical report, April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Cocks, F.H.

    1996-11-01

    This report presents research to develop a new type of of fuel cell using a solid electrolyte that transports carbon ions. This new class of fuel cell would use solid C dissolved in molten metal (carbide) as a fuel reservoir and anode; thus expensive gas or liquid fuel would not be required. Thermodynamic efficiency of carbon-ion fuel cells is reviewed, as are electrolyte crystal structures (oxide and fluorite carbides). The sequence of laboratory research procedures for developing a solid C-ion electrolyte and to determine the ionic conductivity of C ions therein is outlined; results of the laboratory research to date are summarized, including XRD analysis of crystal structures and transition temperatures of carbides (La, Ce, Be, Al) and SIMS of carbon isotopes.

  1. Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell performance analysis varying cathode operating conditions for carbon capture applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audasso, Emilio; Barelli, Linda; Bidini, Gianni; Bosio, Barbara; Discepoli, Gabriele

    2017-04-01

    The results of a systematic experimental campaign to verify the impact of real operating conditions on the performance of a complete Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) are presented. In particular, the effects of ageing and composition of water, oxygen and carbon dioxide in the cathodic feeding stream are studied through the analysis of current-voltage curves and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Based on a proposed equivalent electrical circuit model and a fitting procedure, a correlation is found among specific operating parameters and single EIS coefficients. The obtained results suggest a new performance monitoring approach to be applied to MCFC for diagnostic purpose. Particular attention is devoted to operating conditions characteristic of MCFC application as CO2 concentrators, which, by feeding the cathode with exhaust gases, is a promising route for efficient and cheap carbon capture.

  2. Novel Application of Carbonate Fuel Cell for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Jolly, Stephen; Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Willman, Carl; Patel, Dilip; DiNitto, M.; Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Steen, William A.

    2015-09-30

    To address concerns about climate change resulting from emission of CO2 by coal-fueled power plants, FuelCell Energy, Inc. has developed the Combined Electric Power and Carbon-dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system concept. The CEPACS system utilizes Electrochemical Membrane (ECM) technology derived from the Company’s Direct FuelCell® products. The system separates the CO2 from the flue gas of other plants and produces electric power using a supplementary fuel. FCE is currently evaluating the use of ECM to cost effectively separate CO2 from the flue gas of Pulverized Coal (PC) power plants under a U.S. Department of Energy contract. The overarching objective of the project is to verify that the ECM can achieve at least 90% CO2 capture from the flue gas with no more than 35% increase in the cost of electricity. The project activities include: 1) laboratory scale operational and performance tests of a membrane assembly, 2) performance tests of the membrane to evaluate the effects of impurities present in the coal plant flue gas, in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 3) techno-economic analysis for an ECM-based CO2 capture system applied to a 550 MW existing PC plant, in partnership with URS Corporation, and 4) bench scale (11.7 m2 area) testing of an ECM-based CO2 separation and purification system.

  3. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the technical results of a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant development program to establish the necessary technology base and demonstrate readiness to proceed with the fabrication and test of full-size prototype stacks for coal fueled molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. A broad, comprehensive effort covered power plant systems studies, fuel cell component technology development, fuel cell stack design and analysis, manufacturing process definition, and an extensive experimental program. The reported results include: the definition and projected costs for a reference coal fueled power plant system based on user requirements, state-of-the-art advances in anode and electrolyte matrix technology, the detailed description of an internally manifolded stack design concept offering a number of attractive advantages, and the specification of the fabrication processes and methods necessary to produce and assemble this design. Results from the experimental program are documented to verify that a repeatable, high level of performance was achieved, with system derived gas-conditions, for small scale cells. In addition, the status of work is reported for alternate cathode development, electrolyte management, corrosion studies, contaminant effects and other areas related to fuel cell materials selection and component definition. Areas requiring further development or demonstration are identified. The reported results provide a technical basis for proceeding with the scale-up and optimization of the molten carbonate fuel cell design.

  4. Porous electrolyte retainer for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Raj N.; Dusek, Joseph T.

    1983-06-21

    A porous tile for retaining molten electrolyte within a fuel cell is prepared by sintering particles of lithium aluminate into a stable structure. The tile is assembled between two porous metal plates which serve as electrodes with fuels gases such as H.sub.2 and CO opposite to oxidant gases such as O.sub.2 and CO.sub.2. The tile is prepared with a porosity of 55-65% and a pore size distribution selected to permit release of sufficient molten electrolyte to wet but not to flood the adjacent electrodes.

  5. Porous electrolyte retainer for molten carbonate fuel cell. [lithium aluminate

    DOEpatents

    Singh, R.N.; Dusek, J.T.

    1979-12-27

    A porous tile for retaining molten electrolyte within a fuel cell is prepared by sintering particles of lithium aluminate into a stable structure. The tile is assembled between two porous metal plates which serve as electrodes with fuels gases such as H/sub 2/ and CO opposite to oxidant gases such as O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/. The tile is prepared with a porosity of 55 to 65% and a pore size distribution selected to permit release of sufficient molten electrolyte to wet but not to flood the adjacent electrodes.

  6. Effects of H2S on molten carbonate fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remick, R. J.

    1985-06-01

    Phase 2 work was directed toward determination of the impact of H2S contaminants upon the ability of nickel-10% chromium anodes to catalyze the steam reforming reaction. Small amounts of three hydrocarbons representative of three homologous series were added to the fuel. These series were the paraffin series with methane as its representative, the olefin series with ethylene and the aromatics with toluene. Results indicated that the nickel-10% chromium anode had little catalytic activity toward the steam reforming of methane, but the steam reform did have 70% of the ethylene and about 30% of the toluene. The addition of 5 ppM hydrogen sulfide to the fuel totally poisoned all steam reforming activity. Phase 3 work addressed the impact on cell performance of SO2 in the oxidant gases. The cell was operated for 200 hours on clean fuel and oxidant. After baseline data had been collected, the cell was switched to an oxidant supply that contained 2 ppM of SO2. After 170 hours of operation on contaminated oxidant, no SO2 could be detected in the oxidant exhaust although 200 ppM of H2S were present in the fuel exhaust steam.

  7. Simulated coal-gas fueled carbonate fuel cell power plant system verification. Final report, September 1990--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes work performed under U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) Contract DE-AC-90MC27168 for September 1990 through March 1995. Energy Research Corporation (ERC), with support from DOE, EPRI, and utilities, has been developing a carbonate fuel cell technology. ERC`s design is a unique direct fuel cell (DFC) which does not need an external fuel reformer. An alliance was formed with a representative group of utilities and, with their input, a commercial entry product was chosen. The first 2 MW demonstration unit was planned and construction begun at Santa Clara, CA. A conceptual design of a 10OMW-Class dual fuel power plant was developed; economics of natural gas versus coal gas use were analyzed. A facility was set up to manufacture 2 MW/yr of carbonate fuel cell stacks. A 100kW-Class subscale power plant was built and several stacks were tested. This power plant has achieved an efficiency of {approximately}50% (LHV) from pipeline natural gas to direct current electricity conversion. Over 6,000 hours of operation including 5,000 cumulative hours of stack operation were demonstrated. One stack was operated on natural gas at 130 kW, which is the highest carbonate fuel cell power produced to date, at 74% fuel utilization, with excellent performance distribution across the stack. In parallel, carbonate fuel cell performance has been improved, component materials have been proven stable with lifetimes projected to 40,000 hours. Matrix strength, electrolyte distribution, and cell decay rate have been improved. Major progress has been achieved in lowering stack cost.

  8. The study of integrated coal-gasifier molten carbonate fuel cell systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A novel integration concept for a coal-fueled coal gasifier-molten carbonate fuel cell power plant was studied. Effort focused on determining the efficiency potential of the concept, design, and development requirements of the processes in order to achieve the efficiency. The concept incorporates a methane producing catalytic gasifier of the type previously under development by Exxon Research and Development Corp., a reforming molten carbonate fuel cell power section of the type currently under development by United Technologies Corp., and a gasifier-fuel cell recycle loop. The concept utilizes the fuel cell waste heat, in the form of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, to generate additional fuel in the coal gasifier, thereby eliminating the use of both an O2 plant and a stream bottoming cycle from the power plant. The concept has the potential for achieving coal-pile-to-busbar efficiencies of 50-59%, depending on the process configuration and degree of process configuration and degree of process development requirements. This is significantly higher than any previously reported gasifier-molten carbonate fuel cell system.

  9. Performance of polyacrylonitrile-carbon nanotubes composite on carbon cloth as electrode material for microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Il; Lee, Jae-Wook; Roh, Sung-Hee

    2011-02-01

    The performance of carbon nanotubes composite-modified carbon cloth electrodes in two-chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC) was investigated. The electrode modified with polyacrylonitrile-carbon nanotubes (PAN-CNTs) composite showed better electrochemical performance than that of plain carbon cloth. The MFC with the composite-modified anode containing 5 mg/cm2 PAN-CNTs exhibited a maximum power density of 480 mW/m2.

  10. Development of Carbon and Sulphur Tolerant Anodes of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-14

    ABSTRACT  The objective of the project is to develop carbon and sulfur tolerant anodes of solid oxide fuel cells ( SOFCs ). Due to the complicity...LSCM/YSZ) composite anode is investigated in detail for the direct utilization of ethanol and methane (the main component of natural gas) in SOFCs ...demonstrate that the Pd-impregnated LSCM/YSZ composite is a promising carbon-tolerant anode for natural gas fuel-based SOFCs . The electrochemical

  11. Novel carbon-ion fuel cells. Quarterly technical report No. 10, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Cocks, F.H.

    1996-08-01

    This report presents research to develop an entirely new, fundamentally different class of fuel cell using a solid electrolyte that transports carbon ions. This fuel cell would use solid carbon dissolved in molten metal as a fuel reservoir and anode; expensive gaseous or liquid fuel would not be required. A high temperature fuel cell based on a carbon ion membrane/electrolyte would operate in a way like yttria-doped zirconia solid oxide fuel cells; however, the fuel cell would transport the C ion from a fuel source to O{sub 2} in the atmosphere. Such fuel cells, operating above 1000 C, would produce an exhaust gas that could be fed directly into existing boilers, and could thus act as ``topping cycles`` to existing power plant steam cycles.

  12. Oxygen electrode reaction in molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report, September 15, 1987--September 14, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Dave, Bhasker B.

    1992-07-07

    Molten carbonate fuel cell system is a leading candidate for the utility power generation because of its high efficiency for fuel to AC power conversion, capability for an internal reforming, and a very low environmental impact. However, the performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell is limited by the oxygen reduction reaction and the cell life time is limited by the stability of the cathode material. An elucidation of oxygen reduction reaction in molten alkali carbonate is essential because overpotential losses in the molten carbonate fuel cell are considerably greater at the oxygen cathode than at the fuel anode. Oxygen reduction on a fully-immersed gold electrode in a lithium carbonate melt was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry to determine electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters. The dependences of electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters on gas composition and temperature were examined to determine the reaction orders and the activation energies. The results showed that oxygen reduction in a pure lithium carbonate melt occurs via the peroxide mechanism. A mass transfer parameter, DO1/2CO, estimated by the cyclic voltammetry concurred with that calculated by the EIS technique. The temperature dependence of the exchange current density and the product DO1/2CO were examined and the apparent activation energies were determined to be about 122 and 175 kJ/ mol, respectively.

  13. The Yeast Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Routes Carbon Fluxes to Fuel Cell Cycle Progression.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Jennifer C; Kuehne, Andreas; Zamboni, Nicola; Skotheim, Jan M

    2016-05-19

    Cell division entails a sequence of processes whose specific demands for biosynthetic precursors and energy place dynamic requirements on metabolism. However, little is known about how metabolic fluxes are coordinated with the cell division cycle. Here, we examine budding yeast to show that more than half of all measured metabolites change significantly through the cell division cycle. Cell cycle-dependent changes in central carbon metabolism are controlled by the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk1), a major cell cycle regulator, and the metabolic regulator protein kinase A. At the G1/S transition, Cdk1 phosphorylates and activates the enzyme Nth1, which funnels the storage carbohydrate trehalose into central carbon metabolism. Trehalose utilization fuels anabolic processes required to reliably complete cell division. Thus, the cell cycle entrains carbon metabolism to fuel biosynthesis. Because the oscillation of Cdk activity is a conserved feature of the eukaryotic cell cycle, we anticipate its frequent use in dynamically regulating metabolism for efficient proliferation.

  14. Molten carbonate fuel cell networks: Principles, analysis, and performance. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Wimer, J.G.; Williams, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The chemical reactions in an internally reforming molten carbonate fuel cell (IRMCFC) are described and combined into the overall IRMCFC reaction. Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles are discussed, and structure and operation of fuel cell stacks are explained. In networking, multiple fuel cell stacks are arranged so that reactant streams are fed and recycled through stacks in series, for higher reactant utilization and increased system efficiency. Advantages and performance of networked and conventional systems are compared, using ASPEN simulations. The concept of networking can be applied to any electrochemical membrane, such as that developed for hot gas cleanup in future power plants. 2 tabs, 16 figs, 9 refs.

  15. Economic analysis of a combined heat and power molten carbonate fuel cell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hengeveld, Derek W.; Revankar, Shripad T.

    Fuel cells can be attractive for use as stationary combined heat and power (CHP) systems. Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plants are prime candidates for the utilization of fossil based fuels to generate high efficiency ultra clean power. However, fuel cells are considerably more expensive than comparable conventional technologies and therefore a careful analysis of the economics must be taken. This work presents analysis on the feasibility of installing both a FuelCell Energy DFC ® 1500MA and 300MA system for use at Adams Thermal Systems, a manufacturing facility in the U.S. Midwest. The paper examined thoroughly the economics driving the appropriateness of this measure. In addition, a parametric study was conducted to determine scenarios including variation in electric and natural gas rates along with reduced installation costs.

  16. Creep resistant, metal-coated LiFeO.sub.2 anodes for molten carbonated fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Khandkar, Ashok C.

    1994-01-01

    A porous, creep-resistant, metal-coated, LiFeO.sub.2 ceramic electrode for fuel cells is disclosed. The electrode is particularly useful for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) although it may have utilities in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as well.

  17. Creep resistant, metal-coated LiFeO[sub 2] anodes for molten carbonated fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Khandkar, A.C.

    1994-08-23

    A porous, creep-resistant, metal-coated, LiFeO[sub 2] ceramic electrode for fuel cells is disclosed. The electrode is particularly useful for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) although it may have utilities in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as well. 11 figs.

  18. Electrolyte matrix in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack

    DOEpatents

    Reiser, Carl A.; Maricle, Donald L.

    1987-04-21

    A fuel cell stack is disclosed with modified electrolyte matrices for limiting the electrolytic pumping and electrolyte migration along the stack external surfaces. Each of the matrices includes marginal portions at the stack face of substantially greater pore size than that of the central body of the matrix. Consequently, these marginal portions have insufficient electrolyte fill to support pumping or wicking of electrolyte from the center of the stack of the face surfaces in contact with the vertical seals. Various configurations of the marginal portions include a complete perimeter, opposite edge portions corresponding to the air plenums and tab size portions corresponding to the manifold seal locations. These margins will substantially limit the migration of electrolyte to and along the porous manifold seals during operation of the electrochemical cell stack.

  19. Electrolyte matrix in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack

    DOEpatents

    Reiser, C.A.; Maricle, D.L.

    1987-04-21

    A fuel cell stack is disclosed with modified electrolyte matrices for limiting the electrolytic pumping and electrolyte migration along the stack external surfaces. Each of the matrices includes marginal portions at the stack face of substantially greater pore size than that of the central body of the matrix. Consequently, these marginal portions have insufficient electrolyte fill to support pumping or wicking of electrolyte from the center of the stack of the face surfaces in contact with the vertical seals. Various configurations of the marginal portions include a complete perimeter, opposite edge portions corresponding to the air plenums and tab size portions corresponding to the manifold seal locations. These margins will substantially limit the migration of electrolyte to and along the porous manifold seals during operation of the electrochemical cell stack. 6 figs.

  20. Fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, has supported and managed a fuel cell research and development (R and D) program since 1976. Responsibility for implementing DOE's fuel cell program, which includes activities related to both fuel cells and fuel cell systems, has been assigned to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. The total United States effort of the private and public sectors in developing fuel cell technology is referred to as the National Fuel Cell Program (NFCP). The goal of the NFCP is to develop fuel cell power plants for base-load and dispersed electric utility systems, industrial cogeneration, and on-site applications. To achieve this goal, the fuel cell developers, electric and gas utilities, research institutes, and Government agencies are working together. Four organized groups are coordinating the diversified activities of the NFCP. The status of the overall program is reviewed in detail.

  1. Novel carbon-ion fuel cells. Quarterly technical report No. 9, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Cocks, F.H.

    1995-12-31

    This report presents research to develop an entirely new, fundamentally different class of fuel cell using a solid electrolyte that transports carbon ions. This fuel cell would use solid carbon dissolved in molten metal as a fuel reservoir and anode; expensive gaseous or liquid fuel would not be required. Thermodynamic factors favor a carbon-ion fuel cell over other fuel cell designs: a combination of enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy makes the reaction of solid carbon and oxygen very efficient, and the entropy change allows this efficiency to slightly increase at high temperatures. The high temperature exhaust of the fuel cell would make it useful as a ``topping cycle``, to be followed by conventional steam turbine systems.

  2. Major design issues of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation unit

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.P.

    1996-04-01

    In addition to the stack, a fuel cell power generation unit requires fuel desulfurization and reforming, fuel and oxidant preheating, process heat removal, waste heat recovery, steam generation, oxidant supply, power conditioning, water supply and treatment, purge gas supply, instrument air supply, and system control. These support facilities add considerable cost and system complexity. Bechtel, as a system integrator of M-C Power`s molten carbonate fuel cell development team, has spent substantial effort to simplify and minimize these supporting facilities to meet cost and reliability goals for commercialization. Similiar to other fuels cells, MCFC faces design challenge of how to comply with codes and standards, achieve high efficiency and part load performance, and meanwhile minimize utility requirements, weight, plot area, and cost. However, MCFC has several unique design issues due to its high operating temperature, use of molten electrolyte, and the requirement of CO2 recycle.

  3. Novel niobium carbide/carbon porous nanotube electrocatalyst supports for proton exchange membrane fuel cell cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabil, Y.; Cavaliere, S.; Harkness, I. A.; Sharman, J. D. B.; Jones, D. J.; Rozière, J.

    2017-09-01

    Niobium carbide/carbon nanotubular porous structures have been prepared using electrospinning and used as electrocatalyst supports for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. They were functionalised with 3.1 nm Pt particles synthesised by a microwave-assisted polyol method and characterised for their electrochemical properties. The novel NbC-based electrocatalyst demonstrated electroactivity towards the oxygen reduction reaction as well as greater stability over high potential cycling than a commercial carbon-based electrocatalyst. Pt/NbC/C was integrated at the cathode of a membrane electrode assembly and characterised in a single fuel cell showing promising activity and power density.

  4. Integrated carbon composite bipolar plate for polymer-electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ha Na; Hwang, In Uk; Kim, Seong Su; Lee, Dai Gil

    The electrical resistance of bipolar plates for polymer-electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) should be very low to conduct the electricity generated with minimum electrical loss. The resistance of a bipolar plate consists of the bulk material resistance and the interfacial contact resistance when two such plates are contacted to provide channels for fuel and air (oxygen) supplies. Since the interfacial contact resistance is much larger than the bulk resistance in an actual fuel cell stack, an integrated carbon composite bipolar plate is developed in this study to eliminate the contact resistance between contacting bipolar plates. To fabricate this plate with channels for fuel, air and coolant, many stainless-steel pipes of 1 mm diameter are uniformly embedded in the carbon fiber/epoxy composite prepreg and co-cured. The contact resistance, flexural strength and thermal degradation temperatures of the developed composite bipolar plate are then measured.

  5. Carbon ionic diffusion in mixed lanthanide dicarbides for use in novel carbon-ion fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Walker Neal

    2001-07-01

    Solid ionic electrolytes are a major concern in fuel cell development, but only a few compounds are known to be superionic. The fluorite structure, in particular, has been the basis for several superionic conductors of F -, I-, and O2- ions. Rare earth carbides of the form LnC2 (where Ln refers to any element of the lanthanide series) have the fluorite structure when they are above their transition temperatures, which vary from 350°C (EuC2 ) to 1450°C (LuC2). The carbon atoms in these compounds reside as anions in tetragonal positions equivalent to the positions of the mobile ions, F- and O2- in the known superionic conductors CaF2 and Zr0.8Y0.2O 2. These cubic lanthanide carbide compounds could potentially be good ionic conductors for carbon. The discovery of a material with a high carbon ion conductivity would be a major scientific advance, opening the possibility of an entirely new class of fuel cells that could convert carbon directly to CO/CO2 and produce electric power without combustion. In order to stabilize the cubic fluorite structure to low temperatures, a mixture of two different lanthanide dicarbides must be formed. The lanthanide carbides having a stabilized fluorite structure that have been produced in this research are mixtures of La0.5Er0.5C2, Ce0.5Er0.5C2, and La0.5Y 0.5C2. Aluminum carbide, Al4C3, has also been investigated as a potential carbon ionic conductor. Although Al4C3 does not possess the fluorite crystal structure, it is of interest because the carbon atoms reside as single 4- ions rather than C22- ion pairs found in most carbides. The lanthanide dicarbides were synthesized by reacting mixtures of Ln 2O3 and amorphous 13C under vacuum at high temperatures (>1600°C), using a number of newly developed synthesis techniques. The diffusion coefficients for La0.5-Er0.5C 2 have been found to be approximately 2.0 • 10-13 cm2/sec at 850°C increasing to 1.7 • 10 -12 cm2/sec at 1150°C, which values are not in the range of superionic

  6. Advanced power systems featuring a closely coupled catalytic gasification carbonate fuel cell plant

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, G.; Wilson, W.G.

    1993-06-01

    Pursuing the key national goal of clean and efficient uulization of the abundant domestic coal resources for power generation, a study was conducted with DOE/METC support to evaluate the potential of integrated gasification/carbonate fuel cell power generation systems. By closely coupling the fuel cell with the operation of a catalytic gasifier, the advantages of both the catalytic gasification and the high efficiency fuel cell complement each other, resulting in a power plant system with unsurpassed efficiencies approaching 55% (HHV). Low temperature catalytic gasification producing a high methane fuel gas offers the potential for high gas efficiencies by operating with minimal or no combustion. Heat required for gasification is provided by combination of recycle from the fuel cell and exothermic methanation and shift reactions. Air can be supplemented if required. In combination with internally reforming carbonate fuel cells, low temperature catalytic gasification can achieve very attractive system efficiencies while producing extremely low emissions compared to conventional plants utilizing coal. Three system configurations based on recoverable and disposable gasification catalysts were studied. Experimental tests were conducted to evaluate these gasification catalysts. The recoverable catalyst studied was potassium carbonate, and the disposable catalysts were calcium in the form of limestone and iron in the form of taconite. Reactivities of limestone and iron were lower than that of potassium, but were improved by using the catalyst in solution form. Promising results were obtained in the system evaluations as well as the experimental testing of the gasification catalysts. To realize the potential of these high efficiency power plant systems more effort is required to develop catalytic gasification systems and their integration with carbonate fuel cells.

  7. Advanced power systems featuring a closely coupled catalytic gasification carbonate fuel cell plant

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, G.; Wilson, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    Pursuing the key national goal of clean and efficient uulization of the abundant domestic coal resources for power generation, a study was conducted with DOE/METC support to evaluate the potential of integrated gasification/carbonate fuel cell power generation systems. By closely coupling the fuel cell with the operation of a catalytic gasifier, the advantages of both the catalytic gasification and the high efficiency fuel cell complement each other, resulting in a power plant system with unsurpassed efficiencies approaching 55% (HHV). Low temperature catalytic gasification producing a high methane fuel gas offers the potential for high gas efficiencies by operating with minimal or no combustion. Heat required for gasification is provided by combination of recycle from the fuel cell and exothermic methanation and shift reactions. Air can be supplemented if required. In combination with internally reforming carbonate fuel cells, low temperature catalytic gasification can achieve very attractive system efficiencies while producing extremely low emissions compared to conventional plants utilizing coal. Three system configurations based on recoverable and disposable gasification catalysts were studied. Experimental tests were conducted to evaluate these gasification catalysts. The recoverable catalyst studied was potassium carbonate, and the disposable catalysts were calcium in the form of limestone and iron in the form of taconite. Reactivities of limestone and iron were lower than that of potassium, but were improved by using the catalyst in solution form. Promising results were obtained in the system evaluations as well as the experimental testing of the gasification catalysts. To realize the potential of these high efficiency power plant systems more effort is required to develop catalytic gasification systems and their integration with carbonate fuel cells.

  8. Synthesization of SnO2-modified carbon nanotubes and their application in microbial fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi-Bo; Xiong, Shi-Chang; Guan, Yu-Jiang; Zhu, Xue-Qiang

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the synthesization of SnO2-modified carbon nanotubes and their application in microbial fuel cell. With the chemical vapor deposition technique, carbon nanotubes growing in situ on a carbon felt are obtained. A SnO2 sol was applied to the carbon felt to prepare a SnO2-modified carbon nanotubes. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed that SnO2 existed in the prepared samples. Using the prepared samples as anode electrodes, flexible graphite as cathode, and glucose solution as substrate in microbial fuel cell, the effects of the temperature, substrate concentration, and electrodes on removal rates for chemical oxygen demand and the performance of microbial fuel cell have been analyzed. With substrate concentration of 1500 mg L-1, the microbial fuel cell had an optimal output voltage of 563 mV and a removal rate of 78 % for chemical oxygen demand at 311 K. The composite electrodes are stable and reusable.

  9. Tilted fuel cell apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine; Krueger, Roger L.

    2005-04-12

    Bipolar, tilted embodiments of high temperature, molten electrolyte electrochemical cells capable of directly converting carbon fuel to electrical energy are disclosed herein. The bipolar, tilted configurations minimize the electrical resistance between one cell and others connected in electrical series. The tilted configuration also allows continuous refueling of carbon fuel.

  10. Theoretical Design and Experimental Evaluation of Molten Carbonate Modified LSM Cathode for Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-07

    Min Lee, Kevin Huang. Mixed Oxide-Ion and Carbonate-Ion Conductors (MOCCs) as Electrolyte Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, 218th ECS Meeting... Solid Oxide Fuel Cells The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an official...ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, Oxygen Reduction, Molten Carbonate

  11. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  12. Characterisation of porous carbon electrode materials used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells via gas adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt-Smith, M. J.; Rigby, S. P.; Ralph, T. R.; Walsh, F. C.

    Porous carbon materials are typically used in both the substrate (typically carbon paper) and the electrocatalyst supports (often platinised carbon) within proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Gravimetric nitrogen adsorption has been studied at a carbon paper substrate, two different Pt-loaded carbon paper electrodes and three particulate carbon blacks. N 2 BET surface areas and surface fractal dimensions were determined using the fractal BET and Frenkel-Halsey-Hill models for all but one of the materials studied. The fractal dimensions of the carbon blacks obtained from gas adsorption were compared with those obtained independently by small angle X-ray scattering and showed good agreement. Density functional theory was used to characterise one of the carbon blacks, as the standard BET model was not applicable.

  13. Effect of carbon deposition by carbon monoxide disproportionation on electrochemical characteristics at low temperature operation for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumi, Hirofumi; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Muroyama, Hiroki; Matsui, Toshiaki; Kamijo, Motohisa; Mimuro, Shin; Yamanaka, Mitsugu; Nakajima, Yasushi; Eguchi, Koichi

    2011-05-01

    The deterioration by carbon deposition was evaluated for electrolyte- and anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) in comparison with carbon monoxide disproportionation and methane cracking. The polarization resistance of the nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) anode increased with a rise in CO concentration in H2-CO-CO2 mixture for the electrolyte-supported cells at 923 K. The resistance, however, did not change against CO concentration for the anode-supported cells. In a methane fuel with a steam/carbon (S/C) ratio of 0.1, the cell performance decreased for both of the cells at 1073 K. A large amount of agglomerated amorphous carbon was deposited from the anode surface to the interface between the anode and the electrolyte after power generation at S/C = 0.1 in methane fuel. On the other hand, the crystalline graphite was deposited only at the anode surface for the anode-supported cell after power generation in CO-CO2 mixture. These results suggest that the reaction rate of CO disproportionation is faster than that of methane cracking. The deposited carbon near the anode/electrolyte interface caused the increase in the polarization resistance.

  14. Performance of an internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell supplied with ethanol/water mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Freni, S.; Maggio, G.; Barone, F.

    1996-12-31

    The state of an on the field of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) systems covers many technological aspects related to the use of these systems for the production of electricity. In this respect, extensive research efforts have been made to develop a technology using the methane based on the steam reforming process, and different configurations have been analyzed and their performance determined for several operative cell conditions. However, the operative temperature (T-923 K) of the MCFC. that allows the direct conversion of hydrocarbons or alcohols into H{sub 2} and CO, promotes researches in the field of alternative fuels, more easily transported and reformed compared to methane. In this paper are described the most indicative results obtained by a study that considers the use of water/ethanol mixture as an attractive alternative to the methane for a molten carbonate fuel cell.

  15. Carbon-based composite electrocatalysts for low temperature fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Branko N.; Lee, Jog-Won; Subramanian, Nalini P.; Kumaraguru, Swaminatha P.; Colon-Mercado, Hector R.; Nallathambi, Vijayadurga; Li, Xuguang; Wu, Gang

    2009-12-08

    A process for synthesis of a catalyst is provided. The process includes providing a carbon precursor material, oxidizing the carbon precursor material whereby an oxygen functional group is introduced into the carbon precursor material, and adding a nitrogen functional group into the oxidized carbon precursor material.

  16. Landfill gas cleanup for carbonate fuel cell power generation. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, G; Sanderson, R

    1998-02-01

    The overall objective of the work reported here was to evaluate the extent to which conventional contaminant removal processes could be combined to economically reduce contaminant levels to the specifications for carbonate fuel cells. The technical effort was conducted by EPRI, consultant David Thimsen, Kaltec of Minnesota, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) and Interpoll Laboratories. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) made available two test skids originally used to test an ERC 30 kW carbonate fuel cell at the Destec Coal Gasification Plan in Plaquemine, LA. EPRI`s carbonate fuel cell pilot plant was installed at the Anoka County Regional Landfill in Ramsey, Minnesota. Additional gas cleaning equipment was installed to evaluate a potentially inexpensive, multi-stage gas cleaning process to remove sulfur and chlorine in the gas to levels acceptable for long-term, economical carbonate fuel cell operation. The pilot plant cleaned approximately 970,000 scf (27,500 Nm{sup 3}) of gas over 1,000 hours of operation. The testing showed that the process could achieve the following polished gas concentrations. Less than 80 ppbv hydrogen sulfide; less than 1 ppmv (the detection limit) organic sulfur; less than 300 ppbv hydrogen chloride; less than 20--80 ppbv of any individual chlorined hydrocarbon; and 1.5 ppm sulfur dioxide. These were the detection limits of the analytical procedures employed. It is probable that the actual concentrations are below these analytical limits.

  17. Catalytic properties of composite amorphous carbon-platinum layers in fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nechitailov, A. A. Zvonareva, T. K.; Remenyuk, A. D.; Tolmachev, V. A.; Goryachev, D. N.; El'tsina, O. S.; Belyakov, L. V.; Sreseli, O. M.

    2008-10-15

    Catalytic properties of composite amorphous carbon-platinum layers produced by magnetron cosputtering have been studied. The layers were characterized by electron microscopy, IR spectroscopy, ellipsometry, gravimetry, and spectrophotometric chemical analysis. The catalytic activity of the layers was studied in an air-hydrogen fuel cell by measuring its load and power characteristics.

  18. Bipolar fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    McElroy, James F.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention discloses an improved fuel cell utilizing an ion transporting membrane having a catalytic anode and a catalytic cathode bonded to opposite sides of the membrane, a wet-proofed carbon sheet in contact with the cathode surface opposite that bonded to the membrane and a bipolar separator positioned in electrical contact with the carbon sheet and the anode of the adjacent fuel cell. Said bipolar separator and carbon sheet forming an oxidant flowpath, wherein the improvement comprises an electrically conductive screen between and in contact with the wet-proofed carbon sheet and the bipolar separator improving the product water removal system of the fuel cell.

  19. Polarization modeling and performance optimization of a molten sodium hydroxide direct carbon fuel cell (MHDCFC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Li; Hao, Jiamao; Li, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yao; Hu, Zhiguang; Gao, Yanfang

    2017-09-01

    An electrochemical model for a molten sodium hydroxide direct carbon fuel cell (MHDCFC) is developed based on electrochemical reaction dynamics, mass transfer, and electrode processes in the cell. Activated carbon and graphite are considered the main fuels, and static and dynamic parameters describing polarizations are taken into account for valuation and optimization of cell performance. Asymmetric reaction compartments are used in the MHDCFC, and the effect of the anodic compartment height on polarization is described first. The cell performance mainly depends on temperature (T), the pressures in the anodic (Pan) and cathodic compartments (Pcat), the anodic compartment height (H1), and the fuel type. Besides, cell performance is affected by ohmic polarization, anode activation polarization, cathode concentration polarization, and cathode activation polarization, in order of precedence. At Pan of 1.8 atm, Pcat of 1.7 atm, H1 of 0.06 m, and T of 773-973 K, the efficiencies (e) of the cells with activated carbon and graphite are higher than 50% at current densities of 0-500 A m-2 and 0-700 A m-2, respectively. The maximum power densities (e > 50%) are achieved for activated carbon and graphite and reach 367.6626 W m-2 and 498.9687 W m-2, respectively.

  20. Carbon monoxide oxidation on Pt single crystal electrodes: understanding the catalysis for low temperature fuel cells.

    PubMed

    García, Gonzalo; Koper, Marc T M

    2011-08-01

    Herein the general concepts of fuel cells are discussed, with special attention to low temperature fuel cells working in alkaline media. Alkaline low temperature fuel cells could well be one of the energy sources in the next future. This technology has the potential to provide power to portable devices, transportation and stationary sectors. With the aim to solve the principal catalytic problems at the anode of low temperature fuel cells, a fundamental study of the mechanism and kinetics of carbon monoxide as well as water dissociation on stepped platinum surfaces in alkaline medium is discussed and compared with those in acidic media. Furthermore, cations involved as promoters for catalytic surface reactions are also considered. Therefore, the aim of the present work is not only to provide the new fundamental advances in the electrocatalysis field, but also to understand the reactions occurring at fuel cell catalysts, which may help to improve the fabrication of novel electrodes in order to enhance the performance and to decrease the cost of low temperature fuel cells.

  1. Electricity generation from wastewaters with starch as carbon source using a mediatorless microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Hernandez, E; Smith, T J; Akid, R

    2013-01-15

    Microbial fuel cells represent a new method for producing electricity from the oxidation of organic matter. A mediatorless microbial fuel cell was developed using Escherichia coli as the active bacterial component with synthetic wastewater of potato extract as the energy source. The two-chamber fuel cell, with a relation of volume between anode and cathode chamber of 8:1, was operated in batch mode. The response was similar to that obtained when glucose was used as the carbon source. The performance characteristics of the fuel cell were evaluated with two different anode and cathode shapes, platinised titanium strip or mesh; the highest maximum power density (502mWm(-2)) was achieved in the microbial fuel cell with mesh electrodes. In addition to electricity generation, the MFC exhibited efficient treatment of wastewater so that significant reduction of initial oxygen demand of wastewater by 61% was observed. These results demonstrate that potato starch can be used for power generation in a mediatorless microbial fuel cell with high removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand.

  2. SPOUTED BED ELECTRODES (SBE) FOR DIRECT UTILIZATION OF CARBON IN FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Calo

    2004-12-01

    This Phase I project was focused on an investigation of spouted bed particulate electrodes for the direct utilization of solid carbon in fuel cells. This approach involves the use of a circulating carbon particle/molten carbonate slurry in the cell that provides a few critical functions: it (1) fuels the cell continuously with entrained carbon particles; (2) brings particles to the anode surfaces hydrodynamically; (3) removes ash from the anode surfaces and the cell hydrodynamically; (4) provides a facile means of cell temperature control due to its large thermal capacitance; (5) provides for electrolyte maintenance and control in the electrode separator(s); and (6) can (potentially) improve carbon conversion rates by ''pre-activating'' carbon particle surfaces via formation of intermediate oxygen surface complexes in the bulk molten carbonate. The approach of this scoping project was twofold: (1) adaptation and application of a CFD code, originally developed to simulate particle circulation in spouted bed electrolytic reactors, to carbon particle circulation in DCFC systems; and (2) experimental investigation of the hydrodynamics of carbon slurry circulation in DCFC systems using simulated slurry mixtures. The CFD model results demonstrated that slurry recirculation can be used to hydrodynamically feed carbon particles to anode surfaces. Variations of internal configurations were investigated in order to explore effects on contacting. It was shown that good contacting with inclined surfaces could be achieved even when the particles are of the same density as the molten carbonate. The use of CO{sub 2} product gas from the fuel cell as a ''lift-gas'' to circulate the slurry was also investigated with the model. The results showed that this is an effective method of slurry circulation; it entrains carbon particles more effectively in the draft duct and produces a somewhat slower recirculation rate, and thus higher residence times on anode surfaces, and can be

  3. Combined Power Generation and Carbon Sequestration Using Direct FuelCell

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2006-03-01

    The unique chemistry of carbonate fuel cell offers an innovative approach for separation of carbon dioxide from greenhouse gases (GHG). The carbonate fuel cell system also produces electric power at high efficiency. The simultaneous generation of power and sequestration of greenhouse gases offer an attractive scenario for re-powering the existing coal-fueled power plants, in which the carbonate fuel cell would separate the carbon dioxide from the flue gas and would generate additional pollutant-free electric power. Development of this system is concurrent with emergence of Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) technology for generation of electric power from fossil fuels. DFC is based on carbonate fuel cell featuring internal reforming. This technology has been deployed in MW-scale power plants and is readily available as a manufactured product. This final report describes the results of the conceptualization study conducted to assess the DFC-based system concept for separation of CO2 from GHG. Design and development studies were focused on integration of the DFC systems with coal-based power plants, which emit large amounts of GHG. In parallel to the system design and simulation activities, operation of laboratory scale DFC verified the technical concept and provided input to the design activity. The system was studied to determine its effectiveness in capturing more than ninety percent of CO2 from the flue gases. Cost analysis was performed to estimate the change in cost of electricity for a 200 MW pulverized coal boiler steam cycle plant retrofitted with the DFC-based CO2 separation system producing an additional 127 MW of electric power. The cost increments as percentage of levelized cost of electricity were estimated for a range of separation plant installations per year and a range of natural gas cost. The parametric envelope meeting the goal (<20% increase in COE) was identified. Results of this feasibility study indicated that DFC-based separation

  4. Non-segregating electrolytes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Krumpelt, M.; Kaun, T.; Lanagan, M.

    1996-08-01

    Current MCFCs use a Li/K carbonate mixture; the segregation increases the K concentration near the cathode, leading to increase cathode solubility and performance decline. ANL is developing molten carbonates that have minimal segregation; the approach is using Li-Na carbonates. In screening tests, fully developed potential distributions were obtained for 4 Li/Na compositions, and performance data were used to compare these.

  5. Study of ceria-carbonate nanocomposite electrolytes for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, L; Wang, C; Di, J; Chen, M; Zheng, J; Zhu, B

    2012-06-01

    Composite and nanocomposite samarium doped ceria-carbonates powders were prepared by solid-state reaction, citric acid-nitrate combustion and modified nanocomposite approaches and used as electrolytes for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells. X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope, low-temperature Nitrogen Adsorption/desorption Experiments, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and fuel cell performance test were employed in characterization of these materials. All powders are nano-size particles with slight aggregation and carbonates are amorphous in composites. Nanocomposite electrolyte exhibits much lower impedance resistance and higher ionic conductivity than those of the other electrolytes at lower temperature. Fuel cell using the electrolyte prepared by modified nanocomposite approach exhibits the best performance in the whole operation temperature range and achieves a maximum power density of 839 mW cm(-2) at 600 degrees C with H2 as fuel. The excellent physical and electrochemical performances of nanocomposite electrolyte make it a promising candidate for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

  6. Method of preparing a dimensionally stable electrode for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Swarr, T.E.; Wnuck, W.G.

    1986-01-29

    A method is disclosed for preparing a dimensionally stable electrode structure, particularly nickel-chromium anodes, for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack. A low-chromium to nickel alloy is provided and oxidized in a mildly oxidizing gas of sufficient oxidation potential to oxidize chromium in the alloy structure. Typically, a steam/H/sub 2/ gas mixture in a ratio of about 100/1 and at a temperature below 800/sup 0/C is used as the oxidizing medium. This method permits the use of less than 5 wt % chromium in nickel alloy electrodes while obtaining good resistance to creep in the electrodes of a fuel cell stack.

  7. Simulation of process for electrical energy production based on molten carbonate fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Simon, G.; Parodi, F.; Fermeglia, M.; Taccani, R.

    A global molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) power plant steady-state simulation is presented. A performance fuel cell numerical model is developed and integrated as a custom block in Aspen plus™for the whole process simulation. The burner/reformer compact unit is built assembling existing Aspen plus™internal blocks. A simulation is obtained with the preliminary input specification to get to the base case and a sensitivity analysis is conducted, in order to find the process parameters whose change improves the global efficiency.

  8. Solid oxide fuel cell bi-layer anode with gadolinia-doped ceria for utilization of solid carbon fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, Isaiah D.; Koylu, Umit O.; Dogan, Fatih

    Pyrolytic carbon was used as fuel in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and a bi-layer anode composed of nickel oxide gadolinia-doped ceria (NiO-GDC) and NiO-YSZ. The common problems of bulk shrinkage and emergent porosity in the YSZ layer adjacent to the GDC/YSZ interface were avoided by using an interlayer of porous NiO-YSZ as a buffer anode layer between the electrolyte and the NiO-GDC primary anode. Cells were fabricated from commercially available component powders so that unconventional production methods suggested in the literature were avoided, that is, the necessity of glycine-nitrate combustion synthesis, specialty multicomponent oxide powders, sputtering, or chemical vapor deposition. The easily-fabricated cell was successfully utilized with hydrogen and propane fuels as well as carbon deposited on the anode during the cyclic operation with the propane. A cell of similar construction could be used in the exhaust stream of a diesel engine to capture and utilize soot for secondary power generation and decreased particulate pollution without the need for filter regeneration.

  9. A Semi-Empirical Two Step Carbon Corrosion Reaction Model in PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Alan; Colbow, Vesna; Harvey, David; Rogers, Erin; Wessel, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The cathode CL of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was exposed to high potentials, 1.0 to 1.4 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), that are typically encountered during start up/shut down operation. While both platinum dissolution and carbon corrosion occurred, the carbon corrosion effects were isolated and modeled. The presented model separates the carbon corrosion process into two reaction steps; (1) oxidation of the carbon surface to carbon-oxygen groups, and (2) further corrosion of the oxidized surface to carbon dioxide/monoxide. To oxidize and corrode the cathode catalyst carbon support, the CL was subjected to an accelerated stress test cycled the potential from 0.6 VRHE to an upper potential limit (UPL) ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 VRHE at varying dwell times. The reaction rate constants and specific capacitances of carbon and platinum were fitted by evaluating the double layer capacitance (Cdl) trends. Carbon surface oxidation increased the Cdl due to increased specific capacitance for carbon surfaces with carbon-oxygen groups, while the second corrosion reaction decreased the Cdl due to loss of the overall carbon surface area. The first oxidation step differed between carbon types, while both reaction rate constants were found to have a dependency on UPL, temperature, and gas relative humidity.

  10. Molten carbonate fuel cell technology improvement. Quarterly technical progress report No. 17 for period ending May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The overall objective of this program is to define a competitive Coal Gasification/Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell power plant and the associated technology development requirements and to develop an improved cell configuration for molten carbonate fuel cans which has improved performance, has reduced cell creep and electrolyte management consistent with 40,000 hour projected life, reduces existing cell cost, and is adaptable to a range of power plant applications.

  11. Nanostructured polypyrrole/carbon composite as Pt catalyst support for fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongbin; Li, Lei; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Yongming

    A novel catalyst support was synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole on Vulcan XC-72 carbon in naphthalene sulfonic acid (NSA) solution containing ammonium persulfate as oxidant at room temperature. Pt nanoparticles with 3-4 nm size were deposited on the prepared polypyrrole-carbon composites by chemical reduction method. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy measurements showed that Pt particles were homogeneously dispersed in polypyrrole-carbon composites. The Pt nanoparticles-dispersed catalyst composites were used as anodes of fuel cells for hydrogen and methanol oxidation. Cyclic voltammetry measurements of hydrogen and methanol oxidation showed that Pt nanoparticles deposited on polypyrrole-carbon with NSA as dopant exhibit better catalytic activity than those on plain carbon. This result might be due to the higher electrochemically available surface areas, electronic conductivity and easier charge-transfer at polymer/carbon particle interfaces allowing a high dispersion and utilization of deposited Pt nanoparticles.

  12. Carbon corrosion in PEM fuel cells during drive cycle operation

    DOE PAGES

    Borup, Rodney L.; Papadias, D. D.; Mukundan, Rangachary; ...

    2015-09-14

    One of the major contributors to degradation involves the electrocatalyst, including the corrosion of the carbons used as catalyst supports, which leads to changes in the catalyst layer structure. We have measured and quantified carbon corrosion during drive cycle operation and as a variation of the upper and lower potential limits used during drive cycle operation. The amount of carbon corrosion is exacerbated by the voltage cycling inherent in the drive cycle compared with constant potential operation. The potential gap between upper and lower potentials appears to be more important than the absolute operating potentials in the normal operating potentialmore » regime (0.40V to 0.95V) as changes in the measured carbon corrosion are similar when the upper potential was lower compared to raising the lower potential. Catalyst layer thinning was observed during the simulated drive cycle operation which had an associated decrease in catalyst layer porosity. This catalyst layer thinning is not due solely to carbon corrosion, although carbon corrosion likely plays a role; much of this thinning must be from compaction of the material in the catalyst layer. As a result, the decrease in catalyst layer porosity leads to additional performance losses due to mass transport losses.« less

  13. Carbon corrosion in PEM fuel cells during drive cycle operation

    SciTech Connect

    Borup, Rodney L.; Papadias, D. D.; Mukundan, Rangachary; Spernjak, Dusan; Langlois, David Alan; Ahluwalia, Rajesh; More, Karen L.; Grot, Steve

    2015-09-14

    One of the major contributors to degradation involves the electrocatalyst, including the corrosion of the carbons used as catalyst supports, which leads to changes in the catalyst layer structure. We have measured and quantified carbon corrosion during drive cycle operation and as a variation of the upper and lower potential limits used during drive cycle operation. The amount of carbon corrosion is exacerbated by the voltage cycling inherent in the drive cycle compared with constant potential operation. The potential gap between upper and lower potentials appears to be more important than the absolute operating potentials in the normal operating potential regime (0.40V to 0.95V) as changes in the measured carbon corrosion are similar when the upper potential was lower compared to raising the lower potential. Catalyst layer thinning was observed during the simulated drive cycle operation which had an associated decrease in catalyst layer porosity. This catalyst layer thinning is not due solely to carbon corrosion, although carbon corrosion likely plays a role; much of this thinning must be from compaction of the material in the catalyst layer. As a result, the decrease in catalyst layer porosity leads to additional performance losses due to mass transport losses.

  14. Single-wall carbon nanotube-based proton exchange membrane assembly for hydrogen fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Girishkumar, G; Rettker, Matthew; Underhile, Robert; Binz, David; Vinodgopal, K; McGinn, Paul; Kamat, Prashant

    2005-08-30

    A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for hydrogen fuel cells has been fabricated using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) support and platinum catalyst. Films of SWCNTs and commercial platinum (Pt) black were sequentially cast on a carbon fiber electrode (CFE) using a simple electrophoretic deposition procedure. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy showed that the nanotubes and the platinum retained their nanostructure morphology on the carbon fiber surface. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) revealed that the carbon nanotube-based electrodes exhibited an order of magnitude lower charge-transfer reaction resistance (R(ct)) for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) than did the commercial carbon black (CB)-based electrodes. The proton exchange membrane (PEM) assembly fabricated using the CFE/SWCNT/Pt electrodes was evaluated using a fuel cell testing unit operating with H(2) and O(2) as input fuels at 25 and 60 degrees C. The maximum power density obtained using CFE/SWCNT/Pt electrodes as both the anode and the cathode was approximately 20% better than that using the CFE/CB/Pt electrodes.

  15. Pressure losses at dividing and combining junctions in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Haruhiko; Nakagaki, Takao; Hori, Michio

    The pressure losses at manifold junctions in a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) stack depend on the stacking positions of the cells and the flow rate in the manifold. These pressure losses affect the uniformity of gas flow rate in each stacked cell and consequently also affect the cell performance. In this study, the pressure losses at dividing and combining junctions in a plate heat-exchanger type MCFC stack were examined by numerical analysis. A stack consisting of 100 cells was assumed, and the junction pressure losses at various stacking positions of cells were calculated under various flow rate conditions ranging from the minimum possible flow rate (80% utilization of fuel gas) to the maximum possible flow rate (10% utilization of oxidant gas). The results were arranged according to the equations for loss coefficients, and were compared with the experimental results of previous studies.

  16. Chemical vapor deposited carbon nanotubes for aqueous H2-Cl2 fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Suryavanshi, U B; Bhosale, C H

    2010-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes having large surface area is an interesting material to develop H2-Cl2 fuel cell electrodes. The attempts were made to deposit carbon nanotubes on porous substrates by chemical vapour deposition. Turpentine oil (C10H16) was used as a precursor, decomposed at 1100 degrees C reactor temperature. Nickel, platinum, tin, Ni-Pt, Ni-Sn, Pt-Sn, Ni-Pt-Sn catalysts were used to grow carbon nanotubes. Nickel was deposited with electrodeposition, platinum with sputter coater and tin with vacuum deposition technique. The developed electrodes were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, FTIR, and resistivity by van-der Pauw method. Carbon nanotubes have been formed for 0.25 N nickel deposited for 45 and 60 min; 0.5 N, 0.75 N and 1 N nickel deposited for 15 to 60 min, at the interval of 15. Ni-Pt, Ni-Sn, Pt-Sn and Ni-Pt-Sn activated carbon also shows the well grown CNTs. Aqueous H2-Cl2 fuel cell performance was tested with these grown carbon nanotubes. 40% KCl with 1067 mohm(-1) cm(-1) conductivity was used as electrolyte. Linear sweep voltametry shows reduction potential for hydrogen gas. Chronoamperometry results show better half cell performance for nickel, deposited with 1 N, 45 min deposition time period; and combination of Ni-Pt-Sn with 140, and 110-100 mA/cm2 stable current density respectively.

  17. N-doped carbon nanomaterials are durable catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in acidic fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Shui, Jianglan; Wang, Min; Du, Feng; Dai, Liming

    2015-02-01

    The availability of low-cost, efficient, and durable catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a prerequisite for commercialization of the fuel cell technology. Along with intensive research efforts of more than half a century in developing nonprecious metal catalysts (NPMCs) to replace the expensive and scarce platinum-based catalysts, a new class of carbon-based, low-cost, metal-free ORR catalysts was demonstrated to show superior ORR performance to commercial platinum catalysts, particularly in alkaline electrolytes. However, their large-scale practical application in more popular acidic polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells remained elusive because they are often found to be less effective in acidic electrolytes, and no attempt has been made for a single PEM cell test. We demonstrated that rationally designed, metal-free, nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes and their graphene composites exhibited significantly better long-term operational stabilities and comparable gravimetric power densities with respect to the best NPMC in acidic PEM cells. This work represents a major breakthrough in removing the bottlenecks to translate low-cost, metal-free, carbon-based ORR catalysts to commercial reality, and opens avenues for clean energy generation from affordable and durable fuel cells.

  18. N-doped carbon nanomaterials are durable catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in acidic fuel cells

    PubMed Central

    Shui, Jianglan; Wang, Min; Du, Feng; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    The availability of low-cost, efficient, and durable catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a prerequisite for commercialization of the fuel cell technology. Along with intensive research efforts of more than half a century in developing nonprecious metal catalysts (NPMCs) to replace the expensive and scarce platinum-based catalysts, a new class of carbon-based, low-cost, metal-free ORR catalysts was demonstrated to show superior ORR performance to commercial platinum catalysts, particularly in alkaline electrolytes. However, their large-scale practical application in more popular acidic polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells remained elusive because they are often found to be less effective in acidic electrolytes, and no attempt has been made for a single PEM cell test. We demonstrated that rationally designed, metal-free, nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes and their graphene composites exhibited significantly better long-term operational stabilities and comparable gravimetric power densities with respect to the best NPMC in acidic PEM cells. This work represents a major breakthrough in removing the bottlenecks to translate low-cost, metal-free, carbon-based ORR catalysts to commercial reality, and opens avenues for clean energy generation from affordable and durable fuel cells. PMID:26601132

  19. A highly durable fuel cell electrocatalyst based on double-polymer-coated carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Berber, Mohamed R.; Hafez, Inas H.; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2015-01-01

    Driven by the demand for the commercialization of fuel cell (FC) technology, we describe the design and fabrication of a highly durable FC electrocatalyst based on double-polymer-coated carbon nanotubes for use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The fabricated electrocatalyst is composed of Pt-deposited polybenzimidazole-coated carbon nanotubes, which are further coated with Nafion. By using this electrocatalyst, a high FC performance with a power density of 375 mW/cm2 (at 70 ˚C, 50% relative humidity using air (cathode)/H2(anode)) was obtained, and a remarkable durability of 500,000 accelerated potential cycles was recorded with only a 5% loss of the initial FC potential and 20% loss of the maximum power density, which were far superior properties compared to those of the membrane electrode assembly prepared using carbon black in place of the carbon nanotubes. The present study indicates that the prepared highly durable fuel cell electrocatalyst is a promising material for the next generation of PEMFCs. PMID:26594045

  20. A highly durable fuel cell electrocatalyst based on double-polymer-coated carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Berber, Mohamed R; Hafez, Inas H; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2015-11-23

    Driven by the demand for the commercialization of fuel cell (FC) technology, we describe the design and fabrication of a highly durable FC electrocatalyst based on double-polymer-coated carbon nanotubes for use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The fabricated electrocatalyst is composed of Pt-deposited polybenzimidazole-coated carbon nanotubes, which are further coated with Nafion. By using this electrocatalyst, a high FC performance with a power density of 375 mW/cm(2) (at 70 ˚C, 50% relative humidity using air (cathode)/H2(anode)) was obtained, and a remarkable durability of 500,000 accelerated potential cycles was recorded with only a 5% loss of the initial FC potential and 20% loss of the maximum power density, which were far superior properties compared to those of the membrane electrode assembly prepared using carbon black in place of the carbon nanotubes. The present study indicates that the prepared highly durable fuel cell electrocatalyst is a promising material for the next generation of PEMFCs.

  1. Highly active carbon supported Pd cathode catalysts for direct formic acid fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikolajczuk-Zychora, A.; Borodzinski, A.; Kedzierzawski, P.; Mierzwa, B.; Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, M.; Stobinski, L.; Ciecierska, E.; Zimoch, A.; Opałło, M.

    2016-12-01

    One of the drawbacks of low-temperature fuel cells is high price of platinum-based catalysts used for the electroreduction of oxygen at the cathode of the fuel cell. The aim of this work is to develop the palladium catalyst that will replace commonly used platinum cathode catalysts. A series of palladium catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) were prepared and tested on the cathode of Direct Formic Acid Fuel Cell (DFAFC). Palladium nanoparticles were deposited on the carbon black (Vulcan) and on multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) surface by reduction of palladium(II) acetate dissolved in ethanol. Hydrazine was used as a reducing agent. The effect of functionalization of the carbon supports on the catalysts physicochemical properties and the ORR catalytic activity on the cathode of DFAFC was studied. The supports were functionalized by treatment in nitric acid for 4 h at 80 °C. The structure of the prepared catalysts has been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Hydrophilicity of the catalytic layers was determined by measuring contact angles of water droplets. The performance of the prepared catalysts has been compared with that of the commercial 20 wt.% Pt/C (Premetek) catalyst. The maximum power density obtained for the best palladium catalyst, deposited on the surface of functionalized carbon black, is the same as that for the commercial Pt/C (Premetek). Palladium is cheaper than platinum, therefore the developed cathode catalyst is promising for future applications.

  2. Miniature ceramic fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Lessing, Paul A.; Zuppero, Anthony C.

    1997-06-24

    A miniature power source assembly capable of providing portable electricity is provided. A preferred embodiment of the power source assembly employing a fuel tank, fuel pump and control, air pump, heat management system, power chamber, power conditioning and power storage. The power chamber utilizes a ceramic fuel cell to produce the electricity. Incoming hydro carbon fuel is automatically reformed within the power chamber. Electrochemical combustion of hydrogen then produces electricity.

  3. Thermally stable polybenzimidazole/carbon nano-tube composites for alkaline direct methanol fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jung-Fen; Lo, Chieh-Fang; Li, Long-Yun; Li, Hsieh-Yu; Chang, Chia-Ming; Liao, Kuo-Sung; Hu, Chien-Chieh; Liu, Ying-Ling; Lue, Shingjiang Jessie

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposites of thermally stable polybenzimidazole (PBI) containing small amounts (<1%) of functionalized multi-walled carbon nano-tubes (CNT) are prepared using solution casting methods. These PBI and PBI/CNT composites are doped with potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution to prepare hydroxide-conducting electrolytes for alkaline direct methanol fuel cell (ADMFC) applications. The CNT-containing composites exhibit higher fractional free volumes and higher water diffusivities. CNT also promotes ionic conductivity of electrolytes and improves the fuel cell performance. Gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) without polytetrafluoroethene (PTFE) treatment give superior cell power density compared to commercial E-tek GDEs, which contain hydrophobic PTFE layers. When the fuel cell is fed with 2 M methanol in 6 M KOH (as the anode fuel) and humidified oxygen (as the cathode oxidant), the system achieves a maximum power density of 104.7 mW cm-2 at 90 °C. These KOH-doped PBI/CNT composites have the potential to be used in high temperature alkaline fuel cell applications.

  4. Sustainable Hypersaline Microbial Fuel Cells: Inexpensive Recyclable Polymer Supports for Carbon Nanotube Conductive Paint Anodes.

    PubMed

    Grattieri, Matteo; Shivel, Nelson D; Sifat, Iram; Bestetti, Massimiliano; Minteer, Shelley D

    2017-02-28

    Microbial fuel cells are an emerging technology for wastewater treatment, but to be commercially viable and sustainable, the electrode materials must be inexpensive, recyclable, and reliable. In this study, recyclable polymeric supports were explored for the development of anode electrodes to be applied in single-chamber microbial fuel cells operated in field under hypersaline conditions. The support was covered with a carbon nanotube (CNT) based conductive paint, and biofilms were able to colonize the electrodes. The single-chamber microbial fuel cells with Pt-free cathodes delivered a reproducible power output after 15 days of operation to achieve 12±1 mW m(-2) at a current density of 69±7 mA m(-2) . The decrease of the performance in long-term experiments was mostly related to inorganic precipitates on the cathode electrode and did not affect the performance of the anode, as shown by experiments in which the cathode was replaced and the fuel cell performance was regenerated. The results of these studies show the feasibility of polymeric supports coated with CNT-based paint for microbial fuel cell applications.

  5. Power conversion and quality of the Santa Clara 2 MW direct carbonate fuel cell demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Skok, A.J.; Abueg, R.Z.; Schwartz, P.

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) is the first application of a commercial-scale carbonate fuel cell power plant on a US electric utility system. It is also the largest fuel cell power plant ever operated in the United States. The 2MW plant, located in Santa Clara, California, utilizes carbonate fuel cell technology developed by Energy Research Corporation (ERC) of Danbury, Connecticut. The ultimate goal of a fuel cell power plant is to deliver usable power into an electrical distribution system. The power conversion sub-system does this for the Santa Clara Demonstration Plant. A description of this sub-system and its capabilities follows. The sub-system has demonstrated the capability to deliver real power, reactive power and to absorb reactive power on a utility grid. The sub-system can be operated in the same manner as a conventional rotating generator except with enhanced capabilities for reactive power. Measurements demonstrated the power quality from the plant in various operating modes was high quality utility grade power.

  6. Development and demonstration of direct carbonate fuel cell systems at Energy Research Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Leo, A.J.; Kush, A.K.; Farooque, M.

    1996-12-31

    Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has been pursuing the development of the direct carbonate fuel cell (DFC) for commercialization near the end of this decade. The DFC produces power directly from hydrocarbon fuels electrochemically, without the need for external reforming or intermediate mechanical conversion steps. As a result, the DFC has the potential to achieve very high efficiency with very low levels of environmental emissions. Modular DFC power plants, which can be shop-fabricated and sited near the user, are ideally suited for distributed generation, industrial, cogeneration, and defense applications. ERC has selected a 2.85 MW power plant unit for initial market entry. Significant advances have been made at ERC in the areas of cell and stack technology and system optimization. Development activities have progressed to the point where 130 kW stacks have been tested in ERC`s subscale power plant, and subscale stacks have been tested in utility and industrial sites around the world. In addition, the world`s first multi-megawatt scale DFC power plant was recently started. Two ERC subsidiaries have been formed to advance the commercialization effort: the Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) and the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE). FCMC manufacturers carbonate stacks and multi-stack modules, currently from its manufacturing facility in Torrington, CT. FCE is responsible for power plant design, integration of all subsystems, sales/marketing, and client services. This paper describes the results of ERC`s ongoing development and commercialization efforts.

  7. Modeling of indirect carbon fuel cell systems with steam and dry gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Katherine M.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2016-05-01

    An indirect carbon fuel cell (ICFC) system that couples coal gasification to a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising candidate for high efficiency stationary power. This study couples an equilibrium gasifier model to a detailed 1D MEA model to study the theoretical performance of an ICFC system run on steam or carbon dioxide. Results show that the fuel cell in the ICFC system is capable of power densities greater than 1.0 W cm-2 with H2O recycle, and power densities ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 W cm-2 with CO2 recycle. This result indicates that the ICFC system performs better with steam than with CO2 gasification as a result of the faster electro-oxidation kinetics of H2 relative to CO. The ICFC system is then shown to reach higher current densities and efficiencies than a thermally decoupled gasifier + fuel cell (G + FC) system because it does not include combustion losses associated with autothermal gasification. 55-60% efficiency is predicted for the ICFC system coupled to a bottoming cycle, making this technology competitive with other state-of-the-art stationary power candidates.

  8. Enhancement of cell performance using a gadolinium strontium cobaltite coated cathode in molten carbonate fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shin Ae; Jang, Seong-Cheol; Han, Jonghee; Yoon, Sung Pil; Nam, Suk Woo; Oh, In-Hwan; Lim, Tae-Hoon

    To enhance cathode performance, gadolinium strontium cobaltite (Gd 0.6Sr 0.4CoO 3, GSC) is coated onto a porous Ni plate by a vacuum suction method, for use as the cathode in molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs). GSC is a mixed ionic and electronic conductor (MIEC) material, and thus has high electronic conductivity and catalytic activity at low temperatures. The electrode performance of the GSC-coated cathode is examined by various methods, such as single cell operation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). At 600 °C, the performance of a single cell using a GSC-coated cathode is 0.813 V. This result is very surprising given that the performance of an uncoated conventional cathode is 0.69 V. Impedance analysis confirms that a dramatic decrease in the charge transfer resistance after GSC coating is primarily responsible for the cell enhancement at low temperature. The reaction orders for O 2 and CO 2 at uncoated and GSC-coated cathodes are also examined via a symmetric cell test, to identify the reaction mechanism of oxygen reduction. The peroxide mechanism, which is known to be a fast reaction, is predominant for the GSC-coated cathode at low temperatures, whereas the superoxide mechanism is predominant for the uncoated cathode.

  9. Carbon film coating on gas diffusion layer for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jui-Hsiang; Chen, Wei-Hung; Su, Shih-Hsuan; Liao, Yuan-Kai; Ko, Tse-Hao

    This study discusses a novel process to increase the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). In order to improve the electrical conductivity and reduce the surface indentation of the carbon fibers, we modified the carbon fibers with pitch-based carbon materials (mesophase pitch and coal tar pitch). Compared with the gas diffusion backing (GDB), GDB-A240 and GDB-MP have 32% and 33% higher current densities at 0.5 V, respectively. Self-made carbon paper with the addition of a micro-porous layer (MPL) (GDL-A240 and GDL-MP) show improved performance compared with GDB-A240 and GDB-MP. The current densities of GDL-A240 and GDL-MP at 0.5 V increased by 37% and 31% compared with GDL, respectively. This study combines these two effects (carbon film and MPL coating) to promote high current density in a PEMFC.

  10. Ceramic anode catalyst for dry methane type molten carbonate fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, T.; Yanase, A.; Goto, S.; Yamaguchi, M.; Kondo, M.

    Oxide catalyst materials for methane oxidation were examined in order to develop the anode electrode for molten carbonate type fuel cell (MCFC). As a primary selection, oxides such as lanthanum (La 2O 3) and samarium (Sm 2O 3) were selected from screening experiments of TPD, TG and tubular reactor. Composite materials of these oxides with titanium fine powder were assembled into a cell unit for MCFC as the anode electrode. Steady-state activities were observed with these anode electrode materials when hydrogen was used as a fuel. When methane was directly charged to anode as a fuel (dry methane operation), a power generation with steady state was observed on both lanthanum and samarium composites after gradual decrease of open circuit electromotive force (OCV) and closed circuit current (CCI). The steady-state activity held as long as 144 h of continuous operation.

  11. Electron and carbon balances in microbial fuel cells reveal temporary bacterial storage behavior during electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Freguia, Stefano; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo; Keller, Jürg

    2007-04-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are emerging as a novel technology with a great potential to reduce the costs of wastewater treatment. Their most studied application is organic carbon removal. One of the parameters commonly used to quantify the performance of these cells is the Coulombic efficiency, i.e., the electron recovery as electricity from the removed substrate. However, the "inefficiencies" of the process have never been fully identified. This study presents a method that uses the combination of electrochemical monitoring, chemical analysis, and a titration and off-gas analysis (TOGA) sensor to identify and quantify the sources of electron loss. The method was used successfully to close electron, carbon, and proton balances in acetate and glucose fed microbial fuel cells. The method revealed that in the case that a substrate is loaded as pulses carbon is stored inside the cells during initial high substrate conditions and consumed during starvation, with up to 57% of the current being generated after depletion of the external carbon source. Nile blue staining of biomass samples revealed lipophilic inclusions during high substrate conditions, thus confirming the storage of polymeric material in the bacterial cells. The method also allows for indirect measurement of growth yields, which ranged from 0 to 0.54 g biomass-C formed per g substrate-C used, depending on the type of substrate and the external resistance of the circuit.

  12. Improved Electrodes for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells using Carbon Nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Héctor; Plaza, Jorge; Cañizares, Pablo; Lobato, Justo; Rodrigo, Manuel A

    2016-05-23

    This work evaluates the use of carbon nanospheres (CNS) in microporous layers (MPL) of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) electrodes and compares the characteristics and performance with those obtained using conventional MPL based on carbon black. XRD, hydrophobicity, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller theory, and gas permeability of MPL prepared with CNS were the parameters evaluated. In addition, a short life test in a fuel cell was carried out to evaluate performance under accelerated stress conditions. The results demonstrate that CNS is a promising alternative to traditional carbonaceous materials because of its high electrochemical stability and good electrical conductivity, suitable to be used in this technology. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Carbonate scale deactivating the biocathode in a microbial fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, M.; Marzorati, S.; Fest-Santini, S.; Trasatti, S.; Cristiani, P.

    2017-07-01

    The development and the following inactivation of a carbon-based biocathode in single chamber and membraneless MFCs was investigated in this work. The electrochemical behavior of the biocathode has been analyzed over time during the MFC life. X-Ray Micro-Computed Tomographies (microCTs) have been carried out at progressive stages, documenting the building over time of a layer of scale deposition becoming thicker and thicker up to the cathode inactivation. The technique provides cross-sectional (tomographic) grayscale images and 3D reconstruction of volumes. Lighter color indicates lower X-ray attenuation (i.e., lower atomic density) thus allowing distinguishing biofilm from inorganic fouling on the basis of the average atomic number Z of each voxel (3D pixel). MicroCT was combined with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX) in order to qualitatively recognize chemical species in each different layer of the cathode's section. Results correlated the presence of biofilm and calcium carbonate deposits, prevalently in the inner part of the cathode, with the produced electric current over time. A specific microCT-related software quantified the time-dependent carbonate scale deposition, identifying a correlation between the decreasing performances of the device and the increasing quantity of scale deposition that penetrates the cathode cross section in time.

  14. Molten carbonate fuel cells fed with biogas: combating H(2)S.

    PubMed

    Ciccoli, R; Cigolotti, V; Lo Presti, R; Massi, E; McPhail, S J; Monteleone, G; Moreno, A; Naticchioni, V; Paoletti, C; Simonetti, E; Zaza, F

    2010-06-01

    The use of biomass and waste to produce alternative fuels, due to environmental and energy security reasons, is a high-quality solution especially when integrated with high efficiency fuel cell applications. In this article we look into the coupling of an anaerobic digestion process of organic residues to electrochemical conversion to electricity and heat through a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). In particular the pathway of the exceedingly harmful compound hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) in these phases is analysed. Hydrogen sulphide production in the biogas is strongly interrelated with methane and/or hydrogen yield, as well as with operating conditions like temperature and pH. When present in the produced biogas, this compound has multiple negative effects on the performance and durability of an MCFC. Therefore, there are important issues of integration to be solved. Three general approaches to solve the sulphur problem in the MCFC are possible. The first is to prevent the formation of hydrogen sulphide at the source: favouring conditions that inhibit its production during fermentation. Secondly, to identify the sulphur tolerance levels of the fuel cell components currently in use and develop sulphur-tolerant components that show long-term electrochemical performance and corrosion stability. The third approach is to remove the generated sulphur species to very low levels before the gas enters the fuel cell.

  15. Integration of a molten carbonate fuel cell with a direct exhaust absorption chiller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margalef, Pere; Samuelsen, Scott

    A high market value exists for an integrated high-temperature fuel cell-absorption chiller product throughout the world. While high-temperature, molten carbonate fuel cells are being commercially deployed with combined heat and power (CHP) and absorption chillers are being commercially deployed with heat engines, the energy efficiency and environmental attributes of an integrated high-temperature fuel cell-absorption chiller product are singularly attractive for the emerging distributed generation (DG) combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) market. This study addresses the potential of cooling production by recovering and porting the thermal energy from the exhaust gas of a high-temperature fuel cell (HTFC) to a thermally activated absorption chiller. To assess the practical opportunity of serving an early DG-CCHP market, a commercially available direct fired double-effect absorption chiller is selected that closely matches the exhaust flow and temperature of a commercially available HTFC. Both components are individually modeled, and the models are then coupled to evaluate the potential of a DG-CCHP system. Simulation results show that a commercial molten carbonate fuel cell generating 300 kW of electricity can be effectively coupled with a commercial 40 refrigeration ton (RT) absorption chiller. While the match between the two "off the shelf" units is close and the simulation results are encouraging, the match is not ideal. In particular, the fuel cell exhaust gas temperature is higher than the inlet temperature specified for the chiller and the exhaust flow rate is not sufficient to achieve the potential heat recovery within the chiller heat exchanger. To address these challenges, the study evaluates two strategies: (1) blending the fuel cell exhaust gas with ambient air, and (2) mixing the fuel cell exhaust gases with a fraction of the chiller exhaust gas. Both cases are shown to be viable and result in a temperature drop and flow rate increase of the

  16. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test environmental assessment/protection plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-11-01

    The objective of proposed action is to conduct a 250-kW product development test of M-C Power Corporation's molten carbonate fuel cell concept, at the Kaiser Permanente San Diego Medical Center. A review of the environmental impact of this test indicates the following: no impact on solid waste disposal, water quality, noise levels, floodplains, wetlands, ecology, historic areas, or socioeconomic resources. Impacts on air quality are expected to be positive.

  17. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test environmental assessment/protection plan

    SciTech Connect

    Brunton, Jack; Furukawa, Vance; Frost, Grant; Danna, Mike; Figueroa, Al; Scroppo, Joseph

    1992-11-01

    Objective of proposed action is to conduct a 250-kW product development test of M-C Power Corporation's molten carbonate fuel cell concept, at the Kaiser Permanente San Diego Medical Center. Review of environmental impacts of this test indicate the following: no impact on solid waste disposal, water quality, noise levels, floodplains, wetlands, ecology, historic areas, or socioeconomic resources. Impact on air quality are expected to be positive.

  18. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test environmental assessment/protection plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    Objective of proposed action is to conduct a 250-kW product development test of M-C Power Corporation`s molten carbonate fuel cell concept, at the Kaiser Permanente San Diego Medical Center. Review of environmental impacts of this test indicate the following: no impact on solid waste disposal, water quality, noise levels, floodplains, wetlands, ecology, historic areas, or socioeconomic resources. Impact on air quality are expected to be positive.

  19. Direct Carbon Fuel Cells: Converting Waste to Electricity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Molten carbonate salt Ceramic Fused KNO3 Operating Temperature 80 ºC (175 ºF) 190 °C (375 °F) 650 °C (1200 °F) 1000 °C (1830 °F) 700 °C...estimate whether this approach could potentially be cost effective, especially in comparison to the price of elec- tricity imported into the base... price , exclusive of feed preparation, of $1500/kW. Note that, after more than three decades of efforts to lower their product prices , manufacturers of

  20. Evaluation of microbial fuel cell operation using algae as an oxygen supplier: carbon paper cathode vs. carbon brush cathode.

    PubMed

    Kakarla, Ramesh; Min, Booki

    2014-12-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) and its cathode performances were compared with use of carbon fiber brush and plain carbon paper cathode electrodes in algae aeration. The MFC having carbon fiber brush cathode exhibited a voltage of 0.21 ± 0.01 V (1,000 Ω) with a cathode potential of around -0.14 ± 0.01 V in algal aeration, whereas MFC with plain carbon paper cathode resulted in a voltage of 0.06 ± 0.005 V with a cathode potential of -0.39 ± 0.01 V. During polarizations, MFC equipped with carbon fiber brush cathode showed a maximum power density of 30 mW/m(2), whereas the MFC equipped with plain carbon paper showed a power density of 4.6 mW/m(2). In algae aeration, the internal resistance with carbon fiber brush cathode was 804 Ω and with plain carbon paper it was 1,210 Ω. The peak currents of MFC operation with carbon fiber brush and plain carbon paper cathodes were -31 mA and -850 µA, respectively.

  1. Temperature and voltage responses of a molten carbonate fuel cell in the presence of a hydrogen fuel leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, M. C.; Liang, G. V. Y.; Lee, V. C. C.; Wee, S. K.

    2015-04-01

    A two dimensional (2-D), dynamic model of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) was developed using COMSOL Multi-physics. The model was used to investigate the dynamic behaviour of the MCFC in the presence of hydrogen fuel leakage. A leakage was modelled as a known outflow velocity at the anode gas channel. The effects of leakage velocity and the leakage location were investigated. The simulations show that anode electrode temperature increases as the leakage velocity increases. The voltage generated is shown to decrease at the start of the leakage occurrence due to loss of hydrogen gas. Later the voltage increases as the anode temperature increases. The results also show that the changes of temperature and voltage are more significant if a leakage occurs nearer to the inlet compared to that at the outlet of anode gas channel.

  2. Molted carbonate fuel cell product design and improvement - 4th quarter, 1995. Quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The primary objective of this project is to establish the commercial readiness of MW-class IMHEX Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell power plants. Progress is described on marketing, systems design and analysis, product options and manufacturing.

  3. Deactivation of carbon supported palladium catalyst in direct formic acid fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikołajczuk, A.; Borodzinski, A.; Kedzierzawski, P.; Stobinski, L.; Mierzwa, B.; Dziura, R.

    2011-07-01

    A new carbon black supported palladium catalyst for direct formic acid fuel cell applications has been prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction. Bi-modal distribution of Pd crystallite sizes was observed. The average Pd size for crystallites in small size and large size ranges were about 2.7 nm and 11.2 nm, respectively. The initial activity of the catalyst in the oxidation of formic acid tested in a fuel cell was similar to a commercial well dispersed 20 wt.% Pd/Vulcan. The rates of the fuel cell power decay were measured for formic acid of two purities for various current loadings. The results showed that various mechanisms contribute to the decrease of cell power with time. In direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) fed with a very pure HCOOH accumulation of CO 2 gas bubbles in anode catalyst layer is responsible for observed power decay. In DFAFC fed with a pure for analysis (p.a.) grade formic acid the formation of CO ads poison from the formic acid impurities is the main deactivation reason.

  4. Fuel cells for commercial energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppmann, Gerhard; Weisse, Eckart; Bischoff, Manfred

    1990-04-01

    The development of various types of fuel cells is described. Advantges and drawbacks are considered for alkaline fuel cells, phosphoric acid fuel cells, and molten carbonate fuel cells. It is shown that their modular construction is particularly adapted to power heat systems. A comparison which is largely in favor of fuel cells, is made between coal, oil, natural gas power stations, and fuel cells. Safety risks in operation are also compared with those of conventional power stations. Fuel cells are particularly suited for dwellings, shopping centers, swimming pools, other sporting installations, and research facilities, whose high current and heat requirements can be covered by power heat coupling.

  5. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL POWER PLANT LOCATED AT TERMINAL ISLAND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    William W. Glauz

    2004-09-01

    The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has developed one of the most recognized fuel cell demonstration programs in the United States. In addition to their high efficiencies and superior environmental performance, fuel cells and other generating technologies that can be located at or near the load, offers several electric utility benefits. Fuel cells can help further reduce costs by reducing peak electricity demand, thereby deferring or avoiding expenses for additional electric utility infrastructure. By locating generators near the load, higher reliability of service is possible and the losses that occur during delivery of electricity from remote generators are avoided. The potential to use renewable and locally available fuels, such as landfill or sewage treatment waste gases, provides another attractive outlook. In Los Angeles, there are also many oil producing areas where the gas by-product can be utilized. In June 2000, the LADWP contracted with FCE to install and commission the precommercial 250kW MCFC power plant. The plant was delivered, installed, and began power production at the JFB in August 2001. The plant underwent manufacturer's field trials up for 18 months and was replace with a commercial plant in January 2003. In January 2001, the LADWP contracted with FCE to provide two additional 250kW MCFC power plants. These commercial plants began operations during mid-2003. The locations of these plants are at the Terminal Island Sewage Treatment Plant at the Los Angeles Harbor (for eventual operation on digester gas) and at the LADWP Main Street Service Center east of downtown Los Angeles. All three carbonate fuel cell plants received partial funding through the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buydown Program. This report covers the technical evaluation and benefit-cost evaluation of the Terminal Island 250kW MCFC power plant during its first year of operation from June 2003 to July 2004.

  6. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes as anode and air-cathode in single chamber microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amade, R.; Moreno, H. A.; Hussain, S.; Vila-Costa, M.; Bertran, E.

    2016-10-01

    Electrode optimization in microbial fuel cells is a key issue to improve the power output and cell performance. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) grown on low cost stainless-steel mesh present an attractive approach to increase the cell performance while avoiding the use of expensive Pt-based materials. In comparison with non-aligned carbon nanotubes (NACNTs), VACNTs increase the oxygen reduction reaction taking place at the cathode by a factor of two. In addition, vertical alignment also increases the power density up to 2.5 times with respect to NACNTs. VACNTs grown at the anode can further improve the cell performance by increasing the electrode surface area and thus the electron transfer between bacteria and the electrode. The maximum power density obtained using VACNTs was 14 mW/m2 and 160 mV output voltage.

  7. Contaminant resistant molten carbonate fuel cell: Final report, June 1986--September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Remick, R.J.; Jewulski, J.R.; Osif, T.L.; Donelson, R.

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a 2 year program evaluating the application of solid nickel foils as hydrogen permeable barriers to contaminants in molten carbonate fuel cells. The purpose of these foils is to prevent contaminants such as H/sub 2/S, HCl, and NH/sub 3/ which are present in coal gasifier derived fuels, from reaching the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while still allowing hydrogen to reach the anode. During the first year of the program, a parametric study was conducted using 2.5 to 7.5 /mu/m thick nickel foils in both laboratory-scale and bench-scale fuel cell tests. Two design configurations were evaluated, one in which the foil was placed adjacent to the electrolyte matrix and one in which the foil was placed between two porous metal plaques. Work during the second year of the program addressed problems associated with the buildup of product gases between the foil barrier and the electrolyte and with the reduction of hydrogen flux that occurs when sulfur species were introduced into the fuel. A porous electrolyte was prepared for use with the foil anode configuration. Work was also performed to improve the removal of these product gases from barrier-anode configuration cells by constructing gas channels in the anode itself between the foil barrier and the electrolyte matrix. An apparatus was also assembled for measuring the hydrogen flux through a thin foil at 650/degree/C. Various coatings were then applied to the nickel foil to determine their impact on the permeability. The second year's work culminated in two bench-scale cell tests of the barrier-anode configuration using hardware having optimum specifications for this type of cell. The performance of these cells fell short of the design point criteria set as a goal at the beginning of this project. Therefore, this work will not be continued into the next fiscal year. 8 refs., 48 figs., 18 tabs.

  8. A high performance intermediate temperature fuel cell based on a thick oxide-carbonate electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Lan, Rong; Xu, Xiaoxiang; Tao, Shanwen; Jiang, Yinzhu; Kraft, Arno

    A high performance intermediate temperature fuel cell (ITFC) with composite electrolyte composed of co-doped ceria Ce 0.8Gd 0.05Y 0.15O 1.9 (GYDC) and a binary carbonate-based (52 mol% Li 2CO 3/48 mol% Na 2CO 3), 1.2 mm thick electrolyte layer has been developed. Co-doped Ce 0.8Gd 0.05Y 0.15O 1.9 was synthesized by a glycine-nitrate process and used as solid support matrix for the composite electrolyte. The conductivity of both composite electrolyte and GYDC supporting substrate were measured by AC impedance spectroscopy. It showed a sharp conductivity jump at about 500 °C when the carbonates melted. Single cells with thick electrolyte layer were fabricated by a dry-pressing technique using NiO as anode and Ba 0.5Sr 0.5Co 0.8Fe 0.2O 3- δ or lithiated NiO as cathode. The cell was tested at 450-550 °C using hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. Excellent performance with high power density of 670 mW cm -2 at 550 °C was achieved for a 1.2 mm thick composite electrolyte containing 40 wt% carbonates which is much higher than that of a cell based on pure GYDC with a 70 μm thick electrolyte layer.

  9. Development of molten-carbonate fuel-cell technology. Final report, February-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the work was to focus on the basic technology for producing molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) components. This included the development and fabrication of stable anode structures, preparation of lithiated nickel oxide cathodes, synthesis and characterization of a high surface area (gamma-lithium-aluminate) electrolyte support, pressurized cell testing and modeling of the overall electrolyte distribution within a cell to aid performance optimization of the different cell components. The electrode development program is highlighted by two successful 5000 hour bench-scale tests using stabilized anode structures. One of these provided better performance than in any previous state-of-the-art, bench-scale cell (865 mV at 115 mA/cm/sup 2/ under standard conditions). Pressurized testing at 10 atmosphere of a similar stabilized, high surface area, Ni/Co anode structure in a 300 cm/sup 2/ cell showed that the 160 mA/cm/sup 2/ performance goal of 850 mV on low Btu fuel (80% conversion) can be readily met. A study of the H/sub 2/S-effects on molten carbonate fuel cells showed that ERC's Ni/Co anode provided better tolerance than a Ni/Cr anode. Prelithiated nickel oxide plaques were prepared from materials made by a low temperature and a high temperature powder-production process. The methods for fabricating handleable cathodes of various thicknesses were also investigated. In electrolyte matrix development, accelerated out-of-cell and in-cell tests have confirmed the superior stability of ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/.

  10. Influence of various carbon nano-forms as supports for Pt catalyst on proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharti, Abha; Cheruvally, Gouri

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we discuss the influence of various carbon supports for Pt on proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell performance. Here, Pt supported on various carbon nano-forms [Pt/carbon black (Pt/CB), Pt/single-walled carbon nanotubes (Pt/SWCNT), Pt/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Pt/MWCNT) and Pt/graphene (Pt/G)] are synthesized by a facile, single step, microwave-assisted, modified chemical reduction route. Their physical, chemical and electrochemical characteristics pertaining to oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalytic activity and stability in PEM fuel cell are studied in detail by various techniques and compared. The study shows that the different carbon supports does not significantly affect the Pt particle size during synthesis, but leads to different amount of defective sites in the carbon framework which influence both the availability of active metal nano-catalysts and metal-support interaction. In-situ electrochemical investigations reveal that the different carbon supports influence both ORR catalytic activity and stability of the catalyst. This is further corroborated by the demonstration of varying polarization characteristics on PEM fuel cell performance by different carbon supported Pt catalysts. This study reveals MWCNT as the most suitable carbon support for Pt catalyst, exhibiting high activity and stability for ORR in PEM fuel cell.

  11. An electrolyte distribution model in consideration of the electrode wetting in the molten carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Kawase, Makoto; Mugikura, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Takao

    2000-03-01

    In the molten carbonate fuel cell, the electrolyte distribution in the electrode is one of the major factors affecting cell performance. An electrolyte distribution model was developed in consideration of the electrode's wetting properties and the pore size distribution within the electrode. Because wettability data, e.g., contact angles, are required for model calculations, the meniscus heights of (Li/K)CO{sub 3} and (Li/Na)CO{sub 3} on Ni were measured under various anode gas conditions, and contact angles were derived.

  12. Palladium and palladium-tin supported on multi wall carbon nanotubes or carbon for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleão; Furtunato da Silva, Dionisio; Martins da Silva, Júlio César; Antonio de Sá, Osvaldo; Spinacé, Estevam Vitório; Neto, Almir Oliveira; Coelho dos Santos, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    Pd and PdSn (Pd:Sn atomic ratios of 90:10), supported on Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) or Carbon (C), are prepared by an electron beam irradiation reduction method. The obtained materials are characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Transmission electron Microscopy (TEM) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). The activity for ethanol electro-oxidation is tested in alkaline medium, at room temperature, using Cyclic Voltammetry and Chronoamperometry (CA) and in a single alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC), in the temperature range of 60-90 °C. CV analysis finds that Pd/MWCNT and PdSn/MWCNT presents onset potentials changing to negative values and high current values, compared to Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts. ATR-FTIR analysis, performed during the CV, identifies acetate and acetaldehyde as principal products formed during the ethanol electro-oxidation, with low conversion to CO2. In single fuel cell tests, at 85 °C, using 2.0 mol L-1 ethanol in 2.0 mol L-1 KOH solutions, the electrocatalysts supported on MWCNT, also, show higher power densities, compared to the materials supported on carbon: PdSn/MWCNT, presents the best result (36 mW cm-2). The results show that the use of MWCNT, instead of carbon, as support, plus the addition of small amounts of Sn to Pd, improves the electrocatalytic activity for Ethanol Oxidation Reaction (EOR).

  13. Electrochemical durability of heat-treated carbon nanospheres as catalyst supports for proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Lv, Haifeng; Wu, Peng; Wan, Wei; Mu, Shichun

    2014-09-01

    Carbon nanospheres is wildly used to support noble metal nanocatalysts in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, however they show a low resistance to electrochemical corrosion. In this study, the N-doped treatment of carbon nanospheres (Vulcan XC-72) is carried out in ammonia gas. The effect of heating treatment (up to 1000 degrees C) on resistances to electrochemical oxidation of the N-doped carbon nanospheres (HNC) is investigated. The resistance to electrochemical oxidation of carbon supports and stability of the catalysts are investigated with potentiostatic oxidation and accelerated durability test by simulating PEM fuel cell environment. The HNC exhibit a higher resistance to electrochemical oxidation than traditional Vulcan XC-72. The results show that the N-doped carbon nanospheres have a great potential application in PEM fuel cells.

  14. Fuel cell market applications

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.C.

    1995-12-31

    This is a review of the US (and international) fuel cell development for the stationary power generation market. Besides DOE, GRI, and EPRI sponsorship, the US fuel cell program has over 40% cost-sharing from the private sector. Support is provided by user groups with over 75 utility and other end-user members. Objectives are to develop and demonstrate cost-effective fuel cell power generation which can initially be commercialized into various market applications using natural gas fuel by the year 2000. Types of fuel cells being developed include PAFC (phosphoric acid), MCFC (molten carbonate), and SOFC (solid oxide); status of each is reported. Potential international applications are reviewed also. Fuel cells are viewed as a force in dispersed power generation, distributed power, cogeneration, and deregulated industry. Specific fuel cell attributes are discussed: Fuel cells promise to be one of the most reliable power sources; they are now being used in critical uninterruptible power systems. They need hydrogen which can be generated internally from natural gas, coal gas, methanol landfill gas, or other fuels containing hydrocarbons. Finally, fuel cell development and market applications in Japan are reviewed briefly.

  15. Fuel Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  16. Fuel Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  17. Handbook of fuel cell performance

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, T.G.; Camara, E.H.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1980-05-01

    The intent of this document is to provide a description of fuel cells, their performances and operating conditions, and the relationship between fuel processors and fuel cells. This information will enable fuel cell engineers to know which fuel processing schemes are most compatible with which fuel cells and to predict the performance of a fuel cell integrated with any fuel processor. The data and estimates presented are for the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells because they are closer to commercialization than other types of fuel cells. Performance of the cells is shown as a function of operating temperature, pressure, fuel conversion (utilization), and oxidant utilization. The effect of oxidant composition (for example, air versus O/sub 2/) as well as fuel composition is examined because fuels provided by some of the more advanced fuel processing schemes such as coal conversion will contain varying amounts of H/sub 2/, CO, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/O, and sulfur and nitrogen compounds. A brief description of fuel cells and their application to industrial, commercial, and residential power generation is given. The electrochemical aspects of fuel cells are reviewed. The phosphoric acid fuel cell is discussed, including how it is affected by operating conditions; and the molten carbonate fuel cell is discussed. The equations developed will help systems engineers to evaluate the application of the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells to commercial, utility, and industrial power generation and waste heat utilization. A detailed discussion of fuel cell efficiency, and examples of fuel cell systems are given.

  18. Evaluation of the feasibility of ethanol steam reforming in a molten carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, S.; Passalacqua, E.; Maggio, G.; Patti, A.; Freni, S.

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) utilizing traditional fuels represent a suitable technological progress in comparison with pure hydrogen-fed MCFCs. The more investigated fuel for such an application is the methane, which has the advantages of low cost and large availability; besides, several authors demonstrated the feasibility of a methane based MCFC. In particular, the methane steam-reforming allows the conversion of the fuel in hydrogen also inside the cell (internal reforming configuration), utilizing the excess heat to compensate the reaction endothermicity. In this case, however, both the catalyst and the cell materials are subjected to thermal stresses due to the cold spots arising near to the reaction sites MCFC. An alternative, in accordance with the recent proposals of other authors, may be to produce hydrogen from methane by the partial oxidation reaction, rather than by steam reforming. This reaction is exothermic ({Delta}H{degrees}=-19.1 kJ/mol H{sub 2}) and it needs to verify the possibility to obtain an acceptable distribution of the temperature inside the cell. The alcohols and, in particular, methanol shows the gas reformed compositions as a function of the steam/ethanol molar ratio, ranging from 1.0 to 3.5. The hydrogen production enhances with this ratio, but it presents a maximum at S/EtOH of about 2.0. Otherwise, the increase of S/EtOH depresses the production of CO and CH{sub 4}, and ethanol may be a further solution for the hydrogen production inside a MCFC. In this case, also, the reaction in cell is less endothermic compared with the methane steam reforming with the additional advantage of a liquid fuel more easily storable and transportable. Aim of the present work is to perform a comparative evaluation of the different solutions, with particular reference to the use of ethanol.

  19. Membraneless glucose/oxygen enzymatic fuel cells using redox hydrogel films containing carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    MacAodha, Domhnall; Ó Conghaile, Peter; Egan, Brenda; Kavanagh, Paul; Leech, Dónal

    2013-07-22

    Co-immobilisation of three separate multiple blue copper oxygenases, a Myceliophthora thermophila laccase, a Streptomyces coelicolor laccase and a Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase, with an [Os(2,2'-bipyridine)2 (polyvinylimidazole)10Cl](+/2+) redox polymer in the presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on graphite electrodes results in enzyme electrodes that produce current densities above 0.5 mA cm(-2) for oxygen reduction at an applied potential of 0 V versus Ag/AgCl. Fully enzymatic membraneless fuel cells are assembled with the oxygen-reducing enzyme electrodes connected to glucose-oxidising anodes based on co-immobilisation of glucose oxidase or a flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase with an [Os(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)2(polyvinylimidazole)10Cl](+/2+) redox polymer in the presence of MWCNTs on graphite electrodes. These fuel cells can produce power densities of up to 145 μW cm(-2) on operation in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution at 37 °C containing 150 mM NaCl, 5 mM glucose and 0.12 mM O2. The fuel cells based on Myceliophthora thermophila laccase enzyme electrodes produce the highest power density if combined with glucose oxidase-based anodes. Although the maximum power density of a fuel cell of glucose dehydrogenase and Myceliophthora thermophila laccase enzyme electrodes decreases from 110 μW cm(-2) in buffer to 60 μW cm(-2) on testing in artificial plasma, it provides the highest power output reported to date for a fully enzymatic glucose-oxidising, oxygen-reducing fuel cell in artificial plasma. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    DOEpatents

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  1. Startup, testing, and operation of the Santa Clara 2MW direct carbonate fuel cell demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Skok, A.J.; Leo, A.J.; O`Shea, T.P.

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) is a collaboration between several utility organizations, Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE), and the U.S. Dept. Of Energy aimed at the demonstration of Energy Research Corporation`s (ERC) direct carbonate fuel cell (DFC) technology. ERC has been pursuing the development of the DFC for commercialization near the end of this decade, and this project is an integral part of the ERC commercialization effort. The objective of the Santa Clara Demonstration Project is to provide the first full, commercial scale demonstration of this technology. The approach ERC has taken in the commercialization of the DFC is described in detail elsewhere. An aggressive core technology development program is in place which is focused by ongoing interaction with customers and vendors to optimize the design of the commercial power plant. ERC has selected a 2.85 MW power plant unit for initial market entry. Two ERC subsidiaries are supporting the commercialization effort: the Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) and the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE). FCMC manufactures carbonate stacks and multi-stack modules, currently from its production facility in Torrington, CT. FCE is responsible for power plant design, integration of all subsystems, sales/marketing, and client services. FCE is serving as the prime contractor for the design, construction, and testing of the SCDP Plant. FCMC has manufactured the multi-stack submodules used in the DC power section of the plant. Fluor Daniel Inc. (FDI) served as the architect-engineer subcontractor for the design and construction of the plant and provided support to the design of the multi-stack submodules. FDI is also assisting the ERC companies in commercial power plant design.

  2. Carbon-Based Microbial-Fuel-Cell Electrodes: From Conductive Supports to Active Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang; Cheng, Chong; Thomas, Arne

    2017-02-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have attracted considerable interest due to their potential in renewable electrical power generation using the broad diversity of biomass and organic substrates. However, the difficulties in achieving high power densities and commercially affordable electrode materials have limited their industrial applications to date. Carbon materials, which can exhibit a wide range of different morphologies and structures, usually possess physiological activity to interact with microorganisms and are therefore fast-emerging electrode materials. As the anode, carbon materials can significantly promote interfacial microbial colonization and accelerate the formation of extracellular biofilms, which eventually promotes the electrical power density by providing a conductive microenvironment for extracellular electron transfer. As the cathode, carbon-based materials can function as catalysts for the oxygen-reduction reaction, showing satisfying activities and efficiencies nowadays even reaching the performance of Pt catalysts. Here, first, recent advancements on the design of carbon materials for anodes in MFCs are summarized, and the influence of structure and surface functionalization of different types of carbon materials on microorganism immobilization and electrochemical performance is elucidated. Then, synthetic strategies and structures of typical carbon-based cathodes in MFCs are briefly presented. Furthermore, future applications of carbon-electrode-based MFC devices in the energy, environmental, and biological fields are discussed, and the emerging challenges in transferring them from laboratory to industrial scale are described.

  3. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL POWER PLANT LOCATED AT LADWP MAIN STREET SERVICE CENTER

    SciTech Connect

    William W. Glauz

    2004-09-10

    The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has developed one of the most recognized fuel cell demonstration programs in the United States. In addition to their high efficiencies and superior environmental performance, fuel cells and other generating technologies that can be located at or near the load, offers several electric utility benefits. Fuel cells can help further reduce costs by reducing peak electricity demand, thereby deferring or avoiding expenses for additional electric utility infrastructure. By locating generators near the load, higher reliability of service is possible and the losses that occur during delivery of electricity from remote generators are avoided. The potential to use renewable and locally available fuels, such as landfill or sewage treatment waste gases, provides another attractive outlook. In Los Angeles, there are also many oil producing areas where the gas by-product can be utilized. In June 2000, the LADWP contracted with FCE to install and commission the precommercial 250kW MCFC power plant. The plant was delivered, installed, and began power production at the JFB in August 2001. The plant underwent manufacturer's field trials up for 18 months and was replace with a commercial plant in January 2003. In January 2001, the LADWP contracted with FCE to provide two additional 250kW MCFC power plants. These commercial plants began operations during mid-2003. The locations of these plants are at the Terminal Island Sewage Treatment Plant at the Los Angeles Harbor (for eventual operation on digester gas) and at the LADWP Main Street Service Center east of downtown Los Angeles. All three carbonate fuel cell plants received partial funding through the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buydown Program. This report covers the technical evaluation and benefit-cost evaluation of the Main Street 250kW MCFC power plant during its first year of operation from September 2003 to August 2004. The data for the month of

  4. Intermediate temperature fuel cell with a doped ceria-carbonate composite electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Chun; Li, Yi; Tian, Ye; Liu, Qinghua; Wang, Zhiming; Jia, Lijun; Zhao, Yicheng; Li, Yongdan

    The performance of a composite electrolyte composed of a samarium doped ceria (SDC) and a binary eutectic carbonate melt phase has been examined. This material shows higher ionic conductivity than pure SDC in intermediate temperature region. SDC with different morphologies is obtained by co-precipitation, sol-gel and glycine-nitrate combustion preparation techniques. A tri-layer single cell is prepared with a cost-effective co-pressing and co-sintering technique. It is found that the surface properties of SDC and the electrolyte thickness have a great influence on the fuel cell performance. When the co-precipitated SDC is used as the electrolyte component and CO 2/O 2 gas mixture is adopted as the cathode oxidant gas, a fuel cell with an excellent performance is obtained, which has a peak power output of 1704 mW cm -2 at a current density of 3000 mA cm -2 at 650 °C. The influence of cathode atmosphere is examined with conductivity measurement and fuel cell performance test. The results support the concept of O 2-/H +/CO 3 2- ternary conduction.

  5. Carbon Nanohorn-Derived Graphene Nanotubes as a Platinum-Free Fuel Cell Cathode.

    PubMed

    Unni, Sreekuttan M; Illathvalappil, Rajith; Bhange, Siddheshwar N; Puthenpediakkal, Hasna; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2015-11-04

    Current low-temperature fuel cell research mainly focuses on the development of efficient nonprecious electrocatalysts for the reduction of dioxygen molecule due to the reasons like exorbitant cost and scarcity of the current state-of-the-art Pt-based catalysts. As a potential alternative to such costly electrocatalysts, we report here the preparation of an efficient graphene nanotube based oxygen reduction electrocatalyst which has been derived from single walled nanohorns, comprising a thin layer of graphene nanotubes and encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles (FeGNT). FeGNT shows a surface area of 750 m(2)/g, which is the highest ever reported among the metal encapsulated nanotubes. Moreover, the graphene protected iron oxide nanoparticles assist the system to attain efficient distribution of Fe-Nx and quaternary nitrogen based active reaction centers, which provides better activity and stability toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic as well as alkaline conditions. Single cell performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell by using FeGNT as the cathode catalyst delivered a maximum power density of 200 mW cm(-2) with Nafion as the proton exchange membrane at 60 °C. The facile synthesis strategy with iron oxide encapsulated graphitic carbon morphology opens up a new horizon of hope toward developing Pt-free fuel cells and metal-air batteries along with its applicability in other energy conversion and storage devices.

  6. Novel carbon-ion fuel cells. Final report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Cocks, F.H.

    1997-01-01

    Mixed lanthanide dicarbides having the fluorite crystal structure have been synthesized using the elemental lanthanide metals and elemental carbon that was 99.9% pure carbon-13 isotope. A two step process of first, arc furnace melting of the components, followed by an annealing step in a high vacuum furnace, was adopted as the standard method of fabricating small cast ingots of the dicarbides. The crystal structure of the various lanthanide dicarbides produced were confirmed by x-ray diffraction under protective atmospheres at both room temperature at Duke University and at high temperature at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. After more than 15 combinations of cerium or lanthanum with dopants were tried, low temperature x-ray diffraction showed that Ce{sub .5}Er{sub .5}C{sub 2} had been successfully stabilized and had the desired fluorite crystal structure at room temperature. The fluorite crystal structure lanthanide dicarbide cast ingots were further prepared by having flat and clean surfaces ground onto their surfaces by high-speed milling machines inside argon gas atmosphere gloveboxes. The surfaces thus created were then coated with carbon-12 by the arc evaporation method under low pressure argon gas. The coated ingots were then allowed to have carbon diffusion occur from the surface coating of carbon-12 into the ingot of dicarbide that had been synthesized from carbon-13. After the diffusion run, the cast ingots were slit down the axis perpendicular to the carbon coating. The fracture surface created was then squared and polished by high,speed milling in a glove box with a argon atmosphere. The high diffusion co-efficient of carbon in lanthanide dicarbides having the fluorite crystal structure would make possible the manufacture of a carbon-ion electrolyte for use in a battery or a fuel cell that could consume solid carbon as it`s feedstock.

  7. Development of PEM fuel cell technology at international fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The PEM technology has not developed to the level of phosphoric acid fuel cells. Several factors have held the technology development back such as high membrane cost, sensitivity of PEM fuel cells to low level of carbon monoxide impurities, the requirement to maintain full humidification of the cell, and the need to pressurize the fuel cell in order to achieve the performance targets. International Fuel Cells has identified a hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell concept that leverages recent research advances to overcome major economic and technical obstacles.

  8. Simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal using a litre-scale upflow microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ling-ling; Song, Tian-shun

    2014-01-01

    A 10 L upflow microbial fuel cell (UMFC) was constructed for simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal. During the 6-month operation, the UMFC constantly removed carbon and nitrogen, and then generated electricity with synthetic wastewater as substrate. At 5.0 mg L(-1) dissolved oxygen, 100 Ω external resistance, and pH 6.5, the maximum power density (Pmax) and nitrification rate for the UMFC was 19.5 mW m(-2) and 17.9 mg·(L d)(-1), respectively. In addition, Pmax in the UMFC with chicken manure wastewater as substrate was 16 mW m(-2), and a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 94.1% in the UMFC was achieved at 50 mM phosphate-buffered saline. Almost all ammonia in the cathode effluent was effectively degraded after biological denitrification in the UMFC cathode. The results can help to further develop pilot-scale microbial fuel cells for simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal.

  9. Effect of carbon support on catalytic efficiency and durability in fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malardier-Jugroot, Cecile; Groves, Michael; Durbin, Deborah; Jugroot, Manish

    2012-02-01

    New nanomaterials already play a key role in several emerging technologies. For instance, in fuel cell technology, catalytic efficiency can be greatly enhanced due to the high surface area of nanomaterials. Improving the durability and efficiency of a platinum catalyst is an important step in increasing its utility when incorporated as the anode or cathode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The authors have shown using Density Functional Theory methods [1] that doping the carbon support of the Pt catalyst can increase the durability and efficiency of the catalyst. This paper will present the effect of doping of the carbon support on the complete reaction path of the Oxygen Reduction Reaction using ab initio structural methods as well as a complete ab initio molecular dynamics characterization of the reaction. In addition, the electronic structure of the carbon support was shown to improve the metal/CO interaction for the development of a membrane to prevent catalyst poisoning [2]. The paper will also emphasize the effect of the solvent, which is experimentally shown to be crucial. [1] M. Groves, A. Chan, C. Malardier-Jugroot and M. Jugroot, Chem. Phys. Letters, 481(4-6), 214-219, 2009 [2] D. Durbin and C. Malardier-Jugroot, J. Phys. Chem. C, 115 (3), 808--815, 2011

  10. Environmentally Friendly Carbon-Preserving Recovery of Noble Metals From Supported Fuel Cell Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Latsuzbaia, R; Negro, E; Koper, G J M

    2015-06-08

    The dissolution of noble-metal catalysts under mild and carbon-preserving conditions offers the possibility of in situ regeneration of the catalyst nanoparticles in fuel cells or other applications. Here, we report on the complete dissolution of the fuel cell catalyst, platinum nanoparticles, under very mild conditions at room temperature in 0.1 M HClO4 and 0.1 M HCl by electrochemical potential cycling between 0.5-1.1 V at a scan rate of 50 mV s(-1) . Dissolution rates as high as 22.5 μg cm(-2) per cycle were achieved, which ensured a relatively short dissolution timescale of 3-5 h for a Pt loading of 0.35 mg cm(-2) on carbon. The influence of chloride ions and oxygen in the electrolyte on the dissolution was investigated, and a dissolution mechanism is proposed on the basis of the experimental observations and available literature results. During the dissolution process, the corrosion of the carbon support was minimal, as observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Nanocrystalline intermetallics on mesoporous carbon for direct formic acid fuel cell anodes.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiulei; Lee, Kyu Tae; Holden, Reanne; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jiujun; Botton, Gianluigi A; Couillard, Martin; Nazar, Linda F

    2010-04-01

    Shape- and size-controlled supported metal and intermetallic nanocrystallites are of increasing interest because of their catalytic and electrocatalytic properties. In particular, intermetallics PtX (X = Bi, Pb, Pd, Ru) are very attractive because of their high activity as fuel-cell anode catalysts for formic acid or methanol oxidation. These are normally synthesized using high-temperature techniques, but rigorous size control is very challenging. Even low-temperature techniques typically produce nanoparticles with dimensions much greater than the optimum <6 nm required for fuel cell catalysis. Here, we present a simple and robust, chemically controlled process for synthesizing size-controlled noble metal or bimetallic nanocrystallites embedded within the porous structure of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC). By using surface-modified ordered mesoporous carbon to trap the metal precursors, nanocrystallites are formed with monodisperse sizes as low as 1.5 nm, which can be tuned up to ∼3.5 nm. To the best of our knowledge, 3-nm ordered mesoporous carbon-supported PtBi nanoparticles exhibit the highest mass activity for formic acid oxidation reported to date, and over double that of Pt-Au.

  12. Nanocrystalline intermetallics on mesoporous carbon for direct formic acid fuel cell anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xiulei; Lee, Kyu Tae; Holden, Reanne; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jiujun; Botton, Gianluigi A.; Couillard, Martin; Nazar, Linda F.

    2010-04-01

    Shape- and size-controlled supported metal and intermetallic nanocrystallites are of increasing interest because of their catalytic and electrocatalytic properties. In particular, intermetallics PtX (X = Bi, Pb, Pd, Ru) are very attractive because of their high activity as fuel-cell anode catalysts for formic acid or methanol oxidation. These are normally synthesized using high-temperature techniques, but rigorous size control is very challenging. Even low-temperature techniques typically produce nanoparticles with dimensions much greater than the optimum <6 nm required for fuel cell catalysis. Here, we present a simple and robust, chemically controlled process for synthesizing size-controlled noble metal or bimetallic nanocrystallites embedded within the porous structure of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC). By using surface-modified ordered mesoporous carbon to trap the metal precursors, nanocrystallites are formed with monodisperse sizes as low as 1.5 nm, which can be tuned up to ~3.5 nm. To the best of our knowledge, 3-nm ordered mesoporous carbon-supported PtBi nanoparticles exhibit the highest mass activity for formic acid oxidation reported to date, and over double that of Pt-Au.

  13. Electrochemical gas-electricity cogeneration through direct carbon solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yongmin; Cai, Weizi; Xiao, Jie; Tang, Yubao; Liu, Jiang; Liu, Meilin

    2015-03-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), with yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as electrolyte, composite of strontium-doped lanthanum manganate (LSM) and YSZ as cathode, and cermet of silver and gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) as anode, are prepared and tested with 5wt% Fe-loaded activated carbon as fuel and ambient air as oxidant. It is found that electricity and CO gas can be cogenerated in the direct carbon SOFCs through the electrochemical oxidation of CO and the Boudouard reaction. The gas-electricity cogeneration performances are investigated by taking the operating time of the DC-SOFCs as a measure of rate decrease of the Boudouard reaction. Three single cells and a two-cell-stack are tested and characterized in terms of electrical power output, CO production rate, electrical conversion efficiency, and overall conversion efficiency. It turns out that a rapid rate of the Boudouard reaction is necessary for getting high electrical power and CO production. Taking the emitted CO as part of the power output, an overall efficiency of 76.5% for the single cell, and of 72.5% for the stack, is obtained.

  14. Durability and regeneration of activated carbon air-cathodes in long-term operated microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Enren; Wang, Feng; Yu, Qingling; Scott, Keith; Wang, Xu; Diao, Guowang

    2017-08-01

    The performance of activated carbon catalyst in air-cathodes in microbial fuel cells was investigated over one year. A maximum power of 1722 mW m-2 was produced within the initial one-month microbial fuel cell operation. The air-cathodes produced a maximum power >1200 mW m-2 within six months, but gradually became a limiting factor for the power output in prolonged microbial fuel cell operation. The maximum power decreased by 55% when microbial fuel cells were operated over one year due to deterioration in activated carbon air-cathodes. While salt/biofilm removal from cathodes experiencing one-year operation increased a limiting performance enhancement in cathodes, a washing-drying-pressing procedure could restore the cathode performance to its original levels, although the performance restoration was temporary. Durable cathodes could be regenerated by re-pressing activated carbon catalyst, recovered from one year deteriorated air-cathodes, with new gas diffusion layer, resulting in ∼1800 mW m-2 of maximum power production. The present study indicated that activated carbon was an effective catalyst in microbial fuel cell cathodes, and could be recovered for reuse in long-term operated microbial fuel cells by simple methods.

  15. Carbon composite bipolar plate for high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dongyoung; Lee, Dai Gil

    2016-09-01

    A carbon/epoxy composite bipolar plate is an ideal substitute for the brittle graphite bipolar plate for lightweight proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) because of its high specific strength and stiffness. However, conventional carbon/epoxy composite bipolar plates are not applicable for high-temperature PEMFCs (HT-PEMFCs) because these systems are operated at higher temperatures than the glass transition temperatures of conventional epoxies. Therefore, in this study, a cyanate ester-modified epoxy is adopted for the development of a carbon composite bipolar plate for HT-PEMFCs. The composite bipolar plate with exposed surface carbon fibers is produced without any surface treatments or coatings to increase the productivity and is integrated with a silicone gasket to reduce the assembly cost. The developed carbon composite bipolar plate exhibits not only superior electrical properties but also high thermo-mechanical properties. In addition, a unit cell test is performed, and the results are compared with those of the conventional graphite bipolar plate.

  16. Organic fuel cells and fuel cell conducting sheets

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I.; Ha, Su; Adams, Brian

    2007-10-16

    A passive direct organic fuel cell includes an organic fuel solution and is operative to produce at least 15 mW/cm.sup.2 when operating at room temperature. In additional aspects of the invention, fuel cells can include a gas remover configured to promote circulation of an organic fuel solution when gas passes through the solution, a modified carbon cloth, one or more sealants, and a replaceable fuel cartridge.

  17. Electro-osmotic-based catholyte production by Microbial Fuel Cells for carbon capture.

    PubMed

    Gajda, Iwona; Greenman, John; Melhuish, Chris; Santoro, Carlo; Li, Baikun; Cristiani, Pierangela; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2015-12-01

    In Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs), the recovery of water can be achieved with the help of both active (electro-osmosis), and passive (osmosis) transport pathways of electrolyte through the semi-permeable selective separator. The electrical current-dependent transport, results in cations and electro-osmotically dragged water molecules reaching the cathode. The present study reports on the production of catholyte on the surface of the cathode, which was achieved as a direct result of electricity generation using MFCs fed with wastewater, and employing Pt-free carbon based cathode electrodes. The highest pH levels (>13) of produced liquid were achieved by the MFCs with the activated carbon cathodes producing the highest power (309 μW). Caustic catholyte formation is presented in the context of beneficial cathode flooding and transport mechanisms, in an attempt to understand the effects of active and passive diffusion. Active transport was dominant under closed circuit conditions and showed a linear correlation with power performance, whereas osmotic (passive) transport was governing the passive flux of liquid in open circuit conditions. Caustic catholyte was mineralised to a mixture of carbonate and bicarbonate salts (trona) thus demonstrating an active carbon capture mechanism as a result of the MFC energy-generating performance. Carbon capture would be valuable for establishing a carbon negative economy and environmental sustainability of the wastewater treatment process.

  18. Electrostatic Force Microscopic Characterization of Early Stage Carbon Deposition on Nickel Anodes in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyungmin; Li, Xiaxi; Lai, Samson Y; Chen, Dongchang; Blinn, Kevin S; Liu, Mingfei; Choi, Sinho; Liu, Meilin; Park, Soojin; Bottomley, Lawrence A

    2015-09-09

    Carbon deposition on nickel anodes degrades the performance of solid oxide fuel cells that utilize hydrocarbon fuels. Nickel anodes with BaO nanoclusters deposited on the surface exhibit improved performance by delaying carbon deposition (i.e., coking). The goal of this research was to visualize early stage deposition of carbon on nickel surface and to identify the role BaO nanoclusters play in coking resistance. Electrostatic force microscopy was employed to spatially map carbon deposition on nickel foils patterned with BaO nanoclusters. Image analysis reveals that upon propane exposure initial carbon deposition occurs on the Ni surface at a distance from the BaO features. With continued exposure, carbon deposits penetrate into the BaO-modified regions. After extended exposure, carbon accumulates on and covers BaO. The morphology and spatial distribution of deposited carbon was found to be sensitive to experimental conditions.

  19. Task 1.0, development of improved molten carbonate fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. H.

    1990-10-01

    The overall objective of this task was to develop an improved cell configuration for molten carbonate fuel cells which has improved performance, meets a 40,000 hour projected life, maintains existing cell cost, and is adaptable to a range of power plant applications. A new cell configuration designed to be manufactured using conventional and available equipment and processes was developed and verified in subscale single cells. This cell configuration is adaptable to a broad range of fuels without redesign, operating on very weak low Btu coal gas as well as high Btu gas and natural gas. The success of this program has provided the confidence to proceed with a scale-up to 8 sq ft. cells and a stack verification in a 20-cell, 25 kW stack test. Design requirements and specifications for components in an improved cell design were defined. Electrolyte requirements for the cell components were established, the estimated time-to-short was updated, and a design operating point and gas composition for single cell testing was defined. Four anode, four cathode, five matrix configurations, and three end-cell reservoirs were defined. A total of 54 single cell tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of individual improvements and combinations of improved configurations. Anodes were successfully fabricated by tape casting. A new tape cast cathode for improved electrolyte sharing, new tape cast matrix materials and matrix reinforcement, and an end-cell reservoir configuration using conductive material were developed. Reports on the separate subtasks have been processed for inclusion on the data base.

  20. Characterization of a microbial fuel cell with reticulated carbon foam electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lepage, Guillaume; Albernaz, Fabio Ovenhausen; Perrier, Gérard; Merlin, Gérard

    2012-11-01

    A microbial fuel cell with open-pore reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes is studied to assess the suitability of this material in a batch mode, in the perspective of flow-through reactors for wastewater treatment with electricity generation. The cell shows good stability and fair robustness in regards to substrate cycles. A power density of 40 W/m(3) is reached. The cell efficiency is mainly limited by cathodic transfers, representing 85% of the global overpotential in open circuit. Through impedance spectrocopy, equivalent circuit modeling reveals the complex nature of the bioelectrochemical phenomena. The global electrical behavior of the cell seems to result in the addition of three anodic and two cathodic distinct phenomena. On the cathode side, the Warburg element in the model is related to the diffusion of oxygen. Warburg resistance and time are respectively 2.99 kΩ cm(2) and 16.4s, similar to those published elsewhere.

  1. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell technology at M-C Power Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Dilger, D.

    1996-04-01

    M-C Power Corporation was founded in 1987 with the mission to further develop and subsequently commercialize molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC). The technology chosen for commercialization was initially developed by the Institute of Gas technology (IGT). At the center of this MCFC technology is the Internally Manifolded Heat EXchange (IMHEX) separator plate design. The IMHEX technology design provides several functions within one component assembly. These functions include integrating the gas manifold structure into the fuel cell stack, separating the fuel gas stream from the oxidant gas stream, providing the required electrical contact between cells to achieve desired power output, and removing excess heat generated in the electrochemical process. Development of this MCFC technology from lab-scale sizes too a commercial area size of 1m{sup 2} has focused our efforts an demonstrating feasibility and evolutionary progress. The development effort will culminate in a proof-of-concept- 250kW power plant demonstration in 1996. The remainder of our commercialization program focuses upon lowering the costs associated with the MCFC power plant system in low production volumes.

  2. 1986 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1986-10-01

    Ninety nine brief papers are arranged under the following session headings: gas industry's 40 kw program, solid oxide fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell technology, molten carbonate fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell systems, power plants technology, fuel cell power plant designs, unconventional fuels, fuel cell application and economic assessments, and plans for commerical development. The papers are processed separately for the data base. (DLC)

  3. Miniaturized ascorbic acid fuel cells with flexible electrodes made of graphene-coated carbon fiber cloth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Kazuki; Muramatsu, Kazuo; Sumi, Hisato; Nishioka, Yasushiro

    2016-04-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) is a biologically friendly compound and exists in many products such as sports drinks, fruit, and even in human blood. Thus, a miniaturized and flexible ascorbic acid fuel cell (AAFC) is expected be a power source for portable or implantable electric devices. In this study, we fabricated an AAFC with anode and cathode dimensions of 3 × 10 mm2 made of a graphene-coated carbon fiber cloth (GCFC) and found that GCFC electrodes significantly improve the power generated by the AAFC. This is because the GCFC has more than two times the effective surface area of a conventional carbon fiber cloth and it can contain more enzymes. The power density of the AAFC in a phosphate buffer solution containing 100 mM AA at room temperature was 34.1 µW/cm2 at 0.46 V. Technical issues in applying the AAFC to portable devices are also discussed.

  4. Electricity generation from carbon monoxide and syngas in a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Abid; Guiot, Serge R; Mehta, Punita; Raghavan, Vijaya; Tartakovsky, Boris

    2011-05-01

    Electricity generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been a subject of significant research efforts. MFCs employ the ability of electricigenic bacteria to oxidize organic substrates using an electrode as an electron acceptor. While MFC application for electricity production from a variety of organic sources has been demonstrated, very little research on electricity production from carbon monoxide and synthesis gas (syngas) in an MFC has been reported. Although most of the syngas today is produced from non-renewable sources, syngas production from renewable biomass or poorly degradable organic matter makes energy generation from syngas a sustainable process, which combines energy production with the reprocessing of solid wastes. An MFC-based process of syngas conversion to electricity might offer a number of advantages such as high Coulombic efficiency and biocatalytic activity in the presence of carbon monoxide and sulfur components. This paper presents a discussion on microorganisms and reactor designs that can be used for operating an MFC on syngas.

  5. Use of silicone membranes to enhance gas transfer during microbial fuel cell operation on carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Hussain, A; Tartakovsky, B; Guiot, S R; Raghavan, V

    2011-12-01

    Electricity generation in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) using carbon monoxide (CO) or synthesis gas (syngas) as a carbon source has been demonstrated recently. A major challenge associated with CO or syngas utilization is the mass transfer limitation of these sparingly soluble gases in the aqueous phase. This study evaluated the applicability of a dense polymer silicone membrane and thin wall silicone tubing for CO mass transfer in MFCs. Replacing the sparger used in our previous study with the membrane systems for CO delivery resulted in improved MFC performance and CO transformation efficiency. A power output and CO transformation efficiency of up to 18 mW LR(-1) (normalized to anode compartment volume) and 98%, respectively, was obtained. The use of membrane systems offers the advantage of improved mass transfer and reduced reactor volume, thus increasing the volumetric power output of MFCs operating on a gaseous substrate such as CO.

  6. Study on the Preparation Process and Influential Factors of Large Area Environment-friendly Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruiyun; Xu, Shisen; Cheng, Jian; Wang, Hongjian; Ren, Yongqiang

    2017-07-01

    Low-cost and high-performance matrix materials used in mass production of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) were prepared by automatic casting machine with α-LiAlO2 powder material synthesized by gel-solid method, and distilled water as solvent. The single cell was assembled for generating test, and the good performance of the matrix was verified. The paper analyzed the factors affecting aqueous tape casting matrix preparation, such as solvent content, dispersant content, milling time, blade height and casting machine running speed, providing a solid basis for the mass production of large area environment-friendly matrix used in molten carbonate fuel cell.

  7. Study of different carbon materials for their use as bioanodes in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    González-Nava, Catalina; Godínez, Luis A; Chávez, Abraham U; Cercado, Bibiana; Arriaga, Luis G; Rodríguez-Valadez, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are capable of removing the organic matter contained in water while generating a certain amount of electrical power at the same time. One of the most important aspects in the operation of MFCs is the formation of biofilms on the anode. Here, we report the characterization of different carbon electrodes and biofilm using a rapid and easy methodology for the growth of biofilms. The biofilms were developed and generated a voltage in less than 4 days, obtaining a maximum of 0.3 V in the cells. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that growth of the biofilm was only on the surface of the electrode, and consequently both carbon cloth Electrochem and carbon cloth Roe materials showed a greater quantity of volatile solids on the surface of the anode and power density. The results suggested that the best support was carbon cloth Electrochem because it generated a power density of 13.4 mW/m(2) and required only a few hours for the formation of the biofilm.

  8. Process analysis of a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant fed with a biomass syngas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasi, C.; Baratieri, M.; Bosio, B.; Arato, E.; Baggio, P.

    The coupling of renewable energy sources and innovative power generation technologies is of topical interest to meet demands for increased power generation and cleaner environmental performance. Accordingly, biomass is receiving considerable attention as a partial substitute for fossil fuels, as it is more environmentally friendly and provides a profitable way of disposing of waste. In addition, fuel cells are perceived as most promising electrical power generation systems. Today, many plants combining these two concepts are under study; they differ in terms of biomass type and/or power plant configuration. Even if the general feasibility of such applications has been demonstrated, there are still many associated problems to be resolved. This study examines a plant configuration based on a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and a recirculated fluidized-bed reactor which has been applied to the thermal conversion of many types of biomass. Process analysis is conducted by simulating the entire plant using a commercial code. In particular, an energy assessment is studied by taking account of the energy requirements of auxiliary equipment and the possibility of utilizing the exhaust gases for cogeneration.

  9. Improvements of a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant via exergy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, R.J.; Gaggioli, R.A.; Dunbar, W.R. |

    1996-12-31

    A proposed molten carbonate fuel cell power plant design, intended for commercial production by the end of the 1990`s and developed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy and the Gas Research Institute, has been analyzed with exergy analysis. The commercial production units, targeted for dispersed power generation markets, are based on an existing demonstration molten carbonate fuel cell power plant design which entered the start-up phase in early 1996. Exergy analysis of the commercial plant design shows the overall, second-law system efficiency to be 53 percent. The principal inefficiency, 17 percent of the total, lies in the catalytic combustor. Another major inefficiency is the stack loss, 14 percent. Heat transfer accounts for approximately 6% of the loss. System reconfigurations, incorporating a steam cycle with reheat (System 1) and a gas turbine cycle (System 2), both with revised heat exchanger networks, for significant improvement are proposed and evaluated. The second-law system efficiency is raised to 66% in System 1 and to 70% for System 2.

  10. FUEL CELL MANPACK POWER SOURCE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    battery provides required power density and instantly available power while the fuel cell efficiently converts a primary fuel to electrical power at a...field supply, afford an extremely high energy density making the hybrid fuel cell system competitive on cost per kilowatt hour with standard military zinc-carbon primary batteries. (Author)

  11. Effects of sulfide on microbial fuel cells with platinum and nitrogen-doped carbon powder cathodes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yujie; Shi, Xinxin; Wang, Xin; Lee, He; Liu, Jia; Qu, Youpeng; He, Weihua; Kumar, S M Senthil; Kim, Byung Hong; Ren, Nanqi

    2012-05-15

    Because of the advantages of low cost, good electrical conductivity and high oxidation resistance, nitrogen-doped carbon (NDC) materials have a potential to replace noble metals in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for wastewater treatment. In spite of a large volume of studies on NDC materials as catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction, the influence of sulfide on NDC materials has not yet been explicitly reported so far. In this communication, nitrogen-doped carbon powders (NDCP) were prepared by treating carbon powders in nitric acid under reflux condition. Sodium sulfide (Na(2)S) was added to the cathodic electrolyte to compare its effects on platinum (Pt) and NDCP cathodes. Cell voltages, power density and cathodic potentials were monitored without and with Na(2)S and after Na(2)S was removed. The maximum cell voltage of the MFCs with Pt cathode decreased by 10% in the presence of Na(2)S that did not change the performance of the MFC with NDCP cathode, and the maximum power density of the MFC with NDCP cathode was even 11.3% higher than that with Pt cathode (222.5 ± 8 mW m(-2) vs. 199.7 ± 4 mW m(-2)). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bipolar plate materials in molten carbonate fuel cells. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Krumpelt, M. Gorelov, A. M.

    2004-06-01

    Advantages of implementation of power plants based on electrochemical reactions are successfully demonstrated in the USA and Japan. One of the msot promising types of fuel cells (FC) is a type of high temperature fuel cells. At present, thanks to the efforts of the leading countries that develop fuel cell technologies power plants on the basis of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are really close to commercialization. One of the problems that are to be solved for practical implementation of MCFC and SOFC is a problem of corrosion of metal components of stacks that are assembled of a number of fuel cells. One of the major components of MCFC and SOFC stacks is a bipolar separator plate (BSP) that performs several functions - it is separation of reactant gas flows sealing of the joints between fuel cells, and current collection from the surface of electrodes. The goal of Task 1 of the project is to develop new cost-effective nickel coatings for the Russian 20X23H18 steel for an MCFC bipolar separator plate using technological processes usually implemented to apply corrosion stable coatings onto the metal parts for products in the defense. There was planned the research on production of nickel coatings using different methods, first of all the galvanic one and the explosion cladding one. As a result of the works, 0.4 x 712 x 1296 mm plates coated with nickel on one side were to be made and passed to ANL. A line of 4 galvanic baths 600 liters was to be built for the galvanic coating applications. The goal of Task 2 of the project is the development of a new material of an MCFC bipolar separator plate with an upgraded corrosion stability, and development of a technology to produce cold roll sheets of this material the sizes of which will be 0.8 x 712x 1296 mm. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of the rolled material in sheets 0.8 x 712 x 1296 mm in size is to be made (in accordance with the norms and standards of the Russian

  13. A simple high-performance matrix-free biomass molten carbonate fuel cell without CO2 recirculation

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Rong; Tao, Shanwen

    2016-01-01

    In previous reports, flowing CO2 at the cathode is essential for either conventional molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) based on molten carbonate/LiAlO2 electrolytes or matrix-free MCFCs. For the first time, we demonstrate a high-performance matrix-free MCFC without CO2 recirculation. At 800°C, power densities of 430 and 410 mW/cm2 are achieved when biomass—bamboo charcoal and wood, respectively–is used as fuel. At 600°C, a stable performance is observed during the measured 90 hours after the initial degradation. In this MCFC, CO2 is produced at the anode when carbon-containing fuels are used. The produced CO2 then dissolves and diffuses to the cathode to react with oxygen in open air, forming the required CO32− or CO42− ions for continuous operation. The dissolved O2− ions may also take part in the cell reactions. This provides a simple new fuel cell technology to directly convert carbon-containing fuels such as carbon and biomass into electricity with high efficiency. PMID:27540588

  14. A simple high-performance matrix-free biomass molten carbonate fuel cell without CO2 recirculation.

    PubMed

    Lan, Rong; Tao, Shanwen

    2016-08-01

    In previous reports, flowing CO2 at the cathode is essential for either conventional molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) based on molten carbonate/LiAlO2 electrolytes or matrix-free MCFCs. For the first time, we demonstrate a high-performance matrix-free MCFC without CO2 recirculation. At 800°C, power densities of 430 and 410 mW/cm(2) are achieved when biomass-bamboo charcoal and wood, respectively-is used as fuel. At 600°C, a stable performance is observed during the measured 90 hours after the initial degradation. In this MCFC, CO2 is produced at the anode when carbon-containing fuels are used. The produced CO2 then dissolves and diffuses to the cathode to react with oxygen in open air, forming the required [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] ions for continuous operation. The dissolved [Formula: see text] ions may also take part in the cell reactions. This provides a simple new fuel cell technology to directly convert carbon-containing fuels such as carbon and biomass into electricity with high efficiency.

  15. Continuous Preparation of Carbon Nanotube Film and Its Applications in Fuel and Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao Gang; Huang, Xin Xin; Wang, Xiao Xia; Zhong, Xin Hua; Meng, Xin Xin; Wang, Jian Nong

    2016-03-01

    So far, simultaneously realizing the continuous, controllable, and scalable preparation of carbon nanotube (CNT) film has remained a big challenge. Here, we report a scalable approach to continuously prepare CNT film with good control of film size and thickness. This is achieved through the layer-by-layer condensation and deposition of a cylindrical CNT assembly that is continuously produced from a floating catalyst CVD reactor on a paper strip. The promising applications of such a film are demonstrated by directly using it as an effective protecting layer for the Pt/C catalyst in proton exchange membrane fuel cells and as an efficient counter electrode material in quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells.

  16. Effects of coal-derived trace species on the performance of carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pigeaud, A. ); Wilemski, G. )

    1992-01-01

    NH{sub 3} Cd, Hg, and Sn have no noticeable effects on carbonate fuel cell performance. Zn and Pb (the latter in the presence of Se) had minor effects, while the interactions of H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se and As are more significant. Because H{sub 2}S had already been extensively investigated earlier by various groups, the focus in this study was centered on the latter three elements. It appears that HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, and As need to be limited to sub-ppM levels in a manner similar to H{sub 2}S. These findings, of course, should be considered qualitative because they were obtained in single, isothermally operated, bench-sale cells, and are applicable for individual contaminants.

  17. Effects of coal-derived trace species on the performance of carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pigeaud, A.; Wilemski, G.

    1992-09-01

    NH{sub 3} Cd, Hg, and Sn have no noticeable effects on carbonate fuel cell performance. Zn and Pb (the latter in the presence of Se) had minor effects, while the interactions of H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se and As are more significant. Because H{sub 2}S had already been extensively investigated earlier by various groups, the focus in this study was centered on the latter three elements. It appears that HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, and As need to be limited to sub-ppM levels in a manner similar to H{sub 2}S. These findings, of course, should be considered qualitative because they were obtained in single, isothermally operated, bench-sale cells, and are applicable for individual contaminants.

  18. Graphene/carbon cloth anode for high-performance mediatorless microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Qiao, Yan; Guo, Chun Xian; Lim, Sierin; Song, Hao; Li, Chang Ming

    2012-06-01

    Graphene was electrochemically deposited on carbon cloth to fabricate an anode for a Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediatorless microbial fuel cell (MFC). The graphene modification improved power density and energy conversion efficiency by 2.7 and 3 times, respectively. The improvement is attributed to the high biocompatibility of graphene which promotes bacteria growth on the electrode surface that results in the creation of more direct electron transfer activation centers and stimulates excretion of mediating molecules for higher electron transfer rate. A parallel bioelectrocatalytic mechanism consisting of simultaneous direct electron transfer and cell-excreted mediator-enabled electron transfer was established in the P. aeruginosa-catalyzed MFC. This study does not only offer fundamental insights into MFC reactions, but also suggests a low cost manufacturing process to fabricate high power MFCs for practical applications.

  19. Porous carbon with defined pore size as anode of microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaofen; Cui, Dan; Wang, Xiaojun; Wang, Xianshu; Li, Weishan

    2015-07-15

    This paper reported a novel anode material, porous carbon with a defined pore size (DPC) matching bacteria, for microbial fuel cell (MFC). The DPC was prepared by using silica spheres as templates and sucrose as carbon precursor. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared DPC were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and its performance as anode of MFC based on Escherichia coli (E. coli) was evaluated with chronoamperometry, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and polarization curve measurement. The result from SEM demonstrates that pores in the as-prepared DPC are well defined with an average diameter of 400nm, which is a little larger than that of E. coli, and the polarization curve measurement shows that the as-prepared DPC exhibits superior performance as anode material loaded on carbon felt, delivering a power output of 1606mWm(-2), compared to the 402mWm(-2) of naked carbon felt anode, in the solution containing 2g/L glucose. The excellent performance of the as-prepared DPC is attributed to its suitable pore size for accommodating E. coli strain, which facilitates the formation of bacterial biofilm and the electron transfer between bacteria and anode. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 3D Analysis of Fuel Cell Electrocatalyst Degradation on Alternate Carbon Supports.

    PubMed

    Sneed, Brian T; Cullen, David A; Reeves, Kimberly S; Dyck, Ondrej E; Langlois, David A; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L; More, Karren L

    2017-09-06

    Understanding the mechanisms associated with Pt/C electrocatalyst degradation in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathodes is critical for the future development of higher-performing materials; however, there is a lack of information regarding Pt coarsening under PEMFC operating conditions within the cathode catalyst layer. We report a direct and quantitative 3D study of Pt dispersions on carbon supports (high surface area carbon (HSAC), Vulcan XC-72, and graphitized carbon) with varied surface areas, graphitic character, and Pt loadings ranging from 5 to 40 wt %. This is accomplished both before and after catalyst-cycling accelerated stress tests (ASTs) through observations of the cathode catalyst layer of membrane electrode assemblies. Electron tomography results show Pt nanoparticle agglomeration occurs predominantly at junctions and edges of aggregated graphitized carbon particles, leading to poor Pt dispersion in the as-prepared catalysts and increased coalescence during ASTs. Tomographic reconstructions of Pt/HSAC show much better initial Pt dispersions, less agglomeration, and less coarsening during ASTs in the cathode. However, a large loss of the electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) is still observed and is attributed to accelerated Pt dissolution and nanoparticle coalescence. Furthermore, a strong correlation between Pt particle/agglomerate size and measured ECSA is established and is proposed as a more useful metric than average crystallite size in predicting degradation behavior across different catalyst systems.

  1. Immobilization of a Metal-Nitrogen-Carbon Catalyst on Activated Carbon with Enhanced Cathode Performance in Microbial Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wulin; Logan, Bruce E

    2016-08-23

    Applications of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are limited in part by low power densities mainly due to cathode performance. Successful immobilization of an Fe-N-C co-catalyst on activated carbon (Fe-N-C/AC) improved the oxygen reduction reaction to nearly a four-electron transfer, compared to a twoelectron transfer achieved using AC. With acetate as the fuel, the maximum power density was 4.7±0.2 W m(-2) , which is higher than any previous report for an air-cathode MFC. With domestic wastewater as a fuel, MFCs with the Fe-N-C/AC cathode produced up to 0.8±0.03 W m(-2) , which was twice that obtained with a Pt-catalyzed cathode. The use of this Fe-N-C/AC catalyst can therefore substantially increase power production, and enable broader applications of MFCs for renewable electricity generation using waste materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Polybenzimidazole-multiwall carbon nanotubes composite membranes for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero Moreno, Nayibe; Gervasio, Dominic; Godínez García, Andrés; Pérez Robles, Juan Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Polymer membranes are prepared as a composite of polybenzimidazole and non-functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (PBI-CNT) and polybenzimidazole (PBI) only. Each is doped with H3PO4 (PA) and used as a proton exchange membrane (PEM) as the electrolyte in a fuel cell. The proton conductivities at 180 °C for the doped PBI membrane (PBIPA) and the doped PBI-CNT membrane (PBICNTPA) are 6.3 × 10-2 and 7.4 × 10-2 Scm-1 respectively. A single fuel cell having these membranes as electrolyte has a Pt catalyzed hydrogen gas fed anode and a similar oxygen cathode without humidification of feed gases; the cell with the PBICNTPA membrane has higher open circuit voltage (0.96 V) than that with a PBIPA membrane (0.8 V) at 180 °C. The mechanical stability of the membrane improves with CNTs addition. The tensile strength of the composite PBI-CNT membrane with 1 wt.% CNTs loading is 32% higher and the Young's Modulus is 147% higher than the values for a membrane of PBI alone. The improvement in conductivity and mechanical properties in the composite membrane due to the CNT addition indicates that a PBI-CNT membrane is a good alternative as a membrane electrolyte in a PEMFC.

  3. Control of geometrical properties of carbon nanotube electrodes towards high-performance microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbay, Celal; Pu, Xiong; Choi, Woongchul; Choi, Mi-Jin; Ryu, Yeontack; Hou, Huijie; Lin, Furong; de Figueiredo, Paul; Yu, Choongho; Han, Arum

    2015-04-01

    In microbial fuel cells (MFCs), physical and electrochemical interactions between microbes and electrode surfaces are critical to performance. Nanomaterial-based electrodes have shown promising performances, however their unique characteristics have not been fully utilized. The developed electrodes here consist of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) directly grown in the radial direction from the wires of stainless steel (SS) meshes, providing extremely large three-dimensional surfaces while ensuring minimal ohmic loss between CNTs and SS meshes, fully utilizing the advantages of CNTs. Systematic studies on how different lengths, packing densities, and surface conditions of CNTs affect MFC power output revealed that long and loosely packed CNTs without any amorphous carbon show the highest power production performance. The power density of this anode is 7.4-fold higher compared to bare carbon cloth, which is the highest reported improvement for MFCs with nanomaterial-decorated electrodes. The results of this study offer great potential for advancing the development of microbial electrochemical systems by providing a highly efficient nanomaterial-based electrode that delivers large surface area, high electrochemical activity, and minimum ohmic loss, as well as provide design principles for next-generation nanomaterial-based electrodes that can be broadly applicable for highly efficient microbial electrochemical cells.

  4. Fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Struthers, R.C.

    1983-06-28

    An improved fuel cell comprising an anode section including an anode terminal, an anode fuel, and an anolyte electrolyte, a cathode section including a cathode terminal, an electron distributor and a catholyte electrolyte, an ion exchange section between the anode and cathode sections and including an ionolyte electrolyte, ion transfer membranes separating the ionolyte from the anolyte and the catholyte and an electric circuit connected with and between the terminals conducting free electrons from the anode section and delivering free electrons to the cathode section, said ionolyte receives ions of one polarity moving from the anolyte through the membrane related thereto preventing chemical equilibrium in the anode section and sustaining chemical reaction and the generating of free electrons therein, said ions received by the ionolyte from the anolyte release different ions from the ionolyte which move through the membrane between the ionolyte and catholyte and which add to the catholyte.

  5. Energy Conversion Efficiency Potential for Forward-Deployed Generation Using Direct Carbon Fuel Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    fuel cells vs. DCFCs. PEMFC PAFC MCFC SOFC DCFC Electrolyte Polymer Phosphoric acid Molten car- bonate salt Ceramic Fused KNO3 Operating...air O2/air CO2/O2/air O2/air Humidified air Efficiency (Higher Heating Value [HHV]) 30–35% 40–50% 50–60% 45–55% 80% PEMFC : Proton Exchange... PEMFC proton-exchange membrane fuel cell SOFC solid oxide fuel cell SRI Statistical Research, Inc. TR technical report TRL technology readiness level

  6. Bio-ethanol, a suitable fuel to produce hydrogen for a molten carbonate fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frusteri, Francesco; Freni, Salvatore

    Catalytic and technological aspects in the use of bio-ethanol as fuel to produce hydrogen in both internal (IR-MCFC) and indirect internal reforming (IIR-MCFC) configurations have been considered. In MCFC conditions, even operating at total ethanol conversion, hydrogen productivity depends on the catalyst efficiency to convert methane formed through a mechanism, which foresees as first step the dehydrogenation of ethanol to acetaldehyde and as a second step the decomposition of acetaldehyde to CO and CH 4. Potassium doped Ni/MgO, Ni/La 2O 3 and Rh/MgO resulted to be the most promising catalysts to be used for the hydrogen production by steam reforming of bio-ethanol. Coke formation represents a serious problem, however, it can be drastically depressed by adding to the reaction stream a low amount of oxygen. On the basis of catalytic and technological evaluations, indirect internal reforming configuration should be the more suitable to operate with bio-ethanol. MCFC electric performance using a hydrogen rich gas coming from steam reforming of bio-ethanol is very similar to that of MCFC fed with pure hydrogen. However, the high content of steam in the flow reaction stream must be careful computed for a good thermal balance of the overall plant.

  7. Polypropylene oil as fuel for solid oxide fuel cell with samarium doped-ceria (SDC)-carbonate as electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syahputra, R. J. E.; Rahmawati, F.; Prameswari, A. P.; Saktian, R.

    2017-03-01

    The research focusses on converting polypropylene oil as pyrolysis product of polypropylene plastic into an electricity. The converter was a direct liquid fuel-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with cerium oxide based material as electrolyte. The polypropylene vapor flowed into fuel cell, in the anode side and undergo oxidation reaction, meanwhile, the Oxygen in atmosphere reduced into oxygen ion at cathode. The fuel cell test was conducted at 400 - 600 °C. According to GC-MS analysis, the polypropylene oil consist of C8 to C27 hydrocarbon chain. The XRD analysis result shows that Na2CO3 did not change the crystal structure of SDC even increases the electrical conductivity. The maximum power density is 0.079 mW.cm-2 at 773 K. The open circuite voltage is 0.77 volt. Chemical stability test by analysing the single cell at before and after fuel cell test found that ionic migration occured during fuel cell operation. It is supported by the change of elemental composition in the point position of electrolyte and at the electrolyte-electrode interface

  8. Platinum/tin oxide/carbon cathode catalyst for high temperature PEM fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrondo, Javier; Mijangos, Federico; Rambabu, B.

    The performance of high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) using platinum supported over tin oxide and Vulcan carbon (Pt/SnOx/C) as cathode catalyst was evaluated at 160-200 °C and compared with Pt/C. This paper reports first time the Pt/SnOx/C preparation, fuel cell performance, and durability test up to 200 h. Pt/SnOx/C of varying SnO compositions were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and EIS. The face-centered cubic structure of nanosized Pt becomes evident from XRD data. TEM and EDX measurements established that the average size of the Pt nanoparticles were ∼6 nm. Low ionic resistances were derived from EIS, which ranged from 0.5 to 5 Ω-cm 2 for cathode and 0.05 to 0.1 Ω-cm 2 for phosphoric acid, doped PBI membrane. The addition of the SnOx to Pt/C significantly promoted the catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The 7 wt.% SnO in Pt/SnO 2/C catalyst showed the highest electro-oxidation activity for ORR. High temperature PEMFC measurements performed at 180 °C under dry gases (H 2 and O 2) showed 0.58 V at a current density of 200 mA cm -2, while only 0.40 V was obtained in the case of Pt/C catalyst. When the catalyst contained higher concentrations of tin oxide, the performance decreased as a result of mass transport limitations within the electrode. Durability tests showed that Pt/SnOx/C catalysts prepared in this work were stable under fuel cell working conditions, during 200 h at 180 °C demonstrate as potential cathode catalyst for HT-PEMFCs.

  9. Novel carbon nanostructures as catalyst support for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Sadesh Kumar

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology has advanced rapidly in recent years, with one of active area focused on improving the long-term performance of carbon supported catalysts, which has been recognized as one of the most important issues to be addressed for the commercialization of PEMFCs. The central part of a PEMFC is the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) which consists of two electrodes (anode and cathode) and a cation exchange membrane. These electrodes are commonly made of carbon black (most often, Vulcan XC-72) supported on carbon paper or carbon cloth backings. It is the primary objective of this thesis to prepare and investigate carbon nanostructures (CNS, licensed to Hydrogen Research Institute -- IRH, Quebec, Canada), the carbon material with more graphite component like carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for use as catalyst support in PEMFCs. High energy ball-milling of activated carbon along with transition metal catalysts under hydrogen atmosphere, followed by heat-treatment leads to nanocrystalline structures of carbon called CNS. However, CNS formed in the quartz tube after heat-treatment is inevitably accompanied by many impurities such as metal particles, amorphous carbon and other carbon nanoparticules. Such impurities are a serious impediment to detailed characterization of the properties of nanostructures. In addition, since the surface of CNS is itself rather inert, it is difficult to control the homogeneity and size distribution of Pt nanoparticules. In this thesis work, we demonstrated a novel mean to purify and functionalize CNS via acid-oxidation under reflux conditions. To investigate and quantify these nanostructures X-ray diffraction, electrical conductivity measurements, specific surface area measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies were used. Cyclic voltammetry studies were performed on different samples to derive estimates for the relationship

  10. Pt-free carbon-based fuel cell catalyst prepared from spherical polyimide for enhanced oxygen diffusion.

    PubMed

    Nabae, Yuta; Nagata, Shinsuke; Hayakawa, Teruaki; Niwa, Hideharu; Harada, Yoshihisa; Oshima, Masaharu; Isoda, Ayano; Matsunaga, Atsushi; Tanaka, Kazuhisa; Aoki, Tsutomu

    2016-03-18

    The development of a non-precious metal (NPM) fuel cell catalyst is extremely important to achieve globalization of polymer electrolyte fuel cells due to the cost and scarcity of platinum. Here, we report on a NPM cathode catalyst prepared by the pyrolysis of spherical polyimide nanoparticles that contain small amounts of Fe additive. 60 nm diameter Fe-containing polyimide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by the precipitation polymerization of pyromellitic acid dianhydride and 1,3,5-tris(4-aminophenyl)benzene with Fe(acac)3 (acac = acetylacetonate) as an additive. The particles were subsequently carbonized by multistep pyrolysis to obtain the NPM catalyst while retaining the small particle size. The catalyst has good performance and promising durability for fuel cell applications. The fuel cell performance under a 0.2 MPa air atmosphere at 80 °C of 1.0 A cm(-2) at 0.46 V is especially remarkable and better than that previously reported.

  11. A comparison of simultaneous organic carbon and nitrogen removal in microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Abid; Manuel, Michelle; Tartakovsky, Boris

    2016-05-15

    This study demonstrates simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal in laboratory-scale continuous flow microbial fuel cell (MFC) and microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) and provides side-by side comparison of these bioelectrochemical systems. The maximum organic carbon removal rates in MFC and MEC tests were similar at 5.1 g L(-1) d(-1) and 4.16 g L(-1) d(-1), respectively, with a near 100% carbon removal efficiency at an organic load of 3.3 g L(-1) d(-1). An ammonium removal efficiency of 30-55% with near-zero nitrite and nitrate concentrations was observed in the MFC operated at an optimal external resistance, while open-circuit MFC operation resulted in a reduced carbon and ammonium removal of 53% and 21%, respectively. In the MEC ammonium removal was limited to 7-12% under anaerobic conditions, while micro-aerobic conditions increased the removal efficiency to 31%. Also, at zero applied voltage both carbon and ammonium removal efficiencies were reduced to 42% and 4%, respectively. Based on the observed performance under different operating conditions, it was concluded that simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal was facilitated by concurrent anaerobic and aerobic biotransformation pathways at the anode and cathode, which balanced bioelectrochemical nitrification and denitrification reactions.

  12. The effects of H{sub 2}S on electrolyte distribution and cell performance in the molten carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Kawase, Makoto; Mugikura, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Takao

    2000-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of H{sub 2}S on the performance of molten carbonate fuel cells, bench-scale cell tests were performed and the meniscus heights of the electrolyte on Ni were measured with fuel gases containing various amounts of H{sub 2}S. In bench-scale cell tests, H{sub 2}S in the fuel gas had a large effect on cell voltage in the early operating stages, but this effect showed a tendency to decrease with operating time. Basic wetting property measurements revealed that Ni becomes better wetted at higher H{sub 2}S concentrations. In calculations of the electrolyte distributions, the electrolyte fill of the anode with {sub 2}S was found to be higher than that without H{sub 2}S. This study simulates the electrolyte distributions taking into account the effects of H{sub 2}S levels, the electrolyte loss and the change in pore size distributions of the electrodes, and discusses the relation between electrolyte distribution and cell performance.

  13. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design improvement. Annual report, December 20, 1996--December 20, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M.

    1998-09-01

    This program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the current full-size field test to the commercial design by the turn of the century. The specific objectives selected to attain the overall program goal are: Define power plant requirements and specifications; Establish the design for a multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant; Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial-scale manufacturing facility; Define the stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment packaging arrangement and module designs; Acquire capability to support developmental testing of stacks and critical BOP equipment to prepare for commercial design; and Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues, and design, build, and field test a modular prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness for commercial entry. ERC is currently in the third year of the multiyear program for development and demonstration of a MW-class power plant. The product definition and specification have been derived with input from potential users, including the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG). The baseline power plant final design has been completed. Detailed power plant system and packaging designs are being developed using stack and BOP development results. A MW-scale prototype modular power plant representative of the commercial design is planned. Based on the experience and data generated in the current program, ERC also plans to acquire manufacturing capability for market-entry products through expansion of the existing Torrington production facility.

  14. Pyrolysis result of polyethylene waste as fuel for solid oxide fuel cell with samarium doped-ceria (SDC)-carbonate as electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syahputra, R. J. E.; Rahmawati, F.; Prameswari, A. P.; Saktian, R.

    2017-02-01

    In this research, the result of pyrolysis on polyethylene was used as fuel for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The pyrolysis result is a liquid which consists of hydrocarbon chains. According to GC-MS analysis, the hydrocarbons mainly consist of C7 to C20 hydrocarbon chain. Then, the liquid was applied to a single cell of NSDC-L | NSDC | NSDC-L. NSDC is a composite SDC (samarium doped-ceria) with sodium carbonate. Meanwhile, NSDC-L is a composite of NSDC with LiNiCuO (LNC). NSDC and LNC were analyzed by X-ray diffraction to understand their crystal structure. The result shows that presence of carbonate did not change the crystal structure of SDC. SEM EDX analysis for fuel cell before and after being loaded with polyethylene oil to get information of element diffusion to the electrolyte. Meanwhile, the conductivity properties were investigated through impedance measurement. The presence of carbonate even increases the electrical conductivity. The single cell test with the pyrolysis result of polyethylene at 300 – 600 °C, found that the highest power density is at 600 °C with the maximum power density of 0.14 mW/cm2 and open circuit voltage of 0.4 Volt. Elemental analysis at three point spots of single cell NDSC-L |NSDC|NSDC-L found that a migration of ions was occurred during fuel operation at 300 – 600 °C.

  15. Three-dimensional porous carbon nanotube sponges for high-performance anodes of microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbay, Celal; Yang, Gang; de Figueiredo, Paul; Sadr, Reza; Yu, Choongho; Han, Arum

    2015-12-01

    Highly-porous, light-weight, and inexpensive three-dimensional (3D) sponges consisting of interconnected carbon nanotubes (CNTs) without base materials are synthesized with a facile and scalable one-step chemical vapor deposition process as anode of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The MFCs generates higher power densities of 2150 W m-3 (per anode volume) or 170 W m-3 (per anode chamber volume), comparable to those of commercial 3D carbon felt electrodes under the same conditions. The high performances are due to excellent charge transfer between CNTs and microbes owing to 13 times lower charge transfer resistance compared to that of carbon felt. The material cost of producing these CNT sponge estimates to be ∼0.1/gCNT, significantly lower than that of other methods. In addition, the high production rate of about 3.6 g h-1 compared to typical production rate of 0.02 g h-1 of other CNT-based materials makes this process economically viable. The one-step synthesis method allowing self-assembly of 3D CNT sponges as they grow is low cost and scalable, making this a promising method for manufacturing high-performance anodes of MFCs, with broad applicability to microbial electrochemical systems in general.

  16. Carbon filtration cathode in microbial fuel cell to enhance wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Kuichang; Liang, Shuai; Liang, Peng; Zhou, Xuechen; Sun, Dongya; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Huang, Xia

    2015-06-01

    A homogeneous carbon membrane with multi-functions of microfiltration, electron conduction, and oxygen reduction catalysis was fabricated without using noble metals. The produced carbon membrane has a pore size of 553nm, a resistance of 6.0±0.4Ωcm(2)/cm, and a specific surface area of 32.2m(2)/g. After it was assembled in microbial fuel cell (MFC) as filtration air cathode, a power density of 581.5mW/m(2) and a current density of 1671.4mA/m(2) were achieved, comparable with previous Pt air cathode MFCs. The filtration MFC was continuously operated for 20days and excellent wastewater treatment performance was also achieved with removal efficiencies of TOC (93.6%), NH4(+)-N (97.2%), and total nitrogen (91.6%). In addition, the carbon membrane was much cheaper than traditional microfiltration membrane, suggesting a promising multi-functional material in wastewater treatment field.

  17. Carbon quantum dots shuttle electrons to the anode of a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Vishwanathan, A S; Aiyer, Kartik S; Chunduri, L A A; Venkataramaniah, K; Siva Sankara Sai, S; Rao, Govind

    2016-12-01

    Electrodes based on graphite, graphene, and carbon nanomaterials have been used in the anode chamber of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Carbon quantum dots (C-dots) are a class of versatile nanomaterials hitherto not reported in MFCs. C-dots previously synthesized from coconut husk were reported to possess hydroxyl and carboxyl functional groups on their surface. The presence of these functional groups on a carbon matrix conferred on the C-dots the ability to conduct and transfer electrons. Formation of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate upon addition of C-dots confirmed their reducing ability. DREAM assay using a mixed microbial culture containing C-dots showed a 172% increase in electron transfer activity and thus confirmed the involvement of C-dots in supplementing redox activity of a microbial culture. Addition of C-dots as a suspension in the anode chamber of an MFC resulted in a 22.5% enhancement in maximum power density. C-dots showed better performance as electron shuttles than methylene blue, a conventional electron shuttle used in MFCs.

  18. Increased performance of a tubular microbial fuel cell with a rotating carbon-brush anode.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qiang; Zhang, Jun; Li, Jun; Ye, Dingding; Zhu, Xun; Zhang, Biao

    2015-01-15

    A novel method was proposed to improve the power output of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) by rotating the carbon-brush anode. The MFC with a rotating anode produced a peak power density of 210±3 W/m(3) and a maximum current density of 945±43 A/m(3), 1.4 and 2.7 times higher than those of the non-rotating case, respectively. The difference of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry before and after anode rotation clearly suggested that the mass transfer to the spiral space was enhanced by the rotating anode. Furthermore, Tafel plots analysis also revealed that the rotating anode can improve the electrochemical activity of the biofilm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbon nanofibers modified graphite felt for high performance anode in high substrate concentration microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Youliang; Zhou, Yan; Chen, Shuiliang; Yang, Fangfang; Zheng, Suqi; Hou, Haoqing

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers modified graphite fibers (CNFs/GF) composite electrode was prepared for anode in high substrate concentration microbial fuel cells. Electrochemical tests showed that the CNFs/GF anode generated a peak current density of 2.42 mA cm(-2) at a low acetate concentration of 20 mM, which was 54% higher than that from bare GF. Increase of the acetate concentration to 80 mM, in which the peak current density of the CNFs/GF anode greatly increased and was up to 3.57 mA cm(-2), was seven times as that of GF anode. Morphology characterization revealed that the biofilms in the CNFs/GF anode were much denser than those in the bare GF. This result revealed that the nanostructure in the anode not only enhanced current generation but also could tolerate high substrate concentration.

  20. Three-dimensional and dynamical performance of a molten carbonate fuel cell stack

    SciTech Connect

    He, W.; Chen, Q.

    1996-12-31

    The three-dimensional and dynamic performance of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) stack operating under load-following modes have been investigated by using dynamic simulation. The major processes with regard to an MCFC`s safe and efficient operation in power-generation systems, such as the mass and heat transport, chemical reactions and electrical power generation, are formulated in a three-dimensional, time-dependent form using the computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) technique. The grid definitions have been explained, and a simple test to determine whether the simulation results being acceptable has been introduced. In this paper, the model performance is demonstrated by applying it to calculate the distributions of current density and temperature under a step change.

  1. Carbon neutral electricity production by Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 in a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Madiraju, Kartik S; Lyew, Darwin; Kok, Robert; Raghavan, Vijaya

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work was to illustrate the use of photosynthetic microbes in a microbial fuel cell to produce electricity without the requirement of an external carbon source. This research here describes the use of a cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803, to produce electricity without any net CO(2) production in a two-chambered MFC. Conditions for optimum electricity production were determined through standardizing operating parameters. A maximum power density of 6.7mWm(-3)(anode chamber volume) was achieved under high intensity lighting (10,000lux). Light intensity and wavelength directly affected electricity production, indicating the pivotal role played by photosynthesis. The maximum removal of CO(2) was 625mmolm(-3) over 20h under high intensity light. The results presented here will contribute to the understanding of how cyanobacteria can be exploited for the direct conversion of CO(2) to electric current.

  2. Effects of H/sub 2/S on molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Remick, R. J.; Anderson, G. L.

    1984-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a literature survey conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) under Phase I of a multi-phase program to investigate and identify the mechanism(s) responsible for molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) performance losses when operating on sulfur-containing gases. The objective of this literature survey was twofold: (1) to review the reported data on the interaction of H/sub 2/S with nickel-containing materials; and (2) to review reported investigations on the specific effects of H/sub 2/S on the electrochemical oxidation of H/sub 2/ in MCFC. The ultimate goal of this literature review is to determine the poisoning mechanism. 21 references.

  3. Analysis of possibilities for carbon removal from porous anode of solid oxide fuel cells after different failure modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subotić, Vanja; Schluckner, Christoph; Schroettner, Hartmuth; Hochenauer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the investigation of possibilities for carbon removal from the fuel electrode of anode supported solid oxide fuel cells (ASC-SOFCs) after different degradation modes. To design the conditions which generally lead the cell in the range of carbon depositions the performed thermodynamic calculations show that the SOFC operating temperature range seems to be appropriate for formation of elemental carbon in various types. Concerning this the loaded large planar single SOFCs are fed with synthetic diesel reformate thus simulating realistic operating conditions and enabling the formation and deposition of carbon on the anode side. A mixture of hydrogen/water vapor/nitrogen is used to remove the detected carbon depositions in a cell-protecting manner. For the purpose of this investigation several failure modes are induced after which determination the already defined regeneration strategy is applied. The cathode degradation is first induced and secondly the fuel supply is interrupted to induce re-oxidation of nickel (Ni) on the anode side. The undertaken investigations determine that carbon can be fully removed from the anode surface after nickel oxidation, while cathode degradation disables the complete cell regeneration.

  4. Simulated coal-gas-fueled molten carbonate fuel cell development program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-08-01

    This work consists of five major tasks and their respective subtasks as listed below. A brief description of each task is also provided. The Stack Design Requirements task focused on requirements and specification for designing, constructing, and testing a nominal 100-kilowatt integrated stack and on requirements for the balance-of-plant equipment to support a 1000-kilowatt integrated stack demonstrator. The Stack Design Preparation task focused on the mechanical design of a 100-kilowatt stack comprised of 8-ft(exp 2) cells incorporating the new cell configuration and component technology improvements developed in the previous DOE MCFC contract. Electrode Casting focused on developing a faster drying solvent for use in the electrode tape casting process. Electrode Heat Treatment was directed at scaling up the laboratory continuous debinding process to a new full-size IFC debinding oven coupled to a continuous belt furnace that will both debind and sinter the electrodes in one continuous process train. Repeat Part Quality Assurance and Testing provided the appropriate effort to ensure consistent, high-quality, reproducible and comparable repeat parts.

  5. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  6. Homogeneous deposition of platinum nanoparticles on carbon black for proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Fang, Baizeng; Chaudhari, Nitin K; Kim, Min-Sik; Kim, Jung Ho; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2009-10-28

    A simple and efficient approach has been developed for synthesis of carbon-supported Pt nanoparticles (NPs) that combines homogeneous deposition (HD) of Pt complex species through a gradual increase of pH realized by in situ hydrolysis of urea and subsequent uniform reduction by ethylene glycol (EG) in a polyol process, giving control over the size and dispersion of Pt NPs. With increasing amount of urea in the starting Pt salt aqueous solution, the size of Pt complex species decreases and so does that of the metallic Pt NPs. The decrease in size of the Pt species is likely attributable to two determining factors: the steric contraction effect and the electrostatic charge effect. The excellent electrocatalysis ability of the Pt catalysts produced by HD-EG is demonstrated through the determination of electrochemical surface area and fuel-cell polarization performance. The Pt NPs deposited on Vulcan XC-72 (VC) carbon black by the HD-EG strategy show smaller size with more uniform dispersion, higher Pt utilization efficiency, and considerably improved fuel-cell polarization performance compared with the Pt NPs prepared by conventional sodium borohydride reduction or by a microwave-assisted polyol approach. Particularly important and significant is that this HD-EG method is very efficient for the synthesis of high Pt loading catalysts with tunable NP size and uniform particle dispersion. A high metal loading catalyst such as Pt(60 wt %)/VC fabricated by the HD-EG method outperforms ones with mid-to-low metal loadings (i.e., 40 and 20 wt %), even at a very low catalyst loading of 0.2 mg of Pt cm(-2) at the cathode, which is for the first time reported for the VC-supported Pt catalysts.

  7. Carbon nanoparticles-assisted mediator-less microbial fuel cells using Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yong; Ahmed, Jalal; Zhou, Lihua; Zhao, Bo; Kim, Sunghyun

    2011-09-15

    Recently mediator-less microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are attracting great interest among researchers due to their potential applications to electricity generation as well as wastewater treatment. Common mediator-less MFCs employ electroactive bacteria called exoelectrogens to directly transfer electrons to the anode from the bacteria. However, exoelectrogens are rather limited in number and thus may not find general use for practical purposes. Here we showed our results in which mediator-less MFCs could be developed from Gram-negative non-exoelectrogens. By using carbon nanoparticles as a conductive medium to immobilize bacteria, it was possible to generate appreciable electricity from Proteus vulgaris without exogenous mediators. Maximum power density of 269 mW m(-2) and cell voltage of ca. 400 mV were obtained using glucose as a substrate. Power generation was attributed to direct electron transfer and to self-produced mediators, both of which were assisted by carbon nanoparticles. Bacillus subtilis, a Gram-positive bacterium, in the meantime, did not produce appreciable electricity.

  8. Stable support based on highly graphitic carbon xerogel for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hong; Zhang, Huamin; Ma, Yuanwei; Xu, Ting; Zhong, Hexiang; Wang, Meiri

    Highly graphitic carbon xerogel (GCX) is prepared by the modified sol-gel polymerization process using cobalt nitrate as the catalyst, followed by high temperature treatment at 1800 °C. The as-prepared GCX is explored as a stable support for Pt in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The results of N 2 sorption measurement and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) reveal that GCX has a better mesoporous structure and a preferably higher degree of graphitization, compared with the commercial XC-72 carbon black. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image indicates that Pt nanoparticles are well dispersed on GCX and exhibit relatively narrow size distribution. Accelerated aging test (AAT) based on potential cycling is used to investigate the durability of the as-prepared Pt/GCX in comparison with the commercial Pt/C. Electrochemical analysis demonstrates that the catalyst with GCX as a support exhibits an alleviated degradation rate of electrochemical active surface area (39% for Pt/GCX and 53% for Pt/C). The results of single cell durability tests indicate that the voltage loss of Pt/GCX at 100 mA cm -2 is about 50% lower than that of Pt/C. GCX is expected to be a corrosion resistant electrocatalyst support.

  9. Improvement of proton-exchange membrane fuel cell performance using platinum-loaded carbon black entrapped in crosslinked chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phompan, Waranya; Hansupalak, Nanthiya

    To improve the performance of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells which use hydrogen and oxygen as fuels, the application of small proton-conducting polymer to extend the three-phase boundary into the primary pores of catalyst-loaded carbon black agglomerates is of interest. An alternative and simple crosslinking method is proposed in place of the complicated polymer-grafting methods. Platinum-loaded carbon black is entrapped in epichlorohydrin-crosslinked chitosan of low molecular weight. Morphology and pore analyses of carbon black prior and post treatment are assessed, as well as performances of fuel cells fabricated with the treated and the untreated carbon black at 40 °C and 100% humidity. Results indicate the existence of chitosan chains in the primary pores of the carbon black agglomerates, corresponding to a decline in the activation overvoltage and resulting in significantly better cell performance. An increase in chitosan amount, however, does not necessarily enhance the cell performance because effects of ohmic and concentration losses may become more dominant than that of the raised exchange current density of the cell.

  10. Development and Implementation of Carbon Nanofoam Cathode Structures for Magnesium-Hydrogen Peroxide Semi-Fuel Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-05

    U.S.N.A––Trident Scholar project report; no. 374 (2008) Development and Implementation of Carbon Nanofoam Cathode Structures for...SUBTITLE Development and Implementation of Carbon Nanofoam Cathode Structures for Magnesium-Hydrogen Peroxide Semi- Fuel Cells 6. AUTHOR(S...anode (e.g., aluminum coated with a platinum catalyst) and a cathode (e.g., nickel with a palladium catalyst) that are separated by an electrolyte (an

  11. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design & improvement - 2nd quarter, 1996. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The main objective of this project is to establish the commercial readiness of a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant for distributed power generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. This effort includes marketing, systems design and analysis, packaging and assembly, test facility development, and technology development, improvement, and verification.

  12. Fuel cells: Trends in research and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, A. J.

    Various aspects of fuel cells are discussed. The subjects addressed include: fuel cells for electric power production; phosphoric acid fuel cells; long-term testing of an air-cooled 2.5 kW PAFC stack in Italy; status of fuel cell research and technology in the Netherlands, Bulgaria, PRC, UK, Sweden, India, Japan, and Brazil; fuel cells from the manufacturer's viewpoint; and fuel cells using biomass-derived fuels. Also examined are: solid oxide electrolye fuel cells; aluminum-air batteries with neutral chloride electrolyte; materials research for advanced solid-state fuel cells at the Energy Research Laboratory in Denmark; molten carbonate fuel cells; the impact of the Siemens program; fuel cells at Sorapec; impact of fuel cells on the electric power generation systems in industrial and developing countries; and application of fuel cells to large vehicles.

  13. The effects of halides on the performance of coal gas-fueled molten carbonate fuel cells: Final report, October 1986-October 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, T.P.; Kunz, H.R.; Krasij, M.; Cote, H.A.

    1987-10-01

    This report presents the results of a program to determine the probable tolerable limits of hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride present in the fuel and oxidant streams of molten carbonate fuel cells that are operating on gasified coal. A literature survey and thermodynamic analyses were performed to determine the likely effects of halides on cell performance and materials. Based on the results of these studies, accelerated corrosion experiments and electrode half-cell performance tests were conducted using electrolyte which contained chloride and fluoride. These data and the results of previous in-cell tests were used to develop a computer for predicting the performance decay due to these halides. The tolerable limits were found to be low (less than 1 PPM) and depend on the power plant system configuration, the operating conditions of the fuel cell stack, the cell design and initial electrolyte inventory, and the ability of the cell to scrub low levels of halide from the reactant streams. The primary decay modes were conversion of the electrolyte from pure carbonate to a carbonate-halide mixture and accelerated electrolyte evaporation. 75 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. Performance analysis of new cathode materials for molten carbonate fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoletti, C.; Carewska, M.; Presti, R. Lo; Phail, S. Mc; Simonetti, E.; Zaza, F.

    The slow dissolution of the lithiated nickel oxide cathode represents one of the main causes of performance degradation in molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC). Two main approaches were studied in ENEA laboratories to overcome this problem: protecting the nickel cathode covering it by a thin layer of a material with a low solubility in molten carbonate and stabilizing the nickel cathode doping it with iron and magnesium. Among several materials, due to its low solubility and good conductivity, lithium cobaltite was chosen to cover the nickel cathode and slow down its dissolution. A nickel electrode covered with a thin layer of lithium cobaltite doped with magnesium, was fabricated by complex sol-gel process. To simplify electrode preparation, no thermal treatments were made after covering to produce lithium cobaltite, and during the cell start-up LiMg 0.05Co 0.95O 2 was obtained in situ. To stabilize the nickel cathode, metal oxides Fe 2O 3 and MgO were chosen as dopant additives to be mixed with NiO powder in a tape-casting process (Mg 0.05Fe 0.01Ni 0.94O). On the prepared materials TGA analysis, morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) and electrical conductivity measurements were carried out. A conventional nickel cathode, the nickel cathode covered by lithium cobaltite precursors and the nickel cathode stabilized by iron and magnesium oxides were each tested in a 100 cm 2 fuel cell. Polarization curves and internal resistance (iR) measurements were acquired during the cell lifetime (1000 h) and the effect of gas composition variation on the cell performance was studied. From a comparison with the conventional nickel cathode it can be observed that the new materials have similar performance and show a good potential stability during the cell operating time. From the post-test analysis both the nickel cathode covered by lithium cobaltite and the nickel cathode doped with iron and magnesium seem to succeed in reducing nickel dissolution.

  15. Advanced fuel cell development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, J. P.; Pierce, R. D.; Fee, D. C.

    1984-02-01

    Research and development activities on both molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells is reported. The efforts on development of molten carbonate fuel cells have been directed principally toward seeking alternative cathode materials to NiO. Based on an investigation of the thermodynamically stable phases formed under cathode conditions with a number of transition metal oxides, synthesis of prospective alternative cathode materials and doping of these materials to promote electronic conductivity is under way. The compounds LiFeO2, Li2MnO3, and ZnO have been doped to give suitable conductivity. Solubility data were taken for NiO, CoO, and NiO-CoO in a cathode environment with different carbonate salt compositions. Techniques are for the preparation of thin electrode and electrolyte materials by tape casting, and a creep resistant superstructure for the anode are studied. Development of an advanced, high power density fuel cell is examined. By employing the thin ceramic layer components of existing solid oxide fuel cells in a strong, lightweight structure of small cells, unequaled power per unit mass or volume can be achieved. Advanced electrolyte fabrication, electrolyte sintering and interconnection and electrode fabrication were investigated.

  16. Biomass-derived heteroatoms-doped mesoporous carbon for efficient oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu; Zhu, Nengwu; Yin, Fuhua; Yang, Tingting; Wu, Pingxiao; Dang, Zhi; Liu, Meilin; Wei, Xiaorong

    2017-12-15

    Currently, the development of less expensive, more active and more stable catalysts like heteroatom-doped carbon based non-precious metal materials are highly desired for the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Comparing with heteroatom sources from chemical reagents, biomass is notably inexpensive and abundant, containing more elements which contribute to ORR activity. Herein, we demonstrate an easy operating one-step and low-cost way to synthesize egg-derived heteroatoms-doped mesoporous carbon (EGC) catalysts utilizing egg as the biomass carbon and other elements source (sulphur, phosphorus, boron and iron), and porous g-C3N4 as both template and nitrogen source. After carbonized, such hybrid materials possess an outstanding electrocatalytic activity towards ORR comparable to the commercial Pt/C catalyst in neutral media. Electrochemical detections as cyclic voltammogram and rotating ring-disk electrode tests show that the potential of oxygen reduction peak of EGC1-10-2 is at + 0.10V, onset potential is at + 0.257V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and electron transfer number of that is 3.84-3.92, which indicate that EGC1-10-2 via a four-electron pathway. Reactor operation shows that the maximum power density of MFC-EGC1-10-2 (737.1mWm(-2)), which is slightly higher than MFC-Pt/C (20%) (704mWm(-2)). The low cost (0.049 $g(-1)), high yield (20.26%) and high performance of EGC1-10-2 provide a promising alternative to noble metal catalysts by using abundant natural biological resources, which contribute a lot to expansion and commercialization of MFCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of high performance carbon composite catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in PEM Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nallathambi, Vijayadurga; Lee, Jong-Won; Kumaraguru, Swaminatha P.; Wu, Gang; Popov, Branko N.

    Highly active and stable carbon composite catalysts for oxygen reduction in PEM fuel cells were developed through the high-temperature pyrolysis of Co-Fe-N chelate complex, followed by the chemical post-treatment. A metal-free carbon catalyst was used as the support. The carbon composite catalyst showed an onset potential for oxygen reduction as high as 0.87 V (NHE) in H 2SO 4 solution, and generated less than 1% H 2O 2. The PEM fuel cell exhibited a current density as high as 0.27 A cm -2 at 0.6 V and 2.3 A cm -2 at 0.2 V for a catalyst loading of 6.0 mg cm -2. No significant performance degradation was observed over 480 h of continuous fuel cell operation with 2 mg cm -2 catalyst under a load of 200 mA cm -2 as evidenced by a resulting cell voltage of 0.32 V with a voltage decay rate of 80 μV h -1. Materials characterization studies indicated that the metal-nitrogen chelate complexes decompose at high pyrolysis temperatures above 800 °C, resulting in the formation of the metallic species. During the pyrolysis, the transition metals facilitate the incorporation of pyridinic and graphitic nitrogen groups into the carbon matrix, and the carbon surface doped with nitrogen groups is catalytically active for oxygen reduction.

  18. Development of low-loading, carbon monoxide tolerant PEM fuel cell electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haug, Andrew Thomas

    This work discusses the problems of, and potential solutions to, high catalyst cost of and carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning of the proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). As this is a comprehensive work, background on fuel cells and specifically PEMFCs is first presented. A discussion of the current status of PEMFCs is presented showing ongoing work for stationary, transportation, portable and military applications. This leads into two of the more significant problems preventing widespread commercialization of PEMFC technology: poisoning of the catalyst by CO and the cost of the catalyst. A thorough examination of CO poisoning of the PEMFC anode is presented from how CO comes to be present in the feed stream of the PEMFC anode to how it then poisons the PEMFC anode. The first work presented here describes the development of a novel CO tolerant anode (the Ruthenium filter). It shows that by placing a layer of carbon-supported Ruthenium catalyst between the Pt catalyst and the anode flow field to form a filter, tolerance to CO will be increased relative to a Pt:Ru alloy when oxygen is added to the anode fuel stream. Secondly, after an introduction to catalyst preparation techniques used today and a brief discussion of catalyst-cost in PEMFCs, it is shown how sputter-deposition technology may be used to create more kinetically active PEMFC catalyst electrodes versus standard ink-based techniques. The technologies of the Ru filter and sputter-deposition are then combined to create a low-loading, CO tolerant anode for the PEMFC. In the final work, the effect of the airbleed on CO oxidation is then modeled. In the concluding chapter, it is shown how the work presented can lead the PEMFC closer to large-scale commercialization. The Appendix A provides a detailed method by which PEMFC MEAs were manufactured using catalyst inks. This method served as the basis for all original works presented. Appendix B--F provide further background and information on the mathematical

  19. Advanced fuel cell development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, R. D.; Baumert, B.; Claar, T. D.; Fousek, R. J.; Huang, H. S.; Kaun, T. D.; Krumpelt, M.; Minh, N.; Mrazek, F. C.; Poeppel, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Fuel cell research and development activities at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during the period January through March 1984 are described. These efforts have been directed principally toward seeking alternative cathode materials to NiO for molten carbonate fuel cells. Based on an investigation of the thermodynamically stable phases formed under cathode conditions, a number of prospective alternative cathode materials have been identified. From the list of candidates, LiFeO2, Li2MnO3, and ZnO were selected for further investigation. During this quarter, they were doped to promote conductivity and tested for solubility and ion migration in the cell environment. An investigation directed to understanding in cell densification of anode materials was initiated. In addition, calculations were made to evaluate the practicality of controlling sulfur accumulation in molten carbonate fuel cells by bleed off of a portion of the anode gas that could be recycled to the cathode. In addition, a model is being developed to predict the performance of solid oxide fuel cells as a function of cell design and operation.

  20. Erythrocyte-like hollow carbon capsules and their application in proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ho; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2010-12-14

    Hierarchical nanostructured erythrocyte-like hollow carbon (EHC) with a hollow hemispherical macroporous core of ca. 230 nm in diameter and 30-40 nm thick mesoporous shell was synthesized and explored as a cathode catalyst support in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The morphology control of EHC was successfully achieved using solid core/mesoporous shell (SCMS) silica template and different styrene/furfuryl alcohol mixture compositions by a nanocasting method. The EHC-supported Pt (20 wt%) cathodes prepared have demonstrated markedly enhanced catalytic activity towards oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) and greatly improved PEMFC polarization performance compared to carbon black Vulcan XC-72 (VC)-supported ones, probably due to the superb structural characteristics of the EHC such as uniform size, well-developed porosity, large specific surface area and pore volume. In particular, Pt/EHC cathodes exhibited ca. 30-60% higher ORR activity than a commercial Johnson Matthey Pt catalyst at a low catalyst loading of 0.2 mg Pt cm(-2).

  1. Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Swain; Greg M.

    2009-04-13

    The original funding under this project number was awarded for a period 12/1999 until 12/2002 under the project title Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications. The project was extended until 06/2003 at which time a renewal proposal was awarded for a period 06/2003 until 06/2008 under the project title Metal/Diamond Composite Thin-Film Electrodes: New Carbon Supported Catalytic Electrodes. The work under DE-FG02-01ER15120 was initiated about the time the PI moved his research group from the Department of Chemistry at Utah State University to the Department of Chemistry at Michigan State University. This DOE-funded research was focused on (i) understanding structure-function relationships at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes, (ii) understanding metal phase formation on diamond thin films and developing electrochemical approaches for producing highly dispersed electrocatalyst particles (e.g., Pt) of small nominal particle size, (iii) studying the electrochemical activity of the electrocatalytic electrodes for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction and (iv) conducting the initial synthesis of high surface area diamond powders and evaluating their electrical and electrochemical properties when mixed with a Teflon binder.

  2. Three-dimensional carbon nanotube-textile anode for high-performance microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xing; Hu, Liangbing; Pasta, Mauro; Wells, George F; Kong, Desheng; Criddle, Craig S; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-12

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) harness the metabolism of microorganisms, converting chemical energy into electrical energy. Anode performance is an important factor limiting the power density of MFCs for practical application. Improving the anode design is thus important for enhancing the MFC performance, but only a little development has been reported. Here, we describe a biocompatible, highly conductive, two-scale porous anode fabricated from a carbon nanotube-textile (CNT-textile) composite for high-performance MFCs. The macroscale porous structure of the intertwined CNT-textile fibers creates an open 3D space for efficient substrate transport and internal colonization by a diverse microflora, resulting in a 10-fold-larger anolyte-biofilm-anode interfacial area than the projective surface area of the CNT-textile. The conformally coated microscale porous CNT layer displays strong interaction with the microbial biofilm, facilitating electron transfer from exoelectrogens to the CNT-textile anode. An MFC equipped with a CNT-textile anode has a 10-fold-lower charge-transfer resistance and achieves considerably better performance than one equipped with a traditional carbon cloth anode: the maximum current density is 157% higher, the maximum power density is 68% higher, and the energy recovery is 141% greater.

  3. Porous Carbon Nanosheets Codoped with Nitrogen and Sulfur for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Microbial Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Heyang; Hou, Yang; Wen, Zhenhai; Guo, Xiaoru; Chen, Junhong; He, Zhen

    2015-08-26

    In this work, a simple synthesis strategy has been developed for the preparation of nitrogen- and sulfur-codoped porous carbon nanosheets (N/S-CNS) as a cathode catalyst for microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The as-prepared N/S-CNS showed favorable features for electrochemical energy conversion such as high surface area (1004 m(2) g(-1)), defect structure, and abundant exposure of active sites that arose primarily from porous nanosheet morphology. Benefiting from the unique nanostructure, the resulting nanosheets exhibited effective electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The onset potential of the N/S-CNS in linear-sweep voltammetry was approximately -0.05 V vs Ag/AgCl in neutral phosphate buffer saline. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the ohmic and charge-transfer resistance of the codoped catalyst were 1.5 and 14.8 Ω, respectively, both of which were lower than that of platinum/carbon (Pt/C). Furthermore, the electron-transfer number of the N/S-CNS was calculated to be ∼3.5, suggesting that ORR on the catalyst proceeds predominantly through the favorable four-electron pathway. The MFC with N/S-CNS as a cathode catalyst generated current density (6.6 A m(-2)) comparable to that with Pt/C (7.3 A m(-2)). The high durability and low price indicate that N/S-CNS can be a competitive catalyst for applications of MFCs.

  4. Carbon-supported Pd-Ir catalyst as anodic catalyst in direct formic acid fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Tang, Yawen; Gao, Ying; Lu, Tianhong

    It was reported for the first time that the electrocatalytic activity of the Carbon-supported Pd-Ir (Pd-Ir/C) catalyst with the suitable atomic ratio of Pd and Ir for the oxidation of formic acid in the direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) is better than that of the Carbon-supported Pd (Pd/C) catalyst, although Ir has no electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of formic acid. The potential of the anodic peak of formic acid at the Pd-Ir/C catalyst electrode with the atomic ratio of Pd and Ir = 5:1 is 50 mV more negative than that and the peak current density is 13% higher than that at the Pd/C catalyst electrode. This is attributed to that Ir can promote the oxidation of formic acid at Pd through the direct pathway because Ir can decrease the adsorption strength of CO on Pd. However, when the content of Ir in the Pd-Ir/C catalyst is too high the electrocatalytic activity of the Pd-Ir/C catalyst would be decreased because Ir has no electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of formic acid.

  5. Activated carbon nanofibers (ACNF) as cathode for single chamber microbial fuel cells (SCMFCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Carlo; Stadlhofer, Astrid; Hacker, Viktor; Squadrito, Gaetano; Schröder, Uwe; Li, Baikun

    2013-12-01

    The suitability of carbon nanofibers (CNF) based cathodes as alternative to the platinum (Pt)-based cathode in single chamber microbial fuel cells (SCMFCs) were extensively studied over 3-month operational period. MFCs were fed with two solutions: synthetic wastewater (phosphate buffer (PBS) plus sodium acetate) and real wastewater (mixed liquor suspendedsolid (MLSS) solution). CNFs were chemically activated using HNO3 and then hot pressed on a carbon cloth support to increase surface area. The cathode polarization showed a better behavior of the clean Pt-based cathode in abiotic conditions. The activation of the nanofibers (ACNFs) gave an advantage to the cathode performances compared to the raw CNFs. The SCMFCs fed with PBS showed four times higher power generation compared to MLSS solution. All the cathodes showed a decrease in performances over time, and the advantage of the Pt over CNF/ACNF disappeared. CNF/ACNF cathodes showed more stability in performances in long time operations. Biofilm formation, salt precipitations on the cathode, and the presence of hydrogen sulfide decreased the activity of Pt cathodes. A degradation and Pt detachment were noticed on Pt cathodes over time. In contrast, CNF/ACNF cathodes exhibited less deterioration throughout the operational period, which demonstrated a great potential as cost-effective cathodes for long-term operation.

  6. Studies on metal catalysts and carbon materials for fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gaixia

    As a potential candidate for an environmentally benign and highly efficient electric power generation technology, proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are now attracting great interest for various applications. The main objective of this project has been to investigate the interfacial interaction of Pt nanoparticles with their carbon supports, so as to determine ways to optimise the catalyst electrode and to increase its catalytic activity, thereby enhancing PEM fuel cell performance. We first studied the interfacial interaction (leading to adhesion) of Pt nanoparticles evaporated onto untreated and Ar+-treated highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surfaces, with, respectively, low and high surface defect densities; HOPG was used as a model for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon fibers. We found that those Pt nanoparticles have very weak interactions with their pristine carbon material supports, with no evidence of compound formation between them. Our analysis, however, indicated that the adhesion of Pt nanoparticles to their supports can be enhanced, using ion beams, plasmas, or other treatments to establish defects on the carbon substrate surface. In addition, by using multicomponent XPS analysis with symmetric lineshapes for each Pt4f spectral component (4f7/2,5/2), we attributed the component peaks to the existence of (i) surface oxidation on the platinum nanoparticles, and different electronic configurations of (ii) surface and (iii) bulk Pt atoms. One way of enhancing strong adhesion between them is by chemical functionalization of the support. Using mixed H2SO4/HNO3 acid treatments, we have characterized the surface chemistry of functionalized carbon fiber paper by combining infrared, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, to give new insights into the often-used oxidation of graphene-containing materials. We have, for the first time, demonstrated the presence of transient O-, N- and S-containing species during the oxidation process, as well as

  7. Carbon-supported Pt nanowire as novel cathode catalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bing; Yan, Zeyu; Higgins, Drew C.; Yang, Daijun; Chen, Zhongwei; Ma, Jianxin

    2014-09-01

    Carbon-supported platinum nanowires (PtNW/C) are successfully synthesized by a simple and inexpensive template-free methodology and demonstrated as novel, suitable cathode electrode materials for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) applications. The synthesis conditions, such as the amount of reducing agent and reaction time, were investigated to investigate the effect on the nanostructures and activities of the PtNW/C catalysts. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show that the formic acid facilitated reduction is capable of producing uniformly distributed 1-dimensional PtNW with an average cross-sectional diameter of 4.0 ± 0.2 nm and length of 20-40 nm. Investigation of the electrocatalytic activity by half-cell electrochemical testing reveals that PtNW/C catalyst demonstrates significant oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity, superior to that of commercially available Pt/C. Using a loading of 0.4 mgPt cm-2 PtNW/C as the cathode catalyst, a maximum power density of 748.8 mW cm-2 in a 50 cm2 single cell of commercial Pt/C. In addition, accelerated degradation testing (ADT) showed that the PtNW/C catalyst exhibits better durability than commercial Pt/C, rendering PtNW/C as a promising replacement to conventional Pt/C as cathode electrocatalysts for PEMFCs applications.

  8. Fuel cells: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of fuel cell technology and applications is presented. The operating principles, performance capabilities, and limitations of fuel cells are discussed. Diagrams of fuel cell construction and operating characteristics are provided. Photographs of typical installations are included.

  9. Comparison the performance of carbon plate and Pt-loaded carbon in photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalik, Wan Fadhilah; Ong, Soon-An; Ho, Li-Ngee; Voon, Chun-Hong; Wong, Yee-Shian; Yusoff, Nik Athirah; Lee, Sin-Li

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the performance of cathode electrode in photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) system under UV light irradiation. The initial concentration 10 mg/L of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) with carbon plate (CP) and Pt-loaded carbon (Pt/C) as cathode reduced to 2.052 and 0.549 mg/L, respectively, after 24 h irradiated by UV light. The value for open circuit voltage, Voc, short-circuit current density, Jsc and maximum power density, Pmax for CP was 0.825 V, 0.00035 mA/cm2 and 0.000063 mW/cm2, respectively, meanwhile Voc, Jsc and Pmax for Pt/C was 1.15 V, 0.0015 mA/cm2 and 0.000286 mW/cm2, respectively, by varying external resistor value from 300 kΩ to 10 Ω. The degradation of RB5 and generation of electricity with Pt/C as cathode showed greater performance than CP.

  10. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes/carbon fiber paper composite to support Pt nanoparticles for direct methanol fuel cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Yi, Xi-bin; Liu, Shuo; Fan, Hui-Li; Ju, Wei; Wang, Qi-Chun; Ma, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) grown on carbon fiber paper (CFP) by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is introduced as a catalyst support material for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Well dispersed Pt nanoparticles on VACNTs surface are prepared by impregnation-reduction method. The VACNTs on CFP possess well-maintained alignment, large surface area and good electrical conductivity, which leading to the formation of Pt particles with a smaller size and enhance the Pt utilization rate. The structure and nature of resulting Pt/VACNTs/CFP catalysts for methanol oxidation are investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). With the aid of VACNTs, well-dispersed Pt catalysts enable the reversibly rapid redox kinetic since electron transport efficiently passes through a one-dimensional pathway, which leads to enhance the catalytic activity and Pt utilization rate. Compared with the Pt/XC-72/CFP electrode, the electrochemical measurements results display that the Pt/VACNTs/CFP catalyst shows much higher electrocatalytic activity and better stability for methanol oxidation. In addition, the oxidation current from 200 to 1200 s decayed more slowly for the Pt/VACNTs/CFP than that of the Pt/XC-72/CFP catalysts, indicating less accumulation of adsorbed CO species. All those results imply that the Pt/VACNTs/CFP has a great potential for applications in DMFCs.

  11. Phosphorus-doped carbon nanotubes supported low Pt loading catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction in acidic fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ziwu; Shi, Qianqian; Zhang, Rufan; Wang, Quande; Kang, Guojun; Peng, Feng

    2014-12-01

    To develop low-cost and efficient cathode electrocatalysts for fuel cells in acidic media, phosphorus-doped carbon nanotubes (P-CNTs) supported low Pt loading catalyst (0.85% Pt) is designed. The as-prepared Pt/P-CNTs exhibit significantly enhanced electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and long-term stability due to the stronger interaction between Pt and P-CNTs, which is proven by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis and density functional theory calculations. Moreover, the as-prepared Pt/P-CNTs also display much better tolerance to methanol crossover effects, showing a good potential application for future proton exchange membrane fuel cell devices.

  12. Stainless steel mesh supported nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers for binder-free cathode in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuiliang; Chen, Yu; He, Guanghua; He, Shuijian; Schröder, Uwe; Hou, Haoqing

    2012-04-15

    In this communication, we report a binder-free oxygen reduction cathode for microbial fuel cells. The binder-free cathode is prepared by growth of nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (NCNFs) on stainless steel mesh (SSM) via simple pyrolysis of pyridine. The interaction force between NCNFs and SSM surface is very strong which is able to tolerate water flush. The NCNFs/SSM cathode shows high and stable electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction, which is comparable to that of Pt/SSM and ferricyanide cathode. This study proposes a promising low-cost binder-free cathode for microbial fuel cells.

  13. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fourth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.

    1998-11-01

    Robust progress has been made in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in January 1994. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultra high efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 6 describe the four major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. The section on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells has been added to reflect their emergence as a significant fuel cell technology. Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell technology description sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

  14. Novel synthesis of highly durable and active Pt catalyst encapsulated in nitrogen containing carbon for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunjoon; Sung, Yung-Eun; Choi, Insoo; Lim, Taeho; Kwon, Oh Joong

    2017-09-01

    Novel synthesis of a Pt catalyst encapsulated in a N-containing carbon layer for use in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell is described in this study. A Pt-aniline complex, formed by mixing Pt precursor and aniline monomer, was used as the source of Pt, C, and N. Heat treatment of the Pt-aniline complex with carbon black yielded 5 nm Pt nanoparticles encapsulated by a N-containing carbon layer originating from aniline carbonization. The synthesized Pt catalyst exhibited higher mass specific activity to oxygen reduction reaction than that shown by conventional Pt/C catalyst because pyridinic N with graphitic carbon in the carbon layer provided active sites for oxygen reduction reaction in addition to those provided by Pt. In single cell testing, initial performance of the synthesized catalyst was limited because the thick catalyst layer increased resistance related to mass transfer. However, it was observed that the carbon layer successfully prevented Pt nanoparticles from growing via agglomeration and Ostwald ripening under fuel cell operation, thereby improving durability. Furthermore, a mass specific performance of the synthesized catalyst higher than that of a conventional Pt/C catalyst was achieved by modifying the synthesized catalyst's layer thickness.

  15. Designing an ultrathin silica layer for highly durable carbon nanofibers as the carbon support in polymer electrolyte fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sun-Mi; Park, Jae-Hyun; Lim, Seongyop; Jung, Doo-Hwan; Guim, Hwanuk; Yoon, Young-Gi; Yim, Sung-Dae; Kim, Tae-Young

    2014-10-21

    A critical issue for maintaining long-term applications of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is the development of an innovative technique for the functionalization of a carbon support that preserves their exceptional electrical conductivity and robustly enriches their durability. Here, we report for the first time how the formation of a partially coated, ultrathin, hydrophobic silica layer around the surfaces of the carbon nanofiber (CNF) helps improve the durability of the CNF without decreasing the significant electrical conductivity of the virgin CNF. The synthesis involved the adsorption of polycarbomethylsilane (PS) on the CNF's sidewalls, followed by high temperature pyrolysis of PS, resulting in a highly durable, conductive carbon support in PEFCs. The Pt nanoparticles are in direct contact with the surface of the carbon in the empty spaces between unevenly coated silica layers, which are not deposited directly onto the silica layer. The presence of a Pt nanoparticle layer that was thicker than the silica layer would be a quite advantageous circumstance that provides contact with other neighboring CNFs without having a significant adverse effect that deeply damages the electrical conductivity of the neighboring CNF composites with the silica layer. Furthermore, the ultrathin, hydrophobic silica layer around the surfaces of the CNF provides great potential to reduce the presence of water molecules in the vicinity of the carbon supports and the ˙OH radicals formed on the surface of the Pt catalyst. As a result, the CNF with a 5 wt% silica layer that we prepared has had extremely high initial performance and durability under severe carbon corrosion conditions, starting up with 974 mA cm(-2) at 0.6 V and ending up with more than 58% of the initial performance (i.e., 569 mA cm(-2) at 0.6 V) after a 1.6 V holding test for 6 h. The beginning-of-life and end-of-life performances based on the virgin CNF without the silica layer were 981 and 340 mA cm(-2) at 0

  16. Fuel cell apparatus and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.; Krueger, Roger; Cherepy, Nerine

    2004-11-09

    Highly efficient carbon fuels, exemplary embodiments of a high temperature, molten electrolyte electrochemical cell are capable of directly converting ash-free carbon fuel to electrical energy. Ash-free, turbostratic carbon particles perform at high efficiencies in certain direct carbon conversion cells.

  17. Pt and Pt-Ru/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites Synthesized in Supercritical Fluid as Electrocatalysts for Low-Temperature Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yuehe; Cui, Xiaoli; Wang, Jun; Yen, Clive; Wai, Chien M.

    2006-06-01

    In recent years, the use of supercritical fluids (SCFs) for the synthesis and processing of nanomaterials has proven to be a rapid, direct, and clean approach to develop nanomaterials and nanocomposites. The application of supercritical fluid technology can result in products (and processes) that are cleaner, less expensive, and of higher quality than those that are produced using conventional technologies and solvents. In this work, carbon nanotube (CNT)-supported Pt and Pt-Ru nanoparticles catalysts have been synthesized in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). The experimental results demonstrate that Pt, Pt-Ru/CNT nanocomposites synthesized in supercritical carbon dioxide are effective electrocatalysts for low-temperature fuel cells.

  18. Operating experiences with a molten carbonate fuel cell at Stuttgart-Möhringen wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Locher, C; Meyer, C; Steinmetz, H

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cells on wastewater treatment plants are a relatively new technology to convert biogas from anaerobic digestion into thermal and electrical energy. Since the end of 2007, a type of MCFC fuel cell (>250 kW(el), 180 kW(th)) has been installed at Stuttgart-Möhringen wastewater treatment plant. The goals of this research project are to raise the power self-sufficiency in Stuttgart-Möhringen, to further optimise high temperature fuel cells using biogas and to gain practical experience. After approximately 9,000 h of operation, a mean electrical 'gross'-efficiency of 44% was achieved. To fully exploit this high electrical efficiency, it is essential to keep the energy consumption of peripheral devices (gas pressure unit, gas cleaning unit, etc.) of the fuel cell as low as possible.

  19. Modeling and simulation of NiO dissolution and Ni deposition in molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Suk Woo; Choi, Hyung-Joon; Lim, Tae Hoon

    1996-12-31

    Dissolution of NiO cathode into the electrolyte matrix is an important phenomena limiting the lifetime of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). The dissolved nickel diffuses into the matrix and is reduced by dissolved hydrogen leading to the formation of metallic nickel films in the pores of the matrix. The growth of Ni films in the electrolyte matrix during the continuous cell operation results eventually in shorting between cathode and anode. Various mathematical and empirical models have been developed to describe the NiO dissolution and Ni deposition processes, and these models have some success in estimating the lifetime of MCFC by correlating the amount of Ni deposited in the matrix with shorting time. Since the exact mechanism of Ni deposition was not well understood, deposition reaction was assumed to be very fast in most of the models and the Ni deposition region was limited around a point in the matrix. In fact, formation of Ni films takes place in a rather broad region in the matrix, the location and thickness of the film depending on operating conditions as well as matrix properties. In this study, we assumed simple reaction kinetics for Ni deposition and developed a mathematical model to get the distribution of nickel in the matrix.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotubes supported platinum nanocatalyst for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J. F.; Kamavaram, V.; Kannan, A. M.

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used as catalyst support for depositing platinum nanoparticles by a wet chemistry route. MWCNTs were initially surface modified by citric acid to introduce functional groups which act as anchors for metallic clusters. A two-phase (water-toluene) method was used to transfer PtCl 6 2- from aqueous to organic phase and the subsequent sodium formate solution reduction step yielded Pt nanoparticles on MWCNTs. High-resolution TEM images showed that the platinum particles in the size range of 1-3 nm are homogeneously distributed on the surface of MWCNTs. The Pt/MWCNTs nanocatalyst was evaluated in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) single cell using H 2/O 2 at 80 °C with Nafion-212 electrolyte. The single PEM fuel cell exhibited a peak power density of about 1100 mW cm -2 with a total catalyst loading of 0.6 mg Pt cm -2 (anode: 0.2 mg Pt cm -2 and cathode: 0.4 mg Pt cm -2). The durability of Pt/MWCNTs nanocatalyst was evaluated for 100 h at 80 °C at ambient pressure and the performance (current density at 0.4 V) remained stable throughout. The electrochemically active surface area (64 m 2 g -1) as estimated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) was also similar before and after the durability test.

  1. Carbon-Supported Pd and PdFe Alloy Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Cathodes

    PubMed Central

    Rivera Gavidia, Luis M.; Sebastián, David; Pastor, Elena; Aricò, Antonino S.; Baglio, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are electrochemical devices that efficiently produce electricity and are characterized by a large flexibility for portable applications and high energy density. Methanol crossover is one of the main obstacles for DMFC commercialization, forcing the search for highly electro-active and methanol tolerant cathodes. In the present work, carbon-supported Pd and PdFe catalysts were synthesized using a sodium borohydride reduction method and physico-chemically characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray techniques such as photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). The catalysts were investigated as DMFC cathodes operating at different methanol concentrations (up to 10 M) and temperatures (60 °C and 90 °C). The cell based on PdFe/C cathode presented the best performance, achieving a maximum power density of 37.5 mW·cm−2 at 90 °C with 10 M methanol, higher than supported Pd and Pt commercial catalysts, demonstrating that Fe addition yields structural changes to Pd crystal lattice that reduce the crossover effects in DMFC operation. PMID:28772937

  2. Carbon-Supported Pd and PdFe Alloy Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Cathodes.

    PubMed

    Rivera Gavidia, Luis M; Sebastián, David; Pastor, Elena; Aricò, Antonino S; Baglio, Vincenzo

    2017-05-25

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are electrochemical devices that efficiently produce electricity and are characterized by a large flexibility for portable applications and high energy density. Methanol crossover is one of the main obstacles for DMFC commercialization, forcing the search for highly electro-active and methanol tolerant cathodes. In the present work, carbon-supported Pd and PdFe catalysts were synthesized using a sodium borohydride reduction method and physico-chemically characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray techniques such as photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). The catalysts were investigated as DMFC cathodes operating at different methanol concentrations (up to 10 M) and temperatures (60 °C and 90 °C). The cell based on PdFe/C cathode presented the best performance, achieving a maximum power density of 37.5 mW·cm(-2) at 90 °C with 10 M methanol, higher than supported Pd and Pt commercial catalysts, demonstrating that Fe addition yields structural changes to Pd crystal lattice that reduce the crossover effects in DMFC operation.

  3. Fuel cell electric power production

    DOEpatents

    Hwang, Herng-Shinn; Heck, Ronald M.; Yarrington, Robert M.

    1985-01-01

    A process for generating electricity from a fuel cell includes generating a hydrogen-rich gas as the fuel for the fuel cell by treating a hydrocarbon feed, which may be a normally liquid feed, in an autothermal reformer utilizing a first monolithic catalyst zone having palladium and platinum catalytic components therein and a second, platinum group metal steam reforming catalyst. Air is used as the oxidant in the hydrocarbon reforming zone and a low oxygen to carbon ratio is maintained to control the amount of dilution of the hydrogen-rich gas with nitrogen of the air without sustaining an insupportable amount of carbon deposition on the catalyst. Anode vent gas may be utilized as the fuel to preheat the inlet stream to the reformer. The fuel cell and the reformer are preferably operated at elevated pressures, up to about a pressure of 150 psia for the fuel cell.

  4. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Energy and Environmental Solutions

    2000-10-31

    Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed

  5. Determination of optimum electrolyte composition for molten carbonate fuel cells. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Yuh, C.Y.; Pigeaud, A.

    1987-12-31

    The objective of this study is to determine the optimum electrolyte composition for molten carbonate fuel cells. To accomplish this, the contractor will provide: (1) Comprehensive reports of on-going efforts to optimize carbonate composition. (2) A list of characteristics affected by electrolyte composition variations (e.g. ionic conductivity, vapor pressure, melting range, gas solubility, exchange current densities on NiO, corrosion and cathode dissolution effects). (3) Assessment of the overall effects that these characteristics have state-of-the-art cell voltage and lifetime.

  6. Carbon xerogels as Pt catalyst supports for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel-cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bing; Creager, Stephen

    Carbon xerogels prepared by the resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) sol-gel method with ambient-pressure drying were explored as Pt catalyst supports for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Carbon xerogel samples without Pt catalyst (CX) were characterized by the N 2 sorption method (BET, BJH, others), and carbon xerogel samples with supported Pt catalyst (Pt/CX) were characterized by thermogravimetry (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and ex situ cyclic voltammetry for thin-film electrode samples supported on glassy carbon and studied in a sulfuric acid electrolyte. Experiments on Pt/CX were made in comparison with commercially obtained samples of Pt catalyst supported on a Vulcan XC-72R carbon black support (Pt/XC-72R). CX samples had high BET surface area with a relatively narrow pore size distribution with a peak pore size near 14 nm. Pt contents for both Pt/CX and Pt/XC-72R were near 20 wt % as determined by TGA. Pt catalyst particles on Pt/CX had a mean diameter near 3.3 nm, slightly larger than for Pt/XC-72R which was near 2.8 nm. Electrochemically active surface areas (ESA) for Pt as determined by ex situ CV measurements of H adsorption/desorption were similar for Pt/XC-72R and Pt/CX but those from CO stripping were slightly higher for Pt/XC-72R than for Pt/CX. Membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) were fabricated from both Pt/CX and Pt/XC-72R on Nafion 117 membranes using the decal transfer method, and MEA characteristics and single-cell performance were evaluated via in situ cyclic voltammetry, polarization curve, and current-interrupt and high-frequency impedance methods. In situ CV yielded ESA values for Pt/XC-72R MEAs that were similar to those obtained by ex situ CV in sulfuric acid, but those for Pt/CX MEAs were smaller (by 13-17%), suggesting that access of Nafion electrolyte to Pt particles in Pt/CX electrodes is diminished relative to that for Pt/XC-72R electrodes. Polarization curve analysis at low current

  7. 1990 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains author prepared short resumes of the presentations at the 1990 Fuel Cell Seminar held November 25-28, 1990 in Phoenix, Arizona. Contained herein are 134 short descriptions organized into topic areas entitled An Environmental Overview, Transportation Applications, Technology Advancements for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, Technology Advancements for Solid Fuel Cells, Component Technologies and Systems Analysis, Stationary Power Applications, Marine and Space Applications, Technology Advancements for Acid Type Fuel Cells, and Technology Advancement for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

  8. Carbon benefits from fuel treatments

    Treesearch

    Jim Cathcart; Alan A. Ager; Andrew McMahan; Mark Finney; Brian Watt

    2010-01-01

    Landscape simulation modeling is used to examine whether fuel treatments result in a carbon offset from avoided wildfire emissions. The study landscape was a 169,200-acre watershed located in south-central Oregon. Burn probability modeling was employed under extreme weather and fuel moisture conditions. Expected carbon stocks post-treatment, post-wildfire were...

  9. Anode regeneration following carbon depositions in an industrial-sized anode supported solid oxide fuel cell operating on synthetic diesel reformate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subotić, Vanja; Schluckner, Christoph; Mathe, Jörg; Rechberger, Jürgen; Schroettner, Hartmuth; Hochenauer, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    Carbon deposition is a primary concern during operation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) fueled with carbon-containing fuels. It leads to cell degradation and thus reduces SOFC sustained operation and durability. This paper reports on an experimental investigation of carbon formation on the nickel/yttria-stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ) anode of an anode-supported SOFC and its regeneration. The cell was fueled with a synthetically produced diesel reformate to investigate and simulate the cell behavior under real operating conditions. For this purpose the cell was operated under load to determine the critical operating time. Rapid carbon generation, such as at open circuit voltage (OCV), can be prevented when the cell is under load. Carbon depositions were detected using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and further analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Industrial-size cells suitable for commercial applications were studied. This study proves the reversibility of carbon formation and the reproducibility of the regeneration process. It shows that carbon formations can be recognized and effectively, fully and cell-protecting regenerated. It indicates the excellent possibility of using SOFCs in the automotive industry as an auxiliary power unit (APU) or combined power-heat unit, operated with diesel reformate, without danger from cell degradation caused by carbon-containing fuels.

  10. Carbon nanotube-based glucose oxidase nanocomposite anode materials for bio-fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudzik, Jonathan

    The field of nanotechnology has benefited medicine, science, and engineering. The advent of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and protein-inorganic interfacing have received much attention due to their unique nanostructures which can be modified to act as a scaffold to house proteins or create nanowires. The current trend incorporates the robustness and specificity characteristics of proteins to the mechanical strength, enlarged surface area, and conductive capabilities emblematic of their inorganic counterparts. Bio-Fuel Cells (BFCs) and Biosensors remain at the forefront and devices such as implantable glucose monitors are closer to realization than ever before. This research strives to exploit potential energy from the eukaryotic enzyme Glucose Oxidase (GOx) during oxidation of its substrate, glucose. During this process, a two-electron transfer occurs at its two FAD redox centres which can be harnessed via an electrochemical setup involving a Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNTs) modified electrode. The objective is to develop a MWCNT-GOx bionanocomposite capable of producing and sustaining a competitive power output. To help with this aim, investigation into a crosslinked enzyme cluster (CEC) immobilization technique is envisioned to amplify power output due to its highly concentrated, reusable, and thermally stable characteristics. Numerous CEC-GOx-MWCNT composites were fabricated with the highest initial output reaching 170 muW/cm 2. It was hypothesized that the carbohydrate moiety increased tunnelling distance and therefore hindered electron transfer. Efforts to produce a recombinant GOx without the encumbrance were unsuccessful. Two sub-clone constructs were explored and although a recombinant protein was identified, it was not confirmed to be GOx. BFC testing on bionanocomposites integrating non-glycosylated GOx could not be performed although there remains a strong contention that the recombinant would demonstrate superior power densities in comparison to its

  11. Carbon source and energy harvesting optimization in solid anolyte microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adekunle, Ademola; Raghavan, Vijaya; Tartakovsky, Boris

    2017-07-01

    This work investigates the application of a solid anolyte microbial fuel cell (saMFC) as a long-lasting source of electricity for powering electronic devices. Broadly available biodegradable materials such as humus, cattle manure, peat moss, and sawdust are evaluated as solid anolytes. The initial comparison shows significantly higher power production in the saMFC operated using humus as compared to other solid anolytes. At the same time, power production in the humus-based saMFC is found to decline after about 40 days of operation, while the sawdust MFC demonstrates stable performance over the test period. Following this initial comparison, a combined humus - sawdust anolyte is developed to increase saMFC life span. The optimized saMFC demonstrates stable power production for over nine months. Furthermore, power production in the saMFC is maximized by using an intermittent connection to an electrical load (on/off operation) and optimizing the connection/disconnection times. These results demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing solid anolytes for developing inexpensive and long-lasting biobatteries operated on renewable carbon sources.

  12. Novel mesoporous carbon ceramics composites as electrodes for direct methanol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Jean Marcel R.; Gatti, Giorgio; Graizzaro, Alessandro; Marchese, Leonardo; Pastore, Heloise O.

    2011-10-01

    In this work, a new family of materials for electrodes of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is presented. Mesoporous carbon ceramics (MCCs) are obtained by the addition of commercial graphite into the synthesis gel of SBA-15 mesoporous silica with SiO2/C weight ratios of 1/1 and 1/3. X-ray diffraction confirms both the formation of organized silica and the presence of graphite, and nitrogen physisorption measurements show that the presence of a graphitic phase does not interfere in the silica pore diameter although it diminishes the surface area. The MCCs modified with Pt or PtRu are tested as DMFC electrodes and compared with the commercial support Vulcan XC-72R. When used as cathode, the system using MCC-SBA-15 with SiO2/C weight ratios of 1/1 presents a negligible performance, while the MCC-SBA-15 with SiO2/C weight ratios of 1/3 is 2.9 times less active than the commercial support. On the other side, when used as anode, the MCC-SBA-15 with SiO2/C weight ratios of 1/3 displays performances comparable to Vulcan XC-72R.

  13. Parameters characterization and optimization of activated carbon (AC) cathodes for microbial fuel cell application.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Carlo; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Babanova, Sofia; Atanassov, Plamen; Ieropoulos, Ioannis; Grattieri, Matteo; Cristiani, Pierangela; Trasatti, Stefano; Li, Baikun; Schuler, Andrew J

    2014-07-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is employed as a cost-effective catalyst for cathodic oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cells (MFC). The fabrication protocols of AC-based cathodes are conducted at different applied pressures (175-3500 psi) and treatment temperatures (25-343°C). The effects of those parameters along with changes in the surface morphology and chemistry on the cathode performances are comprehensively examined. The cathodes are tested in a three-electrode setup and explored in single chamber membraneless MFCs (SCMFCs). The results show that the best performance of the AC-based cathode is achieved when a pressure of 1400 psi is applied followed by heat treatment of 150-200°C for 1h. The influence of the applied pressure and the temperature of the heat treatment on the electrodes and SCMFCs is demonstrated as the result of the variation in the transfer resistance, the surface morphology and surface chemistry of the AC-based cathodes tested.

  14. Microbial fuel cell biosensor for rapid assessment of assimilable organic carbon under marine conditions.

    PubMed

    Quek, Soon Bee; Cheng, Liang; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2015-06-15

    The development of an assimilable organic carbon (AOC) detecting marine microbial fuel cell (MFC) biosensor inoculated with microorganisms from marine sediment was successful within 36 days. This established marine MFC was tested as an AOC biosensor and reproducible microbiologically produced electrical signals in response to defined acetate concentration were achieved. The dependency of the biosensor sensitivity on the potential of the electron-accepting electrode (anode) was investigated. A linear correlation (R(2) > 0.98) between electrochemical signals (change in anodic potential and peak current) and acetate concentration ranging from 0 to 150 μM (0-3600 μg/L of AOC) was achieved. However, the present biosensor indicated a different-linear relation at somewhat elevated acetate concentration ranging from 150 to 450 μM (3600-10,800 μg/L of AOC). This high concentration of acetate addition could be measured by coulombic measurement (cumulative charges) with a linear correlation. For the acetate concentration detected in this study, the sensor recovery time could be controlled within 100 min. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reticulated vitreous carbon as a scaffold for enzymatic fuel cell designing.

    PubMed

    Kizling, Michal; Dzwonek, Maciej; Olszewski, Bartłomiej; Bącal, Paweł; Tymecki, Łukasz; Więckowska, Agnieszka; Stolarczyk, Krzysztof; Bilewicz, Renata

    2017-09-15

    Three - dimensional (3D) electrodes are successfully used to overcome the limitations of the low space - time yield and low normalized space velocity obtained in electrochemical processes with two - dimensional electrodes. In this study, we developed a three - dimensional reticulated vitreous carbon - gold (RVC-Au) sponge as a scaffold for enzymatic fuel cells (EFC). The structure of gold and the real electrode surface area can be controlled by the parameters of metal electrodeposition. In particular, a 3D RVC-Au sponge provides a large accessible surface area for immobilization of enzyme and electron mediators, moreover, effective mass diffusion can also take place through the uniform macro - porous scaffold. To efficiently bind the enzyme to the electrode and enhance electron transfer parameters the gold surface was modified with ultrasmall gold nanoparticles stabilized with glutathione. These quantum sized nanoparticles exhibit specific electronic properties and also expand the working surface of the electrode. Significantly, at the steady state of power generation, the EFC device with RVC-Au electrodes provided high volumetric power density of 1.18±0.14mWcm(-3) (41.3±3.8µWcm(-2)) calculated based on the volume of electrode material with OCV 0.741±0.021V. These new 3D RVC-Au electrodes showed great promise for improving the power generation of EFC devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced performance of microbial fuel cell with a bacteria/multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid biofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Jia; Qu, Youpeng; Zhang, Jian; Zhong, Yingjuan; Feng, Yujie

    2017-09-01

    The biofilm on the anode of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a vital component in system, and its formation and characteristic determines the performance of the system. In this study, a bacteria/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) hybrid biofilm is fabricated by effectively inserting the MWCNTs into the anode biofilm via an adsorption-filtration method. This hybrid biofilm has been demonstrated to be an efficient structure for improving an anode biofilm performance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results show that the hybrid biofilm takes advantage of the conductivity and structure of MWCNT to enhance the electron transfer and substrate diffusion of the biofilm. With this hybrid biofilm, the current density, power density and coulombic efficiency are increased by 46.2%, 58.8% and 84.6%, respectively, relative to naturally grown biofilm. Furthermore, the start-up time is reduced by 53.8% compared with naturally grown biofilm. The perturbation test demonstrates that this type of hybrid biofilm exhibits strong adsorption ability and enhances the biofilm's resistance to a sudden change of substrate concentration. The superior performance of the hybrid biofilm with MWCNT ;nanowire; matrix compared with naturally grown biofilm demonstrates its great potential for boosting the performance of MFCs.

  17. Flame synthesis of carbon nanostructures on stainless steel anodes for use in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamp, Jennifer L.; Guest, Jeremy S.; Naha, Sayangdev; Radavich, Katherine A.; Love, Nancy G.; Ellis, Michael W.; Puri, Ishwar K.

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) offer a promising alternative energy technology, but suffer from low power densities which hinder their practical applicability. In order to improve anodic power density, we deposited carbon nanostructures (CNSs) on an otherwise plain stainless steel mesh (SS-M) anode. Using a flame synthesis method that did not require pretreatment of SS-M substrates, we were able to produce these novel CNS-enhanced SS-M (CNS-M) anodes quickly (in a matter of minutes) and inexpensively, without the added costs of chemical pretreatments. During fed batch experiments with biomass from anaerobic digesters in single-chamber MFCs, the median power densities (based on the projected anodic surface area) were 2.9 mW m -2 and 187 mW m -2 for MFCs with SS-M and CNS-M anodes, respectively. The addition of CNSs to a plain SS-M anode via flame deposition therefore resulted in a 60-fold increase in the median power production. The combination of CNSs and metallic current collectors holds considerable promise for power production in MFCs.

  18. Effect of gas channel height on gas flow and gas diffusion in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Haruhiko; Nakagaki, Takao; Hori, Michio

    An investigation is made of the relationships between the gas channel height, the gas-flow characteristics, and the gas-diffusion characteristics in a plate heat-exchanger type molten carbonate fuel cell stack. Effects of the gas channel height on the uniformity and pressure loss of the gas flow are evaluated by numerical analysis using a computational fluid dynamics code. The effects of the gas channel height on the distribution of the reactive gas concentration in the direction perpendicular to the channel flow are evaluated by an analytical solution of the two-dimensional concentration transport equation. Considering the results for uniformity and pressure loss of the gas flow, and for distribution of the reactive gas concentration, the appropriate gas channel height in the molten carbonate fuel cell stack is investigated.

  19. ARPA advanced fuel cell development

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, L.H.

    1995-08-01

    Fuel cell technology is currently being developed at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) for several Department of Defense applications where its inherent advantages such as environmental compatibility, high efficiency, and low noise and vibration are overwhelmingly important. These applications range from man-portable power systems of only a few watts output (e.g., for microclimate cooling and as direct battery replacements) to multimegawatt fixed base systems. The ultimate goal of the ARPA program is to develop an efficient, low-temperature fuel cell power system that operates directly on a military logistics fuel (e.g., DF-2 or JP-8). The absence of a fuel reformer will reduce the size, weight, cost, and complexity of such a unit as well as increase its reliability. In order to reach this goal, ARPA is taking a two-fold, intermediate time-frame approach to: (1) develop a viable, low-temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell that operates directly on a simple hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., methanol or trimethoxymethane) and (2) demonstrate a thermally integrated fuel processor/fuel cell power system operating on a military logistics fuel. This latter program involves solid oxide (SOFC), molten carbonate (MCFC), and phosphoric acid (PAFC) fuel cell technologies and concentrates on the development of efficient fuel processors, impurity scrubbers, and systems integration. A complementary program to develop high performance, light weight H{sub 2}/air PEM and SOFC fuel cell stacks is also underway. Several recent successes of these programs will be highlighted.

  20. Development and characterization of novel cathode materials for molten carbonate fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, L.; Carewska, M.; Patriarca, M.; Scaccia, S.; Simonetti, E.; Dibartolomeo, A.

    1994-04-01

    In the development of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) technology, the corrosion of materials is a serious problem for long-term operation. Indeed, slow dissolution of lithiated-NiO cathode in molten carbonates is the main obstacle for the commercialization of MCFCs. In the search of new, more stable, cathode materials, alternative compounds such as LiFeO2, Li2MnO3, and La(1-x)Sr(x)CoO3 are presently under investigation to replace the currently used lithiated-NiO. The aim of the present work was to investigate the possibility to produce electrode based on LiCoO2, a promising cathode material. At first, Li(x)CoO2 powder samples (0.8 less than x less than 1.1) were made by thermal decomposition of carbonate precursors in air. The synthesis processes were monitored by thermal analysis (TGA, DTA). The calcined and sintered powder samples were characterized by x ray diffraction (XRD) andatomic absorption spectrophotometry (F-AAS). A single phase was detected in all the samples, without any change in crystal structure as a function of lithium content. Porous sintered electrodes were prepared starting from lithium cobaltite powders mixed with different pore-formers by cold pressing and sintering. A bimodal pore-size distribution with a mean pore diameter in the range of 0.15 to 8 micron, a surface area of 2 to 12 sq m/g and a porosity of 10 to 65%, determined by the Hg-intrusion technique, were observed in all the materials. Conductivity measurements were carried out in the temperature range of 500-700 C, in air. The influence of the deviations from stoichiometry on the electronic properties was determined, the conductivity value of the stoichiometric compound being the lowest. A linear relationship between the electronic conductivity and the sample porosity was found. Solubility testing of the materials was carried out to evaluate their chemical stability in the electrolyte. The sampling method (F-AAS) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) were used to determine the

  1. Thin graphite bipolar plate with associated gaskets and carbon cloth flow-field for use in an ionomer membrane fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Marchetti, George A.

    2003-01-03

    The present invention comprises a thin graphite plate with associated gaskets and pieces of carbon cloth that comprise a flow-field. The plate, gaskets and flow-field comprise a "plate and gasket assembly" for use in an ionomer membrane fuel cell, fuel cell stack or battery.

  2. Fuel cells seminar

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This year`s meeting highlights the fact that fuel cells for both stationary and transportation applications have reached the dawn of commercialization. Sales of stationary fuel cells have grown steadily over the past 2 years. Phosphoric acid fuel cell buses have been demonstrated in urban areas. Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells are on the verge of revolutionizing the transportation industry. These activities and many more are discussed during this seminar, which provides a forum for people from the international fuel cell community engaged in a wide spectrum of fuel cell activities. Discussions addressing R&D of fuel cell technologies, manufacturing and marketing of fuel cells, and experiences of fuel cell users took place through oral and poster presentations. For the first time, the seminar included commercial exhibits, further evidence that commercial fuel cell technology has arrived. A total of 205 papers is included in this volume.

  3. Formation of Platinum Catalyst on Carbon Black Using an In-Liquid Plasma Method for Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Show, Yoshiyuki; Ueno, Yutaro

    2017-01-01

    Platinum (Pt) catalyst was formed on the surface of carbon black using an in-liquid plasma method. The formed Pt catalyst showed the average particle size of 4.1 nm. This Pt catalyst was applied to a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The PEMFC showed an open voltage of 0.85 V and a maximum output power density of 216 mW/cm2. PMID:28336864

  4. Formation of Platinum Catalyst on Carbon Black Using an In-Liquid Plasma Method for Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Show, Yoshiyuki; Ueno, Yutaro

    2017-01-31

    Platinum (Pt) catalyst was formed on the surface of carbon black using an in-liquid plasma method. The formed Pt catalyst showed the average particle size of 4.1 nm. This Pt catalyst was applied to a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The PEMFC showed an open voltage of 0.85 V and a maximum output power density of 216 mW/cm2.

  5. Catalysts compositions for use in fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Chuang, Steven S.C.

    2015-12-01

    The present invention generally relates to the generation of electrical energy from a solid-state fuel. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a solid-oxide fuel cell for generating electrical energy from a carbon-based fuel, and to catalysts for use in a solid-oxide fuel cell.

  6. Performance enhancement of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells by dual-layered membrane electrode assembly structures with carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dong-Won; Kim, Jun-Ho; Kim, Se-Hoon; Kim, Jun-Bom; Oh, Eun-Suok

    2013-05-01

    The effect of dual-layered membrane electrode assemblies (d-MEAs) on the performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was investigated using the following characterization techniques: single cell performance test, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). It has been shown that the PEMFC with d-MEAs has better cell performance than that with typical mono-layered MEAs (m-MEAs). In particular, the d-MEA whose inner layer is composed of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) showed the best fuel cell performance. This is due to the fact that the d-MEAs with MWCNTs have the highest electrochemical surface area and the lowest activation polarization, as observed from the CV and EIS test.

  7. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test. Final report, September 30, 1992--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This report summarizes the work performed for manufacturing and demonstrating the performance of its 250-kW molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) stack in an integrated system at the Naval Air Station Miramar (NAS Miramar) located in San Diego, California. The stack constructed for the demonstration test at the NAS Miramar consisted of 250 cells. It was manufactured using M-C Power`s patented Internally Manifolded Heat Exchanger (IMHEX{reg_sign}) stack design. The demonstration test at NAS Miramar was designed to operate the 250-kW MCFC stack in a cogeneration mode. This test represented the first attempt to thermally integrate an MCFC stack in a cogeneration system. The test was started on January 10, 1997, and voluntarily terminated on May 12, 1997, after 2,350 hours of operation at temperatures above 1,100 F and at a pressure of three atmospheres. It produced 160 MWh of d.c. power and 346,000 lbs of 110 psig steam for export during 1,566 hours of on-load operations. The test demonstrated a d.c. power output of 206 kW. Most of the balance of the plant (BOP) equipment operated satisfactorily. However, the off-the-shelf automotive turbocharger used for supplying air to the plant failed on numerous occasions and the hot gas blower developed seal leakage problems which impacted continuous plant operations. Overall the demonstration test at NAS Miramar was successful in demonstrating many critical features of the IMHEX technology. Lessons learned from this test will be very useful for improving designs and operations for future MCFC power plants.

  8. Promotion of water-mediated carbon removal by nanostructured barium oxide/nickel interfaces in solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Choi, YongMan; Qin, Wentao; Chen, Haiyan; Blinn, Kevin; Liu, Mingfei; Liu, Ping; Bai, Jianming; Tyson, Trevor A; Liu, Meilin

    2011-06-21

    The existing Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia anodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) perform poorly in carbon-containing fuels because of coking and deactivation at desired operating temperatures. Here we report a new anode with nanostructured barium oxide/nickel (BaO/Ni) interfaces for low-cost SOFCs, demonstrating high power density and stability in C(3)H(8), CO and gasified carbon fuels at 750°C. Synchrotron-based X-ray analyses and microscopy reveal that nanosized BaO islands grow on the Ni surface, creating numerous nanostructured BaO/Ni interfaces that readily adsorb water and facilitate water-mediated carbon removal reactions. Density functional theory calculations predict that the dissociated OH from H(2)O on BaO reacts with C on Ni near the BaO/Ni interface to produce CO and H species, which are then electrochemically oxidized at the triple-phase boundaries of the anode. This anode offers potential for ushering in a new generation of SOFCs for efficient, low-emission conversion of readily available fuels to electricity.

  9. Promotion of water-mediated carbon removal by nanostructured barium oxide/nickel interfaces in solid oxide fuel cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lei; Choi, YongMan; Qin, Wentao; Chen, Haiyan; Blinn, Kevin; Liu, Mingfei; Liu, Ping; Bai, Jianming; Tyson, Trevor A.; Liu, Meilin

    2011-01-01

    The existing Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia anodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) perform poorly in carbon-containing fuels because of coking and deactivation at desired operating temperatures. Here we report a new anode with nanostructured barium oxide/nickel (BaO/Ni) interfaces for low-cost SOFCs, demonstrating high power density and stability in C3H8, CO and gasified carbon fuels at 750°C. Synchrotron-based X-ray analyses and microscopy reveal that nanosized BaO islands grow on the Ni surface, creating numerous nanostructured BaO/Ni interfaces that readily adsorb water and facilitate water-mediated carbon removal reactions. Density functional theory calculations predict that the dissociated OH from H2O on BaO reacts with C on Ni near the BaO/Ni interface to produce CO and H species, which are then electrochemically oxidized at the triple-phase boundaries of the anode. This anode offers potential for ushering in a new generation of SOFCs for efficient, low-emission conversion of readily available fuels to electricity. PMID:21694705

  10. Use of carbon mesh anodes and the effect of different pretreatment methods on power production in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Cheng, Shaoan; Feng, Yujie; Merrill, Matthew D; Saito, Tomonori; Logan, Bruce E

    2009-09-01

    Flat electrodes are useful in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) as close electrode spacing improves power generation. Carbon cloth and carbon paper materials typically used in hydrogen fuel cells, however, are prohibitively expensive for use in MFCs. An inexpensive carbon mesh material was examined here as a substantially less expensive alternative to these materials for the anode in an MFC. Pretreatment of the carbon mesh was needed to ensure adequate MFC performance. Heating the carbon mesh in a muffle furnace (450 degrees C for 30 min) resulted in a maximum power density of 922 mW/m2 (46 W/m3) with this heat-treated anode, which was 3% more power than that produced using a mesh anode cleaned with acetone (893 mW/ m2; 45 W/m3). This power density with heating was only 7% less than that achieved with carbon cloth treated by a high temperature ammonia gas process (988 mW/m2; 49 W/m3). When the carbon mesh was treated by the ammonia gas process, power increased to 1015 mW/m2(51 W/m3). Analysis of the cleaned or heated surfaces showed these processes decreased atomic O/C ratio, indicating removal of contaminants that interfered with charge transfer. Ammonia gas treatment also increased the atomic N/C ratio, suggesting that this process produced nitrogen related functional groups that facilitated electron transfer. These results show that low cost heat-treated carbon mesh materials can be used as the anode in an MFC, providing good performance and even exceeding performance of carbon cloth anodes.

  11. A SnO2-samarium doped ceria additional anode layer in a direct carbon fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Baolong; Zhao, Yicheng; Li, Yongdan

    2016-02-01

    The role of a SnO2-samarium doped ceria (SDC) additional anode layer in a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) with SDC-(Li0.67Na0.33)2CO3 composite electrolyte and lithiated NiO-SDC-(Li0.67Na0.33)2CO3 composite cathode is investigated and compared with a NiO-SDC extra anode layer. Catalytic grown carbon fiber mixed with (Li0.67Na0.33)2CO3 is used as a fuel. At 750 °C, the maximum power outputs of 192 and 143 mW cm-2 are obtained by the cells with SnO2-SDC and NiO-SDC layers, respectively. In the SnO2-SDC layer, the reduction of SnO2 and the oxidation of Sn happen simultaneously during the cell operation, and the Sn/SnO2 redox cycle provides an additional route for fuel conversion. The formation of an insulating dense interlayer between the anode and electrolyte layers, which usually happens in DCFCs with metal anodes, is avoided in the cell with the SnO2-SDC layer, and the stability of the cell is improved consequently.

  12. Fuel cell status, 1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschenhofer, John H.

    1994-11-01

    Fuel cells are increasingly being used for commercial purposes in various countries worldwide because of their high efficiency environmental benefits. Among the nations which are pioneering the use of fuel cells are Australia, the United States, England, Japan, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium and Canada. These countries use fuel cells to augment the capacity of and improve the reliability of power plants fueled by natural gas.

  13. Advanced Fuel-Cell Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, William F., III; Martin, Ronald E.; Struning, Albin J.; Whitehill, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Modules designed for long life, light weight, reliability, and low cost. Stack of alkaline fuel cells based on modules, consisting of three fuel cells and cooler. Each cell includes following components: ribbed carbon fine-pore anode electrolyte-reservoir plate; platinum-on-carbon catalyst anode; potassium titanate matrix bonded with butyl rubber; gold-plated nickel-foil electrode substrates; and silver plated, gold-flashed molded polyphenylene sulfide cell holder. Each cell has active area of 1ft to the 2nd power (0.09 m to the 2nd power). Materials and configurations of parts chosen to extend life expectancy, reduce weight and manufacturing cost, and increase reliability.

  14. Influence of carbon electrode material on energy recovery from winery wastewater using a dual-chamber microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Penteado, Eduardo D; Fernandez-Marchante, Carmen M; Zaiat, Marcelo; Gonzalez, Ernesto R; Rodrigo, Manuel A

    2016-09-12

    The aim of this work was to evaluate three carbon materials as anodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), clarifying their influence on the generation of electricity and on the treatability of winery wastewater, a highly organic-loaded waste. The electrode materials tested were carbon felt, carbon cloth and carbon paper and they were used at the same time as anode and cathode in the tests. The MFC equipped with carbon felt reached the highest voltage and power (72 mV and 420 mW m(-2), respectively), while the lowest values were observed when carbon paper was used as electrode (0.2 mV and 8.37·10(-6) mW m(-2), respectively). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from the wastewater was observed to depend on the electrode material, as well. When carbon felt was used, the MFC showed the highest average organic matter consumption rate (650 mg COD L(-1) d(-1)), whereas by using carbon paper the rate decreased to 270 mg COD L(-1) d(-1). Therefore, both electricity generation and organic matter removal are strongly related not to the chemical composition of the electrode (which was graphite carbon in the three electrodes), but to its surface features and, consequently, to the amount of biomass adhered to the electrode surface.

  15. Advanced fuel cell development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-06-01

    Fuel cell research and development activities at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during the period July through September 1983 are discussed. These efforts were directed principally toward seeking alternative cathode materials to NiO for molten carbonate fuel cells. An investigation was made of the thermodynamically stable phases formed under cathode conditions with a number of transition metal oxides. Prospective alternative cathode materials are being synthesized and doped to promote electronic conductivity. Three materials-LiFeO2, Li2MnO3, and ZnO were doped to give suitable conductivity. These materials are being further tested for solubility and ion migration in the cell environment. Techniques are being studied for the preparation of thin electrode and electrolyte materials by tape casting, and a creep-resistant superstructure for the anode is under development.

  16. Nanostructured carbon electrocatalyst supports for intermediate-temperature fuel cells: Single-walled versus multi-walled structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papandrew, Alexander B.; Elgammal, Ramez A.; Tian, Mengkun; Tennyson, Wesley D.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Veith, Gabriel M.; Geohegan, David B.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    It is unknown if nanostructured carbons possess the requisite electrochemical stability to be used as catalyst supports in the cathode of intermediate-temperature solid acid fuel cells (SAFCs) based on the CsH2PO4 electrolyte. To investigate this application, single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were used as supports for Pt catalysts in SAFCs operating at 250 °C. SWNH-based cathodes display greater maximum activity than their MWNT-based counterparts at a cell voltage of 0.8 V, but are unstable in the SAFC cathode as a consequence of electrochemical carbon corrosion. MWNT-based cells are resistant to this effect and capable of operation for at least 160 h at 0.6 V and 250 °C. Cells fabricated with nanostructured carbon supports are more active (52 mA cm-1vs. 28 mA cm-1 at 0.8 V) than state-of-the-art carbon-free formulations while simultaneously displaying enhanced Pt utilization (40 mA mgPt-1vs. 16 mA mgPt-1 at 0.8 V). These results suggest that MWNTs are a viable support material for developing stable, high-performance, low-cost air electrodes for solid-state electrochemical devices operating above 230 °C.

  17. Investigating the effects of proton exchange membrane fuel cell conditions on carbon supported platinum electrocatalyst composition and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Anant; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen; Colbow, Vesna; Dutta, Monica; Harvey, Davie; Wessel, Silvia

    2011-12-01

    Changes that carbon-supported platinum electrocatalysts undergo in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment were simulated by ex situ heat treatment of catalyst powder samples at 150 C and 100% relative humidity. In order to study modifications that are introduced to chemistry, morphology, and performance of electrocatalysts, XPS, HREELS and three-electrode rotating disk electrode experiments were performed. Before heat treatment, graphitic content varied by 20% among samples with different types of carbon supports, with distinct differences between bulk and surface compositions within each sample. Following the aging protocol, the bulk and surface chemistry of the samples were similar, with graphite content increasing or remaining constant and Pt-carbide decreasing for all samples. From the correlation of changes in chemical composition and losses in performance of the electrocatalysts, we conclude that relative distribution of Pt particles on graphitic and amorphous carbon is as important for electrocatalytic activity as the absolute amount of graphitic carbon present

  18. Investigating the effects of proton exchange membrane fuel cell conditions on carbon supported platinum electrocatalyst composition and performance

    SciTech Connect

    A. Patel; K. Artyushkova; P. Atanassov; V. Colbow; M. Dutta; D. Harvey; S. Wessel

    2012-04-30

    Changes that carbon-supported platinum electrocatalysts undergo in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment were simulated by ex situ heat treatment of catalyst powder samples at 150 C and 100% relative humidity. In order to study modifications that are introduced to chemistry, morphology, and performance of electrocatalysts, XPS, HREELS and three-electrode rotating disk electrode experiments were performed. Before heat treatment, graphitic content varied by 20% among samples with different types of carbon supports, with distinct differences between bulk and surface compositions within each sample. Following the aging protocol, the bulk and surface chemistry of the samples were similar, with graphite content increasing or remaining constant and Pt-carbide decreasing for all samples. From the correlation of changes in chemical composition and losses in performance of the electrocatalysts, we conclude that relative distribution of Pt particles on graphitic and amorphous carbon is as important for electrocatalytic activity as the absolute amount of graphitic carbon present

  19. Use of mechanistic carbon corrosion model to predict performance loss in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanushkodi, S. R.; Kundu, S.; Fowler, M. W.; Pritzker, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    A membrane electrode assembly is subjected to carbon corrosion accelerated stress tests (ASTs) involving the application of square-wave voltage cycles with different upper limits to measure the resulting loss in the mass of the carbon support at the cathode catalyst layer (CL) and the associated degradation in performance. Carbon loss is determined from the amount of CO2 evolved during degradation, while the performance loss is measured from the reduction in the cell voltage at 1.5 A cm-2 relative to the performance obtained in its beginning-of-life state. A kinetic model for carbon corrosion describing the rate of evolution of CO2 is shown to accurately predict the carbon loss measured during the various carbon corrosion ASTs in this study. A plot of the performance losses from the various carbon corrosion ASTs versus the corresponding carbon losses reveals that all the data demonstrate consistent degradation regardless of the AST conditions, and these result can be fitted with an exponential function termed the 'fingerprint' expression. By combining the carbon corrosion model and fingerprint expression, both the carbon loss and performance loss of a cathode CL during a carbon corrosion AST can be accurately predicted based only on knowledge of the waveform of the input voltage.

  20. Pt-free carbon-based fuel cell catalyst prepared from spherical polyimide for enhanced oxygen diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Nabae, Yuta; Nagata, Shinsuke; Hayakawa, Teruaki; Niwa, Hideharu; Harada, Yoshihisa; Oshima, Masaharu; Isoda, Ayano; Matsunaga, Atsushi; Tanaka, Kazuhisa; Aoki, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    The development of a non-precious metal (NPM) fuel cell catalyst is extremely important to achieve globalization of polymer electrolyte fuel cells due to the cost and scarcity of platinum. Here, we report on a NPM cathode catalyst prepared by the pyrolysis of spherical polyimide nanoparticles that contain small amounts of Fe additive. 60 nm diameter Fe-containing polyimide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by the precipitation polymerization of pyromellitic acid dianhydride and 1,3,5-tris(4-aminophenyl)benzene with Fe(acac)3 (acac = acetylacetonate) as an additive. The particles were subsequently carbonized by multistep pyrolysis to obtain the NPM catalyst while retaining the small particle size. The catalyst has good performance and promising durability for fuel cell applications. The fuel cell performance under a 0.2 MPa air atmosphere at 80 °C of 1.0 A cm−2 at 0.46 V is especially remarkable and better than that previously reported. PMID:26987682

  1. Pt-free carbon-based fuel cell catalyst prepared from spherical polyimide for enhanced oxygen diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabae, Yuta; Nagata, Shinsuke; Hayakawa, Teruaki; Niwa, Hideharu; Harada, Yoshihisa; Oshima, Masaharu; Isoda, Ayano; Matsunaga, Atsushi; Tanaka, Kazuhisa; Aoki, Tsutomu

    2016-03-01

    The development of a non-precious metal (NPM) fuel cell catalyst is extremely important to achieve globalization of polymer electrolyte fuel cells due to the cost and scarcity of platinum. Here, we report on a NPM cathode catalyst prepared by the pyrolysis of spherical polyimide nanoparticles that contain small amounts of Fe additive. 60 nm diameter Fe-containing polyimide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by the precipitation polymerization of pyromellitic acid dianhydride and 1,3,5-tris(4-aminophenyl)benzene with Fe(acac)3 (acac = acetylacetonate) as an additive. The particles were subsequently carbonized by multistep pyrolysis to obtain the NPM catalyst while retaining the small particle size. The catalyst has good performance and promising durability for fuel cell applications. The fuel cell performance under a 0.2 MPa air atmosphere at 80 °C of 1.0 A cm‑2 at 0.46 V is especially remarkable and better than that previously reported.

  2. LADWP FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Thai Ta

    2003-09-12

    Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) is currently one of the most active power utility companies in researching fuel cell technology. Fuel cells offer many benefits and are now used as an alternative to traditional internal combustion engines in power generation. In continuing it's role as the leader in fuel cell research, LADWP has installed a pre-commercial molten carbonate fuel cell on August 2001 at its headquarter, the John Ferraro Building (JFB). The goal of this project is to learn more about the actual behavior of the fuel cell running under real world conditions. The fuel cell ran smoothly through the first year of operation with very high efficiency, but with some minor setbacks. The JFB fuel cell project is funded by the City of Los Angeles Department of Water and Power with partial grant funding from the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buydown Program. The technical evaluation and the benefit-cost evaluation of the JFB fuel cell are both examined in this report.

  3. Nitrogen and carbon doped titanium oxide as an alternative and durable electrocatalyst support in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanasekaran, P.; Vinod Selvaganesh, S.; Bhat, Santoshkumar D.

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen and carbon doped titanium oxide as an alternative and ultra-stable support to platinum catalysts is prepared and its efficiency is determined by polymer electrolyte fuel cell. Nitrogen and carbon doped titanium oxide is prepared by varying the melamine ratio followed by calcination at 900 °C. Platinum nanoparticles are deposited onto doped and undoped titanium oxide by colloidal method. The doping effect, surface morphology, chemical oxidation state and metal/metal oxide interfacial contact are studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photo electron spectroscopy. The nitrogen and carbon doping changes both electronic and structural properties of titanium oxide resulting in enhanced oxygen reduction reaction activity. The platinum deposited on optimum level of nitrogen and carbon doped titanium oxide exhibits improved cell performance in relation to platinum on titanium oxide electrocatalysts. The effect of metal loading on cathode electrocatalyst is investigated by steady-state cell polarization. Accelerated durability test over 50,000 cycles for these electrocatalysts suggested the improved interaction between platinum and nitrogen and carbon doped titanium oxide, retaining the electrochemical surface area and oxygen reduction performance as comparable to platinum on carbon support.

  4. One-pot synthesis of transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon/carbon nanotube composites for active and durable fuel cell catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombrovskis, Johanna K.; Palmqvist, Anders E. C.

    2017-07-01

    Development of non-precious metal catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells with high activity and durability and with optimal water management properties is of outmost technological importance and highly challenging. Here we study the possibilities offered through judicious selection of small molecular precursors used for the formation of ordered mesoporous carbon-based non-precious metal ORR catalysts. By combining two complementary precursors, we present a one-pot synthesis that leads to a composite material consisting of transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (TM-OMC/CNT). The resulting composite materials show high specific surface areas and a carbon structure that exhibits graphitic signatures. The synthesis procedure allows for tuning of the carbon structure, the surface area, the pore volume and the ratio of the two components of the composite. The TM-OMC/CNT composites were processed into membrane electrode assemblies and evaluated in single cell fuel cell measurements where they showed a combination of good ORR activity and very high durability.

  5. Pore development in carbonized hemoglobin by concurrently generated MgO template for activity enhancement as fuel cell cathode catalyst.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Jun; Hasegawa, Takahiro; Amano, Taiji; Muramatsu, Yasuji; Gullikson, Eric M; Orikasa, Yuki; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2011-12-01

    Various carbon materials with a characteristic morphology and pore structure have been produced using template methods in which a carbon-template composite is once formed and the characteristic features derived from the template are generated after the template removal. In this study, hemoglobin, which is a natural compound that could be abundantly and inexpensively obtained, was used as the carbon material source to produce a carbonaceous noble-metal-free fuel cell cathode catalyst. Magnesium oxide was used as the template concurrently generated with the hemoglobin carbonization from magnesium acetate mixed with hemoglobin as the starting material mixture to enable pore development for improving the activity of the carbonized hemoglobin for the cathodic oxygen reduction. After removal of the MgO template, the substantially developed pores were generated in the carbonized hemoglobin with an amorphous structure observed by total-electron-yield X-ray absorption. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure at the Fe-K edge indicated that Fe was coordinated with four nitrogen atoms (Fe-N(4) moiety) in the carbonized hemoglobin. The oxygen reduction activity of the carbonized hemoglobin evaluated using rotating disk electrodes was dependent on the pore structure. The highly developed pores led to an improved activity.

  6. Formate: an Energy Storage and Transport Bridge between Carbon Dioxide and a Formate Fuel Cell in a Single Device.

    PubMed

    Vo, Tracy; Purohit, Krutarth; Nguyen, Christopher; Biggs, Brenna; Mayoral, Salvador; Haan, John L

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the first device to our knowledge that uses a solar panel to power the electrochemical reduction of dissolved carbon dioxide (carbonate) into formate that is then used in the same device to operate a direct formate fuel cell (DFFC). The electrochemical reduction of carbonate is carried out on a Sn electrode in a reservoir that maintains a constant carbon balance between carbonate and formate. The electron-rich formate species is converted by the DFFC into electrical energy through electron release. The product of DFFC operation is the electron-deficient carbonate species that diffuses back to the reservoir bulk. It is possible to continuously charge the device using alternative energy (e.g., solar) to convert carbonate to formate for on-demand use in the DFFC; the intermittent nature of alternative energy makes this an attractive design. In this work, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept device that performs reduction of carbonate, storage of formate, and operation of a DFFC. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Development of a coal-fueled Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX reg sign ) molten carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The design of a CGMCFC electric generation plant that will provide a cost of eletricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long-range electric generating systems is presented. This effort is based upon the Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX) technology as developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project was executed by selecting economic and performance objectives for alternative plant arrangements while considering process constraints identified during IMHEX fuel cell development activities at ICT. The four major subsystems of a coal-based MCFC power plant are coal gasification, gas purification, fuel cell power generation and the bottoming cycle. The design and method of operation of each subsystem can be varied, and, depending upon design choices, can have major impact on both the design of other subsystems and the resulting cost of electricity. The challenge of this project was to select, from a range of design parameters, those operating conditions that result in a preferred plant design. Computer modelling was thus used to perform sensitivity analyses of as many system variables as program resources and schedules would permit. In any systems analysis, it is imperative that the evaluation methodology be verifiable and comparable. The TAG Class I develops comparable (if imprecise) data on performance and costs for the alternative cases being studied. It identifies, from a range of options, those which merit more exacting scrutiny to be undertaken at the second level, TAG class II analysis.

  8. Experimental research on short-term feeding of dust contaminated gas to a molten carbonate fuel cell cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernat, Rafał; Milewski, Jarosław; Wejrzanowski, Tomasz

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents initial research on processes present on the cathode side of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC), when the supplied gas is an aerosol containing solid particulate matter. The research is based on experiments conducted at the Institute of Heat Engineering of Warsaw University of Technology. The main task is to determine whether and to what extent solid particles disable or hinder the operation of a molten carbonate fuel cell. It is thought that they might change the penetrability of porous layers by clogging their void volumes. Under investigation are the sizes and amount of solid particles required to significantly affect the processes occurring on the triple phase. Experimental investigation was conducted that determined the change in operational parameters due to dust contamination. Surprisingly, there is no sudden drop in the electric parameters of the fuel cell subject to dust poisoning. Supposedly, the dust creates a porous, permeable to gases, structure on the electrode. The only varying parameter was the pressure difference between the inlet and the outlet to the cathode.

  9. Influence of the microporous layer on carbon corrosion in the catalyst layer of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spernjak, Dusan; Fairweather, Joseph; Mukundan, Rangachary; Rockward, Tommy; Borup, Rodney L.

    2012-09-01

    Corrosion of the catalyst support reduces PEM fuel cell performance via catalyst layer (CL) degradation (loss of porosity, catalyst connectivity, and active catalyst surface area). Carbon corrosion was investigated in a segmented cell for cathode gas diffusion layers (GDLs) with and without a microporous layer (MPL) to investigate the spatial aspects of GDL effect on corrosion. The cells were aged in situ using an accelerated stress test (AST) for carbon-support corrosion consisting of consecutive holds at 1.3 V. Carbon corrosion was quantified by measuring CO2 evolution during the AST. Performance degradation was substantial both with and without cathode MPL, but the degradation of the CL after prolonged corrosion was lower in the presence of an MPL. This was corroborated by better cell performance, higher remaining Pt active area, lower kinetic losses and smaller Pt particle size. The cell with an MPL showed increasingly nonuniform current distribution with corrosion time, which is correlated to the distribution of the Pt particle growth across the active area. This cell also showed an increase in mass-transport resistance due to MPL degradation. Without an MPL, GDL carbon fibers caused localized thinning in the cathode CL, originating from the combined effects of compression and corrosion.

  10. Activity of platinum/carbon and palladium/carbon catalysts promoted by Ni2 P in direct ethanol fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqiang; Feng, Ligang; Chang, Jinfa; Wickman, Björn; Grönbeck, Henrik; Liu, Changpeng; Xing, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Ethanol is an alternative fuel for direct alcohol fuel cells, in which the electrode materials are commonly based on Pt or Pd. Owing to the excellent promotion effect of Ni2 P that was found in methanol oxidation, we extended the catalyst system of Pt or Pd modified by Ni2 P in direct ethanol fuel cells. The Ni2 P-promoted catalysts were compared to commercial catalysts as well as to reference catalysts promoted with only Ni or only P. Among the studied catalysts, Pt/C and Pd/C modified by Ni2 P (30 wt %) showed both the highest activity and stability. Upon integration into the anode of a homemade direct ethanol fuel cell, the Pt-Ni2 P/C-30 % catalyst showed a maximum power density of 21 mW cm(-2) , which is approximately two times higher than that of a commercial Pt/C catalyst. The Pd-Ni2 P/C-30 % catalyst exhibited a maximum power density of 90 mW cm(-2) . This is approximately 1.5 times higher than that of a commercial Pd/C catalyst. The discharge stability on both two catalysts was also greatly improved over a 12 h discharge operation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. On-demand supply of slurry fuels to a porous anode of a direct carbon fuel cell: Attempts to increase fuel-anode contact and realize long-term operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengguo; Yi, Hakgyu; Lee, Donggeun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel idea that might allow resolution of the two biggest challenges that hinder practical use of direct carbon fuel cells (DCFC). This work involved 1) the use of three types of porous Ni anode with different pore sizes, 2) size matching between the anode pores and solid fuel particles in a molten-carbonate (MC) slurry, and 3) provision of a continuous supply of fuel-MC slurry through the porous Ni anode. As a result, larger numbers of smaller pores in the anode were preferred for extending the triple phase boundary (TPB), as long as the fuel particles were sufficiently small to have full access to the inner pore spaces of the anode. For example, the maximal power density achieved in the case of optimal size matching, reached 645 mW cm-2, which is 14-times greater than that for the case of poorest size-matching and 64-times larger than that for a non-porous anode, and lasted for more than 20 h. After 20 h of steady operation at a fixed current density (700 mA cm-2), the electric potential slightly decreased due to partial consumption of the fuel. The cell performance readily recovered after restarting the supply of MC-fuel slurry.

  12. Comparative degradation study of carbon supported proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrocatalysts - The influence of the platinum to carbon ratio on the degradation rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speder, Jozsef; Zana, Alessandro; Spanos, Ioannis; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J. K.; Mortensen, Kell; Hanzlik, Marianne; Arenz, Matthias

    2014-09-01

    A colloidal synthesis approach is used to prepare supported proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalysts with various Pt loadings - from low to extremely high ones. The catalyst samples are used to continue our investigation of the role of the Pt:C ratio in the degradation processes. The influence of the platinum loading on the electrochemical surface area (ECSA) loss is evaluated in a systematic electrochemical study by using two commercially available carbon blacks, namely Vulcan XC72R and Ketjenblack EC-300J. Accelerated degradation tests simulating load cycle and start-up/shutdown conditions are carried out in accordance with the Fuel Cell Commercialization Conference of Japan (FCCJ) recommendations. Under conditions simulating the load cycle of PEM fuel cells no unambiguous correlation between the ECSA loss and the Pt:C ratio is found. By contrast, under conditions simulating the repetitive start-up/shutdown processes of PEMFCs the ECSA loss first increases with increasing Pt loading. However, it decreases again for very high loadings. Furthermore, the Vulcan samples exhibited higher ECSA losses than the Ketjenblack samples, indicating the important role of the physical and chemical properties of pristine carbon supports in the carbon degradation mechanism.

  13. Intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell employing reformed effective biogas: Power generation and inhibition of carbon deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Michihiro; Iwami, Makoto; Goto, Kenta; Iwamoto, Kazuhito; Morimoto, Koki; Shiraishi, Makoto; Takatori, Kenji; Takeuchi, Mizue; Nishimoto, Shunsuke; Kameshima, Yoshikazu

    2017-02-01

    A power generation system consisting of an intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (IT-SOFC) and an external reformer for biogas is developed, and its performance is investigated for advanced use of effective biogas. The IT-SOFC is fueled with syngas produced via biogas reforming, and is successfully operated at 600 and 700 °C using Ni0.8Cu0.2 alloy/gadolinia-doped ceria electrolyte (Ni0.8Cu0.2/GDC) cermet anodes and a LaAlO3 supported-Ni (Ni/LaAlO3) catalyst. The Ni/LaAlO3 catalyst stably exhibits high reforming performance for effective biogas at 800 °C for 27 h, and carbon deposition on the catalyst is prevented. The electrochemical performance of the Ni0.8Cu0.2/GDC cermet anode using syngas fuel possessing a H2:CO ratio of approximately 3:1 is comparable to the performance achieved with H2 fuel; the anode remains stable after 24 h of operation at 700 °C without interruption and is unaffected by carbon deposition.

  14. Fast Degradation for High Activity: Oxygen- and Nitrogen-Functionalised Carbon Nanotubes in Solid-Acid Fuel-Cell Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Naumov, Olga; Naumov, Sergej; Flyunt, Roman; Abel, Bernd; Varga, Aron

    2016-12-08

    Similar to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, the widespread application of solid acid fuel cells (SAFCs) has been hindered partly by the necessity of the use of the precious-metal catalyst Pt in the electrodes. Here we investigate multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for their potential catalytic activity by using symmetric cell measurements of solid-acid-based electrochemical cells in a cathodic environment. For all measurements, the carbon nanotubes were Pt free and subject to either nitrogen or oxygen plasma treatment. AC impedance spectroscopy of the electrochemical cells, with and without a DC bias, was performed and showed significantly lower initial impedances for oxygen-plasma-treated MWCNTs compared to those treated with a nitrogen plasma. In symmetric cell measurements with a DC bias, the current declines quickly for oxygen-plasma-treated MWCNTs and more slowly, over 12 days, for nitrogen-plasma-treated MWCNTs. To elucidate the degradation mechanisms of the oxygen-plasma-treated MWCNTs under SAFC operating conditions, theoretical calculations were performed using DFT. The results indicate that several degradation mechanisms are likely to occur in parallel through the reduction of the surface oxygen groups that were introduced by the plasma treatment. This finally leads to an inert MWCNT surface and a very low electrode performance. Nitrogen-plasma-treated MWCNTs appear to have a higher stability and may be worthwhile for future investigations. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Microscale Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, Jamie D.; Viswanathan, Vish V.

    2005-11-03

    Perhaprs some of the most innovative work on fuel cells has been the research dedicated to applying silicon fabrication techniques to fuel cells technology creating low power microscale fuel cells applicable to microelectro mechanical systems (MEMS), microsensors, cell phones, PDA’s, and other low power (0.001 to 5 We) applications. In this small power range, fuel cells offer the decoupling of the energy converter from the energy storage which may enable longer operating times and instant or near instant charging. To date, most of the microscale fuel cells being developed have been based on proton exchange membrane fuel cell technology (PEMFC) or direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) technology. This section will discuss requirements and considerations that need to be addressed in the development of microscale fuel cells, as well as some proposed designs and fabrication strategies.

  16. Carbon foam anode modified by urea and its higher electrochemical performance in marine benthic microbial fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yubin; Lu, Zhikai; Zai, Xuerong; Wang, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Electrode materials have an important effect on the property of microbial fuel cell (MFC). Carbon foam is utilized as an anode and further modified by urea to improve its performance in marine benthic microbial fuel cell (BMFC) with higher voltage and output power. The electrochemical properties of plain carbon foam (PC) and urea-modified carbon foam (UC) are measured respectively. Results show that the UC obtains better wettability after its modification and higher anti-polarization ability than the PC. A novel phenomenon has been found that the electrical potential of the modified UC anode is nearly 100 mV lower than that of the PC, reaching -570 ±10 mV ( vs. SCE), and that it also has a much higher electron transfer kinetic activity, reaching 9399.4 mW m-2, which is 566.2-fold higher than that from plain graphite anode (PG). The fuel cell containing the UC anode has the maximum power density (256.0 mW m-2) among the three different BMFCs. Urea would enhance the bacteria biofilm formation with a more diverse microbial community and maintain more electrons, leading to a lower anodic redox potential and higher power output. The paper primarily analyzes why the electrical potential of the modified anode becomes much lower than that of others after urea modification. These results can be utilized to construct a novel BMFC with higher output power and to design the conditioner of voltage booster with a higher conversion ratio. Finally, the carbon foam with a bigger pore size would be a potential anodic material in conventional MFC.

  17. Operando fuel cell spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, Ian Michael

    The active state of a catalyst only exists during catalysis (1) provided the motivation for developing operando spectroscopic techniques. A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was designed to interface with commercially available instruments for acquisition of infrared spectra of the catalytic surface of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) during normal operation. This technique has provided insight of the complex processes occurring at the electrode surface. Nafion, the solid electrolyte used in most modern-day polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), serves many purposes in fuel cell operation. However, there is little known of the interface between Nafion and the electrode surface. Previous studies of complex Stark tuning curves of carbon monoxide on the surface of a platinum electrode were attributed the co-adsorption of bisulfite ions originating from the 0.5M H2SO4 electrolyte used in the study(2). Similar tuning curves obtained on a fuel cell MEA despite the absence of supplemental electrolytes suggest the adsorption of Nafion onto platinum (3). The correlation of spectra obtained using attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (ATR) and polarization modulated IR reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) to a theoretical spectrum generated using density functional theory (DFT) lead to development of a model of Nafion and platinum interaction which identified participation of the SO3- and CF3 groups in Nafion adsorption. The use of ethanol as a fuel stream in proton exchange membrane fuel cells provides a promising alternative to methanol. Relative to methanol, ethanol has a greater energy density, lower toxicity and can be made from the fermentation of biomass(4). Operando IR spectroscopy was used to study the oxidation pathway of ethanol and Stark tuning behavior of carbon monoxide on Pt, Ru, and PtRu electrodes. Potential dependent products such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid and carbon monoxide are identified as well as previously

  18. N- and S-doped mesoporous carbon as metal-free cathode catalysts for direct biorenewable alcohol fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Yang; Huo, Jiajie; Jia, Fan; Shanks, Brent. H.; Li, Wenzhen

    2015-11-06

    Nitrogen and sulfur were simultaneously doped into the framework of mesoporous CMK-3 as metal-free catalysts for direct biorenewable alcohol fuel cells. Glucose, NH3, and thiophene were used as carbon, nitrogen and sulfur precursors, respectively, to prepare mesoporous N-S-CMK-3 with uniform mesopores and extra macropores, resulting in good O2 diffusion both in half cell and alcohol fuel cell investigations. Among all investigated CMK-3 based catalysts, N-S-CMK-3 prepared at 800 °C exhibited the highest ORR activity with the onset potential of 0.92 V vs. RHE, Tafel slope of 68 mV dec-1, and 3.96 electron transfer number per oxygen molecule in 0.1 M KOH. In addition, the alkaline membrane-based direct alcohol fuel cell (DAFC) with N-S-CMK-3 cathode displayed 88.2 mW cm-2 peak power density without obvious O2 diffusion issue, reaching 84% initial performance of that with a Pt/C cathode. The high catalyst durability and fuel-crossover tolerance led to stable performance of the N-S-CMK-3 cathode DAFC with 90.6 mW cm-2 peak power density after 2 h operation, while the Pt/C cathode-based DAFC lost 36.9% of its peak power density. In conclusion, the high ORR activity of N-S-CMK-3 can be attributed to the synergistic effect between graphitic-N and S (C–S–C structure), suggesting great potential to use N-S-CMK-3 as an alternative to noble metal catalysts in the fuel cell cathode.

  19. N- and S-doped mesoporous carbon as metal-free cathode catalysts for direct biorenewable alcohol fuel cells

    DOE PAGES

    Qiu, Yang; Huo, Jiajie; Jia, Fan; ...

    2015-11-06

    Nitrogen and sulfur were simultaneously doped into the framework of mesoporous CMK-3 as metal-free catalysts for direct biorenewable alcohol fuel cells. Glucose, NH3, and thiophene were used as carbon, nitrogen and sulfur precursors, respectively, to prepare mesoporous N-S-CMK-3 with uniform mesopores and extra macropores, resulting in good O2 diffusion both in half cell and alcohol fuel cell investigations. Among all investigated CMK-3 based catalysts, N-S-CMK-3 prepared at 800 °C exhibited the highest ORR activity with the onset potential of 0.92 V vs. RHE, Tafel slope of 68 mV dec-1, and 3.96 electron transfer number per oxygen molecule in 0.1 Mmore » KOH. In addition, the alkaline membrane-based direct alcohol fuel cell (DAFC) with N-S-CMK-3 cathode displayed 88.2 mW cm-2 peak power density without obvious O2 diffusion issue, reaching 84% initial performance of that with a Pt/C cathode. The high catalyst durability and fuel-crossover tolerance led to stable performance of the N-S-CMK-3 cathode DAFC with 90.6 mW cm-2 peak power density after 2 h operation, while the Pt/C cathode-based DAFC lost 36.9% of its peak power density. In conclusion, the high ORR activity of N-S-CMK-3 can be attributed to the synergistic effect between graphitic-N and S (C–S–C structure), suggesting great potential to use N-S-CMK-3 as an alternative to noble metal catalysts in the fuel cell cathode.« less

  20. Synthesis of mesoporous carbon-silica-polyaniline and nitrogen-containing carbon-silica films and their corrosion behavior in simulated proton exchange membrane fuel cells environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; He, Jianping; Sun, Dun; Guo, Yunxia; Ma, Yiou; Hu, Yuan; Li, Guoxian; Xue, Hairong; Tang, Jing; Sun, Xin

    In this study, polyaniline is deposited onto mesoporous carbon-silica-coated 304 stainless steel using electropolymerization method. Variation of the electropolymerization time and applied potential can affect the growth of polyaniline, and lead to different structural and electrochemical properties of the films. Nitrogen-containing groups are successfully introduced onto the mesoporous carbon-silica film by pyrolyzing treatment under N 2 atmosphere and the electrical conductivity is improved observably compared with the carbon-silica film. The electrochemical properties of the mesoporous carbon-silica-polyaniline films and nitrogen-containing carbon-silica composite films are examined by using potentiodynamic polarization, potentiostatic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The corrosion tests in 0.5 M H 2SO 4 system display that the carbon-silica-polyaniline films show the optimal protective performance. However, according to potentiostatic polarization process, nitrogen-containing carbon-silica film with a water contact angle 95° is extremely stable and better for the protection of stainless steel in simulated fuel cell environment compared to carbon-silica-polyaniline film. Therefore, the nitrogen-containing carbon-silica-coated 304 stainless steel is a promising candidate for bipolar plate materials in PEMFCs.

  1. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  2. Improving the performance of microbial fuel cells by reducing the inherent resistivity of carbon fiber brush anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yang'en; Ma, Zhaokun; Song, Huaihe; Wang, Huiyao; Xu, Pei

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of carbon fibers as brush anode materials on the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Two types of carbon fibers with different electrical resistivity and functionality - polyacrylonitrile (PAN) (ρ: 28.0 μΩ m) and pitch (ρ: 2.05 μΩ m) were investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the PAN- and pitch-based carbon fibers presented almost the same surface elements and functional groups, and there was no significant difference in microbial growth on the brush anodes. Current interrupt and steady discharging methods demonstrated the pitch-based carbon brush anodes had lower ohmic resistance and generated higher power density. After nitric acid treatment, the power density generated by the PAN- and pitch-based anodes increased by 29.3% and 26.7%, achieving 816 and 895 mW m-2, respectively. Using pitch-based carbon fiber brush as anode attained better performance than the widely used PAN-based carbon brush. The acid treated pitch-based carbon fibers provide a promising alternative to highly efficient anode materials for the extensive application of MFCs.

  3. [Performance of microbial fuel cells with Fe/C catalyst carbon felt air-cathode for treating landfill leachate].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yu-Lan; Peng, Man; Yu, Yan; He, Ya-Ting; Fu, Jin-Xiang; Zhao, Yu-Hua

    2012-06-01

    Ferric nitrate/activated carbon powder catalyst was obtained through impregnation and Fe/C catalyst was adsorbed on carbon felt as air cathode electrodes. Effects of activated carbon powder dosage and ferric nitrate concentration on electricity generation of MFC with landfill leachate as fuel were measured. Performances of cathodes obtained at different ferric nitrate concentrations were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry tests. The results showed that with the increase of activated carbon powder dosage or the iron nitrate concentration, MFC produce electrical properties showed a decreasing trend after the first rise. When the activated carbon powder dosage was 1 g and the iron nitrate concentration was 0.25 mol x L(-1), it was proved to be an optimum cell performance for 4199.8 mW x m(-3) output power and 465 omega apparent resistance. Under the optimal ratio rang between ferric nitrate and activated carbon powder, MFC apparent resistance decreased and the power density increased respectively with the increase of catalyst total dosage. The best produce electrical properties of MFC with Fe/C catalyst for 0.25 mol x L(-1) iron nitrate and 1 g activated carbon powder dosage was observed by cyclic voltammetry tests. The output power of MFC and the removal quantity increased with the concentration of inlet and the maximum values were respectively 5478.92 mW x m(-3) and 1505.2 mg x L(-1). the maximum removal rates of COD achieved at 89.1%.

  4. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy analysis of N-containing carbon-based cathode catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, Hideharu; Kobayashi, Masaki; Horiba, Koji; Harada, Yoshihisa; Oshima, Masaharu; Terakura, Kiyoyuki; Ikeda, Takashi; Koshigoe, Yuka; Ozaki, Jun-ichi; Miyata, Seizo; Ueda, Shigenori; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kobayashi, Keisuke

    We report on the electronic structure of three different types of N-containing carbon-based cathode catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells observed by hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Prepared samples are derived from: (1) melamine and poly(furfuryl alcohol), (2) nitrogen-doped carbon black and (3) cobalt phthalocyanine and phenolic resin. C 1 s spectra show the importance of sp 2 carbon network formation for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity. N 1 s spectra of the carbon-based cathode catalysts are decomposed into four components identified as pyridine-like, pyrrole- or cyanide-like, graphite-like, and oxide nitrogen. Samples having high oxygen reduction reaction activity in terms of oxygen reduction potential contain high concentration of graphite-like nitrogen. O 1 s spectra are similar among carbon-based cathode catalysts of different oxygen reduction reaction activity. There is no correlation between the ORR activity and oxygen content. Based on a quantitative analysis of our results, the oxygen reduction reaction activity of the carbon-based cathode catalysts will be improved by increasing concentration of graphite-like nitrogen in a developed sp 2 carbon network.

  5. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell reversible performance loss induced by carbon monoxide produced during operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decoopman, B.; Vincent, R.; Rosini, S.; Paganelli, G.; Thivel, P.-X.

    2016-08-01

    Cyclic voltammetry measurements at the anode have been carried out and reveal the presence of carbon monoxide in steady-state operation, with pure hydrogen. Experiments have been performed both in single cell and in stack to find out its origin. The contamination of the anode catalyst is partly due the reverse-water gas shift (RWGS) with carbon dioxide from the cathode. However, this study shows a temperature-activated and time-related corrosion mechanism which appears under humidified hydrogen. Due to this degradation mechanism, a reversible 25 mV-loss of performances is observed and can be recovered by oxidizing carbon monoxide on the anode.

  6. Enhancement of proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance by doping microporous layers of gas diffusion layers with multiwall carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweiss, Rüdiger; Steeb, Marcus; Wilde, Peter M.; Schubert, Tim

    2012-12-01

    Microporous layers (MPLs) of gas diffusion layers (GDLs) were modified by multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using a wet-chemical approach. Carbon nanotubes were dispersed along with other MPL components and coated onto a GDL backing. The electronic resistance of the GDL was significantly reduced by the addition of MWCNTs. A larger mean pore diameter was obtained as compared to the reference substrates. The improved performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) using such CNT-doped GDLs is attributed to a lower electronic resistance along with improved mass transport. Synergy effects of different carbon materials with MWCNTs and advanced dispersion processes were found to play a key role in achieving the performance improvements.

  7. Fuel cells feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonfeld, D.; Charng, T.

    1981-01-01

    The technical and economic status of fuel cells is assessed with emphasis on their potential benefits to the Deep Space Network. The fuel cell, what it is, how it operates, and what its outputs are, is reviewed. Major technical problems of the fuel cell and its components are highlighted. Due to these problems and economic considerations it is concluded that fuel cells will not become commercially viable until the early 1990s.

  8. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Grimble, Ralph E.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  9. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Grimble, R.E.

    1988-03-08

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream 1 and spent fuel stream 2. Spent fuel stream 1 is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream 1 and exhaust stream 2, and exhaust stream 1 is vented. Exhaust stream 2 is mixed with spent fuel stream 2 to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells. 1 fig.

  10. Limitations of Commercializing Fuel Cell Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Normayati

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cell is the technology that, nowadays, is deemed having a great potential to be used in supplying energy. Basically, fuel cells can be categorized particularly by the kind of employed electrolyte. Several fuel cells types which are currently identified having huge potential to be utilized, namely, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC), Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC), Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC), Polymer Electron Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) and Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC). In general, each of these fuel cells types has their own characteristics and specifications which assign the capability and suitability of them to be utilized for any particular applications. Stationary power generations and transport applications are the two most significant applications currently aimed for the fuel cell market. It is generally accepted that there are lots of advantages if fuel cells can be excessively commercialized primarily in context of environmental concerns and energy security. Nevertheless, this is a demanding task to be accomplished, as there is some gap in fuel cells technology itself which needs a major enhancement. It can be concluded, from the previous study, cost, durability and performance are identified as the main limitations to be firstly overcome in enabling fuel cells technology become viable for the market.

  11. Carbon-Nanotube-Supported Bio-Inspired Nickel Catalyst and Its Integration in Hybrid Hydrogen/Air Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Solène; Lalaoui, Noémie; Dutta, Arnab; Nedellec, Yannig; Cosnier, Serge; Shaw, Wendy J; Artero, Vincent; Le Goff, Alan

    2017-02-06

    A biomimetic nickel bis-diphosphine complex incorporating the amino acid arginine in the outer coordination sphere was immobilized on modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) through electrostatic interactions. The functionalized redox nanomaterial exhibits reversible electrocatalytic activity for the H2 /2 H(+) interconversion from pH 0 to 9, with catalytic preference for H2 oxidation at all pH values. The high activity of the complex over a wide pH range allows us to integrate this bio-inspired nanomaterial either in an enzymatic fuel cell together with a multicopper oxidase at the cathode, or in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) using Pt/C at the cathode. The Ni-based PEMFC reaches 14 mW cm(-2) , only six-times-less as compared to full-Pt conventional PEMFC. The Pt-free enzyme-based fuel cell delivers ≈2 mW cm(-2) , a new efficiency record for a hydrogen biofuel cell with base metal catalysts. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Synthesizing 2D MoS2 Nanofins on carbon nanospheres as catalyst support for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yan; Chua, Daniel H. C.

    2016-06-01

    Highly dense 2D MoS2 fin-like nanostructures on carbon nanospheres were fabricated and formed the main catalyst support structure in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. These nanofins were observed growing perpendicular to the carbon nanosphere surface in random orientations and high resolution transmission electron microscope confirmed 2D layers. The PEM fuel cell test showed enhanced electrochemical activity with good stability, generating over 8.5 W.mgPt-1 as compared to standard carbon black of 7.4 W.mgPt-1 under normal operating conditions. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy confirmed that the performance improvement is highly due to the excellent water management of the MoS2 lamellar network, which facilitates water retention at low current density and flood prevention at high current density. Reliability test further demonstrated that these nanofins are highly stable in the electrochemical reaction and is an excellent ORR catalyst support.

  13. Synthesizing 2D MoS2 Nanofins on carbon nanospheres as catalyst support for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yan; Chua, Daniel H. C.

    2016-01-01

    Highly dense 2D MoS2 fin-like nanostructures on carbon nanospheres were fabricated and formed the main catalyst support structure in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. These nanofins were observed growing perpendicular to the carbon nanosphere surface in random orientations and high resolution transmission electron microscope confirmed 2D layers. The PEM fuel cell test showed enhanced electrochemical activity with good stability, generating over 8.5 W.mgPt−1 as compared to standard carbon black of 7.4 W.mgPt−1 under normal operating conditions. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy confirmed that the performance improvement is highly due to the excellent water management of the MoS2 lamellar network, which facilitates water retention at low current density and flood prevention at high current density. Reliability test further demonstrated that these nanofins are highly stable in the electrochemical reaction and is an excellent ORR catalyst support. PMID:27302135

  14. Fuel cell arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.

    1987-05-12

    A fuel cell arrangement is provided wherein cylindrical cells of the solid oxide electrolyte type are arranged in planar arrays where the cells within a plane are parallel. Planes of cells are stacked with cells of adjacent planes perpendicular to one another. Air is provided to the interior of the cells through feed tubes which pass through a preheat chamber. Fuel is provided to the fuel cells through a channel in the center of the cell stack; the fuel then passes the exterior of the cells and combines with the oxygen-depleted air in the preheat chamber.

  15. Fuel cell arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, A.O.

    1987-05-12

    A fuel cell arrangement is provided wherein cylindrical cells of the solid oxide electrolyte type are arranged in planar arrays where the cells within a plane are parallel. Planes of cells are stacked with cells of adjacent planes perpendicular to one another. Air is provided to the interior of the cells through feed tubes which pass through a preheat chamber. Fuel is provided to the fuel cells through a channel in the center of the cell stack; the fuel then passes the exterior of the cells and combines with the oxygen-depleted air in the preheat chamber. 3 figs.

  16. Effect of Pd loading in Pd-Pt bimetallic catalysts doped into hollow core mesoporous shell carbon on performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fıçıcılar, Berker; Bayrakçeken, Ayşe; Eroğlu, İnci

    A significantly active Pd-Pt/carbon electrocatalyst for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells was synthesized by microwave irradiation using a hollow core mesoporous shell (HCMS) carbon as catalyst support that was prepared by template replication of core/shell spherical silica particles and two different carbon precursors. Pt/Pd percent weight ratios on carbon support were varied as 20/0, 15/5, 10/10, 5/15 to 0/20. As the average pore diameter of the carbon support was increased from 3.02 nm to 3.90 nm by changing the type of the carbon precursor, fuel cell performances of the HCMS carbon based Pd-Pt bimetallic catalysts were improved significantly.

  17. Comment on 'Novel synthesis of highly durable and active Pt catalyst encapsulated in nitrogen containing carbon for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollet, Bruno G.

    2017-09-01

    I read with interest the manuscript entitled 'Novel synthesis of highly durable and active Pt catalyst encapsulated in nitrogen containing carbon for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell' by Lee et al. recently published in your journal [1] describing a one-step process for fabricating a Pt catalyst encapsulated with N-containing carbon by using ultrasound (20 kHz).

  18. Carbon nanotube supported PdAg nanoparticles for electrocatalytic oxidation of glycerol in anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    DOE PAGES

    Benipal, Neeva; Qi, Ji; Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian; ...

    2017-03-10

    Electro-oxidation of alcohol is the key reaction occurring at the anode of a direct alcohol fuel cell (DAFC), in which both reaction kinetics (rate) and selectivity (to deep oxidation products) need improvement to obtain higher power density and fuel utilization for a more efficient DAFC. We recently found that a PdAg bimetallic nanoparticle catalyst is more efficient than Pd for alcohol oxidation: Pd can facilitate deprotonation of alcohol in a base electrolyte, while Ag can promote intermediate aldehyde oxidation and cleavage of C-single bondC bond of C3 species to C2 species. Furthermore, a combination of the two active sites (Pdmore » and Ag) with two different functions, can simultaneously improve the reaction rates and deeper oxidation products of alcohols. In this continuing work, Pd, Ag mono, and bimetallic nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes (Ag/CNT, Pd/CNT, Pd1Ag1/CNT, and Pd1Ag3/CNT) were prepared using an aqueous-phase reduction method; they served as working catalysts for studying electrocatalytic oxidation of glycerol in an anion-exchange membrane-based direct glycerol fuel cell. Combined XRD, TEM, and HAADF-STEM analyses performed to fully characterize as-prepared catalysts suggested that they have small particle sizes: 2.0 nm for Pd/CNT, 2.3 nm for PdAg/CNT, 2.4 nm for PdAg3/CNT, and 13.9 nm for Ag/CNT. XPS further shows that alloying with Ag results in more metal state Pd presented on the surface, and this may be related to their higher direct glycerol fuel cell (DGFC) performances. Single DGFC performance and product analysis results show that PdAg bimetallic nanoparticles can not only improve the glycerol reaction rate so that higher power output can be achieved, but also facilitate deep oxidation of glycerol so that a higher faradaic efficiency and fuel utilization can be achieved along with optimal reaction conditions (increased base-to-fuel ratio). Half-cell electrocatalytic activity measurement and single fuel cell product analysis

  19. Microwave decoration of Pt nanoparticles on entangled 3D carbon nanotube architectures as PEM fuel cell cathode.

    PubMed

    Sherrell, Peter C; Zhang, Weimin; Zhao, Jie; Wallace, Gordon G; Chen, Jun; Minett, Andrew I

    2012-07-01

    Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are expected to provide a complementary power supply to fossil fuels in the near future. The current reliance of fuel cells on platinum catalysts is undesirable. However, even the best-performing non-noble metal catalysts are not as efficient. To drive commercial viability of fuel cells forward in the short term, increased utilization of Pt catalysts is paramount. We have demonstrated improved power and energy densities in a single PEMFC using a designed cathode with a Pt loading of 0.1 mg cm(-2) on a mesoporous conductive entangled carbon nanotube (CNT)-based architecture. This electrode allows for rapid transfer of both fuel and waste to and from the electrode, respectively. Pt particles are bound tightly, directly to CNT sidewalls by a microwave-reduction technique, which provided increased charge transport at this interface. The Pt entangled CNT cathode, in combination with an E-TEK 0.2 mg cm(-2) anode, has a maximum power and energy density of 940 mW cm(-2) and 2700 mA cm(-2), respectively, and a power and energy density of 4.01 W mg(Pt)(-1) and 6.35 A mg(Pt)(-1) at 0.65 V. These power densities correspond to a specific mass activity of 0.81 g Pt per kW for the combined mass of both anode and cathode electrodes, approaching the current US Department of Energy efficiency target. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The high utilization of fuel in direct borohydride fuel cells with a PdNix-B/carbon nanotubes-catalysed anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yaping; Li, Sai; Chen, Yuanzhen; Liu, Yongning

    2017-05-01

    Direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFCs) exhibit the potential for a wide range of applications due to their high energy and power density; however, the hydrolysis of BH4- significantly limits the use of DBFCs. In this paper, PdNix-B/carbon nanotubes (PdNix-B/CNTs) (x = 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9) composites have been prepared by a chemical reduction method in which PdNix-B nanoparticles of approximately 3.5 nm are grown on the surface of carbon nanotubes. A cell was assembled with PdNix-B/CNTs as the anode catalyst, a polymer fibre membrane (PFM) as a substitute for the Nafion membrane and LaNiO3 as the cathode catalyst. The results show that the Ni element displays an ability to balance the competition between the hydrolysis and oxidation of BH4-. A peak power density of 105 mW cm-2 (x = 0.9) was achieved at 25 °C. However, the highest fuel efficiency of 69% was achieved at x = 0.3, and the corresponding power density was 87 mW cm-2, which represents the best comprehensive performance of these DBFCs.

  1. Low-temperature plasma synthesis of carbon nanotubes and graphene based materials and their fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Xiangke; Chai, Zhifang; Hu, Wenping

    2013-12-07

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene, and materials based on these, are largely used in multidisciplinary fields. Many techniques have been put forward to synthesize them. Among all kinds of approaches, the low-temperature plasma approach is widely used due to its numerous advantages, such as highly distributed active species, reduced energy requirements, enhanced catalyst activation, shortened operation time and decreased environmental pollution. This tutorial review focuses on the recent development of plasma synthesis of CNTs and graphene based materials and their electrochemical application in fuel cells.

  2. Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules: scalable preparation and high-performance applications in fuel cells and lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuangang; Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Zhipan; Cao, Minhua; Qu, Liangti

    2013-03-01

    Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules (hN-CCs) have been successfully prepared by using inexpensive melamine and glyoxal as precursors via solvothermal reaction and carbonization. With a great promise for large scale production, the hN-CCs, having large surface area and high-level nitrogen content (N/C atomic ration of ca. 13%), possess superior crossover resistance, selective activity and catalytic stability towards oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells in alkaline medium. As a new anode material in lithium-ion battery, hN-CCs also exhibit excellent cycle performance and high rate capacity with a reversible capacity of as high as 1046 mA h g-1 at a current density of 50 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. These features make the hN-CCs developed in this study promising as suitable substitutes for the expensive noble metal catalysts in the next generation alkaline fuel cells, and as advanced electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries.Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules (hN-CCs) have been successfully prepared by using inexpensive melamine and glyoxal as precursors via solvothermal reaction and carbonization. With a great promise for large scale production, the hN-CCs, having large surface area and high-level nitrogen content (N/C atomic ration of ca. 13%), possess superior crossover resistance, selective activity and catalytic stability towards oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells in alkaline medium. As a new anode material in lithium-ion battery, hN-CCs also exhibit excellent cycle performance and high rate capacity with a reversible capacity of as high as 1046 mA h g-1 at a current density of 50 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. These features make the hN-CCs developed in this study promising as suitable substitutes for the expensive noble metal catalysts in the next generation alkaline fuel cells, and as advanced electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: More experimental details and characterization. See DOI: 10

  3. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test. Annual report, October 1992--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Advanced fuel cell active components have been developed and scaled up from laboratory scale to commercial scale. Full width components of both the stabilized nickel cathodes and the low chrome anodes have been successfully cast on M-C Power`s production tape caster. An improved design for a fuel cell separator plate has been developed. The improved design meets the goals of lower cost and manufacturing simplicity, and addresses performance issues of the current commercial area plate. The engineering that the Bechtel Corporation has completed for the MCFC power plant includes a site design, a preliminary site layout, a Process Flow Diagram, and specification for the procurement of some of the major equipment items. Raw materials for anode and cathode components were ordered and received during the first half of 1993. Tape casting of anodes was started in late summer and continued through August. In addition to the technical progress mentioned above, an environment assessment was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). As a result, the PDT has received a categorical exclusion from the Air Pollution Control District permit requirements. The PDT is configured to demonstrate the viability of natural gas-fueled MCFC for the production of electricity and thermal energy in an environmentally benign manner for use in commercial and industrial applications.

  4. Microbial Fuel Cell-driven caustic potash production from wastewater for carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Gajda, Iwona; Greenman, John; Melhuish, Chris; Santoro, Carlo; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2016-09-01

    This work reports on the novel formation of caustic potash (KOH) directly on the MFC cathode locking carbon dioxide into potassium bicarbonate salt (kalicinite) while producing, instead of consuming electrical power. Using potassium-rich wastewater as a fuel for microorganisms to generate electricity in the anode chamber, has resulted in the formation of caustic catholyte directly on the surface of the cathode electrode. Analysis of this liquid has shown to be highly alkaline (pH>13) and act as a CO2 sorbent. It has been later mineralised to kalicinite thus locking carbon dioxide into potassium bicarbonate salt. This work demonstrates an electricity generation method as a simple, cost-effective and environmentally friendly route towards CO2 sequestration that perhaps leads to a carbon negative economy. Moreover, it shows a potential application for both electricity production and nutrient recovery in the form of minerals from nutrient-rich wastewater streams such as urine for use as fertiliser in the future. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Fuel cells and fuel cell catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I.; Rice, Cynthia A.; Waszczuk, Piotr; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2006-11-07

    A direct organic fuel cell includes a formic acid fuel solution having between about 10% and about 95% formic acid. The formic acid is oxidized at an anode. The anode may include a Pt/Pd catalyst that promotes the direct oxidation of the formic acid via a direct reaction path that does not include formation of a CO intermediate.

  6. Fuel Cell Handbook update

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, W.R.; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Engleman, R.R. Jr.; Stauffer, D.B.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of this work was to update the 1988 version of DOE`s Fuel Cell Handbook. Significant developments in the various fuel cell technologies required revisions to reflect state-of-the-art configurations and performance. The theoretical presentation was refined in order to make the handbook more useful to both the casual reader and fuel cell or systems analyst. In order to further emphasize the practical application of fuel cell technologies, the system integration information was expanded. In addition, practical elements, such as suggestions and guidelines to approximate fuel cell performance, were provided.

  7. Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell performance using alkali-impregnated polyvinyl alcohol/functionalized carbon nano-tube solid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chien-Yi; Lin, Jia-Shiun; Pan, Wen-Han; Shih, Chao-Ming; Liu, Ying-Ling; Lue, Shingjiang Jessie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the application of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/functionalized carbon nano-tubes (m-CNTs) composite in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (ADEFC). The m-CNTs are functionalized with PVA using the ozone mediation method, and the PVA composite containing the modified CNTs is prepared. Adding m-CNT into the PVA matrix enhances the alkaline uptake and the ionic conductivity of the KOH-doped electrolyte. Meanwhile, the m-CNT-containing membrane exhibited a lower swelling ratio and suppressed ethanol permeability compared to the pristine PVA film. The optimal condition for the ADEFC is determined to be under operation at an anode feed of 3 M ethanol in a 5 M KOH solution (at a flow rate of 5 cm3 min-1) with a cathode feed of moisturized oxygen (with a flow rate of 100 cm3 min-1) and the KOH-doped PVA/m-CNT electrolyte. We achieved a peak power density value of 65 mW cm-2 at 60 °C, which is the highest among the ADEFC literature data and several times higher than the proton-exchange direct ethanol fuel cells using sulfonated membrane electrolytes. Therefore, the KOH-doped PVA/m-CNT electrolyte is a suitable solid electrolyte for ADEFCs and has potential for commercialization in alkaline fuel cell applications.

  8. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant technology. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, January 1-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, H. C.; Sanderson, R. A.; Wertheim, F. J.; Farris, P. F.; Mientek, A. P.; Maricle, D. L.; Briggs, T. A.; Preston, Jr., J. L.; Louis, G. A.; Abrams, M. L.; Bushnell, C. L.; Nickols, R. C.; Gelting, R. L.; Katz, M.; Stewart, R. C.; Kunz, H. R.; Gruver, G. A.; Bregoli, L. J.; Steuernagel, W. H.; Smith, R.; Smith, S. W.; Szymanski, S. T.

    1980-08-01

    The overall objective of this 29-month program is to develop and verify the design of a prototype molten carbonate fuel cell stack which meets the requirements of 1990's competitive coal-fired electrical utility central station or industrial cogeneration power plants. During this quarter, effort was continued in all four major task areas: Task 1 - system studies to define the reference power plant design; Task 2 - cell and stack design, development and verification; Task 3 - preparation for fabrication and testing of the full-scale prototype stack; and Task 4 - developing the capability for operation of stacks on coal-derived gas. In the system study activity of Task 1, preliminary module and cell stack design requirements were completed. Fuel processor characterization has been completed by Bechtel National, Inc. Work under Task 2 defined design approaches for full-scale stack busbars and electrical isolation of reactant manifolds and reactant piping. Preliminary design requirements were completed for the anode. Conductive nickel oxide for cathode fabrication has been made by oxidation and lithiation of porous nickel sheet stock. A method of mechanizing the tape casting process for increased production rates was successfully demonstrated under Task 3. In Task 4, theoretical calculations indicated that hydrogen cyanide and ammonia, when present as impurities in the stack fuel gas, will have no harmful effects. Laboratory experiments using higher than anticipated levels of ethylene showed no harmful effects. Components for the mobile test facility are being ordered.

  9. Carbonate species as OH- carriers for decreasing the pH gradient between cathode and anode in biological fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Torres, César I; Lee, Hyung-Sool; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2008-12-01

    Anodes of biological fuel cells (BFCs) normally must operate at a near-neutral pH in the presence of various ionic species required for the function of the biological catalyst (e.g., substrate, nutrients, and buffers). These ionic species are in higher concentration than protons (H+) and hydroxides (OH-); slow transport of H+ and OH- equivalents between anode and cathode compartments can lead to a large pH gradient that can inhibit the function of biological components, decrease voltage efficiency in BFCs, or both. We evaluate the use of carbonate species as OH- carriers from the cathode to the anode compartment. This is achieved by adding CO2 to the influent air in the cathode. CO2 is an acid that combines with OH- in the cathode to produce bicarbonate and carbonate. These species can migrate to the anode compartment as OH- carriers at a rate much greater than can OH- itself when the pH is not extremely high in the cathode compartment We demonstrate this concept by feeding different air/CO2 mixtures to the cathode of a dual-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) fed with acetate as substrate. Our results show a 45% increase in power density (from 1.9 to 2.8 W/m2) by feeding air augmented with 2-10% CO2. The cell voltage increased by as much as 120 mV, indicating that the pH gradient decreased by as much as 2 pH units. Analysis of the anode effluent showed an average increase of 4.9 mM in total carbonate, indicating that mostly carbonate was transferred from the cathode compartment This process provides a simple way to minimize potential losses in BFCs due to pH gradients between anode and cathode compartments.

  10. Fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.

    1983-01-01

    High temperature solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell generators which allow controlled leakage among plural chambers in a sealed housing. Depleted oxidant and fuel are directly reacted in one chamber to combust remaining fuel and preheat incoming reactants. The cells are preferably electrically arranged in a series-parallel configuration.

  11. Mesostructured platinum-free anode and carbon-free cathode catalysts for durable proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiangzhi; Shi, Jianlin; Wang, Yongxia; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Lingxia; Hua, Zile

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most important clean energy sources, proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have been a topic of extensive research focus for decades. Unfortunately, several critical technique obstacles, such as the high cost of platinum electrode catalysts, performance degradation due to the CO poisoning of the platinum anode, and carbon corrosion by oxygen in the cathode, have greatly impeded its commercial development. A prototype of a single PEMFC catalyzed by a mesostructured platinum-free WO3/C anode and a mesostructured carbon-free Pt/WC cathode catalysts is reported herein. The prototype cell exhibited 93% power output of a standard PEMFC using commercial Pt/C catalysts at 50 and 70 °C, and more importantly, CO poisoning-free and carbon corrosion-resistant characters of the anode and cathode, respectively. Consequently, the prototype cell demonstrated considerably enhanced cell operation durability. The mesostructured electrode catalysts are therefore highly promising in the future development and application of PEMFCs. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test at SDG&E

    SciTech Connect

    Scroppo, J.A.; Laurens, R.M.; Petraglia, V.J.

    1995-12-31

    Design goals of a fuel cell power plant are described. The PDT design objectives will include improved performance at reduced cost compared with the UNOCAL demonstration project. Several specific objectives that differentiate the San Diego Gas & Electric PDT project from the UNOCAL demonstration are the following: packaging designs are more compact in the PDT program; it will also have longer unattended operation and increased reliability. Additionally, the experience gained during the design, construction and start-up of the UNOCAL power plant will be incorporated into the SDG&E design. This power plant is. being designed for compatibility with the SDG&E electrical distribution grid.

  13. Preparation of a self-assembled organosilane coating on carbon black as a catalyst support in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Woong Hee; Seo, Jungmok; Lee, Taeyoon; Kim, Hansung

    2015-01-01

    A novel method is developed to increase the resistance to electrochemical carbon corrosion using a self-assembled organosilane coating of dodecyltrichlorosilane (DTS) on carbon black (CB). This process successfully creates a hydrophobic coating on the hydrophilic surface of carbon black without poisoning Pt nanoparticles. The hydrophobic DTS coating improves the performance of CB in fuel cells by enhancing the mass transfer rate. Following carbon corrosion tests, on-line mass spectrometry shows that this DTS coating improves the electrochemical carbon corrosion resistance of CB by increasing the contact resistance of water, which is necessary for electrochemical carbon corrosion. Thus, this DTS coating is a very effective means to improve the performance and durability of fuel cells.

  14. Electrochemical surface modification of carbon mesh anode to improve the performance of air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jianmei; Chi, Meiling; Wang, Hongyu; He, Huanhuan; Zhou, Minghua

    2013-12-01

    A convenient and promising alternative to surface modification of carbon mesh anode was fulfilled by electrochemical oxidation in the electrolyte of nitric acid or ammonium nitrate at ambient temperature. It was confirmed that such an anode modification method was low cost and effective not only in improving the efficiency of power generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for synthetic wastewater treatment, but also helping to reduce the period for MFCs start-up. The MFCs with anode modification in electrolyte of nitric acid performed the best, achieving a Coulombic efficiency enhancement of 71 %. As characterized, the electrochemical modification resulted in the decrease of the anode potential and internal resistance but the increase of current response and nitrogen-containing and oxygen-containing functional groups on the carbon surface, which might contribute to the enhancement on the performances of MFCs.

  15. Preparation of Arc Black and Carbon Nano Balloon by Arc Discharge and Their Application to a Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Kaida, Shota; Satou, Tosiyuki; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Tanoue, Hideto; Oke, Shinichiro; Ue, Hitoshi; Okawa, Takashi; Aoyagi, Nobuhiro; Shimizu, Kazuki

    2011-01-01

    Arc black (AcB) was prepared in N2 gas using the twin-torch arc discharge apparatus, and a hollow capsule with graphite layers named a carbon nano balloon (CNB) was obtained by heat treatment of the AcB in Ar gas at 2400 °C. Transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and compressive resistivity measurement confirmed that the CNB was well graphitized. In the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) application of these carbon nanomaterials, catalyst metal nanoparticles were supported on the AcB, and a membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) was formed from the catalyst-supported AcB and the CNB by hotpressing them on an electrolyte film. The MEA containing the CNB resulted in a higher DMFC performance than that without the CNB, indicating that the CNB with lower compressive resistivity than the AcB works as a material for the improvement of electric conductivity in an MEA.

  16. Feasibility study of surface-modified carbon cloth electrodes using atmospheric pressure plasma jets for microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shih-Hang; Liou, Jyun-Sian; Liu, Jung-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Fan; Xu, Chang-Han; Chen, Bor-Yann; Chen, Jian-Zhang

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the surface and electrochemical properties of carbon cloth electrodes surface-modified by using atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) for applications involving microbial fuel cells (MFCs). APPJ treatment made the carbon cloth highly hydrophilic and did not introduce any observable cracks or flaws. MFCs configured with APPJ-treated carbon cloth electrodes exhibited electrochemical performance (maximum power density of 7.56 mW m-2) superior to that of MFCs configured with untreated carbon cloth electrodes (maximum power density of 2.38 mW m-2). This boost in performance can be attributed to the formation of abundant carboxyl and ammonium functional groups on the surface of APPJ-treated carbon cloth, which promoted the formation of anodic biofilms and the adhesion of bacteria, while facilitating the transfer of electrons from the bacteria to the electrodes. APPJ surface modification is non-toxic and environmentally friendly (no exogenous chemicals are required), which is particularly beneficial as the introduction of toxins might otherwise inhibit bacterial growth and metabolism. The APPJ surface modification process is rapid, cost-effective, and applicable to substrates covering a large area, making it ideal for the fabrication of large-scale MFCs and bioelectrochemical bioenergy devices.

  17. In-line deoxygenation for organic carbon detections in seawater using a marine microbial fuel cell-biosensor.

    PubMed

    Quek, Soon Bee; Cheng, Liang; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) is a key predictor for membrane biofouling in seawater desalination reverse osmosis (SWRO). Microbial fuel cells have been considered as biosensors for the detection of biodegradable organics. However, the presence of dissolved oxygen (DO) is known to completely suppress the signal production (i.e., current) of a typical MFC. This study describes AOC detection in normal oxygenated seawater by coupling an electrochemical cell for DO removal with a MFC-biosensor for AOC detection. The electrochemical deoxygenation for oxygen removal caused no interference in the AOC detection. A linear relationship (R(2)=0.991) between the AOC concentration and current production from the MFC biosensor was achieved. The coupling of an electrochemical cell with a MFC-biosensor can be effectively used as an online, rapid and inexpensive measure of AOC concentrations and hence as an indicator for biofouling potential of seawater.

  18. Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules: scalable preparation and high-performance applications in fuel cells and lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chuangang; Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Zhipan; Cao, Minhua; Qu, Liangti

    2013-04-07

    Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules (hN-CCs) have been successfully prepared by using inexpensive melamine and glyoxal as precursors via solvothermal reaction and carbonization. With a great promise for large scale production, the hN-CCs, having large surface area and high-level nitrogen content (N/C atomic ration of ca. 13%), possess superior crossover resistance, selective activity and catalytic stability towards oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells in alkaline medium. As a new anode material in lithium-ion battery, hN-CCs also exhibit excellent cycle performance and high rate capacity with a reversible capacity of as high as 1046 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 50 mA g(-1) after 50 cycles. These features make the hN-CCs developed in this study promising as suitable substitutes for the expensive noble metal catalysts in the next generation alkaline fuel cells, and as advanced electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Preliminary model and validation of molten carbonate fuel cell kinetics under sulphur poisoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audasso, E.; Nam, S.; Arato, E.; Bosio, B.

    2017-06-01

    MCFC represents an effective technology to deal with CO2 capture and relative applications. If used for these purposes, due to the working conditions and the possible feeding, MCFC must cope with a different number of poisoning gases such as sulphur compounds. In literature, different works deal with the development of kinetic models to describe MCFC performance to help both industrial applications and laboratory simulations. However, in literature attempts to realize a proper model able to consider the effects of poisoning compounds are scarce. The first aim of the present work is to provide a semi-empirical kinetic formulation capable to take into account the effects that sulphur compounds (in particular SO2) have on the MCFC performance. The second aim is to provide a practical example of how to effectively include the poisoning effects in kinetic models to simulate fuel cells performances. To test the reliability of the proposed approach, the obtained formulation is implemented in the kinetic core of the SIMFC (SIMulation of Fuel Cells) code, an MCFC 3D model realized by the Process Engineering Research Team (PERT) of the University of Genova. Validation is performed through data collected at the Korea Institute of Science and Technology in Seoul.

  20. Effects of carbon supports on Pt distribution, ionomer coverage and cathode performance for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young-Chul; Tokiwa, Haruki; Kakinuma, Katsuyoshi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Uchida, Makoto

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the effects of the carbon supports on the Pt distribution, ionomer coverage and cathode performance of carbon-supported Pt catalysts, by using STEM observation, N2 adsorption analysis and electrochemical characterization. According to the STEM observation, the effective Pt surface area (S(e)Pt), which is determined by the location and size of the Pt particles on the supports, increases in the following order: c-Pt/CB < c-Pt/GCB < n-Pt/AB800 < n-Pt/AB250. The N2 adsorption analyses show that the Pt particles observed in the interior of the CB and AB800-supported Pt catalysts during the STEM observation could be ascribed to the hollow structures inside the carbon supports, which decrease their effective Pt surface areas. The S(e)Pt values are in good agreement with the cell performance in the high current density region. In spite of the highest Pt utilization (UPt) value (>90%) and uniform ionomer coverage, the c-Pt/CB catalyst shows the lowest cell performance due to the lower S(e)Pt value. On the other hand, the n-Pt/AB250 catalyst, for which all of the Pt particles exist only on the exterior surface, is found to be the most attractive in order to generate the large current densities required by actual fuel cell operation.

  1. Carbon corrosion of proton exchange membrane fuel cell catalyst layers studied by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitchcock, Adam P.; Berejnov, Viatcheslav; Lee, Vincent; West, Marcia; Colbow, Vesna; Dutta, Monica; Wessel, Silvia

    2014-11-01

    Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) at the C 1s, F 1s and S 2p edges has been used to investigate degradation of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM-FC) membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) subjected to accelerated testing protocols. Quantitative chemical maps of the catalyst, carbon support and ionomer in the cathode layer are reported for beginning-of-test (BOT), and end-of-test (EOT) samples for two types of carbon support, low surface area carbon (LSAC) and medium surface area carbon (MSAC), that were exposed to accelerated stress testing with upper potentials (UPL) of 1.0, 1.2, and 1.3 V. The results are compared in order to characterize catalyst layer degradation in terms of the amounts and spatial distributions of these species. Pt agglomeration, Pt migration and corrosion of the carbon support are all visualized, and contribute to differing degrees in these samples. It is found that there is formation of a distinct Pt-in-membrane (PTIM) band for all EOT samples. The cathode thickness shrinks due to loss of the carbon support for all MSAC samples that were exposed to the different upper potentials, but only for the most aggressive testing protocol for the LSAC support. The amount of ionomer per unit volume significantly increases indicating it is being concentrated in the cathode as the carbon corrosion takes place. S 2p spectra and mapping of the cathode catalyst layer indicates there are still sulfonate groups present, even in the most damaged material.

  2. Vertically aligned carbon-coated titanium dioxide nanorod arrays on carbon paper with low platinum for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shangfeng; Yi, Baolian; Zhang, Changkun; Liu, Sa; Yu, Hongmei; Shao, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    Carbon-coated titanium dioxide (TiO2-C) has received much attention as a catalyst support in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. In this study, TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRs) are hydrothermally grown on carbon paper and converted into TiO2-C NRs by heat treatment at 900 °C under methane atmosphere. Then, platinum nanoparticles are sputtered onto the TiO2 NRs by physical vapor deposition to produce Pt-TiO2-C. The as-prepared Pt-TiO2-C exhibits high stability during accelerated durability tests. As compared with the commercial gas diffusion electrode (GDE, 34.4% decrease), a minor reduction in the electrochemically active surface area of the Pt-TiO2-C electrode after 1500 cycles (10.6% decrease) is observed. When the as-prepared electrode with ultra-low platinum content (Pt loading: 28.67 μg cm-2) is employed as the cathode of a single cell, the electrode generates power that is 4.84 × that of the commercial GDE (Pt loading: 400 μg cm-2). An electrode that generates power of 11.9 kW gPt-1 (as the cathode) is proposed. The fabricated Pt-TiO2-C electrode can be used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  3. Fuel cell technology: A sweeter fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Kevin

    2002-12-01

    Eating sugar gives us a boost when we feel tired because our cells use it as fuel to produce energy. Likewise, sugar can now be used to produce power in artificial biological fuel cells that function in a physiological environment.

  4. An electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells electrocatalyst single wall carbon nanohorns-supported.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Lúcia; Boaventura, Marta; Passeira, Carolina; Gattia, Daniele Mirabile; Marazzi, Renzo; Antisari, Marco Vittori; Mendes, Adélio

    2011-10-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to study the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) performance when using single wall carbon nanohorns (SWNH) to support Pt nanoparticles. Additionally, as-prepared and oxidized SWNH Pt-supports were compared with conventional carbon black. Two different oxidizing treatments were considered: oxygen flow at 500 degrees C and reflux in an acid solution at 85 degrees C. Both oxidizing treatments increased SWNH surface area; oxygen treatment increased surface area 4 times while acid treatment increased 2.6 times. The increase in surface area should be related to the opening access to the inner tube of SWNH. Acid treatment of SWNH increased chemical fragility and decreased electrocatalyst load in comparison with as-prepared SWNH. On the other hand, the oxygen treated SWNH sample allowed to obtain the highest electrocatalyst load. The use of as-prepared and oxygen treated SWNH showed in both cases catalytic activities 60% higher than using conventional carbon black as electrocatalyst support in PEMFC. Moreover, EIS analysis indicated that the major improvement in performance is related to the cathode kinetics in the as-prepared SWNH sample, while concerning the oxidized SWNH sample, the improvements are related to the electrokinetics in both anode and cathode electrodes. These improvements should be related with differences in the hydrophobic character between SWNH and carbon black.

  5. Enhancing substrate utilization and power production of a microbial fuel cell with nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel as cathode catalyst.

    PubMed

    Tardy, Gábor Márk; Lóránt, Bálint; Lóka, Máté; Nagy, Balázs; László, Krisztina

    2017-07-01

    Catalytic efficiency of a nitrogen-doped, mesoporous carbon aerogel cathode catalyst was investigated in a two-chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC) applying graphite felt as base material for cathode and anode, utilizing peptone as carbon source. This mesoporous carbon aerogel containing catalyst layer on the cathode increased the maximum power density normalized to the anode volume to 2.7 times higher compared to the maximum power density obtained applying graphite felt cathode without the catalyst layer. At high (2 and 3) cathode/anode volume ratios, maximum power density exceeded 40 W m(-3). At the same time, current density and specific substrate utilization rate increased by 58% resulting in 31.9 A m(-3) and 18.8 g COD m(-3) h(-1), respectively (normalized to anode volume). Besides the increase of the power and the rate of biodegradation, the investigated catalyst decreased the internal resistance from the range of 450-600 to 350-370 Ω. Although Pt/C catalyst proved to be more efficient, a considerable decrease in the material costs might be achieved by substituting it with nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel in MFCs. Such cathode still displays enhanced catalytic effect.

  6. Metal-Free Carbon-Based Materials: Promising Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Microbial Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Sandesh Y.; Han, Thi Hiep; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising green approach for wastewater treatment with the simultaneous advantage of energy production. Among the various limiting factors, the cathodic limitation, with respect to performance and cost, is one of the main obstacles to the practical applications of MFCs. Despite the high performance of platinum and other metal-based cathodes, their practical use is limited by their high cost, low stability, and environmental toxicity. Oxygen is the most favorable electron acceptor in the case of MFCs, which reduces to water through a complicated oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Carbon-based ORR catalysts possessing high surface area and good electrical conductivity improve the ORR kinetics by lowering the cathodic overpotential. Recently, a range of carbon-based materials have attracted attention for their exceptional ORR catalytic activity and high stability. Doping the carbon texture with a heteroatom improved their ORR activity remarkably through the favorable adsorption of oxygen and weaker molecular bonding. This review provides better insight into ORR catalysis for MFCs and the properties, performance, and applicability of various metal-free carbon-based electrocatalysts in MFCs to find the most appropriate cathodic catalyst for the practical applications. The approaches for improvement, key challenges, and future opportunities in this field are also explored. PMID:28029116

  7. Metal-Free Carbon-Based Materials: Promising Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Microbial Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Sandesh Y; Han, Thi Hiep; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2016-12-24

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising green approach for wastewater treatment with the simultaneous advantage of energy production. Among the various limiting factors, the cathodic limitation, with respect to performance and cost, is one of the main obstacles to the practical applications of MFCs. Despite the high performance of platinum and other metal-based cathodes, their practical use is limited by their high cost, low stability, and environmental toxicity. Oxygen is the most favorable electron acceptor in the case of MFCs, which reduces to water through a complicated oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Carbon-based ORR catalysts possessing high surface area and good electrical conductivity improve the ORR kinetics by lowering the cathodic overpotential. Recently, a range of carbon-based materials have attracted attention for their exceptional ORR catalytic activity and high stability. Doping the carbon texture with a heteroatom improved their ORR activity remarkably through the favorable adsorption of oxygen and weaker molecular bonding. This review provides better insight into ORR catalysis for MFCs and the properties, performance, and applicability of various metal-free carbon-based electrocatalysts in MFCs to find the most appropriate cathodic catalyst for the practical applications. The approaches for improvement, key challenges, and future opportunities in this field are also explored.

  8. Nanostructured Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-26

    tailorable surface properties. Recently, OMC as support for metal nanocatalysts for electrode materials in low-temperature fuel cells has been attracting much...b), the Pt nanocatalysts were well-dispersed inside the vertical channel network assembled by carbon rods of TFC support. Fig. 2. TEM images of

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF THE CATHODE LONG-TERM STABILITY IN MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Hector Colonmer; Prabhu Ganesan; Nalini Subramanian; Dr. Bala Haran; Dr. Ralph E. White; Dr. Branko N. Popov

    2002-09-01

    This project focused on addressing the two main problems associated with state of art Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, namely loss of cathode active material and stainless steel current collector deterioration due to corrosion. We followed a dual approach where in the first case we developed novel materials to replace the cathode and current collector currently used in molten carbonate fuel cells. In the second case we improved the performance of conventional cathode and current collectors through surface modification. States of art NiO cathode in MCFC undergo dissolution in the cathode melt thereby limiting the lifetime of the cell. To prevent this we deposited cobalt using an electroless deposition process. We also coated perovskite (La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}CoO{sub 3}) in NiO thorough a sol-gel process. The electrochemical oxidation behavior of Co and perovskites coated electrodes is similar to that of the bare NiO cathode. Co and perovskite coatings on the surface decrease the dissolution of Ni into the melt and thereby stabilize the cathode. Both, cobalt and provskites coated nickel oxide, show a higher polarization compared to that of nickel oxide, which could be due to the reduced surface area. Cobalt substituted lithium nickel oxide (LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2}) and lithium cobalt oxide were also studied. LiNi{sub x}Co{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} was synthesized by solid-state reaction procedure using lithium nitrate, nickel hydroxide and cobalt oxalate precursor. LiNi{sub x}Co{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} showed smaller dissolution of nickel than state of art nickel oxide cathode. The performance was comparable to that of nickel oxide. The corrosion of the current collector in the cathode side was also studied. The corrosion characteristics of both SS304 and SS304 coated with Co-Ni alloy were studied. This study confirms that surface modification of SS304 leads to the formation of complex scales with better barrier properties and better electronic conductivity at 650 C. A three

  10. Nickel-based anode with water storage capability to mitigate carbon deposition for direct ethanol solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Su, Chao; Ran, Ran; Zhao, Bote; Shao, Zongping; Tade, Moses O; Liu, Shaomin

    2014-06-01

    The potential to use ethanol as a fuel places solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) as a sustainable technology for clean energy delivery because of the renewable features of ethanol versus hydrogen. In this work, we developed a new class of anode catalyst exemplified by Ni+BaZr0.4Ce0.4Y0.2O3 (Ni+BZCY) with a water storage capability to overcome the persistent problem of carbon deposition. Ni+BZCY performed very well in catalytic efficiency, water storage capability and coking resistance tests. A stable and high power output was well maintained with a peak power density of 750 mW cm(-2) at 750 °C. The SOFC with the new robust anode performed for seven days without any sign of performance decay, whereas SOFCs with conventional anodes failed in less than 2 h because of significant carbon deposition. Our findings indicate the potential applications of these water storage cermets as catalysts in hydrocarbon reforming and as anodes for SOFCs that operate directly on hydrocarbons.

  11. Evaluation of gasification and gas-cleanup processes for use in molten-carbonate fuel-cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Vidt, E.J.; Jablonski, G.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1981-12-01

    This interim report satisfies the Task B requirement to define process configurations for systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants. The configurations studied include entrained, fluidized-bed, gravitating-bed, and molten salt gasifiers, both air and oxygen blown. Desulfurization systems utilizing wet scrubbing processes, such as Selexol and Rectisol II, and dry sorbents, such as iron oxide and dolomite, were chosen for evaluation. Cleanup systems not chosen by DOE's MCFC contractors, General Electric and United Technologies, Inc., for their MCFC power plant work by virtue of the resource requirements of those systems for commercial development were chosen for detailed study in Tasks C and D of this contract. Such systems include Westinghouse fluidized-bed gasification, air and oxygen blown, Rockwell molten carbonate air-blown gasification, METC iron oxide desulfurization, and dolomitic desulfurization. In addition, for comparison, gasification systems such as the Texaco entrained and the British Gas/Lurgi slagging units, along with wet scrubbing by Rectisol II, have also been chosen for detailed study.

  12. Tailoring hierarchically porous graphene architecture by carbon nanotube to accelerate extracellular electron transfer of anodic biofilm in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Long; Qiao, Yan; Wu, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Chang Ming

    2016-10-01

    To overcoming their respective shortcomings of graphene and carbon nanotube, a hierarchically porous multi-walled carbon nanotube@reduced graphene oxide (MWCNT@rGO) hybrid is fabricated through a versatile and scalable solvent method, in which the architecture is tailored by inserting MWCNTs as scaffolds into the rGO skeleton. An appropriate amount of inserted 1-D MWCNTs not only effectively prevent the aggregation of rGO sheets but also act as bridges to increase multidirectional connections between 2-D rGO sheets, resulting in a 3-D hierarchically porous structure with large surface area and excellent biocompatibility for rich bacterial biofilm and high electron transfer rate. The MWCNT@rGO1:2/biofilm anode delivers a maximum power density of 789 mW m-2 in Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 microbial fuel cells, which is much higher than that of individual MWCNT and rGO, in particular, 6-folder higher than that of conventional carbon cloth. The great enhancement is ascribed to a synergistic effect of the integrated biofilm and hierarchically porous structure of MWCNT@rGO1:2/biofilm anode, in which the biofilm provides a large amount of bacterial cells to raise the concentration of local electron shuttles for accelerating the direct electrochemistry on the 3-D hierarchically porous structured anodes.

  13. 2007 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    McMurphy, K.

    2009-07-01

    The fuel cell industry, which has experienced continued increases in sales, is an emerging clean energy industry with the potential for significant growth in the stationary, portable, and transportation sectors. Fuel cells produce electricity in a highly efficient electrochemical process from a variety of fuels with low to zero emissions. This report describes data compiled in 2008 on trends in the fuel cell industry for 2007 with some comparison to two previous years. The report begins with a discussion of worldwide trends in units shipped and financing for the fuel cell industry for 2007. It continues by focusing on the North American and U.S. markets. After providing this industry-wide overview, the report identifies trends for each of the major fuel cell applications -- stationary power, portable power, and transportation -- including data on the range of fuel cell technologies -- polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), alkaline fuel cell (AFC), molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), and direct-methanol fuel cell (DMFC) -- used for these applications.

  14. Operating experience with a 250 kW el molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, Manfred; Huppmann, Gerhard

    The MTU MCFC program is carried out by a European consortium comprising the German companies MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Ruhrgas AG and RWE Energie AG as well as the Danish company Energi E2 S/A. MTU acts as consortium leader. The company shares a license and technology exchange agreement with Fuel Cell Energy Inc., Danbury, CT, USA (formerly Energy Research Corp., ERC). The program was started in 1990 and covers a period of about 10 years. The highlights of this program to date are: Considerable improvements regarding component stability have been demonstrated on laboratory scale. Manufacturing technology has been developed to a point which enables the consortium to fabricate the porous components on a 250 cm 2 scale. Several large area stacks with 5000-7660 cm 2 cell area and a power range of 3-10 kW have been tested at the facilities in Munich (Germany) and Kyndby (Denmark). These stacks have been supplied by FCE. As far as the system design is concerned it was soon realized that conventional systems do not hold the promise for competitive power plants. A system analysis led to the conclusion that a new innovative design approach is required. As a result the "Hot Module" system was developed by the consortium. A Hot Module combines all the components of a MCFC system operating at the similar temperatures and pressures into a common thermally insulated vessel. In August 1997 the consortium started its first full size Hot Module MCFC test plant at the facilities of Ruhrgas AG in Dorsten, Germany. The stack was assembled in Munich using 292 cell packages purchased from FCE. The plant is based on the consortium's unique and proprietary "Hot Module" concept. It operates on pipeline natural gas and was grid connected on 16 August 1997. After a total of 1500 h of operation, the plant was intentionally shut down in a controlled manner in April 1998 for post-test analysis. The Hot Module system concept has demonstrated its functionality. The safety concept has been

  15. Stabilizing platinum in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remick, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Platinum sintering on phosphoric acid fuel cell cathodes is discussed. The cathode of the phosphoric acid fuel cell uses a high surface area platinum catalyst dispersed on a conductive carbon support to minimize both cathode polarization and fabrication costs. During operation, however, the active surface area of these electrodes decreases, which in turn leads to decreased cell performance. This loss of active surface area is a major factor in the degradation of fuel cell performance over time.

  16. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance, installation

  17. Protection of porous carbon fuel particles from boudouard corrosion

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    2015-05-26

    A system for producing energy that includes infusing porous carbon particles produced by pyrolysis of carbon-containing materials with an off-eutectic salt composition thus producing pore-free carbon particles, and reacting the carbon particles with oxygen in a fuel cell according to the reaction C+O.sub.2=CO.sub.2 to produce electrical energy.

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF THE CATHODE LONG-TERM STABILITY IN MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Ralph E. White; Dr. Branko N. Popov

    2001-10-01

    The dissolution of NiO cathodes during cell operation is a limiting factor to the successful commercialization of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs). Lithium cobalt oxide coating onto the porous nickel electrode has been adopted to modify the conventional MCFC cathode which is believed to increase the stability of the cathodes in the carbonate melt. The material used for surface modification should possess thermodynamic stability in the molten carbonate and also should be electro catalytically active for MCFC reactions. Lithium Cobalt oxide was coated on Ni cathode by a sol-gel coating. The morphology and the LiCoO{sub 2} formation of LiCoO{sub 2} coated NiO was studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction studies respectively. The electrochemical performance lithium cobalt oxide coated NiO cathodes were investigated with open circuit potential measurement and current-potential polarization studies. These results were compared to that of bare NiO. Dissolution of nickel into the molten carbonate melt was less in case of lithium cobalt oxide coated nickel cathodes. LiCoO{sub 2} coated on the surface prevents the dissolution of Ni in the melt and thereby stabilizes the cathode. Finally, lithium cobalt oxide coated nickel shows similar polarization characteristics as nickel oxide. Conventional theoretical models for the molten carbonate fuel cell cathode are based on the thin film agglomerate model. The principal deficiency of the agglomerate model, apart from the simplified pore structure assumed, is the lack of measured values for film thickness and agglomerate radius. Both these parameters cannot be estimated appropriately. Attempts to estimate the thickness of the film vary by two orders of magnitude. To avoid these problems a new three phase homogeneous model has been developed using the volume averaging technique. The model considers the potential and current variation in both liquid and solid phases. Using this approach, volume averaged

  19. Direct carbon fuel cell: A proposed hybrid design to improve commercialization potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruflin, Justin; Perwich, Alexander D.; Brett, Chris; Berner, J. Kevin; Lux, Scott M.

    2012-09-01

    This paper summarizes Contained Energy, LLC's (CEL's) 2 year work effort to produce a DCFC single cell with a minimum performance of 120 W.L-1 at 50% efficiency. It explains the challenge of high temperature that is required to get the power densities necessary to produce feasible-sized operational units and also explains problems encountered with partial oxidation of the carbon at those temperatures which causes low efficiencies. Finally, in an attempt to balance these two opposing parameters, CEL introduces a novel ceramic DCFC concept, reviews lessons learned and makes recommendations for future DCFC work.

  20. Nanofluidic fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-11-01

    Fuel cells are gaining momentum as a critical component in the renewable energy mix for stationary, transportation, and portable power applications. State-of-the-art fuel cell technology benefits greatly from nanotechnology applied to nanostructured membranes, catalysts, and electrodes. However, the potential of utilizing nanofluidics for fuel cells has not yet been explored, despite the significant opportunity of harnessing rapid nanoscale reactant transport in close proximity to the reactive sites. In the present article, a nanofluidic fuel cell that utilizes fluid flow through nanoporous media is conceptualized and demonstrated for the first time. This transformative concept captures the advantages of recently developed membraneless and catalyst-free fuel cell architectures paired with the enhanced interfacial contact area enabled by nanofluidics. When compared to previously reported microfluidic fuel cells, the prototype nanofluidic fuel cell demonstrates increased surface area, reduced activation overpotential, superior kinetic characteristics, and moderately enhanced fuel cell performance in the high cell voltage regime with up to 14% higher power density. However, the expected mass transport benefits in the high current density regime were constrained by high ohmic cell resistance, which could likely be resolved through future optimization studies.

  1. Landfill gas cleanup for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    EPRI is to test the feasibility of using a carbonate fuel cell to generate electricity from landfill gas. Landfills produce a substantial quantity of methane gas, a natural by-product of decaying organic wastes. Landfill gas, however, contains sulfur and halogen compounds, which are known contaminants to fuel cells and their fuel processing equipment. The objective of this project is to clean the landfill gas well enough to be used by the fuel cell without making the process prohibitively expensive. The cleanup system tested in this effort could also be adapted for use with other fuel cells (e.g., solid oxide, phosphoric acid) running on landfill gas.

  2. Process development and exergy cost sensitivity analysis of a hybrid molten carbonate fuel cell power plant and carbon dioxide capturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Ansarinasab, Hojat; Moftakhari Sharifzadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Rosen, Marc A.

    2017-10-01

    An integrated power plant with a net electrical power output of 3.71 × 105 kW is developed and investigated. The electrical efficiency of the process is found to be 60.1%. The process includes three main sub-systems: molten carbonate fuel cell system, heat recovery section and cryogenic carbon dioxide capturing process. Conventional and advanced exergoeconomic methods are used for analyzing the process. Advanced exergoeconomic analysis is a comprehensive evaluation tool which combines an exergetic approach with economic analysis procedures. With this method, investment and exergy destruction costs of the process components are divided into endogenous/exogenous and avoidable/unavoidable parts. Results of the conventional exergoeconomic analyses demonstrate that the combustion chamber has the largest exergy destruction rate (182 MW) and cost rate (13,100 /h). Also, the total process cost rate can be decreased by reducing the cost rate of the fuel cell and improving the efficiency of the combustion chamber and heat recovery steam generator. Based on the total avoidable endogenous cost rate, the priority for modification is the heat recovery steam generator, a compressor and a turbine of the power plant, in rank order. A sensitivity analysis is done to investigate the exergoeconomic factor parameters through changing the effective parameter variations.

  3. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Di Croce, A. Michael; Draper, Robert

    1993-11-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row.

  4. Energy: Reimagine Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lemmon, John P.

    2015-09-24

    New types of fuel cell on the horizon could eliminate the need for such trade-offs and ease the integration of renewables into the grid. Currently, fuel cells are used to generate only electricity and heat. They can be modified to store energy and produce liquid fuels such as methanol, thanks to breakthroughs in materials and designs. Developing fuel cells with a battery mode is one focus of the programme I direct at the US Advanced Research Projects Agency–Energy (ARPA-E). I lead 13 projects across academia, industry and national laboratories.

  5. Liquid fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  6. Liquid fuel cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented. PMID:25247123

  7. Fuel Cells Vehicle Systems Analysis (Fuel Cell Freeze Investigation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G.; Markel, T.; Wipke, K.

    2005-05-01

    Presentation on Fuel Cells Vehicle Systems Analysis (Fuel Cell Freeze Investigation) for the 2005 Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Annual Review held in Arlington, Virginia on May 23-26, 2005.

  8. Proceedings of the fuel cells `95 review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    This document contains papers presented at the Fuel Cells `95` Review Meeting. Topics included solid oxide fuel cells; DOE`s transportation program; ARPA advanced fuel cell development; molten carbonate fuel cells; and papers presented at a poster session. Individual papers have been processed separately for the U.S. DOE databases.

  9. Anodic behavior of carbon supported Cu@Ag core-shell nanocatalysts in direct borohydride fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Donghong; Liu, Huihong; You, Xiu; Wei, Huikai; Liu, Shibin

    2015-10-01

    Carbon-supported Cu@Ag core-shell nanoparticles are prepared by a successive reduction method in an aqueous solution and are used as an anode electrocatalyst for the direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell (DBHFC). The physical and electrochemical properties of the as-prepared electrocatalysts are investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronopotentiometry (CP), and fuel cell tests. In situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is employed in 2 M NaOH/0.1 M NaBH4 to understand the borohydride oxidation reaction (BOR) mechanism by studying the intermediate reactions occurring on the Cu@Ag/C electrode. The TEM images show that the average size of the Cu1@Ag1/C particles is approximately 18 nm. Among the as-prepared catalysts, the Cu2@Ag1/C catalyst presents the highest catalytic activity. As shown by in situ FTIR, the oxidation reaction mechanism of BH4- is similar to that of Ag/C: BHn(OH)4-n- + 2OH- → BHn-1(OH)5-n- +H2 O + 2e . At 25 °C, the DBHFC with Cu2@Ag1/C as the anode electrocatalyst and Pt mesh (1 cm2) as the cathode electrode exhibits a maximum anodic power density of 17.27 mW mg-1 at a discharge current density of 27.8 mA mg-1.

  10. Incorporation of Platinum and Gold Partially Reduced Graphene Oxide in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells for Increased Carbon Monoxide Tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, Lee; Isseroff, Rebecca; Rafailovich, Miriam; Kang, Jaymo; Li, Hongfei; Gentleman, Molly; Qaio, Qaio

    Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) can potentially provide ``green'' energy but the platinum catalyst's susceptibility to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning reduces output power. This project hypothesized that gold and platinum-partially reduced graphene oxide (Au/Pt-prGO) catalysts, incorporated into the electrodes and Nafion membrane of a PEMFC, will increase CO tolerance. Aliquots of graphene oxide (GO) were functionalized with platinum and/or gold nanoparticles. Partial reduction with NaBH4 prevented precipitation. Raman Spectroscopy and HRTEM verified the chemical identity, structure, and presence of the materials. Setups were tested in a PEM fuel cell with a gas feed containing 1000 ppm of CO, and averaged an output power >200% over the control, with the most effective sample, Pt-prGO Electrode + Membrane, yielding an output power ~250% greater than the control. Additionally, each setup's poisoned output power (PP) was compared to its highest possible output power (PM) . AuPt-prGO Electrode + Membrane produced 100% of its highest possible output power when poisoned, displaying 100% resistance to all CO poisoning at the resistances tested. Garcia MRSEC.

  11. Kinetic modelling of molten carbonate fuel cells: Effects of cathode water and electrode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arato, E.; Audasso, E.; Barelli, L.; Bosio, B.; Discepoli, G.

    2016-10-01

    Through previous campaigns the authors developed a semi-empirical kinetic model to describe MCFC performance for industrial and laboratory simulation. Although effective in a wide range of operating conditions, the model was validated for specific electrode materials and dry feeding cathode compositions. The new aim is to prove that with appropriate improvements it is possible to apply the model to MCFC provided by different suppliers and to new sets of reactant gases. Specifically, this paper describes the procedures to modify the model to switch among different materials and identify a new parameter taking into account the effects of cathode water vapour. The new equation is integrated as the kinetic core within the SIMFC (SIMulation of Fuel Cells) code, an MCFC 3D model set up by the PERT group of the University of Genova, for reliability test. Validation is performed using data collected through tests carried out at the University of Perugia using single cells. The results are discussed giving examples of the simulated performance with varying operating conditions. The final formulation average percentage error obtained for all the simulated cases with respect to experimental results is maintained around 1%, despite the difference between the basic and the new conditions and facilities.

  12. Fuel cells: Operating flexibly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Moo

    2016-09-01

    Fuel cells typically function well only in rather limited temperature and humidity ranges. Now, a proton exchange membrane consisting of ion pair complexes is shown to enable improved fuel cell performance under a wide range of conditions that are unattainable with conventional approaches.

  13. PLATINUM AND FUEL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Platinum requirements for fuel cell vehicles (FCVS) have been identified as a concern and possible problem with FCV market penetration. Platinum is a necessary component of the electrodes of fuel cell engines that power the vehicles. The platinum is deposited on porous electrodes...

  14. CEROLYTE FUEL CELL.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    construction of a power plant for space. A 50-watt cerolyte battery will be constructed and a 500-watt fuel - cell power plant will be designed. Research...evaluation of a 500-watt cerolyte fuel - cell power system for space. During the first quarter work has been concentrated in the first two areas.

  15. Fuel Cells for Society

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Through a SBIR contract with Lewis Research Center, ElectroChem, Inc. developed a hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell. The objective for Lewis Research Center's collaboration with ElectroChem was to develop a fuel cell system that could deliver 200-W (minimum) approximately to 10kWh of electrical energy.

  16. PLATINUM AND FUEL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Platinum requirements for fuel cell vehicles (FCVS) have been identified as a concern and possible problem with FCV market penetration. Platinum is a necessary component of the electrodes of fuel cell engines that power the vehicles. The platinum is deposited on porous electrodes...

  17. Hierarchical nanostructured hollow spherical carbon with mesoporous shell as a unique cathode catalyst support in proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Fang, Baizeng; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Minsik; Kim, Minwoo; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2009-03-07

    Hierarchical nanostructured spherical carbon with hollow macroporous core in combination with mesoporous shell has been explored to support Pt cathode catalyst with high metal loading in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The hollow core-mesoporous shell carbon (HCMSC) has unique structural characteristics such as large specific surface area and mesoporous volume, ensuring uniform dispersion of the supported high loading (60 wt%) Pt nanoparticles with small particle size, and well-developed three-dimensionally interconnected hierarchical porosity network, facilitating fast mass transport. The HCMSC-supported Pt(60 wt%) cathode catalyst has demonstrated markedly enhanced catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction and greatly improved PEMFC polarization performance compared with carbon black Vulcan XC-72 (VC)-supported ones. Furthermore, the HCMSC-supported Pt(40 wt%) or Pt(60 wt%) outperforms the HCMSC-supported Pt(20 wt%) even at a low catalyst loading of 0.2 mg Pt cm(-2) in the cathode, which is completely different from the VC-supported Pt catalysts. The capability of supporting high loading Pt is supposed to accelerate the commercialization of PEMFC due to the anticipated significant reduction in the amount of catalyst support required, diffusion layer thickness and fabricating cost of the supported Pt catalyst electrode.

  18. Quantitative analysis of carbon corrosion during fuel cell start-up and shut-down by anode purging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linse, Nicolas; Scherer, Günther G.; Wokaun, Alexander; Gubler, Lorenz

    2012-12-01

    The corrosion of the carbon support during start-up and shut-down of polymer electrolyte fuel cells was systematically quantified to elucidate effects related to the propagation of the gas front through the anode compartment and to determine the influence of relevant operating parameters. Measurements with different reactant gas concentrations and gas flow rates suggest that the gas exchange process is dominated by a homogeneous displacement of the anode gas in case of start/stop operation at OCV. The influence of additional effects such as direct recombination of hydrogen and oxygen, diffusion on the channel and land scale and pseudocapacitive effects seems to be negligible under the investigated conditions. With an external load applied during the gas exchange process (discharge mode), shut-down induced carbon corrosion strongly differs from the behavior at OCV. The virtually constant corrosion rates obtained below a critical purge gas flow rate in the discharge mode are attributed to a significant contribution of electrochemical hydrogen consumption. Temperature and humidity variation measurements demonstrate that the carbon corrosion behavior during real start/stop processes can differ considerably from the correlations obtained under controlled potential conditions in H2/N2 mode. Thus, potential cycling experiments only provide limited information about start/stop durability under application relevant conditions.

  19. Fast ionic conduction in tetravalent metal pyrophosphate-alkali carbonate composites: New potential electrolytes for intermediate-temperature fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhupendra; Bhardwaj, Aman; Gautam, Sandeep K.; Kumar, Devendra; Parkash, Om; Kim, In-Ho; Song, Sun-Ju

    2017-03-01

    Here we present a report on synthesis and characterization of tetravalent metal pyrophosphate (TMP) and alkali carbonate (A2CO3; A = Li and/or Na) composites. The TMP-carbonate composites are prepared by mixing indium-doped tin pyrophosphate or yttrium-doped zirconium pyrophosphate with Li2CO3 or an eutectic mixture of Li2CO3-Na2CO3 in different wt.% ratios. The phase composition, microstructure and electrical conductivity of the sintered specimen are analyzed. In addition, the effect of different TMP and A2CO3 phases is investigated. A maximum ionic conductivity of 5.5 × 10-2 S cm-1 at 630 °C is observed in this study with a Sn0.9In0.1P2O7-Li2CO3 composite. Based on the literature data, TMP-carbonate composites can be considered to be primarily a proton and oxygen-ion co-ionic conductor and, therefore, have strong potential as electrolytes in fuel cells in 500-700 °C range.

  20. Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, James E.; Dederer, Jeffrey T.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Collie, Jeffrey C.

    1998-01-01

    A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack.

  1. Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, J.E.; Dederer, J.T.; Zafred, P.R.; Collie, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack. 8 figs.

  2. Highly dispersed Pt-Ni nanoparticles on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for application in direct methanol fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shujuan; Ma, Yanwen; Tao, Haisheng; Jian, Guoqiang; Wang, Xizhang; Fan, Yining; Zhu, Jianmin; Hu, Zheng

    2010-06-01

    Binary Pt-Ni alloyed nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) have been facilely constructed without pre-modification by making use of the active sites in NCNTs due to the N-participation. So-obtained binary Pt-Ni alloyed nanoparticles have been highly dispersed on the outer surface of the support with the size of about 3-4 nm. The electrochemical properties of the catalysts for methanol oxidation have been systematically evaluated. Binary Pt-Ni alloyed composites with molar ratio (Pt:Ni) of 3:2 and 3:1 present enhanced electrocatalytic activities and improved tolerance to CO poisoning as well as the similar stability, in comparison with the commercial Pt/C catalyst and the monometallic Pt/NCNTs catalysts. These results imply that so-constructed nanocomposite catalysts have the potential for applications in direct methanol fuel cells.

  3. Platinum-antimony doped tin oxide nanoparticles supported on carbon black as anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Chengqiang; Li, Yingzhi; Ma, Yuehui; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Qinghua

    2011-08-01

    Antimony doped tin oxide supported on carbon black (ATO/C) has been synthesized using an in situ co-precipitation method, and platinum-ATO/C nanoparticles have been prepared using a consecutive polyol process to enhance the catalyst activity for the methanol oxidation reaction. The Pt-ATO/C electrocatalyst is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microcopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and cyclic voltammetry. The Pt-ATO/C catalyst exhibits a relatively high activity for the methanol oxidation reaction compared to Pt-SnO2/C or commercial Pt/C catalyst. This activity can be attributed to the high electrical conductivities of the Sb-doped SnO2, which induces the electronic effects with Pt catalysts. Pt-ATO/C is a promising methanol oxidation catalyst with high activity for the reaction in direct methanol fuel cells.

  4. Fuel Cell Applied Research Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Richardson

    2006-09-15

    Since November 12, 2003, Northern Alberta Institute of Technology has been operating a 200 kW phosphoric acid fuel cell to provide electrical and thermal energy to its campus. The project was made possible by funding from the U.S. Department of Energy as well as by a partnership with the provincial Alberta Energy Research Institute; a private-public partnership, Climate Change Central; the federal Ministry of Western Economic Development; and local natural gas supplier, ATCO Gas. Operation of the fuel cell has contributed to reducing NAIT's carbon dioxide emissions through its efficient use of natural gas.

  5. Trioxane: A Fuel For Direct-Oxidation Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olah, George A.; Prakash, Surya G.; Narayanan, Sekharipuram R.; Vamos, Eugene; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1995-01-01

    Trioxane identified as high-energy, nontoxic, solid substitute for formaldehyde as water-soluble fuel for use in direct-oxidation fuel cells. Found to undergo facile electrochemical oxidation to water and carbon dioxide at platinum and platinum-alloy electrodes in liquid-feed-type fuel cells that contain acid electrolytes or solid proton-exchange membrane electrolytes. Exhibits less crossover than do such conventional fuels as methanol and formaldehyde. Being solid at ambient temperature, trioxane offers significant advantages in handling and transportation. Synthesized from natural gas with relative ease.

  6. Sustainable design of high-performance microsized microbial fuel cell with carbon nanotube anode and air cathode.

    PubMed

    Mink, Justine E; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-08-27

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising alternative energy source that both generates electricity and cleans water. Fueled by liquid wastes such as wastewater or industrial wastes, the microbial fuel cell converts waste into energy. Microsized MFCs are essentially miniature energy harvesters that can be used to power on-chip electronics, lab-on-a-chip devices, and/or sensors. As MFCs are a relatively new technology, microsized MFCs are also an important rapid testing platform for the comparison and introduction of new conditions or materials into macroscale MFCs, especially nanoscale materials that have high potential for enhanced power production. Here we report a 75 μL microsized MFC on silicon using CMOS-compatible processes and employ a novel nanomaterial with exceptional electrochemical properties, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), as the on-chip anode. We used this device to compare the usage of the more commonly used but highly expensive anode material gold, as well as a more inexpensive substitute, nickel. This is the first anode material study done using the most sustainably designed microsized MFC to date, which utilizes ambient oxygen as the electron acceptor with an air cathode instead of the chemical ferricyanide and without a membrane. Ferricyanide is unsustainable, as the chemical must be continuously refilled, while using oxygen, naturally found in air, makes the device mobile and is a key step in commercializing this for portable technology such as lab-on-a-chip for point-of-care diagnostics. At 880 mA/m(2) and 19 mW/m(2) the MWCNT anode outperformed the others in both current and power densities with between 6 and 20 times better performance. All devices were run for over 15 days, indicating a stable and high-endurance energy harvester already capable of producing enough power for ultra-low-power electronics and able to consistently power them over time.

  7. The single cell of low temperature solid oxide fuel cell with sodium carbonate-SDC (samarium-doped ceria) as electrolyte and biodiesel as fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmawati, F.; Nuryanto, A.; Nugrahaningtyas, K. D.

    2016-02-01

    In this research NSDC (composite of Na2CO3-SDC) was prepared by the sol-gel method to produce NSDC1 and also by the ceramic method to produce NSDC2. The prepared NSDC then were analyzed by XRD embedded with Le Bail refinement to study the change of characteristic peaks, their crystal structure, and their cell parameters. Meanwhile, the measurement of impedance was conducted to study the electrical conductivity of the prepared materials. A single cell was prepared by coating NSDC-L (a composite of NSDC with Li0.2Ni0.7Cu0.1O2) on both surfaces of NSDC. The NSDC-L was used as anode and cathode. The ionic conductivity of NSDC1 and NSDC2 at 400 oC are 4.1109 x 10-2 S.cm-1 and 1.6231 x 10-2 S.cm-1, respectively. Both electrolytes have ionic conductivity higher than 1 x 10-4 S.cm-1, therefore, can be categorized as good electrolyte [1]. However, the NSDC1 shows electrodeelectrolyte conduction. It indicates the existence of electronic migration from electrolyte- electrode or vice versa. Those may cause a short circuit during fuel cell operation and will reduce the fuel cell performance fastly. The single cell tests were conducted at 300, 400, 500 and 600 °C. The single fuel cell with NSDC1 and NSDC2 as electrolyte show maximum power density at 400 °C with the power density of 3.736 x 10-2 mW.cm-2 and 2.245 x 10-2 mW.cm-2, respectively.

  8. Electrochemical corrosion studies of carbon supports and electrocatalysts and their effects on the durability of low-temperature PEM fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowlapalli, Madhusudhana R.

    Performance of a PEM fuel cell relies heavily on the durability of the platinum and platinum-alloy based electrocatalysts supported on carbon blacks. Carbon corrosion has been widely accepted as an important issue affecting the degradation of the catalytic layer in PEMFCs. Traditional carbon blacks used in today's fuel cell industry are not tailored to suit the corrosive conditions encountered in PEMFCs. Advanced carbon supports should have excellent electrochemical corrosion resistance, good conductivity, high surface area and optimum hydrophilic properties. The principal objective of this work is to investigate the corrosive behavior of carbon blacks and electrocatalysts supported on such carbon blacks in conditions that are typical for fuel cells. Physical and chemical changes during oxidation of these carbon blacks have been reviewed along with methodology for studying their corrosion in a low-temperature fuel cell environment. This study provides an ex-situ corrosion measurement protocol and a gas diffusion electrode half-cell setup to study the electrochemical oxidation resistance behavior of standard carbon blacks, modified carbon blacks, and advanced carbon supports in acid electrolyte at 25°C. Corrosion current-time relationships were evaluated and transient mode of corrosion study was employed to simulate automobile startup/shutdown. The effects of various surface modifications on carbon corrosion behavior have been studied in detail. The aggravated corrosion of carbon supports at potentials higher than the thermodynamic stable regime of water was investigated and a mechanism is proposed to address the same. The role of the metal phase on carbon corrosion at the catalyst-support interphase has also been investigated. The corrosion current dependence on the microstructure and nature of surface groups present on these carbons was examined. Further, measuring carbon corrosion effects on the durability of a single membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) cathode

  9. Regenerative fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, Larry L.; Kackley, Nancy D.; Laconti, Anthony B.

    1992-01-01

    A development status evaluation is presented for moderate-temperature, single-unit, regenerative fuel cells using either alkaline or solid polymer proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolytes. Attention is given to the results thus far obtained for Pt, Ir, Rh, and Na(x)Pt3O4 catalysts. Alkaline electrolyte tests have been performed on a half-cell basis with a floating-electrode cell; PEM testing has been with complete fuel cells, using Nafion 117.

  10. Regenerative fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swette, Larry L.; Kackley, Nancy D.; Laconti, Anthony B.

    A development status evaluation is presented for moderate-temperature, single-unit, regenerative fuel cells using either alkaline or solid polymer proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolytes. Attention is given to the results thus far obtained for Pt, Ir, Rh, and Na(x)Pt3O4 catalysts. Alkaline electrolyte tests have been performed on a half-cell basis with a floating-electrode cell; PEM testing has been with complete fuel cells, using Nafion 117.

  11. Graphene-coated carbon fiber cloth for flexible electrodes of glucose fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Kazuki; Muramatsu, Kazuo; Sumi, Hisato; Nishioka, Yasushiro

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we fabricated flexible electrodes for a miniaturized, simple structured, and flexible glucose biofuel cell (BFC) using a graphene-coated carbon fiber cloth (GCFC). The areas of the anode and cathode electrodes were 3 × 10 mm2. The anode area was coated with the enzyme glucose oxidase, and the cathode area was coated with the enzyme bilirubin oxidase. No ion-exchange film was needed because glucose oxidase selectively oxidizes glucose and bilirubin oxidase selectively reduces oxygen. The power density of the BFC with GCFC electrodes in a phosphate buffer solution of 200 mM glucose solution at room temperature was 34.3 µW/cm2 at 0.43 V. The power density of a BFC using carbon fiber cloth (CFC) without graphene modification was 18.5 µW/cm2 at 0.13 V. The BFC with the GCFC electrode continued to function longer than 24 h with a power density higher than 5 µW/cm2. These effects were attributed to the much larger effective surface areas of the GCFC electrodes that maintain more enzymes than those of the CFC electrodes.

  12. Carbon-supported Pd-Pt cathode electrocatalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yongfu; Zhang, Huamin; Zhong, Hexiang; Xu, Ting; Jin, Hong

    A series of carbon-supported Pd-Pt alloy (Pd-Pt/C) catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with low-platinum content are synthesized via a modified sodium borohydride reduction method. The structure of as-prepared catalysts is characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements. The prepared Pd-Pt/C catalysts with alloy form show face-centered-cubic (FCC) structure. The metal particles of Pd-Pt/C catalysts with mean size of around 4-5 nm are uniformly dispersed on the carbon support. The electrocatalytic activities for ORR of these catalysts are investigated by rotating disk electrode (RDE), cyclic voltammetry (CV), single cell measurements and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) measurements. The results suggest that the electrocatalytic activities of Pd-Pt/C catalysts with low platinum are comparable to that of the commercial Pt/C with the same metal loading. The maximum power density of MEA with a Pd-Pt/C catalyst, the Pd/Pt mass ratio of which is 7:3, is about 1040 mW cm -2.

  13. High-efficiency intermediate temperature solid oxide electrolyzer cells for the conversion of carbon dioxide to fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Jingbo; Chen, Hao; Dogdibegovic, Emir; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Cheng, Mojie; Zhou, Xiao-Dong

    2014-04-01

    Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide in the intermediate temperature region was investigated by utilizing a reversible solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC). The current potential (i-V) curve exhibited a nonlinear characteristic at low current density. Differentiation of i-V curves revealed that the cell area specific resistance (ASR) was current-dependent and had its maximum in electrolysis mode and minimum in fuel cell mode. Impedance measurements were performed under different current densities and gas compositions, and the results were analyzed by calculating the distribution of relaxation times. The ASR variation resulted from the difference in electrochemical reactions occurring on the Ni-YSZ electrode, i.e., Ni-YSZ is a better electrode for CO oxidation than for CO2 reduction. Coke formation on Ni-YSZ played a crucial role in affecting its electrolysis performance in the intermediate temperature region. The ASR apex was associated with a decrease in cell temperature during electrolysis due to the endothermic nature of CO2 reduction reaction. It was postulated that such a decrease in temperature and rise in CO concentration led to coke formation. As a consequence, higher temperature (>700 degrees C), higher CO2 concentration (>50%), and the presence of hydrogen or steam are recommended for efficient CO2 reduction in solid oxide electrochemical cells. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

  14. Fuel cell stack arrangements

    DOEpatents

    Kothmann, Richard E.; Somers, Edward V.

    1982-01-01

    Arrangements of stacks of fuel cells and ducts, for fuel cells operating with separate fuel, oxidant and coolant streams. An even number of stacks are arranged generally end-to-end in a loop. Ducts located at the juncture of consecutive stacks of the loop feed oxidant or fuel to or from the two consecutive stacks, each individual duct communicating with two stacks. A coolant fluid flows from outside the loop, into and through cooling channels of the stack, and is discharged into an enclosure duct formed within the loop by the stacks and seals at the junctures at the stacks.

  15. Systematic screening of carbon-based anode materials for microbial fuel cells with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Kipf, Elena; Koch, Julia; Geiger, Bettina; Erben, Johannes; Richter, Katrin; Gescher, Johannes; Zengerle, Roland; Kerzenmacher, Sven

    2013-10-01

    We present a systematic screening of carbon-based anode materials for microbial fuel cells with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Under anoxic conditions nanoporous activated carbon cloth is a superior anode material in terms of current density normalized to the projected anode area and anode volume (24.0±0.3 μA cm(-2) and 482±7 μA cm(-3) at -0.2 vs. SCE, respectively). The good performance can be attributed to the high specific surface area of the material, which is available for mediated electron transfer through self-secreted flavins. Under aerated conditions no influence of the specific surface area is observed, which we attribute to a shift from primary indirect electron transfer by mediators to direct electron transfer via adherent cells. Furthermore, we show that an aerated initial growth phase enhances the current density under subsequent anoxic conditions fivefold when compared to a similar experiment that was conducted under permanently anoxic conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Iron-rich nanoparticle encapsulated, nitrogen doped porous carbon materials as efficient cathode electrocatalyst for microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guolong; Zhu, Youlong; Lu, Lu; Xu, Kongliang; Wang, Heming; Jin, Yinghua; Jason Ren, Zhiyong; Liu, Zhenning; Zhang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Developing efficient, readily available, and sustainable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in neutral medium is of great importance to practical applications of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Herein, a porous nitrogen-doped carbon material with encapsulated Fe-based nanoparticles (Fe-Nx/C) has been developed and utilized as an efficient ORR catalyst in MFCs. The material was obtained through pyrolysis of a highly porous organic polymer containing iron(II) porphyrins. The characterizations of morphology, crystalline structure and elemental composition reveal that Fe-Nx/C consists of well-dispersed Fe-based nanoparticles coated by N-doped graphitic carbon layer. ORR catalytic performance of Fe-Nx/C has been evaluated through cyclic voltammetry and rotating ring-disk electrode measurements, and its application as a cathode electrocatalyst in an air-cathode single-chamber MFC has been investigated. Fe-Nx/C exhibits comparable or better performance in MFCs than 20% Pt/C, displaying higher cell voltage (601 mV vs. 591 mV), maximum power density (1227 mW m-2 vs. 1031 mW m-2) and Coulombic efficiency (50% vs. 31%). These findings indicate that Fe-Nx/C is more tolerant and durable than Pt/C in a system with bacteria metabolism and thus holds great potential for practical MFC applications.

  17. Characteristics of aluminum-reinforced γ-LiAlO2 matrices for molten carbonate fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Jin; Choi, Hyun-Jong; Hyun, Sang-Hoon; Im, Hee-Chun

    2008-05-01

    A key component in molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) is the electrolyte matrix, which provides both ionic conduction and gas sealing. During initial MCFC stack start-up and operation (650 °C), the matrix experiences both mechanical and thermal stresses as a result of the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the LiAlO2 ceramic particles and the carbonate electrolyte that causes cracking of the matrix. A pure γ-LiAlO2 matrix, however, has poor mechanical strength and low thermal expansion coefficients. In this study, fine γ-LiAlO2 powders and pure Al (3/20/50 μm)/Li2CO3 particles are used as a matrix and as reinforcing materials, respectively. The Al phase transforms completely into γ-LiAlO2 at 650 °C within 10 h. The mechanical strength of these matrices (283.48 gf mm-2) increases nearly threefold relative to that of a pure γ-LiAlO2 matrix (104.01 gf mm-2). The mismatch of the thermal expansion coefficient between the matrix and electrolyte phases can be controlled by adding Al particles, which results in improved thermal stability in the initial heating-up step. In unit-cell and thermal-cycling tests, the optimized matrix demonstrates superior performance over pure γ-LiAlO2 matrices.

  18. In situ microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Luciana; Min, Booki; Martins, Gilberto; Brito, António G; Kroff, Pablo; Parpot, Pier; Angelidaki, Irini; Nogueira, Regina

    2011-06-01

    The biological oxygen demand (BOD) may be the most used test to assess the amount of pollutant organic matter in water; however, it is time and labor consuming, and is done ex-situ. A BOD biosensor based on the microbial fuel cell principle was tested for online and in situ monitoring of biodegradable organic content of domestic wastewater. A stable current density of 282±23mA/m(2) was obtained with domestic wastewater containing a BOD(5) of 317±15mg O(2)/L at 22±2°C, 1.53±0.04mS/cm and pH 6.9±0.1. The current density showed a linear relationship with BOD(5) concentration ranging from 17±0.5mg O(2)/L to 78±7.6mg O(2)/L. The current generation from the BOD biosensor was dependent on the measurement conditions such as temperature, conductivity, and pH. Thus, a correction factor should be applied to measurements done under different environmental conditions from the ones used in the calibration. These results provide useful information for the development of a biosensor for real-time in situ monitoring of wastewater quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Carbon-Neutral Photosynthetic Microbial Fuel Cell Powered by Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Ma, Meirong; Cao, Limin; Chen, Li; Ying, Xiaofang; Deng, Zongwu

    2015-07-01

    A photosynthetic microbial fuel cell (m-PMFC) is developed for generating electricity by harnessing solar energy using Microcystis aeruginosa. In this m-PMFC, commensal bacteria can consume the nutrients that Microcystis aeruginosa produces to generate electricity so that no net CO₂production occurs. A b-MFC is constructed to confirm the role of commensal bacteria in electric generation. An s-PMFC is constructed to confirm the contribution of Microcystis aeruginosa as substrates. The power outputs of m-PMFCs exhibit no significant difference in terms of different inoculation amount of Microcystis aeruginosa or light/dark cycles. The power density of m-PMFC exhibits similar response to bubbling of N₂and O₂as that of b-MFC, as confirmed by cyclic voltammetry analysis of m-PMFC and b-MFC. Scanning electron microscope images demonstrate that the biofilm of m-PMFC consists mainly of commensal bacteria. These results suggest that commensal bacteria act as the main biocatalysts and Microcystis aeruginosa as the anode substrates in the m-PMFC.

  20. A high power density miniaturized microbial fuel cell having carbon nanotube anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hao; Pyo, Soonjae; Lee, Jae-Ik; Park, Tae-Jin; Gittleson, Forrest S.; Leung, Frederick C. C.; Kim, Jongbaeg; Taylor, André D.; Lee, Hyung-Sool; Chae, Junseok

    2015-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising technology capable of directly converting the abundant biomass on the planet into electricity. Prior studies have adopted a variety of nanostructured materials with high surface area to volume ratio (SAV), yet the current and power density of these nanostructured materials do not deliver a significant leap over conventional MFCs. This study presents a novel approach to implement a miniaturized MFC with a high SAV of 4000 m-1 using three different CNT-based electrode materials: Vertically Aligned CNT (VACNT), Randomly Aligned CNT (RACNT), and Spin-Spray Layer-by-Layer (SSLbL) CNT. These CNT-based electrodes show unique biofilm morphology and thickness. The study of performance parameters of miniaturized MFCs with these CNT-electrodes are conducted with respect to a control bare gold electrode. The results show that CNT-based materials attract more exoelectrogens, Geobacter sp., than bare gold, yielding thicker biofilm formation. Among CNT-based electrodes, low sheet resistance electrodes result in thick biofilm generation and high current/power density. The miniaturized MFC having an SSLbL CNT anode exhibits a high volumetric power density of 3320 W m-3. This research may help lay the foundation for future research involving the optimization of MFCS with 2D and 3D nanostructured electrodes.