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Sample records for carbonatite-aillikite occurrence west

  1. West syndrome followed by juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: a coincidental occurrence?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background West syndrome is an age-dependent epilepsy with onset peak in the first year of life whose aetiology may be symptomatic or cryptogenic. Long-term cognitive and neurological prognosis is usually poor and seizure outcome is also variable. Over the past two decades a few patients with favourable cognitive outcome and with total recovery from seizures were identified among the cryptogenic group suggesting an idiopathic aetiology. Recent research has described two children with idiopathic WS who later developed a childhood absence epilepsy. Case presentation We reviewed the medical records of patients with West syndrome admitted to the our Child Neuropsychiatry Unit in the last 15 years in order to know the clinical evolution of infantile spasms. We report a child with West syndrome with onset at 8 months of age followed by some clusters of bilateral, arrhythmic myoclonic jerks of the upper limbs, mainly on awakening, synchronous with the generalized discharges of 4 Hz spike-wave occurring at 12 years of age and by co-occurrence of a later generalized tonic-clonic seizure at 14 years and four months, both sensitive to Levetiracetam suggesting a juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Conclusions This unusual evolution, never previously reported, suggests that both electroclinical features mentioned above may share some pathophysiological processes genetically determined which produce a susceptibility to seizure and emphasizes that the transition between different age-related epileptic phenotypes may involve also the West syndrome. PMID:23705971

  2. Climatic factors influencing triatomine occurrence in Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Joyce Mendes; de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Sousa, Adair Vieira; de Paula, Aécio Moraes; Machado, Ricardo Bomfim; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the geographic distributions of triatomine species in Central-West Region of Brazil (CW) and analysed the climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 3,396 records of 27 triatomine species were analysed. Using the maximum entropy method, ecological niche models were produced for eight species occurring in at least 20 municipalities based on 13 climatic variables and elevation. Triatoma sordida and Rhodnius neglectus were the species with the broadest geographic distributions in CW Brazil. The Cerrado areas in the state of Goiás were found to be more suitable for the occurrence of synanthropic triatomines than the Amazon forest areas in the northern part of the state of Mato Grosso. The variable that best explains the evaluated models is temperature seasonality. The results indicate that almost the entire region presents climatic conditions that are appropriate for at least one triatomine species. Therefore, it is recommended that entomological surveillance be reinforced in CW Brazil. PMID:23778666

  3. Hydroclimatic Assessment of West Nile Virus Occurrence Across Continental US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billian, H. E.; Jutla, A.; Colwell, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widely infections from arbovirus in mid-latitudes, having reached the Western Hemisphere in 1999. As a vector-borne disease, WNV is primarily spread by mosquitoes; the disease is predominantly found in tropical and temperate regions of the world, and is now considered an endemic pathogen in the United States, Africa, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and Europe. Environmental processes play a vital role in the trigger of WNV. Here, using logistical regression models, we quantified relationships between hydroclimatic processes and mosquito abundance for WNV across the continental USA using precipitation and temperature at different spatial and temporal scales. It will be shown that reported cases of this disease are more prevalent during spring and summer months in the entire country, when there is more precipitation and higher surface air temperatures for 2003 to 2013. The key impacts of this research are those related to the improvement of human health, and a means to predict mosquito breeding patterns long term as they relate to the prevalence of vector-borne illnesses.

  4. East-west asymmetric of scintillation occurrence in Indonesia using GPS and GLONASS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadi, P.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Saito, S.; Husin, A.; Dear, V.; Anggarani, S.

    2015-12-01

    By using GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) receiver to collect amplitude scintillation at L1 frequency from GPS and GLONASS, we investigated ionospheric scintillation occurrence at equator anomaly in Indonesia from July 2014 to June 2015. The receiver is installed at Bandung (6.9 deg S, 107.6 deg E; 9.9 deg S mag. latitude), Indonesia. In this study, we grouped our analysis into two groups based on duration of observation, (1) July-December 2014 (monthly F10.7 ranged from 124.7-158.7) which is named autumn equinox and (2) January-June 2015 (monthly F10.7 ranged from 120.1-141.7) which is named spring equinox. Our preliminary results can be summarized as follows; (1) the intensity of scintillations at spring equinox is higher than at autumn equinox although solar activity at autumn equinox is higher than at spring equinox, see Figure 1 and (2) as shown in Figure 2, the directional distribution of scintillation occurrences at spring equinox mostly concentrate in the western sky, so we see east-west asymmetric, but the distribution at autumn equinox doesn't show clearly east-west asymmetric. Previous studies have reported that occurrence rate of the scintillation at spring equinox season is higher than at autumn equinox. Our results suggest that equinoctial asymmetry of scintillation occurrence can be also as an asymmetric of scintillation intensity and east-west asymmetric of scintillation occurrence between spring and autumn equinox. In general, plasma bubble is tilted westward as it vertically develop due to vertical shear in the eastward plasma drift in F region, and consequently, it will be tilted westward as it extends in latitude. Scintillation intensity will be stronger when signal propagation tend to be parallel with structure of the plasma bubble. Figure 2 also imply that the latitudinal extension of plasma bubble is higher at spring equinox than at autumn equinox. More the bubble extends in latitude, more the bubble structure exists in the western

  5. Borrelia infection in small mammals in West Africa and its relationship with tick occurrence inside burrows.

    PubMed

    Diatta, Georges; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Granjon, Laurent; Bâ, Khalilou; Chauvancy, Gilles; Ndiaye, Mady; Trape, Jean-François

    2015-12-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a zoonotic disease caused by several Borrelia species transmitted to humans by Ornithodoros tick vectors. In West Africa, Borrelia crocidurae is a common cause of disease in many rural populations. Small mammals act as reservoirs of infection. We report here the results of surveys that investigated the occurrence of B. crocidurae infection in rodents and insectivores from eight countries of West and Central Africa. Animals were identified at the species level and tested for Borrelia either by examination of thick blood film, intra-peritoneal inoculation of blood or brain tissues into laboratory mice, or by molecular techniques. A total of 4358 small mammals belonging to 38 species and 7 families were collected, including 3225 specimens collected in areas where the occurrence of Ornithodoros sonrai tick in rodent burrows was documented, and 1133 in areas where this tick was absent. In areas with O. sonrai, Borrelia infection was demonstrated in 287 of 3109 (9.2%) small mammals tested, and none was documented in 1004 animals tested from other areas. There was no relationship between the occurrence of Rhipicephalus, Hyaloma and Argas ticks in burrows and the distribution of Borrelia infection in small mammals. The 287 specimens infected by Borrelia belonged to 15 rodent and shrew species, including three Saharo-Sahelian species - Gerbillus gerbillus, Gerbillus occiduus and Gerbillus tarabuli - identified as reservoirs for TBRF with a distribution restricted to this area. In Sudan and Sudano-Sahelian areas, Arvicanthis niloticus, Mastomys erythroleucus and Mastomys huberti were the main reservoir of infection. Although most small mammals species collected had a large distribution in West and Central Africa, the fact that only animals collected in areas with O. sonrai were found infected suggest that this tick is the only vector of TBRF in rodents and insectivores in this part of Africa. PMID:26327444

  6. Occurrence of west nile virus infection in raptors at the Salton Sea, California.

    PubMed

    Dusek, Robert J; Iko, William M; Hofmeister, Erik K

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the prevalence of West Nile virus (WNV)-neutralizing antibodies and infectious virus, and the occurrence of overwinter transmission in two raptor species during January and March 2006 at the Salton Sea, Imperial County, California. We captured 208 American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) (January, n=100; March, n=108) and 116 Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) (January, n=52; March, n=64). Laboratory analysis revealed that 83% of American Kestrels and 31% of Burrowing Owls were positive for WNV-neutralizing antibodies. Additionally, two seroconversions were detected in Burrowing Owls between January and March. Infectious WNV, consistent with acute infection, was not detected in any bird. PMID:20688694

  7. Occurrence of west nile virus infection in raptors at the Salton Sea, California.

    PubMed

    Dusek, Robert J; Iko, William M; Hofmeister, Erik K

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the prevalence of West Nile virus (WNV)-neutralizing antibodies and infectious virus, and the occurrence of overwinter transmission in two raptor species during January and March 2006 at the Salton Sea, Imperial County, California. We captured 208 American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) (January, n=100; March, n=108) and 116 Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) (January, n=52; March, n=64). Laboratory analysis revealed that 83% of American Kestrels and 31% of Burrowing Owls were positive for WNV-neutralizing antibodies. Additionally, two seroconversions were detected in Burrowing Owls between January and March. Infectious WNV, consistent with acute infection, was not detected in any bird.

  8. ANALYSIS OF BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC FACTORS INFLUENCING THE OCCURRENCE OF WEST NILE VIRUS INFECTION IN TUNISIA.

    PubMed

    Ben Hassine, Th; Calistri, P; Ippoliti, C; Conte, A; Danzetta, M L; Bruno, R; Lelli, R; Bejaoui, M; Hammami, S

    2014-01-01

    Eco-climatic conditions are often associated with the occurrence of West Nile Disease (WND) cases. Among the complex set of biotic and abiotic factors influencing the emergence and spread of this vector-borne disease, two main variables have been considered to have a great influence on the probability of West Nile Virus (WNV) introduction and circulation in Tunisia: the presence of susceptible bird populations and the existence of geographical areas where the environmental and climatic conditions are more favourable to mosquito multiplications. The aim of this study was to identify and classify the climatic and environmental variables possibly associated with the occurrence of WNVhuman cases in Tunisia. The following environmental and climatic variables have been considered: wetlands and humid areas, Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), temperatures and elevation. A preliminary analysis for the characterization of main variables associated with areas with a history of WNV human cases in Tunisia between 1997 and 2011 has been made. This preliminary analysis clearly indicates the closeness to marshes ecosystem, where migratory bird populations are located, as an important risk factor for WNV infection. On the contrary the temperature absolute seems to be not a significant factor in Tunisian epidemiological situation. In relation to NDVI values, more complex considerations should be made.

  9. Spatial analysis of geologic and hydrologic features relating to sinkhole occurrence in Jefferson County, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Doctor, Katarina Z.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the influence of geologic features related to sinkhole susceptibility was analyzed and the results were mapped for the region of Jefferson County, West Virginia. A model of sinkhole density was constructed using Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) that estimated the relations among discrete geologic or hydrologic features and sinkhole density at each sinkhole location. Nine conditioning factors on sinkhole occurrence were considered as independent variables: distance to faults, fold axes, fracture traces oriented along bedrock strike, fracture traces oriented across bedrock strike, ponds, streams, springs, quarries, and interpolated depth to groundwater. GWR model parameter estimates for each variable were evaluated for significance, and the results were mapped. The results provide visual insight into the influence of these variables on localized sinkhole density, and can be used to provide an objective means of weighting conditioning factors in models of sinkhole susceptibility or hazard risk.

  10. Occurrence of avian Plasmodium and West Nile virus in culex species in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, T.; Irwin, P.; Hofmeister, E.; Paskewitz, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of multiple pathogens in mosquitoes and birds could affect the dynamics of disease transmission. We collected adult Culex pipiens and Cx. restuans (Cx. pipiens/restuans hereafter) from sites in Wisconsin and tested them for West Nile virus (WNV) and for avian malaria (Plasmodium). Gravid Cx. pipiens/restuans were tested for WNV using a commercial immunoassay, the RAMP?? WNV test, and positive results were verified by reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction. There were 2 WNV-positive pools of Cx. pipiens/restuans in 2006 and 1 in 2007. Using a bias-corrected maximum likelihood estimation, the WNV infection rate for Cx. pipiens/restuans was 5.48/1,000 mosquitoes in 2006 and 1.08/1,000 mosquitoes in 2007. Gravid Cx. pipiens or Cx. restuans were tested individually for avian Plasmodium by a restriction enzymebased assay. Twelve mosquitoes were positive for avian Plasmodium (10.0), 2 were positive for Haemoproteus, and 3 were positive for Leucocytozoon. There were 4 mixed infections, with mosquitoes positive for >1 of the hemosporidian parasites. This work documents a high rate of hemosporidian infection in Culex spp. and illustrates the potential for co-infections with other arboviruses in bird-feeding mosquitoes and their avian hosts. In addition, hemosporidian infection rates may be a useful tool for investigating the ecological dynamics of Culex/avian interactions. ?? 2010 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc.

  11. Factors associated with the occurrence of Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in rural localities of Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Juliana Chedid Nogared; Duarte, Elisabeth C; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    This study estimates the factors of artificial environments (houses and peridomestic areas) associated with Triatoma sordida occurrence. Manual searches for triatomines were performed in 136 domiciliary units (DUs) in two rural localities of Central-West Brazil. For each DU, 32 structural, 23 biotic and 28 management variables were obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed in order to identify statistically significant variables associated with occurrence of T. sordida in the study areas. A total of 1,057 specimens (99% in peridomiciles, mainly chicken coops) of T. sordida were collected from 63 DUs (infestation: 47%; density: ~8 specimens/DU; crowding: ~17 specimens/infested DU; colonisation: 81%). Only six (0.6%) out of 945 specimens examined were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The final adjusted logistic regression model indicated that the probability of T. sordida occurrence was higher in DU with wooden chicken coops, presence of > 30 animals in wooden corrals, presence of wood piles and presence of food storeroom. The results show the persistence of T. sordida in peridomestic habitats in rural localities of Central-West Brazil. However, the observed low intradomestic colonisation and minimal triatomine infection rates indicate that T. sordida has low potential to sustain high rates of T. cruzi transmission to residents of these localities. PMID:25946242

  12. Occurrence of West Nile virus antibodies in wild birds, horses, and humans in Poland.

    PubMed

    Niczyporuk, Jowita Samanta; Samorek-Salamonowicz, Elżbieta; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Pancewicz, Sławomir Andrzej; Kozdruń, Wojciech; Czekaj, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Serum samples of 474 wild birds, 378 horses, and 42 humans with meningitis and lymphocytic meningitis were collected between 2010 and 2014 from different areas of Poland. West Nile virus (WNV) antibodies were detected using competition enzyme linked immunosorbent assays: ELISA-1 ID Screen West Nile Competition, IDvet, ELISA-2 ID Screen West Nile IgM Capture, and ELISA-3 Ingezim West Nile Compac. The antibodies were found in 63 (13.29%) out of 474 wild bird serum samples and in one (0.26%) out of 378 horse serum samples. Fourteen (33.33%) out of 42 sera from patients were positive against WNV antigen and one serum was doubtful. Positive samples obtained in birds were next retested with virus microneutralisation test to confirm positive results and cross-reactions with other antigens of the Japanese encephalitis complex. We suspect that positive serological results in humans, birds, and horses indicate that WNV can be somehow closely related with the ecosystem in Poland.

  13. Occurrence of West Nile Virus Antibodies in Wild Birds, Horses, and Humans in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Niczyporuk, Jowita Samanta; Samorek-Salamonowicz, Elżbieta; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Pancewicz, Sławomir Andrzej; Kozdruń, Wojciech; Czekaj, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Serum samples of 474 wild birds, 378 horses, and 42 humans with meningitis and lymphocytic meningitis were collected between 2010 and 2014 from different areas of Poland. West Nile virus (WNV) antibodies were detected using competition enzyme linked immunosorbent assays: ELISA-1 ID Screen West Nile Competition, IDvet, ELISA-2 ID Screen West Nile IgM Capture, and ELISA-3 Ingezim West Nile Compac. The antibodies were found in 63 (13.29%) out of 474 wild bird serum samples and in one (0.26%) out of 378 horse serum samples. Fourteen (33.33%) out of 42 sera from patients were positive against WNV antigen and one serum was doubtful. Positive samples obtained in birds were next retested with virus microneutralisation test to confirm positive results and cross-reactions with other antigens of the Japanese encephalitis complex. We suspect that positive serological results in humans, birds, and horses indicate that WNV can be somehow closely related with the ecosystem in Poland. PMID:25866767

  14. Five centuries of U.S. West Coast drought: Occurrence, spatial distribution, and associated atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Erika K.

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. West Coast drought commencing in 2012 developed in association with a large, persistent high-pressure ridge linked to internal atmospheric variability. This study places the occurrence, spatial patterns, and associated circulation features of West Coast drought into a paleoclimate context through a synoptic dendroclimatology approach linking atmospheric circulation to surface hydroclimate patterns. Spatial reconstructions of upper atmosphere pressure patterns and cool-season drought show that West Coast-wide drought, although relatively rare compared to north-south dipole drought, has occurred periodically since 1500 Common Era and is consistently associated with a strong ridge centered along the Pacific Northwest coast. Atmospheric blocking is also linked to north-dry dipole droughts, while south-dry and wider Western droughts indicate La Niña-type patterns. The transition latitude between the northern and southern sides of the western precipitation dipole, important for California hydroclimate patterns, has had frequent year-to-year fluctuations but remained centered on 40°N over the past five centuries.

  15. Manatee occurrence in the northern Gulf of Mexico, west of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fertl, D.; Schiro, A. J.; Regan, G. T.; Beck, Cathy A.; Adimey, N.; Price-May, L.; Amos, A.; Worthy, Graham A.J.; Crossland, R.

    2005-01-01

    Reports of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) in the US Gulf of Mexico west of Florida have increased during the last decade. We reviewed all available manatee sighting, capture, and carcass records (n = 377) from Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas since the early 1900s; only 40 of these were previously published. Manatees were reported most often in estuarine habitats, usually either near a freshwater source or natural or industrial warm-water springs/runoffs during winter months. The recent increase in manatee records may be due to a combination of increased public awareness and dispersal of manatees, most likely seasonal migrants from Florida. We caution that the presence of artificial warm-water sources outside of the manatee’s traditional range may attract an increasing number of manatees and could increase the incidence of cold-related mortality in this region.

  16. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products along the West Prong Little Pigeon River in east Tennessee, USA.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chang-Ping; Chu, Kung-Hui

    2009-06-01

    Presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment has received a great attention due to their potential impacts on public health. This study examined the occurrence of PPCPs in West Prong Little Pigeon River in east Tennessee. As wastewater is a major source for environmental occurrence of PPCPs, both wastewater and river water samples were analyzed for nine target PPCPs and their estrogenicity. No estrogens were detected in influent, secondary effluent, and river samples. However, ibuprofen, caffeine, triclosan, bisphenol A, and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) were detected in the influent. Ibuprofen, triclosan, and DEHP were detected in the secondary effluent samples. Only ibuprofen and triclosan were detected in river water collected near a wastewater outfall. Based on yeast estrogenic screening (YES) assays, estrogenic activities were observed in all influent, secondary effluent, and river water samples. Increased estrogenic activities were observed in river right after receiving effluent discharge, and the activities decreased as river water flowing away from the outfall. The estrogenicities of water samples measured from YES assays were much higher than those estimated from PPCP concentrations and their known estrogenicities, suggesting the presence of other unknown estrogenic compounds and/or additive effects of mixtures of estrogenic compounds at low concentrations. Results of this study demonstrated that wastewater contributed to environmental occurrence of PPCPs in the receiving water. As there is a myriad of known and unknown PPCPs in wastewater, in additional to chemical analysis, estrogenic bioassays are needed for assessing estrogenicity of environmental samples.

  17. Occurrence of bilaterally independent epileptic spasms after a corpus callosotomy in West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Endoh, Fumika; Toda, Yoshihiro; Oka, Makio; Baba, Hiroshi; Ohtsuka, Yoko; Yoshinaga, Harumi

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with intractable West syndrome whose epileptic spasms (ESs) were initially bilaterally synchronous, as is typical; after a complete corpus callosotomy, however, bilaterally independent ESs originated in either hemisphere. Activity of probable cortical origin associated with ESs was detected by observing ictal gamma oscillations. Brain MRI revealed no structural abnormality before surgery. This case suggests that ESs with a hemispheric origin may appear generalized because of synchronizing effects in the corpus callosum in some patients.

  18. Occurrence of oil and gas in Devonian shales and equivalents in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Schwietering, J. F.

    1981-03-01

    During the Devonian, an epicontinental sea was present in the Appalachian basin. The Catskill Clastic Wedge was formed in the eastern part of the basin by sediments derived from land along the margin of the continent. Three facies are recognized in the Catskill Clastic Wedge: (1) a red-bed facies deposited in terrestrial and nearshore marine environments; (2) a gray shale and sandstone facies deposited in a shallow- to moderately-deep marine environment; and (3) a dark-gray shale and siltstone facies deposited in the deepest part of the epicontinental sea. Oil and natural gas are being produced from Devonian shales in the western part of West Virginia and from upper Devonian sandstones and siltstones in the north-central part of the state. It is suggested that in addition to extending known areas of gas production, that drilling for natural gas be conducted in areas underlain by organic-rich shales and thick zones of interbedded siltstone and shale in the Devonian section in central, southern, and western West Virginia. The most promising areas for exploration are those areas where fractures are associated with folds, faults, and lineaments. 60 references.

  19. Influence of hydrocarbon composition and geologic conditions of occurrence of West Siberian crudes on quality of products

    SciTech Connect

    Mkhchiyan, M.A.; Kaminskii, E.F.; Polyakova, A.A.; Driatskaya, Z.V.; Titkina, G.I.

    1987-07-01

    The physicochemical characteristics and hydrocarbon composition of West Siberian crudes vary greatly from one crude to another, owing to the influence of the tectonic position of the deposit and the stratigraphic confinement and depth of occurrence of the oil. A more detailed and fundamental study of the structure and composition of the hydrocarbons making up fuels, oils, and petrochemical feedstocks was performed in accordance with following scheme: the crudes were distilled in ARN-2 apparatus in accordance with GOST 11011-85; the diesel fuel and lube cuts, the vacuum distillates, and the residue above 350/sup 0/C were subjected to chromatographic separation (on ASK silica gel) into saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, and resins. The composition and structure of the individual groups of hydrocarbons were established by means of IR and UV spectroscopy and mass spectrometry.

  20. Occurrence of acid precipitation on the West Coast of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, C.F.; Rambo, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Compilation of published and unpublished data shows acid precipitation to be more widespread in the Pacific coastal states than is generally recognized. Although information is scattered and discontinuous, precipitation is definitely acidic in the Los Angeles Basin and north-central California and in the Puget Sound region in Washington. Acid-rain occurrences were observed in western and eastern Oregon, but data are inadequate for regional generalization. New stations currently being established in Washington and Oregon, largely in response to the recently renewed activity of Mount St. Helens, will greatly facilitate assessment of precipitation acidity in the Northwest.

  1. The occurrence of acid precipitation on the west coast of the United States.

    PubMed

    Powers, C F; Rambo, D L

    1981-06-01

    Compilation of published and unpublished data shows acid precipitation to be more widespread in the Pacific coastal states than is generally recognized. Although information is scattered and discontinuous, precipitation is definitely acidic in the Los Angeles Basin and north-central california, and in the Puget Sound region in Washington. Acid rain occurrences have been observed in western and eastern Oregon, but data are inadequate for regional generalization. New stations currently being established in Washington and Oregon, largely in resposnse to the recently renewed activity of Mount St. Helens, will greatly facilitate assessment of precipitation acidity in the Northwest.

  2. Landscape, demographic and climatic associations with human West Nile virus occurrence regionally in 2012 in the United States of America.

    PubMed

    DeGroote, John P; Sugumaran, Ramanathan; Ecker, Mark

    2014-11-01

    After several years of low West Nile virus (WNV) occurrence in the United States of America (USA), 2012 witnessed large outbreaks in several parts of the country. In order to understand the outbreak dynamics, spatial clustering and landscape, demographic and climatic associations with WNV occurrence were investigated at a regional level in the USA. Previous research has demonstrated that there are a handful of prominent WNV mosquito vectors with varying ecological requirements responsible for WNV transmission in the USA. Published range maps of these important vectors were georeferenced and used to define eight functional ecological regions in the coterminous USA. The number of human WNV cases and human populations by county were attained in order to calculate a WNV rate for each county in 2012. Additionally, a binary value (high/low) was calculated for each county based on whether the county WNV rate was above or below the rate for the region it fell in. Global Moran's I and Anselin Local Moran's I statistics of spatial association were used per region to examine and visualize clustering of the WNV rate and the high/low rating. Spatial data on landscape, demographic and climatic variables were compiled and derived from a variety of sources and then investigated in relation to human WNV using both Spearman rho correlation coefficients and Poisson regression models. Findings demonstrated significant spatial clustering of WNV and substantial inter-regional differences in relationships between WNV occurrence and landscape, demographic and climatically related variables. The regional associations were consistent with the ecologies of the dominant vectors for those regions. The large outbreak in the Southeast region was preceded by higher than normal winter and spring precipitation followed by dry and hot conditions in the summer. PMID:25545933

  3. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in the environmental matrices from King George Island, west Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghua; Chen, Zhaojing; Li, Yingming; Wang, Pu; Zhu, Chaofei; Gao, Guanjun; Xiao, Ke; Sun, Huizhong; Zheng, Shucheng; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-11-01

    Antarctica is considered as a final sink of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This work aims to investigate the levels, distributions and potential sources of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with HRGC/HRMS technique. Twenty-three OCPs were measured in various environmental matrices from King George Island, west Antarctica. The total concentrations (Σ23OCPs) were at quite low levels, ranging 93.6-1260 pg g(-1) dry weight (dw) in soil and sediment, 223-1053 pg g(-1) dw in moss and 373-812 pg g(-1) dw in lichen. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (especially p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the main contaminants in all samples. Lower α-HCH/γ-HCH and higher p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios compared with the technical products indicated long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) of recent lindane and aged technical DDT. Significant dependence of many OCPs concentrations on total organic carbon (TOC) was observed. Apart from LRAT, local biotic activities could also contribute and influence the spatial distribution of the contaminants.

  4. Occurrence of cotton herbicides and insecticides in playa lakes of the High Plains of West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Bastian, K.C.; Mollhagen, T.

    2000-01-01

    During the summer of 1997, water samples were collected and analyzed for pesticides from 32 playa lakes of the High Plains that receive drainage from both cotton and corn agriculture in West Texas. The major cotton herbicides detected in the water samples were diuron, fluometuron, metolachlor, norflurazon, and prometryn. Atrazine and propazine, corn and sorghum herbicides, were also routinely detected in samples from the playa lakes. Furthermore, the metabolites of all the herbicides studied were found in the playa lake samples. In some cases, the concentration of metabolites was equal to or exceeded the concentration of the parent compound. The types of metabolites detected suggested that the parent compounds had been transported to and had undergone degradation in the playa lakes. The types of metabolites and the ratio of metabolites to parent compounds may be useful in indicating the time that the herbicides were transported to the playa lakes. The median concentration of total herbicides was 7.2 ??g/l, with the largest total concentrations exceeding 30 ??g/l. Organophosphate insecticides were detected in only one water sample. Further work will improve the understanding of the fate of these compounds in the playa lake area. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  5. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in the environmental matrices from King George Island, west Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghua; Chen, Zhaojing; Li, Yingming; Wang, Pu; Zhu, Chaofei; Gao, Guanjun; Xiao, Ke; Sun, Huizhong; Zheng, Shucheng; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-11-01

    Antarctica is considered as a final sink of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This work aims to investigate the levels, distributions and potential sources of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with HRGC/HRMS technique. Twenty-three OCPs were measured in various environmental matrices from King George Island, west Antarctica. The total concentrations (Σ23OCPs) were at quite low levels, ranging 93.6-1260 pg g(-1) dry weight (dw) in soil and sediment, 223-1053 pg g(-1) dw in moss and 373-812 pg g(-1) dw in lichen. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (especially p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the main contaminants in all samples. Lower α-HCH/γ-HCH and higher p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios compared with the technical products indicated long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) of recent lindane and aged technical DDT. Significant dependence of many OCPs concentrations on total organic carbon (TOC) was observed. Apart from LRAT, local biotic activities could also contribute and influence the spatial distribution of the contaminants. PMID:26162333

  6. Natural occurrence of Fusarium and subsequent fumonisin contamination in preharvest and stored maize in Benin, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Fandohan, P; Gnonlonfin, B; Hell, K; Marasas, W F O; Wingfield, M J

    2005-03-15

    The natural occurrence of Fusarium and fumonisin contamination was evaluated from 1999 to 2003 in both preharvest and stored maize produced by small-scale farmers in four agroecological zones of Benin. Mycological analyses revealed a predominance of both Fusarium and Aspergillus in maize samples compared to other genera. The two Fusarium species most commonly isolated from maize were Fusarium verticillioides (68%) and Fusarium proliferatum (31%). Atypical isolates of F. verticillioides with some characteristics of Fusarium andiyazi but apparently closer to F. verticillioides, because the isolates were all high fumonisin producers, were also found only on preharvest maize. Study of F. verticillioides strains showed the presence of extremely high fumonisin producers in Benin with total fumonisin levels ranging from 8240 to 16,690 mg/kg. Apart from 2002-2003, Fusarium occurrence was not significantly different from one zone to another, although a slight decrease was observed from south, humid, to north, drier. Fusarium occurrence varied somewhat from one season to another. It significantly decreased over the 6 months of storage. Widespread fumonisin occurrence in maize was observed. Most of the maize samples collected were found positive for fumonisin with levels ranging from not detected to 12 mg/kg in 1999-2000, 6.7 mg/kg in 2000-2001 and 6.1 mg/kg in 2002-2003. Fumonisin levels in maize were found to be significantly higher in the two southern zones during all the surveys. The highest mean total fumonisin level was detected in 1999-2000 in maize samples from the southern Guinea Savannah (SGS) (12 mg/kg), whereas in both 2000-2001 and 2002-2003, it was in samples from the forest mosaic savannah (FMS) (6.7 and 6.1 mg/kg, respectively). Fumonisin levels varied from one season to another and, throughout the storage time, showing a decreasing trend in each zone. However, this decrease was not significant every season. An increasing trend was observed during some seasons

  7. AnthWest, occurrence records for wool carder bees of the genus Anthidium (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae, Anthidiini) in the Western Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Griswold, Terry; Gonzalez, Victor H; Ikerd, Harold

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes AnthWest, a large dataset that represents one of the outcomes of a comprehensive, broadly comparative study on the diversity, biology, biogeography, and evolution of Anthidium Fabricius in the Western Hemisphere. In this dataset a total of 22,648 adult occurrence records comprising 9657 unique events are documented for 92 species of Anthidium, including the invasive range of two introduced species from Eurasia, A. oblongatum (Illiger) and A. manicatum (Linnaeus). The geospatial coverage of the dataset extends from northern Canada and Alaska to southern Argentina, and from below sea level in Death Valley, California, USA, to 4700 m a.s.l. in Tucumán, Argentina. The majority of records in the dataset correspond to information recorded from individual specimens examined by the authors during this project and deposited in 60 biodiversity collections located in Africa, Europe, North and South America. A fraction (4.8%) of the occurrence records were taken from the literature, largely California records from a taxonomic treatment with some additional records for the two introduced species. The temporal scale of the dataset represents collection events recorded between 1886 and 2012. The dataset was developed employing SQL server 2008 r2. For each specimen, the following information is generally provided: scientific name including identification qualifier when species status is uncertain (e.g. "Questionable Determination" for 0.4% of the specimens), sex, temporal and geospatial details, coordinates, data collector, host plants, associated organisms, name of identifier, historic identification, historic identifier, taxonomic value (i.e., type specimen, voucher, etc.), and repository. For a small portion of the database records, bees associated with threatened or endangered plants (~ 0.08% of total records) as well as specimens collected as part of unpublished biological inventories (~17%), georeferencing is presented only to nearest degree and the

  8. AnthWest, occurrence records for wool carder bees of the genus Anthidium (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae, Anthidiini) in the Western Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Griswold, Terry; Gonzalez, Victor H.; Ikerd, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes AnthWest, a large dataset that represents one of the outcomes of a comprehensive, broadly comparative study on the diversity, biology, biogeography, and evolution of Anthidium Fabricius in the Western Hemisphere. In this dataset a total of 22,648 adult occurrence records comprising 9657 unique events are documented for 92 species of Anthidium, including the invasive range of two introduced species from Eurasia, A. oblongatum (Illiger) and A. manicatum (Linnaeus). The geospatial coverage of the dataset extends from northern Canada and Alaska to southern Argentina, and from below sea level in Death Valley, California, USA, to 4700 m a.s.l. in Tucumán, Argentina. The majority of records in the dataset correspond to information recorded from individual specimens examined by the authors during this project and deposited in 60 biodiversity collections located in Africa, Europe, North and South America. A fraction (4.8%) of the occurrence records were taken from the literature, largely California records from a taxonomic treatment with some additional records for the two introduced species. The temporal scale of the dataset represents collection events recorded between 1886 and 2012. The dataset was developed employing SQL server 2008 r2. For each specimen, the following information is generally provided: scientific name including identification qualifier when species status is uncertain (e.g. “Questionable Determination” for 0.4% of the specimens), sex, temporal and geospatial details, coordinates, data collector, host plants, associated organisms, name of identifier, historic identification, historic identifier, taxonomic value (i.e., type specimen, voucher, etc.), and repository. For a small portion of the database records, bees associated with threatened or endangered plants (~ 0.08% of total records) as well as specimens collected as part of unpublished biological inventories (~17%), georeferencing is presented only to nearest

  9. Hydrogeologic framework and occurrence, movement, and chemical characterization of groundwater in Dixie Valley, west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntington, Jena M.; Garcia, C. Amanda; Rosen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Dixie Valley, a primarily undeveloped basin in west-central Nevada, is being considered for groundwater exportation. Proposed pumping would occur from the basin-fill aquifer. In response to proposed exportation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and Churchill County, conducted a study to improve the understanding of groundwater resources in Dixie Valley. The objective of this report is to characterize the hydrogeologic framework, the occurrence and movement of groundwater, the general water quality of the basin-fill aquifer, and the potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers in Dixie Valley. Various types of geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical data were compiled from previous studies and collected in support of this study. Hydrogeologic units in Dixie Valley were defined to characterize rocks and sediments with similar lithologies and hydraulic properties influencing groundwater flow. Hydraulic properties of the basin-fill deposits were characterized by transmissivity estimated from aquifer tests and specific-capacity tests. Groundwater-level measurements and hydrogeologic-unit data were combined to create a potentiometric surface map and to characterize groundwater occurrence and movement. Subsurface inflow from adjacent valleys into Dixie Valley through the basin-fill aquifer was evaluated using hydraulic gradients and Darcy flux computations. The chemical signature and groundwater quality of the Dixie Valley basin-fill aquifer, and potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers, were evaluated using chemical data collected from wells and springs during the current study and from previous investigations. Dixie Valley is the terminus of the Dixie Valley flow system, which includes Pleasant, Jersey, Fairview, Stingaree, Cowkick, and Eastgate Valleys. The freshwater aquifer in the study area is composed of unconsolidated basin-fill deposits of Quaternary age. The basin-fill hydrogeologic unit

  10. Hydrogeologic framework and occurrence, movement, and chemical characterization of groundwater in Dixie Valley, west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntington, Jena M.; Garcia, C. Amanda; Rosen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Dixie Valley, a primarily undeveloped basin in west-central Nevada, is being considered for groundwater exportation. Proposed pumping would occur from the basin-fill aquifer. In response to proposed exportation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and Churchill County, conducted a study to improve the understanding of groundwater resources in Dixie Valley. The objective of this report is to characterize the hydrogeologic framework, the occurrence and movement of groundwater, the general water quality of the basin-fill aquifer, and the potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers in Dixie Valley. Various types of geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical data were compiled from previous studies and collected in support of this study. Hydrogeologic units in Dixie Valley were defined to characterize rocks and sediments with similar lithologies and hydraulic properties influencing groundwater flow. Hydraulic properties of the basin-fill deposits were characterized by transmissivity estimated from aquifer tests and specific-capacity tests. Groundwater-level measurements and hydrogeologic-unit data were combined to create a potentiometric surface map and to characterize groundwater occurrence and movement. Subsurface inflow from adjacent valleys into Dixie Valley through the basin-fill aquifer was evaluated using hydraulic gradients and Darcy flux computations. The chemical signature and groundwater quality of the Dixie Valley basin-fill aquifer, and potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers, were evaluated using chemical data collected from wells and springs during the current study and from previous investigations. Dixie Valley is the terminus of the Dixie Valley flow system, which includes Pleasant, Jersey, Fairview, Stingaree, Cowkick, and Eastgate Valleys. The freshwater aquifer in the study area is composed of unconsolidated basin-fill deposits of Quaternary age. The basin-fill hydrogeologic unit

  11. Geologic Controls of Hydrocarbon Occurrence in the Appalachian Basin in Eastern Tennessee, Southwestern Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, and Southern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, Robert D

    2005-11-30

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of a three-year program to investigate the geologic controls of hydrocarbon occurrence in the southern Appalachian basin in eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia. The project: (1) employed the petroleum system approach to understand the geologic controls of hydrocarbons; (2) attempted to characterize the P-T parameters driving petroleum evolution; (3) attempted to obtain more quantitative definitions of reservoir architecture and identify new traps; (4) is worked with USGS and industry partners to develop new play concepts and geophysical log standards for subsurface correlation; and (5) geochemically characterized the hydrocarbons (cooperatively with USGS). Third-year results include: All project milestones have been met and addressed. We also have disseminated this research and related information through presentations at professional meetings, convening a major workshop in August 2003, and the publication of results. Our work in geophysical log correlation in the Middle Ordovician units is bearing fruit in recognition that the criteria developed locally in Tennessee and southern Kentucky are more extendible than anticipated earlier. We have identified a major 60 mi-long structure in the western part of the Valley and Ridge thrust belt that has been successfully tested by a local independent and is now producing commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. If this structure is productive along strike, it will be one of the largest producing structures in the Appalachians. We are completing a more quantitative structural reconstruction of the Valley and Ridge and Cumberland Plateau than has been made before. This should yield major dividends in future exploration in the southern Appalachian basin. Our work in mapping, retrodeformation, and modeling of the Sevier basin is a major component of the understanding of the Ordovician petroleum system in this region. Prior to our

  12. Occurrence of toxigenic Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in selected food commodities of Asian origin sourced in the West of Scotland.

    PubMed

    Ruadrew, Sayan; Craft, John; Aidoo, Kofi

    2013-05-01

    The occurrence of Aspergillus moulds and aflatoxins in 12 commercially-available dried foods of Asian origin were examined. All food samples, except green beans and three types of dried fruit, contained multiple genera of moulds of which Aspergillus (55%) was the most frequently detected. Penicillium (15%), Rhizopus (11%), Mucor (3%), Monascus (1%), Eurotium (1%) and unidentified (14%) were also observed. The occurrence of aflatoxigenic moulds, however, did not correspond with the occurrence of aflatoxins in foods. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus spp. (39 isolates) were recovered from long grain rice, fragrant rice, peanuts, black beans and black pepper. The predominant Aspergillus species was A. parasiticus (61%) while Aspergillus oryzae (3%), Aspergillus utus (5%), Aspergillus niger (5%), Aspergillus ochraceus (3%) and unidentified (23%) were also observed. Long grain rice, fragrant rice, peanuts, black beans and black pepper were positive for Aspergillus but contained undetectable aflatoxins. In contrast, Jasmine brown rice and crushed chilli contained 14.7 and 11.4μg/kg of total aflatoxins, respectively, in the absence of Aspergillus so aflatoxigenic Aspergillus was present at some stage of food production. The results from this study emphasise the need for stricter control measures in reducing occurrence of aflatoxins in foods for export and domestic use.

  13. Spatial and Temporal Occurrence of Blue Whales off the U.S. West Coast, with Implications for Management

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Ladd M.; Mate, Bruce R.; Winsor, Martha H.; Palacios, Daniel M.; Bograd, Steven J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Bailey, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the ‘home range’ (HR) and ‘core areas’ (CAU) as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Niño and La Niña conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels. PMID:25054829

  14. Spatial and temporal occurrence of blue whales off the U.S. West Coast, with implications for management.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Ladd M; Mate, Bruce R; Winsor, Martha H; Palacios, Daniel M; Bograd, Steven J; Costa, Daniel P; Bailey, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the 'home range' (HR) and 'core areas' (CAU) as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Niño and La Niña conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels.

  15. Spatial and temporal occurrence of blue whales off the U.S. West Coast, with implications for management.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Ladd M; Mate, Bruce R; Winsor, Martha H; Palacios, Daniel M; Bograd, Steven J; Costa, Daniel P; Bailey, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the 'home range' (HR) and 'core areas' (CAU) as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Niño and La Niña conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels. PMID:25054829

  16. The improbable but unexceptional occurrence of megadrought clustering in the American West during the Medieval Climate Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, Sloan; Smerdon, Jason E.; Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Seager, Richard

    2016-07-01

    The five most severe and persistent droughts in the American West (AW) during the Common Era occurred during a 450 year period known as the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA—850-1299 C.E.). Herein we use timeseries modeling to estimate the probability of such a period of hydroclimate change occurring. Clustering of severe and persistent drought during an MCA-length period occurs in approximately 10% of surrogate timeseries that were constructed to have the same characteristics as a tree-ring derived estimate of AW hydroclimate variability between 850 and 2005 C.E. Periods of hydroclimate change like the MCA are thus expected to occur in the AW, although not frequently, with a recurrence interval of approximately 11 000 years. Importantly, a shift in mean hydroclimate conditions during the MCA is found to be necessary for drought to reach the severity and persistence of the actual MCA megadroughts. This result has consequences for our understanding of the atmosphere-ocean dynamics underlying the MCA and a persistently warm Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation is suggested to have played an important role in causing megadrought clustering during this period.

  17. Occurrence of chiral organochlorine compounds in the environmental matrices from King George Island and Ardley Island, west Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Yingming; Zhu, Chaofei; Chen, Zhaojing; Zheng, Shucheng; Sun, Huizhong; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-01-01

    Chiral organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in various environmental matrices (air, soil and vegetation) from west Antarctica using high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). They were generally detected at a global background level compared with the previous studies. α-HCH and PCB-183 was observed in all the matrices except PCB-183 in two soil samples, while PCB-95, -136, -149, -174, -176 and o,p’-DDT were detected in most air but only a few solid matrices. Enantiomeric fractions (EFs) indicated that nonracemic residues of chiral OCs occurred in all the matrices and a wide variation of the EF values was observed in the vegetation. There was significant discrepancy between the EF values of PCB-183 and the racemic values, indicating that stereoselective depletion of PCB-183 was probably associated with the water-air exchange. The EFs values of α-HCH were generally lower than the racemic values but no statistical difference was obtained in all the matrices except lichen, supporting the assumption that water-air exchange may make influence on long-range transport of α-HCH. PMID:26354713

  18. Occurrence of chiral organochlorine compounds in the environmental matrices from King George Island and Ardley Island, west Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Yingming; Zhu, Chaofei; Chen, Zhaojing; Zheng, Shucheng; Sun, Huizhong; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-01-01

    Chiral organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in various environmental matrices (air, soil and vegetation) from west Antarctica using high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). They were generally detected at a global background level compared with the previous studies. α-HCH and PCB-183 was observed in all the matrices except PCB-183 in two soil samples, while PCB-95, -136, -149, -174, -176 and o,p'-DDT were detected in most air but only a few solid matrices. Enantiomeric fractions (EFs) indicated that nonracemic residues of chiral OCs occurred in all the matrices and a wide variation of the EF values was observed in the vegetation. There was significant discrepancy between the EF values of PCB-183 and the racemic values, indicating that stereoselective depletion of PCB-183 was probably associated with the water-air exchange. The EFs values of α-HCH were generally lower than the racemic values but no statistical difference was obtained in all the matrices except lichen, supporting the assumption that water-air exchange may make influence on long-range transport of α-HCH. PMID:26354713

  19. Occurrence of chiral organochlorine compounds in the environmental matrices from King George Island and Ardley Island, west Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Yingming; Zhu, Chaofei; Chen, Zhaojing; Zheng, Shucheng; Sun, Huizhong; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-09-01

    Chiral organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in various environmental matrices (air, soil and vegetation) from west Antarctica using high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). They were generally detected at a global background level compared with the previous studies. α-HCH and PCB-183 was observed in all the matrices except PCB-183 in two soil samples, while PCB-95, -136, -149, -174, -176 and o,p’-DDT were detected in most air but only a few solid matrices. Enantiomeric fractions (EFs) indicated that nonracemic residues of chiral OCs occurred in all the matrices and a wide variation of the EF values was observed in the vegetation. There was significant discrepancy between the EF values of PCB-183 and the racemic values, indicating that stereoselective depletion of PCB-183 was probably associated with the water-air exchange. The EFs values of α-HCH were generally lower than the racemic values but no statistical difference was obtained in all the matrices except lichen, supporting the assumption that water-air exchange may make influence on long-range transport of α-HCH.

  20. An unusual occurrence of arsenic-bearing pyrite in the Upper Freeport coal bed, West-Central Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, L.F.; Minkin, J.A.; McGee, J.J.; Cecil, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analysis were used to identify a rare type of As-bearing pyrite in selected specific gravity separates from the Pennsylvanian age Upper Freeport coal bed, west-central Pennsylvania. Arsenic was detected mainly in cell-wall replacement pyrite where concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 1.9 wt %. Although the majority of arsenic-bearing pyrite in the Upper Freeport coal bed is concentrated in massive and late diagenetic pyrite morphologies, the rarer As-bearing cell-replacement pyrite was observed in both light and heavy gravity separates from the three coal facies examined. Arsenic was occasionally detected in cell-filling replacement pyrite, but this As appears to be an artifact produced by signals from underlying and/or adjacent As-bearing cell-wall replacement pyrite. It is postulated that some plants of the Upper Freeport paleoswamp may have biomethylated As, which later could have been converted to dimethylarsine or other volatile organoarsenic compounds by either biologically or chemically driven processes. Once liberated, the arsenic may have been incorporated into pyrite during pyritization of the cell walls. The As incorporation occurred early, before significant compaction of the peat, because the pyritized cell walls are not compacted.

  1. Occurrence of Clinical and Sub-Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds in the West Littoral Region in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Gianneechini, R; Concha, C; Rivero, R; Delucci, I; López, J Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-nine dairy farms were selected to determine the incidence of clinical mastitis, prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis and bacterial aetiology in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay. In samples taken by the owner and frozen at -20°C during a week the incidence rate of clinical mastitis was determined as 1.2 cases per 100 cow-months at risk. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated pathogen in 37.5% of 40 milk samples from clinical cases obtained in 1 month. No bacteria grew in the 32.5% of the total samples. A sub-sample including 1077 dairy cows from randomly selected farms was used to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. These samples were taken on one visit to each farm. The prevalence was 52.4% on a cow basis and 26.7% on an udder quarter basis. In 55.1% of the quarters of the selected animals with more than 300 000 cells/ml there was no growth. The isolated pathogens from sub-clinical cases and their relative frequencies were: Staphylococcus aureus 62.8%, Streptococcus agalactiae 11.3%, Enterococcus sp. 8%, coagulase-negative staphylococci 7.4%, Streptococus uberis 6.4%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae 1.8%, Escherichia coli 1.5% and Staphylococcus hyicus coagulase-positive 0.6%. PMID:12831175

  2. Combinatory Mediterranean-Sudanese systems role in the occurrence of heavy rainfalls (case study: south west of Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbary, Mehry

    2015-12-01

    Sudanese systems are low-pressure thermal s ystems which originate from the Red Sea and their low-pressure isoheights are detectable around south of the Red Sea, Sudan and Ethiopia. These systems when combined with Mediterranean troughs in cold seasons, and absorbing more humidity from the Red Sea, reach the south west of Iran and result in heavy rainfalls in western, southwestern and southern parts of Iran. In all these synoptic-dynamic systems, low-pressure isobars or low isoheights are considerable. 11 severe torrents which happened in southwest of Iran (1998-2008) are selected and using Japanese ReAnalysis data (JRA25), anomalies of dynamic and thermodynamic indices 2 days prior to the start of heavy rainfalls and during rainy days have been analyzed. The selected indices in this research are relative vorticity, convergence and divergence, vorticity advection, specific humidity and moisture advection. Pressure levels of 500 and 700 were analyzed to detect the location of troughs, vorticity and vertical wind velocity. Also level of 1000 hPa was investigated to determine the atmospheric convergence in near surface levels. It should be mentioned that to determine the advection of moisture, vertical profile of moisture advection (1000-250 hPa levels) was analyzed. According to the results of this research and analyzing 6-hourly recorded rainfall amounts, it is understood that in the reference events, before the start of the torrent, geopotential height values in the under-studied region decrease and at the time of maximum rainfalls, the geopotential height reaches to its lowest values and by the end of the torrent, the values start increasing; whereas parameters related to convergence and vertical movements, such as relative vorticity, moisture advection, convergence of moisture and specific humidity amounts correspond to the same trend of rainfall from the beginning to the end.

  3. Effect of pH on the distribution and occurrence of aquatic fungi in six West Virginia mountain streams

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, T.; Stephenson, S.L.; Edwards, P.J.

    1994-11-01

    Aquatic fungi in six streams located on or near the Fernow Experimental Forest in Tucker County, West Virginia, were studied during the 1991 and 1992 growing seasons. Water pH was >5.9 in three of the streams, while the others were more acidic, with average pH = 4.2, 3.9, and 3.2. Sampling methods included (1) isolating conidia from stream water using membrane filtration, (2) placing bags containing leaves of four tree species in the streams for periods ranging from 2 to 16 wk, and (3) baiting the streams with various types of other organic material. The stream mycoflora included 156 taxa (47 zoosporic fungi [chytridiaceous fungi and water molds] and 109 hyphomycetes [60 Ingoldian and 49 non-Ingoldian forms]). Twenty-seven taxa of zoosporic fungi were recorded from the stream with the highest pH (7.9); only 15 to 18 taxa were collected from other streams. Based on conidia filtered from water samples, the number of taxa of hyphomycetes generally was lower in streams with low pH; however, fewest conidia were recorded at the two extremes of the pH gradient. Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) leaves were colonized by an average of 16.0 hyphomycete taxa in the six streams, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) by 15.3 taxa, and mixed red maple (A. rubrum L.), and American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) by 15.2 taxa. For all three types of leaves, more taxa generally were present in the less acidic streams and fewer in the more acidic streams. 67 refs., 9 tabs.

  4. Geologic Controls of Hydrocarbon Occurrence in the Southern Appalachian Basin in Eastern Tennessee, Southwestern Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, and Southern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Robert D. Hatcher

    2003-05-31

    This report summarizes the first-year accomplishments of a three-year program to investigate the geologic controls of hydrocarbon occurrence in the southern Appalachian basin in eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia. The project: (1) employs the petroleum system approach to understand the geologic controls of hydrocarbons; (2) attempts to characterize the T-P parameters driving petroleum evolution; (3) attempts to obtain more quantitative definitions of reservoir architecture and identify new traps; (4) is working with USGS and industry partners to develop new play concepts and geophysical log standards for subsurface correlation; and (5) is geochemically characterizing the hydrocarbons (cooperatively with USGS). First-year results include: (1) meeting specific milestones (determination of thrust movement vectors, fracture analysis, and communicating results at professional meetings and through publication). All milestones were met. Movement vectors for Valley and Ridge thrusts were confirmed to be west-directed and derived from pushing by the Blue Ridge thrust sheet, and fan about the Tennessee salient. Fracture systems developed during Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic to Holocene compressional and extensional tectonic events, and are more intense near faults. Presentations of first-year results were made at the Tennessee Oil and Gas Association meeting (invited) in June, 2003, at a workshop in August 2003 on geophysical logs in Ordovician rocks, and at the Eastern Section AAPG meeting in September 2003. Papers on thrust tectonics and a major prospect discovered during the first year are in press in an AAPG Memoir and published in the July 28, 2003, issue of the Oil and Gas Journal. (2) collaboration with industry and USGS partners. Several Middle Ordovician black shale samples were sent to USGS for organic carbon analysis. Mississippian and Middle Ordovician rock samples were collected by John Repetski (USGS) and

  5. Occurrence of fecal-indicator bacteria and protocols for identification of fecal-contamination sources in selected reaches of the West Branch Brandywine Creek, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cinotto, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of fecal-indicator bacteria indicates the potential presence of pathogens originating from the fecal matter of warm-blooded animals. These pathogens are responsible for numerous human diseases ranging from common diarrhea to meningitis and polio. The detection of fecal-indicator bacteria and interpretation of the resultant data are, therefore, of great importance to water-resource managers. Current (2005) techniques used to assess fecal contamination within the fluvial environment primarily assess samples collected from the water column, either as grab samples or as depth- and (or) width-integrated samples. However, current research indicates approximately 99 percent of all bacteria within nature exist as attached, or sessile, bacteria. Because of this condition, most current techniques for the detection of fecal contamination, which utilize bacteria, assess only about 1 percent of the total bacteria within the fluvial system and are, therefore, problematic. Evaluation of the environmental factors affecting the occurrence and distribution of bacteria within the fluvial system, as well as the evaluation and modification of alternative approaches that effectively quantify the larger population of sessile bacteria within fluvial sediments, will present water-resource managers with more effective tools to assess, prevent, and (or) eliminate sources of fecal contamination within pristine and impaired watersheds. Two stream reaches on the West Branch Brandywine Creek in the Coatesville, Pa., region were studied between September 2002 and August 2003. The effects of sediment particle size, climatic conditions, aquatic growth, environmental chemistry, impervious surfaces, sediment and soil filtration, and dams on observed bacteria concentrations were evaluated. Alternative approaches were assessed to better detect geographic sources of fecal contamination including the use of turbidity as a surrogate for bacteria, the modification and implementation of sandbag

  6. Geologic Controls of Hydrocarbon Occurrence in the Southern Appalachian Basin in Eastern Tennessee, Southwestern Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, and Southern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Robert D. Hatcher

    2004-05-31

    This report summarizes the second-year accomplishments of a three-year program to investigate the geologic controls of hydrocarbon occurrence in the southern Appalachian basin in eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia. The project: (1) employs the petroleum system approach to understand the geologic controls of hydrocarbons; (2) attempts to characterize the T-P parameters driving petroleum evolution; (3) attempts to obtain more quantitative definitions of reservoir architecture and identify new traps; (4) is working with USGS and industry partners to develop new play concepts and geophysical log standards for subsurface correlation; and (5) is geochemically characterizing the hydrocarbons (cooperatively with USGS). Second-year results include: All current milestones have been met and other components of the project have been functioning in parallel toward satisfaction of year-3 milestones. We also have been effecting the ultimate goal of the project in the dissemination of information through presentations at professional meetings, convening a major workshop in August 2003, and the publication of results. Our work in geophysical log correlation in the Middle Ordovician units is bearing fruit in recognition that the criteria developed locally in Tennessee and southern Kentucky have much greater extensibility than anticipated earlier. We have identified a major 60 mi-long structure in the western part of the Valley and Ridge thrust belt that is generating considerable exploration interest. If this structure is productive, it will be one of the largest structures in the Appalachians. We are completing a more quantitative structural reconstruction of the Valley and Ridge than has been made before. This should yield major dividends in future exploration in the southern Appalachian basin. Our work in mapping, retrodeformation, and modeling of the Sevier basin is a major component of the understanding of the Ordovician

  7. Extent of poly-pharmacy, occurrence and associated factors of drug-drug interaction and potential adverse drug reactions in Gondar Teaching Referral Hospital, North West Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Admassie, Endalkachew; Melese, Tesfahun; Mequanent, Woldeselassie; Hailu, Wubshet; Srikanth, B Akshaya

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the extent of poly-pharmacy, occurrence, and associated factors for the occurrence of drug-drug interaction (DDI) and potential adverse drug reaction (ADR) in Gondar University Teaching Referral Hospital. Institutional-based retrospective cross-sectional study. This study was conducted on prescriptions of both in and out-patients for a period of 3 months at Gondar University Hospital. Both bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify risk factors for the occurrence of DDI and possible ADRs. All the statistical calculations were performed using SPSS(®) software. A total of 12,334 prescriptions were dispensed during the study period of which, 2,180 prescriptions were containing two or more drugs per prescription. A total of 21,210 drugs were prescribed and the average number of drugs per prescription was 1.72. Occurrences of DDI of all categories (Major, Moderate, and Minor) were analyzed and DDI were detected in 711 (32.6%) prescriptions. Sex was not found to be a risk factor for the occurrence of DDI and ADR, while age and number of medications per prescription were found to be significant risk factors for the occurrence of DDI and ADR. The mean number of drugs per prescription was 1.72 and hence with regard to the WHO limit of drugs per prescription, Gondar hospital was able to maintain the limit and prescriptions containing multiple drugs supposed to be taken systemically. Numbers of drugs per prescription as well as older age were found to be predisposing factors for the occurrence of DDI and potential ADRs while sex was not a risk factor. PMID:24350048

  8. Development of experimental approach to examine U occurrence continuity over the extended area reconnoitory boreholes: Lostoin Block, West Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya (India).

    PubMed

    Kukreti, B M; Kumar, Pramod; Sharma, G K

    2015-10-01

    Exploratory drilling was undertaken in the Lostoin block, West Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya based on the geological extension to the major uranium deposit in the basin. Gamma ray logging of drilled boreholes shows considerable subsurface mineralization in the block. However, environmental and exploration related challenges such as climatic, logistic, limited core drilling and poor core recovery etc. in the block severely restricted the study of uranium exploration related index parameters for the block with a high degree confidence. The present study examines these exploration related challenges and develops an integrated approach using representative sampling of reconnoitory boreholes in the block. Experimental findings validate a similar geochemically coherent nature of radio elements (K, Ra and Th) in the Lostoin block uranium hosting environment with respect to the known block of Mahadek basin and uranium enrichment is confirmed by the lower U to Th correlation index (0.268) of hosting environment. A mineralized zone investigation in the block shows parent (refers to the actual parent uranium concentration at a location and not a secondary concentration such as the daughter elements which produce the signal from a total gamma ray measurement) favoring uranium mineralization. The confidence parameters generated under the present study have implications for the assessment of the inferred category of uranium ore in the block and setting up a road map for the systematic exploration of large uranium potential occurring over extended areas in the basin amid prevailing environmental and exploratory impediments. PMID:26164149

  9. Occurrence of Trichodinid Ciliophorans (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) in the freshwater fishes of the river Churni with description of Trichodina glossogobae sp. nov. in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Amlan Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Probir K; Gong, Yingchun; Bhowmik, Biplab

    2012-04-01

    Between January 2011 and March 2011 occurrence of trichodinid ciliophorans were studied in the freshwater fishes of the river Churni. The biodiversity survey revealed presence of a new species of the genus Trichodina (Ehrenberg 1830) infesting Glossogobius giuris (Hamilton-Buchanan). Another freshwater fish Labeo bata (Hamilton 1822) were found to be infested with two species of the genus Tripartiella Lom 1959: Tripartiella bulbosa (Davis 1947) Lom 1959 and T. copiosa Lom 1959. Adhesive disc size of the new Trichodina species is small measuring 30.6-46.9 (36.2 ± 3.9) μm in diameter. The centre of the disc is finely granular and transforms into dark when impregnated with silver. The overall prevalence of this species is 15.6% (12/77). Tripartiella bulbosa and T. copiosa are very small sized ciliophorans, measuring 16.7-23.8 (20.6 ± 2.2) μm and 15.2-22.4 (19.7 ± 1.9) μm in diameter, respectively. PMID:23542238

  10. [Paleopathology of ancient Egyptian mummies and skeletons. Investigations on the occurrence and frequency of specific diseases during various time periods in the necropolis of Thebes-West].

    PubMed

    Nerlich, A G; Rohrbach, H; Zink, A

    2002-09-01

    The scientific investigation of mummies and skeletons provides considerable data for the reconstruction of the living conditions and diseases of past populations. We describe the data on four completely analyzed tomb complexes from the huge necropolis of Thebes-West in Upper Egypt dating to different time periods. A total of 211 individuals from the so-called "Middle Kingdom" (MK, c. 2050-1750 BC) were compared to 273 individuals from the "New Kingdom" (NK) to "Late Period" (LP, in total 1550-500 BC). The age at death and the sex ratio were comparable between both groups. There was a high rate of early death with a maximum between the 2nd and 3rd decade of life but infant/adolescent burials were comparably rare. This early death is assumed to be due to an elevated prevalence of various infectious diseases. Likewise, a high rate of tuberculosis infections was seen in those individuals regardless of which time period they came from. Metabolic disorders with osseous manifestations, such as scurvy, osteomalacia and chronic anemia (cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis) were found with a high frequency in the MK populations but significantly less in the NK-LP populations. On the other hand signs of trauma were comparably high, and lesions due to degenerative joint and vertebral diseases were significantly higher in LP than in MK or NK individuals suggesting a higher mechanical load in the later populations. Cases of malignant (secondary) bone tumors and various soft tissue/organ diseases indicate that "civilization" disorders were present when the living conditions assured survival into advanced age. In summary, we provide circumstantial evidence that the systematic and concise analysis of mummy and skeletal remains can allow a reconstruction of major aspects of life and disease in historic populations, although a complete reconstruction is not possible.

  11. Occurrence, distribution and health risk from polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs, oxygenated-PAHs and azaarenes) in street dust from a major West African Metropolis.

    PubMed

    Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Nkansah, Marian Asantewah

    2016-05-15

    Scientific evidence suggests that the burden of disease on urban residents of sub-Saharan African Countries is increasing, partly as a result of exposure to elevated concentrations of toxic environmental chemicals. However, characterization of the levels, composition pattern and sources of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in environmental samples from African cities is still lacking. This study measured the PAHs, oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs) and azaarene (AZAs) content of street dusts collected from Kumasi, Ghana (a major metropolis located in the tropical forest zone of West Africa). The ∑Alkyl+parent-PAHs, ∑OPAHs and ∑AZAs concentration in street dust averaged 2570 ng g(-1) (range: 181-7600 ng g(-1)), 833 ng g(-1) (57-4200 ng g(-1)) and 73 ng g(-1) (3.3-240 ng g(-1)), respectively. The concentrations of ∑Alkyl+parent-PAHs were strongly correlated (n=25) with ∑OPAHs (r=0.96, p<0.01) and ∑AZAs (r=0.94, p<0.01). The ∑OPAHs concentrations were also strongly correlated with ∑AZAs (r=0.91, p<0.01). Concentrations of individual PAHs in these street dusts were enriched at between 12 and 836 compared to their average concentrations in background soils from same city, demonstrating the high influence of traffic emissions. Several individual OPAHs and AZAs had higher concentrations than their related and often monitored parent-PAHs. The estimated incremental lifetime cancer risks due to the parent-PAHs in street dusts was >10(-6) indicating high risk of contracting cancer from exposure to street dust from Kumasi. The contribution of OPAHs, AZAs, and alkyl-PAHs in street dust to cancer risk could not be quantified because of lack of toxicity equivalency factors for these compounds; however this could be significant because of their high concentration and known higher toxicity of some polar PACs and alkyl-PAHs than their related parent-PAHs.

  12. Morphologic and hydrodynamic controls on the occurrence of tidal bundles in an open-coast macrotidal environment, northern Gyeonggi Bay, west coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyungsik; Kim, Do Hyeong

    2016-06-01

    Tidal dunes with well-defined rhythmic tidal bundles are documented from the lower intertidal zone of an open-coast macrotidal environment in Gyeonggi Bay, Korea. Based on combined morphologic, sedimentologic and hydrodynamic datasets, this study aims to characterize the factors that govern the temporal and spatial variability of tidal bundles in a non-barred, unconfined macrotidal environment. The tidal dunes are flood-asymmetric and of longer wavelength (10-20 m) with small ebb caps on the upper bank, and symmetric to slightly ebb-asymmetric and of shorter wavelength (5-10 m) with larger ebb caps on the lower bank. The upper-bank dunes are characterized by more steeply dipping flood-directed planar cross-beds and thinner mud drapes than the lower-bank dunes. Each tidal bundle consists of a single mud drape that is stratified to cross-stratified, rich in silt and very fine sand. It overlies ebb-directed ripples and represents dynamic mud deposition during the ebb tidal phase. The presence of strong rotary currents (up to 0.25 m/s) and low suspended-sediment concentration of flood currents prevent deposition of mud drapes during the high-tide slack-water period. The distinct asymmetry in the water elevation at which the velocity peaks during the ebb and flood phases results in the preferential preservation of flood-directed cross-beds in the lower intertidal zone, where the ebb current - although stronger than the flood currents - is of shorter duration and hence unable to reverse the dune profile. The pronounced time-velocity asymmetry at the higher elevation combined with the distinct velocity peak asymmetry leads to a better preservation of hierarchical tidal cycles in the upper-bank dunes. The present study suggests that the persistent occurrence of single, stratified to cross-stratified mud drapes, which reflect dynamic mud deposition during the ebb phase, and the dominance of flood-directed cross-beds are diagnostic features of tidal bundles in the intertidal

  13. Co-occurrence and distribution of East (L1014S) and West (L1014F) African knock-down resistance in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato population of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kabula, Bilali; Kisinza, William; Tungu, Patrick; Ndege, Chacha; Batengana, Benard; Kollo, Douglas; Malima, Robert; Kafuko, Jessica; Mohamed, Mahdi; Magesa, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Objective Insecticide resistance molecular markers can provide sensitive indicators of resistance development in Anopheles vector populations. Assaying these makers is of paramount importance in the resistance monitoring programme. We investigated the presence and distribution of knock-down resistance (kdr) mutations in Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Tanzania. Methods Indoor-resting Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from 10 sites and tested for insecticide resistance using the standard WHO protocol. Polymerase chain reaction-based molecular diagnostics were used to genotype mosquitoes and detect kdr mutations. Results The An. gambiae tested were resistance to lambdacyhalothrin in Muheza, Arumeru and Muleba. Out of 350 An. gambiae s.l. genotyped, 35% were An. gambiae s.s. and 65% An. arabiensis. L1014S and L1014F mutations were detected in both An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis. L1014S point mutation was found at the allelic frequency of 4–33%, while L1014F was at the allelic frequency 6–41%. The L1014S mutation was much associated with An. gambiae s.s. (χ2 = 23.41; P < 0.0001) and L1014F associated with An. arabiensis (χ2 = 11.21; P = 0.0008). The occurrence of the L1014S allele was significantly associated with lambdacyhalothrin resistance mosquitoes (Fisher exact P < 0.001). Conclusion The observed co-occurrence of L1014S and L1014F mutations coupled with reports of insecticide resistance in the country suggest that pyrethroid resistance is becoming a widespread phenomenon among our malaria vector populations. The presence of L1014F mutation in this East African mosquito population indicates the spreading of this gene across Africa. The potential operational implications of these findings on malaria control need further exploration. Objectif Les marqueurs moléculaires de la résistance aux insecticides peuvent fournir des indicateurs sensibles du développement de la résistance dans les populations de vecteurs Anopheles. Le test de ces

  14. Environmental occurrences

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the onsite and offsite releases of radioactive and regulated materials. The specific agencies notified of the releases depended on the type, amount, and location of the individual occurrences. The more significant of these off-normal environmental occurrences are summarized in this section.

  15. Glossopteris Discovered in West Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Craddock, C; Bastien, T W; Rutford, R H; Anderson, J J

    1965-04-30

    Leaf impressions from the Polarstar Formation in the northern Ellsworth Mountains are the first Glossopteris and the oldest identifiable plant fossils reported from West Antarctica. Their occurrence in a thick, probably marine, geosynclinal sequence in close association with coals and probable glacial deposits increases the similarity between the late Paleozoic history of Antarctica and the other southern continents. PMID:17801935

  16. Horizons West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitses, Jim

    The western is the most popular and enduring of Hollywood forms. It is one embodiment of a traditional theme in American culture: the West as both Garden of natural dignity and innocence and also as treacherous Desert resisting the gradual sweep of agrarian progress and community values. Westerns have in common: a) history, America's past; b)…

  17. West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  18. On the Occurrence of Counter Equatorial Electrojet Over Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabiu, A. B.; O, F. O.; Uozumi, T.

    2014-12-01

    This study engaged year 2009 data of the horizontal component of the Earth's magnetic field obtained from four geomagnetic observatories in the East and West African meridians to study the occurrence of counter electrojet along the African longitudes: Ilorin (Nigeria: 4.68°E, 8.50°N; dip latitude, 1.82°S), Addis Ababa (Ethiopia: 38.77°E, 9.04°N; dip latitude, 0.18°N), Lagos (Nigeria: 3.27°E, 6.48°N; dip latitude 3.04°S), and Nairobi (Kenya: 36.48°E, 1.16°S; dip latitude 10.65°S). Data was obtained from the Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS) installed and managed by the International Centre for Space Weather Science and Education (ICSWSE), Japan. The diurnal and seasonal distribution of the occurrence of CEJ at Ilorin (West Africa) and Addis Ababa (East Africa) were examined. It was observed that the occurrence of morning CEJ is much prevalent along the East African longitude (90%) than the West African longitude (80.9%), while the evening CEJ is dominant along the West African longitude (82.9%) than the East African longitude (50%). The longitudinal variability in the occurrence of CEJ along these longitudes is attributed to the differences in meridional currents, variation in the local electric field in the ionosphere, and the gravity wave associated vertical winds. The simultaneity and asymmetry in the occurrence of CEJ were also investigated. The morning simultaneity is maximum (100%) is maximum than the evening simultaneity. The occurrence of Asym-2 is much prevalent at both longitudes (41.3%) than asym-1 (4.9%).

  19. West Nile virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... believe West Nile virus is spread when a mosquito bites an infected bird and then bites a person. ... avoid getting West Nile virus infection after a mosquito bite. People in good health generally do not develop ...

  20. America's Historic West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardsley, Donna A.

    Settlers who pushed west over the Great Divide to the shores of the Pacific Ocean found the American West to be an expanse of extreme differences in time, topography, and ways of life. This paper elaborates on several historic sites in the American West. The purpose of the paper is to introduce a series of places to the students and teachers of…

  1. Glycoproteins: Occurrence and Significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, Valentin

    Protein glycosylation is regarded as the most complex form of post-translational modification leading to a heterogeneous expression of glycoproteins as mixtures of glycoforms. This chapter describes the structure and occurrence of glycoproteins with respect to their glycan chains. Discussed are different carbohydrate-peptide linkages including GPI anchors, common structures of N- and O-glycans, and the structure of glycosaminoglycans contained in proteoglycans. Also covered are the bacterial cell wall polymer peptidoglycan and the glycopeptide antibiotics of the vancomycin group. Properties and functions of the glycans contained in glycoproteins are dealt with in the next chapter of this book.

  2. 7. CLOSER OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST TRUSS AND WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CLOSER OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST TRUSS AND WEST SIDE OF SOUTH ABUTMENT; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  3. 110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, WEST SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  4. 2. Building 5 west elevation, showing Building 4 west elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Building 5 west elevation, showing Building 4 west elevation and stack associated with Building 3 to right. View looking SEE. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 5, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. West wing, west elevation, seen entirety from the pasture at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wing, west elevation, seen entirety from the pasture at the west edge of state park property. (recreation of HABS No. CA-38-P152-1). - Vallejo Adobe, Adobe Road at Casa Grande, Petaluma, Sonoma County, CA

  6. 13. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM THE WEST TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM THE WEST TOWER TO THE MAIN SUSPENSION CABLE WEST ANCHORAGE. February 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES TO LEFT MIDDLE GROUND OF PICTURE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  8. Occurrence of halogenated alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Gordon W

    2012-01-01

    Once considered to be isolation artifacts or chemical "mistakes" of nature, the number of naturally occurring organohalogen compounds has grown from a dozen in 1954 to >5000 today. Of these, at least 25% are halogenated alkaloids. This is not surprising since nitrogen-containing pyrroles, indoles, carbolines, tryptamines, tyrosines, and tyramines are excellent platforms for biohalogenation, particularly in the marine environment where both chloride and bromide are plentiful for biooxidation and subsequent incorporation into these electron-rich substrates. This review presents the occurrence of all halogenated alkaloids, with the exception of marine bromotyrosines where coverage begins where it left off in volume 61 of The Alkaloids. Whereas the biological activity of these extraordinary compounds is briefly cited for some examples, a future volume of The Alkaloids will present full coverage of this topic and will also include selected syntheses of halogenated alkaloids. Natural organohalogens of all types, especially marine and terrestrial halogenated alkaloids, comprise a rapidly expanding class of natural products, in many cases expressing powerful biological activity. This enormous proliferation has several origins: (1) a revitalization of natural product research in a search for new drugs, (2) improved compound characterization methods (multidimensional NMR, high-resolution mass spectrometry), (3) specific enzyme-based and other biological assays, (4) sophisticated collection methods (SCUBA and remote submersibles for deep ocean marine collections), (5) new separation and purification techniques (HPLC and countercurrent separation), (6) a greater appreciation of traditional folk medicine and ethobotany, and (7) marine bacteria and fungi as novel sources of natural products. Halogenated alkaloids are truly omnipresent in the environment. Indeed, one compound, Q1 (234), is ubiquitous in the marine food web and is found in the Inuit from their diet of whale

  9. [West syndrome associated with epileptic negative myoclonus].

    PubMed

    Shibata, Takashi; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Oka, Makio; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro

    2014-09-01

    We report a 10-month-old girl who had brief epileptic negative myoclonus during the course of West syndrome. She began to have epileptic spasms in series at the age of 8 months. Video-electroencephalograph (EEG) monitoring revealed that she also had brief epileptic negative myoclonus when she was 10 months old. Brief atonia of limbs occurred in isolation or in a cluster during drowsiness or sleep. The ictal EEG exhibited diffuse polyspikes and waves or diffuse high-voltage slow waves that were overlapped by low-voltage fast waves. 3 to 4 hundred milliseconds of silent periods were observed in the bilateral deltoid electromyograms, which correspond to the EEG patterns. The occurrence of other types of seizures, partial seizures in particular, accompanied by epileptic spasms has been fully investigated. This is the first case report of a patient with West syndrome whose coexisting epileptic negative myoclonus was confirmed by a silent electromyogram pattern.

  10. WEST CLEAR CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulrich, George E.; Bielski, Alan M.

    1984-01-01

    Results of geologic, geochemical, and aeromagnetic studies and review of mineral records and prospect examination for the West Clear Creek Roadless Area, Arizona, indicate that there is little likelihood of the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. No concentrations of minerals were identified within the boundary of the area. A small manganese deposit occurs 1-3 mi east of the area but does not extend into the area. Slightly anomalous values for certain trace metals were found in samples taken within the area, but do not indicate the presence of metallic resources. Gypsum, basaltic cinders, and sandstone occur in the area.

  11. 38. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT WEST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT WEST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 6-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS ON WEST WALL AND OPEN DOORWAY TO LIVING ROOM. VIEW TO WEST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  12. West side of the north and west wings of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West side of the north and west wings of the building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army Corps Recreation & Administration Building, North Hickey Street, west side, 75 feet north of intersection of West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  13. West and south sides of the west wing of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West and south sides of the west wing of the building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army Corps Recreation & Administration Building, North Hickey Street, west side, 75 feet north of intersection of West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  14. Treatment of West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sakakihara, Yoichi

    2011-03-01

    West syndrome is one of the most refractory epileptic syndromes in infancy, and many researchers have made great effort to find optimal treatment modalities for this syndrome. In this review, previous literature on optimal treatments of West syndrome and its refractory nature were briefly presented, followed by an introduction of recent publication of expert opinions from the US and Europe. An Asian expert opinion generated by a short questionnaire survey was then presented. It was shown that medically proven optimal treatment of West syndrome is not always the practical treatment of choice in Asian countries. Cost and geographical regions should also be taken into account in making practical choices for treatment of West syndrome. PMID:21196092

  15. WEST Physics Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdelle, C.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Bécoulet, M.; Brémond, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Colas, L.; Corre, Y.; Courtois, X.; Decker, J.; Delpech, L.; Devynck, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Doerner, R. P.; Douai, D.; Dumont, R.; Ekedahl, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Fenzi, C.; Firdaouss, M.; Garcia, J.; Ghendrih, P.; Gil, C.; Giruzzi, G.; Goniche, M.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hennequin, P.; Hillairet, J.; Hoang, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Joffrin, E.; Kallenbach, A.; Linke, J.; Loarer, T.; Lotte, P.; Maget, P.; Marandet, Y.; Mayoral, M. L.; Meyer, O.; Missirlian, M.; Mollard, P.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moreau, P.; Nardon, E.; Pégourié, B.; Peysson, Y.; Sabot, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Schneider, M.; Travère, J. M.; Tsitrone, E.; Vartanian, S.; Vermare, L.; Yoshida, M.; Zagorski, R.; Contributors, JET

    2015-06-01

    With WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady State Tokamak) (Bucalossi et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 907-12), the Tore Supra facility and team expertise (Dumont et al 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 075020) is used to pave the way towards ITER divertor procurement and operation. It consists in implementing a divertor configuration and installing ITER-like actively cooled tungsten monoblocks in the Tore Supra tokamak, taking full benefit of its unique long-pulse capability. WEST is a user facility platform, open to all ITER partners. This paper describes the physics basis of WEST: the estimated heat flux on the divertor target, the planned heating schemes, the expected behaviour of the L-H threshold and of the pedestal and the potential W sources. A series of operating scenarios has been modelled, showing that ITER-relevant heat fluxes on the divertor can be achieved in WEST long pulse H-mode plasmas.

  16. West Nile virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Monath, T P; Arroyo, J; Miller, C; Guirakhoo, F

    2001-05-01

    Within the past 5 years, West Nile encephalitis has emerged as an important disease of humans and horses in Europe. In 1999, the disease appeared for the first time in the northeastern United States. West Nile virus (a mosquito-borne flavivirus) has flourished in the North American ecosystem and is expected to expand its geographic range. In this review, the rationale for a human and veterinary vaccine is presented and a novel approach for rapid development of a molecularly-defined, live, attenuated vaccine is described. The technology (ChimeriVax) is applicable to the development of vaccines against all flaviviruses, and products against Japanese encephalitis (a close relative of West Nile) and dengue are in or are nearing clinical trials, respectively. ChimeriVax vaccines utilize the safe and effective vaccine against the prototype flavivirus -yellow fever 17D- as a live vector. Infectious clone technology is used to replace the genes encoding the pre-membrane (prM) and envelope (E) protein of yellow fever 17D vaccine with the corresponding genes of the target virus (e.g., West Nile). The resulting chimeric virus contains the antigens responsible for protection against West Nile but retains the replication efficiency of yellow fever 17D. The ChimeriVax technology is well-suited to the rapid development of a West Nile vaccine, and clinical trials could begin as early as mid-2002. Other approaches to vaccine development are briefly reviewed. The aim of this brief review is to describe the features of West Nile encephalitis, a newly introduced infectious disease affecting humans, horses and wildlife in the United States; the rationale for rapid development of vaccines; and approaches to the development of vaccines against the disease.

  17. Simulating multimodal seasonality in extreme daily precipitation occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tye, Mari R.; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley J.; Stephenson, David B.; Kilsby, Christopher G.

    2016-06-01

    Floods pose multi-dimensional hazards to critical infrastructure and society and these hazards may increase under climate change. While flood conditions are dependent on catchment type and soil conditions, seasonal precipitation extremes also play an important role. The extreme precipitation events driving flood occurrence may arrive non-uniformly in time. In addition, their seasonal and inter-annual patterns may also cause sequences of several events and enhance likely flood responses. Spatial and temporal patterns of extreme daily precipitation occurrence are characterized across the UK. Extreme and very heavy daily precipitation is not uniformly distributed throughout the year, but exhibits spatial differences, arising from the relative proximity to the North Atlantic Ocean or North Sea. Periods of weeks or months are identified during which extreme daily precipitation occurrences are most likely to occur, with some regions of the UK displaying multimodal seasonality. A Generalized Additive Model is employed to simulate extreme daily precipitation occurrences over the UK from 1901 to 2010 and to allow robust statistical testing of temporal changes in the seasonal distribution. Simulations show that seasonality has the strongest correlation with intra-annual variations in extreme event occurrence, while Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Mean Sea Level Pressure (MSLP) have the strongest correlation with inter-annual variations. The north and west of the UK are dominated by MSLP in the mid-North Atlantic and the south and east are dominated by local SST. All regions now have a higher likelihood of autumnal extreme daily precipitation than earlier in the twentieth century. This equates to extreme daily precipitation occurring earlier in the autumn in the north and west, and later in the autumn in the south and east. The change in timing is accompanied by increases in the probability of extreme daily precipitation occurrences during the autumn, and in the number of

  18. Composting moves west

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, M.

    1996-05-01

    The art and science of composting has been applied to handling municipally generated organic wastes (particularly leaves, brush, and grass) in the Eastern US for many years, but now municipal composting can be really said to have gone west. Using methods farmers have been perfecting almost since the dawn of agriculture, municipalities in the US operate more than 4,000 composting sites across the country. Although a few municipal composting facilities have operated in the Western US for more than 30 years, the combination of cheap, plentiful landfill space, low population density, and extreme climate has prevented composting in the West from growing as fast as it has in other parts of the US. But continued growth in the West, combined with ambitious recycling goals in some Western states, have allowed composting to establish a major foothold as a practical solid waste management alternative.

  19. 51. Third Floor, Lake Forest, west center room, looking west, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Third Floor, Lake Forest, west center room, looking west, part of original Forest Cottage as of 1901. - Lake Placid Club, Forest Wing, East side of Mirror Lake Drive, North of State Route 86 & Main, North Elba, Essex County, NY

  20. INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF VERTICAL LAPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF VERTICAL LAPS PLACED ON ZONE III; ASPHALT ZONE IX) - Honey Run Bridge, Spanning Butte Creek, bypassed section of Honey Run Road (originally Carr Hill Road), Paradise, Butte County, CA

  1. 3. VIEW TO EAST. DETAIL OF WEST FACE OF WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW TO EAST. DETAIL OF WEST FACE OF WEST STATION HOUSE. GREEK REVIVAL WINDOW ENTABLATURE. - Union Elevated Railroad, Madison-Wabash Avenue Station, Madison Steet & Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  2. 6. West side, details of west truss web and floorbeam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. West side, details of west truss web and floor-beam bracing by steel plates and steel rod; looking northeast - Bridge No. 92101, Spanning Pike River at County Highway 373, Embarrass, St. Louis County, MN

  3. 35. DETAIL VIEW, WEST WINDOW IN WEST ELEVATION GABLE (NOTE: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. DETAIL VIEW, WEST WINDOW IN WEST ELEVATION GABLE (NOTE: THE MOLDED STRINGCOURSE THAT PROJECTS FROM THE BASE OF THE FIRST FLOOR WINDOW ARCH AND VISIBLE WATERTABLE) - Kenworthy Hall, State Highway 14 (Greensboro Road), Marion, Perry County, AL

  4. GOES-West Shows U.S. West's Record Rainfall

    NASA Video Gallery

    A new time-lapse animation of data from NOAA's GOES-West satellite provides a good picture of why the U.S. West Coast continues to experience record rainfall. The new animation shows the movement o...

  5. 282. 183234 WEST MUHAMMAD ALI BOULEVARD, WEST SIDE (50511) TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    282. 1832-34 WEST MUHAMMAD ALI BOULEVARD, WEST SIDE (505-11) TOWARD NORTHEAST - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  6. 7. WEST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM WEST, SHOWING PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. WEST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM WEST, SHOWING PORTAL CONFIGURATION AND LATERAL BRACING, STEEL MESH FLOOR, AND METAL RAILINGS - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  7. 9. West elevation, west end of south wing wall, south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. West elevation, west end of south wing wall, south abutment and south railing panel looking east - Western Maryland Railway Bridge, Spanning Maryland Route 51 at Spring Gap, Cumberland, Allegany County, MD

  8. 10. West elevation, west end of north wing wall, top ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. West elevation, west end of north wing wall, top of north abutment and oblique of railing panels looking northwest - Western Maryland Railway Bridge, Spanning Maryland Route 51 at Spring Gap, Cumberland, Allegany County, MD

  9. First natural occurrence of coesite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, E.C.T.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Madsen, B.M.

    1960-01-01

    Coesite, the high-pressure polymorph of SiO2, hitherto known only as a synthetic compound, is identified as an abundant mineral in sheared Coconino sandstone at Meteor Crater, Arizona. This natural occurrence has important bearing on the recognition of meteorite impact craters in quartz-bearing geologic formations.

  10. 5. DETAIL: Crib supporting bay, west of west gate. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL: Crib supporting bay, west of west gate. View from the east. Rear of west breast wall is visible behind log timbers. Breast wall timbers are squared. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  11. 5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. 1890 first rear addition; partial north rear elevation of c. 1900 side ell addition; and north rear and west side elevation of final rear addition of c. 1940. - Vaughn Chevrolet Building, 101-109 East Main Street, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

  12. The West: Curriculum Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Broadcasting Service, Alexandria, VA.

    This document consists of the printed components only of a PBS curriculum package intended to be used with the 9-videotape PBS documentary series entitled "The West." The complete curriculum package includes a teacher's guide, lesson plans, a student guide, audio tapes, a video index, and promotional poster. The teacher's guide and lesson plans…

  13. West Virginia baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardi, V. P.; Baer, C.; Graham, A.; Hall, T.; Rankin, D.; Sweet, T. J.

    1981-04-01

    Baseline information on West Virginia is provided. The topics covered are terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, geology and climatology, socioeconomics, and a legal analysis of institutional accountability. The hydrology, water quality, endangered species, and clean streams of five river basins are described.

  14. West Virginia and SREB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with West Virginia and 15 other member states to improve education at every level--from pre-K to postdoctoral study--through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education, which call for the region to lead…

  15. A West African Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Angela; Davies, Penny

    2003-01-01

    The authors visited Ghana in West Africa to strengthen a link established the previous year as part of Channel 4's "On the Line" project. The initial link established in 1999/2000 was between an all-age special school in Enfield and a similar school in Accra. Over the course of that year further partnerships were created between five UK schools…

  16. BIG SANDY, WEST ELLIOTTS CREEK, AND REED BRAKE ROADLESS AREAS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, Sam H.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral surveys done in the Big Sandy, West Elliotts Creek, and Reed Brake Roadless Areas, Alabama, indicate that the areas have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. The three areas, however, have a probable potential for oil or gas. Probable coal resource potential exists in the Big Sandy and the West Elliotts Creek Roadless Areas. Clay and abundant sand resources occur in the roadless areas. Clayey sand has been used to stabilize roads and in road grade construction.

  17. Global distributions and occurrence rates of transient luminous events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Alfred B.; Kuo, Cheng-Ling; Lee, Yi-Jen; Su, Han-Tzong; Hsu, Rue-Ron; Chern, Jyh-Long; Frey, Harald U.; Mende, Stephen B.; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Fukunishi, Hiroshi; Chang, Yeou-Shin; Liu, Tie-Yue; Lee, Lou-Chuang

    2008-08-01

    We report the global transient luminous event (TLE) distributions and rates based on the Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) experiment onboard the FORMOSAT-2 satellite. ISUAL observations cover 45°S to 25°N latitude during the northern summer and 25°S to 45°N latitude during the northern winter. From July 2004 to June 2007, ISUAL recorded 5,434 elves, 633 sprites, 657 halos, and 13 gigantic jets. Surprisingly, elve is the dominant type of TLEs, while sprites/halos are a distant second. Elve occurrence rate jumps as the sea surface temperature exceeds 26 degrees Celsius, manifesting an ocean-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling. In the ISUAL survey, elves concentrate over the Caribbean Sea, South China Sea, east Indian Ocean, central Pacific Ocean, west Atlantic Ocean, and southwest Pacific Ocean; while sprites congregate over central Africa, Japan Sea, and west Atlantic Ocean. The ISUAL experiment observed global rates of 3.23, 0.50, 0.39, and 0.01 events per minute for elves, sprites, halos, and gigantic jets, respectively. Taking the instrumental detection sensitivity and the restricted survey area into account, the corrected global occurrence rates for sprites and elves likely are a factor of two and an order of magnitude higher, respectively. ISUAL observations also indicate that the relative frequency of high peak current lightning (>80 kA) is 10 times higher over the oceans than over the land. On the basis of the corrected ISUAL elve global occurrence rate, the total electron content at the lower ionosphere above elve hot zones was computed to be elevated by more than 5%.

  18. West and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  19. Drought in West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  20. CHEAT MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, WEST VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Englund, K.J.; Behum, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey determined that coal is the most important mineral resource in the Cheat Mountain Roadless Area, West Virginia. It is tentatively ranked as high-volatile A to medium-volatile bituminous similar to coal in nearby mining areas, and is primarily of coking quality. Demonstrated coal resources are estimated to total about 11. 6 million short tons in beds more than 28 in. thick in areas of substantiated resource potential and an additional 32. 7 million short tons in beds between 14 and 28 in. thick have been identified. Limestone, shale, clay, and sandstone occur in the area but these commodities are readily available outside the roadless area. Available information suggests little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or other energy resources in the area.

  1. Occurrence reporting and processing of operations information

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-21

    DOE O 232.1A, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information, and 10 CFR 830.350, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information (when it becomes effective), along with this manual, set forth occurrence reporting requirements for Department of Energy (DOE) Departmental Elements and contractors responsible for the management and operation of DOE-owned and -leased facilities. These requirements include categorization of occurrences related to safety, security, environment, health, or operations (``Reportable Occurrences``); DOE notification of these occurrences; and the development and submission of documented follow-up reports. This Manual provides detailed information for categorizing and reporting occurrences at DOE facilities. Information gathered by the Occurrence Reporting and processing System is used for analysis of the Department`s performance in environmental protection, safeguards and security, and safety and health of its workers and the public. This information is also used to develop lessons learned and document events that significantly impact DOE operations.

  2. Colorado quartz: occurrence and discovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kile, D.E.; Modreski, P.J.; Kile, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The many varieties and associations of quartz found throughout the state rank it as one of the premier worldwide localities for that species. This paper briefly outlines the historical importance of the mineral, the mining history and the geological setting before discussing the varieties of quartz present, its crystallography and the geological enviroments in which it is found. The latter include volcanic rocks and near surface igneous rocks; pegmatites; metamorphic and plutonic rocks; hydrothermal veins; skarns and sedimentary deposits. Details of the localities and mode of occurrence of smoky quartz, amethyst, milky quartz, rock crystal, rose quartz, citrine, agate and jasper are then given. -S.J.Stone

  3. INFLUENCE OF OREGON COASTAL STREAM TEMPERATURES ON THE OCCURRENCE OF BLACK SPOT INFESTATION IN JUVENILE COHO SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    We quantified the occurrence of black-spot infestation of juvenile salmonids in the West Fork Smith River stream network during the summer 2002 through summer 2003 period. In this Oregon Coast Range watershed, highest summer seven-day average daily maximum (ADM) temperatures were...

  4. Lineaments and Mineral Occurrences in Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Kowalik, W. S.; Gold, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A conservative lineament map of Pennsylvania interpreted from ERTS-1 channel 7 (infrared) imagery and Skylab photography was compared with the distribution of known metallic mines and mineral occurrences. Of 383 known mineral occurrences, 116 show a geographical association to 1 km wide lineaments, another 24 lie at the intersection of two lineaments, and one lies at the intersection of three lineaments. The Perkiomen Creek lineament in the Triassic Basin is associated with 9 Cu-Fe occurrences. Six Pb-Zn occurrences are associated with the Tyrone-Mount Union lineament. Thirteen other lineaments are associated with 3, 4, or 5 mineral occurrences each.

  5. 42. WEST TO CIRCA 1900 JOINER ALONG WEST INTERIOR WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. WEST TO CIRCA 1900 JOINER ALONG WEST INTERIOR WALL OF FACTORY, BEHIND WHICH ARE MOUNTED JIGS AND PATTERNS FOR WINDMILL AND STEEL WATER TANK CONSTRUCTION, AS WELL AS THIN SHEET STEEL STENCILS USED FOR MARKING PRODUCTS WITH PAINT. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  6. 29. VIEW SHOWING WEST APPROACH OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST. No ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW SHOWING WEST APPROACH OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST. No date. (The field welding was by the Teleweld Corporation of Chicago, with four Lincoln welders from Tuesday, April 19 to Monday, May 16, 1949. 528 man hours of welders' time) - Benton Street Bridge, Spanning Iowa River at Benton Street, Iowa City, Johnson County, IA

  7. 37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear of powerhouse and car barn, showing the turntable and tracks used to move cars in and out of the building's repair and storage area. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. 18. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM WEST. WEST CRUDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM WEST. WEST CRUDE ORE BIN AND TRESTLE FROM TWO JOHNS TRAMLINE TO SOUTH, CRUDE ORE BIN IN FOREGROUND. MACHINE SHOP IN BACKGROUND. THE TRAM TO PORTLAND PASSED TO NORTH OF MACHINE SHOP. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  9. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Andrade, Andrey José; Sciamarelli, Alan; Raizer, Josué; Menegatti, Jaqueline Aparecida; Hermes, Sandra Cristina Negreli Moreira; de Carvalho, Maria do Socorro Laurentino; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In all, 2,803 phlebotomine records for 127 species were analysed. Nyssomyia whitmani, Evandromyia lenti and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the species with the greatest number of records and were present in all the biomes in Central-West Brazil. The models, which were produced for 34 species, indicated that the Cerrado areas in the central and western regions of Central-West Brazil were climatically more suitable to sandflies. The variables with the greatest influence on the models were the temperature in the coldest months and the temperature seasonality. The results show that phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil have different geographical distribution patterns and that climate conditions in essentially the entire region favour the occurrence of at least one Leishmania vector species, highlighting the need to maintain or intensify vector control and surveillance strategies. PMID:26018450

  10. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Central-West Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Paulo Silva de; Andrade, Andrey José de; Sciamarelli, Alan; Raizer, Josué; Menegatti, Jaqueline Aparecida; Hermes, Sandra Cristina Negreli Moreira; Carvalho, Maria do Socorro Laurentino de; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2015-06-01

    This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In all, 2,803 phlebotomine records for 127 species were analysed. Nyssomyia whitmani, Evandromyia lenti and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the species with the greatest number of records and were present in all the biomes in Central-West Brazil. The models, which were produced for 34 species, indicated that the Cerrado areas in the central and western regions of Central-West Brazil were climatically more suitable to sandflies. The variables with the greatest influence on the models were the temperature in the coldest months and the temperature seasonality. The results show that phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil have different geographical distribution patterns and that climate conditions in essentially the entire region favour the occurrence of at least one Leishmania vector species, highlighting the need to maintain or intensify vector control and surveillance strategies.

  11. Global occurrences of gas hydrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Lorenson, T.D.

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas hydrate is found worldwide in sediments of outer continental margins of all oceans and in polar areas with continuous permafrost. There are currently 77 localities identified globally where geophysical, geochemical and/or geological evidence indicates the presence of gas hydrate. Details concerning individual gas-hydrate occurrences are compiled at a new world-wide-web (www) site (http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/globalhydrate). This site has been created to facilitate global gas-hydrate research by providing information on each of the localities where there is evidence for gas hydrate. Also considered are the implications of gas hydrate as a potential (1) energy resource, (2) factor in global climate change, and (3) geohazard.

  12. Blooming Seas West of Ireland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    For several weeks in May and early June, daily satellite images of the North Atlantic Ocean west of Ireland have captured partial glimpses of luxuriant blooms of microscopic marine plants between patches of clouds. On June 4, 2007, the skies over the ocean cleared, displaying the sea's spring bloom in brilliant color. A bright blue bloom stretches north from the Mouth of the River Shannon and tapers off like a plume of blue smoke north of Clare Island. (In the large image, a second bloom is visible to the north, wrapping around County Donegal, on the island's northwestern tip.) The image was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite. Cold, nutrient-stocked water often wells up to the surface from the deeper ocean along coastal shelves and at the edges of ocean currents. When it does, it delivers a boost of nutrients that fuel large blooms of single-celled plants collectively known as phytoplankton. The plants are the foundation of the marine food web, and their proliferation in this area of the North Atlantic explains why the waters of western Ireland support myriad fisheries and populations of large mammals like seals, whales, and dolphins. Like plants on land, phytoplankton make their food through photosynthesis, harnessing sunlight for energy using chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments. The pigments change the way light reflects off the surface water, appearing as colorful swirls of turquoise and green against the darker blue of the ocean. Though individually tiny, collectively these plants play a big role in Earth's carbon and climate cycles; worldwide, they remove about as much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis as land plants do. Satellites are the only way to map the occurrence of phytoplankton blooms across the global oceans on a regular basis. That kind of information is important not only to scientists who model carbon and climate, but also to biologists and fisheries

  13. Human and biophysical influences on fire occurrence in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawbaker, Todd J.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Stewart, Susan I.; Hammer, Roger B.; Keuler, Nicholas S.; Clayton, Murray K.

    2013-01-01

    National-scale analyses of fire occurrence are needed to prioritize fire policy and management activities across the United States. However, the drivers of national-scale patterns of fire occurrence are not well understood, and how the relative importance of human or biophysical factors varies across the country is unclear. Our research goal was to model the drivers of fire occurrence within ecoregions across the conterminous United States. We used generalized linear models to compare the relative influence of human, vegetation, climate, and topographic variables on fire occurrence in the United States, as measured by MODIS active fire detections collected between 2000 and 2006. We constructed models for all fires and for large fires only and generated predictive maps to quantify fire occurrence probabilities. Areas with high fire occurrence probabilities were widespread in the Southeast, and localized in the Mountain West, particularly in southern California, Arizona, and New Mexico. Probabilities for large-fire occurrence were generally lower, but hot spots existed in the western and south-central United States The probability of fire occurrence is a critical component of fire risk assessments, in addition to vegetation type, fire behavior, and the values at risk. Many of the hot spots we identified have extensive development in the wildland–urban interface and are near large metropolitan areas. Our results demonstrated that human variables were important predictors of both all fires and large fires and frequently exhibited nonlinear relationships. However, vegetation, climate, and topography were also significant variables in most ecoregions. If recent housing growth trends and fire occurrence patterns continue, these areas will continue to challenge policies and management efforts seeking to balance the risks generated by wildfires with the ecological benefits of fire.

  14. Human and biophysical influences on fire occurrence in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hawbaker, Todd J; Radeloff, Volker C; Stewart, Susan I; Hammer, Roger B; Keuler, Nicholas S; Clayton, Murray K

    2013-04-01

    National-scale analyses of fire occurrence are needed to prioritize fire policy and management activities across the United States. However, the drivers of national-scale patterns of fire occurrence are not well understood, and how the relative importance of human or biophysical factors varies across the country is unclear. Our research goal was to model the drivers of fire occurrence within ecoregions across the conterminous United States. We used generalized linear models to compare the relative influence of human, vegetation, climate, and topographic variables on fire occurrence in the United States, as measured by MODIS active fire detections collected between 2000 and 2006. We constructed models for all fires and for large fires only and generated predictive maps to quantify fire occurrence probabilities. Areas with high fire occurrence probabilities were widespread in the Southeast, and localized in the Mountain West, particularly in southern California, Arizona, and New Mexico. Probabilities for large-fire occurrence were generally lower, but hot spots existed in the western and south-central United States The probability of fire occurrence is a critical component of fire risk assessments, in addition to vegetation type, fire behavior, and the values at risk. Many of the hot spots we identified have extensive development in the wildland--urban interface and are near large metropolitan areas. Our results demonstrated that human variables were important predictors of both all fires and large fires and frequently exhibited nonlinear relationships. However, vegetation, climate, and topography were also significant variables in most ecoregions. If recent housing growth trends and fire occurrence patterns continue, these areas will continue to challenge policies and management efforts seeking to balance the risks generated by wildfires with the ecological benefits of fire.

  15. West Nile virus meningoencephalitis

    PubMed Central

    DeBiasi, Roberta L.; Tyler, Kenneth L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Since its first appearance in the US in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged as the most common cause of epidemic meningoencephalitis in North America. In the 6 years following the 1999 outbreak, the geographic range and burden of the disease in birds, mosquitoes and humans has greatly expanded to include the 48 contiguous US and 7 Canadian provinces, as well as Mexico, the Caribbean islands and Colombia. WNV has shown an increasing propensity for neuroinvasive disease over the past decade, with varied presentations including meningitis, encephalitis and acute flaccid paralysis. Although neuroinvasive disease occurs in less than 1% of infected individuals, it is associated with high mortality. From 1999–2005, more than 8,000 cases of neuroinvasive WNV disease were reported in the US, resulting in over 780 deaths. In this review, we discuss epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnosis and prognosis of WNV meningoencephalitis, along with potential treatments. PMID:16932563

  16. High on 'West Spur'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A rock outcrop with a view of the surrounding landscape beckons NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 203 (July 29, 2004) of its journey of exploration on the red planet. This view is a mosaic of images taken by the rover's navigation camera at a position labeled as Site 80, near the top of the 'West Spur' portion of the 'Columbia Hills.' Directly ahead are rock outcrops that scientists will examine for clues that might indicate the presence of water in the past. In the upper right-hand corner is the so-called 'sea of basalt,' consisting of lava flows that lapped onto the flanks of the hills. The view is toward the south. The field of view is approximately 170 degrees from right to left and is presented in a cylindrical projection with geometrical seam correction.

  17. West Candor Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    11 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock exposures in western Candor Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Most of west Candor's interior includes exposures of layered rock with very few superimposed impact craters. The rock may be very ancient, but the lack of craters suggests that the erosion of these materials is on-going.

    Location near: 6.3oS, 76.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  18. Ebola in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can't withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.

  19. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

  20. On-off intermittency in earthquake occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Bottiglieri, M.; Godano, C.

    2007-02-15

    The clustered occurrence of earthquakes is viewed as an intermittent phenomenon, interpreting the clusters of events as chaotic bursts combined to the Poissonian occurrence of background seismicity. In particular, we suggest that it can be interpreted as an example of on-off intermittency. This kind of intermittency is parameter driven and exhibits certain universal statistical properties. The study of a Californian catalogue allows to interpret earthquake occurrence as an on-off intermittent phenomenon. Our results suggest the existence of a branching mechanism in earthquake occurrence well explained by epidemic type models.

  1. Chronic arsenic toxicity: studies in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Guha Mazumder, Debendranath; Dasgupta, U B

    2011-09-01

    Chronic arsenic toxicity (arsenicosis) as a result of drinking arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a major environmental health hazard throughout the world, including India. A lot of research on health effects, including genotoxic effect of chronic arsenic toxicity in humans, have been carried out in West Bengal during the last 2 decades. A review of literature including information available from West Bengal has been made to characterize the problem. Scientific journals, monographs, and proceedings of conferences with regard to human health effects, including genotoxicity, of chronic arsenic toxicity have been reviewed. Pigmentation and keratosis are the specific skin diseases characteristic of chronic arsenic toxicity. However, in West Bengal, it was found to produce various systemic manifestations, such as chronic lung disease, characterized by chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive and/or restrictive pulmonary disease, and bronchiectasis; liver diseases, such as non cirrhotic portal fibrosis; polyneuropathy; peripheral vascular disease; hypertension; nonpitting edema of feet/hands; conjunctival congestion; weakness; and anemia. High concentrations of arsenic, greater than or equal to 200 μg/L, during pregnancy were found to be associated with a sixfold increased risk for stillbirth. Cancers of skin, lung, and urinary bladder are the important cancers associated with this toxicity. Of the various genotoxic effects of arsenic in humans, chromosomal aberration and increased frequency of micronuclei in different cell types have been found to be significant. Various probable mechanisms have been incriminated to cause DNA damage because of chronic arsenic toxicity. The results of the study in West Bengal suggest that deficiency in DNA repair capacity, perturbation of methylation of promoter region of p53 and p16 genes, and genomic methylation alteration may be involved in arsenic-induced disease manifestation in humans. P53 polymorphism has been found to be

  2. Case report: coal mine subsidence in Farmington, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Bruhn, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The cause of the ground movements that occurred in the town of Farmington, West Virginia in Oct. 1975 were investigated. The Farmington incident represents an extreme case of mine subsidence in the northern Appalachian coal field. It was found that subsidence can take place above mines that are several hundred feet below the ground surface and can extend over tens of acres; it can sometimes be mistaken for other forms of ground movement, e.g., landslides; its occurrence may be delayed until many years after completion of mining; and it can take place even where accepted mining practices have been followed.

  3. 51. WEST ACROSS CLUTTER TO WEST WALL OF WELLSERVICE SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. WEST ACROSS CLUTTER TO WEST WALL OF WELL-SERVICE SHED ADDITION ON REAR OF FACTORY BUILDING. AT LOWER RIGHT FOREGROUND IS 1960S PICKUP TRUCK, THE LAST MOTOR VEHICLE USED IN WELL SERVICE BY THE KREGEL WINDMILL COMPANY. MOST OF THE OBJECTS VISIBLE IN THIS VIEW ARE CLUTTER NOT RELATED TO THE WELL SERVICE BUSINESS. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  4. Foreshock occurrence before large earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reasenberg, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Rates of foreshock occurrence involving shallow M ??? 6 and M ??? 7 mainshocks and M ??? 5 foreshocks were measured in two worldwide catalogs over ???20-year intervals. The overall rates observed are similar to ones measured in previous worldwide and regional studies when they are normalized for the ranges of magnitude difference they each span. The observed worldwide rates were compared to a generic model of earthquake clustering based on patterns of small and moderate aftershocks in California. The aftershock model was extended to the case of moderate foreshocks preceding large mainshocks. Overall, the observed worldwide foreshock rates exceed the extended California generic model by a factor of ???2. Significant differences in foreshock rate were found among subsets of earthquakes defined by their focal mechanism and tectonic region, with the rate before thrust events higher and the rate before strike-slip events lower than the worldwide average. Among the thrust events, a large majority, composed of events located in shallow subduction zones, had a high foreshock rate, while a minority, located in continental thrust belts, had a low rate. These differences may explain why previous surveys have found low foreshock rates among thrust events in California (especially southern California), while the worldwide observations suggests the opposite: California, lacking an active subduction zone in most of its territory, and including a region of mountain-building thrusts in the south, reflects the low rate apparently typical for continental thrusts, while the worldwide observations, dominated by shallow subduction zone events, are foreshock-rich. If this is so, then the California generic model may significantly underestimate the conditional probability for a very large (M ??? 8) earthquake following a potential (M ??? 7) foreshock in Cascadia. The magnitude differences among the identified foreshock-mainshock pairs in the Harvard catalog are consistent with a uniform

  5. Spectrophotometry of Comet West

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, M. F.; Hanisch, R. J.; Thurber, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    Postperihelion observations of Comet West (1975n = 1976 VI) have been made with a Fourier transform spectrometer at heliocentric distances from 0.57 to 1.68 AU. Measurements were made of the emission bands of C2, CN, C3, CH, and NH2, as well as the emission lines of Na D and forbidden (O I), and the flux in the continuum in nine different bandpasses. Several ratios of the band strengths of CN have been used to determine the two free parameters in the fluorescence equilibrium model of CN of Danks and Arpigny (1973). From the values of the parameters it is inferred that the vibrational transition probability for the ground electronic state is between 0.025 and 0.075 per sec and that the ratio of oscillator strengths between the (0-0) bands of the violet and red systems is between 25 and 30. When corrected for field-of-view effects, NH2 shows no systematic variation in abundance relative to C2 while CH shows a small increase. The cometary continuum is found to be slightly redder than the solar continuum, consistent with results for other bright, dusty comets. The equivalent width of the Delta u = 0 sequence of C2 shows a marked decrease at r(H) = 1.2 AU.

  6. GeoPowering the West

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-02-01

    Summary brochure of GeoPowering the West (GPW) activities, and areas of technology transfer and market transformation. It also provides current contact information for key DOE and national laboratory staff representing the GPW program.

  7. UMTRA project list of reportable occurrences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This UMTRA Project List of Reportable occurrences is provided to facilitate efficient categorization of reportable occurrences. These guidelines have been established in compliance with DOE minimum reporting requirements under DOE Order 5000.3B. Occurrences are arranged into nine groups relating to US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project operations for active sites. These nine groupings are provided for reference to determined whether an occurrence meets reporting requirement criteria in accordance with the minimum reporting requirements. Event groups and significance categories that cannot or will not occur, and that do not apply to UMTRA Project operations, are omitted. Occurrence categorization shall be as follows: Group 1. Facility Condition; Group 2. Environmental; Group 3. Personnel Safety; Group 4. Personnel Radiation Protection; Group 5. Safeguards and Security; Group 6. Transportation; Group 7. Value Basis Reporting; Group 8. Facility Status; and Group 9. Cross-Category Items.

  8. 21 CFR 808.98 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false West Virginia. 808.98 Section 808.98 Food and... and Local Exemptions § 808.98 West Virginia. (a) The following West Virginia medical device... has exempted them from preemption: West Virginia Code, sections 30-26-14 (b) and (c) and section...

  9. Mud Volcanoes Formation And Occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guliyev, I. S.

    2007-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are natural phenomena, which occur throughout the globe. They are found at a greater or lesser scale in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, on the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, on Sakhalin Island, in West Kuban, Italy, Romania, Iran, Pakistan, India, Burma, China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela and Ecuador. Mud volcanoes are most well-developed in Eastern Azerbaijan, where more than 30% of all the volcanoes in the world are concentrated. More than 300 mud volcanoes have already been recognized here onshore or offshore, 220 of which lie within an area of 16,000 km2. Many of these mud volcanoes are particularly large (up to 400 m high). The volcanoes of the South Caspian form permanent or temporary islands, and numerous submarine banks. Many hypotheses have been developed regarding the origin of mud volcanoes. Some of those hypotheses will be examined in the present paper. Model of spontaneous excitation-decompaction (proposed by Ivanov and Guliev, 1988, 2002). It is supposed that one of major factors of the movement of sedimentary masses and formation of hydrocarbon deposits are phase transitions in sedimentary basin. At phase transitions there are abnormal changes of physical and chemical parameters of rocks. Abnormal (high and negative) pressure takes place. This process is called as excitation of the underground environment with periodicity from several tens to several hundreds, or thousand years. The relationship between mud volcanism and the generation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane, is considered to be a critical factor in mud volcano formation. At high flow rates the gas and sediment develops into a pseudo-liquid state and as flow increases the mass reaches the "so-called hover velocity" where mass transport begins. The mass of fluid moves as a quasi-uniform viscous mass through the sediment pile in a piston like manner until expelled from the surface as a "catastrophic eruption

  10. Common raven occurrence in relation to energy transmission line corridors transiting human-altered sagebrush steppe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Howe, Kristy B.; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy-related infrastructure and other human enterprises within sagebrush steppe of the American West often results in changes that promote common raven (Corvus corax; hereafter, raven) populations. Ravens, a generalist predator capable of behavioral innovation, present a threat to many species of conservation concern. We evaluate the effects of detailed features of an altered landscape on the probability of raven occurrence using extensive raven survey (n= 1045) and mapping data from southern Idaho, USA. We found nonlinear relationships between raven occurrence and distances to transmission lines, roads, and facilities. Most importantly, raven occurrence was greater with presence of transmission lines up to 2.2 km from the corridor.We further explain variation in raven occurrence along anthropogenic features based on the amount of non-native vegetation and cover type edge, such that ravens select fragmented sagebrush stands with patchy, exotic vegetative introgression. Raven occurrence also increased with greater length of edge formed by the contact of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate spp.) with non-native vegetation cover types. In consideration of increasing alteration of sagebrush steppe, these findings will be useful for planning energy transmission corridor placement and other management activities where conservation of sagebrush obligate species is a priority.

  11. Cerulean Warbler abundance and occurrence relative to large-scale edge and habitat characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, P.B.; Bosworth, S.B.; Dettmers, R.

    2006-02-15

    We examined Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) abundance and occurrence in southwestern West Virginia, where the coal-mining technique of mountaintop removal mining-valley fill converts large contiguous tracts of deciduous forest to forest patches surrounded by early successional habitats. Our study objectives were to quantify abundance and occurrence of Cerulean Warblers relative to (1) distance from the edge of extensive reclaimed grasslands and (2) habitat structure and landscape characteristics. Cerulean Warbler abundance increased with distance from the edge and edge effects extended 340 m into the forest. Percent occurrence did not vary with distance from mine edge, suggesting a degree of tolerance to the extensive edge occurring at the interface of forest and reclaimed lands. Abundance and occurrence were greater on ridges and midslopes than in bottomlands; consequently, disturbances such as mountaintop mining in which ridges are removed may have a greater impact on populations compared to other sources of fragmentation where ridges are not disturbed. It was found that, in addition to outright loss of forested habitat, mountaintop mining-valley fill alters the spatial configuration of forested habitats, creating edge and area effects that negatively affect Cerulean Warbler abundance and occurrence in the reclaimed mine landscape.

  12. Hydrothermal Occurrences in Gusev Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, S. W.; Farmer, J. D.; Milliken, R.; Mills, V. W.; Shock, E.

    2011-12-01

    Exploration of the Gusev crater landing site by the Spirit rover has revealed for the first time, in situ evidence of hydrothermal activity on Mars. Most compelling are eroded outcrops of opaline silica found adjacent to "Home Plate" [1], an eroded stack of volcaniclastic deposits stratigraphically overlain by a vesicular basalt unit [2]. Recent work [3] demonstrates that the silica outcrops occur in a stratiform unit that possibly surrounds Home Plate. The outcrops are dominated by opal-A with no evidence for diagenesis to other silica phases. No other hydrous or alteration phases have been identified within the outcrops; most notable is a lack of sulfur phases. The outcrops have porous and in some cases, brecciated microtextures. Taken together, these observations support the interpretation that the opaline silica outcrops were produced in a hot spring or perhaps geyser environment. In this context, they are silica sinter deposits precipitated from silica-rich hydrothermal fluids, possibly related to the volcanism that produced the Home Plate volcanic rocks. On Earth, debris aprons in which sinter is brecciated, reworked, and cemented, are common features of hot springs and geysers and are good analogs for the Martian deposits. An alternative hypothesis is that the silica resulted from acid-sulfate leaching of precursor rocks by fumarolic steam condensates. But stratigraphic, textural, and chemical observations tend to diminish this possibility [3]. We are conducting extensive laboratory and field investigations of silica from both hot spring/geyser and fumarole environments to understand the full range of mineralogical, chemical, textural, and morphological variations that accompany its production, in order to shed more light on the Home Plate occurrence. The recent discovery of abundant Mg-Fe carbonate (16-34 wt%) in outcrops named Comanche provides possible evidence for additional hydrothermal activity in Gusev [4]. However, the carbonate is hosted by olivine

  13. Debris Flow Occurrence and Sediment Persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO.

    PubMed

    Grimsley, K J; Rathburn, S L; Friedman, J M; Mangano, J F

    2016-07-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers.

  14. Debris Flow Occurrence and Sediment Persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO.

    PubMed

    Grimsley, K J; Rathburn, S L; Friedman, J M; Mangano, J F

    2016-07-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers. PMID:27059223

  15. Debris flow occurrence and sediment persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimsley, Kyle J; Rathburn, Sara L.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Mangano, Joseph F.

    2016-01-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers.

  16. Debris Flow Occurrence and Sediment Persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimsley, K. J.; Rathburn, S. L.; Friedman, J. M.; Mangano, J. F.

    2016-07-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers.

  17. Tracer redistribution by clouds in West Africa: Numerical modeling for dry and wet seasons

    SciTech Connect

    Renard, M.; Chaumerliac, N.; Cautenet, S.; Nickerson, E.C. |

    1994-06-01

    The vertical transport by clouds of an inert tracer and its redistribution by complex West African circulations are examined using a two-dimensional mesoscale meteorological model with explicit microphysics. The model reproduces the tropical distribution of clouds and precipitation along a meridional cross section over West Africa, corresponding to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) during the dry and rainy seasons. The resulting redistribution of the inert tracer is therefore closely related to the northward migration of the ITCZ between January and July. The occurrence of biomass burning during the dry season is shown to be an important source of tracer enrichment at upper levels in the atmosphere.

  18. [Prediction model of human-caused fire occurrence in the boreal forest of northern China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Fu-tao; Su, Zhang-wen; Wang, Guang-yu; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Long; Yang, Ting-ting

    2015-07-01

    The Chinese boreal forest is an important forest resource in China. However, it has been suffering serious disturbances of forest fires, which were caused equally by natural disasters (e.g., lightning) and human activities. The literature on human-caused fires indicates that climate, topography, vegetation, and human infrastructure are significant factors that impact the occurrence and spread of human-caused fires. But the studies on human-caused fires in the boreal forest of northern China are limited and less comprehensive. This paper applied the spatial analysis tools in ArcGIS 10.0 and Logistic regression model to investigate the driving factors of human-caused fires. Our data included the geographic coordinates of human-caused fires, climate factors during year 1974-2009, topographic information, and forest map. The results indicated that distance to railway (x1) and average relative humidity (x2) significantly impacted the occurrence of human-caused fire in the study area. The logistic model for predicting the fire occurrence probability was formulated as P= 1/[11+e-(3.026-0.00011x1-0.047x2)] with an accuracy rate of 80%. The above model was used to predict the monthly fire occurrence during the fire season of 2015 based on the HADCM2 future weather data. The prediction results showed that the high risk of human-caused fire occurrence concentrated in the months of April, May, June and August, while April and May had higher risk of fire occurrence than other months. According to the spatial distribution of possibility of fire occurrence, the high fire risk zones were mainly in the west and southwest of Tahe, where the major railways were located.

  19. [Prediction model of human-caused fire occurrence in the boreal forest of northern China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Fu-tao; Su, Zhang-wen; Wang, Guang-yu; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Long; Yang, Ting-ting

    2015-07-01

    The Chinese boreal forest is an important forest resource in China. However, it has been suffering serious disturbances of forest fires, which were caused equally by natural disasters (e.g., lightning) and human activities. The literature on human-caused fires indicates that climate, topography, vegetation, and human infrastructure are significant factors that impact the occurrence and spread of human-caused fires. But the studies on human-caused fires in the boreal forest of northern China are limited and less comprehensive. This paper applied the spatial analysis tools in ArcGIS 10.0 and Logistic regression model to investigate the driving factors of human-caused fires. Our data included the geographic coordinates of human-caused fires, climate factors during year 1974-2009, topographic information, and forest map. The results indicated that distance to railway (x1) and average relative humidity (x2) significantly impacted the occurrence of human-caused fire in the study area. The logistic model for predicting the fire occurrence probability was formulated as P= 1/[11+e-(3.026-0.00011x1-0.047x2)] with an accuracy rate of 80%. The above model was used to predict the monthly fire occurrence during the fire season of 2015 based on the HADCM2 future weather data. The prediction results showed that the high risk of human-caused fire occurrence concentrated in the months of April, May, June and August, while April and May had higher risk of fire occurrence than other months. According to the spatial distribution of possibility of fire occurrence, the high fire risk zones were mainly in the west and southwest of Tahe, where the major railways were located. PMID:26710638

  20. Managing occurrence branching in qualitative simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tokuda, L.

    1996-12-31

    Qualitative simulators can produce common sense abstractions of complex behaviors given only partial knowledge about a system. One of the problems which limits the applicability of qualitative simulators is the intractable branching of successor states encountered with model of even modest size. Some branches may be unavoidable due to the complex nature of a system. Other branches may be accidental results of the model chosen. A common source of intractability is occurrence branching. Occurrence branching occurs when the state transitions of two variables are unordered with respect to each other. This paper extends the QSIM model to distinguish between interesting occurrence branching and uninteresting occurrence branching. A representation, algorithm, and simulator for efficiently handling uninteresting branching is presented.

  1. Brief Communication: Freaque wave occurrences in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P. C.

    2014-11-01

    Documenting freaque waves when they occured around the globe in 2013 is based here on news reports on the internet. It was found that there were a total 22 cases of freaque waves in 2013, based on those reported in clearly-defined physically specific environments. There were three cases in the deep ocean, six in nearshore areas, seven on sandy beaches, and seven on rocky shore areas. Note that most of the academic research has been on freaque waves in the deep ocean, which accounts for 13% of all occurrences. The majority of reported occurrences, 87%, are in the nearshore areas or along the beach area. Geographically, these cases are also fairly evenly spread around the globe. As of now, there is no general knowledge regarding the frequency of occurrence of these freaque waves, so that one may assume that 2013 was a customary year for freaque wave occurrences.

  2. Identification of geopressured occurrences outside of the Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Strongin, O.

    1981-03-05

    The work focused on the occurrences of geopressures in Appalachia and selected California basins. In the former region, where geopressures have been observed, the pressure gradients for the most part were only slightly above normal as in the case of the Oriskany formation of Devonian age; this unit was also characterized by extremely high salinity. The one notable exception was in the Rome trough of West Virginia where Cambrian beds at depths below 10,000 feet display very high geopressures, approaching the lithostatic gradient, and the waters are only moderately saline. Though the geothermal gradient throughout Appalachian is relatively low, even in the Rome trough, the pressure, temperature and salinity values in this area indicate that the methane content of the Cambrian formation waters is in the range of 30 to 35 SCF/barrel. The two California areas researched included the contiguous Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys. In the first, geopressures have been principally encountered in the Forbes formation of Cretaceous age, often at very shallow depths. Further waters are invariably characterized by very low salinity, far below the salinity of normal sea water, while the geothermal gradient in apparently higher in geopressured than in normally pressured zones. In the San Joaquin Valley, geopressures are particularly noteworthy in at least two formations of Miocene age at depths generally greater than those of the Forbes. The formation waters are likewise low in salinity; however, the geothemal gradient, especially in the geopressured zones on the west side of the valley, can be extremely high, up to twice as much as the normal temperature gradient. In view of these conditions, it is estimated that in the western San Joaquin Valley the methane content of geopressured formation waters will range from 30 to 40 SCF/barrel while in the Sacramento Valley, the methane content is estimated to be 20 to 25 SCF/barrel.

  3. Occurrence and distribution of Indian primates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karanth, K.K.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Global and regional species conservation efforts are hindered by poor distribution data and range maps. Many Indian primates face extinction, but assessments of population status are hindered by lack of reliable distribution data. We estimated the current occurrence and distribution of 15 Indian primates by applying occupancy models to field data from a country-wide survey of local experts. We modeled species occurrence in relation to ecological and social covariates (protected areas, landscape characteristics, and human influences), which we believe are critical to determining species occurrence in India. We found evidence that protected areas positively influence occurrence of seven species and for some species are their only refuge. We found evergreen forests to be more critical for some primates along with temperate and deciduous forests. Elevation negatively influenced occurrence of three species. Lower human population density was positively associated with occurrence of five species, and higher cultural tolerance was positively associated with occurrence of three species. We find that 11 primates occupy less than 15% of the total land area of India. Vulnerable primates with restricted ranges are Golden langur, Arunachal macaque, Pig-tailed macaque, stump-tailed macaque, Phayre's leaf monkey, Nilgiri langur and Lion-tailed macaque. Only Hanuman langur and rhesus macaque are widely distributed. We find occupancy modeling to be useful in determining species ranges, and in agreement with current species ranking and IUCN status. In landscapes where monitoring efforts require optimizing cost, effort and time, we used ecological and social covariates to reliably estimate species occurrence and focus species conservation efforts. ?? Elsevier Ltd.

  4. West African crude production diversifies

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.

    1983-06-01

    Nigeria, with its seven crude-oil export streams, dominated West African production and accounted for over 70% of the depressed 1.8 million b/d output from the region last year. However, during the 1970s a flurry of new producing fields, primarily off the African coast, diversified production among a number of countries and touched off a wave of oil activity. The Journal takes a close look at the quality of West African oil in this installment of assays on world export crudes. This issue covers, in alphabetical order, Bonny Light (Nigeria) to Espoir (Ivory Coast). A following issue will wrap up West Africa by presenting assays on crudes from Forcados Blend (Nigeria) to Zaire Crude (Zaire).

  5. An exploratory study on occurrence and impact of climate change on agriculture in Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, R. Jayakumara; Kumar, Pramod; Jha, Girish Kumar; Pal, Suresh; Singh, Rashmi

    2015-12-01

    This study has been undertaken to examine the occurrence of climate change in Tamil Nadu, the southernmost state of India and its impact on rainfall pattern which is a primary constraint for agricultural production. Among the five sample stations examined across the state, the minimum temperature has increased significantly in Coimbatore while the same has decreased significantly in Vellore whereas both minimum and maximum temperatures have increased significantly in Madurai since 1969 with climate change occurring between late 1980s and early 1990s. As a result, the south-west monsoon has been disturbed with August rainfall increasing with more dispersion while September rainfall decreasing with less dispersion. Thus, September, the peak rainfall month of south-west monsoon before climate change, has become the monsoon receding month after climate change. Though there has been no change in the trend of the north-east monsoon, the quantity of October and November rainfall has considerably increased with increased dispersion after climate change. On the whole, south-west monsoon has decreased with decreased dispersion while north-east monsoon has increased with increased dispersion. Consequently, the season window for south-west monsoon crops has shortened while the north-east monsoon crops are left to fend against flood risk during their initial stages. Further, the incoherence in warming, climate change and rainfall impact seen across the state necessitates devising different indigenous and institutional adaptation strategies for different regions to overcome the adverse impacts of climate change on agriculture.

  6. West Nile Virus Surveillance in the Lombardy Region, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Chiari, M; Prosperi, A; Faccin, F; Avisani, D; Cerioli, M; Zanoni, M; Bertoletti, M; Moreno, A M; Bruno, R; Monaco, F; Farioli, M; Lelli, D; Lavazza, A

    2015-08-01

    In 2013, the circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in the Lombardy region and the following year a surveillance programme was activated with the aim of early identification of the viral distribution in mosquitoes and wild birds. A total of 50 959 Culex spp. mosquitoes grouped in six hundred and forty-seven pools as well as 1400 birds were screened by RT-PCR for the presence of West Nile virus leading to the identification of the viral genome in 32 mosquito pools and 13 wild birds. The surveillance was able to detect the WNV circulation on an average of 42 days (CI 95% 29.98-53.86; Student's t-distribution) before the occurrence of human West Nile disease (WND) cases in the same area. These results demonstrate the presence of WNV in the Lombardy region and confirm entomological and wild birds surveillance as an effective measure for the early identification of WNV circulation in infected areas, thus providing a useful and cost-effective tool for the public health authorities in the application of measures to prevent human infection.

  7. Overview of the occurrence of natural gas hydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    Large amounts of methane, the principal component of natural gas, occur in the form of solid gas hydrate in sediment and sedimentary rock within {approximately}2,000 m of the Earth`s surface in polar and deep-water regions. The stability of gas hydrate in nature is controlled by an interrelation among factors of temperature, pressure, and gas-water composition that restricts the occurrence of gas hydrate to continental and continental-shelf sediment of high-latitude regions, where surface temperatures are slightly higher to less than {approximately}0{degrees}C, and to oceanic (aquatic) sediment worldwide, where bottom-water temperatures approach 0{degrees}C and water depths exceed {approximately}300 m. Naturally occurring gas hydrate was first recognized in the 1960`s in polar continental settings in Russia, particularly at the Messoyakha field of western Siberia. Samples of continental gas hydrate were first tested in 1972 from the west end of the Prudhoe Bay oil field in Alaska. Since the 1970`s, gas-hydrate samples have been cored and observed at about 14 subaquatic locations, providing irrefutable evidence that gas hydrate occurs as a natural substance in a variety of geologic settings. Most of these subaquatic samples have come from sediment in active (convergent) margins, but passive (divergent) margins are also appropriate settings for gas-hydrate occurrence. Three aspects of natural gas hydrate are of particular interest. Because gas hydrate contains large amounts of resource. Because gas hydrate is metastable, it can dissociate, triggering sediment instability, and thus become a geologic hazard. Because gas hydrate both stores and releases methane, a greenhouse gas, it may be a factor in global climate change.

  8. Recognition of the Script in Serbian Documents Using Frequency Occurrence and Co-Occurrence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brodić, Darko; Milivojević, Zoran N.; Maluckov, Čedomir A.

    2013-01-01

    Any document in Serbian language can be written in two different scripts: Latin or Cyrillic. Although characteristics of these scripts are similar, some of their statistical measures are quite different. The paper proposed a method for the extraction of certain script from document according to the occurrence and co-occurrence of the script types. First, each letter is modeled with the certain script type according to characteristics concerning its position in baseline area. Then, the frequency analysis of the script types occurrence is performed. Due to diversity of Latin and Cyrillic script, the occurrence of modeled letters shows substantial statistics dissimilarity. Furthermore, the co-occurrence matrix is computed. The analysis of the co-occurrence matrix draws a strong margin as a criteria to distinguish and recognize the certain script. The proposed method is analyzed on the case of a database which includes different types of printed and web documents. The experiments gave encouraging results. PMID:24385887

  9. Serologic Evidence of West Nile Virus Transmission, Jamaica, West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Peter P.; Kramer, Laura D.

    2003-01-01

    In spring 2002, an intensive avian serosurvey was initiated in Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and Mexico. We collected >1,600 specimens from resident and nonresident neotropical migratory birds before their northerly migrations. Plaque reduction neutralization test results indicated specific neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus in 11 resident species from Jamaica. PMID:12890329

  10. What rainfall events trigger landslides on the West Coast US?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasutti, Michela; Seager, Richard; Kirschbaum, Dalia

    2016-04-01

    A dataset of landslide occurrences compiled by collating google news reports covers 9 full years of data. We show that, while this compilation cannot provide consistent and widespread monitoring everywhere, it is adequate to capture the distribution of events in the major urban areas of the West Coast US and it can be used to provide a quantitative relationship between landslides and rainfall events. The case of the Seattle metropolitan area is presented as an example. The landslide dataset shows a clear seasonality in landslide occurrence, corresponding to the seasonality of rainfall, modified by the accumulation of soil moisture as winter progresses. Interannual variability of landslide occurrences is also linked to interannual variability of monthly rainfall. In most instances, landslides are clustered on consecutive days or at least within the same pentad and correspond to days of large rainfall accumulation at the regional scale. A joint analysis of the landslide data and of the high-resolution PRISM daily rainfall accumulation shows that on days when landslides occurred, the distribution of rainfall was shifted, with rainfall accumulation higher than 10mm/day being more common. Accumulations above 50mm/day much increase the probability of landslides, including the possibility of a major landslide event (one with multiple landslides in a day). The synoptic meteorological conditions associated with these major events show a mid-tropospheric ridge to the south of the target area steering a surface low and bringing enhanced precipitable water towards the Pacific North West. The interaction of the low-level flow with the local orography results in instances of a strong Puget Sound Convergence Zone, with widespread rainfall accumulation above 30mm/day and localized maxima as high as 100mm/day or more.

  11. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  12. West Flank Downhole Temperature Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2008-03-01

    Downhole temperature data for the three wells inside the West Flank FORGE footprint; 83-11, TCH 74-2 and TCH 48-11. TCH 74-2 and TCH 48-11 were both collected before 1990 and 83-11 was collected in 2009. The are compiled into one spreadsheet for ease of visualization.

  13. Improvisation in West African Musics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, David

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is music of the sub-Sahara. Vocal, instrumental, and dance drumming from the Sudan Desert, the North Coast, East Horn, Central and West Africa, and contrapuntal yodeling of Pygmies is described. For African musicians, the ability to improvise, and creativity, are gifts from God. Includes selected readings and recordings. (KC)

  14. Articulating Success in West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Antoni, Kathy J.; Coulson, Gene

    2008-01-01

    Two years in West Virginia, college filing cabinets were stacked high with articulation agreements. College faculty members were traveling to and from area high schools in an effort to develop and finalize articulation agreements; all part of the process. And to what end? Less than 1 percent of students in the state were taking advantage of the…

  15. The West Michigan Science Festival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheline, Mary Ann; Meyers, Karen

    1997-01-01

    Describes the West Michigan Science Festival which features a variety of interactive events in manufacturing, electronics, health care, engineering, and other fields. Brings together students, businesses, industries, and educators in a community celebration of science, mathematics, and technology. Discusses beginnings, business partners, events,…

  16. East Meets West: Mutual Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Center for Research in International Studies.

    This unit of study uses encounters between Japan and the West from earliest contact (16th century) to the present as a case study to help secondary students explore issues of cultural contact. The activities are appropriate for United States or world history courses as well as English, psychology, or sociology classes. The unit can be completed…

  17. B-WEST Mentorship Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jennice, Comp.; Benedetti, Marie L., Ed.

    This program guide is intended for use by mentors of women who have completed the preemployment training component of the B-WEST (Building Workers Entering Skilled Trades) project and who are now entering a trade or technical occupation. The first section contains a definition of mentoring and mentor, protegee, and trainer profiles. Sections 2-6…

  18. Suggested revision for west mexican archeological sequences.

    PubMed

    Long, S V; Taylor, R E

    1966-12-16

    A review of the radiocarbon dates and published and unpublished archeological data from the West Mexican states of Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, and Colima has resulted in a revised tentative chronology for West Mexico.

  19. Forest Pest Occurrence Predictionca-Markov Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Fangyi; Zhang, Xiaoli; Chen, Xiaoyan

    Since the spatial pattern of forest pest occurrence is determined by biological characteristics and habitat conditions, this paper introduced construction of a cellular automaton model combined with Markov model to predicate the forest pest occurrence. Rules of the model includes the cell states rules, neighborhood rules and transition rules which are defined according to the factors from stand conditions, stand structures, climate and the influence of the factors on the state conversion. Coding for the model is also part of the implementations of the model. The participants were designed including attributes and operations of participants expressed with a UML diagram. Finally, the scale issues on forest pest occurrence prediction, of which the core are the prediction of element size and time interval, are partly discussed in this paper.

  20. 75 FR 17463 - Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice... sole Receiver for Key West Bank, Key West, Florida, (OTS No. 14929) on March 26, 2010. Dated: March...

  1. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship... Key West, Florida during the Key West World Championship, a series of high-speed boat races. The event..., Super Boat International Productions, Inc. is hosting the Key West World Championship, a series of...

  2. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.189a Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with...

  3. The Railroad and the Frontier West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewig, Rick

    1988-01-01

    Points out railroad building in the West as a cause rather than an effect of the rapid development of the area. Railroads hastened the demise of American Indian autonomy and their land base, brought permanent Anglo-American settlers to the West and provided a market relationship between East and West. (KO)

  4. 33 CFR 117.622 - West Bay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Bay 117.622 Section 117.622 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.622 West Bay The draw of the West Bay Bridge, mile...

  5. 33 CFR 117.622 - West Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false West Bay. 117.622 Section 117.622 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.622 West Bay. The draw of the West Bay Bridge, mile...

  6. 33 CFR 117.622 - West Bay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false West Bay 117.622 Section 117.622 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.622 West Bay The draw of the West Bay Bridge, mile...

  7. 27 CFR 9.172 - West Elks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false West Elks. 9.172 Section 9... TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.172 West Elks. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “West Elks.” (b) Approved...

  8. 15. BUILDING 1: FOURTH FLOOR (West Section), TOP LEVEL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BUILDING 1: FOURTH FLOOR (West Section), TOP LEVEL OF TUBS, SOUTH AND WEST WALLS. OPEN METAL BREWER'S STAIR VISIBLE ALONG WEST WALL - Boston Beer Company, 225-249 West Second Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. 2. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING WEST ON KENNEDY ST. FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING WEST ON KENNEDY ST. FROM INTERSECTION OF SOUTH CONVENT AVE. AND WEST KENNEDY ST. - Barrio Libre, West Kennedy & West Seventeenth Streets, Meyer & Convent Avenues, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  10. 3. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING WEST ON KENNEDY FROM JUST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING WEST ON KENNEDY FROM JUST SOUTH OF SOUTH CONVENT AVE. AND WEST KENNEDY ST. - Barrio Libre, West Kennedy & West Seventeenth Streets, Meyer & Convent Avenues, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  11. 1. West portal of the mudshed abutting the west portal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. West portal of the mudshed abutting the west portal of Tunnel 5, view to the northwest, 135mm lens. The flat-roofed reinforced concrete mudsheds, rocksheds, and snowsheds are a common feature of the Natron Cutoff over the summit of the Cascades. With the railroad located on a sidehill bench cut into the precipitous slopes, the sheds protect the track from rock and mud slides, as well as from avalanches. With a solid wall on the uphill side and a series of columns on the downhill side, they form a gallery-like effect from within. This mudshed was built concurrent with the tunnel, in 1927. Though none of the mudsheds on the line are scheduled to be modified, this shed was documented as an integral element of Tunnel 5. - Southern Pacific Railroad Natron Cutoff, Tunnel 5, Milepost 545.2, McCredie Springs, Lane County, OR

  12. A revision of the distribution of sea kraits (Reptilia, Laticauda) with an updated occurrence dataset for ecological and conservation research.

    PubMed

    Gherghel, Iulian; Papeş, Monica; Brischoux, François; Sahlean, Tiberiu; Strugariu, Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    The genus Laticauda (Reptilia: Elapidae), commonly known as sea kraits, comprises eight species of marine amphibious snakes distributed along the shores of the Western Pacific Ocean and the Eastern Indian Ocean. We review the information available on the geographic range of sea kraits and analyze their distribution patterns. Generally, we found that south and south-west of Japan, Philippines Archipelago, parts of Indonesia, and Vanuatu have the highest diversity of sea krait species. Further, we compiled the information available on sea kraits' occurrences from a variety of sources, including museum records, field surveys, and the scientific literature. The final database comprises 694 occurrence records, with Laticauda colubrina having the highest number of records and Laticauda schistorhyncha the lowest. The occurrence records were georeferenced and compiled as a database for each sea krait species. This database can be freely used for future studies. PMID:27110155

  13. A revision of the distribution of sea kraits (Reptilia, Laticauda) with an updated occurrence dataset for ecological and conservation research

    PubMed Central

    Gherghel, Iulian; Papeş, Monica; Brischoux, François; Sahlean, Tiberiu; Strugariu, Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The genus Laticauda (Reptilia: Elapidae), commonly known as sea kraits, comprises eight species of marine amphibious snakes distributed along the shores of the Western Pacific Ocean and the Eastern Indian Ocean. We review the information available on the geographic range of sea kraits and analyze their distribution patterns. Generally, we found that south and south-west of Japan, Philippines Archipelago, parts of Indonesia, and Vanuatu have the highest diversity of sea krait species. Further, we compiled the information available on sea kraits’ occurrences from a variety of sources, including museum records, field surveys, and the scientific literature. The final database comprises 694 occurrence records, with Laticauda colubrina having the highest number of records and Laticauda schistorhyncha the lowest. The occurrence records were georeferenced and compiled as a database for each sea krait species. This database can be freely used for future studies. PMID:27110155

  14. Petrology of the Plutonic Rocks of west-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Thomas P.

    1970-01-01

    A series of plutons in west-central Alaska defines the Hogatza plutonic belt which extends for about 200 miles in an east-west direction from the northeastern Seward Peninsula to the Koyukuk River. The plutonic rocks have an aggregate area of about 1,200 square miles and their composition, distribution, and possible petrogenesis are discussed for the first time in this report. Field, petrographic and chemical data supported by K/Ar age dating indicate the plutonic rocks are divisible into two suites differing in age, location, and composition. The western plutons are mid-Cretaceous (~100 m.y.) in age and consist of a heterogeneous assemblage of monzonite, syenite, quartz monzonite. Associated with these granitic rocks is a group of alkaline sub-silicic rocks that forma belt of intrusive complexes extending for a distance of at least 180 miles from west-central Alaska to the Bering Sea. The complex at Granite Mountain shows a rare example of zoning from an alkaline rim to a quartz-bearing core. The occurrence of a similar complex at Cape Dezhnev on the easternmost tip of Siberia suggests the alkaline province may extend into Siberia. The easternmost plutons are Late Cretaceous (180 m.y.) in age and composed primarily of granodiorite and quartz monzonite similar to calc-alkaline plutons found throughout the North America Cordillera. The plutons are epizonal and intrude deformed but unmetamorphosed Lower Cretaceous andesitic volcanics and volcanic graywacke which constitute the highly mobile Yukon-Koyukuk volcanogenic province of west-central Alaska. No older rocks have been found within the confines of this vast tract; the occurrence of a bounding ophiolite sequence has lead to the suggestion that the province was formed by large-scale rifting and is underlain by oceanic crust. The possibility of no juvenile sialic crust over much of the area suggests that the potassium-rich magma now represented by the alkaline rocks originated in the mantle. The distribution of the

  15. Technique for Evaluating Multiple Probability Occurrences /TEMPO/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mezzacappa, M. A.

    1970-01-01

    Technique is described for adjustment of engineering response information by broadening the application of statistical subjective stimuli theory. The study is specifically concerned with a mathematical evaluation of the expected probability of relative occurrence which can be identified by comparison rating techniques.

  16. Species occurrence data for the nation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2015-09-28

    BISON's size is unprecedented, including records for most living species found in the U.S. and encompassing the efforts of more than a million professional and citizen scientists. And the vast majority of BISON's species occurrence records are specific locations, not just county or state records.

  17. Tectonic implications of Archean anorthosite occurrences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, W. C.; Morrison, D. A.; Maczuga, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    The occurrences of megacrystic anorthosite and basalt in a variety of geologic settings were reviewed and it was found that these rock types occur in a variety of tectonic settings. Anorthosites and megacrystic basalts are petrogenetically related and are found in oceanic volcanic crust, cratons, and shelf environments. Although megacrystic basalts are most common in Archean terranes, similar occurrences are observed in rocks of early Proterozoic age, and even in young terranes such as the Galapagos hotspot. Based on inferences from experimental petrology, all of the occurrences are apparently associated with similar parental melts that are relatively Fe-rich tholeiites. The megacrystic rocks exhibit a two- (or more)-stage development of plagioclase, with the megacrysts having relatively uniform composition produced under nearly isothermal and isochemical conditions over substantial periods of time. The anorthosites appear to have intruded various crustal levels from very deep to very shallow. The petrogenetic indicators, however, suggest that conditions of formation of the Precambrian examples were different from Phanerozoic occurrences.

  18. [T-2 toxin: occurrence and detection].

    PubMed

    Dohnal, V; Jezková, A; Kuca, K; Jun, D

    2007-07-01

    The paper is focused on the occurrence and methods for the detection of T-2 toxin, one of the most toxic trichothecene Fusarium mycotoxin. Due to its physical-chemical properties and high toxicity, T-2 toxin is classified as a potential biological warfare agent. PMID:17969315

  19. A Sweet Tasting Demonstration of Random Occurrences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Marek, Pam

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a game in which students must guess the flavor of LifeSaver candy without the aid of sight and smell. Explains that this demonstration assists students to understand the phenomenon of random occurrences. Describes how the presentation is conducted as well as the outcomes of the demonstration. (CMK)

  20. West Nile Virus in California

    PubMed Central

    Lothrop, Hugh; Chiles, Robert; Madon, Minoo; Cossen, Cynthia; Woods, Leslie; Husted, Stan; Kramer, Vicki; Edman, John

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first isolated in California during July 2003 from a pool of Culex tarsalis collected near El Centro, Imperial County. WNV transmission then increased and spread in Imperial and Coachella Valleys, where it was tracked by isolation from pools of Cx. tarsalis, seroconversions in sentinel chickens, and seroprevalence in free-ranging birds. WNV then dispersed to the city of Riverside, Riverside County, and to the Whittier Dam area of Los Angeles County, where it was detected in dead birds and pools of Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus. By October, WNV was detected in dead birds collected from riparian corridors in Los Angeles, west to Long Beach, and through inland valleys south from Riverside to San Diego County. WNV was reported concurrently from Arizona in mid-August and from Baja, Mexico, in mid-November. Possible mechanisms for virus introduction, amplification, and dispersal are discussed. PMID:15496236

  1. [Differential diagnoses of West syndrome].

    PubMed

    Fejerman, Natalio

    2013-09-01

    This study describes the clinical and electroencephalographic characteristics of epileptic spasms, and more especially those that occur during the first two years of life (infantile spasms). West syndrome has been clearly defined as the association between infantile spasms with an electroencephalographic pattern of hypsarrhythmia. Although intellectual deficit appears in almost all cases in which infantile spasms are not controlled with medication, this is a developmental aspect of the condition and not a manifestation that must necessarily be present in order to define the syndrome. The analysis of the interictal and ictal electroencephalogram readings, together with the clinical characteristics of the spasms and the neurological examination of patients, provides some orientation as regards the causations. Despite the spectrum that the title of this work focuses on, the study does not cover the treatment of early infants with West syndrome. Emphasis is placed on the differential diagnoses of West syndrome with other epileptic syndromes that manifest in the first two years of life, and more especially with a series of abnormal non-epileptic motor phenomena that occur in early infants. All these last non-epileptic disorders are displayed in a table, but benign myoclonus of early infancy or Fejerman syndrome is given as a paradigmatic example for the differential diagnosis. The primordial aim is to prevent neurologically healthy early infants from receiving antiepileptic drugs and even adrenocorticotropic hormone or corticoids due to a mistaken diagnosis.

  2. [West Nile fever/encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2007-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a member of the family Flaviviridae (genus Flavivirus), is a mosquito-borne virus first isolated in 1937 in the West Nile district of Uganda. The disease in humans is characterized by a dengue-like illness with fever, and a more severe form is characterized by central nervous system involvement, including encephalitis, meningitis, and myelitis. WN encephalitis was first reported in the Western Hemisphere in the summer of 1999, there was an outbreak in New York City. Epidemic WNV strains in North America are severely pathogenic, however, attenuated WNV strains were found in Texas and Mexico in 2003. The principal vectors of WNV transmission in North America are Culex. pipiens, Cx. Quinquefasciatus, Cx. restuans, Cx salinarius and Cx talsalis. The number of WN fever case has exceeded 27,000 since 1999 in the United States and 4,600 since 2002 in Canada. The first imported case of West Nile fever in Japan was confirmed in September, 2005. The patient had returned to Japan from the United States and developed symptoms the next day. There is currently no WN vaccine for use in humans. An inactivated WNV vaccine for use in horses has been available since 2001. A DNA vaccine, a chimeric live attenuated vaccine, and a recombinant vaccine have also been licensed for use in horses.

  3. National uranium resource evaluation, Charlottesville quadrangle, Virginia and West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Baillieul, T.A.; Daddazio, P.L.

    1982-04-01

    The Charlottesville 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangle, Virginia and West Virginia, was evaluated to identify environments and delineate areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. This was done using criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. General surface reconnaissance and geochemical sampling were carried out in all geologic environments within the quadrangle. Aerial radiometric and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance surveys were performed. Limited core drilling was carried out at one site to aid the evaluation. The results of this investigation indicate environments favorable for vein-type deposits in metamorphic rocks within highly sheared portions of the Precambrian Lovingston Formation. Cambrian metasediments along the margins of the Green Springs and Ellisville intrusives in the southeastern part of the area are favorable for allogenic uranium deposits. All other rock units examined are considered unfavorable for uranium deposits.

  4. Exploratory Spatial Mapping of the Occurrence of Antimicrobial Resistance in E. coli in the Community.

    PubMed

    Galvin, Sandra; Bergin, Niall; Hennessy, Ronan; Hanahoe, Belinda; Murphy, Andrew W; Cormican, Martin; Vellinga, Akke

    2013-07-01

    The use of antimicrobials over the past six decades has been associated with the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. To explore local geographical patterns in the occurrence of acquired antimicrobial resistance (AMR), AMR of E. coli causing urinary tract infections (UTI) in the community in the West of Ireland was mapped. All adult patients consulting with a suspected UTI in 22 general practices in the West of Ireland over a nine-month study period were requested to supply a urine sample. Those with a laboratory confirmed E. coli infection were included (n = 752) in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by standardized disc diffusion. Patient addresses were geocoded. The diameters of the zone of inhibition of growth for trimethoprim (5 μg) and ciprofloxacin (5 μg) for the relevant isolate was mapped against the patient address using ArcGIS software. A series of maps illustrating spatial distribution of AMR in the West of Ireland were generated. The spatial data demonstrated a higher proportion of isolates with AMR from urban areas. Some rural areas also showed high levels of resistant E. coli. Our study is the first to demonstrate the feasibility of using a geographical information system (GIS) platform for routine visual geographical analysis of AMR data in Ireland. Routine presentation of AMR data in this format may be valuable in understanding AMR trends at a local level.

  5. Tetrahymanol: Its widespread occurrence and geochemical significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, M. I.

    1989-11-01

    The occurrence of tetrahymanol (gammaceran-3β-ol) in sediments from various marine depositional environments such as the Santa Monica Basin and Palos Verdes shelf (southern California Bight), the Santa Barbara Basin (off the northern California Borderland), the Atlantic shelf, slope, and rise, and the Antarctic region, as well as in bacterial/algal mats from the Santa Barbara Basin and Baja California, together with its detection in sediments from the Peru upwelling region (ODP Leg 112) and Baffin Bay (ODP Leg 105) suggests that tetrahymanol occurs ubiquitously in marine samples. Tetrahymanol is the only known likely biological precursor of gammacerane, which is found in many petroleums and shales. The common occurrence of tetrahymanol in marine environments implies that primitive organisms similar to Tetrahymena, or organisms other than Tetrahymena (other protozoa, bacteria?), are also likely to contain this compound. Its isomer, diplopterol, has also been detected in several sediment sections.

  6. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann

    2015-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 85 reportable events (18 from the 4th Qtr FY-15 and 67 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 25 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (8 from this quarter and 17 from the prior three quarters).

  7. Mine and mineral occurrences of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, G.J.; Bliss, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    This inventory of more than 1000 mines and mineral occurrences in Afghanistan was compiled from published literature and the files of project members of the National Industrial Minerals project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and most duplicates have been deleted. The data cover metals, industrial minerals, coal, and peat. Listings in the table represent several levels of information, including mines, mineral showings, deposits, and pegmatite fields.

  8. Mycotoxins: occurrence, toxicology, and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Marin, S; Ramos, A J; Cano-Sancho, G; Sanchis, V

    2013-10-01

    Mycotoxins are abiotic hazards produced by certain fungi that can grow on a variety of crops. Consequently, their prevalence in plant raw materials may be relatively high. The concentration of mycotoxins in finished products is usually lower than in raw materials. In this review, occurrence and toxicology of the main mycotoxins are summarised. Furthermore, methodological approaches for exposure assessment are described. Existing exposure assessments, both through contamination and consumption data and biomarkers of exposure, for the main mycotoxins are also discussed.

  9. Occurrence of ultrasonic cavitation in sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielewicz-Madej, E.; Sorys, P.

    2006-11-01

    The study revealed considerable differences in the susceptibility of the sludge to preliminary treatment by two kind of mixing and expressed as changes in the initial properties of the sludge and thus conditions for the occurrence of ultrasonic disintegration in particular sludge from wastewater treatment plants G, K andZ. The susceptibility of sludge to ultrasounds which depends on the sludge properties was explained by the higher COD of dissolved matter after ultrasonic disintegration of sludge.

  10. Early Mesozoic structural evolution of the eastern West Qinling, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guo-Li; Meng, Qing-Ren; Duan, Liang; Li, Lin

    2014-09-01

    This paper aims to reconstruct Early Mesozoic structural development of the eastern West Qinling by integrating structural and geochronologic analyses. The results show that the eastern West Qinling experienced two-phase deformations, separated by a period of tectonic quiescence. Large-scale south-directed displacement of thrust sheets in association with folding characterized the first-phase deformation in Late Triassic time, leading to the formation of the West Qinling fold-and-thrust belt that is composed primarily of Paleozoic-Triassic strata. This fold-and-thrust belt is in general south-convexing arc-shaped, with an accumulated south-directed displacement being over 100 km. The folding and thrusting ended up during the Norian of the Late Triassic Epoch and were immediately followed by widespread granite intrusions. Marked uplift and erosion occurred in the Early Jurassic, resulting in exhumation of the Late Triassic granites. Transpressional deformation took place in the eastern West Qinling in the Middle Jurassic on account of occurrences of strike-slip faulting and refolding. In the easternmost part of the West Qinling exists a Permian-Triassic turbidite wedge that is bordered by a right-slip fault on the northeast and by a left-slip fault on the south, indicating a westward movement that was accommodated by slip faulting. It is argued that collision of the North and South China blocks was responsible for formation of the West Qinling fold-and-thrust belt in the Late Triassic, whereas Middle Jurassic transgression is considered as the result of westward extrusion of Permian-Triassic turbiditic materials from the East Qinling owing to renewed intracontinental convergence between the North and South China blocks. A tectonic model is advanced for Early Mesozoic tectonic development of the West Qinling.

  11. [Occurrence of allergens on hospital premises].

    PubMed

    Andersen, U M; Osterballe, O

    2000-01-24

    The occurrence of allergens from the house-dust mites Der p 1, Der f 1 and Der m, and from dogs (Can f 1) and cats (Fel d 1) was assessed in Viborg Hospital. Three hundred samples collected in a standardized manner were analysed for allergens by ELISA technique. In only one dust sample was the total occurrence of mite allergens marginally above the sensitization threshold level of 2,000 ng mite allergens/g dust. For Fel d 1 a threshold level for sensitization or symptoms of 8,000 ng Fel d 1/g dust has been proposed; none of the dust samples contained this concentration. A low occurrence of Can f 1 was found. One dust sample contained 8,902 ng Can f 1, while the remainder exhibited lower concentrations. Efficient cleaning and adequate ventilation can reduce allergens in public buildings, but it is impossible to remove all allergens from upholstered furniture. Avoidance of such furniture in wards and outpatient departments which receive allergic patients might be considered.

  12. Meteotsunami occurrence frequency along the Mediterranean coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masina, Marinella; Archetti, Renata; Lamberti, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    A number of research studies describe exceptional destructive meteotsunami events since long time whereas no systematic database is available of moderate events because sea level data were recorded with insufficient resolution. Sea level measurements recently collected with high sampling rate, one per minute or less, by tide gauges positioned along the Mediterranean coasts are examined, aiming to analyze the occurrence of oscillation events in the tsunami frequency range. Sea level data from operating tide stations inside the Mediterranean basin are made publicly available through the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Sea Level Monitoring Facility web site (http://www.ioc-sealevelmonitoring.org/). After the implementation of a rigorous quality check procedure to the raw water level time series, Hilbert transform is applied to two hour high-pass filtered observations to identify tsunami-like oscillation events. Events of seismic origin are identified by consistency between earthquake occurrence and tsunami wave travel time from the earthquake epicenter to the specific tide gauge. Similar analyses are performed to exclude sea waves induced harbor seiches events. A list of probable meteotsunami episodes occurred in the Mediterranean region is so compiled and their occurrence frequency and intensity statistics are evaluated at the different tide gauge sites over the time period of high frequency water level data availability ranging from five to seven years. The effects of atmospheric conditions and seabed topography are discussed. Detection and characterization of meteotsunamis, both of exceptional character and of weak intensity, represent an essential step toward improved assessments of coastal flooding risk along the Mediterranean coasts.

  13. Pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains from water sources in Jamaica, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Morales, J; Lindo, J F; Martinez, E; Calder, D; Figueruelo, E; Valladares, B; Ortega-Rivas, A

    2005-12-01

    In 2004, samples of tap water and of river and sea water associated with human activities were collected in Jamaica, West Indies, and checked for free-living Acanthamoeba. The morphologies of the cysts and trophozoites observed and the results of PCR-based amplifications with a genus-specific primer pair were used to identify the Acanthamoeba isolates. The potential of each isolate as a human pathogen was then evaluated using thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays and two PCR-based assays for Acanthamoeba pathogenesis. Acanthamoeba were identified in 36.1%, 26.4% and 49.6% of the tap-, river- and sea-water samples collected, respectively. Pathogenic potential was shown by 60.0% of the Acanthamoeba strains isolated from tap water, 68.4% of the strains from river water, and 40.4% of the seawater strains. Sequencing of ribosomal DNA revealed the T1, T2, T4, T5, T7, T9 and T11 genotypes. Isolates of the T4 genotype were collected from tap, rain and sea water and, as expected, exhibited the most pathogenic traits; most were osmotolerant, thermotolerant and expressing extracellular serine protease. This is the first study of the occurrence and distribution of Acanthamoeba in water in the West Indies, and the results confirm the presence of potentially pathogenic strains in Jamaica.

  14. Persistence of West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Melissa N; Hasbun, Rodrigo; Murray, Kristy O

    2015-02-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a widespread global pathogen that results in significant morbidity and mortality. Data from animal models provide evidence of persistent renal and neurological infection from WNV; however, the possibility of persistent infection in humans and long-term neurological and renal outcomes related to viral persistence remain largely unknown. In this paper, we provide a review of the literature related to persistent infection in parallel with the findings from cohorts of patients with a history of WNV infection. The next steps for enhancing our understanding of WNV as a persistent pathogen are discussed.

  15. Occurrences and Effects of Drought across Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, M. N.

    2009-12-01

    Drought is a common occurrence in Africa and its effects vary temporally and spatially across the continent. The objective of this paper is to synthesize available information on droughts in Africa in order to discern emerging trends vis-à-vis spatiotemporal occurrences, impacts and adaptation. Drought forcings in the Sahelian region and southern Africa are predominately related to the passage of mid-latitude air masses while in locations near the equator is strongly linked to the position of ITCZ, except perhaps in the deserts where albedo may predominate. The review shows that drought occurrences have increased both temporally and spatially; its effects on the society vary across scales, and are influenced by political, economic, social, cultural, and ecological factors. The drought occurrence and its impacts varied spatially and temporally. The effect of drought also varied with socioeconomic sector; agriculture and pastoralism were the widely reported. The greater horn of Africa, specifically Kenya, has the most continuous record of droughts. The synthesis also reveals that a suite of drought adaptation strategies exists at the local scale; in contrasts, at the aggregate scale, coping strategies are scarce. Drought management tailored for specific livelihood system or societies are non-existent. The study found that occurrence of drought alongside issues related to the multiscale political economy affect the viability of most adaptation strategies used by societies across Africa. Drought management has been silent on the social, political, and economic dimensions that reasonably aggravate the vulnerability of lives and livelihood systems to this climatic hazard. The effect of drought and social pressures is relational and simultaneous to such a degree that differential vulnerability among communities across Africa is to be expected. Although scenarios about rainfall and drought vis-à-vis Africa are largely contested there is a general indication that most

  16. Research on red tide occurrences using enclosed experimental ecosystem in West Xiamen Harbor, China —Relationship between nutrients and red tide occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu; Lin, Rong-Cheng

    2000-09-01

    This study on the distribution of phosphate and its relation to phytoplankton biomass in Western Xiamen Harbor using marine ecosystem enclosures to isolate the culture water from the tidal currents and salinity changes outside indicated that the phytoplankton biomass variation closely related to dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) in the seawater as described by the equation: [Chl-a]=A×e-B[PO4]. The biomass changes lagged by about two days the corresponding DIP. The research also dealt with the minimal DIP concentration for stopping diatom bloom and the possible maximal diatom biomass was estimated from the DIP external concentration in the seawater. The threshold of DIP initiating Skeletonema costatum red tide was calculated for use as an index to forecast its red tides. In addition, the relationships between a dinoflagellate red tide and nutrients are discussed. The results showed that the multiplication of dinoflagellate was not entirely dependent on the nutrients in the seawater.

  17. 4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND VERTICAL BRACED DOUBLE ANGLES, DIAGONAL BRACING AND CROSS BRACED RAILING - Thirty-Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning Rabbit River, Hamilton, Allegan County, MI

  18. WEST AND EAST PALISADES ROADLESS AREAS, IDAHO AND WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oriel, Steven S.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the West and East Palisades Roadless Areas, which lie within the Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt, document structures, reservoir formations, source beds, and thermal maturities comparable to those in producing oil and gas field farther south in the belt. Therefore, the areas are highly favorable for the occurrence of oil and gas. Phosphate beds of appropriate grade within the roadless areas are thinner and less accessible than those being mined from higher thrust sheets to the southwest; however, they contain 98 million tons of inferred phosphate rock resources in areas of substantiated phosphate resource potential. Sparsely distributed thin coal seams occur in the roadless areas. Although moderately pure limestone is present, it is available from other sources closer to markets. Geochemical anomalies from stream-sediment and rock samples for silver, copper, molydenum, and lead occur in the roadless areas but they offer little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. A possible geothermal resource is unproven, despite thermal phenomena at nearby sites.

  19. Silurian gastropoda from southeastern and west-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohr, D.M.; Blodgett, R.B.; Fryda, J.

    2008-01-01

    Additional Silurian (Ludlovian) gastropods are described from the Heceta Formation in the Alexander terrane on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska. Species include Spinicharybdis krizi n. sp., Spinicharybdis boucoti n. sp., Morania wagneri n. sp., Haplospira craigi n. sp., Australonema sp., Pachystrophia cf. gotlandica (Lindstro??m, 1884), and Medfrazyga gilmulli n. sp. An additional new Silurian species, Morania nixonforkensis n. sp., is described from the Nixon Fork subterrane of the Farewell terrane of west-central Alaska. The spine-bearing Spinicharybdis is placed into a new subfamily Spinicharybdiinae together with Hystricoceras Jahn, 1894. Joint occurrences of genera Beraunia, Coelocaulus, and Morania, as well as members of subfamily Spinicharybdiinae in the gastropod fauna from the Heceta Formation, support its close relationship with gastropod fauna of Bohemia. Additionally, the occurrence of the genus Medfrazyga suggests a faunal link between the Alexander and Farewell terranes of Alaska. Medfrazyga gilmulli n. sp. is the oldest known and the only early Paleozoic member of the family Palaeozygopleuridae. Copyright ?? 2008, The Paleontological Society.

  20. K West Basin canister survey

    SciTech Connect

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-08-26

    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin.

  1. Quaternary faults of west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.W.; Raney, J.A. . Bureau of Economic Geology)

    1993-04-01

    North- and northwest-striking intermontane basins and associated normal faults in West Texas and adjacent Chihuahua, Mexico, formed in response to Basin and Range tectonism that began about 24 Ma ago. Data on the precise ages of faulted and unfaulted Quaternary deposits are sparse. However, age estimates made on the basis of field stratigraphic relationships and the degree of calcic soil development have helped determine that many of the faults that bound the basin margins ruptured since the middle Pleistocene and that some faults probably ruptured during the Holocene. Average recurrence intervals between surface ruptures since the middle Pleistocene appear to be relatively long, about 10,000 to 100,000 yr. Maximum throw during single rupture events have been between 1 and 3 m. Historic seismicity in West Texas is low compared to seismicity in many parts of the Basin and Range province. The largest historic earthquake, the 1931 Valentine earthquake in Ryan Flat/Lobo Valley, had a magnitude of 6.4 and no reported surface rupture. The most active Quaternary faults occur within the 120-km-long Hueco Bolson, the 70-km-long Red Light Bolson, and the > 200-km-long Salt Basins/Wild Horse Flat/Lobo Valley/Ryan Flat.

  2. West Nile Virus and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marra, P.P.; Griffing, S.; Caffrey, C.; Kilpatrick, A.M.; McLean, R.; Brand, C.; Saito, E.; Dupuis, A.P.; Kramer, L.; Novak, R.

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines, few regionwide declines can be attributed to WNV. Predicting future impacts of WNV on wildlife, and pinpointing what drives epidemics, will require substantial additional research into host susceptibility, reservoir competency, and linkages between climate, mosquitoes, and disease. Such work will entail a collaborative effort between scientists in governmental research groups, in surveillance and control programs, and in nongovernmental organizations. West Nile virus was not the first, and it will not be the last, exotic disease to be introduced to the New World. Its spread in North America highlights the need to strengthen animal monitoring programs and to integrate them with research on disease ecology.

  3. 78 FR 79061 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Key West International Airport, Key West, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Key West International Airport, Key West, FL... Key West International Airport under the provisions of the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act and...: This notice announces that the FAA finds that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted for the Key...

  4. An Index to PGE-Ni-Cr Deposits and Occurrences in Selected Mineral-Occurrence Databases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Causey, J. Douglas; Galloway, John P.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Databases of mineral deposits and occurrences are essential to conducting assessments of undiscovered mineral resources. In the USGS's (U.S. Geological Survey) global assessment of undiscovered resources of copper, potash, and the platinum-group elements (PGE), only a few mineral deposit types will be evaluated. For example, only porphyry-copper and sediment-hosted copper deposits will be considered for the copper assessment. To support the global assessment, the USGS prepared comprehensive compilations of the occurrences of these two deposit types in order to develop grade and tonnage models and delineate permissive areas for undiscovered deposits of those types. This publication identifies previously published databases and database records that describe PGE, nickel, and chromium deposits and occurrences. Nickel and chromium were included in this overview because of the close association of PGE with nickel and chromium mineralization. Users of this database will need to refer to the original databases for detailed information about the deposits and occurrences. This information will be used to develop a current and comprehensive global database of PGE deposits and occurrences.

  5. The Occurrence of Erionite at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2004-07-01

    The naturally-occurring zeolite mineral erionite has a fibrous morphology and is a known human carcinogen (inhalation hazard). Erionite has been found typically in very small quantities and restricted occurrences in the course of mineralogic characterization of Yucca Mountain as a host for a high-level nuclear waste repository. The first identification of erionite was made in 1984 on the basis of morphology and chemical composition and later confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found in the lower vitrophyre (Tptpv3) of the Topopah Spring Tuff in a borehole sidewall sample. Most erionite occurrences identified at Yucca Mountain are in the Topopah Spring Tuff, within an irregular zone of transition between the lower boundary of devitrified tuff and underlying glassy tuff. This zone is fractured and contains intermingled devitrified and vitric tuff. In 1997, a second host of erionite mineralization was identified in the Exploratory Studies Facility within and adjacent to a high-angle fracture/breccia zone transgressing the boundary between the lowermost devitrified tuff (Tpcplnc) and underlying moderately welded vitric tuff (Tpcpv2) of the Tiva Canyon Tuff. The devitrified-vitric transition zones where erionite is found tend to have complex secondary-mineral assemblages, some of very localized occurrence. Secondary minerals in addition to erionite may include smectite, heulandite-clinoptilolite, chabazite, opal-A, opal-CT, cristobalite, quartz, kenyaite, and moganite. Incipient devitrification within the Topopah Spring Tuff transition zone includes patches that are highly enriched in potassium feldspar relative to the precursor volcanic glass. Geochemical conditions during glass alteration may have led to local evolution of potassium-rich fluids. Thermodynamic modeling of zeolite stability shows that erionite and chabazite stability fields occur only at aqueous K concentrations much higher than in present Yucca Mountain waters. The association of erionite

  6. Global potential of dust devil occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemmett-Smith, Bradley; Marsham, John; Knippertz, Peter; Gilkeson, Carl

    2014-05-01

    Mineral dust is a key constituent in the climate system. Airborne mineral dust forms the largest component of the global aerosol budget by mass and subsequently affects climate, weather and biogeochemical processes. There remains large uncertainty in the quantitative estimates of the dust cycle. Dry boundary-layer convection serves as an effective mechanism for dust uplift, typically through a combination of rotating dust devils and non-rotating larger and longer-lived convective plumes. These microscale dry-convective processes occur over length scales of several hundred metres or less. They are difficult to observe and model, and therefore their contribution to the global dust budget is highly uncertain. Using an analytical approach to extrapolate limited observations, Koch and Renno (2006) suggest that dust devils and plumes could contribute as much as 35%. Here, we use a new method for quantifying the potential of dust devil occurrence to provide an alternative perspective on this estimate. Observations have shown that dust devil and convective plume occurrence is favoured in hot arid regions under relatively weak background winds, large ground-to-air temperature gradients and deep dry convection. By applying such known constraints to operational analyses from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), we provide, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the first hourly estimates of dust devil occurrence including an analysis of sensitivity to chosen threshold uplift. The results show the expected diurnal variation and allow an examination of the seasonal cycle and day-to-day variations in the conditions required for dust devil formation. They confirm that desert regions are expected to have by far the highest frequency of dry convective vortices, with winds capable of dust uplift. This approach is used to test the findings of Koch and Renno (2006). Koch J., Renno N. (2006). The role of convective plumes and vortices on the global aerosol

  7. Electric pulses some minutes before earthquake occurrences

    SciTech Connect

    Varotsos, P. A.; Sarlis, N. V.; Skordas, E. S.; Lazaridou, M. S.

    2007-02-05

    Electric and magnetic pulses are measured shortly (some minutes) before earthquakes. These pulses differ greatly from the seismic electric signals, which have appreciably longer lead times (days to months). In the case of 1995 Grevena-Kozani earthquake with a magnitude of 6.8, the time difference of {approx_equal}1 s was observed between the recordings of the electric and magnetic components at Ioannina station, providing further support that the pulses were not from local man-made source but most probably from the epicentral area about 100 km away. A tentative explanation of the phenomenon is proposed considering what happens in the very last stage before the earthquake occurrence.

  8. Universality in Solar Flare and Earthquake Occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    De Arcangelis, L.; Godano, C.; Lippiello, E.; Nicodemi, M.

    2006-02-10

    Earthquakes and solar flares are phenomena involving huge and rapid releases of energy characterized by complex temporal occurrence. By analyzing available experimental catalogs, we show that the stochastic processes underlying these apparently different phenomena have universal properties. Namely, both problems exhibit the same distributions of sizes, interoccurrence times, and the same temporal clustering: We find after flare sequences with power law temporal correlations as the Omori law for seismic sequences. The observed universality suggests a common approach to the interpretation of both phenomena in terms of the same driving physical mechanism.

  9. Exudate gums: occurrence, production, and applications.

    PubMed

    Verbeken, D; Dierckx, S; Dewettinck, K

    2003-11-01

    This paper presents a review of the industrially most relevant exudate gums: gum arabic, gum karya, and gum tragacanth. Exudate gums are obtained as the natural exudates of different tree species and exhibit unique properties in a wide variety of applications. This review covers the chemical structure, occurrence and production of the different gums. It also deals with the size and relative importance of the various players on the world market. Furthermore, it gives an overview of the main application fields of the different gums, both food and non-food.

  10. Concurrent Occurrence of Mucocele and Pyogenic Granuloma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Park, Hwa-young; Hong, Seung Phil

    2011-01-01

    A mucocele is a common, benign lesion of the oral cavity that develops following the extravasation or retention of mucous from a major or minor salivary gland. A pyogenic granuloma (PG) is also a common, benign condition characterized by proliferating capillaries that affect the skin and mucous membranes. The concurrent occurrence of a mucocele and a PG lesion has rarely been reported in the medical literature. This case study reports such a finding in a 16-year-old patient who presented to our department. PMID:22028553

  11. Taxonomical and geographical occurrence of Libyans scorpions.

    PubMed

    Zourgui, L; Maammar, M; Emetris, R

    2008-01-01

    Nine different species of scorpions can be recognized from more than 5000 samples collected from different areas in Libya: Leiurus quinquestriatus, Androctonus bicolor, Androctonus australis, Androctonus amoreuxi, Buthacus leptochelys, Buthus occitanus, Buthacus arenicola, Orthochirus innesi and Scorpio maurus. The geographical occurrence showed that Leiurus quinquestriatus seems to be restricted to the Southern areas. On the contrary, Buthus occitanus was found in the costal regions. Other species such as Androctonus were widely spread in all regions. Buthacus Leptochelys, Orthochirus innesi and Scorpio maurus were found, in the East (Aujlah, Jalu), the South (Wadi-Atbah) and the Western cost of Libya respectively. PMID:19469419

  12. Universality in solar flare and earthquake occurrence.

    PubMed

    de Arcangelis, L; Godano, C; Lippiello, E; Nicodemi, M

    2006-02-10

    Earthquakes and solar flares are phenomena involving huge and rapid releases of energy characterized by complex temporal occurrence. By analyzing available experimental catalogs, we show that the stochastic processes underlying these apparently different phenomena have universal properties. Namely, both problems exhibit the same distributions of sizes, interoccurrence times, and the same temporal clustering: We find after flare sequences with power law temporal correlations as the Omori law for seismic sequences. The observed universality suggests a common approach to the interpretation of both phenomena in terms of the same driving physical mechanism.

  13. 10 CFR 840.3 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 840.3 Section 840.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.3 Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. If the DOE determines that both of the criteria set forth in § 840.4 and §...

  14. 10 CFR 840.3 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 840.3 Section 840.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.3 Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. If the DOE determines that both of the criteria set forth in § 840.4 and §...

  15. 10 CFR 840.3 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 840.3 Section 840.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.3 Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. If the DOE determines that both of the criteria set forth in § 840.4 and §...

  16. 10 CFR 840.3 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 840.3 Section 840.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.3 Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. If the DOE determines that both of the criteria set forth in § 840.4 and §...

  17. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  18. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  19. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  20. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  1. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  2. 10 CFR 840.3 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 840.3 Section 840.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.3 Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. If the DOE determines that both of the criteria set forth in § 840.4 and §...

  3. West African Folktales [and] Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Steven H.

    Traditionally, an important function of folktales in West Africa has been to educate, as the older generation imparts knowledge to younger members of the family, tribe, societal unit, or ethnic group both informally in everyday life and more formally within the context of the bush schools. This anthology of West African folk literature offers more…

  4. Environmental History in the American West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Hal K.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that environmental history is an important component of the history of the American west. Discusses the historiography of the American west in relationship to environmental issues. Concludes that environmental history opened the door for scholars to study the way human beings interact with the physical world around them. (CFR)

  5. Obtaining Financial Parity in West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohmann, Joan

    2008-01-01

    On March 28, 2008 West Virginia's governor signed into law House Bill 4117 that provides salary stipends to school psychologists and school nurses who are nationally certified. This accomplishment was largely due to 2 years of work undertaken by three dedicated persons in West Virginia: school psychologists Sarah Kendall and Terry Thorn and school…

  6. An Introduction to West African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taiwo, Oladele

    Intended to provide help for those interested in studying West African literature, this book is divided into three parts. Part One provides background information: the various African oral traditions are discussed, related to the way of life of the people, and examined for the extent to which they form the basis of present West African literary…

  7. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  8. West German Teachers on Today's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; And Others

    1984-01-01

    In 1983, elementary and secondary teachers in West Germany were surveyed concerning the treatment of social themes in school curricula. As in a similar survey conducted in the United States, West German respondents indicated that every theme surveyed was important, with nuclear disarmament and environmental pollution clearly considered the most…

  9. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  10. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  11. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  12. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  13. West Tennessee Research Development Consortium. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colmey, James W.

    The West Tennessee Research Development Consortium, formed to increase the potentiality of research in two small West Tennessee Colleges, consists of a project designed to train in research methodology one research person on each of the two campuses, and to offer concurrently an inservice training program to eight faculty members in each of the…

  14. Occurrence of potentially pathogenic arcobacters in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Mottola, Anna; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Figueras, Maria José; Pérez-Cataluña, Alba; Marchetti, Patrizia; Serraino, Andrea; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Terio, Valentina; Tantillo, Giuseppina; Di Pinto, Angela

    2016-08-01

    Considering that several recent cases of human gastroenteritis have been associated with species from the Arcobacter genus, and that few data are currently available about the occurrence of this genus in Italian shellfish, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of Arcobacter spp. and the presence of virulence-associated genes. The approach consisted of cultural and biomolecular (multiplex-PCR and 16S-RFLP) methods identifying isolates, followed by PCR assays aimed at the cadF, ciaB, cjl349, irgA, hecA putative virulence genes. Arcobacter spp. was detected in 16/70 (22.8%) shellfish samples. Specifically, Arcobacter spp. was highlighted in 10/42 (23.8%) mussel and in 6/28 (21.4%) clam samples. Subsequently, biomolecular assays revealed Arcobacter butzleri in 12/16 (75%) and Arcobacter cryaerophilus 1B in 4/16 (25%) isolates. PCRs aimed at the five putative virulence genes demonstrated widespread distribution of these genes among Arcobacter isolates and some differences from the results published by other authors. Our research provides more information regarding the health risks associated with the consumption of raw bivalve molluscs and underlines the need to implement an adequate control plan by performing intensive and continuous monitoring in order to guarantee human health. PMID:27052698

  15. Remote sensing in West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lessing, P.

    1981-01-01

    Low altitude black and white aerial photography is the prinicipal remote sensing tool for geologic investigations in West Virginia, although side looking radar and color infrared photography are also used. The first land use/cover map for the state was produced in color infrared and is being digitized. Linear features in Cabell and Wayne Counties, as revealed by LANDSAT, were evaluated to test the possible correlations with rock fractures and gas production from shales. A LANDSAT linear features map (1:250,000) was prepared for the entire state, also. Presently investigations are being made to understand karst and to predict areas that should not be used for development. Aerial photography and field mapping is being conducted to detect the location and causes of landslides.

  16. West Maui Groundwater Flow Model

    SciTech Connect

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for West Maui. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume V – Island of Maui Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.

  17. Consolidated environmental regulation in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Flannery, D.M.; Beckett, K.G.; McThomas, M.P.

    1995-05-01

    In 1994, West Virginia enacted the single largest piece of legislation in its history. The 1,400-page bill that made up this legislation was the crowning achievement of more than a decade of efforts to consolidate and streamline West Virginia`s environmental regulatory programs. The result has been the empowerment of the West Virginia Division of Environmental Protection (DEP) as the centerpiece of environmental regulation in West Virginia. This Article explores the principal initiatives leading to the passage of the legislation empowering the DEP. In addition, it analyzes the substantive provisions of the DEP`s legislative authority and the relationship of that authority to other agencies. Finally, this Article identifies additional areas for the refinement of West Virginia`s environmental regulatory programs.

  18. Feeding Patterns of Potential West Nile Virus Vectors in South-West Spain

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Joaquín; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Alcaide, Miguel; Viana, Duarte S.; Roiz, David; Vázquez, Ana; Figuerola, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Background Mosquito feeding behaviour determines the degree of vector–host contact and may have a serious impact on the risk of West Nile virus (WNV) epidemics. Feeding behaviour also interacts with other biotic and abiotic factors that affect virus amplification and transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified the origin of blood meals in five mosquito species from three different wetlands in SW Spain. All mosquito species analysed fed with different frequencies on birds, mammals and reptiles. Both ‘mosquito species’ and ‘locality’ explained a similar amount of variance in the occurrence of avian blood meals. However, ‘season of year’ was the main factor explaining the presence of human blood meals. The differences in diet resulted in a marked spatial heterogeneity in the estimated WNV transmission risk. Culex perexiguus, Cx. modestus and Cx. pipiens were the main mosquito species involved in WNV enzootic circulation since they feed mainly on birds, were abundant in a number of localities and had high vector competence. Cx. perexiguus may also be important for WNV transmission to horses, as are Cx. pipiens and Cx. theileri in transmission to humans. Estimates of the WNV transmission risk based on mosquito diet, abundance and vector competence matched the results of previous WNV monitoring programs in the area. Our sensitivity analyses suggested that mosquito diet, followed by mosquito abundance and vector competence, are all relevant factors in understanding virus amplification and transmission risk in the studied wild ecosystems. At some of the studied localities, the risk of enzootic circulation of WNV was relatively high, even if the risk of transmission to humans and horses was less. Conclusions/Significance Our results describe for first time the role of five WNV candidate vectors in SW Spain. Interspecific and local differences in mosquito diet composition has an important effect on the potential transmission risk of WNV to birds

  19. 41. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1973. MR. WEST'S HOUSE, MR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1973. MR. WEST'S HOUSE, MR. WEST ON PORCH AND THE ARBOR THAT IS OVER 100 YEARS OLD. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  20. TYPICAL VIEW OF WEST BRANCH COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL OPEN CHANNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TYPICAL VIEW OF WEST BRANCH COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL OPEN CHANNEL BETWEEN WEST BRANCH DROP AND GERKING FLUME. LOOKING SOUTH/SOUTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  1. Interior detail of bathroom on first floor north end, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of bathroom on first floor north end, west side, camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. 14. VIEW LOOKING WEST, GRAIN LEG REMAINS AND CHUTE OPENING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW LOOKING WEST, GRAIN LEG REMAINS AND CHUTE OPENING OVER RECEIVING HOPPER, ON TRACK DECK - West Shore Railroad, Pier 7 Grain Elevator, Hudson River & Pershing Road vicinity, West New York, Hudson County, NJ

  3. FRONT ELEVATIONS, NOS. 2122 AND 2124 ON THE WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT ELEVATIONS, NOS. 2122 AND 2124 ON THE WEST SIDE OF UBER STREET, LOOKING WEST. - 2100 Block North Uber Street (Houses), East & west sides between Diamond Street & Susquehanna Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 10. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM UNDERSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM UNDERSIDE OF GARDEN STATE PARKWAY ABUTMENT - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  5. 9. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM NORTH SIDE OF DOWNSTREAM BANK OF DAM - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  6. View west along Tatnic Road and Hartford Road (Route 6) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west along Tatnic Road and Hartford Road (Route 6) showing West Brooklyn Green, 10 Tatnic Road, and 126 Hartford Road - West Brooklyn Green, Tatnic Road & Hartford Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  7. 7. Building 7 interior, west end of building showing tier ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Building 7 interior, west end of building showing tier of skylight windows and modern equipment. View looking west. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 7, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 4. Building 8 interior, west end showing general character of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Building 8 interior, west end showing general character of second floor, with columns and beams. View looking west. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 8, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. View west; interior view of south bay Naval Base ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west; interior view of south bay - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Foundry-Propeller Shop, North of Porter Avenue, west of Third Street West, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. View west; interior view of central bay Naval Base ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west; interior view of central bay - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Foundry-Propeller Shop, North of Porter Avenue, west of Third Street West, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. View southeast; west and north facades and context Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast; west and north facades and context - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Foundry-Propeller Shop, North of Porter Avenue, west of Third Street West, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 6. OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING WEST PORTAL, THROUGH TRUSSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING WEST PORTAL, THROUGH TRUSSES OF WEST SPAN, AND PORTION OF WEST APPROACH - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  13. View of intersection with west wall of north wing and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of intersection with west wall of north wing and north wall of west wing; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Prison, Suisun Avenue, west side between Mesa Road & San Pablo, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  14. Corridor in west wing Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Corridor in west wing - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army Corps Recreation & Administration Building, North Hickey Street, west side, 75 feet north of intersection of West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  15. North and west sides of building Fitzsimons General Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North and west sides of building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employees' Quarters, North Hickey Street, West side, 150 feet North of intersection of North Hickey Street & West Loosley Avenue, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  16. 13C-Depleted carbon microparticles in >3700-Ma sea-floor sedimentary rocks from west greenland

    PubMed

    Rosing

    1999-01-29

    Turbiditic and pelagic sedimentary rocks from the Isua supracrustal belt in west Greenland [more than 3700 million years ago (Ma)] contain reduced carbon that is likely biogenic. The carbon is present as 2- to 5-micrometer graphite globules and has an isotopic composition of delta13C that is about -19 per mil (Pee Dee belemnite standard). These data and the mode of occurrence indicate that the reduced carbon represents biogenic detritus, which was perhaps derived from planktonic organisms.

  17. Modelling the probability of ionospheric irregularity occurrence over African low latitude region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungufeni, Patrick; Jurua, Edward; Bosco Habarulema, John; Anguma Katrini, Simon

    2015-06-01

    This study presents models of geomagnetically quiet time probability of occurrence of ionospheric irregularities over the African low latitude region. GNSS-derived ionospheric total electron content data from Mbarara, Uganda (0.60°S, 30.74°E, geographic, 10.22°S, magnetic) and Libreville, Gabon (0.35°N, 9.68°E, geographic, 8.05°S, magnetic) during the period 2001-2012 were used. First, we established the rate of change of total electron content index (ROTI) value associated with background ionospheric irregularity over the region. This was done by analysing GNSS carrier-phases at L-band frequencies L1 and L2 with the aim of identifying cycle slip events associated with ionospheric irregularities. We identified at both stations a total of 699 events of cycle slips. The corresponding median ROTI value at the epochs of the cycle slip events was 0.54 TECU/min. The probability of occurrence of ionospheric irregularities associated with ROTI ≥ 0.5 TECU / min was then modelled by fitting cubic B-splines to the data. The aspects the model captured included diurnal, seasonal, and solar flux dependence patterns of the probability of occurrence of ionospheric irregularities. The model developed over Mbarara was validated with data over Mt. Baker, Uganda (0.35°N, 29.90°E, geographic, 9.25°S, magnetic), Kigali, Rwanda (1.94°S, 30.09°E, geographic, 11.62°S, magnetic), and Kampala, Uganda (0.34°N, 32.60°E, geographic, 9.29°S, magnetic). For the period validated at Mt. Baker (approximately, 137.64 km, north west), Kigali (approximately, 162.42 km, south west), and Kampala (approximately, 237.61 km, north east) the percentages of the number of errors (difference between the observed and the modelled probability of occurrence of ionospheric irregularity) less than 0.05 are 97.3, 89.4, and 81.3, respectively.

  18. East is east and West is west: perspectives on the menopause in Asia and The West.

    PubMed

    Baber, R J

    2014-02-01

    There is a school of thought that believes that menopausal symptoms are a peculiarly 'Western' phenomenon, not experienced by women from other regions and particularly not from Asia where, it has been claimed, dietary, social and cultural factors afforded protection for women living in that region. More recently, studies conducted in multi-ethnic communities living in Western countries as well as in Asian communities have found that the menopause and its consequences are similar world-wide. Ethnic differences within Asia account for small differences in endogenous hormone levels and age at menopause between Asian and Western women, and the type of menopause symptoms and their prevalence also differ between those two communities. However, like in the West and perhaps because of a Western influence, the long-term health problems of postmenopausal women including cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and breast cancer are of major importance to Asian women and health services in the 21st century.

  19. Stochastic rainfall modeling in West Africa: Parsimonious approaches for domestic rainwater harvesting assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowden, Joshua R.; Watkins, David W., Jr.; Mihelcic, James R.

    2008-10-01

    SummarySeveral parsimonious stochastic rainfall models are developed and compared for application to domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) assessment in West Africa. Worldwide, improved water access rates are lowest for Sub-Saharan Africa, including the West African region, and these low rates have important implications on the health and economy of the region. Domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) is proposed as a potential mechanism for water supply enhancement, especially for the poor urban households in the region, which is essential for development planning and poverty alleviation initiatives. The stochastic rainfall models examined are Markov models and LARS-WG, selected due to availability and ease of use for water planners in the developing world. A first-order Markov occurrence model with a mixed exponential amount model is selected as the best option for unconditioned Markov models. However, there is no clear advantage in selecting Markov models over the LARS-WG model for DRWH in West Africa, with each model having distinct strengths and weaknesses. A multi-model approach is used in assessing DRWH in the region to illustrate the variability associated with the rainfall models. It is clear DRWH can be successfully used as a water enhancement mechanism in West Africa for certain times of the year. A 200 L drum storage capacity could potentially optimize these simple, small roof area systems for many locations in the region.

  20. Mean state and kinematic properties of mesoscale convective systems over West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogungbenro, Stephen B.; Ajayi, V. O.; Adefolalu, D. O.

    2016-04-01

    A 17-year (1984 to 2000) dataset of brightness temperature (T b) was employed to study the spatial and temporal scales of mesoscale convective systems (MCS) over West Africa. The kinematic properties of MCS were tested using wind products. A threshold brightness temperature (T b) of ≤213 K and spatial coverage specifications of more than 5000 km2 were used as two set criteria for initiating MCS tracking. MCS occurrences vary in seasons and locations over West Africa, and their activities vary with different weather zones. They can appear at any time of the day, but this study revealed a significant preference for early morning hours and night hours over continental West Africa. The well-organized systems occur between July and September in the Sahel, and between May and September in the Savanna band. MCS activities in the Gulf of Guinea peak between March and April, while the Savanna and Sahel zones peak between June and August. The produced annual atlas gives a spatial account of areas of MCS dominance in West Africa. The presence of African Easterly Jet (AEJ) and Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ), and deep monsoon depth all characterize an environment where MCS thrive. Kinematic study of a typical MCS reveals that the monsoon depth increases at the passage of MCS, with cyclonic vorticity dominating from the surface to 300 hpa while anticyclonic vorticity was observed around 200 hpa, and this confirms the importance of low level convergence and upper level divergence as the major requirements for storm mobilization and maintenance.

  1. Epidemiological surveillance of West Nile neuroinvasive diseases in Italy, 2008 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, C; Salcuni, P; Nicoletti, L; Ciufolini, M G; Russo, F; Masala, R; Frongia, O; Finarelli, A C; Gramegna, M; Gallo, L; Pompa, M G; Rezza, G; Salmaso, S; Declich, S

    2012-01-01

    We describe the geographical and temporal distribution of West Nile neuroinvasive diseases (WNND) cases in Italy from 2008 to 2011. The increasing number of confirmed human cases from eight in 2008 to 18 in 2009 and the occurrence of the virus in a larger geographical area in 2009 (moving from east to west) prompted the Ministry of Health to publish, in spring 2010, a national programme for WNND human surveillance, comprising veterinary and vector surveillance. Subsequently, in 2011, a new national plan on integrated human surveillance of imported and autochthonous vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue and West Nile disease) was issued. Between 2008 and 2011, 43 cases of WNND were reported from five regions in Italy with a case fatality rate of 16%. The incidence of WNND during the entire study period was 0.55 per 100,000 population (range: 0.06–0.23 per 100,000). During 2011, two new regions (Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Sardinia) reported confirmed cases in humans. Integrated human, entomological and animal surveillance for West Nile virus is a public health priority in Italy and will be maintained during 2012.

  2. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Cervin Robinson, Photographer 1957 WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Cervin Robinson, Photographer 1957 WEST HALL FROM BALCONY - Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics Association, Exhibition Hall, Huntington Avenue & West Newton Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  3. GENERAL VIEW, WEST SIDE OF UBER STREET, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW, WEST SIDE OF UBER STREET, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - 2100 Block North Uber Street (Houses), East & west sides between Diamond Street & Susquehanna Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Overview from west bank of Schuykill River. Philadelphia & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview from west bank of Schuykill River. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Bridge at West Falls, Spanning Schuylkill River, southeast of Roosevelt Boulevard Bridge, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. Predictive modeling of West Nile virus transmission risk in the Mediterranean Basin: how far from landing?

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Véronique; Tran, Annelise; Durand, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    The impact on human and horse health of West Nile fever (WNF) recently and dramatically increased in Europe and neighboring countries. Involving several mosquito and wild bird species, WNF epidemiology is complex. Despite the implementation of surveillance systems in several countries of concern, and due to a lack of knowledge, outbreak occurrence remains unpredictable. Statistical models may help identifying transmission risk factors. When spatialized, they provide tools to identify areas that are suitable for West Nile virus transmission. Mathematical models may be used to improve our understanding of epidemiological process involved, to evaluate the impact of environmental changes or test the efficiency of control measures. We propose a systematic literature review of publications aiming at modeling the processes involved in WNF transmission in the Mediterranean Basin. The relevance of the corresponding models as predictive tools for risk mapping, early warning and for the design of surveillance systems in a changing environment is analyzed. PMID:24362544

  6. Occurrence and distribution of antifouling biocide Irgarol-1051 in coastal waters of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hassan Rashid; Arifin, Marinah Mohd; Sheikh, Mohammed Ali; Mohamed Shazili, Noor Azhar; Bachok, Zainudin

    2013-05-15

    Emerging booster biocides contamination raises particular attention in the marine ecosystem health. This study provides the baseline data on the occurrence of Irgarol-1051 (2-methylthio-4-tert-butylamino-6-cyclopropylamiono-s-triazine) in the selected coastal water around Malaysia. The maximum detected concentration of Irgarol was 2021 ng/L at Klang West, commercial and cargo port. Coral reef Islands (Redang and Bidong) were relatively less contaminated compared to other coastal areas. The temporal variation revealed that only 1% of 28 stations sampled on November, 2011 was above the environmental risk limit of 24 ng/L as suggested by Dutch Authorities, while in January and April, 2012; 46% and 92% of the stations were above the limit respectively. The present findings demonstrate the wide detection of novel antifouling materials Irgarol-1051 which advocates the need for proper monitoring and conservation strategies for the coastal resources. PMID:23490347

  7. [Familial occurrence of botulism - a case report].

    PubMed

    AmbroŽová, Helena; DŽupová, Olga; Smíšková, Dita; Roháčová, Hana

    2014-06-01

    Botulism, a life-threatening condition, is very rare in the Czech Republic. Since 1960, a total of 155 cases have been reported; between 2010 and 2012, not a single case was identified. This is a case report of familiar occurrence of botulism following consumption of home-made pork and liver pâté in three family members admitted to the Department of Infectious, Tropical and Parasitic Diseases, Na Bulovce Hospital in Prague in May 2013. The neurological symptoms were dominated by diplopia and dysarthria. After administration of an antitoxin, all patients recovered. Given the poor availability of the antitoxin, a decision was made following this small family epidemic to have an emergency reserve of life-saving anti-infective drugs for the Czech Republic in the Toxicological Information Center in Prague.

  8. Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, Greta J.; Grauch, Richard I.

    2002-01-01

    Data on rare earth (including yttrium) mines, deposits, and occurrences were compiled as part of an effort by the USGS and the University of Arizona Center for Mineral Resources to summarize current knowledge on the supply and demand outlook and related topics for this group of elements. Economic competition and environmental concerns are increasingly constraining the mining and processing of rare earths from the Mountain Pass mine in California. For many years, the deposit at Mountain Pass was the world's dominant source of rare earth elements and the United States was essentially self-sufficient. Starting approximately 10 years ago, the U.S. has become increasingly dependent (> 90 percent of separated rare earths) upon imports from China, now the dominant source of rare earths. A knowledge of the known economic and noneconomic sources of rare earths is basic to evaluating the outlook for rare earth supply and associated issues.

  9. Handbook of gas hydrate properties and occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Kuustraa, V.A.; Hammershaimb, E.C.

    1983-12-01

    This handbook provides data on the resource potential of naturally occurring hydrates, the properties that are needed to evaluate their recovery, and their production potential. The first two chapters give data on the naturally occurring hydrate potential by reviewing published resource estimates and the known and inferred occurrences. The third and fourth chapters review the physical and thermodynamic properties of hydrates, respectively. The thermodynamic properties of hydrates that are discussed include dissociation energies and a simplified method to calculate them; phase diagrams for simple and multi-component gases; the thermal conductivity; and the kinetics of hydrate dissociation. The final chapter evaluates the net energy balance of recovering hydrates and shows that a substantial positive energy balance can theoretically be achieved. The Appendices of the Handbook summarize physical and thermodynamic properties of gases, liquids and solids that can be used in designing and evaluating recovery processes of hydrates. 158 references, 67 figures, 47 tables.

  10. Occurrence of minor elements in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durum, W.H.; Haffty, Joseph

    1961-01-01

    Three basic studies, using spectrographic methods, have been used to establish the occurrence of minor elements in natural waters. One study, of oceanborne chemicals in principal rivers, has established a method for the quantitative analysis of many minor elements. Strontium, barium, lithium, rubidium, chromium, nickel, copper, lead, boron, titanium, molybdenum, manganese, and vanadium occur most frequently in measurable quantities. Reconnaissance of the strontium in surface waters of the United States, shows that surface waters in parts of northern and western Texas and southern New Mexico and Arizona are comparatively high in strontium. A study of minor elements in selected waters of California is continuing. Assessment of preliminary data on uranium and radium in waters is facilitated by grouping data for 10 geotectonic regions of the United States.

  11. Tennis injuries: occurrence, aetiology, and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Pluim, B M; Staal, J B; Windler, G E; Jayanthi, N

    2006-01-01

    A systematic search of published reports was carried out in three electronic databases from 1966 on to identify relevant articles relating to tennis injuries. There were 39 case reports, 49 laboratory studies, 28 descriptive epidemiological studies, and three analytical epidemiological studies. The principal findings of the review were: first, there is a great variation in the reported incidence of tennis injuries; second, most injuries occur in the lower extremities, followed by the upper extremities and then the trunk; third, there have been very few longitudinal cohort studies that investigated the association between risk factors and the occurrence of tennis injuries (odds ratios, risk ratios, hazard ratios); and fourth, there were no randomised controlled trials investigating injury prevention measures in tennis. More methodologically sound studies are needed for a better understanding of risk factors, in order to design useful strategies to prevent tennis injuries. PMID:16632572

  12. Olmsted Syndrome: Rare Occurrence in Four Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Bukharia, Atishay; Komal, Sweta; Sudhanan, V Madhu; Chaudhary, Shyam Sundar

    2016-01-01

    Olmsted syndrome is a very rare and severe cicatrizing keratoderma associated with periorificial lesion. Most cases are sporadic but familial occurrence has been also seen. Till now around 73 cases have been reported and none of the reported cases have 4 siblings affected from this disease. We are reporting cases of 4 siblings of age 30 year female, 26 year female, 20 year male and 10 year male who were born to a third degree consangueinous marriage and presented with palmoplantar keratoderma, periorificial hyperkeratosis, flexion deformity, pseudoainhum and contracture of digits. There was no cardiac involvement. Hence, the diagnosis of Olmsted syndrome was made and all four patients were non responsive to treatment which included topical corticosteroid, topical salicylic acid, systemic isotretinoin, systemic acitretin and oral zinc in child. PMID:27293270

  13. Occurrence of transformation products in the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, D.W.; Battaglin, W.A.; Conn, K.E.; Furlong, E.T.; Glassmeyer, S.T.; Kalkhoff, S.J.; Meyer, M.T.; Schnoebelen, D.J.; ,

    2009-01-01

    Historically, most environmental occurrence research has focused on the parent compounds of organic contaminants. Research, however, has documented that the environmental transport of chemicals, such as pesticides and emerging contaminants, are substantially underestimated if transformation products are not considered. Although most examples described herein were drawn from research conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, such results are generally reflective of those found in other parts of the world. Results from a study of 51 streams in the Midwestern United States found that transformation products were seven of the ten most frequently detected pesticide compounds in late spring runoff (after application of pre-emergent herbicides), and nine of the ten most frequently detected compounds in fall season runoff (during and after harvest). In fact, 70% of the total herbicide concentration in water from the Mississippi River Basin was from transformation products. Results from a study of 86 municipal wells in Iowa found the frequency of detection increased from 17%, when pesticide parent compounds were considered, to 53%, when both parents and transformation products were considered. Transformation products were 12 of the 15 most frequently detected compounds for this groundwater study. Although studies on transformation products of synthetic organic compounds other than pesticides are not as common, wastewater treatment plant discharges have repeatedly been shown to contribute such transformation products to streams. In addition, select detergent transformation products have been commonly found in solid waste in the 1000's mg/kg. These findings and many others document that transformation products must be considered to fully assess the potential environmental occurrence of chemical contaminants and their transport and fate in various compartments of the hydrologic system. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  14. Fracture occurrence from radionuclides in the skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Miller, S.C.

    2000-06-01

    Because skeletal fractures were an important finding among persons contaminated with {sup 226}Ra, experience with fractures among dogs in the colony was summarized to determine the projected significance for persons contaminated with bone-seeking radionuclides. Comparison by Fisher's Exact Test of lifetime fracture occurrence in the skeletons of beagles injected as young adults suggested that for animals given {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, or {sup 239}Pu citrate, there was probably an excess over controls in fractures of the ribs, leg bones, spinous processes, and pelvis (os coxae) plus the mandible for dogs given {sup 226}Ra and the scapulae for dogs given {sup 228}Ra or 228 Th. Regression analysis indicated that significantly elevated fracture occurrence was especially notable at the higher radiation doses, at about 50 Gy average skeletal dose for {sup 239}Pu, 140 Gy for {sup 226}Ra, about 40 Gy for {sup 228}Ra, and more than 15 Gy for {sup 228}Th. The average number of fractures per dog was significantly elevated over that noted in controls for the highest radiation doses of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 226}Ra and for the higher doses of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 228}Th. For those dogs given {sup 90}Sr citrate, there was virtually no important difference from control beagles not given radionuclides, even at group mean cumulative skeletal radiation doses up to 101 Gy. Because of a large proportion of dogs with fractures that died with bone malignancy (even at dosage levels lower than those exhibiting an excess average number of fractures per dog), they conclude that fracture would not be an important endpoint at lower levels of plutonium contamination in humans such as would be expected to occur from occupational or environmental exposure.

  15. On determinants of migration in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Roy, N C

    1987-10-01

    The migration flow to West Bengal from different parts of the Indian subcontinent is an old phenomenon which can be traced to the beginning of the 19th century when the process of industrialization began in the areas comprising the present West Bengal. As West Bengal gradually industrialized and urbanized, the migration flow which was an equiliberating process up to 1947 turned into a stagnating mechanism in the economic sphere. This paper attempts to treat the causative process generating migration flows into West Bengal. Some popular hypotheses are tested, and their inadequacies in the case of migration in West Bengal are shown. Then a variable incorporating the expected long-run socioeconomic condition of West Bengal vis-a-vis the states/countries belonging to the migration universe of West Bengal was constructed, and this expectational variable appears to have more explanatory power than the observed income differential. Barring the political factor which played the central role in the case of immigration from Bangladesh, the determinants can be ranked in order of importance as 1) linguistic distance, 2) expected socioeconomic condition, and 3) physical distance. The limitation of the framework used is the scaling of linguistic distance and the inability to treat the political variable in a causal matrix of migration.

  16. On determinants of migration in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Roy, N C

    1987-10-01

    The migration flow to West Bengal from different parts of the Indian subcontinent is an old phenomenon which can be traced to the beginning of the 19th century when the process of industrialization began in the areas comprising the present West Bengal. As West Bengal gradually industrialized and urbanized, the migration flow which was an equiliberating process up to 1947 turned into a stagnating mechanism in the economic sphere. This paper attempts to treat the causative process generating migration flows into West Bengal. Some popular hypotheses are tested, and their inadequacies in the case of migration in West Bengal are shown. Then a variable incorporating the expected long-run socioeconomic condition of West Bengal vis-a-vis the states/countries belonging to the migration universe of West Bengal was constructed, and this expectational variable appears to have more explanatory power than the observed income differential. Barring the political factor which played the central role in the case of immigration from Bangladesh, the determinants can be ranked in order of importance as 1) linguistic distance, 2) expected socioeconomic condition, and 3) physical distance. The limitation of the framework used is the scaling of linguistic distance and the inability to treat the political variable in a causal matrix of migration. PMID:12281036

  17. West Nile Virus Encephalitis: The First Human Case Recorded in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Marcelo A. C. S.; Romano, Alessandro P. M.; Borba, Amaríles S.; Silva, Eliana V. P.; Chiang, Jannifer O.; Eulálio, Kelsen D.; Azevedo, Raimunda S. S.; Rodrigues, Sueli G.; Almeida-Neto, Walfrido S.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.

    2015-01-01

    A Brazilian ranch worker with encephalitis and flaccid paralysis was evaluated in the regional Acute Encephalitis Syndromic Surveillance Program. This was the first Brazilian patient who met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmation criteria for West Nile virus disease. Owing to the overlapping of neurological manifestations attributable to several viral infections of the central nervous system, this report exemplifies the importance of human acute encephalitis surveillance. The syndromic approach to human encephalitis cases may enable early detection of the introduction of unusual virus or endemic occurrence of potentially alarming diseases within a region. PMID:26055749

  18. Geostatistical analysis of gas potential in Devonian shales of West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hohn, M.E.; Neal, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The geologic processes that control the occurrence of gas in the Devonian shales of West Virginia are understood poorly. Locating a new Devonian shale well may depend upon proximity to known producing wells. Maps of initial potentials and probability of success can play an important role in exploration and development. Experimental semivariograms show large nugget effects for both variables. Contour maps of kriged estimates for these variables show northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast-trending linearities that may implicate natural fractures as controls on gas presence and production potential. ?? 1986.

  19. DOLLY SODS WILDERNESS, WEST VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Englund, Kenneth J.; Hill, James J.

    1984-01-01

    Coal, the principal mineral resource of the Dolly Sods Wilderness, West Virginia is in at least seven beds of low- to medium-volatile bituminous rank. Of these beds, four are of sufficient thickness, quality, and extent to contain demonstrated coal resources which are estimated to total about 15. 5 million short tons in areas of substantiated coal resource potential. A Small-scale development of the coal resources of the Dolly Sods Wilderness has been by several shallow adits which provided fuel for locomotives during early logging operations and by a one truck mine. All mine entries are now abandoned. Peat, shale, clay, and sandstone, occur in the area but because of remoteness of markets and inaccessability they are not classified as resources in this report. Natural gas may occur in rocks underlying the area, but because of a lack of subsurface information an estimate of resource potential has not been made. No evidence of metallic-mineral resources was found during this investigation.

  20. Does the geoid drift west?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backus, G. E.; Parker, R. L.; Zumberge, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    In 1970 Hide and Malin noted a correlation of about 0.8 between the geoid and the geomagnetic potential at the Earth's surface when the latter is rotated eastward in longitude by about 160 degrees and the spherical harmonic expansions of both functions are truncated at degree 4. From a century of magnetic observatory data, Hide and Malin inferred an average magnetic westward drift rate of about 0.27 degrees/year. They attributed the magnetic-gravitational correlation to a core event at about 1350 A.D. which impressed the mantle's gravity pattern at long wavelengths onto the core motion and the resulting magnetic field. The impressed pattern was then carried westward 160 degrees by the nsuing magnetic westward drift. An alternative possibility is some sort of steady physical coupling between the magnetic and gravitational fields (perhaps migration of Hide's bumps on the core-mantle interface). This model predicts that the geoid will drift west at the magnetic rate. On a rigid earth, the resulting changes in sea level would be easily observed, but they could be masked by adjustment of the mantle if it has a shell with viscosity considerably less than 10 to the 21 poise. However, steady westward drift of the geoid also predicts secular changes in g, the local acceleration of gravity, at land stations. These changes are now ruled out by recent independent high-accuracy absolute measurements of g made by several workers at various locations in the Northern Hemisphere.

  1. GeoPowering the west.

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Roger Ray

    2004-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) GeoPowering the West (GPW) program works with the U.S. geothermal industry, power companies, industrial and residential consumers, and federal, state, and local officials to provide technical and institutional support and limited, cost-shared funding to state-level activities. By demonstrating the benefits of geothermal energy, GPW increases state and regional awareness of opportunities to enhance local economies and strengthen our nation's energy security while minimizing environmental impact. By identifying barriers to development and working with others to eliminate them, GPW helps a state or region create a regulatory and economic environment that is more favorable for geothermal and other renewable energy development. Electricity is produced using expanding steam or very hot water from the underground reservoir to spin a conventional turbine-generator. Geothermal power plants operate at high capacity factors (70-100%), with availability factors typically greater than 95%. Geothermal plants are among the cleanest sources of electric power available. Direct use applications directly pipe hot water from geothermal resources to provide heat for industrial processes, crop drying, greenhouses, aquaculture, recreation, sidewalk snow-melting, and buildings. Geothermal district heating systems supply heat to multiple buildings through a network of pipes carrying the hot geothermal water.

  2. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Siew Pheng; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2013-01-01

    The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development. PMID:24300672

  3. The occurrence of the Dermacentor reticulatus tick--its expansion to new areas and possible causes.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The ornate dog tick (Dermacentor reticulatus) can be found in the temperate zones of Eurasia. Its area of occurrence is divided into east and west distributions, although the area as a whole is expanding. The initial east-west division was most probably associated with the varied climatic profile of Europe, for example, the range of specific mean winter and summer temperatures: the region where D. reticulatus is absent is characterized by mean winter temperatures between 0 degree C and 5 degrees C and thin snow cover. The present expansion may be the effect of climate change. The mean temperatures in Europe have increased, the vegetation season has lengthened and positive trends in the number of wet days can be seen. Consequently, northern Europe has become warmer and wetter over the last century. Human activity can also influence the spread of D. reticulatus. The liquidation of habitats suitable for D. reticulatus and the eradication of their hosts can play a role, as can changes in agricultural land use, environmental protection and the spread of international tourism and trade. In summary, the expansion of D. reticulatus into new areas could be the synergistic effect of many favourable factors.

  4. The occurrence of the Dermacentor reticulatus tick--its expansion to new areas and possible causes.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The ornate dog tick (Dermacentor reticulatus) can be found in the temperate zones of Eurasia. Its area of occurrence is divided into east and west distributions, although the area as a whole is expanding. The initial east-west division was most probably associated with the varied climatic profile of Europe, for example, the range of specific mean winter and summer temperatures: the region where D. reticulatus is absent is characterized by mean winter temperatures between 0 degree C and 5 degrees C and thin snow cover. The present expansion may be the effect of climate change. The mean temperatures in Europe have increased, the vegetation season has lengthened and positive trends in the number of wet days can be seen. Consequently, northern Europe has become warmer and wetter over the last century. Human activity can also influence the spread of D. reticulatus. The liquidation of habitats suitable for D. reticulatus and the eradication of their hosts can play a role, as can changes in agricultural land use, environmental protection and the spread of international tourism and trade. In summary, the expansion of D. reticulatus into new areas could be the synergistic effect of many favourable factors. PMID:24930245

  5. Regional geologic framework and petroleum occurrences

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, E.J.; Jewell, G.A. )

    1993-02-01

    The Falcon Basin developed during the late Eocene as a result of dextral strike slip movement along the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. During the Oligocene and early Miocene as much as 16,000 ft. of sediment, predominantly sandstones and shales, accumulated within the east-west trending pull-apart basin. Localized carbonate buildups were also developing in association with the Paraguana and Dabajuro Platforms. During the middle to late Miocene, uplift of the now emergent Central Falcon Basin Anticlinorium resulted in the northward progradation of delta systems. Sandstones associated with these deltas now make up the producing reservoirs within the basin. The complex present day structural configuration is the result of continued movement along the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. Landsat imagery and field mapping indicate a basin dominated by northeast trending folds and thrust faults and fracture patterns commonly associated with dextral strike-slip movement. Commercial production is currently limited to the Tiguaje and Cumarebo areas. The former occurs as four small fields ([plus minus]52 MMBO) related to structures developed by dextral movement along the Oca fault. The latter Cumarebo Field ([plus minus]60 MMBO) is a thrusted anticline on the northern flank of the Falcon foldbelt. The tectonic complexity and sandstone-dominated nature of the onshore Falcon Basin severely limit potential field size. Significant, yet currently undeveloped, reserves have also been discovered offshore in the Gulf of La Vela. Fractured granite, carbonates and sandstones associated with tilted fault block structures have tested hydrocarbons in several wells.

  6. Libraries in West Virginia: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/westvirginia.html Libraries in West Virginia To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. Bridgeport United Hospital Center Health Sciences Library 327 Medical Park Dr Bridgeport, WV 26330 681- ...

  7. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  8. GOES-West Video of Sandra

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite showed Tropical Storm Sandra has become decoupled by strong wind shear as it was approaching landfall in western Mexico ...

  9. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... or meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord). West Nile virus transmission has been documented in Europe and the Middle East, Africa, India, parts of Asia, and Australia. It was first detected ...

  10. GOES-West Satellite Sees 'Pineapple Express'

    NASA Video Gallery

    Visible and infrared images taken from NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental, or GOES-West, satellite from Feb. 7 through 9, 2014, were animated by the NASA GOES Project at NASA's Goddard ...

  11. GOES-West Movie of Hurricane Newton

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of infrared and visible images from NOAA's GOES-West satellite shows the development and movement of Hurricane Newton from Sept. 4 through Sept. 6 at 10 a.m. EDT (1400 UTC) toward Ba...

  12. Association Between Benzodiazepine Use and Epilepsy Occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Harnod, Tomor; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We conducted a retrospective case–control study to evaluate the association between the risk of benzodiazepine (BZD) use and epilepsy occurrence by using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. We recruited 1065 participants who ages 20 years or older and newly diagnosed with epilepsy (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification 345) between 2004 and 2011 and assigned them to the epilepsy group. We subsequently frequency-matched them with participants in a control group (n = 4260) according to sex, age, and index year at a 1:4 ratio. A logistic regression model was employed to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for association of epilepsy with BZD exposure. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to estimate the dose–response relationship between BZD levels and epilepsy risk. The adjusted OR (aOR) for the association of epilepsy with BZD exposure was 2.02 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.68–2.42). The aOR for an average BZD dose increased to 1.26 for the participants on <0.01 defined daily dose (DDD), and increased to 4.32 for those on ≥1.50 DDD. On average, when the DDD of BZD exposure increased by 100 units, the epilepsy risk increase by 1.03-fold (95% CI = 1.01–1.04, P = 0.003). The annual BZD exposure day ranges were significantly associated with epilepsy (2–7 days: aOR = 1.67; 8–35 days: aOR = 3.16; and ≥35 days: aOR = 5.60). Whenever the annual BZD exposure increased by 30 days, the risk of epilepsy notably increased by 1.03-fold (95% CI = 1.01–1.04, P < 0.001). In addition, users who quit BZD for more than 6 months still exhibited a higher risk of epilepsy than did the non-BZD users. A considerable increase in epilepsy occurrence was observed in ones with BZD use, particularly in those with prolonged use, multiple exposure, and high-dose consumption. PMID:26376408

  13. Occurrence and fate of pharmaceutical and personal care products in a sewage treatment works.

    PubMed

    Reif, Rubén; Santos, Ana; Judd, Simon J; Lema, Juan M; Omil, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence and fate of eight pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) during sewage treatment has been studied in a pilot-scale treatment plant, comprising a primary settler (2.85 m(3)), an aeration tank (1.845 m(3)) and a secondary clarifier (0.5 m(3)), placed on site at a wastewater treatment works in the north west of the UK. It was fed both with raw sewage and the return liquor produced after sludge centrifugation, thus representing the most common configuration for a municipal sewage treatment plant based on the activated sludge process. Samples were taken at six different locations, including the return liquor stream, and analysed for musk fragrances and pharmaceutically active compounds belonging to various therapeutic groups such as anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquillisers and antiepileptics. Mass balances were conducted for those PPCPs that were quantifiable. The fate of the PPCPs was found to differ according to their physical-chemical characteristics. Anti-inflammatories underwent a degradation process and were almost completely removed from sewage during the biological treatment step. Musk fragrances were only partially removed, through adsorption onto the primary suspended solids and the biomass in the aerobic process, due to their strong lipophilic characteristics. The results of this study provide increasing evidence that the partial removal of these substances through the sewage treatment process contribute to the environmental occurrence of PPCPs. Consequently, existing STPs should be upgraded in order to attenuate the release of these substances into the aquatic environment.

  14. Assessing the coastal occurrence of endangered killer whales using autonomous passive acoustic recorders.

    PubMed

    Hanson, M Bradley; Emmons, Candice K; Ward, Eric J; Nystuen, Jeffrey A; Lammers, Marc O

    2013-11-01

    Using moored autonomous acoustic recorders to detect and record the vocalizations of social odonotocetes to determine their occurrence patterns is a non-invasive tool in the study of these species in remote locations. Acoustic recorders were deployed in seven locations on the continental shelf of the U.S. west coast from Cape Flattery, WA to Pt. Reyes, CA to detect and record endangered southern resident killer whales between January and June of 2006-2011. Detection rates of these whales were greater in 2009 and 2011 than in 2006-2008, were most common in the month of March, and occurred with the greatest frequency off the Columbia River and Westport, which was likely related to the presence of their most commonly consumed prey, Chinook salmon. The observed patterns of annual and monthly killer whale occurrence may be related to run strength and run timing, respectively, for spring Chinook returning to the Columbia River, the largest run in this region at this time of year. Acoustic recorders provided a unique, long-term, dataset that will be important to inform future consideration of Critical Habitat designation for this U.S. Endangered Species Act listed species.

  15. Assessing the coastal occurrence of endangered killer whales using autonomous passive acoustic recorders.

    PubMed

    Hanson, M Bradley; Emmons, Candice K; Ward, Eric J; Nystuen, Jeffrey A; Lammers, Marc O

    2013-11-01

    Using moored autonomous acoustic recorders to detect and record the vocalizations of social odonotocetes to determine their occurrence patterns is a non-invasive tool in the study of these species in remote locations. Acoustic recorders were deployed in seven locations on the continental shelf of the U.S. west coast from Cape Flattery, WA to Pt. Reyes, CA to detect and record endangered southern resident killer whales between January and June of 2006-2011. Detection rates of these whales were greater in 2009 and 2011 than in 2006-2008, were most common in the month of March, and occurred with the greatest frequency off the Columbia River and Westport, which was likely related to the presence of their most commonly consumed prey, Chinook salmon. The observed patterns of annual and monthly killer whale occurrence may be related to run strength and run timing, respectively, for spring Chinook returning to the Columbia River, the largest run in this region at this time of year. Acoustic recorders provided a unique, long-term, dataset that will be important to inform future consideration of Critical Habitat designation for this U.S. Endangered Species Act listed species. PMID:24180759

  16. Tectonic development of the Indonesian archipelago and its bearing on the occurrence of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Simanjuntak, T.O. )

    1994-07-01

    The present geological and tectonic configuration of the Indonesian archipelago may represent a typical triple junction plate convergence, which has developed since Neogene times due to the northward-moving Indo-Australian plate, the westward-moving Pacific plate, and the south-southeastward-moving Eurasian Craton. The occurrence of a number of microcontinents in eastern Indonesia makes the geology and tectonics of the region more complex. The archipelago is one of the most complicated regions from the plate tectonics point of view. The geological evolution of the Indonesian archipelago is recorded by the occurrence of both tectonic convergence and tectonic divergence. Various types of plate convergences include a Cordilleran type subduction, which has been reoccurring since Paleozoic until present times in western Indonesia; a Neogene Tethyan type collision in the Banda region; and a double-arc collision in northern Maluku, central Indonesia. Tectonic divergence, which was preceded by rifting due to thermal doming and magma rise in the northern margins of the Australian Craton and followed by the detachment and west-northwestward displacement of continental fragments in Mesozoic, gave rise to the development of the microcontinents in eastern Indonesia.

  17. AnthWest, occurrence records for wool carder bees of the genus Anthidium (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae, Anthidiini) in the Western Hemisphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bees are among the most important pollinators of flowering plants in most ecosystems. This paper describes a large dataset that represents one of the outcomes of a comprehensive, broadly comparative study on the diversity, biology, biogeography, and evolution of Anthidium Fabricius in the Western He...

  18. West European magnetic confinement fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M. . Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center); Hazeltine, R.D. . Inst. for Fusion Studies); Gentle, K.W. ); Hogan, J.T. ); Porkolab, M. . Dept. of Physics); Sigmar

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a technical assessment and review of the West European program in magnetic confinement fusion by a panel of US scientists and engineers active in fusion research. Findings are based on the scientific and technical literature, on laboratory reports and preprints, and on the personal experiences and collaborations of the panel members. Concerned primarily with developments during the past 10 years, from 1979 to 1989, the report assesses West European fusion research in seven technical areas: tokamak experiments; magnetic confinement technology and engineering; fusion nuclear technology; alternate concepts; theory; fusion computations; and program organization. The main conclusion emerging from the analysis is that West European fusion research has attained a position of leadership in the international fusion program. This distinction reflects in large measure the remarkable achievements of the Joint European Torus (JET). However, West European fusion prominence extends beyond tokamak experimental physics: the program has demonstrated a breadth of skill in fusion science and technology that is not excelled in the international effort. It is expected that the West European primacy in central areas of confinement physics will be maintained or even increased during the early 1990s. The program's maturity and commitment kindle expectations of dramatic West European advances toward the fusion energy goal. For example, achievement of fusion breakeven is expected first in JET, before 1995.

  19. West Nile virus: North American experience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  20. West Nile virus: North American experience.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Erik K

    2011-09-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  1. Travellers and Cowboys: Myths of the Irish West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisplinghoff, Gretchen

    The recent Irish film "Into the West" (1992) explores the myth of the West on two continents. Images from television and movies appear as a visual reference point within "Into the West"; the main characters, two young Irish boys, are fascinated with the American West of cowboys and Indians as depicted in countless Hollywood versions. The image of…

  2. 1. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF THE WEST ELEVATION OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF THE WEST ELEVATION OF BUILDING 120. BUILDING 120 HOUSES THE PROTECTIVE FORCE PERSONNEL RESPONSIBLE FOR CONTROLLING ENTRANCE TO AND EGRESS FROM THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT WEST ENTRANCE. - Rocky Flats Plant, Guard Facility, South side of west access road, approximately 2,323 feet east of Colorado Highway 93 & West Road, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  3. Earthquake Occurrence in Bangladesh and Surrounding Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hussaini, T. M.; Al-Noman, M.

    2011-12-01

    The collision of the northward moving Indian plate with the Eurasian plate is the cause of frequent earthquakes in the region comprising Bangladesh and neighbouring India, Nepal and Myanmar. Historical records indicate that Bangladesh has been affected by five major earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7.0 (Richter scale) during 1869 to 1930. This paper presents some statistical observations of earthquake occurrence in fulfilment of a basic groundwork for seismic hazard assessment of this region. An up to date catalogue covering earthquake information in the region bounded within 17°-30°N and 84°-97°E for the period of historical period to 2010 is derived from various reputed international sources including ISC, IRIS, Indian sources and available publications. Careful scrutiny is done to remove duplicate or uncertain earthquake events. Earthquake magnitudes in the range of 1.8 to 8.1 have been obtained and relationships between different magnitude scales have been studied. Aftershocks are removed from the catalogue using magnitude dependent space window and time window. The main shock data are then analyzed to obtain completeness period for different magnitudes evaluating their temporal homogeneity. Spatial and temporal distribution of earthquakes, magnitude-depth histograms and other statistical analysis are performed to understand the distribution of seismic activity in this region.

  4. Aichi Virus 1: Environmental Occurrence and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Masaaki; Gerba, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), belonging to the genus Kobuvirus in the family Picornaviridae, has been proposed as a causative agent of human gastroenteritis potentially transmitted by fecal-oral routes through contaminated food or water. AiV-1 is globally distributed and has been detected in various types of environmental samples, such as sewage, river water, groundwater, and shellfish. Recent environmental studies revealed that this virus could be detected in higher frequency and greater abundance than other human enteric viruses. These findings suggest that AiV-1 could potentially be an appropriate indicator of viral contamination in the environment because of its high prevalence in water environments as well as structural and genetic similarity with some of the other important enteric viruses. Further studies on the occurrence and fate of AiV-1 in environments, even in combination with clinical studies of many regions, are needed for a better understanding of their epidemiology, temporal and geographical distribution, environmental stability, and potential health risks to humans. PMID:25996404

  5. A predictive geologic model of radon occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, L.T. )

    1990-01-01

    Earlier work by LeGrand on predictive geologic models for radon focused on hydrogeologic aspects of radon transport from a given uranium/radium source in a fractured crystalline rock aquifer, and included submodels for bedrock lithology (uranium concentration), topographic slope, and water-table behavior and characteristics. LeGrand's basic geologic model has been modified and extended into a submodel for crystalline rocks (Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces) and a submodel for sedimentary rocks (Valley and Ridge and Coastal Plain Provinces). Each submodel assigns a ranking of 1 to 15 to the bedrock type, based on (a) known or supposed uranium/thorium content, (b) petrography/lithology, and (c) structural features such as faults, shear or breccia zones, diabase dikes, and jointing/fracturing. The bedrock ranking is coupled with a generalized soil/saprolite model which ranks soil/saprolite type and thickness from 1 to 10. A given site is thus assessed a ranking of 1 to 150 as a guide to its potential for high radon occurrence in the upper meter or so of soil. Field trials of the model are underway, comparing model predictions with measured soil-gas concentrations of radon.

  6. Parasomnias: co-occurrence and genetics.

    PubMed

    Hublin, C; Kaprio, J; Partinen, M; Koskenvu, M

    2001-06-01

    In clinical practice, parasomnias are often found to run in families and to co-occur. Several studies have indicated a role of genetic factors in them. In 1990, a questionnaire (response rate, 77%) sent to the Finnish Twin Cohort, a representative population sample aged 33-60 years, surveyed the frequency of five parasomnias (sleepwalking, sleeptalking, enuresis, bruxism, and nightmares) in childhood and as adults. In assessing the phenotypic covariation and shared genetic effects between the parasomnias, we used polychoric correlations and structural equation modelling. In childhood (n = 5856 individuals), co-occurrence is highest in sleeptalking with sleepwalking (R = 0.73), nightmares (R = 0.50), and bruxism (R = 0.43). As adults (n = 8567), the results are similar (R = 0.56, 0.43, and 0.39, respectively). The analyses of shared genetic effects included 815 monozygotic and 1442 dizygotic twin pairs with complete responses on four parasomnias as adults. The strongest genetic covariation was found in sleeptalking with sleepwalking, sleeptalking with bruxism, and in sleeptalking with nightmares. The estimated proportions of shared genetic effects were 50, 30, and 26%, respectively. The present results indicate that parasomnias share some common genetic background. PMID:11525419

  7. Musk xylene: analysis, occurrence, kinetics, and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Käfferlein, H U; Göen, T; Angerer, J

    1998-09-01

    1,3-Dimethyl-2,4,6-trinitro-5-tert.-butylbenzene (musk xylene, MX), a synthetic musk, is often used in fragrances and soaps to substitute the natural musk. MX belongs to the common group of nitromusk compounds. The main environmental intake of MX occurs after sewage introduction. The consumption of fish and drinking water as well as the use of body care and perfumed household products could lead to an ingestion of this substance in humans. Although the acute oral and dermal toxicity of MX is low, some hint for the carcinogenic potential of MX was found in one animal experiment. These findings and the high potential of MX as environmental contaminant, it is stable against biological and chemical degradation and it is highly lipophil, raised considerable attention in the field of environmental medicine. Biological monitoring and the toxicology of MX, which previously has been described to occur in human milk, human fat tissue, as well as human blood samples, are of central interest. The aim of this article is to summarize the data on the analysis, occurrence, kinetics, and toxicology of MX. As there is a lack of knowledge on human toxicity and human carcinogenicity of MX, a final evaluation of the toxicological data with regard to public health is still impossible. Nevertheless, in view of the published data about MX, there is no evidence for any substantial human risk at the moment.

  8. Occurrence, detection and detoxification of mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Aiko, Visenuo; Mehta, Alka

    2015-12-01

    Mycotoxins have been identified as important toxins affecting animal species and humans ever since the discovery of aflatoxin B1 in 1960. Mycotoxigenic fungi are ubiquitous in nature and are held responsible for economic loss as they decrease crop yield and quality of food. The presence of fungi and their mycotoxins are reported not only in food grains but also in medicinal herbs and processed foods. Since prevention is not always possible, detoxification of mycotoxins have been attempted using several means; however, only few have been accepted for practical use, e.g. ammonia in the corn industry. Organizations such as the World Health Organization, US Food and Drug Administration and European Union have set regulations and safety limits of important mycotoxins, viz. aflatoxins, fusarium toxins, ochratoxin, patulin zearalenone, etc., to ensure the safety of the consumers. This review article is a brief and up-to-date account of the occurrence, detection and detoxification of mycotoxins for those interested in and considering research in this area.

  9. Widespread Natural Occurrence of Hydroxyurea in Animals.

    PubMed

    Fraser, David I; Liu, Kyle T; Reid, Bryan J; Hawkins, Emily; Sevier, Andrew; Pyle, Michelle; Robinson, Jacob W; Ouellette, Pierre H R; Ballantyne, James S

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the widespread natural occurrence of a known antibiotic and antineoplastic compound, hydroxyurea in animals from many taxonomic groups. Hydroxyurea occurs in all the organisms we have examined including invertebrates (molluscs and crustaceans), fishes from several major groups, amphibians and mammals. The species with highest concentrations was an elasmobranch (sharks, skates and rays), the little skate Leucoraja erinacea with levels up to 250 μM, high enough to have antiviral, antimicrobial and antineoplastic effects based on in vitro studies. Embryos of L. erinacea showed increasing levels of hydroxyurea with development, indicating the capacity for hydroxyurea synthesis. Certain tissues of other organisms (e.g. skin of the frog (64 μM), intestine of lobster (138 μM) gills of the surf clam (100 μM)) had levels high enough to have antiviral effects based on in vitro studies. Hydroxyurea is widely used clinically in the treatment of certain human cancers, sickle cell anemia, psoriasis, myeloproliferative diseases, and has been investigated as a potential treatment of HIV infection and its presence at high levels in tissues of elasmobranchs and other organisms suggests a novel mechanism for fighting disease that may explain the disease resistance of some groups. In light of the known production of nitric oxide from exogenously applied hydroxyurea, endogenous hydoxyurea may play a hitherto unknown role in nitric oxide dynamics.

  10. Foreshock occurrence rates before large earthquakes worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reasenberg, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Global rates of foreshock occurrence involving shallow M ??? 6 and M ??? 7 mainshocks and M ??? 5 foreshocks were measured, using earthquakes listed in the Harvard CMT catalog for the period 1978-1996. These rates are similar to rates ones measured in previous worldwide and regional studies when they are normalized for the ranges of magnitude difference they each span. The observed worldwide rates were compared to a generic model of earthquake clustering, which is based on patterns of small and moderate aftershocks in California, and were found to exceed the California model by a factor of approximately 2. Significant differences in foreshock rate were found among subsets of earthquakes defined by their focal mechanism and tectonic region, with the rate before thrust events higher and the rate before strike-slip events lower than the worldwide average. Among the thrust events a large majority, composed of events located in shallow subduction zones, registered a high foreshock rate, while a minority, located in continental thrust belts, measured a low rate. These differences may explain why previous surveys have revealed low foreshock rates among thrust events in California (especially southern California), while the worldwide observations suggest the opposite: California, lacking an active subduction zone in most of its territory, and including a region of mountain-building thrusts in the south, reflects the low rate apparently typical for continental thrusts, while the worldwide observations, dominated by shallow subduction zone events, are foreshock-rich.

  11. Aichi virus 1: environmental occurrence and behavior.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Masaaki; Gerba, Charles P

    2015-01-01

    Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), belonging to the genus Kobuvirus in the family Picornaviridae, has been proposed as a causative agent of human gastroenteritis potentially transmitted by fecal-oral routes through contaminated food or water. AiV-1 is globally distributed and has been detected in various types of environmental samples, such as sewage, river water, groundwater, and shellfish. Recent environmental studies revealed that this virus could be detected in higher frequency and greater abundance than other human enteric viruses. These findings suggest that AiV-1 could potentially be an appropriate indicator of viral contamination in the environment because of its high prevalence in water environments as well as structural and genetic similarity with some of the other important enteric viruses. Further studies on the occurrence and fate of AiV-1 in environments, even in combination with clinical studies of many regions, are needed for a better understanding of their epidemiology, temporal and geographical distribution, environmental stability, and potential health risks to humans.

  12. Widespread Natural Occurrence of Hydroxyurea in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, David I.; Liu, Kyle T.; Reid, Bryan J.; Hawkins, Emily; Sevier, Andrew; Pyle, Michelle; Robinson, Jacob W.; Ouellette, Pierre H. R.; Ballantyne, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the widespread natural occurrence of a known antibiotic and antineoplastic compound, hydroxyurea in animals from many taxonomic groups. Hydroxyurea occurs in all the organisms we have examined including invertebrates (molluscs and crustaceans), fishes from several major groups, amphibians and mammals. The species with highest concentrations was an elasmobranch (sharks, skates and rays), the little skate Leucoraja erinacea with levels up to 250 μM, high enough to have antiviral, antimicrobial and antineoplastic effects based on in vitro studies. Embryos of L. erinacea showed increasing levels of hydroxyurea with development, indicating the capacity for hydroxyurea synthesis. Certain tissues of other organisms (e.g. skin of the frog (64 μM), intestine of lobster (138 μM) gills of the surf clam (100 μM)) had levels high enough to have antiviral effects based on in vitro studies. Hydroxyurea is widely used clinically in the treatment of certain human cancers, sickle cell anemia, psoriasis, myeloproliferative diseases, and has been investigated as a potential treatment of HIV infection and its presence at high levels in tissues of elasmobranchs and other organisms suggests a novel mechanism for fighting disease that may explain the disease resistance of some groups. In light of the known production of nitric oxide from exogenously applied hydroxyurea, endogenous hydoxyurea may play a hitherto unknown role in nitric oxide dynamics. PMID:26600157

  13. General Properties, Occurrence, and Preparation of Carbohydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robyt, John F.

    D-Glucose and its derivatives and analogues, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-muramic acid, D-glucopyranosyl uronic acid, and D-glucitol represent 99.9% of the carbohydrates on the earth. D-Glucose is found in the free state in human blood and in the combined state in disaccharides, sucrose, lactose, and α,α-trehalose, in cyclic dextrins, and in polysaccharides, starch, glycogen, cellulose, dextrans; N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and an analogue N-acetyl-D-muramic acid are found in bacterial cell wall polysaccharide, murein, along with teichoic acids made up of poly-glycerol or -ribitol phosphodiesters. Other carbohydrates, D-mannose, D-mannuronic acid, D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, D-galacturonic acid, D-iduronic acid, L-guluronic acid, L-rhamnose, L-fucose, D-xylose, and N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid are found in glycoproteins, hemicelluloses, glycosaminoglycans, and polysaccharides of plant exudates, bacterial capsules, alginates, and heparin. D-Ribofuranose-5-phosphate is found in many coenzymes and is the backbone of RNAs (ribonucleic acid), and 2-deoxy-D-ribofuranose-5-phosphate is the backbone of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). D-Fructofuranose is found in sucrose, inulin, and levan. The general properties and occurrence of these carbohydrates and general methods of isolation and preparation of carbohydrates are presented.

  14. Widespread Natural Occurrence of Hydroxyurea in Animals.

    PubMed

    Fraser, David I; Liu, Kyle T; Reid, Bryan J; Hawkins, Emily; Sevier, Andrew; Pyle, Michelle; Robinson, Jacob W; Ouellette, Pierre H R; Ballantyne, James S

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the widespread natural occurrence of a known antibiotic and antineoplastic compound, hydroxyurea in animals from many taxonomic groups. Hydroxyurea occurs in all the organisms we have examined including invertebrates (molluscs and crustaceans), fishes from several major groups, amphibians and mammals. The species with highest concentrations was an elasmobranch (sharks, skates and rays), the little skate Leucoraja erinacea with levels up to 250 μM, high enough to have antiviral, antimicrobial and antineoplastic effects based on in vitro studies. Embryos of L. erinacea showed increasing levels of hydroxyurea with development, indicating the capacity for hydroxyurea synthesis. Certain tissues of other organisms (e.g. skin of the frog (64 μM), intestine of lobster (138 μM) gills of the surf clam (100 μM)) had levels high enough to have antiviral effects based on in vitro studies. Hydroxyurea is widely used clinically in the treatment of certain human cancers, sickle cell anemia, psoriasis, myeloproliferative diseases, and has been investigated as a potential treatment of HIV infection and its presence at high levels in tissues of elasmobranchs and other organisms suggests a novel mechanism for fighting disease that may explain the disease resistance of some groups. In light of the known production of nitric oxide from exogenously applied hydroxyurea, endogenous hydoxyurea may play a hitherto unknown role in nitric oxide dynamics. PMID:26600157

  15. Occurrence of oral deformities in larval anurans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, D.L.; Altig, R.; Grace, J.B.; Walls, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    We quantified deformities in the marginal papillae, tooth rows, and jaw sheaths of tadpoles from 13 population samples representing three families and 11 sites in the southeastern United States. Oral deformities were observed in all samples and in 13.5-98% of the specimens per sample. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (chytrid) infections were detected in three samples. There was high variability among samples in the pattern and number of discovered deformities. Pairwise associations between oral structures containing deformities were nonrandom for several populations, especially those with B. dendrobatidis infections or high total numbers of deformities. Comparisons of deformities among samples using multivariate analyses revealed that tadpole samples grouped together by family. Analyses of ordination indicated that three variables, the number of deformities, the number of significant associations among deformity types within populations, and whether populations were infected with B. dendrobatidis, were significantly correlated with the pattern of deformities. Our data indicate that the incidence of oral deformities can be high in natural populations and that phylogeny and B. dendrobatidis infection exert a strong influence on the occurrence and type of oral deformities in tadpoles. ?? by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herperologists.

  16. Occurrence of Streptococcus macedonicus in Italian cheeses.

    PubMed

    Pacini, Federico; Cariolato, Diego; Andrighetto, Christian; Lombardi, Angiolella

    2006-08-01

    A new approach for the detection and enumeration of Streptococcus macedonicus in cheese was developed. The method which is based on a first screening of cheeses by a PCR assay specific for S. macedonicus followed by plating positive samples on a differential medium (SM medium) was applied to 51 samples derived from PDO and traditional Italian cheeses. Streptococcus macedonicus was found in 16 of the 51 samples examined in the present work. With the exclusion of an Asiago cheese sample in which very high numbers of S. macedonicus (7.13 log CFU g(-1)) were found, the counts of S. macedonicus in SM medium ranged from 2.48 to 4.70 log CFU g(-1). In the same cheeses, total streptococci enumerated onto M17 agar were found at higher concentrations with values up to 7.88 log CFU g(-1). The system developed was particularly useful for the differential count of S. macedonicus in cheese and allowed to evaluate the occurrence of this species within the complex microbial lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population, which is typical of traditional cheeses. Results showed that in the examined cheeses S. macedonicus cannot be considered as a dominant LAB species.

  17. Occurrence, uses, and carcinogenicity of arylamines.

    PubMed

    Chung, King-Thom

    2015-01-01

    Arylamines are chemically synthesized and contained in oxidants, epoxy polymers, explosives, fungicides, pesticides, colorants, polyurethanes, and used in rubber, pharmacology, cosmetics, and other chemical industries. Many arylamines are ubiquitously present in cigarette smoke, cooking fume hoods, foods, automobile exhaust, industrial sites, etc. Some arylamines can be generated through azo reduction by intestinal, skin, and environmental microorganisms from azo dyes that are widely used. Arylamines can also be generated by reduction of the nitro-group containing polyhydrated hydrocarbons including muntions. Some arylamines are released by burning nitrogen containing organic materials at high temperatures. Some medical drugs are also arylamines. Furthermore, many arylamines are essential constituents of normal metabolism or the result of abnormal metabolism or dietary sources. Some arylamines are mutagenic, carcinogenic or the cause of other kinds of maladies. Some arylamine are considered the major etiological agents of bladder tumors in humans and animals but may also induce other types of cancers in various organs. The organ, tissue, and species specificity of the arylamine-inducing carcinogenesis may be determined by their availability, distribution, and the presence of metabolic activation/detoxicification enzymes of each organ or tissue of different species. The ubiquitous arylamines, therefore, pose serious hazards to human health and environment. This article will address the occurrence, uses, carcinogenicity, and other arylamines-induced diseases.

  18. Potential seaways across West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, David G.; Barnes, David K. A.; Fretwell, Peter T.; Bingham, Robert G.

    2011-10-01

    The West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) has long been considered vulnerable to rapid retreat and today parts are rapidly losing ice. Projection of future change in WAIS is, however, hampered by our poor understanding of past changes, especially during interglacial periods that could be analogs for the future, but which undoubtedly provide an opportunity for testing predictive models. We consider how ice-loss would open seaways across WAIS; these would likely alter Southern Ocean circulation and climate, and would broadly define the de-glacial state, but they may also have left evidence of their existence in the coastal seas they once connected. We show the most likely routes for such seaways, and that a direct seaway between Weddell and Ross seas, which did not pass through the Amundsen Sea sector, is unlikely. Continued ice-loss at present rates would open seaways between Amundsen and Weddell seas (A-W), and Amundsen and Bellingshausen seas (A-B), in around one thousand years. This timescale indicates potential future vulnerability, but also suggests seaways may have opened in recent interglacial periods. We attempt to test this hypothesis using contemporary bryozoan species assemblages around Antarctica, concluding that anomalously high similarity in assemblages in the Weddell and Amundsen seas supports recent migration through A-W. Other authors have suggested opening of seaways last occurred during Marine Isotope Stage 7a (209 ka BP), but we conclude that opening could have occurred in MIS 5e (100 ka BP) when Antarctica was warmer than present and likely contributed to global sea levels higher than today.

  19. Occurrence of foodborne bacteria in Alberta feedlots.

    PubMed

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Bohaychuk, Valerie; Besser, Thomas; Song, Xin-Ming; Wagner, Bruce; Hancock, Dale; Renter, David; Dargatz, David

    2009-02-01

    The occurrence of generic Escherichia coli, E. coli O157, Salmonella, and Campylobacter in cattle manure, beef carcasses, catch basin water, and soils receiving manure application was determined in 21 Alberta feedlots. In cattle manure, generic E. coli (98%, 2069/2100) and Campylobacter (76%, 1590/2100) were frequently detected; E. coli O157 (7%, 143/2100) and Salmonella (1%, 20/2100) were less frequently detected. Samples from beef carcasses in the cooler following Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point interventions yielded only 1 isolate each of generic E. coli and Campylobacter (1/1653) and no Salmonella (0/1653). Catch basin water specimens were positive for generic E. coli in both the spring (62%, 13/21) and the fall (52%, 11/21). Other bacteria were detected only in the spring water specimens, including E. coli O157 (29%, 6/21), Salmonella (5%, 1/21), and Campylobacter (52%, 11/21). Generic E. coli was frequently isolated from soil specimens (30%, 27/88), but E. coli O157 was not found in soil samples obtained in the spring and was only occasionally detected in the fall samples (9%, 3/32). Salmonella were occasionally found in the soil specimens collected in the spring (3%, 2/56), but not in the fall season (0/32). Campylobacter jejuni was frequent in cattle manure (66%, 1070/1623), but rare in carcass and environmental samples. E. coli O157 and Salmonella were rarely detected in cattle or the environment. Generic E. coli and Salmonella were rarely detected on carcasses.

  20. Comprehensive Flux Occurrence Statistics at Geosynchronous Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, M. F.; Denton, M. H.; Bodeau, M.

    2005-12-01

    Geosynchronous orbit, the distance at which the orbital period around the Earth is 24 hours, is home to more than 200 satellites. From a space weather perspective, the environment in this orbit is highly variable and far from benign. Satellites exposed to these harsh conditions are subject to episodes of deep dielectric charging, surface charging, solar panel degradation, single event upsets, radiation degradation of optical coatings and paints, and other deleterious effects. Either suddenly or gradually over time, such effects can cause catastrophic or simply lifetime-shortening consequences for satellite systems. To protect against these environmental effects, spacecraft designers need to know quantitatively what the nature of the environment is likely to be over the design lifetime of their satellites. In recent years a number of such statistical analyses have been conducted, demonstrating the systematic dependence of geosynchronous plasma properties on orbital position, geomagnetic activity, and phase of the solar cycle. These studies have helped illuminate the physical processes that govern the nature of the plasma at geosynchronous orbit, but they do not provide a condensed description of the environment that is suitable for use by spacecraft designers. We report here a definitive statistical characterization of the geosynchronous environment that will be more useful for such purposes. The analysis is based on the LANL MPA geosynchronous plasma dataset, which now comprises more than 70 satellite-years of measurements extending well over a full solar cycle. We present the flux occurrence statistics of ions and electrons with energies in the range from ~1 eV to ~45 keV, covering the populations that are responsible for satellite surface charging and radiation damage to surface materials, and that provide the source for the higher-energy ring current and radiation belts. Significant differences have been found in long-term averages compared to the AE-8, AP-8

  1. Arsenic occurrence in Brazil and human exposure.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, Bernardino Ribeiro; Borba, Ricardo Perobelli; Angélica, Rômulo Simões

    2007-04-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic (As) in terms of public health is receiving increasing attention worldwide following cases of mass contamination in different parts of the world. However, there is a scarcity of data available on As geochemistry in Brazilian territory, despite the known occurrence of As in some of the more severely polluted areas of Brazil. The purpose of this paper is to discuss existing data on As distribution in Brazil based on recent investigations in three contaminated areas as well as results from the literature. To date, integrated studies on environmental and anthropogenic sources of As contamination have been carried out only in three areas in Brazil: (1) the Southeastern region, known as the Iron Quadrangle, where As was released into the drainage systems, soils and atmosphere as a result of gold mining; (2) the Ribeira Valley, where As occurs in Pb-Zn mine wastes and naturally in As-rich rocks and soils; (3) the Amazon region, including the Santana area, where As is associated with manganese ores mined over the last 50 years. Toxicological studies revealed that the populations were not exposed to elevated levels of As, with the As concentrations in surface water in these areas rarely exceeding 10 microg/L. Deep weathering of bedrocks along with formation of Fe/Al-enriched soils and sediments function as a chemical barrier that prevents the release of As into the water. In addition, the tropical climate results in high rates of precipitation in the northern and southeastern regions and, hence, the As contents of drinking water is diluted. Severe cases of human As exposure related to non-point pollution sources have not been reported in Brazil. However, increasing awareness of the adverse health effects of As will eventually lead to a more complete picture of the distribution of As in Brazil. PMID:17351814

  2. Arsenic occurrence in Brazil and human exposure.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, Bernardino Ribeiro; Borba, Ricardo Perobelli; Angélica, Rômulo Simões

    2007-04-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic (As) in terms of public health is receiving increasing attention worldwide following cases of mass contamination in different parts of the world. However, there is a scarcity of data available on As geochemistry in Brazilian territory, despite the known occurrence of As in some of the more severely polluted areas of Brazil. The purpose of this paper is to discuss existing data on As distribution in Brazil based on recent investigations in three contaminated areas as well as results from the literature. To date, integrated studies on environmental and anthropogenic sources of As contamination have been carried out only in three areas in Brazil: (1) the Southeastern region, known as the Iron Quadrangle, where As was released into the drainage systems, soils and atmosphere as a result of gold mining; (2) the Ribeira Valley, where As occurs in Pb-Zn mine wastes and naturally in As-rich rocks and soils; (3) the Amazon region, including the Santana area, where As is associated with manganese ores mined over the last 50 years. Toxicological studies revealed that the populations were not exposed to elevated levels of As, with the As concentrations in surface water in these areas rarely exceeding 10 microg/L. Deep weathering of bedrocks along with formation of Fe/Al-enriched soils and sediments function as a chemical barrier that prevents the release of As into the water. In addition, the tropical climate results in high rates of precipitation in the northern and southeastern regions and, hence, the As contents of drinking water is diluted. Severe cases of human As exposure related to non-point pollution sources have not been reported in Brazil. However, increasing awareness of the adverse health effects of As will eventually lead to a more complete picture of the distribution of As in Brazil.

  3. Agriculture in West Africa in the Twenty-First Century: Climate Change and Impacts Scenarios, and Potential for Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Benjamin; Gaetani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    West Africa is known to be particularly vulnerable to climate change due to high climate variability, high reliance on rain-fed agriculture, and limited economic and institutional capacity to respond to climate variability and change. In this context, better knowledge of how climate will change in West Africa and how such changes will impact crop productivity is crucial to inform policies that may counteract the adverse effects. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of climate change impacts on agriculture in West Africa based on the recent scientific literature. West Africa is nowadays experiencing a rapid climate change, characterized by a widespread warming, a recovery of the monsoonal precipitation, and an increase in the occurrence of climate extremes. The observed climate tendencies are also projected to continue in the twenty-first century under moderate and high emission scenarios, although large uncertainties still affect simulations of the future West African climate, especially regarding the summer precipitation. However, despite diverging future projections of the monsoonal rainfall, which is essential for rain-fed agriculture, a robust evidence of yield loss in West Africa emerges. This yield loss is mainly driven by increased mean temperature while potential wetter or drier conditions as well as elevated CO2 concentrations can modulate this effect. Potential for adaptation is illustrated for major crops in West Africa through a selection of studies based on process-based crop models to adjust cropping systems (change in varieties, sowing dates and density, irrigation, fertilizer management) to future climate. Results of the cited studies are crop and region specific and no clear conclusions can be made regarding the most effective adaptation options. Further efforts are needed to improve modeling of the monsoon system and to better quantify the uncertainty in its changes under a warmer climate, in the response of the crops to such

  4. Agriculture in West Africa in the Twenty-First Century: Climate Change and Impacts Scenarios, and Potential for Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Benjamin; Gaetani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    West Africa is known to be particularly vulnerable to climate change due to high climate variability, high reliance on rain-fed agriculture, and limited economic and institutional capacity to respond to climate variability and change. In this context, better knowledge of how climate will change in West Africa and how such changes will impact crop productivity is crucial to inform policies that may counteract the adverse effects. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of climate change impacts on agriculture in West Africa based on the recent scientific literature. West Africa is nowadays experiencing a rapid climate change, characterized by a widespread warming, a recovery of the monsoonal precipitation, and an increase in the occurrence of climate extremes. The observed climate tendencies are also projected to continue in the twenty-first century under moderate and high emission scenarios, although large uncertainties still affect simulations of the future West African climate, especially regarding the summer precipitation. However, despite diverging future projections of the monsoonal rainfall, which is essential for rain-fed agriculture, a robust evidence of yield loss in West Africa emerges. This yield loss is mainly driven by increased mean temperature while potential wetter or drier conditions as well as elevated CO2 concentrations can modulate this effect. Potential for adaptation is illustrated for major crops in West Africa through a selection of studies based on process-based crop models to adjust cropping systems (change in varieties, sowing dates and density, irrigation, fertilizer management) to future climate. Results of the cited studies are crop and region specific and no clear conclusions can be made regarding the most effective adaptation options. Further efforts are needed to improve modeling of the monsoon system and to better quantify the uncertainty in its changes under a warmer climate, in the response of the crops to such

  5. Agriculture in West Africa in the Twenty-First Century: Climate Change and Impacts Scenarios, and Potential for Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Benjamin; Gaetani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    West Africa is known to be particularly vulnerable to climate change due to high climate variability, high reliance on rain-fed agriculture, and limited economic and institutional capacity to respond to climate variability and change. In this context, better knowledge of how climate will change in West Africa and how such changes will impact crop productivity is crucial to inform policies that may counteract the adverse effects. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of climate change impacts on agriculture in West Africa based on the recent scientific literature. West Africa is nowadays experiencing a rapid climate change, characterized by a widespread warming, a recovery of the monsoonal precipitation, and an increase in the occurrence of climate extremes. The observed climate tendencies are also projected to continue in the twenty-first century under moderate and high emission scenarios, although large uncertainties still affect simulations of the future West African climate, especially regarding the summer precipitation. However, despite diverging future projections of the monsoonal rainfall, which is essential for rain-fed agriculture, a robust evidence of yield loss in West Africa emerges. This yield loss is mainly driven by increased mean temperature while potential wetter or drier conditions as well as elevated CO2 concentrations can modulate this effect. Potential for adaptation is illustrated for major crops in West Africa through a selection of studies based on process-based crop models to adjust cropping systems (change in varieties, sowing dates and density, irrigation, fertilizer management) to future climate. Results of the cited studies are crop and region specific and no clear conclusions can be made regarding the most effective adaptation options. Further efforts are needed to improve modeling of the monsoon system and to better quantify the uncertainty in its changes under a warmer climate, in the response of the crops to such

  6. Agriculture in West Africa in the Twenty-First Century: Climate Change and Impacts Scenarios, and Potential for Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Benjamin; Gaetani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    West Africa is known to be particularly vulnerable to climate change due to high climate variability, high reliance on rain-fed agriculture, and limited economic and institutional capacity to respond to climate variability and change. In this context, better knowledge of how climate will change in West Africa and how such changes will impact crop productivity is crucial to inform policies that may counteract the adverse effects. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of climate change impacts on agriculture in West Africa based on the recent scientific literature. West Africa is nowadays experiencing a rapid climate change, characterized by a widespread warming, a recovery of the monsoonal precipitation, and an increase in the occurrence of climate extremes. The observed climate tendencies are also projected to continue in the twenty-first century under moderate and high emission scenarios, although large uncertainties still affect simulations of the future West African climate, especially regarding the summer precipitation. However, despite diverging future projections of the monsoonal rainfall, which is essential for rain-fed agriculture, a robust evidence of yield loss in West Africa emerges. This yield loss is mainly driven by increased mean temperature while potential wetter or drier conditions as well as elevated CO2 concentrations can modulate this effect. Potential for adaptation is illustrated for major crops in West Africa through a selection of studies based on process-based crop models to adjust cropping systems (change in varieties, sowing dates and density, irrigation, fertilizer management) to future climate. Results of the cited studies are crop and region specific and no clear conclusions can be made regarding the most effective adaptation options. Further efforts are needed to improve modeling of the monsoon system and to better quantify the uncertainty in its changes under a warmer climate, in the response of the crops to such

  7. Namibia [South-West Africa].

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the

  8. 7. West elevation, facing east (Note: B/W scale on west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. West elevation, facing east (Note: B/W scale on west elevation in 1/2 ft increments) - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance & Disassembly Complex, Junior Hot Cell, Jackass Flats, Area 25, South of intersection of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  9. 78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ..., Intracoastal Waterway, West Palm Beach, FL'' in the Federal Register (78 FR 2916). We received no comments on...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach...

  10. 77 FR 56125 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... adopted a PSD program under 45 CSR 14, and the program became part of the West Virginia SIP. See 51 FR..., EPA published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) for West Virginia. 77 FR 10423. The ] NPR proposed... review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4,...

  11. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...., naval explosives anchorage area. 110.189a Section 110.189a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with its... this section shall be enforced by the Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla., and any...

  12. SOUTH WING, TRA661. WEST SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. MTR WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH WING, TRA-661. WEST SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. MTR WEST WALL BEYOND ROOF LINE. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-45-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA635. EAST, WEST, AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS. WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA-635. EAST, WEST, AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS. WEST ELEVATION HAS TWO STORIES. IDO MTR-635-IDO-7-A, 6/1953. INL INDEX NO. 531-0635-00-396-110590, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Statistics of GNSS amplitude scintillation occurrences over Dakar, Senegal, at varying elevation angles during the maximum phase of solar cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akala, A. O.; Awoyele, A.; Doherty, P. H.

    2016-03-01

    This study characterizes Global Navigation Satellite System amplitude scintillation over Dakar (14.75°N, 17.45°W, magnitude latitude: 5.88°N), Senegal. The data, which we arranged on daily and monthly scales, cover 14 months: September-November 2012; February-December 2013; and January-February 2014. The data were further binned into three levels of scintillation using the S4 index: weak (0.3 ≤ S4 < 0.4), moderate (0.4 ≤ S4 < 0.7), and intense (S4 ≥ 0.7), over varying elevation angles (10°, 20°, and 30°). Daily occurrences of scintillation were most frequent around 22-02 LT. On a month-by-month basis, October recorded the highest occurrences of scintillations, while June recorded the least. Furthermore, contrary to Akala et al. (2014, 2015) who earlier reported January as off season for scintillation occurrences at some sites in Africa, namely, Lagos (Central West Africa), Nairobi, and Kampala (East Africa), the current study recorded some scintillation occurrences at Dakar (far west of West Africa) in January. It therefore implies that longitudinal variations do exist in the climatology of ionospheric scintillations over Africa. Consequently, detailed understanding of the climatology and daily distributions of ionospheric scintillations over equatorial Africa, which is our key objective in this study (from the perspective of Dakar), is the basic requirement for developing robust physics-based scintillation models for the African equatorial region. Finally, we noted that the conventional adoption of high-elevation masking angles during scintillation data processing, with a view to suppressing multipath effects usually hid important ionospheric-induced scintillation data.

  15. Eastern Gas Shales Project: West Virginia No. 7 well, Wetzel County. Phase III report, summary of laboratory analyses and mechanical characterization results

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-01

    This summary presents a detailed characterization of the Devonian Shale occurrence in the EGSP-West Virginia No. 7 well. Information provided includes a stratigraphic summary and lithiology and fracture analyses resulting from detailed core examinations and geophysical log interpretations at the EGSP Core Laboratory. Plane of weakness orientations stemming from a program of physical properties testing at Michigan Technological University are also summarized; the results of physical properties testing are dealt with in detail in the accompanying report. The data presented was obtained from the study of approximately 533 feet of core retrieved from a well drilled in Wetzel county of north-central West Virginia.

  16. DON occurrence in cereal grains: A North American perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) in agricultural commodities has been reported all over the world, with levels varying amongst grain type and years of production. However, a systematic review of the current situation regarding this mycotoxin, its occurrence, and its management in North America...

  17. 10 CFR 140.83 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 140.83 Section 140.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Extraordinary Nuclear Occurrences § 140.83 Determination of extraordinary...

  18. 10 CFR 140.83 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 140.83 Section 140.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Extraordinary Nuclear Occurrences § 140.83 Determination of extraordinary...

  19. 10 CFR 140.83 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 140.83 Section 140.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Extraordinary Nuclear Occurrences § 140.83 Determination of extraordinary...

  20. 10 CFR 140.83 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 140.83 Section 140.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Extraordinary Nuclear Occurrences § 140.83 Determination of extraordinary...

  1. 10 CFR 140.83 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 140.83 Section 140.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Extraordinary Nuclear Occurrences § 140.83 Determination of extraordinary...

  2. Overpressure history of fractures, West Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Vrolijk, P.J.; Pottorf, R.J.; Maze, W.B.

    1996-08-01

    Prediction of density of natural fractures in reservoir rocks requires evaluation of many factors, including the effective stress and thus fluid pressure conditions through time. In this study we use analyses of fluid inclusions in calcite-filled fractures with burial and thermal history models to assess the fluid pressure history and the causes of overpressure in the West Maracaibo Basin. We analyzed abundant oil-filled and rare aqueous fluid inclusions in calcite-filled fractures in the La Luna Formation source rock and in the underlying Cogollo Gp. carbonate reservoir. Our analyses of fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures and fluorescence properties lead us to the interpretation of near-lithostatic paleo-fluid pressures in La Luna Formation and near-lithostatic to hydrostatic fluid pressures in the Cogollo, Gp. fractures. Maturation and expulsion of oil from the La Luna Formation source rock is required to generate the large inferred excess pressures as compaction disequilibrium and thermal expansion of pore fluids from rapid Miocene burial are insufficient to achieve near-lithostatic conditions. This hypothesis is supported by the observation of decreasing paleo- and modern fluid pressures with depth beneath the La Luna Formation. Thus based on the wide occurrence of oil-filled inclusions in calcite-filled fractures and the high fluid pressures associated with trapped oils, we infer extensive rock fracture under overpressured conditions near maximum Miocene burial, during inferred late source rock yield, and during Miocene growth of structural traps.

  3. Factors associated with West Nile virus disease fatalities in horses.

    PubMed

    Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl; West, Keith; Townsend, Hugh

    2007-11-01

    In 2003, the occurrence and location of horses with clinical signs of West Nile virus infection were identified in the southern portion of Saskatchewan with the help of veterinarians, owners, and the regional laboratory. A total of 133 clinical cases were reported between July 30 and September 19, 2003; however, postseason surveillance suggests that the number of cases was underestimated. The case fatality rate was 43.8% (95% CI 35.2, 52.4). Factors associated with fatality in clinical cases included sex, week of onset of clinical signs, and coat color. Reported clinical cases clustered within regional health authority districts, suggesting regional differences in geographic factors, potentially including climate and mosquito control, that could contribute to the risk of disease. However, most of the variation in the risk of fatality in clinical cases is explained at the individual level rather than the Regional Health Authority level, which suggests the outcome of clinical disease is primarily determined by characteristics of, or management factors affecting, the individual horse.

  4. Potential North American vectors of West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Turell, M J; Sardelis, M R; Dohm, D J; O'Guinn, M L

    2001-12-01

    The outbreak of disease in the New York area in 1999 due to West Nile (WN) virus was the first evidence of the occurrence of this virus in the Americas. To determine potential vectors, more than 15 mosquito species (including Culex pipiens, Cx. nigripalpus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. salinarius, Aedes albopictus, Ae. vexans, Ochlerotatus japonicus, Oc. sollicitans, Oc. taeniorhynchus, and Oc. triseriatus) from the eastern United States were evaluated for their ability to serve as vectors for the virus isolated from birds collected during the 1999 outbreak in New York. Mosquitoes were allowed to feed on one- to four-day old chickens that had been inoculated with WN virus 1-3 days previously. The mosquitoes were incubated for 12-15 days at 26 degrees C and then allowed to refeed on susceptible chickens and assayed to determine transmission and infection rates. Several container-breeding species (e.g., Ae. albopictus, Oc. atropalpus, and Oc. japonicus) were highly efficient laboratory vectors of WN virus. The Culex species were intermediate in their susceptibility. However, if a disseminated infection developed, all species were able to transmit WN virus by bite. Factors such as population density, feeding preference, longevity, and season of activity also need to be considered in determining the role these species could play in the transmission of WN virus.

  5. Cenozoic motion between East and West Antarctica

    PubMed

    Cande; Stock; Muller; Ishihara

    2000-03-01

    The West Antarctic rift system is the result of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic extension between East and West Antarctica, and represents one of the largest active continental rift systems on Earth. But the timing and magnitude of the plate motions leading to the development of this rift system remain poorly known, because of a lack of magnetic anomaly and fracture zone constraints on seafloor spreading. Here we report on magnetic data, gravity data and swath bathymetry collected in several areas of the south Tasman Sea and northern Ross Sea. These results enable us to calculate mid-Cenozoic rotation parameters for East and West Antarctica. These rotations show that there was roughly 180 km of separation in the western Ross Sea embayment in Eocene and Oligocene time. This episode of extension provides a tectonic setting for several significant Cenozoic tectonic events in the Ross Sea embayment including the uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains and the deposition of large thicknesses of Oligocene sediments. Inclusion of this East-West Antarctic motion in the plate circuit linking the Australia, Antarctic and Pacific plates removes a puzzling gap between the Lord Howe rise and Campbell plateau found in previous early Tertiary reconstructions of the New Zealand region. Determination of this East-West Antarctic motion also resolves a long standing controversy regarding the contribution of deformation in this region to the global plate circuit linking the Pacific to the rest of the world.

  6. Cenozoic motion between East and West Antarctica

    PubMed

    Cande; Stock; Muller; Ishihara

    2000-03-01

    The West Antarctic rift system is the result of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic extension between East and West Antarctica, and represents one of the largest active continental rift systems on Earth. But the timing and magnitude of the plate motions leading to the development of this rift system remain poorly known, because of a lack of magnetic anomaly and fracture zone constraints on seafloor spreading. Here we report on magnetic data, gravity data and swath bathymetry collected in several areas of the south Tasman Sea and northern Ross Sea. These results enable us to calculate mid-Cenozoic rotation parameters for East and West Antarctica. These rotations show that there was roughly 180 km of separation in the western Ross Sea embayment in Eocene and Oligocene time. This episode of extension provides a tectonic setting for several significant Cenozoic tectonic events in the Ross Sea embayment including the uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains and the deposition of large thicknesses of Oligocene sediments. Inclusion of this East-West Antarctic motion in the plate circuit linking the Australia, Antarctic and Pacific plates removes a puzzling gap between the Lord Howe rise and Campbell plateau found in previous early Tertiary reconstructions of the New Zealand region. Determination of this East-West Antarctic motion also resolves a long standing controversy regarding the contribution of deformation in this region to the global plate circuit linking the Pacific to the rest of the world. PMID:10724159

  7. Archway for Radiation and Micrometeorite Occurrence Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giersch, Louis R.

    2012-01-01

    The environmental conditions of the Moon require mitigation if a long-term human presence is to be achieved for extended periods of time. Radiation, micrometeoroid impacts, high-velocity debris, and thermal cycling represent threats to crew, equipment, and facilities. For decades, local regolith has been suggested as a candidate material to use in the construction of protective barriers. A thickness of roughly 3m is sufficient protection from both direct and secondary radiation from cosmic rays and solar protons; this thickness is sufficient to reduce radiation exposure even during solar flares. NASA has previously identified a need for innovations that will support lunar habitats using lightweight structures because the reduction of structural mass translates directly into additional up and down mass capability that would facilitate additional logistics capacity and increased science return for all mission phases. The development of non-pressurized primary structures that have synergy with the development of pressurized structures is also of interest. The use of indigenous or in situ materials is also a well-known and active area of research that could drastically improve the practicality of human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. The Archway for Radiation and Micrometeorite Occurrence Resistance (ARMOR) concept is a new, multifunctional structure that acts as radiation shielding and micrometeorite impact shielding for long-duration lunar surface protection of humans and equipment. ARMOR uses a combination of native regolith and a deployed membrane jacket to yield a multifunctional structure. ARMOR is a robust and modular system that can be autonomously assembled on-site prior to the first human surface arrival. The system provides protection by holding a sufficiently thick (3 m) archshaped shell of local regolith around a central cavity. The regolith is held in shape by an arch-shaped jacket made of strong but deployable material. No regolith processing is

  8. THE OCCURRENCE OF DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS OF HEALTH CONCERN IN DRINKING WATER: RESULTS OF A NATIONWIDE DBP OCCURRENCE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The motivation for this Nationwide Disinfection By-product (DBP) Occurrence Study was two-fold: First, more than 500 DBPs have been reported in the literature, yet there is almost no quantitative occurrence information for most. As a result, there is significant uncertainty ove...

  9. Intimate Partner Violence among West African Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    AKINSULURE-SMITH, ADEYINKA M.; CHU, TRACY; KEATLEY, EVA; RASMUSSEN, ANDREW

    2013-01-01

    Although the number of African immigrants arriving to the United States has increased significantly, there has been little investigation regarding their experiences of intimate partner violence or coping strategies. This study used focus groups and individual interviews to explore intimate partner violence among 32 heterosexual West African immigrants. Results suggest that although cultural expectations influence their coping strategies, West African–born men and women face different realities, with women reporting multiple instances of abuse and a sense of frustration with the existing options for assistance. Although participants discussed multilevel support structures within the immediate West African community to address intimate partner violence, all of these options maintained a gender hierarchy, leaving women dissatisfied. Challenges and barriers to partner violence resolution and coping strategies are identified. Results are examined in terms of their implications for addressing the needs of this underserved population. Implications for future research and services are discussed and highlighted. PMID:23730146

  10. Impacts of West Nile Virus on wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saito, E.K.; Wild, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The recent epidemic of West Nile virus in the United States proved to be unexpectedly active and was the largest epidemic of the virus ever recorded. Much remains to be discovered about the ecology and epidemiology of West Nile virus in the United States, including which species are important in maintaining the virus in nature, why some species are more susceptible to lethal infection, and what environmental factors are important in predicting future epidemics. These factors will likely vary regionally, depending on local ecological characteristics. Until scientists better understand the virus and factors influencing its activity, predicting its effects for future seasons is impossible. However, experts are certain about one thing: West Nile virus is here to stay.

  11. Etiology of urethral discharge in West Africa: the role of Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed Central

    Pépin, J.; Sobéla, F.; Deslandes, S.; Alary, M.; Wegner, K.; Khonde, N.; Kintin, F.; Kamuragiye, A.; Sylla, M.; Zerbo, P. J.; Baganizi, E.; Koné, A.; Kane, F.; Mâsse, B.; Viens, P.; Frost, E.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the etiological role of pathogens other than Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis in urethral discharge in West African men. METHODS: Urethral swabs were obtained from 659 male patients presenting with urethral discharge in 72 primary health care facilities in seven West African countries, and in 339 controls presenting for complaints unrelated to the genitourinary tract. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to detect the presence of N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum. FINDINGS: N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis, C. trachomatis, and M. genitalium--but not U. urealyticum--were found more frequently in men with urethral discharge than in asymptomatic controls, being present in 61.9%, 13.8%, 13.4% and 10.0%, respectively, of cases of urethral discharge. Multiple infections were common. Among patients with gonococcal infection, T. vaginalis was as frequent a coinfection as C. trachomatis. M. genitalium, T. vaginalis, and C. trachomatis caused a similar clinical syndrome to that associated with gonococcal infection, but with a less severe urethral discharge. CONCLUSIONS: M. genitalium and T. vaginalis are important etiological agents of urethral discharge in West Africa. The frequent occurrence of multiple infections with any combination of four pathogens strongly supports the syndromic approach. The optimal use of metronidazole in flowcharts for the syndromic management of urethral discharge needs to be explored in therapeutic trials. PMID:11242818

  12. Identifying the Environmental Conditions Favouring West Nile Virus Outbreaks in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Markus; Rosà, Roberto; Marini, Giovanni; Chadwick, Elizabeth; Neteler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is a globally important mosquito borne virus, with significant implications for human and animal health. The emergence and spread of new lineages, and increased pathogenicity, is the cause of escalating public health concern. Pinpointing the environmental conditions that favour WNV circulation and transmission to humans is challenging, due both to the complexity of its biological cycle, and the under-diagnosis and reporting of epidemiological data. Here, we used remote sensing and GIS to enable collation of multiple types of environmental data over a continental spatial scale, in order to model annual West Nile Fever (WNF) incidence across Europe and neighbouring countries. Multi-model selection and inference were used to gain a consensus from multiple linear mixed models. Climate and landscape were key predictors of WNF outbreaks (specifically, high precipitation in late winter/early spring, high summer temperatures, summer drought, occurrence of irrigated croplands and highly fragmented forests). Identification of the environmental conditions associated with WNF outbreaks is key to enabling public health bodies to properly focus surveillance and mitigation of West Nile virus impact, but more work needs to be done to enable accurate predictions of WNF risk. PMID:25803814

  13. Atmospheric rivers as drought busters on the U.S. west coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettinger, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) have, in recent years, been recognized as the cause of the large majority of major floods in rivers all along the U.S. West Coast and as the source of 30%–50% of all precipitation in the same region. The present study surveys the frequency with which ARs have played a critical role as a common cause of the end of droughts on the West Coast. This question was based on the observation that, in most cases, droughts end abruptly as a result of the arrival of an especially wet month or, more exactly, a few very large storms. This observation is documented using both Palmer Drought Severity Index and 6-month Standardized Precipitation Index measures of drought occurrence for climate divisions across the conterminous United States from 1895 to 2010. When the individual storm sequences that contributed most to the wet months that broke historical West Coast droughts from 1950 to 2010 were evaluated, 33%–74% of droughts were broken by the arrival of landfalling AR storms. In the Pacific Northwest, 60%–74% of all persistent drought endings have been brought about by the arrival of AR storms. In California, about 33%–40% of all persistent drought endings have been brought about by landfalling AR storms, with more localized low pressure systems responsible for many of the remaining drought breaks.

  14. [Infections due to Toscana virus, West Nile virus, and other arboviruses of interest in Europe].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Seco, Mari Paz; Navarro, José María

    2005-11-01

    Arbovirosis, viral infection transmitted by arthropods, is a widespread health problem. Recurrent outbreaks caused by some of these viruses such as dengue or West Nile strains in regions where they do not appear frequently, justify the establishment of global control measures. Tick-borne encephalitis viruses, sand fly fever viruses (Toscana, Naples and Sicily) and occasionally West Nile and Crimean-Congo fever viruses are the most frequent causes of arbovirosis in Europe, although circulation of other potentially pathogenetic viruses such as Chikungunya has also been detected. The only native arbovirosis described in Spain is infection produced by Toscana virus, which causes aseptic, usually benign meningitis. Nevertheless, some West Nile virus-associated meningo-encephalitis cases have been described in France, Portugal and countries in the Magreb region, increasing the risk of sporadic occurrence of these processes in our country. To achieve an accurate diagnosis, high clinical suspicion is required as well as highly specific laboratory techniques, mainly based on IgM detection, RT-PCR and viral culture of CSF and/or serum.

  15. Incidence of pregnancy following antiretroviral therapy initiation and associated factors in eight West African countries

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Soto, Juan; Balestre, Eric; Minga, Albert; Ajayi, Samuel; Sawadogo, Adrien; Zannou, Marcel D.; Leroy, Valériane; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Dabis, François; Becquet, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed at estimating the incidence of pregnancy after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in eight West African countries over a 10-year period. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted within the international database of the IeDEA West Africa Collaboration. All HIV-infected women aged <50 years and starting ART for their own health between 1998 and 2011 were eligible. Pregnancy after ART initiation was the main outcome and was based on clinical reporting. Poisson regression analysis accounting for country heterogeneity was computed to estimate first pregnancy incidence post-ART and to identify its associated factors. Pregnancy incidence rate ratios were adjusted on country, baseline CD4 count and clinical stage, haemoglobin, age, first ART regimen and calendar year. Results Overall 29,425 HIV-infected women aged 33 years in median [Inter Quartile Range: 28–38] contributed for 84,870 women-years of follow-up to this analysis. The crude incidence of first pregnancy (2,304 events) was 2.9 per 100 women-years [95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.7–3.0], the highest rate being reported among women aged 25–29 years: 4.7 per 100 women-years; 95% CI: 4.3–5.1. The overall Kaplan-Meier probability of pregnancy occurrence by the fourth year on ART was 10.9% (95% CI: 10.4–11.4) and as high as 28.4% (95% CI: 26.3–30.6) among women aged 20–29 years at ART initiation. Conclusion The rate of pregnancy occurrence after ART initiation among HIV-infected women living in the West Africa region was high. Family planning services tailored to procreation needs should be provided to all HIV-infected women initiating ART and health consequences carefully monitored in this part of the world. PMID:25216079

  16. West Nile Virus: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Lyle R.; Brault, Aaron C.; Nasci, Roger S.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Since its introduction in North America in 1999,West Nile virus has produced the 3 largest arboviral neuroinvasive disease outbreaks ever recorded in the United States. OBJECTIVE To review the ecology, virology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, prevention, and control of West Nile virus, with an emphasis on North America. EVIDENCE REVIEW PubMed electronic database was searched through February 5, 2013. United States national surveillance data were gathered from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. FINDINGS West Nile virus is now endemic throughout the contiguous United States, with 16 196 human neuroinvasive disease cases and 1549 deaths reported since 1999. More than 780 000 illnesses have likely occurred. To date, incidence is highest in the Midwest from mid-July to early September. West Nile fever develops in approximately 25% of those infected, varies greatly in clinical severity, and symptoms may be prolonged. Neuroinvasive disease (meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis) develops in less than 1% but carries a fatality rate of approximately 10%. Encephalitis has a highly variable clinical course but often is associated with considerable long-term morbidity. Approximately two-thirds of those with paralysis remain with significant weakness in affected limbs. Diagnosis usually rests on detection of IgM antibody in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment is supportive; no licensed human vaccine exists. Prevention uses an integrated pest management approach, which focuses on surveillance, elimination of mosquito breeding sites, and larval and adult mosquito management using pesticides to keep mosquito populations low. During outbreaks or impending outbreaks, emphasis shifts to aggressive adult mosquito control to reduce the abundance of infected, biting mosquitoes. Pesticide exposure and adverse human health events following adult mosquito control operations for West Nile virus appear negligible. CONCLUSIONS AND

  17. Glacial survival may matter after all: nunatak signatures in the rare European populations of two west-arctic species.

    PubMed

    Westergaard, Kristine B; Alsos, Inger G; Popp, Magnus; Engelskjøn, Torstein; Flatberg, Kjell I; Brochmann, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Biogeographers claimed for more than a century that arctic plants survived glaciations in ice-free refugia within the limits of the North European ice sheets. Molecular studies have, however, provided overwhelming support for postglacial immigration into northern Europe, even from the west across the Atlantic. For the first time we can here present molecular evidence strongly favouring in situ glacial persistence of two species, the rare arctic-alpine pioneer species Sagina caespitosa and Arenaria humifusa. Both belong to the 'west-arctic element' of amphi-Atlantic disjuncts, having their few and only European occurrences well within the limits of the last glaciation. Sequencing of non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA revealed only limited variation. However, two very distinct and partly diverse genetic groups, one East and one West Atlantic, were detected in each species based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), excluding postglacial dispersal from North America as explanation for their European occurrences. Patterns of genetic diversity and distinctiveness indicate that glacial populations existed in East Greenland and/or Svalbard (A. humifusa) and in southern Scandinavia (S. caespitosa). Despite their presumed lack of long-distance dispersal adaptations, intermixed populations in several regions indicate postglacial contact zones. Both species are declining in Nordic countries, probably due to climate change-induced habitat loss. Little or no current connectivity between their highly fragmented and partly distinct populations call for conservation of several populations in each geographic region. PMID:21156004

  18. Glacial survival may matter after all: nunatak signatures in the rare European populations of two west-arctic species.

    PubMed

    Westergaard, Kristine B; Alsos, Inger G; Popp, Magnus; Engelskjøn, Torstein; Flatberg, Kjell I; Brochmann, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Biogeographers claimed for more than a century that arctic plants survived glaciations in ice-free refugia within the limits of the North European ice sheets. Molecular studies have, however, provided overwhelming support for postglacial immigration into northern Europe, even from the west across the Atlantic. For the first time we can here present molecular evidence strongly favouring in situ glacial persistence of two species, the rare arctic-alpine pioneer species Sagina caespitosa and Arenaria humifusa. Both belong to the 'west-arctic element' of amphi-Atlantic disjuncts, having their few and only European occurrences well within the limits of the last glaciation. Sequencing of non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA revealed only limited variation. However, two very distinct and partly diverse genetic groups, one East and one West Atlantic, were detected in each species based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), excluding postglacial dispersal from North America as explanation for their European occurrences. Patterns of genetic diversity and distinctiveness indicate that glacial populations existed in East Greenland and/or Svalbard (A. humifusa) and in southern Scandinavia (S. caespitosa). Despite their presumed lack of long-distance dispersal adaptations, intermixed populations in several regions indicate postglacial contact zones. Both species are declining in Nordic countries, probably due to climate change-induced habitat loss. Little or no current connectivity between their highly fragmented and partly distinct populations call for conservation of several populations in each geographic region.

  19. Plans for West Coast STS launch capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, W. P.; Marshall, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    The layout and scope of operations of the Vandenberg AFB West Coast Launch Site for the Space Shuttle are examined. The launch site intended for the first West Coast launch in December 1983 is being constructed by the United States Air Force. Topic discussed include site/selection/management/concepts, Shuttle hardware flow and related facilities, launch pad operations, orbiter erection at SLC-6 VAFB, solid rocket booster operations, and payload ground processing. In conclusion it is noted that NASA and DOD personnel are working together to ensure that the launch site is completed on schedule at minimum cost.

  20. 200 West Area Dust Mitigation Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Becker, James M.

    2001-04-12

    Various strategies were developed for the purpose of mitigating respirable dust experienced at facilities in the southwest corner of the 200 West Area. These strategies focused on treatment of that portion of the dust source located within the 200 West Expansion Area. Strategies included direct shielding of the facilities via establishment of a poplar windbreak and installation of an artificial windscreen; soil stabilization via seeding of herbaceous plants, soil fixatives, straw crimping, straw blankets, gravel mulches, drift fences, baled straw, and living fences; and various irrigation systems that would function both to water seeded herbs and to suppress dust.

  1. Global database of leishmaniasis occurrence locations, 1960-2012.

    PubMed

    Pigott, David M; Golding, Nick; Messina, Jane P; Battle, Katherine E; Duda, Kirsten A; Balard, Yves; Bastien, Patrick; Pratlong, Francine; Brownstein, John S; Freifeld, Clark C; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Madoff, Lawrence C; George, Dylan B; Myers, Monica F; Hay, Simon I

    2014-01-01

    The leishmaniases are neglected tropical diseases of significant public health importance. However, information on their global occurrence is disparate and sparse. This database represents an attempt to collate reported leishmaniasis occurrences from 1960 to 2012. Methodology for the collection of data from the literature, abstraction of case locations and data processing procedures are described here. In addition, strain archives and online data resources were accessed. A total of 12,563 spatially and temporally unique occurrences of both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis comprise the database, ranging in geographic scale from villages to states. These data can be used for a variety of mapping and spatial analyses covering multiple resolutions.

  2. A global compendium of human dengue virus occurrence.

    PubMed

    Messina, Jane P; Brady, Oliver J; Pigott, David M; Brownstein, John S; Hoen, Anne G; Hay, Simon I

    2014-01-01

    A global geographic database of human dengue virus occurrence was produced to generate a global risk map and associated burden estimates(1). Herein we present the database, which comprises occurrence data linked to point or polygon locations, derived from peer-reviewed literature and case reports as well as informal online sources. Entries date from 1960 to 2012. We describe all data collection processes in full, as well as geo-positioning, database management and quality-control procedures. This is the most comprehensive database of confirmed human dengue infection to-date, consisting of 8,309 geo-positioned occurrences in total.

  3. Writing the New West: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Paul; Meehan, Katharine; Gosnell, Hannah; Gilbertz, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    A vast and growing interdisciplinary research effort has focused on the rise of the so-called New West, purportedly the product of regional socioeconomic, political, and ecological upheavals in states like Montana and Colorado. Reviewing the growing research on this problem in sociology, economics, geography, and conservation science, this article…

  4. The Massachusetts TECH PREP WEST Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    The Tech Prep West Project, established in 1991, brought together three Massachusetts community colleges, seven secondary vocational schools, and one comprehensive high school to develop an alternative college preparation pathway for students, leading from the junior year of high school to an associate degree and employment in a specific career…

  5. Model Program: West Springfield High School, Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alukonis, J. T.; Settar, Scott

    2008-01-01

    West Springfield High School sits on the outskirts of Washington, D.C., in Fairfax County, Virginia. WSHS is home to a thriving and growing technology education program. In recent years, the program has exploded from less than 175 students to well over 425. These numbers are expected to continue to grow in the foreseeable future. In 2002, the…

  6. Problem of hepatocellular carcinoma in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ladep, Nimzing G; Lesi, Olufunmilayo A; Mark, Pantong; Lemoine, Maud; Onyekwere, Charles; Afihene, Mary; Crossey, Mary ME; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is known to be high in West Africa with an approximate yearly mortality rate of 200000. Several factors are responsible for this. Early acquisition of risk factors; with vertical or horizontal transmission of hepatitis B (HBV), environmental food contaminants (aflatoxins), poor management of predisposing risk factors and poorly-managed strategies for health delivery. There has been a low uptake of childhood immunisation for hepatitis B in many West African countries. Owing to late presentations, most sufferers of HCC die within weeks of their diagnosis. Highlighted reasons for the specific disease pattern of HCC in West Africa include: (1) high rate of risk factors; (2) failure to identify at risk populations; (3) lack of effective treatment; and (4) scarce resources for timely diagnosis. This is contrasted to the developed world, which generally has sufficient resources to detect cases early for curative treatment. Provision of palliative care for HCC patients is limited by availability and affordability of potent analgesics. Regional efforts, as well as collaborative networking activities hold promise that could change the epidemiology of HCC in West Africa. PMID:25429316

  7. West Tennessee ACEI 2006 Fall Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Anna; Hailey, Beth

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the West Tennessee ACEI 2006 Fall Conference held at Union University in Jackson, Tennessee on October 14, 2006. The conference theme, Turning the Pages: A Focus on Children's Literature, was emphasized throughout the day. During the conference, the early childhood classroom teachers, preservice teachers, and administrators…

  8. Protective Behavior and West Nile Virus Risk

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Susan J.; Gibson, Brian; Fearon, Margaret; Nosal, Robert; Drebot, Michael; D'Cuhna, Colin; Harrington, Daniel; Smith, Stephanie; George, Pauline; Eyles, John

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional, household survey in Oakville, Ontario, where an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) in 2002 led to an unprecedented number of cases of meningitis and encephalitis. Practicing >2 personal protective behavior traits reduced the risk for WNV infection by half. PMID:16229774

  9. Transcending Communication Barriers with West Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampadu, Lena

    Americans doing business with West Africans are limited in their ability to communicate successfully in that part of the world because of language, stereotyping, and ethnocentrism. Americans must become accustomed to British patterns of speech and writing. Stereotypes of Africa, its people, and its cultures perpetuated by the media keep Americans…

  10. Reclamation of abandoned mines in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Dove, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Reclamation of abandoned mine lands in West Virginia involves disturbed areas from both surface and deep mining activities. Reclamation of deep mine lands deal with mine waste piles and mine openings. Reclamation of surface mine lands involves shaping and grading material to obtain a stable slope and installing water management practices.

  11. Learning to Be: From East and West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The argument of this article is that whilst humanity has evolved for millions of years as a single species, different groups have developed their own cultural differences as they live in different parts of the world, and we learn within our cultures. Research has demonstrated that we do learn differently, in East and West, since we are brought up…

  12. East-West Perspectives on Elder Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes and conceptualizes the meaning of lifelong learning from two cultural perspectives--East and West. It examines the different principles underpinning lifelong learning that explain why and how elders in the two cultures engage differently in continued learning. Finally, it discusses the cultural impact on elder learning by…

  13. Retooling Teacher Preparation in West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manchin, Gayle

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses West Virginia's public schools, and their long struggle with student achievement levels in reading and math. Levels are significantly below the national average and there are poverty-based achievement gaps within the state. In 2013, a cross section of educators and education policy leaders from a range of experiences,…

  14. 77 FR 40793 - West Virginia Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... in the January 21, 1981, Federal Register (46 FR 5915). You can also find later actions concerning..., Telephone: (304) 347-7158. Email: chfo@osmre.gov . West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection...: Mr. Roger W. Calhoun, Director, Charleston Field Office, Telephone: (304) 347-7158. Email:...

  15. Children Ask Questions about West African Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abercrombie, Denice; Cochran, Mathilda; Mims, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Presents a collection of questions that fifth-grade students asked about African artwork and answers provided by staff from the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston, Texas. Observes that students' interest in important visual aspects of the art creates lead-ins to more detailed discussions of West African art and culture. (DSK)

  16. Go West, Young Man (and Woman)!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerly, Greg; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of Web sites on the American West, the Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, Gold Rush, Donner Party, mountain men and the fur trade, Native Americans, cowboys, and western folklore. Lists related books, activity books, and CD-ROMs on cowboys, migration, and settling. (PEN)

  17. Water supply and needs for West Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation focused on the water supplies and needs of West Texas, Texas High Plains. Groundwater is the most commonly used water resources on the Texas High Plains, with withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer dominating. The saturation thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas is such that t...

  18. Open Syllable Lengthening in West Germanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahiri, Aditi; Dresher, B. Elan

    1999-01-01

    Attempts to show that open syllable lengthening (OSL) was part of the grammar of the West Germanic languages: Middle English, Middle Dutch, and Middle High German. Claims that all three languages endeavored to maintain and maximize the Germanic foot, and OSL contributed in different ways to do so. (Author/VWL)

  19. 76 FR 37996 - West Virginia Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... Virginia is amending its Code of State Regulations (CSR) to provide for the establishment of a minimum... other things, the establishment of a minimum incremental bonding rate of $10,000 per increment at CSR 38... of approval of the West Virginia program in the January 21, 1981, Federal Register (46 FR 5915)....

  20. 21 CFR 808.98 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false West Virginia. 808.98 Section 808.98 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific...

  1. 21 CFR 808.98 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false West Virginia. 808.98 Section 808.98 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific...

  2. 21 CFR 808.98 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false West Virginia. 808.98 Section 808.98 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific...

  3. 21 CFR 808.98 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false West Virginia. 808.98 Section 808.98 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific...

  4. Learning Under Siege on the West Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Judith

    1975-01-01

    Birzeit College, the only secular institution of higher education in the Israeli-occupied territories, continues to operate with 500 Palestinians attending classes on the West Bank of the Jordan River Valley even though its president, expelled for alleged subversive activities, continues to run the college from Beirut. (JT)

  5. The West Indian Americans. The New Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henke, Holger

    This book, which is part of a series on new immigrant groups in the United States, captures the experiences of West Indian Americans who have arrived in the country since 1965. The seven chapters include: (1) "History of Jamaica and the English-Speaking Caribbean" (e.g., from plantation society to the third world and the Creolization of cultures…

  6. Natural Hazards within the West Indies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Outlines the vulnerability of the West Indies to various natural hazards, especially hurricanes, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. Reviews the geologic and meteorologic causes and consequences of the hazards. Suggests methods of incorporating hazards information in geography classes. Includes maps and a hurricane tracking chart. (DK)

  7. 40 CFR 81.349 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Remainder of State X West Virginia—Carbon Monoxide Designated Area Designation Date 1 Type Classification.... Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH: Cabell County Nonattainment. Mason County (part) Nonattainment. Graham Tax District Wayne County Nonattainment. Marion County, WV (aka Fairmont CBSA): Harrison County (part)...

  8. 40 CFR 81.349 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Remainder of State X West Virginia—Carbon Monoxide Designated Area Designation Date 1 Type Classification... Attainment. Graham Tax District Wayne County 12/28/12 Attainment. Marion County, WV (aka Fairmont CBSA): Harrison County (part) Tax District of Clay Unclassifiable/Attainment. Marion County...

  9. 40 CFR 81.349 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... bounded by the Cross Creek Tax District Marshall, WV 1 Marshall County (part) 10-4-13 Nonattainment. Area consisting of Clay Tax district, Franklin Tax District, and Washington Tax District 1 Excludes Indian country located in each area, if any, unless otherwise specified. West Virginia—Carbon Monoxide Designated...

  10. West Virginia Higher Education Report Card, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Coll. and University Systems, Charleston.

    This report card provides information to parents, students, faculty, staff, state policymakers, and the general public as to the quality and performance of public higher education in West Virginia. The report responds to six statutory goals that emerged from the Higher Education Advocacy Team meetings in 1992: (1) better preparing students to…

  11. The West, the Environment, and American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Mark W. T.

    1988-01-01

    Emphasizes that to understand the American West, one must realize the central importance of the environment to its inhabitants. Provides an overview of western environmental history. Discusses state and federal reclamation efforts, the role of public lands, and the growth of conservation and preservation movements. (KO)

  12. Booker T. Washington: Rural West Virginia Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Althea M.

    1985-01-01

    The biographical sketch focuses on the early teaching career of Booker T. Washington at Tinkersville School in his hometown of Malden, West Virginia, from 1876-1878. Recollections of Washington's own education in Sunday school, the Tinkersville School, and Hampton Institute are included. (NEC)

  13. West Virginia U. Violated Procedures, Panel Says

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Administrators at West Virginia University violated procedures and displayed poor judgment in their "seriously flawed" response to an inquiry about a high-profile academic transcript, according to a report issued last week by an independent panel. The harshly worded report found that when the "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette" raised questions last October…

  14. Communication Network Design: West Ottawa School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couch, David deS.

    This report describes the technical details and rationale behind the decisions in the design and development of the communications network installed as part of a 1991-1993 district-wide construction project in the West Ottawa Public Schools (Michigan). The project called for development of a communications network to carry voice, data, and video…

  15. An Interdisciplinary Project and the American West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardsley, Donna A.

    This project began with a list of the kinds of topics that would be of most interest in a study of the old west. Some of the topics that were mentioned for the project included Lewis and Clark, Native American tribes and nations, early pioneers, the fur trade, Texas independence, the Pony Express, homesteaders, gunfighters, the Indian wars, and…

  16. Compensatory Education Policy and the Intermountain West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Michael J.; And Others

    Concerned with the impact of Title I, as national education policy on four mountain west states (Utah, Idaho, Wyoming, and Montana), this study concludes that Title I has not been internalized, integrated, or institutionalized in this region of the country or in any of the four individual states. The rejection of Title I policy rests on two basic…

  17. The West Virginia Health Education Assessment Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Nancy O'Hara; Kamal, Khalid M.; Chapman, Don

    2005-01-01

    Well-designed school health education should provide students with the knowledge and skills to prevent the health risk behaviors most responsible for the major causes of morbidity and mortality. This paper reports the methodology and findings of a West Virginia statewide health education assessment initiative and describes how the findings are…

  18. Vaccines in development against West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Brandler, Samantha; Tangy, Frederic

    2013-10-01

    West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine.

  19. WEST-3 wind turbine simulator development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. A.; Sridhar, S.

    1985-01-01

    The software developed for WEST-3, a new, all digital, and fully programmable wind turbine simulator is given. The process of wind turbine simulation on WEST-3 is described in detail. The major steps are, the processing of the mathematical models, the preparation of the constant data, and the use of system software generated executable code for running on WEST-3. The mechanics of reformulation, normalization, and scaling of the mathematical models is discussed in detail, in particulr, the significance of reformulation which leads to accurate simulations. Descriptions for the preprocessor computer programs which are used to prepare the constant data needed in the simulation are given. These programs, in addition to scaling and normalizing all the constants, relieve the user from having to generate a large number of constants used in the simulation. Also given are brief descriptions of the components of the WEST-3 system software: Translator, Assembler, Linker, and Loader. Also included are: details of the aeroelastic rotor analysis, which is the center of a wind turbine simulation model, analysis of the gimbal subsystem; and listings of the variables, constants, and equations used in the simulation.

  20. 27 CFR 9.172 - West Elks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1955 (photorevised 1978)); (2) Hotchkiss Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979)); (3) Paonia Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979); and (4) Bowie Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1978). (c) Boundaries. The West Elks viticultural area...

  1. West Florida shelf upwelling: Origins and pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisberg, Robert H.; Zheng, Lianyuan; Liu, Yonggang

    2016-08-01

    Often described as oligotrophic, the west Florida continental shelf supports abundant fisheries, experiences blooms of the harmful alga, Karenia brevis, and exhibits subsurface chlorophyll maxima evident in shipboard and glider surveys. Renewal of inorganic nutrients by the upwelling of deeper ocean water onto the shelf may account for this, but what are the origins and pathways by which such new water may broach the shelf break and advance toward the shoreline? We address these questions via numerical model simulations of pseudo-Lagrangian, isopycnic water parcel trajectories. Focus is on 2010, when the west Florida shelf was subjected to an anomalously protracted period of upwelling caused by Gulf of Mexico Loop Current interactions with the shelf slope. Origins and pathways are determined by integrating trajectories over successive 45 day intervals, beginning from different locations along the shelf break and at various locations and depths along the shelf slope. Waters upwelling across the shelf break are found to originate from relatively shallow depths along the shelf slope. Even for the anomalous 2010 year, much of this upwelling occurs from about 150 m and above, although waters may broach the shelf break from 300 m depth, particularly in the Florida Panhandle. Such interannual renewal of west Florida shelf waters appears to have profound effects on west Florida shelf ecology.

  2. Missing Chapters: West Virginia Women in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia Women's Commission, Charleston.

    Nine women whose lives have contributed to West Virginia history are profiled in these collected essays. These women have made significant contributions to history as: midwife, physician, journalist, photographer, educator, musician, civic activist, and social reformer. The stereotypical image of a powerless, barefooted, uneducated girl is proven…

  3. 40. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1973. SHOP, YPOLE, MR. WEST'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1973. SHOP, Y-POLE, MR. WEST'S HOUSE AND POLE SWELL - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  4. 4. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING WEST END OF CRANEWAY (CENTER), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING WEST END OF CRANEWAY (CENTER), WEST SIDE OF ASSEMBLY BUILDING (LEFT), AND WHARF (RIGHT). - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  5. 8. VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION OF WASTEGATE AND BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION OF WASTEGATE AND BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM FROM THE SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT - Woodville Canal Company, West side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Woodville, Bingham County, ID

  6. 15. LOOKING WEST TOWARD OLD FAITHFUL INN. THE INN'S NAMESAKE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. LOOKING WEST TOWARD OLD FAITHFUL INN. THE INN'S NAMESAKE, OLD FAITHFUL GEYSER IS AT LEFT. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  7. 1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 451. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 451. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Production Filling & Storage Building, 1050 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 980 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  8. VIEW OF BUILDING 234 (ARCADE), NORTH WING FROM THE WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 234 (ARCADE), NORTH WING FROM THE WEST END, FACING SOUTHEAST, LOOKING DOWN ARCADE AND ACROSS COURTYARD - Roosevelt Base, Arcade, West Virginia Street, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. Contextual view looking down clubhouse drive. Showing west elevation of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view looking down clubhouse drive. Showing west elevation of H1 on right; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Hospital Headquarters, Johnson Lane, west side at intersection of Johnson Lane & Cossey Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. 14. UPPER STATION, FRONT AND WEST FACADES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. UPPER STATION, FRONT AND WEST FACADES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 16. UPPER STATION, WEST FACADE, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST. Monongahela ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. UPPER STATION, WEST FACADE, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  12. 1. VIEW WEST SOUTHWEST, UPPER STATION. INCLINE PLANE TRACK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW WEST SOUTHWEST, UPPER STATION. INCLINE PLANE TRACK AND LOWER STATION. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  13. 17. UPPER STATION, FIRST FLOOR, WAITING ROOM, LOOKING WEST, NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. UPPER STATION, FIRST FLOOR, WAITING ROOM, LOOKING WEST, NORTHWEST. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  14. 17. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Incinerator control panel on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Incinerator control panel on the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  15. 16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the left. Metal catwalk in the middle. Incinerator control panel to the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  16. INTERIOR VIEW OF WEST BANK RAILROAD CONTROL TOWER SHOWING INTERLOCKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF WEST BANK RAILROAD CONTROL TOWER SHOWING INTERLOCKING SWITCHING LEVER CONTROL PANEL. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  17. West Lawn Site and Planting Plans Oklahoma City Civic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West Lawn Site and Planting Plans - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  18. 1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, FROM APPROXIMATELY 75 FEET SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, FROM APPROXIMATELY 75 FEET SOUTHWEST OF BUILDING, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Heating Plant, North of B Street & West of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  19. 2. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 365. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 365. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Explosives Blending Building, 2180 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 900 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  20. 21. View to westnorthwest west in electrical room, first floor, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View to west-northwest west in electrical room, first floor, showing AC-DC converters and control panel. - U.S. Navy Fleet Supply Base, Storehouse No. 1, 830 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  1. 4. VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BUILDING NO. 1 FACING WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BUILDING NO. 1 FACING WEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ordinance Operations Building, West Loch, First Street near Whiskey Wharves W1 & W2, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. 11. BUILDING 1: FIRST FLOOR (Center Section), WEST AND NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BUILDING 1: FIRST FLOOR (Center Section), WEST AND NORTH WALLS, SHOWING TWO TIERS OF COLUMNS WITH SECOND FLOOR REMOVED - Boston Beer Company, 225-249 West Second Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  3. Detail of windows at north portion of west elevation; camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of windows at north portion of west elevation; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  4. Interior view of typical room on second floor, west side; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of typical room on second floor, west side; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. Detail of entry and stairway at center of west elevation; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of entry and stairway at center of west elevation; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. Detail of balcony and windows on west elevation; camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of balcony and windows on west elevation; camera facing northeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. Detail of windows at center of west elevation; camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of windows at center of west elevation; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. Elevation of information window on west wall of south lobby ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation of information window on west wall of south lobby - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Main Mental Health Building, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 3. VIEW WEST OF HEADRACE UNDER WAREHOUSE; SLUICE GATES AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW WEST OF HEADRACE UNDER WAREHOUSE; SLUICE GATES AT LEFT CENTER - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 1, Immediately West of South Main Street, North Bank of Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  10. 2. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES WITH SCALE STICK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES WITH SCALE STICK, SHOWING BOILER HOUSE IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Heavy Rail Scales Office, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  11. 18. WEST PART OF SOUTH SIDE OF SOUTH WING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. WEST PART OF SOUTH SIDE OF SOUTH WING AND PART OF REAR OF FRONT (WEST) PORTION OF BUILDING, LOOKING NORTHWEST (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

  12. 1. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 1703. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 1703. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ammunition Demolition Building, 3250 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 1750 feet West of E Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. 3. VIEW EAST, DETAIL WEST FRONT OF HYDROELECTRIC POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW EAST, DETAIL WEST FRONT OF HYDROELECTRIC POWERHOUSE - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Powerhouse, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  14. 1. WEST FRONT OF HYDROELECTRIC POWERHOUSE WITH INTAKE STRUCTURE, CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST FRONT OF HYDROELECTRIC POWERHOUSE WITH INTAKE STRUCTURE, CANAL SPILLWAY AT LEFT CENTER, VIEW EAST - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Powerhouse, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  15. 3. VIEW SOUTHEAST, WEST END OF DAM AT LEFT CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW SOUTHEAST, WEST END OF DAM AT LEFT CENTER, HEADGATE STRUCTURE AT CENTER - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Dam, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  16. 2. VIEW EAST, WEST END OF DAM AT CENTER, HEADGATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST, WEST END OF DAM AT CENTER, HEADGATE OPERATING MECHANISMS AT LEFT - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Dam, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  17. 16. VIEW OF THE HOUSE INTERIOR, WEST AND NORTH WALLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF THE HOUSE INTERIOR, WEST AND NORTH WALLS OF THE BASEMENT SHOWING FOUNDATION MATERIALS; LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Richard M. Fairbourn Farm, 170 West, 11,400 South, South Jordan, Salt Lake County, UT

  18. House, east side, looking west (bunkhouse in background left) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    House, east side, looking west (bunkhouse in background left) - John Moulton Homestead, House, Approximately 70 feet west of Mormon Row Road, and 300 feet north of Antelope Flats Road, Kelly, Teton County, WY

  19. 1. General view to west, showing context in berth, at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view to west, showing context in berth, at high tide. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  20. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF GARAGE AREA FROM WEST; STEPS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF GARAGE AREA FROM WEST; STEPS TO WEST FRONT ENTRANCE VISABLE TO THE RIGHT - Isaac N. Hagan House, Kentuck Knob, U.S. Route 40 vicinity (Stewart Township), Chalkhill, Fayette County, PA

  1. 1. West side of bridge. Overall contextual view (looking) eastsoutheast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. West side of bridge. Overall contextual view (looking) east-southeast or upstream. (Deer Creek flows east to west). 90mm lens. - Gault Bridge, Spanning Deer Creek at South Pine Street, Nevada City, Nevada County, CA

  2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGPORT ROAD AND DON DRENNEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGPORT ROAD AND DON DRENNEN OVERPASS IN FOREGROUND, TCI-US STEEL ENSLEY WORKS OPEN HEARTH (RUINS) IN THE BACKGROUND. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, Ensley Works, West of residential & commercial districts, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  3. 17. DETAIL OF FRAGMENTS FROM WEST GATE (off site) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF FRAGMENTS FROM WEST GATE (off site) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  4. South Fork Latrine showing north and west sides, general view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine showing north and west sides, general view to southeast - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  5. Battery Weymouth Combined Observation Station ruin, collapsed; view to west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Battery Weymouth Combined Observation Station ruin, collapsed; view to west - Fort McKinley, Battery Weymouth Combined Observation Station, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 125 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  6. 2. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR UNDER CONSTRUCTION LOOKING WEST WITH EAST DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR UNDER CONSTRUCTION LOOKING WEST WITH EAST DAM IN MIDDLE GROUND, WEST DAM IN DISTANCE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  7. 7. INTERIOR VIEW, PATTERN MAKING WORK BENCH AREA WEST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW, PATTERN MAKING WORK BENCH AREA WEST WALL LOOKING WEST LATHE ON LEFT DELTA BAND SAW LEFT, DELTA 6' JOINTS AND DELTA TABLE SAW ON RIGHT. - Knight Foundry, 13 Eureka Street, Sutter Creek, Amador County, CA

  8. 1. GENERAL VIEW TOWARD NORTHEAST, WEST AND SOUTH FACADES East ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW TOWARD NORTHEAST, WEST AND SOUTH FACADES East facade immediately adjoined by steep hill. North facade obscured by conifers. - U.S. Military Academy, Ice House, Mills Road at Howze Place, West Point, Orange County, NY

  9. 7. DETAIL OF OPEN DOOR, WEST FACADE, SECOND BAY Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF OPEN DOOR, WEST FACADE, SECOND BAY Showing door construction and cladding. Head and side jambs splayed. - U.S. Military Academy, Ice House, Mills Road at Howze Place, West Point, Orange County, NY

  10. 2. VIEW TOWARD EAST, WEST FACADE Subsequent views identified by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW TOWARD EAST, WEST FACADE Subsequent views identified by bay. Four bays numbered sequentially one to four from north. - U.S. Military Academy, Ice House, Mills Road at Howze Place, West Point, Orange County, NY

  11. Contextual view of building 505 showing west elevation from marsh; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 505 showing west elevation from marsh; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  12. Detail of main entry on east elevation; camera facing west. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of main entry on east elevation; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. 3. Perspective view of west entrance to Gas House. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Perspective view of west entrance to Gas House. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Gas House, 100 block of South Washington Avenue, west side, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  14. 11. General layout of Erie tracks and roundhouse west of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. General layout of Erie tracks and roundhouse west of old Bergen Tunnel, looking west from Tonnel Avenue bridge, taken June 14, 1906 - Erie Railway, Bergen Hill Open Cut, Palisade Avenue to Tonnele Avenue, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  15. 1. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 346. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 346. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Storage Warehouse for Incendiary Clusters, 1659 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 2060 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  16. View of West end of central lift span truss web ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of West end of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River Bridge, showing web brace of lift girder superstructure, looking west - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  17. 340. Caltrans, Photographer October 14, 1935 "TUNNEL WEST PORTAL"; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    340. Caltrans, Photographer October 14, 1935 "TUNNEL - WEST PORTAL"; VIEW OF TUNNEL - WEST PORTAL' UNDER CONSTRUCTION SHOWING EXCAVATION OF TUNNEL AFTER POUR. 5-1669 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. VIEW OF THE WEST SIDE OF BUILDING 63, FACING EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE WEST SIDE OF BUILDING 63, FACING EAST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Station, Enlisted Men's Barracks, West corner of Central Street & Midway Drive, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  19. VIEW OF THE SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 63, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 63, FACING NORTHEAST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Station, Enlisted Men's Barracks, West corner of Central Street & Midway Drive, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  20. View of east elevation along California Avenue; camera facing west. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of east elevation along California Avenue; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Rubber Shop, California Avenue, west side across from Dry Dock 1 near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. 1. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND WING WALL, FROM BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND WING WALL, FROM BRIDGE TO THE WEST, FACING EAST. - Cut Stone Bridge, Southern Pacific Railroad line spanning runoff channel at South Spruce Avenue, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, CA

  2. VIEW OF BRIDGE CANTILEVER THROUGH TRUSS CANTILEVER PORTAL ON WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BRIDGE CANTILEVER THROUGH TRUSS CANTILEVER PORTAL ON WEST BANK SIDE LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  3. VIEW OF BRIDGE CANTILEVER THROUGH TRUSS CANTILEVER SECTION, LOOKING WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BRIDGE CANTILEVER THROUGH TRUSS CANTILEVER SECTION, LOOKING WEST. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  4. Front (west side) and south side of building Fitzsimons ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front (west side) and south side of building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Golf Course Waiting Shelter, Southwest area of Golf Course, 700 feet Northeast of intersection of West Harlow Avenue & Peoria Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  5. 76 FR 16603 - Hiawatha West Resource Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Hiawatha West Resource Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Hiawatha West Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Rapid...

  6. 2. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 422. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 422. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Administration-Laboratory- Change House-Bomb Rail, 420 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 530 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  7. 127. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    127. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM 6156, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR, WEST WALL - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. 6. VIEW NORTHEAST, WEST END OF DAM DURING CONSTRUCTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW NORTHEAST, WEST END OF DAM DURING CONSTRUCTION OF FISHWAY, DECEMBER 1995, SHOWING REMOVAL OF PLANKING - Norwich Water Power Company, Dam, West bank of Shetucket River opposite Fourteenth Street, Greenville section, Norwich, New London County, CT

  9. General view looking west from eastern edge of complex. Kilns ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking west from eastern edge of complex. Kilns have been demolished but kiln stacks still stand. - Harbison-Walker Refractories Company, West end of Shirley Street, Mount Union, Huntingdon County, PA

  10. View of headframe, looking west from Powell Memorial Orphan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of headframe, looking west from Powell Memorial - Orphan Lode Mine, Headframe, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  11. 2. View facing north of west and south elevations of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View facing north of west and south elevations of Dixie Cotton Mill. The brick structure that forms the west elevation was added in 1913. - Dixie Cotton Mill, 710 Greenville Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  12. 1. TIP TOP MINE. WEST SIDE OF STRUCTURE. CAMERA POINTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TIP TOP MINE. WEST SIDE OF STRUCTURE. CAMERA POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  13. 1. View looking northwest, showing Saybrook west breakwater and Lynde ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View looking northwest, showing Saybrook west breakwater and Lynde Point Lighthouse in the right background - Saybrook Breakwater Light, South tip of west end of Saybrook Breakwater, Old Saybrook, Middlesex County, CT

  14. Perspective, environmental view looking from the intersection of West Lanvale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective, environmental view looking from the intersection of West Lanvale Street and North Carrollton Avenue - Reformed Episcopal Church of the Rock of Ages, 1210 West Lanvale Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  15. 1. Building 9 west elevation along Crawford Street. Adjoining Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Building 9 west elevation along Crawford Street. Adjoining Building 10 on right. View looking SEE. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 9, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 3. Building 7 north elevation (west end), showing loading area. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Building 7 north elevation (west end), showing loading area. View looking south. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 7, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING 23 FROM WEST EDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING 23 FROM WEST EDGE OF PARKING LOT, FACING SOUTHEAST - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 5. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 243. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 243. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  19. 4. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 242. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 242. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  20. 6. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 243. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 243. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  1. 3. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 242 (RIGHT) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 242 (RIGHT) AND 243 (LEFT). VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  2. 19. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE NORTH OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE NORTH OFFICE SPACE AT THE WEST END OF ROOM 101. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Disassembly Building, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  3. 20. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE SOUTH OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE SOUTH OFFICE SPACE AT THE WEST END OF ROOM 101. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Disassembly Building, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  4. 21. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF EQUIPMENT ABOVE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF EQUIPMENT ABOVE THE OFFICE SPACE AT THE WEST END OF ROOM 101. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Disassembly Building, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  5. Exterior view to the southeast of the west camera bunker ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view to the southeast of the west camera bunker outside the fenced facility area - Nevada Test Site, Test Cell C Facility, West Camera Bunker, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Road J, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  6. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3940 West Nile... detection aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of viral meningitis/encephalitis caused by West...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3940 West Nile... detection aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of viral meningitis/encephalitis caused by West...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3940 West Nile... detection aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of viral meningitis/encephalitis caused by West...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3940 West Nile... detection aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of viral meningitis/encephalitis caused by West...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3940 West Nile... detection aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of viral meningitis/encephalitis caused by West...

  11. 12. Relationship of est tool shed, west tool shed, residence, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Relationship of est tool shed, west tool shed, residence, claim house, and chicken house to each other and immediate surroundings, looking southeast - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  12. 4. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES OF BOILER HOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES OF BOILER HOUSE, WITH COAL HOPPERS AT W EST, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Boiler House No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  13. Detail of arched window by main entry on west elevation; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of arched window by main entry on west elevation; showing Stone Foundation; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  14. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey February, 1953 LOOKING WEST AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey February, 1953 LOOKING WEST AT FOUNDATION WHICH IS CONTIGUOUS TO WEST WALL OF THE JONATHAN HAGER HOUSE - Jonathan Hager House (Foundation), Hagerstown, Washington County, MD

  15. 18. West room, second floor. View looking southeast. Center hall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. West room, second floor. View looking southeast. Center hall visible through doorway. - Fort Hill Farm, Mansion, West of Staunton (Roanoke) River between Turkey & Caesar's Runs, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  16. 11. West room, first floor. View looking east. Front porch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. West room, first floor. View looking east. Front porch visible through window. - Fort Hill Farm, Mansion, West of Staunton (Roanoke) River between Turkey & Caesar's Runs, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  17. VIEW OF POST OFFICE FROM THE INTERSECTION OF WEST MAXWELL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF POST OFFICE FROM THE INTERSECTION OF WEST MAXWELL BOULEVARD AND SOUTH MITCHELL STREET FACING SOUTHWEST. - Maxwell Air Force Base, Post Office, 61 West Maxwell Boulevard, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

  18. VIEW OF POST OFFICE FROM THE INTERSECTION OF WEST MAXWELL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF POST OFFICE FROM THE INTERSECTION OF WEST MAXWELL BOULEVARD AND SOUTH LEMAY PLAZA FACING SOUTHEAST. - Maxwell Air Force Base, Post Office, 61 West Maxwell Boulevard, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

  19. 253. 441 SOUTH NINETEENTH STREET, WEST FRONT AND SOUTH SIDE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    253. 441 SOUTH NINETEENTH STREET, WEST FRONT AND SOUTH SIDE, AND 1829, SOUTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, TOWARD NORTHEAST - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  20. VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2 AND CARPENTRY SHOP, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2 AND CARPENTRY SHOP, LOOKING WEST - Chambers Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA