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Sample records for carbonic anhydrase cah3

  1. Crystal structure and functional characterization of photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase CAH3 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Benlloch, Reyes; Shevela, Dmitriy; Hainzl, Tobias; Grundström, Christin; Shutova, Tatyana; Messinger, Johannes; Samuelsson, Göran; Sauer-Eriksson, A Elisabeth

    2015-03-01

    In oxygenic photosynthesis, light energy is stored in the form of chemical energy by converting CO2 and water into carbohydrates. The light-driven oxidation of water that provides the electrons and protons for the subsequent CO2 fixation takes place in photosystem II (PSII). Recent studies show that in higher plants, HCO3 (-) increases PSII activity by acting as a mobile acceptor of the protons produced by PSII. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a luminal carbonic anhydrase, CrCAH3, was suggested to improve proton removal from PSII, possibly by rapid reformation of HCO3 (-) from CO2. In this study, we investigated the interplay between PSII and CrCAH3 by membrane inlet mass spectrometry and x-ray crystallography. Membrane inlet mass spectrometry measurements showed that CrCAH3 was most active at the slightly acidic pH values prevalent in the thylakoid lumen under illumination. Two crystal structures of CrCAH3 in complex with either acetazolamide or phosphate ions were determined at 2.6- and 2.7-Å resolution, respectively. CrCAH3 is a dimer at pH 4.1 that is stabilized by swapping of the N-terminal arms, a feature not previously observed in α-type carbonic anhydrases. The structure contains a disulfide bond, and redox titration of CrCAH3 function with dithiothreitol suggested a possible redox regulation of the enzyme. The stimulating effect of CrCAH3 and CO2/HCO3 (-) on PSII activity was demonstrated by comparing the flash-induced oxygen evolution pattern of wild-type and CrCAH3-less PSII preparations. We showed that CrCAH3 has unique structural features that allow this enzyme to maximize PSII activity at low pH and CO2 concentration.

  2. Plant Carbonic Anhydrases

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, C. A.; Patterson, B. D.; Graham, D.

    1972-01-01

    On the basis of polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis of leaf extracts from 24 species of higher plants, two main forms of carbonic anhydrase (EC 4.2.1.1) were recognized; the “dicotyledon” type and the “monocotyledon” type. More than one band of enzyme was found on gels from most species, suggesting the possibility of carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes in higher plants. Images PMID:16658144

  3. Genetics Home Reference: carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... people with carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency have excess ammonia in the blood (hyperammonemia), problems with acid-base ... anhydrases VA and VB implicates both enzymes in ammonia detoxification and glucose metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci ...

  4. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors drug design.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Robert; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) has pharmacologic applications in the field of antiglaucoma, anticonvulsant, antiobesity, and anticancer agents but is also emerging for designing anti-infectives (antifungal and antibacterial agents) with a novel mechanism of action. As a consequence, the drug design of CA inhibitors (CAIs) is a very dynamic field. Sulfonamides and their isosteres (sulfamates/sulfamides) constitute the main class of CAIs which bind to the metal ion in the enzyme active site. Recently the dithiocarbamates, possessing a similar mechanism of action, were reported as a new class of inhibitors. Other families of CAIs possess a distinct mechanism of action: phenols, polyamines, some carboxylates, and sulfocoumarins anchor to the zinc-coordinated water molecule. Coumarins and five/six-membered lactones are prodrug inhibitors, binding in hydrolyzed form at the entrance of the active site cavity. Novel drug design strategies have been reported principally based on the tail approach for obtaining all these types of CAIs, which exploit more external binding regions within the enzyme active site (in addition to coordination to the metal ion), leading thus to isoform-selective compounds. Sugar-based tails as well as click chemistry were the most fruitful developments of the tail approach. Promising compounds that inhibit CAs from bacterial and fungal pathogens, of the dithiocarbamate, phenol and carboxylate types have also been reported.

  5. Thermostable Carbonic Anhydrases in Biotechnological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Di Fiore, Anna; Alterio, Vincenzo; Monti, Simona M.; De Simone, Giuseppina; D’Ambrosio, Katia

    2015-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases are ubiquitous metallo-enzymes which catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide in bicarbonate ions and protons. Recent years have seen an increasing interest in the utilization of these enzymes in CO2 capture and storage processes. However, since this use is greatly limited by the harsh conditions required in these processes, the employment of thermostable enzymes, both those isolated by thermophilic organisms and those obtained by protein engineering techniques, represents an interesting possibility. In this review we will provide an extensive description of the thermostable carbonic anhydrases so far reported and the main processes in which these enzymes have found an application. PMID:26184158

  6. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOEpatents

    Novick, Scott J; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-10-29

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  7. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOEpatents

    Novick, Scott; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-01-15

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  8. Coral Carbonic Anhydrases: Regulation by Ocean Acidification.

    PubMed

    Zoccola, Didier; Innocenti, Alessio; Bertucci, Anthony; Tambutté, Eric; Supuran, Claudiu T; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2016-06-03

    Global change is a major threat to the oceans, as it implies temperature increase and acidification. Ocean acidification (OA) involving decreasing pH and changes in seawater carbonate chemistry challenges the capacity of corals to form their skeletons. Despite the large number of studies that have investigated how rates of calcification respond to ocean acidification scenarios, comparatively few studies tackle how ocean acidification impacts the physiological mechanisms that drive calcification itself. The aim of our paper was to determine how the carbonic anhydrases, which play a major role in calcification, are potentially regulated by ocean acidification. For this we measured the effect of pH on enzyme activity of two carbonic anhydrase isoforms that have been previously characterized in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. In addition we looked at gene expression of these enzymes in vivo. For both isoforms, our results show (1) a change in gene expression under OA (2) an effect of OA and temperature on carbonic anhydrase activity. We suggest that temperature increase could counterbalance the effect of OA on enzyme activity. Finally we point out that caution must, thus, be taken when interpreting transcriptomic data on carbonic anhydrases in ocean acidification and temperature stress experiments, as the effect of these stressors on the physiological function of CA will depend both on gene expression and enzyme activity.

  9. Physiological functions of the alpha class of carbonic anhydrases.

    PubMed

    Frost, Susan C

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. These enzymes are of ancient origin as they are found in the deepest of branches of the evolutionary tree. Of the five different classes of carbonic anhydrases, the alpha class has perhaps received the most attention because of its role in human pathology. This review focuses on the physiological function of this class of carbonic anhydrases organized by their cellular location.

  10. Non-Classical Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrase

    PubMed Central

    Lomelino, Carrie L.; Supuran, Claudiu T.; McKenna, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Specific isoforms from the carbonic anhydrase (CA) family of zinc metalloenzymes have been associated with a variety of diseases. Isoform-specific carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) are therefore a major focus of attention for specific disease treatments. Classical CAIs, primarily sulfonamide-based compounds and their bioisosteres, are examined as antiglaucoma, antiepileptic, antiobesity, antineuropathic pain and anticancer compounds. However, many sulfonamide compounds inhibit all CA isoforms nonspecifically, diluting drug effectiveness and causing undesired side effects due to off-target inhibition. In addition, a small but significant percentage of the general population cannot be treated with sulfonamide-based compounds due to a sulfa allergy. Therefore, CAIs must be developed that are not only isoform specific, but also non-classical, i.e. not based on sulfonamides, sulfamates, or sulfamides. This review covers the classes of non-classical CAIs and the recent advances in the development of isoform-specific inhibitors based on phenols, polyamines, coumarins and their derivatives. PMID:27438828

  11. Overview of the carbonic anhydrase family.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Robert; Frost, Susan C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this collection of chapters is to provide a glimpse of where the carbonic anhydrase (CA) field is. This book is by no means fully inclusive, as only a few of the lead researchers around the world contributed; it serves only to show that the CA field is still pushing the boundaries of research as it has done since its discovery, and will do for a long time to come.

  12. 21 CFR 866.5200 - Carbonic anhydrase B and C immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques specific carbonic anhydrase protein molecules in serum and other body fluids. Measurements of carbonic anhydrase B and C aid in the diagnosis of abnormal hemoglobin metabolism....

  13. 21 CFR 866.5200 - Carbonic anhydrase B and C immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques specific carbonic anhydrase protein molecules in serum and other body fluids. Measurements of carbonic anhydrase B and C aid in the diagnosis of abnormal hemoglobin metabolism....

  14. Radioimmunoassay of carbonic anhydrase III in rat tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Shiels, A; Jeffery, S; Wilson, C; Carter, N

    1984-01-01

    A specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay for the rat carbonic anhydrase III isoenzyme was developed. High concentrations of carbonic anhydrase III were detected in soleus muscle and male liver. Female liver and other skeletal muscles contained significantly lower concentrations, and only trace amounts were found in heart, prostate, kidney, brain, plasma, urine and, possibly, erythrocytes. PMID:6424658

  15. Paralysis Episodes in Carbonic Anhydrase II Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Al-Ibrahim, Alia; Al-Harbi, Mosa; Al-Musallam, Sulaiman

    2003-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder manifest by osteopetrosis, renal tubular acidosis, and cerebral calcification. Other features include growth failure and mental retardation. Complications of the osteopetrosis include frequent bone fractures, cranial nerve compression, and dental mal-occlusion. A hyper-chloremic metabolic acidosis, sometimes with hypokalemia, occurs due to renal tubular acidosis that may be proximal, distal, or more commonly, the combined type. Such patients may present with global hypotonia, muscle weakness or paralysis. We report a case of CA II deficiency with recurrent attacks of acute paralysis which was misdiagnosed initially as Guillian-Barre syndrome.

  16. Characterization of Carbonic Anhydrase 9 in the Alimentary Canal of Aedes aegypti and Its Relationship to Homologous Mosquito Carbonic Anhydrases

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Daniel P.; Van Ekeris, Leslie; Linser, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    In the mosquito midgut, luminal pH regulation and cellular ion transport processes are important for the digestion of food and maintenance of cellular homeostasis. pH regulation in the mosquito gut is affected by the vectorial movement of the principal ions including bicarbonate/carbonate and protons. As in all metazoans, mosquitoes employ the product of aerobic metabolism carbon dioxide in its bicarbonate/carbonate form as one of the major buffers of cellular and extracellular pH. The conversion of metabolic carbon dioxide to bicarbonate/carbonate is accomplished by a family of enzymes encoded by the carbonic anhydrase gene family. This study characterizes Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrases using bioinformatic, molecular, and immunohistochemical methods. Our analyses show that there are fourteen Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrase genes, two of which are expressed as splice variants. The carbonic anhydrases were classified as either integral membrane, peripheral membrane, mitochondrial, secreted, or soluble cytoplasmic proteins. Using polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, one of the carbonic anhydrases, Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrase 9, was analyzed and found in each life stage, male/female pupae, male/female adults, and in the female posterior midgut. Next, carbonic anhydrase 9 was analyzed in larvae and adults using confocal microscopy and was detected in the midgut regions. According to our analyses, carbonic anhydrase 9 is a soluble cytoplasmic enzyme found in the alimentary canal of larvae and adults and is expressed throughout the life cycle of the mosquito. Based on previous physiological analyses of adults and larvae, it appears AeCA9 is one of the major carbonic anhydrases involved in producing bicarbonate/carbonate which is involved in pH regulation and ion transport processes in the alimentary canal. Detailed understanding of the molecular bases of ion homeostasis in mosquitoes will provide targets for novel mosquito control strategies into the

  17. Characterization of Carbonic Anhydrase 9 in the Alimentary Canal of Aedes aegypti and Its Relationship to Homologous Mosquito Carbonic Anhydrases.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Daniel P; Van Ekeris, Leslie; Linser, Paul J

    2017-02-21

    In the mosquito midgut, luminal pH regulation and cellular ion transport processes are important for the digestion of food and maintenance of cellular homeostasis. pH regulation in the mosquito gut is affected by the vectorial movement of the principal ions including bicarbonate/carbonate and protons. As in all metazoans, mosquitoes employ the product of aerobic metabolism carbon dioxide in its bicarbonate/carbonate form as one of the major buffers of cellular and extracellular pH. The conversion of metabolic carbon dioxide to bicarbonate/carbonate is accomplished by a family of enzymes encoded by the carbonic anhydrase gene family. This study characterizes Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrases using bioinformatic, molecular, and immunohistochemical methods. Our analyses show that there are fourteen Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrase genes, two of which are expressed as splice variants. The carbonic anhydrases were classified as either integral membrane, peripheral membrane, mitochondrial, secreted, or soluble cytoplasmic proteins. Using polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, one of the carbonic anhydrases, Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrase 9, was analyzed and found in each life stage, male/female pupae, male/female adults, and in the female posterior midgut. Next, carbonic anhydrase 9 was analyzed in larvae and adults using confocal microscopy and was detected in the midgut regions. According to our analyses, carbonic anhydrase 9 is a soluble cytoplasmic enzyme found in the alimentary canal of larvae and adults and is expressed throughout the life cycle of the mosquito. Based on previous physiological analyses of adults and larvae, it appears AeCA9 is one of the major carbonic anhydrases involved in producing bicarbonate/carbonate which is involved in pH regulation and ion transport processes in the alimentary canal. Detailed understanding of the molecular bases of ion homeostasis in mosquitoes will provide targets for novel mosquito control strategies into the

  18. Carbonic anhydrase expression in kidney and renal cancer: implications for diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Oosterwijk, Egbert

    2014-01-01

    Four different carbonic anhydrases are expressed in the human nephron, the functional unit of the kidney. These are specifically expressed in different nephron segments, emphasizing the critical role carbonic anhydrases play in maintaining the homeostasis of this crucial organ.Whereas the localization of carbonic anhydrases in the kidney has been long established, interest in carbonic anhydrases has increased dramatically for renal cancer, in particular for the clear cell variant of renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) because carbonic anhydrase IX is specifically expressed in ccRCC. Therefore carbonic anhydrase IX is being studied as potential diagnostic and therapeutic target, despite carbonic anhydrase IX expression in non-renal tissues.

  19. Polyamines and α-Carbonic Anhydrases.

    PubMed

    Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T; Carta, Fabrizio

    2016-12-15

    Natural products represent a straightforward source for molecular structures bearing a vast array of chemical features and potentially useful for biomedical purposes. Recent examples of this type include the discovery of the coumarins and the polyamine natural products as atypical chemotypes for the inhibition of the metalloenzymes carbonic anhydrases (CAs; EC 4.2.2.1). CA enzymes are established pharmacological targets for important pathologies, which, among others, include glaucoma, hypoxic tumors, and central nervous system (CNS)-affecting diseases. Moreover, they are expressed in many bacteria, fungi and helminths which are the etiological agents of the majority of infectious diseases. In this context, natural products represent the ideal source of new and selective druggable CA modulators for biomedical purposes. Herein we report the state of the art on polyamines of natural origin as well as of synthetic derivatives as inhibitors of human CAs.

  20. Carbonic Anhydrase Catalysis: An Experiment on Enzyme Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spyridis, Greg T.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate enzyme kinetics experiment which uses bovine erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase, a very stable enzyme commercially available in lyophilized form. Includes background information, reactions involved, procedures used, and the calculation of typical results obtained. (JN)

  1. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, D E; Venta, P J; Tashian, R E; Sly, W S

    1992-01-01

    Deficiency of carbonic anhydrase II (carbonate hydro-lyase, EC 4.2.1.1) is the primary defect in the syndrome of osteopetrosis, renal tubular acidosis, and cerebral calcification. In this report we describe the molecular basis for carbonic anhydrase II deficiency in the American family in which the association of carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with this syndrome was first recognized. The three affected siblings from this family are compound heterozygotes, each having inherited two different mutations in the structural gene for carbonic anhydrase II. The paternal mutation is a splice acceptor site mutation at the 3' end of intron 5. The maternal mutation is a missense mutation in exon 3 that substitutes a tyrosine for histidine-107. We show that the mutant enzyme expressed in bacteria from the cDNA containing the His-107----Tyr mutation has detectable, though greatly reduced, activity. We suggest that residual activity of the His-107----Tyr mutant enzyme may explain the absence of mental retardation and the relatively mild phenotype of carbonic anhydrase II deficiency in affected members of this family. Images PMID:1542674

  2. Multimeric xanthates as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Abellán-Flos, Marta; Tanç, Muhammet; Supuran, Claudiu T; Vincent, Stéphane P

    2016-12-01

    The field of multivalent inhibition of enzymes is growing exponentially from the first reported multivalent effect on a glycosidase enzyme. However, the investigations have generally remained restricted to carbohydrate-processing enzymes. Carbonic anhydrases are ubiquitous metallo-enzymes involved in many key biological processes, that catalyze the reversible hydration/dehydration of [Formula: see text]. This study reports the first synthesis of multimeric xanthates addressing the selectivity and potency of CA multivalent inhibition. Six multivalent compounds containing three, four, and six xanthate moieties were prepared and assayed against four relevant CA isoforms together with their monovalent analogues. Some of the multimers were stronger inhibitors than the monomeric species. For hCA I, the two best molecules 18 and 20 showed an improvement of the ligand affinity of 4.8 and 2.3 per xanthate units (valence-corrected values), respectively, which corresponds to a clear multivalent effect. Moreover, the biochemical assays demonstrated that the multimeric presentation of xanthates, also affected the selectivity of the relative inhibition among the four CAs assayed.

  3. Evaluation of a carbonic anhydrase mimic for industrial carbon capture.

    PubMed

    Floyd, William C; Baker, Sarah E; Valdez, Carlos A; Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Bearinger, Jane P; Satcher, Joe H; Aines, Roger D

    2013-09-03

    Zinc(II) cyclen, a small molecule mimic of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, was evaluated under rigorous conditions resembling those in an industrial carbon capture process: high pH (>12), nearly saturated salt concentrations (45% K2CO3) and elevated temperatures (100-130 °C). We found that the catalytic activity of zinc cyclen increased with increasing temperature and pH and was retained after exposure to a 45% w/w K2CO3 solution at 130 °C for 6 days. However, high bicarbonate concentrations markedly reduced the activity of the catalyst. Our results establish a benchmark level of stability and provide qualitative insights for the design of improved small-molecule carbon capture catalysts.

  4. Enzymes for carbon sequestration: neutron crystallographic studies of carbonic anhydrase

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S. Z. Kovalevsky, A. Y.; Domsic, J.; Mustyakimov, M.; Silverman, D. N.; McKenna, R.; Langan, P.

    2010-11-01

    The first neutron crystal structure of carbonic anhydrase is presented. The structure reveals interesting and unexpected features of the active site that affect catalysis. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a ubiquitous metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO{sub 2} to form HCO{sub 3}{sup −} and H{sup +} using a Zn–hydroxide mechanism. The first part of catalysis involves CO{sub 2} hydration, while the second part deals with removing the excess proton that is formed during the first step. Proton transfer (PT) is thought to occur through a well ordered hydrogen-bonded network of waters that stretches from the metal center of CA to an internal proton shuttle, His64. These waters are oriented and ordered through a series of hydrogen-bonding interactions to hydrophilic residues that line the active site of CA. Neutron studies were conducted on wild-type human CA isoform II (HCA II) in order to better understand the nature and the orientation of the Zn-bound solvent (ZS), the charged state and conformation of His64, the hydrogen-bonding patterns and orientations of the water molecules that mediate PT and the ionization of hydrophilic residues in the active site that interact with the water network. Several interesting and unexpected features in the active site were observed which have implications for how PT proceeds in CA.

  5. Fluorescence Analysis of Sulfonamide Binding to Carbonic Anhydrase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Sheila C.; Zamble, Deborah B.

    2006-01-01

    A practical laboratory experiment is described that illustrates the application of fluorescence resonance energy transfer to the study of protein-ligand binding. The affinities of wild-type and mutant human carbonic anhydrase II for dansylamide were determined by monitoring the increase in ligand fluorescence that occurs due to energy transfer…

  6. The role of carbonic anhydrase in hepatic glucose production.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ibrahim Salihu

    2016-12-14

    Considerable efforts are being made daily to discover novel therapeutic targets to better understand the mechanism for designing drugs in treating diabetes. Inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis by metformin remains the first line of oral therapy for managing type 2 diabetes. The link between rise in blood lactate level and reduction of hepatic glucose production with metformin usage remains to be determined. Carbonic anhydrase is proposed to be the link connecting blood lactate accumulation and inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis and thus could serve as a new therapeutic target for reducing hepatic glucose production. Understanding the link between rise in blood lactate level and the role of carbonic anhydrase in lactate uptake will be essential towards the development of a promising new antidiabetic medication.

  7. Mitochondrial proteomic profiling reveals increased carbonic anhydrase II in aging and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Amelia; Shephard, Freya; Freed, James; Liddell, Susan; Chakrabarti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are used to treat glaucoma and cancers. Carbonic anhydrases perform a crucial role in the conversion of carbon dioxide and water into bicarbonate and protons. However, there is little information about carbonic anhydrase isoforms during the process of ageing. Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicit in ageing brain and muscle. We have interrogated isolated mitochondrial fractions from young adult and middle aged mouse brain and skeletal muscle. We find an increase of tissue specific carbonic anhydrases in mitochondria from middle-aged brain and skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase II was measured in the Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd5J) mouse model. In pcd5J we find mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase II is also elevated in brain from young adults undergoing a process of neurodegeneration. We show C.elegans exposed to carbonic anhydrase II have a dose related shorter lifespan suggesting that high CAII levels are in themselves life limiting. We show for the first time that the mitochondrial content of brain and skeletal tissue are exposed to significantly higher levels of active carbonic anhydrases as early as in middle-age. Carbonic anhydrases associated with mitochondria could be targeted to specifically modulate age related impairments and disease. PMID:27743511

  8. Electropolymerized carbonic anhydrase immobilization for carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Merle, Geraldine; Fradette, Sylvie; Madore, Eric; Barralet, Jake E

    2014-06-17

    Biomimetic carbonation carried out with carbonic anhydrase (CA) in CO2-absorbing solutions, such as methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), is one approach that has been developed to accelerate the capture of CO2. However, there are several practical issues, such as high cost and limited enzyme stability, that need to be overcome. In this study, the capacity of CA immobilization on a porous solid support was studied to improve the instability in the tertiary amine solvent. We have shown that a 63% porosity macroporous carbon foam support makes separation and reuse facile and allows for an efficient supply and presentation of CO2 to an aqueous solvent and the enzyme catalytic center. These enzymatic supports conserved 40% of their initial activity after 42 days at 70 °C in an amine solvent, whereas the free enzyme shows no activity after 1 h in the same conditions. In this work, we have overcome the technical barrier associated with the recovery of the biocatalyst after operation, and most of all, these electropolymerized enzymatic supports have shown a remarkable increase of thermal stability in an amine-based CO2 sequestration solvent.

  9. CO2 Removal using a Synthetic Analogue of Carbonic Anhydrase

    SciTech Connect

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-09-14

    Project attempts to develop a synthetic analogue for carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it in a membrane for separation of CO2 from coal power plant flue gas. Conference poster presents result of first 9 months of project progress including concept, basic system architecture and membrane properties target, results of molecular modeling for analogue - CO2 interaction, and next steps of testing analogue resistance to flue gas contaminants.

  10. Carbonic anhydrase isozymes IV and II in urinary membranes from carbonic anhydrase II-deficient patients.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, S; Zhu, X L; Sly, W S

    1990-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) deficiency has been shown to be the primary defect in the recessively inherited syndrome of osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis. Until now, the absence of CA II in kidney of CA II-deficient patients has not been shown directly, and the status of the membrane-associated CA in kidney of CA II-deficient patients has been unclear. To address these questions, we analyzed urinary membranes and soluble fractions from normal and CA II-deficient subjects. The CA activity in membrane fractions of normal urine was found to comprise two components--(i) a vesicle-enclosed, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-sensitive fraction, which was shown immunochemically to be the 29-kDa CA II, and (ii) an SDS-resistant fraction, which was due to native and cleaved forms of the 35-kDa, membrane-anchored isozyme CA IV. Urinary membranes from CA II-deficient patients showed little or no SDS-sensitive activity and no immunoreactivity for CA II, providing direct evidence that their mutation, which produces CA II deficiency in erythrocytes, also affects CA II in kidney. CA IV activity and immunoreactivity were present in normal amounts in urinary membranes from CA II-deficient patients. We conclude from the enzymatic and immunological evidence presented that both CA II and CA IV are present in urinary membranes from normal subjects, that renal CA IV is present but renal CA II is absent in urinary membranes from patients with the CA II-deficiency syndrome, and that the methods presented should be useful in studying renal CA II and renal CA IV in other disorders of impaired bicarbonate reabsorption. Images PMID:2117271

  11. Removal of Zinc Form Carbonic Anhydrase: A Kinetics Experiment for Upper-Level Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kathryn R.; Adhyaru, Bhavin

    2004-01-01

    An experiment on kinetics of deactivation of carbonic anhydrase by removal of zinc is demonstrated. Carbonic anhydrase, the enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, requires on Zn(II) ion in its active site, and removal of the zinc cofactor by complexion to another ligand leaves the apoenzyme, which is totally…

  12. Carbon dioxide "trapped" in a β-carbonic anhydrase

    DOE PAGES

    Aggarwal, Mayank; Chua, Teck Khiang; Pinard, Melissa A.; ...

    2015-10-12

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are enzymes that catalyze the hydration/ dehydration of CO2/HCO3- with rates approaching diffusion-controlled limits (kcat/KM ~ 108 M–1s–1). Here, this family of enzymes has evolved disparate protein folds that all perform the same reaction at near catalytic perfection. Presented here is a structural study of a beta-CA (psCA3) expressed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in complex with CO2, using pressurized cryocooled crystallography. The structure has been refined to 1.6 angstrom resolution with Rcryst and Rfree values of 17.3 and 19.9%, respectively, and is compared with the α-CA, human CA isoform II (hCA II), the only other CA to havemore » CO2, captured in its active site. Despite the lack of structural similarity between psCA3 and hCA II, the CO2, binding orientation relative to the zinc-bound solvent is identical. In addition, a second CO2, binding site was located at the dimer interface of psCA3. Interestingly, all β-CAs function as dirners or higher-order oligomeric states, and the CO2, bound at the interface may contribute to the allosteric nature of this family of enzymes or may be a convenient alternative binding site as this pocket has been previously shown to be a promiscuous site for a variety of ligands, including bicarbonate, sulfate, and phosphate ions.« less

  13. Highly stable beta-class carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOEpatents

    Alvizo, Oscar; Benoit, Mike; Novick, Scott

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure relates to .beta.-class carbonic anhydrase polypeptides having improved properties including increased thermostability and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides formulations and uses of the polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering. Also provided are polynucleotides encoding the carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and host cells capable of expressing them.

  14. Highly stable beta-class carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOEpatents

    Alvizo, Oscar; Benoit, Michael R; Novick, Scott J

    2013-08-20

    The present disclosure relates to .beta.-class carbonic anhydrase polypeptides having improved properties including increased thermostability and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides formulations and uses of the polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering. Also provided are polynucleotides encoding the carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and host cells capable of expressing them.

  15. Bioindication potential of carbonic anhydrase activity in anemones and corals.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, A L; Guzmán, H M

    2001-09-01

    Activity levels of carbonic anhydrase (CA) were assessed in anemones Condylactis gigantea and Stichodactyla helianthus with laboratory exposures to copper, nickel, lead, and vanadium, and also in animals collected from polluted vs pristine field sites. CA activity was found to be decreased with increase in metal concentration and also in animals collected from the polluted field site. Preliminary assessments to adapt the CA assay for use in the widespread coral Montastraea cavernosa show decreased CA activity in specimens from the polluted field site and provide an avenue for future research aimed at more thoroughly describing coral CA activity for potential application in bioindication.

  16. Carbon dioxide "trapped" in a β-carbonic anhydrase

    SciTech Connect

    Aggarwal, Mayank; Chua, Teck Khiang; Pinard, Melissa A.; Szebenyi, Doletha M.; McKenna, Robert

    2015-10-12

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are enzymes that catalyze the hydration/ dehydration of CO2/HCO3- with rates approaching diffusion-controlled limits (kcat/KM ~ 108 M–1s–1). Here, this family of enzymes has evolved disparate protein folds that all perform the same reaction at near catalytic perfection. Presented here is a structural study of a beta-CA (psCA3) expressed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in complex with CO2, using pressurized cryocooled crystallography. The structure has been refined to 1.6 angstrom resolution with Rcryst and Rfree values of 17.3 and 19.9%, respectively, and is compared with the α-CA, human CA isoform II (hCA II), the only other CA to have CO2, captured in its active site. Despite the lack of structural similarity between psCA3 and hCA II, the CO2, binding orientation relative to the zinc-bound solvent is identical. In addition, a second CO2, binding site was located at the dimer interface of psCA3. Interestingly, all β-CAs function as dirners or higher-order oligomeric states, and the CO2, bound at the interface may contribute to the allosteric nature of this family of enzymes or may be a convenient alternative binding site as this pocket has been previously shown to be a promiscuous site for a variety of ligands, including bicarbonate, sulfate, and phosphate ions.

  17. Carbonic anhydrase from Apis mellifera: purification and inhibition by pesticides.

    PubMed

    Soydan, Ercan; Güler, Ahmet; Bıyık, Selim; Şentürk, Murat; Supuran, Claudiu T; Ekinci, Deniz

    2017-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes have been shown to play an important role in ion transport and in pH regulation in several organisms. Despite this information and the wealth of knowledge regarding the significance of CA enzymes, few studies have been reported about bee CA enzymes and the hazardous effects of chemicals. Using Apis mellifera as a model, this study aimed to determine the risk of pesticides on Apis mellifera Carbonic anhydrase enzyme (Am CA). CA was initially purified from Apis mellifera spermatheca for the first time in the literature. The enzyme was purified with an overall purification of ∼35-fold with a molecular weight of ∼32 kDa. The enzyme was then exposed to pesticides, including tebuconazole, propoxur, carbaryl, carbofuran, simazine and atrazine. The six pesticides dose-dependently inhibited in vitro AmCA activity at low micromolar concentrations. IC50 values for the pesticides were 0.0030, 0.0321, 0.0031, 0.0087, 0.0273 and 0.0165 μM, respectively. The AmCA inhibition mechanism of these compounds is unknown at this moment.

  18. Histochemical carbonic anhydrase in rat inner medullary collecting duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinman, J. G.; Bain, J. L.; Fritsche, C.; Riley, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) secretes substantial amounts of H+. However, carbonic anhydrase (CA), a concomitant of H+ secretion, has been generally reported absent in this segment. To reexamine this problem, we investigated CA and the morphological phenotypes of cells comprising the IMCD by CA histochemistry, using a modified Hansson technique with light and electron microscopy. Throughout the medulla, tubule cells exhibit histochemical CA activity. In the initial third of the inner medulla, a small proportion have features of intercalated cells and demonstrate some degree of CA activity. However, the majority population in the early portions of the IMCD appears to consist of principal cells. These also show CA staining of widely variable intensity, both among and within cells. A third cell type, previously called "IMCD cells", appears in the middle portion of the IMCD and is the only cell type present near the papilla tip. In contrast to previous reports, these "IMCD cells" have histochemical CA staining, also of highly variable intensity. These results demonstrate that stainable carbonic anhydrase to support acidification is present throughout the rat IMCD, both in intercalated cells and in some cells clearly not of this type. Therefore, the presence of CA is not specific for the intercalated cell type and suggests that other cell types may participate in acid secretion in IMCD.

  19. On the lack of specificity of the cobalt-bicarbonate method for carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Muther, T F

    1977-09-01

    Data are presented that support a nonenzymic mechanism for the staining obtained with the cobalt-bicarbonate method. The biochemically inactive apocarbonic anhydrase and Cu+2 apocarbonic anhydrase stain positively and this stain is inhibited by acetazolamide. The staining of the acetazolamide resistant carbonic anhydrase of male rat liver is inhibited by 10-6 M acetazolamide, at which concentration no biochemical inhibition is observed. There is no correlation between the biochemical and histochemical inhibitory potencies of a number of sulfonamides. The nonsulfonamide inhibitor, KCNO, does not inhibit staining. When incubations are performed in media exposed to atmospheres of increasing CO2 content, staining is not abolished until the atmospheric pCO2 approaches that generated by the medium itself. This finding renders the carbonic anhydrase catalyzed dehydration of HCO3- an improbable reaction for the staining. Studies with modified media show differences in staining patterns and in sensitivity to acetazolamide inhibition which question the specificity of the method for carbonic anhydrase.

  20. Carbonic anhydrase inhibition in glaucoma: hazard or benefit for the chronic lunger?

    PubMed

    Block, E R; Rostand, R A

    1978-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, of proven value in the longterm management of glaucoma, have a number of troublesome side effects, most of which are well-known. However, their potential hazards to patients with chronic obstructive lung disease have received little attention. The author reviews the physiological effects of carbonic anhydrase inhibition on carbon dioxide metabolism and the implications for the chronic lung patient. The untoward pulmonary complications associated with the use of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are of particular importance to ophthalmologists, since chronic lung disease and glaucoma, both common disorders in the elderly, frequently coexist in the same patient.

  1. A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase molecular switch occurs in the gills of metamorphic sea lamprey

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Martins, D.; McCormick, S. D.; Campos, A.; Lopes-Marques, M.; Osório, H.; Coimbra, J.; Castro, L. F. C.; Wilson, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase plays a key role in CO2 transport, acid-base and ion regulation and metabolic processes in vertebrates. While several carbonic anhydrase isoforms have been identified in numerous vertebrate species, basal lineages such as the cyclostomes have remained largely unexamined. Here we investigate the repertoire of cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrases in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), that has a complex life history marked by a dramatic metamorphosis from a benthic filter-feeding ammocoete larvae into a parasitic juvenile which migrates from freshwater to seawater. We have identified a novel carbonic anhydrase gene (ca19) beyond the single carbonic anhydrase gene (ca18) that was known previously. Phylogenetic analysis and synteny studies suggest that both carbonic anhydrase genes form one or two independent gene lineages and are most likely duplicates retained uniquely in cyclostomes. Quantitative PCR of ca19 and ca18 and protein expression in gill across metamorphosis show that the ca19 levels are highest in ammocoetes and decrease during metamorphosis while ca18 shows the opposite pattern with the highest levels in post-metamorphic juveniles. We propose that a unique molecular switch occurs during lamprey metamorphosis resulting in distinct gill carbonic anhydrases reflecting the contrasting life modes and habitats of these life-history stages. PMID:27703170

  2. Role of carbonic anhydrase in bone resorption induced by prostaglandin E2 in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, G. E.; Kenny, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    The possible role of carbonic anhydrase in bone resorption induced by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was studied using an in vitro neonatal mouse calvarial culture system. PGE2 (10 to the -6th M) was effective in stimulating resorption, as assessed by calcium release into culture media. This enhanced resorption was accompanied by significant increases in calvarial carbonic anhydrase activity over control values at 48 and 96 h. At 48 h, bones treated with PGE2 had 20 percent more carbonic anhydrase activity than controls. By 96 h, treated bones contained 79 percent more carbonic anhydrase activity than controls. PGE2-induced bone resorption was inhibited by the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide in a dose-dependent fashion from 10 to the -5th to 10 to the -4th M with 77 percent inhibition observed at 10 to the -4th M. The acetazolamide analogue CL 13,850 (N-t-butylacetazolamide), which does not inhibit carbonic anhydrase, failed to inhibit PGE2-induced resorption. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that carbonic anhydrase is a necessary component of the osteoclastic bone resorptive mechanism.

  3. A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase molecular switch occurs in the gills of metamorphic sea lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferreira-Martins, D.; McCormick, Stephen; Campos, A.; Lopes-Marques, M.; Osorio, H.; Coimbra, J.; Castro, L.F.C.; Wilson, Jonthan M

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase plays a key role in CO2 transport, acid-base and ion regulation and metabolic processes in vertebrates. While several carbonic anhydrase isoforms have been identified in numerous vertebrate species, basal lineages such as the cyclostomes have remained largely unexamined. Here we investigate the repertoire of cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrases in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), that has a complex life history marked by a dramatic metamorphosis from a benthic filter-feeding ammocoete larvae into a parasitic juvenile which migrates from freshwater to seawater. We have identified a novel carbonic anhydrase gene (ca19) beyond the single carbonic anhydrase gene (ca18) that was known previously. Phylogenetic analysis and synteny studies suggest that both carbonic anhydrase genes form one or two independent gene lineages and are most likely duplicates retained uniquely in cyclostomes. Quantitative PCR of ca19 and ca18 and protein expression in gill across metamorphosis show that the ca19 levels are highest in ammocoetes and decrease during metamorphosis while ca18 shows the opposite pattern with the highest levels in post-metamorphic juveniles. We propose that a unique molecular switch occurs during lamprey metamorphosis resulting in distinct gill carbonic anhydrases reflecting the contrasting life modes and habitats of these life-history stages.

  4. The archetype gamma-class carbonic anhydrase (Cam) contains iron when synthesized in vivo.

    PubMed

    Macauley, Sheridan R; Zimmerman, Sabrina A; Apolinario, Ethel E; Evilia, Caryn; Hou, Ya-Ming; Ferry, James G; Sowers, Kevin R

    2009-02-10

    A recombinant protein overproduction system was developed in Methanosarcina acetivorans to facilitate biochemical characterization of oxygen-sensitive metalloenzymes from strictly anaerobic species in the Archaea domain. The system was used to overproduce the archetype of the independently evolved gamma-class carbonic anhydrase. The overproduced enzyme was oxygen sensitive and had full incorporation of iron instead of zinc observed when overproduced in Escherichia coli. This, the first report of in vivo iron incorporation for any carbonic anhydrase, supports the need to reevaluate the role of iron in all classes of carbonic anhydrases derived from anaerobic environments.

  5. Fish erythrocytes are bicarbonate permeable: problems with determining carbonic anhydrase activity using the modified boat technique.

    PubMed

    Heming, T A; Randall, D J

    1982-01-10

    Effects of foaming agents (blood plasma, bovine serum albumin, polyvinyl-pyrrolidinone) and defoaming agents (octanol, n-foam) on manometric determination of carbonic anhydrase activity in intact erythrocytes of fish were examined. Foaming agents abolished the activity of red cells. Defoaming agents increased the activity and negated any differences in carbonic anhydrase activity between whole blood (red cells in plasma) and "Cortland" blood (red cells in saline). It is concluded that effects of plasma on the carbonic anhydrase activity of intact erythrocytes of fish measured using the modified boat technique are largely nonspecific and related to reagent foaming during mixing, rather than to the action of a specific enzyme inhibitor.

  6. Recent Developments in Targeting Carbonic Anhydrase IX for Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Paul C.; Winum, Jean-Yves; Supuran, Claudiu T.; Dedhar, Shoukat

    2012-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a hypoxia-inducible enzyme that is overexpressed by cancer cells from many tumor types, and is a component of the pH regulatory system invoked by these cells to combat the deleterious effects of a high rate of glycolytic metabolism. CAIX functions to help produce and maintain an intracellular pH (pHi) favorable for tumor cell growth and survival, while at the same time participating in the generation of an increasingly acidic extracellular space, facilitating tumor cell invasiveness. Pharmacologic interference of CAIX catalytic activity using monoclonal antibodies or CAIX-specific small molecule inhibitors, consequently disrupting pH regulation by cancer cells, has been shown recently to impair primary tumor growth and metastasis. Many of these agents are in preclinical or clinical development and constitute a novel, targeted strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:22289741

  7. Characterization of human carbonic anhydrase III from skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Carter, N; Jeffery, S; Shiels, A; Edwards, Y; Tipler, T; Hopkinson, D A

    1979-10-01

    A third form of human carbonic anhydrase (CA III), found at high concentrations in skeletal muscle, has been purified and characterized. This isozyme shows relatively poor hydratase and esterase activities compared to the red cell isozymes, CA I and CA II, but is similar to these isozymes in subunit structure (monomer) and molecular size (28,000). CA III is liable to posttranslational modification by thiol group interaction. Monomeric secondary isozymes, sensitive to beta-mercaptoethanol, are found in both crude and purified material and can be generated in vitro by the addition of thiol reagents. Active dimeric isozymes, generated apparently by the formation of intermolecular disulfide bridges, also occur but account for only a small proportion of the total protein and appear only when the concentration of CA III is particularly high.

  8. Carbonic anhydrase activity in isolated chloroplasts of chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Katzman, G.; Togasaki, R.K. ); Marcus, Y. ); Moroney, J.V. )

    1989-04-01

    In a new assay of carbonic anhydrase, NaH{sup 14}CO{sub 3} solution at the bottom of a sealed vessel releases {sup 14}CO{sub 3} which diffuses to the top of the vessel to be assimilated by actively photosynthesizing Chlamydomonas cells. The assay is initiated by illuminating cells and stopped by turning the light off and killing the cells with acid. Enzyme activity was estimated from acid stable radioactivity above the uncatalyzed background level. With bovine carbonic anhydrase, 1.5 Wilbur Anderson Unit (WAU) can be consistantly measured at 5-6 fold above background. Sonicated whole cells of air adapted wild type (+)gave 741.1 {plus minus} 12.4 WAU/mg chl. Intact washed cells of mixotrophically grown wall-less mutant CWD(-) and a high CO2 requiring wall-less double mutant CIA-3/CW15 (-) gave 7.1 {plus minus} 1.9 and 2.8 {plus minus} 7.8 WAU/mg chl respectively. Chloroplasts isolated from CWD and CIA-3/CW15 and subsequently disrupted gave 64.0 {plus minus} 14.7 and 2.8 {plus minus} 3.2 WAU/mg chl respectively. Chloroplast sonicate from another wall-less mutant CW15(-) gave activity comparable to CWD. Thus on a chlorophyll basis, enzyme activity in chloroplasts from mixotrophically grown cells is about 1/10th of the level found in air adapted wild type cells. CIA-3 seems to lack this activity.

  9. Carbonic anhydrase and control of breathing: different effects of benzolamide and methazolamide in the anaesthetized cat.

    PubMed Central

    Teppema, L; Berkenbosch, A; DeGoede, J; Olievier, C

    1995-01-01

    1. The effect of inhibition of erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase on the ventilatory response to CO2 was studied by administering benzolamide (70 mg kg-1, i.v.), an inhibitor which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, to carotid body denervated cats which were anaesthetized with chloralose-urethane. 2. In the same animals the effect on the ventilatory response to CO2 of subsequent inhibition of central nervous system (CNS) carbonic anhydrase was studied by infusing methazolamide (20 mg kg-1), an inhibitor which rapidly penetrates into brain tissue. 3. The results show that inhibition of erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase by benzolamide leads to a decrease in the slope of the normoxic CO2 response curve, and a decrease of the extrapolated arterial PCO2 at zero ventilation. 4. Inhibition of CNS carbonic anhydrase by methazolamide results in an increase in slope and alpha-intercept of the ventilatory CO2 response curve. 5. Using a mass balance equation for CO2 of a brain compartment, it is argued that inhibition of erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase results in a decrease in slope of the in vivo CO2 dissociation curve, which can explain the effects of benzolamide. 6. The changes in slope and intercept induced by methazolamide are discussed in relation to effects on neurones containing carbonic anhydrase, which may include central chemoreceptors. PMID:8576866

  10. Carbonic anhydrase and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effects of carbamates and sulfamoylcarbamates.

    PubMed

    Göçer, Hülya; Akincioğlu, Akın; Göksu, Süleyman; Gülçin, İlhami; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CA), as a family of metalloenzymes, are found in almost every type of tissue and play an important role in catalyzing the equilibration of carbon dioxide and carbonic acid. In this study, a series of carbamate derivative was synthesized, and their inhibition effects on hCA I, hCA II and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymes were investigated. They were determined to be very good inhibitor against for both isoenzymes (hCA I and hCA II) and AChE. The hCA I and hCA II were effectively inhibited by the carbamate derivatives, with inhibition constants (Ki) in the range of 194.4-893.5 nM (for hCA I) and 103.9-835.7 nM (for hCA II). On the other hand, Ki parameters of these compounds for AChE enzyme inhibition were determined in the range of 12.0-61.3 nM. The results clearly showed that both CA isoenzymes and AChE were inhibited by carbamate derivatives at the nM levels.

  11. Capsaicin: a potent inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Arabaci, Betul; Gulcin, Ilhami; Alwasel, Saleh

    2014-07-10

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) is a zinc containing metalloenzyme that catalyzes the rapid and reversible conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) into a proton (H+) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) ion. On the other hand, capsaicin is the main component in hot chili peppers and is used extensively used in spices, food additives and drugs; it is responsible for their spicy flavor and pungent taste. There are sixteen known CA isoforms in humans. Human CA isoenzymes I, and II (hCA I and hCA II) are ubiquitous cytosolic isoforms. In this study, the inhibition properties of capsaicin against the slow cytosolic isoform hCA I, and the ubiquitous and dominant rapid cytosolic isozymes hCA II were studied. Both CA isozymes were inhibited by capsaicin in the micromolar range. This naturally bioactive compound has a Ki of 696.15 µM against hCA I, and of 208.37 µM against hCA II.

  12. Phylogeny and expression of carbonic anhydrase-related proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are found in many organisms, in which they contribute to several important biological processes. The vertebrate α-CA family consists of 16 subfamilies, three of which (VIII, X and XI) consist of acatalytic proteins. These are named carbonic anhydrase related proteins (CARPs), and their inactivity is due to absence of one or more Zn-binding histidine residues. In this study, we analyzed and evaluated the distribution of genes encoding CARPs in different organisms using bioinformatic methods, and studied their expression in mouse tissues using immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative PCR. Results We collected 84 sequences, of which 22 came from novel or improved gene models which we created from genome data. The distribution of CARP VIII covers vertebrates and deuterostomes, and CARP X appears to be universal in the animal kingdom. CA10-like genes have had a separate history of duplications in the tetrapod and fish lineages. Our phylogenetic analysis showed that duplication of CA10 into CA11 has occurred only in tetrapods (found in mammals, frogs, and lizards), whereas an independent duplication of CA10 was found in fishes. We suggest the name CA10b for the second fish isoform. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a high expression level of CARP VIII in the mouse cerebellum, cerebrum, and also moderate expression in the lung, liver, salivary gland, and stomach. These results also demonstrated low expression in the colon, kidney, and Langerhans islets. CARP X was moderately expressed in the cerebral capillaries and the lung and very weakly in the stomach and heart. Positive signals for CARP XI were observed in the cerebellum, cerebrum, liver, stomach, small intestine, colon, kidney, and testis. In addition, the results of real-time quantitative PCR confirmed a wide distribution for the Car8 and Car11 mRNAs, whereas the expression of the Car10 mRNA was restricted to the frontal cortex, parietal cortex, cerebellum, midbrain

  13. Role of the HBx oncoprotein in carbonic anhydrase 9 induction.

    PubMed

    Holotnakova, Tereza; Tylkova, Lucia; Takacova, Martina; Kopacek, Juraj; Petrik, Juraj; Pastorekova, Silvia; Pastorek, Jaromir

    2010-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9), as one of the most hypoxia-responsive genes, has been associated almost exclusively with hypoxic tumors. Its principal role is in pH regulation which helps tumor cells overcome intracellular acidosis and survive extended periods of time with low oxygen. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is the main transcriptional activator of CA9. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) has been shown to increase the transcriptional activity of HIF-1. HBx is often expressed from the gene integrated in the hepatocytes infected persistently and contributes significantly to alterations in host gene expression that can lead to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with Hepatitis B virus (HBV). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HBx on expression of CA9. Transient transfection of HBx led to an increase in the expression of CA9 as assessed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. HBx was able to increase CA9 promoter activity significantly in several cell lines. The effect was mediated via HIF-1 and a functional HRE element located -10/-3 bp upstream of the CA9 transcription initiation site. These data suggest that CA9 may be involved in the development of HCC by contributing to the survival of hepatocytes infected with HBV in liver tissue with fibrosis.

  14. New natural product carbonic anhydrase inhibitors incorporating phenol moieties.

    PubMed

    Karioti, Anastasia; Ceruso, Mariangela; Carta, Fabrizio; Bilia, Anna-Rita; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-11-15

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) catalyze the fundamental reaction of CO2 hydration in all living organisms, being actively involved in the regulation of a plethora of patho/physiological conditions. They represent a typical example of enzyme convergent evolution, as six genetically unrelated families of such enzymes were described so far. The need to find selective CA inhibitors (CAIs) triggered the investigation of natural product libraries, which proved to be a valid source of agents with such an activity, as demonstrated for the phenols, polyamines and coumarins. Herein we report an in vitro inhibition study of human (h) CA isoforms hCAs I, II, IV, VII and XII with a panel of natural polyphenols including flavones, flavonols, flavanones, flavanols, isoflavones and depsides, some of which extracted from Quercus ilex and Salvia miltiorrhiza. Several of the investigated derivatives showed interesting inhibition activity and selectivities for inhibiting some important isoforms over the off-target ones hCA I and II.

  15. Carbonic anhydrase enzymes regulate mast cell–mediated inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Soteropoulos, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 cytokine responses are necessary for the development of protective immunity to helminth parasites but also cause the inflammation associated with allergies and asthma. Recent studies have found that peripheral hematopoietic progenitor cells contribute to type 2 cytokine–mediated inflammation through their enhanced ability to develop into mast cells. In this study, we show that carbonic anhydrase (Car) enzymes are up-regulated in type 2–associated progenitor cells and demonstrate that Car enzyme inhibition is sufficient to prevent mouse mast cell responses and inflammation after Trichinella spiralis infection or the induction of food allergy–like disease. Further, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology and illustrate that genetically editing Car1 is sufficient to selectively reduce mast cell development. Finally, we demonstrate that Car enzymes can be targeted to prevent human mast cell development. Collectively, these experiments identify a previously unrecognized role for Car enzymes in regulating mast cell lineage commitment and suggest that Car enzyme inhibitors may possess therapeutic potential that can be used to treat mast cell–mediated inflammation. PMID:27526715

  16. Roles of Carbonic Anhydrase IX in Development of Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuji; Dong, Ming; Sheng, Weiwei; Huang, Longping

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to study the effects of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) towards the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer. The expressions of CA IX in 58 cases of pancreatic cancer and paired paracancerous normal tissues, obtained from 2005 to 2012 in the first Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, were detected, as well as its expressions in different pancreatic cancer cell lines, aiming to detect the impacts of CA IX silencing towards the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells. The CA IX expressions in 58 pancreatic cancer cases were higher than those in the paired paracancerous normal tissues (P < 0.01), and positively correlated with the tumor size and the UICC staging UICC (P < 0.05), the multivariate analysis showed that the high expression of CA IX was the independent risk factor towards the prognosis of pancreatic cancer (P < 0.05). The CA IX was highly expressed in AxPC-1 and Miapaca-2, and the interference effects were significant. CA IX silencing could significantly inhibit the invasion and metastasis of AxPC-1 and Miapaca. We support a pro-tumor role of CA IX in the development and progression of pancreatic cancer.

  17. Characterization of carbonic anhydrase-inhibitor noncovalent complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Xueheng; Chen, R.; Bruce, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    Competitive binding of two mixtures of inhibitors to bovine carbonic anhydrase H (BCAII) was studied using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The first mixture contained inhibitors with hydrocarbon/fluorohydrocarbon linker groups and with an 800 fold span of binding constants. The second contained inhibitors with dipeptide extensions synthesized using the solid phase method. Noncovalent enzyme-inhibitor complexes were observed from solutions in 10 mM ammonia acetate having abundances consistent with their relative binding constants measured in solution. The inhibitor with highest affinity was readily identified in an equimolar mixture. The inhibitors with very low affinity were identified to form specific complexes as well. Several control experiments including acidifying the solution or removing the Zn metal from the enzyme resulted in the disappearance of the enzyme-inhibitor complexes, (mass spectrometrically) observed complexation and characterization of biomolecular binding. Good correlation between gas phase inhibitor ion abundances and their binding constants in solution were observed. Structural information and relative binding constants of masses were obtained using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) through multi-stage dissociation experiments. These results support the role of ESI-FTICR-MS in the study of specific noncovalent associations from solution, and show that its unique capabilities can be exploited to extend studies to large mixtures of inhibitors in drug leads discovery.

  18. Quaternary ammonium sulfanilamide: a membrane-impermeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Henry, R P

    1987-05-01

    A novel carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor, quaternary ammonium sulfanilamide (QAS), was tested for potency as a CA inhibitor and for its ability to be excluded from permeating biological membranes. Inhibitor titration plots of QAS vs. pure bovine CA II and CA from the gills of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, yielded Ki values of approximately 15 microM; thus QAS is a relatively weak but effective CA inhibitor. Permeability of the QAS was directly tested by two independent methods. The inhibitor was excluded from human erythrocytes incubated in 5 mM QAS for 24 h as determined using an 18O-labeled mass spectrometer CA assay for intact cells. Also QAS injected into the hemolymph of C. sapidus (1 or 10 mM) did not cross the basal membrane of the gill. The compound was cleared from the hemolymph by 96 h after injection, and at no time during that period could the QAS be detected in homogenates of gill tissue. Total branchial CA activity was only slightly reduced following the QAS injection. These data indicate that QAS is a CA inhibitor to which biological membranes are impermeable and that can be used in vivo or in vitro in the study of membrane-associated CA.

  19. Lead Development of Thiazolylsulfonamides with Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitory Action.

    PubMed

    Carta, Fabrizio; Birkmann, Alexander; Pfaff, Tamara; Buschmann, Helmut; Schwab, Wilfried; Zimmermann, Holger; Maresca, Alfonso; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2017-03-17

    A series of congeners structurally related to pritelivir, N-[5-(aminosulfonyl)-4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]-N-methyl-2-[4-(2-pyridinyl)phenyl]acetamide, a helicase-primase inhibitor for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infections, was prepared. The synthesized primary and secondary sulfonamides were investigated as inhibitors of six physiologically and pharmacologically relevant human (h) carbonic anhydrase (hCA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms, the cytosolic enzymes hCA I and II, the mitochondrial ones hCA VA and VB, and the transmembrane, tumor associated hCA IX and XII. Low nanomolar inhibition KI values were detected for all of them, with a very interesting and well-defined structure-activity relationship. As many CAs are involved in serious pathologies, among which are cancer, obesity, epilepsy, glaucoma, etc., sulfonamide inhibitors as those reported here may be of interest as drug candidates. Furthermore, pritelivir itself is an effective inhibitor of some CAs, also inhibiting whole blood enzymes from several mammalian species, which may be a favorable pharmacokinetic feature of the drug which can be transported throughout the body bound to blood CA I and II.

  20. Dynamics of oligomer formation by denatured carbonic anhydrase II.

    PubMed

    Prokhorov, Dmitry A; Timchenko, Alexander A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Khristoforov, Vladimir S; Kihara, Hiroshi; Kimura, Kazumoto; Kutyshenko, Viktor P

    2008-05-01

    Aggregation and subsequent development of protein deposition diseases originate from conformational changes in corresponding amyloidogenic proteins. Many proteins unrelated to amyloidoses also fibrillate at the appropriate conditions. These proteins serve as a model for studying the processes of protein misfolding, oligomerization and fibril formation. The accumulated data support the model where protein fibrillogenesis proceeds via the formation of a relatively unfolded amyloidogenic conformation. The urea-induced unfolding of bovine carbonic anhydrase II, BCA II, is characterized by a combination of high-resolution NMR, circular dichroism spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. It is shown that the formation of associates of protein molecules in complex with solvent (water and urea), APS, takes place in the presence of 4-6 M urea. The subsequent increase in urea concentration to 8 M is accompanied by a disruption of APS and leads to a complete unfolding of a protein molecule. Analysis of BCA II self-association in the presence of 4.2 M urea revealed that APS are relatively large mostly beta-structural blocks with the averaged molecular mass of 190-220 kDa. This work also demonstrates some novel NMR-based methodological approaches that provide useful information on protein self-association.

  1. Circulating Carbonic Anhydrase IX and Antiangiogenic Therapy in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brown-Glaberman, Ursa; Marron, Marilyn; Chalasani, Pavani; Livingston, Robert; Iannone, Maria; Specht, Jennifer; Stopeck, Alison T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a hypoxia regulated metalloenzyme integral to maintaining cellular pH. Increased CAIX expression is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. To explore CAIX as a biomarker for breast cancer therapies, we measured plasma CAIX levels in healthy control subjects and in breast cancer patients. Methods. In control subjects we evaluated plasma CAIX stability via commercially available ELISA. We then similarly quantified plasma CAIX levels in (1) locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients treated with neoadjuvant paclitaxel + sunitinib (T + S) followed by doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC); (2) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients treated with systemic chemotherapy. Results. Plasma CAIX levels were stable at room temperature for at least 48 hours in control subjects. Mean baseline plasma CAIX levels were lower in controls compared to patients with LABC or MBC. In LABC, CAIX levels rose significantly in response to administration of antiangiogenic therapy (T + S) (p = 0.02) but not AC (p = 0.37). In patients with MBC treated without an antiangiogenic agent CAIX levels did not change with therapy. Conclusions. Our results suggest that CAIX may be an easily obtained, stable measure of tumor associated hypoxia as well as a useful pharmacodynamic biomarker for antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:26941473

  2. Non-destructive measurement of carbonic anhydrase activity and the oxygen isotope composition of soil water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Sam; Sauze, Joana; Ogée, Jérôme; Wohl, Steven; Bosc, Alexandre; Wingate, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrases are a group of metalloenzymes that catalyse the hydration of aqueous carbon dioxide (CO2). The expression of carbonic anhydrase by bacteria, archaea and eukarya has been linked to a variety of important biological processes including pH regulation, substrate supply and biomineralisation. As oxygen isotopes are exchanged between CO2 and water during hydration, the presence of carbonic anhydrase in plants and soil organisms also influences the oxygen isotope budget of atmospheric CO2. Leaf and soil water pools have distinct oxygen isotope compositions, owing to differences in pool sizes and evaporation rates, which are imparted on CO2during hydration. These differences in the isotopic signature of CO2 interacting with leaves and soil can be used to partition the contribution of photosynthesis and soil respiration to net terrestrial CO2 exchange. However, this relies on our knowledge of soil carbonic anhydrase activity and currently, the prevalence and function of these enzymes in soils is poorly understood. Isotopic approaches used to estimate soil carbonic anhydrase activity typically involve the inversion of models describing the oxygen isotope composition of CO2 fluxes to solve for the apparent, potentially catalysed, rate of oxygen exchange during hydration. This requires information about the composition of CO2 in isotopic equilibrium with soil water obtained from destructive, depth-resolved soil water sampling. This can represent a significant challenge in data collection given the considerable potential for spatial and temporal variability in the isotopic composition of soil water and limited a priori information with respect to the appropriate sampling resolution and depth. We investigated whether we could circumvent this requirement by constraining carbonic anhydrase activity and the composition of soil water in isotopic equilibrium with CO2 by solving simultaneously the mass balance for two soil CO2 steady states differing only in the

  3. Purification and characterization of a high-Mr carbonic anhydrase from sheep parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    Fernley, R T; Coghlan, J P; Wright, R D

    1988-01-01

    Approximately half the carbonic anhydrase activity of sheep parotid-gland homogenate is derived from a high-Mr protein [Fernley, Wright & Coghlan (1979) FEBS Lett. 105, 299-302]. This enzyme has now been purified to homogeneity, and its properties were compared with those of the well-characterized sheep carbonic anhydrase II. The protein has an apparent Mr of 540,000 as measured by gel filtration under non-denaturing conditions and an apparent subunit Mr of 45,000 as measured by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. After deglycosylation with the enzyme N-glycanase the protein migrates with an apparent Mr of 36,000 on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The CO2-hydrating activity was 340 units/mg compared with 488 units/mg for sheep carbonic anhydrase II measured under identical conditions. This enzyme does not, however, hydrolyse p-nitrophenyl acetate. The enzyme contains 0.8 g-atom of zinc/mol of protein subunit. The peptide maps of the two carbonic anhydrases differ significantly from one another, indicating they are not related closely structurally. Unlike the carbonic anhydrase II isoenzyme, which has a blocked N-terminus, the high-Mr enzyme has a free glycine residue at its N-terminus. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3124821

  4. Molecular and biochemical characterization of carbonic anhydrases of Paracoccidioides

    PubMed Central

    Tomazett, Mariana Vieira; Zanoelo, Fabiana Fonseca; Bailão, Elisa Flávia Cardoso; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Carbonic anhydrases (CA) belong to the family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate. In the present work, we characterized the cDNAs of four Paracoccidioides CAs (CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4). In the presence of CO2, there was not a significant increase in fungal ca1, ca2 and ca4 gene expression. The ca1 transcript was induced during the mycelium-to-yeast transition, while ca2 and ca4 gene expression was much higher in yeast cells, when compared to mycelium and mycelium-to-yeast transition. The ca1 transcript was induced in yeast cells recovered directly from liver and spleen of infected mice, while transcripts for ca2 and ca4 were down-regulated. Recombinant CA1 (rCA1) and CA4 (rCA4), with 33 kDa and 32 kDa respectively, were obtained from bacteria. The enzymes rCA1 (β-class) and rCA4 (α-class) were characterized regarding pH, temperature, ions and amino acids addition influence. Both enzymes were stable at pHs 7.5-8.5 and temperatures of 30-35 °C. The enzymes were dramatically inhibited by Hg+2 and activated by Zn+2, while only rCA4 was stimulated by Fe2+. Among the amino acids tested (all in L configuration), arginine, lysine, tryptophan and histidine enhanced residual activity of rCA1 and rCA4. PMID:27560991

  5. Legionella pneumophila Carbonic Anhydrases: Underexplored Antibacterial Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Supuran, Claudiu T.

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes which catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. Many pathogenic bacteria encode such enzymes belonging to the α-, β-, and/or γ-CA families. In the last decade, enzymes from some of these pathogens, including Legionella pneumophila, have been cloned and characterized in detail. These enzymes were shown to be efficient catalysts for CO2 hydration, with kcat values in the range of (3.4–8.3) × 105 s−1 and kcat/KM values of (4.7–8.5) × 107 M−1·s−1. In vitro inhibition studies with various classes of inhibitors, such as anions, sulfonamides and sulfamates, were also reported for the two β-CAs from this pathogen, LpCA1 and LpCA2. Inorganic anions were millimolar inhibitors, whereas diethyldithiocarbamate, sulfamate, sulfamide, phenylboronic acid, and phenylarsonic acid were micromolar ones. The best LpCA1 inhibitors were aminobenzolamide and structurally similar sulfonylated aromatic sulfonamides, as well as acetazolamide and ethoxzolamide (KIs in the range of 40.3–90.5 nM). The best LpCA2 inhibitors belonged to the same class of sulfonylated sulfonamides, together with acetazolamide, methazolamide, and dichlorophenamide (KIs in the range of 25.2–88.5 nM). Considering such preliminary results, the two bacterial CAs from this pathogen represent promising yet underexplored targets for obtaining antibacterials devoid of the resistance problems common to most of the clinically used antibiotics, but further studies are needed to validate them in vivo as drug targets. PMID:27322334

  6. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: Synthesis, characterization and inhibition activities of furan sulfonylhydrazones against carbonic anhydrase I (hCA I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gündüzalp, Ayla Balaban; Parlakgümüş, Gökhan; Uzun, Demet; Özmen, Ümmuhan Özdemir; Özbek, Neslihan; Sarı, Musa; Tunç, Tuncay

    2016-02-01

    The methane sulfonic acide hydrazide (1) was used to obtain furan sulfonylhydrazones; 2-acetylfuranmethanesulfonylhydrazone (2), 2-furaldehydemethanesulfonylhydrazone (3), 5-nitro-2-furaldehydemethanesulfonylhydrazone (4). The structures of furan sulfonylhydrazones were determined by using elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-vis methods. The structure of 5-nitro-2-furaldehydemethanesulfonylhydrazone (4) was also supported with X-ray difraction method and found that compound 4 was crystallized in triclinic, space group P 1 bar . In order to gain insight into the structure of the compounds, we performed computational studies by using 6-311G(d,p) basic set in which B3LYP correlation function was implemented. The geometry of the sulfonylhydrazones were optimized at DFT method with Gaussian 09 program package and the global reactivity descriptors were also calculated by this basic set. The enzyme inhibition activities of the sulfonylhydrazones were investigated on carbonic anhydrase I (hCA I) isoenzyme and their activity parameters (Km, IC50 and Ki) were calculated by spectrophotometric method. And also, their inhibitor effects were also investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) methods. Inhibition results show that compound 4 containing electron withdrawing group (NO2) has higher inhibition effect on hCA I isoenzyme than other's.

  7. Strong topical steroid, NSAID, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor cocktail for treatment of cystoid macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Asahi, Masumi G; Bobarnac Dogaru, Gabriela L; Onishi, Spencer M; Gallemore, Ron P

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the combination cocktail of strong steroid, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor drops for treatment of cystoid macular edema. Methods This is a retrospective case series of patients with cystoid macular edema managed with a topical combination of strong steroid (difluprednate), NSAID, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor drops. The patients were followed with optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography. Results In our six cases, resolution of the cystic edema with improvement in visual acuity was achieved with the use of a combination cocktail of drops. Leakage on fluorescein angiography and cystic edema on optical coherence tomography both responded to treatment with the topical cocktail of drops. Conclusion A topical cocktail of strong steroid, NSAID, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor drops are effective for managing cystoid macular edema. Further studies comparing this combination with more invasive treatments should be undertaken to determine the efficacy of this cocktail over other treatment options. PMID:26664246

  8. Extramitochondrial domain rich in carbonic anhydrase activity improves myocardial energetics.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Marie A; Ali, Mohammad A; Hulikova, Alzbeta; Supuran, Claudiu T; Clarke, Kieran; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D; Tyler, Damian J; Swietach, Pawel

    2013-03-05

    CO2 is produced abundantly by cardiac mitochondria. Thus an efficient means for its venting is required to support metabolism. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes, expressed at various sites in ventricular myocytes, may affect mitochondrial CO2 clearance by catalyzing CO2 hydration (to H(+) and HCO3(-)), thereby changing the gradient for CO2 venting. Using fluorescent dyes to measure changes in pH arising from the intracellular hydration of extracellularly supplied CO2, overall CA activity in the cytoplasm of isolated ventricular myocytes was found to be modest (2.7-fold above spontaneous kinetics). Experiments on ventricular mitochondria demonstrated negligible intramitochondrial CA activity. CA activity was also investigated in intact hearts by (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy from the rate of H(13)CO3(-) production from (13)CO2 released specifically from mitochondria by pyruvate dehydrogenase-mediated metabolism of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate. CA activity measured upon [1-(13)C]pyruvate infusion was fourfold higher than the cytoplasm-averaged value. A fluorescent CA ligand colocalized with a mitochondrial marker, indicating that mitochondria are near a CA-rich domain. Based on immunoreactivity, this domain comprises the nominally cytoplasmic CA isoform CAII and sarcoplasmic reticulum-associated CAXIV. Inhibition of extramitochondrial CA activity acidified the matrix (as determined by fluorescence measurements in permeabilized myocytes and isolated mitochondria), impaired cardiac energetics (indexed by the phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratio measured by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy of perfused hearts), and reduced contractility (as measured from the pressure developed in perfused hearts). These data provide evidence for a functional domain of high CA activity around mitochondria to support CO2 venting, particularly during elevated and fluctuating respiratory activity. Aberrant distribution of CA activity therefore may reduce the heart's energetic

  9. Carbonic anhydrase and chemoreception in the cat carotid body.

    PubMed

    Iturriaga, R; Lahiri, S; Mokashi, A

    1991-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that CO2 and O2 chemoreception in the carotid body (CB) may depend on its carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity, we used an in vitro cat CB preparation and studied the effects of methazolamide, a permeable CA inhibitor (pK 7.3), on the chemosensory responses to CO2, O2, and nicotine. The isolated CB was perfused and superfused with Tyrode solution, free of CO2-HCO3-, at 36.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C. The frequency of chemosensory discharges was recorded from the whole carotid sinus nerve. The responses to bolus injections (0.3-0.5 ml) of Tyrode solution equilibrated with PCO2 of 38-110 Torr, switching from HEPES to CO2-HCO3- Tyrode (PCO2 = 25-60 Torr) for about 3 min, hypoxic Tyrode (PO2 = 25-30 Torr) for 2-8 min, perfusate flow interruptions for approximately 4 min, and bolus injections of nicotine (4 nmol) were studied before, during, and after perfusion (30-45 min) with methazolamide (42.4 microM). Methazolamide reversibly inhibited, delayed, and reduced the responses to transient CO2 stimulus, diminished the onset of but not the late response to prolonged CO2 stimulus, and delayed but did not decrease the responses to hypoxia and perfusate interruption. The response to nicotine did not change. The results indicated that CA in the glomus cells played a crucial role primarily in the speed and magnitude of the initial response to CO2 stimulus and indirectly influenced O2 chemoreception. These effects were upstream from the nicotine receptor-mediated sensory response.

  10. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase augments GABAA receptor-mediated analgesia via a spinal mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Asiedu, Marina N.; Mejia, Galo L.; Hübner, Christian A.; Kaila, Kai; Price, Theodore J.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury negatively influences spinal GABAergic networks via a reduction in the neuron-specific K+-Cl- cotransporter KCC2. This process has been linked to the emergence of neuropathic allodynia. In vivo pharmacological and modeling studies show that a loss of KCC2 function results in a decrease in the efficacy of GABAA -mediated spinal inhibition. One potential strategy to mitigate this effect entails inhibition of carbonic anhydrase activity to reduce HCO3- -dependent depolarization via GABAA receptors when KCC2 function is compromised. We have tested this hypothesis here. Our results show that, similarly to when KCC2 is pharmacologically blocked, peripheral nerve injury causes a loss of analgesic effect for neurosteroid GABAA allosteric modulators at maximally effective doses in naïve mice in the tail flick test. Remarkably, inhibition of carbonic anhydrase activity with intrathecal acetazolamide rapidly restores an analgesic effect for these compounds suggesting an important role of carbonic anhydrase activity in regulating GABAA -mediated analgesia after peripheral nerve injury. Moreover, spinal acetazolamide administration leads to a profound reduction in the mouse formalin pain test indicating that spinal carbonic anhydrase inhibition produces analgesia when primary afferent activity is driven by chemical mediators. Finally, we demonstrate that systemic administration of acetazolamide to rats with peripheral nerve injury produces an anti-allodynia effect by itself and an enhancement of the peak analgesic effect with a change in the shape of the dose response curve of the α1-sparing benzodiazepine L-838,417. Thus, carbonic anhydrase inhibition mitigates the negative effects of loss of KCC2 function after nerve injury in multiple species and through multiple administration routes resulting in an enhancement of analgesic effects for several GABAA allosteric modulators. We suggest that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, many of which are clinically

  11. Carbonic anhydrase binding site parameterization in OPLS-AA force field.

    PubMed

    Bernadat, Guillaume; Supuran, Claudiu T; Iorga, Bogdan I

    2013-03-15

    The parameterization of carbonic anhydrase binding site in OPLS-AA force field was performed using quantum chemistry calculations. Both OH2 and OH(-) forms of the binding site were considered, showing important differences in terms of atomic partial charges. Three different parameterization protocols were used, and the results obtained highlighted the importance of including an extended binding site in the charge calculation. The force field parameters were subsequently validated using standard molecular dynamics simulations. The results presented in this work should greatly facilitate the use of molecular dynamics simulations for studying the carbonic anhydrase, and more generally, the metallo-enzymes.

  12. Carbonic anhydrase mimics for enhanced CO2 absorption in an amine-based capture solvent.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Rachael A; Miller, David A; Parkin, Sean R; Liu, Kun; Remias, Joe E; Yang, Yue; Lightstone, Felice C; Liu, Kunlei; Lippert, Cameron A; Odom, Susan A

    2016-01-07

    Two new small-molecule enzyme mimics of carbonic anhydrase were prepared and characterized. These complexes contain the salen-like ligand bis(hydroxyphenyl)phenanthroline. This ligand is similar to the salen-type ligands previously incorporated into carbonic anhydrase mimics but contains no hydrolyzable imine groups and therefore serves as a promising ligand scaffold for the synthesis of a more robust CO2 hydration catalyst. These homogeneous catalysts were investigated for CO2 hydration in concentrated primary amine solutions through which a dilute CO2 (14%) fluid stream was flowed and showed exceptional activity for increased CO2 absorption rates.

  13. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Part 461 Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrase Isozymes I, II and IV With Trifluoromethylsulfonamide Derivatives and Their Zinc(II) and Copper(II) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Mincione, Giovanna; Scozzafava, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    Reaction of aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides containing a free amino group with triflic anhydride afforded compounds possessing trifluoromethanesulfonamido moieties in their molecule. The Zn(II) and Cu(II) complexes of these new sulfonamides were prepared and characterized by standard procedures (elemental analysis, spectroscopic, magnetic, thermogravimetric and conductimetric measurements). The new derivatives showed good inhibitory activity against three isozymes of carbonic anhydrase (CA), i.e., CA I, II and IV. PMID:18475762

  14. Dissolved carbonic anhydrase for enhancing post-combustion carbon dioxide hydration in aqueous ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, James R.; Heck, Robert W.; Zwoster, Andy

    2011-04-01

    Aqueous ammonia solvents that capture CO2 as ionic complexes of carbonates with ammonium have recently been advanced as alternatives to amine-based solvents due to their lower energy requirements for thermal regeneration. In ammonia based solvents, the hydration of CO2 to form bicarbonate may become a rate-limiting step as the CO2 loading increases and the resulting pH level of the solvent decreases. Variants of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase can accelerate the reversible hydration of CO2 to yield bicarbonate by more than 10(6)-fold. The possible benefit of bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) addition to solutions of aqueous ammonia to enhance CO2 hydration was investigated in semi-batch reactions within continuously stirred tank reactors or in a bubble column gas-liquid contactor. Adding 154 mg/liter of BCA to 2 M aqueous ammonia provided a 34.1% overall increase in the rate of CO2 hydration (as indicated by the production of [H+]) as the pH declined from 9.6 to 8.6 during sparging with a 15% CO2, 85% N-2 gas at a flow rate of 3 lpm. The benefits of adding BCA to enhance CO2 hydration were only discernable below similar to pH 9. The implications of the apparent pH limitations on the utility of BCA are discussed in the context of absorber unit operation design. Possible embodiments of carbonic anhydrase as either an immobilized catalyst or as a dissolved, recirculating catalyst in potential plant scale aqueous ammonia systems are considered as well. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Carboxysomal carbonic anhydrases: Structure and role in microbial CO2 fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Gordon C.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2010-06-23

    Cyanobacteria and some chemoautotrophic bacteria are able to grow in environments with limiting CO2 concentrations by employing a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) that allows them to accumulate inorganic carbon in their cytoplasm to concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than that on the outside. The final step of this process takes place in polyhedral protein microcompartments known as carboxysomes, which contain the majority of the CO2-fixing enzyme, RubisCO. The efficiency of CO2 fixation by the sequestered RubisCO is enhanced by co-localization with a specialized carbonic anhydrase that catalyzes dehydration of the cytoplasmic bicarbonate and ensures saturation of RubisCO with its substrate, CO2. There are two genetically distinct carboxysome types that differ in their protein composition and in the carbonic anhydrase(s) they employ. Here we review the existing information concerning the genomics, structure and enzymology of these uniquely adapted carbonic anhydrases, which are of fundamental importance in the global carbon cycle.

  16. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: guaiacol and catechol derivatives effectively inhibit certain human carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes (hCA I, II, IX and XII).

    PubMed

    Scozzafava, Andrea; Passaponti, Maurizio; Supuran, Claudiu T; Gülçin, İlhami

    2015-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are widespread metalloenzymes in higher vertebrates including humans. A series of phenolic compounds, including guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, 4-propylguaiacol, eugenol, isoeugenol, vanillin, syringaldehyde, catechol, 3-methyl catechol, 4-methyl catechol and 3-methoxy catechol were investigated for their inhibition of all the catalytically active mammalian isozymes of the Zn(2+)-containing CA (EC 4.2.1.1). All the phenolic compounds effectively inhibited human carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes (hCA I, II, IX and XII), with Kis in the range of 2.20-515.98 μM. The various isozymes showed diverse inhibition profiles. Among the tested phenolic derivatives, compounds 4-methyl catechol and 3-methoxy catechol showed potent activity as inhibitors of the tumour-associated transmembrane isoforms (hCA IX and XII) in the submicromolar range, with high selectivity. The results obtained from this research may lead to the design of more effective carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme inhibitors (CAIs) based on such phenolic compound scaffolds.

  17. Purification of carbonic anhydrase from bovine erythrocytes and its application in the enzymic capture of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    da Costa Ores, Joana; Sala, Luisa; Cerveira, Guido Picaluga; Kalil, Susana Juliano

    2012-06-01

    This work presents a study of industrially applicable techniques to obtain a biologically supported carbon dioxide capture system, based on the extraction of carbonic anhydrase from bovine blood. Carbonic anhydrase is a metalloenzyme which catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. The objective of this study was to establish conditions to obtain carbonic anhydrase from bovine erythrocytes and apply it in the capture of carbon dioxide. To achieve this, two different purification techniques were evaluated: one by extraction with the organic solvents chloroform and ethanol, where different solvent proportions were studied; and the other by ammonium sulfate precipitation, testing percent saturations between 10% and 80%. Carbon dioxide was enzymatically captured by its precipitation as calcium carbonate with the enzyme obtained by both techniques. The enzyme extracted by ethanol and chloroform showed an activity of 2623 U mL(-1), recovery of 98% and purification factor of 104-fold. That precipitated by ammonium sulfate showed an activity of 2162 U mL(-1), recovery of 66% and purification factor of 1.4-fold using 60% ammonium sulfate saturation. The results obtained in the carbon dioxide capture experiments showed that the carbonic anhydrase extracted in this study not only enhanced the hydration of CO(2), but also promoted the formation of CaCO(3).

  18. Docking studies of sulphamate inhibitors of estrone sulphatase in human carbonic anhydrase II.

    PubMed

    Vicker, Nigel; Ho, Yaikat; Robinson, James; Woo, Lawrence L W; Purohit, Atul; Reed, Michael J; Potter, Barry V L

    2003-03-10

    We describe the docking of selected steroidal and non-steroidal estrone sulphatase inhibitors, including the Phase I clinical trial candidate 667COUMATE (6), into the active site of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCA II). The docking scores are compared with the inhibition of hCA II and show good correlation with biological activity.

  19. 21 CFR 866.5200 - Carbonic anhydrase B and C immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbonic anhydrase B and C immunological test system. 866.5200 Section 866.5200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological...

  20. Carbonic anhydrase immobilized on hollow fiber membranes using glutaraldehyde activated chitosan for artificial lung applications.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, J D; Arazawa, D T; Ye, S-H; Shankarraman, V; Wagner, W R; Federspiel, W J

    2013-11-01

    Extracorporeal CO2 removal from circulating blood is a promising therapeutic modality for the treatment of acute respiratory failure. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase accelerates CO2 removal within gas exchange devices by locally catalyzing HCO3 (-) into gaseous CO2 within the blood. In this work, we covalently immobilized carbonic anhydrase on the surface of polypropylene hollow fiber membranes using glutaraldehyde activated chitosan tethering to amplify the density of reactive amine functional groups for enzyme immobilization. XPS and a colorimetric amine assay confirmed higher amine densities on the chitosan coated fiber compared to control fiber. Chitosan/CA coated fibers exhibited accelerated CO2 removal in scaled-down gas exchange devices in buffer and blood (115% enhancement vs. control, 37% enhancement vs. control, respectively). Carbonic anhydrase immobilized directly on hollow fiber membranes without chitosan tethering resulted in no enhancement in CO2 removal. Additionally, fibers coated with chitosan/carbonic anhydrase demonstrated reduced platelet adhesion when exposed to blood compared to control and heparin coated fibers.

  1. 21 CFR 866.5200 - Carbonic anhydrase B and C immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... system. 866.5200 Section 866.5200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5200 Carbonic anhydrase B and C immunological test system. (a) Identification. A...

  2. 21 CFR 866.5200 - Carbonic anhydrase B and C immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... system. 866.5200 Section 866.5200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5200 Carbonic anhydrase B and C immunological test system. (a) Identification. A...

  3. Structure and Metal Exchange in the Cadmium Carbonic anhydrase of Marine Diatoms

    SciTech Connect

    Xu,Y.; Feng, l.; Jeffrey, P.; Shi, Y.; Morel, F.

    2008-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase, a zinc enzyme found in organisms from all kingdoms, catalyses the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide and is used for inorganic carbon acquisition by phytoplankton. In the oceans, where zinc is nearly depleted, diatoms use cadmium as a catalytic metal atom in cadmium carbonic anhydrase (CDCA). Here we report the crystal structures of CDCA in four distinct forms: cadmium-bound, zinc-bound, metal-free and acetate-bound. Despite lack of sequence homology, CDCA is a structural mimic of a functional {beta}-carbonic anhydrase dimer, with striking similarity in the spatial organization of the active site residues. CDCA readily exchanges cadmium and zinc at its active site--an apparently unique adaptation to oceanic life that is explained by a stable opening of the metal coordinating site in the absence of metal. Given the central role of diatoms in exporting carbon to the deep sea, their use of cadmium in an enzyme critical for carbon acquisition establishes a remarkable link between the global cycles of cadmium and carbon.

  4. Directed evolution of an ultrastable carbonic anhydrase for highly efficient carbon capture from flue gas

    PubMed Central

    Alvizo, Oscar; Nguyen, Luan J.; Savile, Christopher K.; Bresson, Jamie A.; Lakhapatri, Satish L.; Solis, Earl O. P.; Fox, Richard J.; Broering, James M.; Benoit, Michael R.; Zimmerman, Sabrina A.; Novick, Scott J.; Liang, Jack; Lalonde, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is one of nature’s fastest enzymes and can dramatically improve the economics of carbon capture under demanding environments such as coal-fired power plants. The use of CA to accelerate carbon capture is limited by the enzyme’s sensitivity to the harsh process conditions. Using directed evolution, the properties of a β-class CA from Desulfovibrio vulgaris were dramatically enhanced. Iterative rounds of library design, library generation, and high-throughput screening identified highly stable CA variants that tolerate temperatures of up to 107 °C in the presence of 4.2 M alkaline amine solvent at pH >10.0. This increase in thermostability and alkali tolerance translates to a 4,000,000-fold improvement over the natural enzyme. At pilot scale, the evolved catalyst enhanced the rate of CO2 absorption 25-fold compared with the noncatalyzed reaction. PMID:25368146

  5. Directed evolution of an ultrastable carbonic anhydrase for highly efficient carbon capture from flue gas

    DOE PAGES

    Alvizo, Oscar; Nguyen, Luan J.; Savile, Christopher K.; ...

    2014-11-03

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is one of nature’s fastest enzymes and can dramatically improve the economics of carbon capture under demanding environments such as coal-fired power plants. The use of CA to accelerate carbon capture is limited by the enzyme’s sensitivity to the harsh process conditions. Using directed evolution, the properties of a β-class CA from Desulfovibrio vulgaris were dramatically enhanced. Iterative rounds of library design, library generation, and high-throughput screening identified highly stable CA variants that tolerate temperatures of up to 107 °C in the presence of 4.2 M alkaline amine solvent at pH >10.0. This increase in thermostability andmore » alkali tolerance translates to a 4,000,000-fold improvement over the natural enzyme. In conclusion, at pilot scale, the evolved catalyst enhanced the rate of CO2 absorption 25-fold compared with the noncatalyzed reaction.« less

  6. Directed evolution of an ultrastable carbonic anhydrase for highly efficient carbon capture from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Alvizo, Oscar; Nguyen, Luan J.; Savile, Christopher K.; Bresson, Jamie A.; Lakhapatri, Satish L.; Solis, Earl O. P.; Fox, Richard J.; Broering, James M.; Benoit, Michael R.; Zimmerman, Sabrina A.; Novick, Scott J.; Liang, Jack; Lalonde, James J.

    2014-11-03

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is one of nature’s fastest enzymes and can dramatically improve the economics of carbon capture under demanding environments such as coal-fired power plants. The use of CA to accelerate carbon capture is limited by the enzyme’s sensitivity to the harsh process conditions. Using directed evolution, the properties of a β-class CA from Desulfovibrio vulgaris were dramatically enhanced. Iterative rounds of library design, library generation, and high-throughput screening identified highly stable CA variants that tolerate temperatures of up to 107 °C in the presence of 4.2 M alkaline amine solvent at pH >10.0. This increase in thermostability and alkali tolerance translates to a 4,000,000-fold improvement over the natural enzyme. In conclusion, at pilot scale, the evolved catalyst enhanced the rate of CO2 absorption 25-fold compared with the noncatalyzed reaction.

  7. Targeting carbonic anhydrase to treat diabetic retinopathy: Emerging evidences and encouraging results

    SciTech Connect

    Weiwei, Zhang; Hu, Renming

    2009-12-18

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of vision loss among working-age populations in developed countries. Current treatment options are limited to tight glycemic, blood pressure control and destructive laser surgery. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a group of enzymes involving in the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. Emerging evidences reveal CA inhibitors hold the promise for the treatment of DR. This article summarizes encouraging results from clinical and animal studies, and reviews the possible mechanisms.

  8. Structural Basis for the Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori α-Carbonic Anhydrase by Sulfonamides

    PubMed Central

    Modakh, Joyanta K.; Liu, Yu C.; Machuca, Mayra A.; Supuran, Claudiu T.; Roujeinikova, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Periplasmic α-carbonic anhydrase of Helicobacter pylori (HpαCA), an oncogenic bacterium in the human stomach, is essential for its acclimation to low pH. It catalyses the conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate using Zn(II) as the cofactor. In H. pylori, Neisseria spp., Brucella suis and Streptococcus pneumoniae this enzyme is the target for sulfonamide antibacterial agents. We present structural analysis correlated with inhibition data, on the complexes of HpαCA with two pharmacological inhibitors of human carbonic anhydrases, acetazolamide and methazolamide. This analysis reveals that two sulfonamide oxygen atoms of the inhibitors are positioned proximal to the putative location of the oxygens of the CO2 substrate in the Michaelis complex, whilst the zinc-coordinating sulfonamide nitrogen occupies the position of the catalytic water molecule. The structures are consistent with acetazolamide acting as site-directed, nanomolar inhibitors of the enzyme by mimicking its reaction transition state. Additionally, inhibitor binding provides insights into the channel for substrate entry and product exit. This analysis has implications for the structure-based design of inhibitors of bacterial carbonic anhydrases. PMID:26010545

  9. Sulfa drugs as inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase: new targets for the old drugs.

    PubMed

    al-Rashida, Mariya; Hussain, Sajad; Hamayoun, Mehwish; Altaf, Aisha; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2014-01-01

    Sulfa drugs are well-known antibacterial agents containing N-substituted sulfonamide group on para position of aniline ring (NH2RSO2NHR'). In this study 2,4-dichloro-1,3,5-triazine derivatives of sulfa drugs, sulfamerazine (1b), sulfaquinoxaline (2b), sulfadiazine (3b), sulfadimidine (4b), and sulfachloropyrazine (5b) (1a-5a) were synthesized and characterized. Their carbonic anhydrase inhibition activity was evaluated against bovine cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isozyme II (bCA II). For the sake of comparison the CA inhibition activity of the parent sulfa drugs (1b-5b) was also evaluated. A significant increase in CA inhibition activity of sulfa drugs was observed upon substitution with 2,4-dichloro-1,3,5-triazine moiety. Molecular docking studies were carried out to highlight binding site interactions. ADME properties were calculated to evaluate drug likeness of the compounds.

  10. Carbonic anhydrase activity in the red blood cells of sea level and high altitude natives.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, J; Caceda, R; Gamboa, A; Monge-C, C

    2000-01-01

    Red blood cell carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity has not been studied in high altitude natives. Because CA is an intraerythocytic enzyme and high altitude natives are polycythemic, it is important to know if the activity of CA per red cell volume is different from that of their sea level counterparts. Blood was collected from healthy subjects living in Lima (150m) and from twelve subjects from Cerro de Pasco (4330m), and hematocrit and carbonic anhydrase activity were measured. As expected, the high altitude natives had significantly higher hematocrits than the sea level controls (p = 0.0002). No difference in the CA activity per milliliter of red cells was found between the two populations. There was no correlation between the hematocrit and CA activity.

  11. Discovery of Potent Carbonic Anhydrase and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: 2-Aminoindan β-Lactam Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Genç, Hayriye; Kalin, Ramazan; Köksal, Zeynep; Sadeghian, Nastaran; Kocyigit, Umit M.; Zengin, Mustafa; Gülçin, İlhami; Özdemir, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    β-Lactams are pharmacologically important compounds because of their various biological uses, including antibiotic and so on. β-Lactams were synthesized from benzylidene-inden derivatives and acetoxyacetyl chloride. The inhibitory effect of these compounds was examined for human carbonic anhydrase I and II (hCA I, and II) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The results reveal that β-lactams are inhibitors of hCA I, II and AChE. The Ki values of β-lactams (2a–k) were 0.44–6.29 nM against hCA I, 0.93–8.34 nM against hCA II, and 0.25–1.13 nM against AChE. Our findings indicate that β-lactams (2a–k) inhibit both carbonic anhydrases (CA) isoenzymes and AChE at low nanomolar concentrations. PMID:27775608

  12. A class of sulfonamide carbonic anhydrase inhibitors with neuropathic pain modulating effects.

    PubMed

    Carta, Fabrizio; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Pinard, Melissa; Ghelardini, Carla; Scozzafava, Andrea; McKenna, Robert; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-04-15

    A series of benzene sulfonamide carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors which incorporate lipophilic 4-alkoxy- and 4-aryloxy moieties, together with several derivatives of ethoxzolamide and sulfanilamide are reported. These derivatives were investigated as inhibitors of the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) of which multiple isoforms are known, and some appear to be involved in pain. These sulfonamides showed modest inhibition against the cytosolic isoform CA I, but were generally effective, low nanomolar CA II, VII, IX and XII inhibitors. X-ray crystallographic data for the adduct of several such sulfonamides with CA II allowed us to rationalize the good inhibition data. In a mice model of neuropathic pain induced by oxaliplatin, one of the strong CA II/VII inhibitors reported here induced a long lasting pain relieving effect, a fact never observed earlier. This is the first report of rationally designed sulfonamide CA inhibitors with pain effective modulating effects.

  13. Co-production of carbonic anhydrase and phycobiliproteins by Spirulina sp. and Synechococcus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Ores, Joana da Costa; Amarante, Marina Campos Assumpção de; Kalil, Susana Juliano

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the co-production of the carbonic anhydrase, C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin during cyanobacteria growth. Spirulina sp. LEB 18 demonstrated a high potential for simultaneously obtaining the three products, achieving a carbonic anhydrase (CA) productivity of 0.97U/L/d and the highest C-phycocyanin (PC, 5.9μg/mL/d) and allophycocyanin (APC, 4.3μg/mL/d) productivities. In the extraction study, high extraction yields were obtained from Spirulina using an ultrasonic homogenizer (CA: 25.5U/g; PC: 90mg/g; APC: 70mg/g). From the same biomass, it was possible to obtain three biomolecules that present high industrial value.

  14. Borate-catalyzed carbon dioxide hydration via the carbonic anhydrase mechanism.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dongfang; Thee, Hendy; da Silva, Gabriel; Chen, Jian; Fei, Weiyang; Kentish, Sandra; Stevens, Geoffrey W

    2011-06-01

    The hydration of CO(2) plays a critical role in carbon capture and geoengineering technologies currently under development to mitigate anthropogenic global warming and in environmental processes such as ocean acidification. Here we reveal that borate catalyzes the conversion of CO(2) to HCO(3)(-) via the same fundamental mechanism as the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which is responsible for CO(2) hydration in the human body. In this mechanism the tetrahydroxyborate ion, B(OH)(4)(-), is the active form of boron that undergoes direct reaction with CO(2). In addition to being able to accelerate CO(2) hydration in alkaline solvents used for carbon capture, we hypothesize that this mechanism controls CO(2) uptake by certain saline bodies of water, such as Mono Lake (California), where previously inexplicable influx rates of inorganic carbon have created unique chemistry. The new understanding of CO(2) hydration provided here should lead to improved models for the carbon cycle in highly saline bodies of water and to advances in carbon capture and geoengineering technology.

  15. Carbonic anhydrases are upstream regulators of CO2-controlled stomatal movements in guard cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Honghong; Boisson-Dernier, Aurélien; Israelsson-Nordström, Maria; Böhmer, Maik; Xue, Shaowu; Ries, Amber; Godoski, Jan; Kuhn, Josef M; Schroeder, Julian I

    2010-01-01

    The continuing rise in atmospheric CO2 causes stomatal pores in leaves to close and thus globally affects CO2 influx into plants, water use efficiency and leaf heat stress. However, the CO2-binding proteins that control this response remain unknown. Moreover, which cell type responds to CO2, mesophyll or guard cells, and whether photosynthesis mediates this response are matters of debate. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana double-mutant plants in the beta-carbonic anhydrases betaCA1 and betaCA4 show impaired CO2-regulation of stomatal movements and increased stomatal density, but retain functional abscisic-acid and blue-light responses. betaCA-mediated CO2-triggered stomatal movements are not, in first-order, linked to whole leaf photosynthesis and can function in guard cells. Furthermore, guard cell betaca-overexpressing plants exhibit instantaneous enhanced water use efficiency. Guard cell expression of mammalian alphaCAII complements the reduced sensitivity of ca1 ca4 plants, showing that carbonic anhydrase-mediated catalysis is an important mechanism for betaCA-mediated CO2-induced stomatal closure and patch clamp analyses indicate that CO2/HCO3- transfers the signal to anion channel regulation. These findings, together with ht1-2 (ref. 9) epistasis analysis demonstrate that carbonic anhydrases function early in the CO2 signalling pathway, which controls gas-exchange between plants and the atmosphere.

  16. Specific arginine modification at the phosphatase site of muscle carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Pullan, L M; Noltmann, E A

    1985-01-29

    Mammalian carbonic anhydrase III has previously been shown to catalyze the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate in addition to possessing the conventional CO2 hydratase and p-nitrophenylacetate esterase activities. Modification of pig muscle carbonic anhydrase III with the arginine reagent phenylglyoxal yielded two clearly distinctive results. Reaction of the enzyme with phenylglyoxal at concentrations equivalent to those of the enzyme yielded stoichiometric inactivation titration of the enzyme's phosphatase activity, approaching 100% loss of activity with the simultaneous modification of one arginine residue, the latter based on a 1:1 reaction of phenylglyoxal with arginine. At this low ratio of phenylglyoxal to enzyme, neither the CO2 hydratase activity nor the acetate esterase activity was affected. When the modification was performed with a significant excess of phenylglyoxal, CO2 hydratase and acetate esterase activities were diminished as well. That loss of activity was accompanied by the incorporation of an additional half dozen phenylglyoxals and, presumably, the modification of an equal number of arginine residues. The data in their entirety are interpreted to show that the p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity is a unique property of carbonic anhydrase III and that excessive amounts of the arginine-modifying reagent lead to unspecific structural changes of the enzyme as a result of which all of its enzymatic activities are inactivated.

  17. Characterization and inhibition studies of carbonic anhydrase from gill of Russian Sturgeon Fish (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii).

    PubMed

    Dinçer, Barbaros; Ekinci, Arife Pınar; Akyüz, Gülay; Kurtoğlu, İlker Zeki

    2016-12-01

    An α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) was purified and characterized kinetically from gill of Acipenser gueldenstaedtii as an endangered sturgeon species. The carbonic anhydrase was purified 66-folds with yield 20.7% by Sepharose-4B-l-tyrosine-sulfanilamide affinity column and the specific activity was determined as 222.2 EU/mg protein. Km and Vmax kinetic values for gill carbonic anhydrase were calculated by a Lineweaver-Burk graph using p-nitrophenol acetate (p-NPA) as a substrate, and was defined as 2.5 mM and 5 × 10(6 )μM/min, respectively. It was observed that CA from the sturgeon gill in the presence of the sulfanilamide and acetazolamide as an inhibitor had very low IC50 values such as 13.0 and 0.1 μM, respectively. In addition, it was determined that the enzyme was inhibited by Fe(2+,) Co(2+,) Ni(2+), and Zn(2+)-Ba(2+) with the IC50 values of 0.2, 1.7, 1.2, and 1.1 mM, respectively.

  18. An investigation of carbonic anhydrase activity in the gills and blood plasma of brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus), longnose skate (Raja rhina), and spotted raffish (Hydrolagus colliei).

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Kathleen M; Shah, Bina; Szebedinszky, Cheryl

    2002-01-01

    Separated plasma and whole blood non-bicarbonate buffering capacities, together with plasma and gill carbonic anhydrase activities and endogenous plasma carbonic anhydrase inhibitor activity were investigated in three species of fish: the brown bullhead (Ameirus nebulosus), a teleost; the longnose skate (Raja rhina), an elasmobranch; and the spotted ratfish (Hydrolagus colliei), a chimaeran. The objective was to test the hypothesis that species possessing gill membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase and/or plasma carbonic anhydrase activity would also exhibit high plasma nonbicarbonate buffering capacity relative to whole blood non-bicarbonate buffering capacity and would lack an endogenous plasma carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Separated plasma non-bicarbonate buffering capacity constituted > or = 40% of whole-blood buffering in all three species. In addition, all species lacked an endogenous plasma carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Separated plasma from skate and ratfish contained carbonic anhydrase activity, whereas bullhead plasma did not. Examination of the subcellular distribution and characteristics of branchial carbonic anhydrase activity revealed that the majority of branchial carbonic anhydrase activity originated from the cytoplasmic fraction in all species, with only 3-5% being associated with a microsomal fraction. The microsomal carbonic anhydrase activity of bullhead and ratfish was significantly reduced by washing, indicating the presence of carbonic anhydrase activity that was not integrally associated with the membrane pellet, microsomal carbonic anhydrase activity in skate was unaffected by washing. In addition, microsomal carbonic anhydrase activity from skate and ratfish but not bullhead gills was released to a significant extent from its membrane association by treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. The results obtained for skate are consistent with published data for dogfish, suggesting that the possession of branchial membrane

  19. Engineering de novo disulfide bond in bacterial α-type carbonic anhydrase for thermostable carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Byung Hoon; Park, Tae Yoon; Park, Hyun June; Yeon, Young Joo; Yoo, Young Je; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2016-07-01

    Exploiting carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme that rapidly catalyzes carbon dioxide hydration, is an attractive biomimetic route for carbon sequestration due to its environmental compatibility and potential economic viability. However, the industrial applications of CA are strongly hampered by the unstable nature of enzymes. In this work, we introduced in silico designed, de novo disulfide bond in a bacterial α-type CA to enhance thermostability. Three variants were selected and expressed in Escherichia coli with an additional disulfide bridge. One of the variants showed great enhancement in terms of both kinetic and thermodynamic stabilities. This improvement could be attributed to the loss of conformational entropy of the unfolded state, showing increased rigidity. The variant showed an upward-shifted optimal temperature and appeared to be thermoactivated, which compensated for the lowered activity at 25 °C. Collectively, the variant constructed by the rapid and effective de novo disulfide engineering can be used as an efficient biocatalyst for carbon sequestration under high temperature conditions.

  20. Engineering de novo disulfide bond in bacterial α-type carbonic anhydrase for thermostable carbon sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Byung Hoon; Park, Tae Yoon; Park, Hyun June; Yeon, Young Joo; Yoo, Young Je; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme that rapidly catalyzes carbon dioxide hydration, is an attractive biomimetic route for carbon sequestration due to its environmental compatibility and potential economic viability. However, the industrial applications of CA are strongly hampered by the unstable nature of enzymes. In this work, we introduced in silico designed, de novo disulfide bond in a bacterial α-type CA to enhance thermostability. Three variants were selected and expressed in Escherichia coli with an additional disulfide bridge. One of the variants showed great enhancement in terms of both kinetic and thermodynamic stabilities. This improvement could be attributed to the loss of conformational entropy of the unfolded state, showing increased rigidity. The variant showed an upward-shifted optimal temperature and appeared to be thermoactivated, which compensated for the lowered activity at 25 °C. Collectively, the variant constructed by the rapid and effective de novo disulfide engineering can be used as an efficient biocatalyst for carbon sequestration under high temperature conditions. PMID:27385052

  1. Mechanistic insights into biomimetic carbonic anhydrase action catalyzed by doped carbon nanotubes and graphene.

    PubMed

    Verma, Manju; Deshpande, Parag A

    2017-03-29

    Electronic structural analyses of hydrogen terminated metal doped carbon nanotube/graphene (M-CNT/Gr, MN3-CNT/Gr, M = Ru/Rh) and ruthenium cluster decorated carbon nanotube/graphene (Ru4-CNT/Gr) were carried out for examining the biomimetic catalytic activity towards CO2 hydration reaction. The carbonic anhydrase action was followed for the reaction of CO2 with H2O resulting in a bicarbonate ion and a proton. All the catalysts were found to be active for CO2 hydration and the mechanism proved them to be biomimetic. Interconversion of CO2 to a HCO3(-) ion took place with five elementary steps viz. OH(-) formation by H2O dissociation, linear CO2 complexation, CO2 bending by nucleophilic attack of an OH(-) ion over CO2, HCO3(-) ion formation by intramolecular proton migration and HCO3(-) ion displacement by H2O addition. Free energy landscapes over the catalysts were developed for CO2 hydration reaction. The activation energies of H2O dissociation and CO2 bending were observed to be substantially smaller over Ru4-CNT when compared to those over the other catalysts. Ru4-CNT was found to be the best catalyst for CO2 hydration with the rate limiting step being HCO3(-) ion formation.

  2. Oxygen-18 incorporation into malic acid during nocturnal carbon dioxide fixation in crassulacean acid metabolism plants: a new approach to estimating in vivo carbonic anhydrase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Holtum, J.A.M.; Summons, R.; Roeske, C.A.; Comins, H.N.; O'Leary, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants fix carbon dioxide at night by the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate. If CO2 fixation is conducted with TC YO2, then in the absence of carbonic anhydrase, the malate formed by dark CO2 fixation should also contain high levels of carbon-13 and oxygen-18. Conversely, if carbonic anhydrase is present and highly active, oxygen exchange between CO2 and cellular H2O will occur more rapidly than carboxylation, and the ( TC) malate formed will contain little or no oxygen-18 above the natural abundance level. The presence of oxygen-18 in these molecules can be detected either by nuclear magnetic resonance or by mass spectrometry. Studies of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in the presence and absence of carbonic anhydrase in vitro confirm the validity of the method. When CAM plants are studied by this method, we find that most species show incorporation of a significant amount of oxygen-18. Comparison of these results with results of isotope fractionation and gas exchange studies permits calculation of the in vivo activity of carbonic anhydrase toward HCO3 compared with that of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. The ratio (carbonic anhydrase activity/phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity) is species dependent and varies from a low of about 7 for Ananas comosus to values near 20 for Hoya carnosa and Bryophyllum pinnatum, 40 for Kalanchoee daigremontiana, and 100 or greater for Bryophyllum tubiflorum, Kalanchoee serrata, and Kalanchoae tomentosa. Carbonic anhydrase activity increases relative to phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity at higher temperature. 37 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

  3. Engineered Escherichia coli with Periplasmic Carbonic Anhydrase as a Biocatalyst for CO2 Sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Byung Hoon; Kim, Im Gyu; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Kang, Dong Gyun

    2013-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase is an enzyme that reversibly catalyzes the hydration of carbon dioxide (CO2). It has been suggested recently that this remarkably fast enzyme can be used for sequestration of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, making this a promising alternative for chemical CO2 mitigation. To promote the economical use of enzymes, we engineered the carbonic anhydrase from Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ngCA) in the periplasm of Escherichia coli, thereby creating a bacterial whole-cell catalyst. We then investigated the application of this system to CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation, a process with the potential to store large quantities of CO2. ngCA was highly expressed in the periplasm of E. coli in a soluble form, and the recombinant bacterial cell displayed the distinct ability to hydrate CO2 compared with its cytoplasmic ngCA counterpart and previously reported whole-cell CA systems. The expression of ngCA in the periplasm of E. coli greatly accelerated the rate of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) formation and exerted a striking impact on the maximal amount of CaCO3 produced under conditions of relatively low pH. It was also shown that the thermal stability of the periplasmic enzyme was significantly improved. These results demonstrate that the engineered bacterial cell with periplasmic ngCA can successfully serve as an efficient biocatalyst for CO2 sequestration. PMID:23974145

  4. Engineered Escherichia coli with periplasmic carbonic anhydrase as a biocatalyst for CO2 sequestration.

    PubMed

    Jo, Byung Hoon; Kim, Im Gyu; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Kang, Dong Gyun; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2013-11-01

    Carbonic anhydrase is an enzyme that reversibly catalyzes the hydration of carbon dioxide (CO2). It has been suggested recently that this remarkably fast enzyme can be used for sequestration of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, making this a promising alternative for chemical CO2 mitigation. To promote the economical use of enzymes, we engineered the carbonic anhydrase from Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ngCA) in the periplasm of Escherichia coli, thereby creating a bacterial whole-cell catalyst. We then investigated the application of this system to CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation, a process with the potential to store large quantities of CO2. ngCA was highly expressed in the periplasm of E. coli in a soluble form, and the recombinant bacterial cell displayed the distinct ability to hydrate CO2 compared with its cytoplasmic ngCA counterpart and previously reported whole-cell CA systems. The expression of ngCA in the periplasm of E. coli greatly accelerated the rate of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) formation and exerted a striking impact on the maximal amount of CaCO3 produced under conditions of relatively low pH. It was also shown that the thermal stability of the periplasmic enzyme was significantly improved. These results demonstrate that the engineered bacterial cell with periplasmic ngCA can successfully serve as an efficient biocatalyst for CO2 sequestration.

  5. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Part 551 Metal Complexes of 1,3,4-Thiadiazole-2-Sulfonamide Derivatives: In Vitro Inhibition Studies With Carbonic Anhydrase Isozymes I, II and IV

    PubMed Central

    Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio; Ilies, Marc A.; Jitianu, Andrei

    1998-01-01

    Coordination compounds of 5-chloroacetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide (Hcaz) with V(IV), Cr(lll), Fe(ll), Co(ll), Ni(ll) and Cu(ll) have been prepared and characterized by standard procedures (spectroscopic, magnetic, EPR, thermogravimetric and conductimetric measurements). Some of these compounds showed very good in vitro inhibitory properties against three physiologically relevant carbonic anhydrase (CA)isozymes, i.e., CA I, II, and IV. The differences between these isozymes in susceptibility to inhibition by these metal complexes is discussed in relationship to the characteristic features of their active sites, and is rationalized in terms useful for developing isozyme-specific CA inhibitors. PMID:18475829

  6. Cadmium-Containing Carbonic Anhydrase CDCA1 in Marine Diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii

    PubMed Central

    Alterio, Vincenzo; Langella, Emma; De Simone, Giuseppina; Monti, Simona Maria

    2015-01-01

    The Carbon Concentration Mechanism (CCM) allows phytoplakton species to accumulate the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) necessary for an efficient photosynthesis even under carbon dioxide limitation. In this mechanism of primary importance for diatoms, a key role is played by carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes which catalyze the reversible hydration of CO2, thus taking part in the acquisition of inorganic carbon for photosynthesis. A novel CA, named CDCA1, has been recently discovered in the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. CDCA1 is a cambialistic enzyme since it naturally uses Cd2+ as catalytic metal ion, but if necessary can spontaneously exchange Cd2+ to Zn2+. Here, the biochemical and structural features of CDCA1 enzyme will be presented together with its putative biotechnological applications for the detection of metal ions in seawaters. PMID:25815892

  7. A New Peptide Ligand for Targeting Human Carbonic Anhydrase IX, Identified through the Phage Display Technology

    PubMed Central

    Askoxylakis, Vasileios; Garcia-Boy, Regine; Rana, Shoaib; Krämer, Susanne; Hebling, Ulrike; Mier, Walter; Altmann, Annette; Markert, Annette; Debus, Jürgen; Haberkorn, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a transmembrane enzyme found to be overexpressed in various tumors and associated with tumor hypoxia. Ligands binding this target may be used to visualize hypoxia, tumor manifestation or treat tumors by endoradiotherapy. Methods Phage display was performed with a 12 amino acid phage display library by panning against a recombinant extracellular domain of human carbonic anhydrase IX. The identified peptide CaIX-P1 was chemically synthesized and tested in vitro on various cell lines and in vivo in Balb/c nu/nu mice carrying subcutaneously transplanted tumors. Binding, kinetic and competition studies were performed on the CAIX positive human renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52, the CAIX negative human renal cell carcinoma cell line CaKi 2, the human colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT 116 and on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Organ distribution studies were carried out in mice, carrying SKRC 52 tumors. RNA expression of CAIX in HCT 116 and HUVEC cells was investigated by quantitative real time PCR. Results In vitro binding experiments of 125I-labeled-CaIX-P1 revealed an increased uptake of the radioligand in the CAIX positive renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52. Binding of the radioligand in the colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT 116 increased with increasing cell density and correlated with the mRNA expression of CAIX. Radioligand uptake was inhibited up to 90% by the unlabeled CaIX-P1 peptide, but not by the negative control peptide octreotide at the same concentration. No binding was demonstrated in CAIX negative CaKi 2 and HUVEC cells. Organ distribution studies revealed a higher accumulation in SKRC 52 tumors than in heart, spleen, liver, muscle, intestinum and brain, but a lower uptake compared to blood and kidney. Conclusions These data indicate that CaIX-P1 is a promising candidate for the development of new ligands targeting human carbonic anhydrase IX. PMID:21209841

  8. A Case of Carbonic Anhydrase Type 2 Deficiency Syndrome with Autistic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    KILIÇ, Birim Günay; UĞUR, Çağatay; SADAY DUMAN, Nagihan; AKÇAKIN, Melda

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic Anhydrase Type II Deficiency Syndrome (CADS) is a disease with an autosomal recessive inheritance that mainly includes characteristics of osteopetrosis, renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification. Pathological fractures, poor vision due to cranial nerve pressure, wide forehead, disproportionate mouth and jaw, physical and mental developmental delay are other features. In this paper, we present the case of a patient who was referred to our department with a diagnosis of CADS and diagnosed with autistic disorder after a psychiatric evaluation. We performed a detailed literature search, however, we did not find any report of co-existence of CADS (osteopetrosis intermediate type) and autistic disorder.

  9. Saccharin: a lead compound for structure-based drug design of carbonic anhydrase IX inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Brian P; Hendon, Alex M; Driscoll, Jenna M; Rankin, Gregory M; Poulsen, Sally-Ann; Supuran, Claudiu T; McKenna, Robert

    2015-02-15

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a key modulator of aggressive tumor behavior and a prognostic marker and target for several cancers. Saccharin (SAC) based compounds may provide an avenue to overcome CA isoform specificity, as they display both nanomolar affinity and preferential binding, for CA IX compared to CA II (>50-fold for SAC and >1000-fold when SAC is conjugated to a carbohydrate moiety). The X-ray crystal structures of SAC and a SAC-carbohydrate conjugate bound to a CA IX-mimic are presented and compared to CA II. The structures provide substantial new insight into the mechanism of SAC selective CA isoform inhibition.

  10. Carbonic Anhydrase as Pollution Biomarker: An Ancient Enzyme with a New Use

    PubMed Central

    Lionetto, Maria Giulia; Caricato, Roberto; Giordano, Maria Elena; Erroi, Elisa; Schettino, Trifone

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of cellular and sub-cellular responses to chemical contaminants (referred to as biomarkers) in living organisms represents a recent tool in environmental monitoring. The review focuses on carbonic anhydrase, a ubiquitous metalloenzyme which plays key roles in a wide variety of physiological processes involving CO2 and HCO3−. In the last decade a number of studies have demonstrated the sensitivity of this enzyme to pollutants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals in both humans and wildlife. The review analyses these studies and discusses the potentiality of this enzyme as novel biomarker in environmental monitoring and assessment. PMID:23202827

  11. Saccharin: a Lead Compound for Structure-Based Drug Design of Carbonic Anhydrase IX Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Brian P.; Hendon, Alex M.; Driscoll, Jenna M.; Rankin, Gregory M.; Poulsen, Sally-Ann; Supuran, Claudiu T.; McKenna, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a key modulator of aggressive tumor behavior and a prognostic marker and target for several cancers. Saccharin (SAC) based compounds may provide an avenue to overcome CA isoform specificity, as they display both nanomolar affinity and preferential binding, for CA IX compared to CA II (>50-fold for SAC and >1000-fold when SAC is conjugated to a carbohydrate moiety). The X-ray crystal structures of SAC and a SAC-carbohydrate conjugate bound to a CA IX-mimic are presented and compared to CA II. The structures provide substantial new insight into the mechanism of SAC selective CA isoform inhibition. PMID:25614109

  12. Carbonic anhydrase II-induced selection of inhibitors from a dynamic combinatorial library of Schiff's bases.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Gihane; Petit, Eddy; Supuran, Claudiu T; Winum, Jean-Yves; Barboiu, Mihail

    2009-11-01

    A dynamic combinatorial library (DCL) has been generated under thermodynamic control by using the aminocarbonyl/imine interconversion as reversible chemistry, combined with non-covalent binding within the active site of the metalloenzyme human carbonic anhydrase II (hCA II, EC 4.2.1.1). The high affinity of hCA II isozyme towards some sulfonamide inhibitors obtained here was used to select from the dynamic library specific inhibitors of this isoform. These results point out to the possibility of identifying sulfonamide amplified compounds presenting potent inhibition and high yield of formation in the presence of the isoform(s) towards which the inhibitors were designed.

  13. Carbon dioxide capture using Escherichia coli expressing carbonic anhydrase in a foam bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Watson, Stuart K; Han, Zhenlin; Su, Wei Wen; Deshusses, Marc A; Kan, Eunsung

    2016-12-01

    The present study reports CO2 capture and conversion to bicarbonate using Escherichia coli expressing carbonic anhydrase (CA) on its cell surface in a novel foam bioreactor. The very large gas-liquid interfacial area in the foam bioreactor promoted rapid CO2 absorption while the CO2 in the aqueous phase was subsequently converted to bicarbonate ions by the CA. CO2 gas removal in air was investigated at various conditions such as gas velocity, cell density and CO2 inlet concentration. Regimes for kinetic and mass transfer limitations were defined. Very high removal rates of CO2 were observed: 9570 g CO2 m(-3) bioreactor h(-1) and a CO2 removal efficiency of 93% at 4% inlet CO2 when the gas retention time was 24 s, and cell concentration was 4 gdw L(-1). These performances are superior to earlier reports of experimental bioreactors using CA for CO2 capture. Overall, this bioreactor system has significant potential as an alternative CO2 capture technology.

  14. Eriocitrin and Apigenin as New Carbonic Anhydrase VA Inhibitors from a Virtual Screening of Calabrian Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Gidaro, Maria Concetta; Alcaro, Francesca; Carradori, Simone; Costa, Giosuè; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Alcaro, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we performed a structure-based virtual screening against five carbonic anhydrase isoforms using, as a ligand library, natural components of Citrus bergamia (Bergamot) and Allium cepa var. Tropea (red onion) sources, which are some typical Calabrian products. The most relevant Bergamot and red onion components, identified as potentially new hits by means of the computational work, were submitted to in vitro tests in order to confirm the ability to exert the predicted biological activity. Apigenin and eriocitrin were identified as new potent inhibitors of human carbonic anhydrase VA isozyme.

  15. CARBONIC ANHYDRASE ACTIVITY OF INTEGRAL-FUNCTIONAL COMPLEXES OF THYLAKOID MEMBRANES OF SPINACH CHLOROPLASTS.

    PubMed

    Semenihin, A V; Zolotareva, O K

    2015-01-01

    Isolated thylakoid membranes were disrupted by treatment with nonionic detergents digitonin or dodecyl maltoside. Solubilized polypeptide complexes were separated by native gel charge shift electrophoresis. The position of ATP-synthase complex and its isolated catalytic part (CF1) within gel was determined using the color reaction for ATPase activity. Due to the presence of cytochromes, the red band in unstained gels corresponded to the cytochrome b6f complex. Localization of the cytochrome b6f complex, ATP synthase and coupling CF1 in the native gel was confirmed by their subunit composition determined after SDS-electrophoretic analysis. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity in polypeptide zones of PS II, cytochrome b6f complex, and ATP-synthase CF1 was identified in native gels using indicator bromothymol blue. CA activity of isolated CF1 in solution was determined by infrared gas analysis as the rate of bicarbonate dehydration. The water-soluble acetazolamide, an inhibitor of CA, unlike lipophilic ethoxyzolamide inhibited CA activity of CF1 Thus, it was shown for the first time that ATP-synthase has a component which is capable of catalyzing the interconversion of forms of carbonic acid associated with proton exchange. The data obtained suggest the presence of multiple forms of carbonic anhydrase in the thylakoid membranes of spinach chloroplasts and confirm their involvement in the proton transfer to the ATP synthase.

  16. Identification and characterization of a gene encoding a vertebrate-type carbonic anhydrase in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Soltes-Rak, E; Mulligan, M E; Coleman, J R

    1997-01-01

    A gene (designated ecaA) encoding a vertebrate-like (alpha-type) carbonic anhydrase (CA) has been isolated from two disparate cyanobacteria, Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 and Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. The deduced amino acid sequences correspond to proteins of 29 and 26 kDa, respectively, and revealed significant sequence similarity to human CAI and CAII, as well as Chlamydomonas CAHI, including conservation of most active-site residues identified in the animal enzymes. Structural similarities between the animal and cyanobacterial enzymes extend to the levels of antigenicity, as the Anabaena protein cross-reacts with antisera derived against chicken CAII. Expression of the cyanobacterial ecaA is regulated by CO2 concentration and is highest in cells grown at elevated levels of CO2. Immunogold localization using an antibody derived against the ecaA protein indicated an extracellular location. Preliminary analysis of Synechococcus mutants in which ecaA has been inactivated by insertion of a drug resistance cassette suggests that extracellular carbonic anhydrase plays a role in inorganic-carbon accumulation by maintaining equilibrium levels of CO2 and HCO3- in the periplasm. PMID:9006032

  17. Catalytic activity of human carbonic anhydrase isoform IX is displayed both extra- and intracellularly.

    PubMed

    Klier, Michael; Jamali, Somayeh; Ames, Samantha; Schneider, Hans-Peter; Becker, Holger M; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2016-01-01

    Most carbonic anhydrases catalyse the reversible conversion of carbon dioxide to protons and bicarbonate, either as soluble cytosolic enzymes, in or at intracellular organelles, or at the extracellular face of the cell membrane as membrane-anchored proteins. Carbonic anhydrase isoform IX (CA IX), a membrane-bound enzyme with catalytic activity at the extracellular membrane surface, has come to prominence in recent years because of its association with hypoxic tissue, particularly tumours, often indicating poor prognosis. We have evaluated the catalytic activity of CA IX heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes by measuring the amplitude and rate of cytosolic pH changes as well as pH changes at the outer membrane surface (pHs ) during addition and removal of 5% CO2 /25 mm HCO3-, and by mass spectrometry. Our results indicate both extracellular and intracellular catalytic activity of CA IX. Reduced rates of CO2 -dependent intracellular pH changes after knockdown of CA IX confirmed these findings in two breast cancer cell lines: MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Our results demonstrate a new function of CA IX that may be important in the search for therapeutic cancer drugs targeting CA IX.

  18. CREB is a key negative regulator of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanqiao; Cheng, Zhenguo; Liu, Funan; Zhang, Hongyan; Li, Jiabin; Li, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX(CA9)is a member of the carbonic anhydrase family that catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide, and plays a key role in the regulation of pH. Although a large number of studies have shown that CA9 is strongly up-regulated by HIF1-α, little is known about the negative regulation mechanism of CA9 in cancer cells. Here we find that CREB is a key negative regulator of CA9 in gastric cancer. Over-expression of CREB can significantly repress the expression of CA9. Treating with anisomycin (ANS), an activator of p38, the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of CREB are both promoted, while the transcription of CA9 is repressed. Besides, our results firstly identify that CREB can recruit SIRT1 (class III HDACS) by adaptor protein p300, then repress the expression of CA9. These findings may contribute to understand the negative regulation mechanisms of CA9 in gastric cancer.

  19. Carbonic anhydrase III regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}2

    SciTech Connect

    Mitterberger, Maria C.; Kim, Geumsoo; Rostek, Ursula; Levine, Rodney L.; Zwerschke, Werner

    2012-05-01

    Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is an isoenzyme of the CA family. Because of its low specific anhydrase activity, physiological functions in addition to hydrating CO{sub 2} have been proposed. CAIII expression is highly induced in adipogenesis and CAIII is the most abundant protein in adipose tissues. The function of CAIII in both preadipocytes and adipocytes is however unknown. In the present study we demonstrate that adipogenesis is greatly increased in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from CAIII knockout (KO) mice, as demonstrated by a greater than 10-fold increase in the induction of fatty acid-binding protein-4 (FABP4) and increased triglyceride formation in CAIII{sup -/-} MEFs compared with CAIII{sup +/+} cells. To address the underlying mechanism, we investigated the expression of the two adipogenic key regulators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}2 (PPAR{gamma}2) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-{alpha}. We found a considerable (approximately 1000-fold) increase in the PPAR{gamma}2 expression in the CAIII{sup -/-} MEFs. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated knockdown of endogenous CAIII in NIH 3T3-L1 preadipocytes resulted in a significant increase in the induction of PPAR{gamma}2 and FABP4. When both CAIII and PPAR{gamma}2 were knocked down, FABP4 was not induced. We conclude that down-regulation of CAIII in preadipocytes enhances adipogenesis and that CAIII is a regulator of adipogenic differentiation which acts at the level of PPAR{gamma}2 gene expression. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We discover a novel function of Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that CAIII is a regulator of adipogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrate that CAIII acts at the level of PPAR{gamma}2 gene expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our data contribute to a better understanding of the role of CAIII in fat tissue.

  20. Distinct Cellular Locations of Carbonic Anhydrases Mediate Carbon Dioxide Control of Stomatal Movements1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Honghong; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Occhipinti, Rossana; Ries, Amber; Böhmer, Maik; You, Lei; Xiao, Chuanlei; Engineer, Cawas B.; Boron, Walter F.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) in leaves closes stomatal apertures. Research has shown key functions of the β-carbonic anhydrases (βCA1 and βCA4) in rapid CO2-induced stomatal movements by catalytic transmission of the CO2 signal in guard cells. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, because initial studies indicate that these Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) βCAs are targeted to distinct intracellular compartments upon expression in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) cells. Which cellular location of these enzymes plays a key role in native guard cells in CO2-regulated stomatal movements remains unknown. Here, we express fluorescently tagged CAs in guard cells of ca1ca4 double-mutant plants and show that the specific locations of βCA4 at the plasma membrane and βCA1 in native guard cell chloroplasts each can mediate rapid CO2 control of stomatal movements. Localization and complementation analyses using a mammalian αCAII-yellow fluorescent protein in guard cells further show that cytoplasmic localization is also sufficient to restore CO2 regulation of stomatal conductance. Mathematical modeling of cellular CO2 catalysis suggests that the dynamics of the intracellular HCO3− concentration change in guard cells can be driven by plasma membrane and cytoplasmic localizations of CAs but not as clearly by chloroplast targeting. Moreover, modeling supports the notion that the intracellular HCO3− concentration dynamics in guard cells are a key mechanism in mediating CO2-regulated stomatal movements but that an additional chloroplast role of CAs exists that has yet to be identified. PMID:26243620

  1. Kinetics of Formation of Cobalt(II)- and Nickel(II) Carbonic Anhydrase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuate, Robert S.; Reardon, John E.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the kinetic behavior associated with the interaction of metal ions with apocarbonic anhydrase, focusing on the formation of two metallocarbonic anhydrase--the biochemically active Co(II) and the inactive Ni(II)derivatives. (GA)

  2. Structural mechanics of the pH-dependent activity of beta-carbonic anhydrase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Covarrubias, Adrian Suarez; Bergfors, Terese; Jones, T Alwyn; Högbom, Martin

    2006-02-24

    Carbonic anhydrases catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to form bicarbonate, a reaction required for many functions, including carbon assimilation and pH homeostasis. Carbonic anhydrases are divided into at least three classes and are believed to share a zinc-hydroxide mechanism for carbon dioxide hydration. beta-carbonic anhydrases are broadly spread among the domains of life, and existing structures from different organisms show two distinct active site setups, one with three protein coordinations to the zinc (accessible) and the other with four (blocked). The latter is believed to be inconsistent with the zinc-hydroxide mechanism. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3588c gene, shown to be required for in vivo growth of the pathogen, encodes a beta-carbonic anhydrase with a steep pH dependence of its activity, being active at pH 8.4 but not at pH 7.5. We have recently solved the structure of this protein, which was a dimeric protein with a blocked active site. Here we present the structure of the thiocyanate complexed protein in a different crystal form. The protein now forms distinct tetramers and shows large structural changes, including a carboxylate shift yielding the accessible active site. This structure demonstrated for the first time that a beta-carbonic anhydrase can switch between the two states. A pH-dependent dimer to tetramer equilibrium was also demonstrated by dynamic light scattering measurements. The data presented here, therefore, suggest a carboxylate shift on/off switch for the enzyme, which may, in turn, be controlled by a dimer-to-tetramer equilibrium.

  3. Carbonic anhydrase in calcified endoskeleton: novel activity in biocalcification in alcyonarian.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Oomori, Tamotsu; Uehara, Tsuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a key enzyme in the chemical reaction of living organisms and has been found to be associated with calcification in a number of invertebrates including calcareous sponges, but until now no direct evidence has been advanced to show CA activity in alcyonarian corals. However, it is essential to understand the role of CA in the process of biocalcification in alcyonarian. Here we describe the novel activity of CA and its relationship to the formation of calcified hard tissues in alcyonarian coral, Lobophytum crassum. We find that two CA proteins, which were partially purified by electro-elution treatment, can control the morphology of CaCO(3) crystals and one of them is potentially involved in the process of biocalcification. Previously, we isolated CA from the total extract of alcyonarian, and further, we report here a single protein, which has both calcium-binding and CA activities and is responsible for CaCO(3) nucleation and crystal growth. This matrix protein inhibited the precipitation of CaCO(3) from a saturated solution containing CaCl(2) and NaHCO(3), indicating that it can act as a negative regulator for calcification in the sclerites of alcyonarians. The effect of an inhibitor on the enzyme activity was also examined. These findings strongly support the idea that carbonic anhydrase domain in alcyonarian is involved in the calcification process. Our observations strongly suggest that the matrix protein in alcyonarian coral is not only a structural protein but also a catalyst.

  4. Comparison of inhibition effects of some benzoic acid derivatives on sheep heart carbonic anhydrase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiliç, Deryanur; Yildiz, Melike; Şentürk, Murat; Erdoǧan, Orhan; Küfrevioǧlu, Ömer Irfan

    2016-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a family of metalloenzymes that requires Zn as a cofactor and catalyze the quick conversion of CO2 to HCO3- and H+. Inhibitors of the carbonic anhydrases (CAs) have medical usage of significant diseases such as glaucoma, epilepsy, gastroduodenal ulcers, acid-base disequilibria and neurological disorders. In the present study, inhibition of CA with some benzoic derivatives (1-6) were investigated. Sheep heart CA (shCA) enzyme was isolated by means of designed affinity chromatography gel (cellulose-benzyl-sulfanylamide) 42.45-fold in a yield of 44 % with 564.65 EU/mg. Purified shCA enzyme was used in vitro studies. In the studies, IC50 values were calculated for 3-aminobenzoic acid (1), 4-aminobenzoic acid (2), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), 2-benzoylbenzoic acid (4), 2,3-dimethoxybenzoic acid (5), and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid (6), showing the inhibition effects on the purified enzyme. Such molecules can be used as pioneer for discovery of novel effective CA inhibitors for medicinal chemistry applications.

  5. Characteristics of recombinant α-carbonic anhydrase of polyextremophilic bacterium Bacillus halodurans TSLV1.

    PubMed

    Faridi, Shazia; Satyanarayana, T

    2016-08-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a biocatalyst that catalyzes the hydration of CO2 to bicarbonate and protons, thus useful in mitigating green house effect by sequestering CO2 from various point sources. An alkalistable and moderately thermostable α- carbonic anhydrase encoding gene (BhCA) from Bacillus halodurans TSLV1 has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. A 31.4-fold enhancement in CA production was achieved due to cloning and expression in E. coli. About 50% of the CA produced was secreted when recombinant E. coli with BhCA-pET22b was cultivated in a medium with EDTA and lysozyme because of the efficient pelB leader sequence. rBhCA is a ∼75kDa homodimeric protein with a Tm of 72°C and T1/2 values of 66 and 24min at 50 and 60°C, respectively. SDM analysis revealed that H137, H139, H156 and H110 present in the active site play an important role in catalysis. Mineralization of CO2 using rBhCA led to the accelerated precipitation of CaCO3 in calcite form. rBhCA also functions as an efficient virtual peroxidase when Zn(2+) is substituted with Mn(2+).

  6. Carbonic Anhydrase is Required for Statoconia Homeostasis in Organ Cultures of Statocysts from Aplysia californica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedrozo, H. A.; Schwartz, Z.; Nakaya, H.; Harrison, J. L.; Dean, D. D.; Wiederhold, M. L.; Boyan, B. D.

    1995-01-01

    A novel organ culture system has been developed to study the regulation of statoconia production in the gravity sensing organ in Aplysia californica. Statocysts were cultured in Leibovitz (LI5) medium supplemented with salts and Aplysia haemolymph for four days at 17 C. The viability of the system was evaluated by examining four parameters: statocyst morphology, the activity of the mechanosensory cilia in the statocyst, production of new statoconia during culture and change in statoconia volume after culture. There were no morphological differences in statocysts before and after culture when ciliary beating was maintained. There was a 29% increase in the number of statoconia after four days in culture. Mean statocyst, statolith and statoconia volumes were not affected by culture conditions. The presence of carbonic anhydrase in the statocysts was shown using immunohistochemistry. When statocysts were cultured in the presence of 4.0 x 10(exp -4) M acetazolamide to inhibit the enzyme activity, there was a decrease in statoconia production and statoconia volume, indicating a role for this enzyme in statoconia homeostasis, potentially, via pH regulation. These studies are the first to report a novel system for the culture of statocysts and show that carbonic anhydrase is involved in the regulation of statoconia volume and production.

  7. P-glycoprotein-mediated chemoresistance is reversed by carbonic anhydrase XII inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kopecka, Joanna; Rankin, Gregory M.; Salaroglio, Iris C.

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase XII (CAXII) is a membrane enzyme that maintains pH homeostasis and sustains optimum P-glycoprotein (Pgp) efflux activity in cancer cells. Here, we investigated a panel of eight CAXII inhibitors (compounds 1–8), for their potential to reverse Pgp mediated tumor cell chemoresistance. Inhibitors (5 nM) were screened in human and murine cancer cells (colon, lung, breast, bone) with different expression levels of CAXII and Pgp. We identified three CAXII inhibitors (compounds 1, 2 and 4) that significantly (≥ 2 fold) increased the intracellular retention of the Pgp-substrate and chemotherapeutic doxorubicin, and restored its cytotoxic activity. The inhibitors lowered intracellular pH to indirectly impair Pgp activity. Ca12-knockout assays confirmed that the chemosensitizing property of the compounds was dependent on active CAXII. Furthermore, in a preclinical model of drug-resistant breast tumors compound 1 (1900 ng/kg) restored the efficacy of doxorubicin to the same extent as the direct Pgp inhibitor tariquidar. The expression of carbonic anhydrase IX had no effect on the intracellular doxorubicin accumulation. Our work provides strong evidence that CAXII inhibitors are effective chemosensitizer agents in CAXII-positive and Pgp-positive cancer cells. The use of CAXII inhibitors may represent a turning point in combinatorial chemotherapeutic schemes to treat multidrug-resistant tumors. PMID:27811376

  8. Carbonic anhydrase II increases the activity of the human electrogenic Na+/HCO3- cotransporter.

    PubMed

    Becker, Holger M; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2007-05-04

    Several acid/base-coupled membrane transporters, such as the electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1), have been shown to bind to different carbonic anhydrase isoforms to create a "transport metabolon." We have expressed NBCe1 derived from human kidney in oocytes of Xenopus leavis and determined its transport activity by recording the membrane current in voltage clamp, and the cytosolic H(+) and Na(+) concentrations using ion-selective microelectrodes. When carbonic anhydrase isoform II (CAII) had been injected into oocytes, the membrane current and the rate of cytosolic Na(+) rise, indicative for NBCe1 activity, increased significantly with the amount of injected CAII (2-200 ng). The CAII inhibitor ethoxyzolamide reversed the effects of CAII on the NBCe1 activity. Co-expressing wild-type CAII or NH(2)-terminal mutant CAII together with NBCe1 provided similar results, whereas co-expressing the catalytically inactive CAII mutant V143Y had no effect on NBCe1 activity. Mass spectrometric analysis and the rate of cytosolic H(+) change following addition of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) confirmed the catalytic activity of injected and expressed CAII in oocytes. Our results show that the transport capacity of NBCe1 is enhanced by the catalytic activity of CAII, in line with the notion that CAII forms a transport metabolon with NBCe1.

  9. The functional and physical relationship between the DRA bicarbonate transporter and carbonic anhydrase II.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Deborah; Brown, Nathan J D; Supuran, Claudiu T; Casey, Joseph R

    2002-11-01

    COOH-terminal cytoplasmic tails of chloride/bicarbonate anion exchangers (AE) bind cytosolic carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) to form a bicarbonate transport metabolon, a membrane protein complex that accelerates transmembrane bicarbonate flux. To determine whether interaction with CAII affects the downregulated in adenoma (DRA) chloride/bicarbonate exchanger, anion exchange activity of DRA-transfected HEK-293 cells was monitored by following changes in intracellular pH associated with bicarbonate transport. DRA-mediated bicarbonate transport activity of 18 +/- 1 mM H+ equivalents/min was inhibited 53 +/- 2% by 100 mM of the CAII inhibitor, acetazolamide, but was unaffected by the membrane-impermeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, 1-[5-sulfamoyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl-(aminosulfonyl-4-phenyl)]-2,6-dimethyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium perchlorate. Compared with AE1, the COOH-terminal tail of DRA interacted weakly with CAII. Overexpression of a functionally inactive CAII mutant, V143Y, reduced AE1 transport activity by 61 +/- 4% without effect on DRA transport activity (105 +/- 7% transport activity relative to DRA alone). We conclude that cytosolic CAII is required for full DRA-mediated bicarbonate transport. However, DRA differs from other bicarbonate transport proteins because its transport activity is not stimulated by direct interaction with CAII.

  10. Regulation of tumor pH and the role of carbonic anhydrase 9.

    PubMed

    Swietach, Pawel; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D; Harris, Adrian L

    2007-06-01

    The high metabolic rate required for tumor growth often leads to hypoxia in poorly-perfused regions. Hypoxia activates a complex gene expression program, mediated by hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1alpha). One of the consequences of HIF1alpha activation is up-regulation of glycolysis and hence the production of lactic acid. In addition to the lactic acid-output, intracellular titration of acid with bicarbonate and the engagement of the pentose phosphate shunt release CO(2) from cells. Expression of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase 9 on the tumor cell surface catalyses the extracellular trapping of acid by hydrating cell-generated CO(2) into [see text] and H(+). These mechanisms contribute towards an acidic extracellular milieu favoring tumor growth, invasion and development. The lactic acid released by tumor cells is further metabolized by the tumor stroma. Low extracellular pH may adversely affect the intracellular milieu, possibly triggering apoptosis. Therefore, primary and secondary active transporters operate in the tumor cell membrane to protect the cytosol from acidosis. We review mechanisms regulating tumor intracellular and extracellular pH, with a focus on carbonic anhydrase 9. We also review recent evidence that may suggest a role for CA9 in coordinating pH(i) among cells of large, unvascularized cell-clusters.

  11. Maleate-induced bicarbonaturia in the dog: a carbonic anhydrase-independene effect.

    PubMed

    Gougoux, A; Lemieux, G; Lavoie, N

    1976-10-01

    Studies were performed to characterize the renal effects of maleate in anesthetized dogs. Following the intravenous administration of maleate or maleic acid (50 mg/kg), mean fractional bicarbonate excretion (CHCO3/GFR) rose to as high as 26%. Na, K, and phosphate excretion also increased markedly, whereas C1 excretion remained low. An initial transient fall in urinary pH from 6.53 to 6.13 contrasted sharply with the rapid alkalinization of the urine induced by acetazolamide administration. During saline expansion CHCO3/GFR rose from 4 to 37% after maleate administration, whereas Cl excretion did not change significantly. During continuous carbonic anhydrase inhibition with acetazolamide, maleate administration resulted in a further rise in CHCO3/GFR from 22 to 35%. Whereas CPO4/GFR increased only from 1 to 3% during acetazolamide administration, this ratio reached 75% following the addition of maleate. Fumarate, the transisomer of maleate, and malonate, a well-known inhibitor of Krebs cycle, failed to affect bicarbonate excretion. This study demonstrates that maleate inhibits the fraction of bicarbonate reabsorption uncatalyzed by carbonic anhydrase. Impaired anionic reabsorption of bicarbonate or accelerated passive backflux of this ion into proximal tubular lumen are the two mechanisms that best explain the bicarbonaturia induced by maleate.

  12. A capillary electrophoresis-based enzyme assay for kinetics and inhibition studies of carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shoaib; Nisar-ur-Rahman; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based enzyme assay for characterization and inhibition study of bovine carbonic anhydrase II (bCA II) was developed. The developed method is the first CE assay for carbonic anhydrase (CA). The method was optimized in order to get short analysis time, minimal sample volume consumption, and high resolution of substrate and product. The CE conditions were optimized as follows: fused-silica capillary (30 cm effective length×75 μm i.d.), pressure injection for 5s, 20mM sodium borate buffer (pH 9.0), constant voltage of 15 kV, constant capillary temperature of 25 °C, and detection at 260 nm. For precise measurements, uridine was used as an internal standard during optimization of the CE methods. The limits of detection and quantification for p-nitrophenyl acetate (p-NPA) were 3.01 and 9.12 μM, respectively, whereas for p-nitrophenolate they were 2.05 and 6.22 μM, respectively. The performance of the developed method was confirmed by determination of kinetic parameters (i.e., K(m) and V(max) of bCA for p-NPA); the inhibition constant (K(i)) was determined for furosemide, a standard inhibitor of CA. The new method proved to be fast and efficient, and it can be used for the investigation of inhibitors of all isoforms of CAs.

  13. Toxicity and Physiological Actions of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors to Aedes aegypti and Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Sheena A. M.; Taylor-Wells, Jennina; Gross, Aaron D.; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    The physiological role of carbonic anhydrases in pH and ion regulation is crucial to insect survival. We examined the toxic and neurophysiological effects of five carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) against Aedes aegypti. The 24 h larvicidal toxicities followed this rank order of potency: dichlorphenamide > methazolamide > acetazolamide = brinzolamide = dorzolamide. Larvicidal activity increased modestly in longer exposures, and affected larvae showed attenuated responses to probing without overt tremors, hyperexcitation, or convulsions. Acetazolamide and dichlorphenamide were toxic to adults when applied topically, but were of low potency and had an incomplete effect (<50% at 300 ng/mosquito) even after injection. Dichlorphenamide was also the most toxic compound when fed to adult mosquitoes, and they displayed loss of posture and occasionally prolonged fluttering of the wings. Co-exposure with 500 ng of the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) increased the toxicity of dichlorphenamide ca. two-fold in feeding assays, indicating that low toxicity was not related to oxidative metabolism. Dichlorphenamide showed mild depolarizing and nerve discharge actions on insect neuromuscular and central nervous systems, respectively. These effects were increased in low buffer salines, indicating they were apparently related to loss of pH control in these tissues. Overall, sulfonamides displayed weak insecticidal properties on Aedes aegypti and are weak lead compounds. PMID:28025488

  14. Carbonic anhydrase, a respiratory enzyme in the gills of the shore crab Carcinus maenas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, K.; Siebers, D.; Sender, S.

    1995-03-01

    This paper summarizes investigations on the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the gills of the osmoregulating shore crab Carcinus maenas. Carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme catalyzing the reversible hydration of CO2 to HCO3 - and H+, is localized with highest activities in the posterior salt-transporting gills of the shore crab- and here CA activity is strongly dependent on salinity. Contrary to the earlier hypothesis established for the blue crab Callinectes sapidus that cytoplasmic branchial CA provides the counter ions HCO3 - and H+ for apical exchange against Na+ and Cl-, the involvement of CA in NaCl uptake mechanisms can be excluded in Carcinus. Differential and density gradient centrifugations indicate that branchial CA is a predominantly membrane-associated protein. Branchial CA was greatly inhibited by the sulfonamide acetazolamide (AZ) Ki=2.4·10-8 mol/l). Using the preparation of the isolated perfused gill, application of 10-4 mol/l AZ resulted in an 80% decrease of CO2/HCO3 - excretion. Thus we conclude that CA is localized in plasma membranes, maintaining the CO2 gradient by accelerating adjustment of the pH-dependent CO2/HCO3 - equilibrium.

  15. Effects of dopaminergic compounds on carbonic anhydrase isozymes I, II, and VI.

    PubMed

    Sentürk, Murat; Ekinci, Deniz; Göksu, Süleyman; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2012-06-01

    Studies on carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors have increased due to several therapeutic applications while there are few investigations on activators. Here we investigated CA inhibitory and activatory capacities of a series of dopaminergic compounds on human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) isozymes I, II, and VI. 2-Amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-6,7-diol hydrobromide and 2-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-5,6-diol hydrobromide were found to show effective inhibitory action on hCA I and II whereas 2-amino-5,6-dibromoindan hydrobromide and 2-amino-5-bromoindan hydrobromide exhibited only moderate inhibition against both isoforms, being more effective inhibitors of hCA VI. K(i) values of the molecules 3-6 were in the range of 41.12-363 μM against hCA I, of 0.381-470 μM against hCA II and of 0.578-1.152 μM against hCA VI, respectively. Compound 7 behaved as a CA activator with K(A) values of 27.3 μM against hCA I, of 18.4 μM against hCA II and of 8.73 μM against hCA VI, respectively.

  16. [Carbonic anhydrase of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis].

    PubMed

    Komarova, Iu M; Terekhova, I V; Doman, N G; Al'bitskaia, O N

    1976-01-01

    Carboanhydrase (carbonate-hydroliase EC 4.2.1.1.) is found in the extract of Spirulina platensis cells. A linear dependency of the enzyme activity on the protein concentration; pH optimum is found to be 8.0. Specific activity of carboanhydrase is 3 muM/min-mg of protein under the concentration of CO2 of 4-10(-3) M, appearing Michelis constant being 4.9-10(-3) M. The enzyme was stabilized with 10 mM of cisteine, its activity was inhibited by 50% with sulphanylamide (1-10(-5) M), acetazolamide (8--10(-7) M) and Cl- ions (5-10(-2) M). The activity of carboanhydrase, as well as the rate of NaH14CO3 fixation, depended on the pH value of cultural medium.

  17. Metabolic Effect of Estrogen Receptor Agonists on Breast Cancer Cells in the Presence or Absence of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Belkaid, Anissa; Čuperlović-Culf, Miroslava; Touaibia, Mohamed; Ouellette, Rodney J.; Surette, Marc E.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic shift is one of the major hallmarks of cancer development. Estrogen receptor (ER) activity has a profound effect on breast cancer cell growth through a number of metabolic changes driven by its effect on transcription of several enzymes, including carbonic anhydrases, Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and oncogenes including HER2. Thus, estrogen receptor activators can be expected to lead to the modulation of cell metabolism in estrogen receptor positive cells. In this work we have investigated the effect of 17β-estradiol, an ER activator, and ferulic acid, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, as well as ER activator, in the absence and in the presence of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide on the metabolism of MCF7 cells and MCF7 cells, stably transfected to express HER2 (MCF7HER2). Metabolic profiles were studied using 1D and 2D metabolomic Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments, combined with the identification and quantification of metabolites, and the annotation of the results in the context of biochemical pathways. Overall changes in hydrophilic metabolites were largest following treatment of MCF7 and MC7HER2 cells with 17β-estradiol. However, the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide had the largest effect on the profile of lipophilic metabolites. PMID:27240414

  18. Synthesis, characterization and carbonic anhydrase inhibitory activity of novel benzothiazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Küçükbay, F Zehra; Buğday, Nesrin; Küçükbay, Hasan; Tanc, Muhammet; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-12-01

    N-protected amino acids were reacted with substituted benzothiazoles to give the corresponding N-protected amino acid-benzothiazole conjugates (60-89%). Their structures were confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR), IR and elemental analysis. Their carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitory activities were determined against two cytosolic human isoforms (hCA I and hCA II), one membrane-associated (hCA IV) and one transmembrane (hCA XII) enzyme by a stopped-flow CO2 hydrase assay method. The new compounds showed rather weak, micromolar inhibitory activity against most of these enzymes.

  19. Macromolecular conformation in solution. Study of carbonic anhydrase by the positron annihilation technique.

    PubMed Central

    Handel, E D; Graf, G; Glass, J C

    1980-01-01

    The structural features of carbonic anhydrase (carbonate hydro-lyase; EC 4.2.1.1) in aqueous solution were probed by the positron annihilation technique. The data obtained under varying conditions of temperature, pH, and enzyme concentration were interpreted in terms of the free volume model. The change of enzymic activity with temperature is accompanied by a change in free volume of the protein. Upon thermal denaturation an irreversible change in free volume of the molecule occurred. At low temperatures the protein-water interactions were investigated. These results are discussed in terms of current concepts of structure-function relationships in proteins. This study shows the sensitivity of the positron annihilation method toward the structure of proteins related to their overall conformation and to the nature of bound water. PMID:6789901

  20. Chapter 13: Carbonic Anhydrase IX as an Imaging and Therapeutic Target for Tumors and Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Tafreshi, Narges K.; Lloyd, Mark C.; Bui, Marilyn M.; Gillies, Robert J.; Morse, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) which is a zinc containing metalloprotein, efficiently catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. It is constitutively up-regulated in several cancer types and has an important role in tumor progression, acidification and metastasis. High expression of CAIX generally correlates with poor prognosis and is related to a decrease in the disease-free interval following successful therapy. Therefore, it is considered as a prognostic indicator in oncology. In this review, we describe CAIX regulation and its role in tumor hypoxia, acidification and metastasis. In addition, the molecular imaging of CAIX and its potential for use in cancer detection, diagnosis, staging, and for use in following therapy response is discussed. Both antibodies and small molecular weight compounds have been used for targeted imaging of CAIX expression. The use of CAIX expression as an attractive and promising candidate marker for systemic anticancer therapy is also discussed. PMID:24146382

  1. Carbonic anhydrases, EPF2 and a novel protease mediate CO2 control of stomatal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engineer, Cawas B.; Ghassemian, Majid; Anderson, Jeffrey C.; Peck, Scott C.; Hu, Honghong; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-09-01

    Environmental stimuli, including elevated carbon dioxide levels, regulate stomatal development; however, the key mechanisms mediating the perception and relay of the CO2 signal to the stomatal development machinery remain elusive. To adapt CO2 intake to water loss, plants regulate the development of stomatal gas exchange pores in the aerial epidermis. A diverse range of plant species show a decrease in stomatal density in response to the continuing rise in atmospheric CO2 (ref. 4). To date, one mutant that exhibits deregulation of this CO2-controlled stomatal development response, hic (which is defective in cell-wall wax biosynthesis, ref. 5), has been identified. Here we show that recently isolated Arabidopsis thaliana β-carbonic anhydrase double mutants (ca1 ca4) exhibit an inversion in their response to elevated CO2, showing increased stomatal development at elevated CO2 levels. We characterized the mechanisms mediating this response and identified an extracellular signalling pathway involved in the regulation of CO2-controlled stomatal development by carbonic anhydrases. RNA-seq analyses of transcripts show that the extracellular pro-peptide-encoding gene EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR 2 (EPF2), but not EPF1 (ref. 9), is induced in wild-type leaves but not in ca1 ca4 mutant leaves at elevated CO2 levels. Moreover, EPF2 is essential for CO2 control of stomatal development. Using cell-wall proteomic analyses and CO2-dependent transcriptomic analyses, we identified a novel CO2-induced extracellular protease, CRSP (CO2 RESPONSE SECRETED PROTEASE), as a mediator of CO2-controlled stomatal development. Our results identify mechanisms and genes that function in the repression of stomatal development in leaves during atmospheric CO2 elevation, including the carbonic-anhydrase-encoding genes CA1 and CA4 and the secreted protease CRSP, which cleaves the pro-peptide EPF2, in turn repressing stomatal development. Elucidation of these mechanisms advances the understanding of

  2. Structural and inhibition insights into carbonic anhydrase CDCA1 from the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii.

    PubMed

    Alterio, Vincenzo; Langella, Emma; Viparelli, Francesca; Vullo, Daniela; Ascione, Giuseppina; Dathan, Nina A; Morel, François M M; Supuran, Claudiu T; De Simone, Giuseppina; Monti, Simona Maria

    2012-05-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) catalyze with high efficiency the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide, an essential reaction for many biological processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, renal tubular acidification, and bone resorption. Diatoms, which are one of the most common types of phytoplankton and are widespread in oceans, possess CAs fundamental for acquisition of inorganic carbon. Recently, in the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii a novel enzyme, CDCA1, naturally using Cd in its active site, has been isolated and categorized in a new CA class, namely zeta-CA. This enzyme, which consists of three repeats (R1, R2 and R3), is a cambialistic carbonic anhydrase that can spontaneously exchange Zn or Cd at its active centre, presumably an adaptative advantage for diatoms that grow fast in the metal-poor environment of the surface ocean. In this paper we completed the characterization of this enzyme, reporting the X-ray structure of the last repeat, CDCA1-R3 in its cadmium-bound form, and presenting a model of the full length protein obtained by docking approaches. Results show that CDCA1 has a quite compact not symmetric structure, characterized by two covalently linked R1-R2 and R2-R3 interfaces and a small non-covalent R1-R3 interface. The three dimensional arrangement shows that most of the non-conserved aminoacids of the three repeats are located at the interface regions and that the active sites are far from each other and completely accessible to the substrate. Finally, a detailed inhibition study of CDCA1-R3 repeat in both cadmium- and zinc- bound form has been performed with sulfonamides and sulfamates derivatives. The results have been compared with those previously reported for other CA classes, namely alpha- and beta-classes, and correlated with the structural features of these enzymes.

  3. Update and critical appraisal of combined timolol and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and the effect on ocular blood flow in glaucoma patients.

    PubMed

    Moss, Adam M; Harris, Alon; Siesky, Brent; Rusia, Deepam; Williamson, Kathleen M; Shoshani, Yochai

    2010-04-26

    Topical hypotensive therapy with both timolol and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors has been shown to be efficacious at reducing intraocular pressure. Many prospective studies have also suggested that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors augment ocular blood flow and vascular regulation independent of their hypotensive effects. Although consistent in their findings, these studies must be cautiously interpreted due to the limitations of study design and specific blood flow imaging modalities. The purpose of this review is to appraise and critically evaluate the current body of literature investigating the effects of combined treatment with topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and timolol in patients with glaucoma with respect to ocular blood flow, visual function, and optic nerve head structure.

  4. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors with dual-tail moieties to match the hydrophobic and hydrophilic halves of the carbonic anhydrase active site.

    PubMed

    Tanpure, Rajendra P; Ren, Bin; Peat, Thomas S; Bornaghi, Laurent F; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Poulsen, Sally-Ann

    2015-02-12

    We present a new approach to carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) inhibitor design that enables close interrogation of the regions of the CA active site where there is the greatest variability in amino acid residues among the different CA isozymes. By appending dual tail groups onto the par excellence CA inhibitor acetazolamide, compounds that may interact with the distinct hydrophobic and hydrophilic halves of the CA II active site were prepared. The dual-tail combinations selected included (i) two hydrophobic moieties, (ii) two hydrophilic moieties, and (iii) one hydrophobic and one hydrophilic moiety. The CA enzyme inhibition profile as well as the protein X-ray crystal structure of compound 3, comprising one hydrophobic and one hydrophilic tail moiety, in complex with CA II is described. This novel dual-tail approach has provided an enhanced opportunity to more fully exploit interactions with the CA active site by enabling these molecules to interact with the distinct halves of the active site. In addition to the dual-tail compounds, a corresponding set of single-tail derivatives was synthesized, enabling a comparative analysis of the single-tail versus dual-tail compound CA inhibition profile.

  5. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase II by thioxolone: a mechanistic and structural study.

    PubMed

    Barrese, Albert A; Genis, Caroli; Fisher, S Zoe; Orwenyo, Jared N; Kumara, Mudalige Thilak; Dutta, Subodh K; Phillips, Eric; Kiddle, James J; Tu, Chingkuang; Silverman, David N; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; McKenna, Robert; Tripp, Brian C

    2008-03-11

    This paper examines the functional mechanism of thioxolone, a compound recently identified as a weak inhibitor of human carbonic anhydrase II by Iyer et al. (2006) J. Biomol. Screening 11, 782-791 . Thioxolone lacks sulfonamide, sulfamate, or hydroxamate functional groups that are typically found in therapeutic carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors, such as acetazolamide. Analytical chemistry and biochemical methods were used to investigate the fate of thioxolone upon binding to CA II, including Michaelis-Menten kinetics of 4-nitrophenyl acetate esterase cleavage, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), oxygen-18 isotope exchange studies, and X-ray crystallography. Thioxolone is proposed to be a prodrug inhibitor that is cleaved via a CA II zinc-hydroxide mechanism known to catalyze the hydrolysis of esters. When thioxolone binds in the active site of CA II, it is cleaved and forms 4-mercaptobenzene-1,3-diol via the intermediate S-(2,4-thiophenyl)hydrogen thiocarbonate. The esterase cleavage product binds to the zinc active site via the thiol group and is therefore the active CA inhibitor, while the intermediate is located at the rim of the active-site cavity. The time-dependence of this inhibition reaction was investigated in detail. Because this type of prodrug inhibitor mechanism depends on cleavage of ester bonds, this class of inhibitors may have advantages over sulfonamides in determining isozyme specificity. A preliminary structure-activity relationship study with a series of structural analogues of thioxolone yielded similar estimates of inhibition constants for most compounds, although two compounds with bromine groups at the C1 carbon of thioxolone were not inhibitory, suggesting a possible steric effect.

  6. Kinetics of CO2 exchange with carbonic anhydrase immobilized on fiber membranes in artificial lungs.

    PubMed

    Arazawa, D T; Kimmel, J D; Federspiel, W J

    2015-06-01

    Artificial lung devices comprised of hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) coated with the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), accelerate removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from blood for the treatment of acute respiratory failure. While previous work demonstrated CA coatings increase HFM CO2 removal by 115 % in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), testing in blood revealed a 36 % increase compared to unmodified HFMs. In this work, we sought to characterize the CO2 mass transport processes within these biocatalytic devices which impede CA coating efficacy and develop approaches towards improving bioactive HFM efficiency. Aminated HFMs were sequentially reacted with glutaraldehyde (GA), chitosan, GA and afterwards incubated with a CA solution, covalently linking CA to the surface. Bioactive CA-HFMs were potted in model gas exchange devices (0.0119 m(2)) and tested for esterase activity and CO2 removal under various flow rates with PBS, whole blood, and solutions containing individual blood components (plasma albumin, red blood cells or free carbonic anhydrase). Results demonstrated that increasing the immobilized enzyme activity did not significantly impact CO2 removal rate, as the diffusional resistance from the liquid boundary layer is the primary impediment to CO2 transport by both unmodified and bioactive HFMs under clinically relevant conditions. Furthermore, endogenous CA within red blood cells competes with HFM immobilized CA to increase CO2 removal. Based on our findings, we propose a bicarbonate/CO2 disequilibrium hypothesis to describe performance of CA-modified devices in both buffer and blood. Improvement in CO2 removal rates using CA-modified devices in blood may be realized by maximizing bicarbonate/CO2 disequilibrium at the fiber surface via strategies such as blood acidification and active mixing within the device.

  7. Carbonic Anhydrases in Cnidarians: Novel Perspectives from the Octocorallian Corallium rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Le Goff, Carine; Ganot, Philippe; Zoccola, Didier; Caminiti-Segonds, Natacha; Allemand, Denis; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Although the ability to elaborate calcium carbonate biominerals was apparently gained independently during animal evolution, members of the alpha carbonic anhydrases (α-CAs) family, which catalyze the interconversion of CO2 into HCO3-, are involved in the biomineralization process across metazoans. In the Mediterranean red coral Corallium rubrum, inhibition studies suggest an essential role of CAs in the synthesis of two biominerals produced in this octocoral, the axial skeleton and the sclerites. Hitherto no molecular characterization of these enzymes was available. In the present study we determined the complete set of α-CAs in C. rubrum by data mining the genome and transcriptome, and measured their differential gene expression between calcifying and non-calcifying tissues. We identified six isozymes (CruCA1-6), one cytosolic and five secreted/membrane-bound among which one lacked two of the three zinc-binding histidines and was so referred to as a carbonic anhydrase related protein (CARP). One secreted isozyme (CruCA4) showed specific expression both by qPCR and western-blot in the calcifying tissues, suggesting its involvement in biomineralization. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of α-CAs, identified in six representative cnidarians with complete genome, support an independent recruitment of α-CAs for biomineralization within anthozoans. Finally, characterization of cnidarian CARPs highlighted two families: the monophyletic cytosolic CARPs, and the polyphyletic secreted CARPs harboring a cnidarian specific cysteine disulfide bridge. Alignment of the cytosolic CARPs revealed an evolutionary conserved R-H-Q motif in place of the characteristic zinc-binding H-H-H necessary for the catalytic function of α-CAs. PMID:27513959

  8. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of human and murine mitochondrial isozymes V with anions.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Marco; Vullo, Daniela; Gallori, Enzo; Antel, Jochen; Wurl, Michael; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2003-09-01

    In addition to sulfonamides, metal complexing anions represent the second class of inhibitors of the zinc enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1). The first inhibition study of the mitochondrial isozyme CA V (of murine and human origin) with anions is reported here. Inhibition data of the cytosolic isozymes CA I and CA II as well as the membrane-bound isozyme CA IV with a large number of anionic species such as halides, pseudohalides, bicarbonate, nitrate, hydrosulfide, arsenate, sulfamate, and sulfamidate and so on, are also provided for comparison. Isozyme V has an inhibition profile by anions completely different to those of CA I and IV, but similar to that of hCA II, which may have interesting physiological consequences. Similarly to hCA II, the mitochondrial isozymes show micro-nanomolar affinity for sulfonamides such as sulfanilamide and acetazolamide.

  9. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase isoforms I, II, IX and XII with secondary sulfonamides incorporating benzothiazole scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Anthi; Geronikaki, Athina; Terzi, Emine; Guler, Ozen Ozensoy; Tuccinardi, Tiziano; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) catalyze the fundamental reaction of CO2 hydration in all living organisms, being actively involved in the regulation of a plethora of patho/physiological conditions. A series of benzothiazole-based sulfonamides were synthesized and tested as possible CA inhibitors. Their inhibitory activity was assessed against the cytosolic human isoforms hCA I and hCA II and the transmembrane hCA IX and hCA XII. Several of the investigated derivatives showed interesting inhibition activity and selectivities for inhibiting hCA IX and hCA XII over the off-target ones hCA I and hCA II. Furthermore, computational procedures were used to investigate the binding mode of this class of compounds, within the active site of hCA IX.

  10. Conformational Effects on the Circular Dichroism of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II: A Multilevel Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Karabencheva-Christova, Tatyana G.; Carlsson, Uno; Balali-Mood, Kia; Black, Gary W.; Christov, Christo Z.

    2013-01-01

    Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is a powerful method for investigating conformational changes in proteins and therefore has numerous applications in structural and molecular biology. Here a computational investigation of the CD spectrum of the Human Carbonic Anhydrase II (HCAII), with main focus on the near-UV CD spectra of the wild-type enzyme and it seven tryptophan mutant forms, is presented and compared to experimental studies. Multilevel computational methods (Molecular Dynamics, Semiempirical Quantum Mechanics, Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory) were applied in order to gain insight into the mechanisms of interaction between the aromatic chromophores within the protein environment and understand how the conformational flexibility of the protein influences these mechanisms. The analysis suggests that combining CD semi empirical calculations, crystal structures and molecular dynamics (MD) could help in achieving a better agreement between the computed and experimental protein spectra and provide some unique insight into the dynamic nature of the mechanisms of chromophore interactions. PMID:23526922

  11. Water-Restructuring Mutations Can Reverse the Thermodynamic Signature of Ligand Binding to Human Carbonic Anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jerome M; Kang, Kyungtae; Sastry, Madhavi; Sherman, Woody; Sankaran, Banumathi; Zwart, Peter H; Whitesides, George M

    2017-03-27

    This study uses mutants of human carbonic anhydrase (HCAII) to examine how changes in the organization of water within a binding pocket can alter the thermodynamics of protein-ligand association. Results from calorimetric, crystallographic, and theoretical analyses suggest that most mutations strengthen networks of water-mediated hydrogen bonds and reduce binding affinity by increasing the enthalpic cost and, to a lesser extent, the entropic benefit of rearranging those networks during binding. The organization of water within a binding pocket can thus determine whether the hydrophobic interactions in which it engages are enthalpy-driven or entropy-driven. Our findings highlight a possible asymmetry in protein-ligand association by suggesting that, within the confines of the binding pocket of HCAII, binding events associated with enthalpically favorable rearrangements of water are stronger than those associated with entropically favorable ones.

  12. Expression of Carbonic Anhydrase I in Motor Neurons and Alterations in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaochen; Lu, Deyi; Bowser, Robert; Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase I (CA1) is the cytosolic isoform of mammalian α-CA family members which are responsible for maintaining pH homeostasis in the physiology and pathology of organisms. A subset of CA isoforms are known to be expressed and function in the central nervous system (CNS). CA1 has not been extensively characterized in the CNS. In this study, we demonstrate that CA1 is expressed in the motor neurons in human spinal cord. Unexpectedly, a subpopulation of CA1 appears to be associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes. In addition, the membrane-associated CA1s are preferentially upregulated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and exhibit altered distribution in motor neurons. Furthermore, long-term expression of CA1 in mammalian cells activates apoptosis. Our results suggest a previously unknown role for CA1 function in the CNS and its potential involvement in motor neuron degeneration in ALS. PMID:27809276

  13. Carbonic anhydrase I and II inhibition with natural products: caffeine and piperine.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Kalyan K; Sahoo, Suvendu K; Pichikala, Jayaprakash N; Suresh, Padilam

    2012-02-01

    Novel chemotypes with carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitory action, in addition to the sulphonamide and sulphamate were discovered, many of which are based on natural products. Caffeine and piperine were extracted and tested for inhibition of the human (h) cytosolic isoforms hCA I and II. The IC(50) values of caffeine against hCA I was of 55 mM, whereas that of piperine of 60 mM. The IC(50) values of caffeine and piperine against hCA II were of 2 mM. Although these are quite weak inhibitors they may constitute leads for developing tighter binding compounds.

  14. Probing the surface of human carbonic anhydrase for clues towards the design of isoform specific inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pinard, Melissa A; Mahon, Brian; McKenna, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The alpha carbonic anhydrases (α-CAs) are a group of structurally related zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of CO2 to HCO3(-). Humans have 15 different α-CAs with numerous physiological roles and expression patterns. Of these, 12 are catalytically active, and abnormal expression and activities are linked with various diseases, including glaucoma and cancer. Hence there is a need for CA isoform specific inhibitors to avoid off-target CA inhibition, but due to the high amino acid conservation of the active site and surrounding regions between each enzyme, this has proven difficult. However, residues towards the exit of the active site are variable and can be exploited to design isoform selective inhibitors. Here we discuss and characterize this region of "selective drug targetability" and how these observations can be utilized to develop isoform selective CA inhibitors.

  15. Carbonic Anhydrase Interaction With Lipothioars Enites: A Novel Class of Isozymes I and II Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Timotheatou, Despina; Ioannou, Panayiotis V.; Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes I and II with a series of As(III) derivatives, dialkyl and diaryl rac-2,3-dimyristoyloxypropyldithioarsonites, was investigated kinetically and spectrophotometrically, utilizing the native and Co(II)-substituted enzymes. Depending on the substitution pattern at the -As(SR)2 moiety of the investigated derivatives, inactive compounds were found for R = phenyl or naphthyl, and active ones for derivatives containing carboxyl groups (R = CH2COOH, cysteinyl and glutathionyl). Together with the arsonolipids previously investigated, the active compounds of this series - the "lipothioarsenites"- constitute a novel class of CA inhibitors that bind to the metal ion within the enzyme active site, as proved by changes in the electronic spectra of adducts of such inhibitors with Co(II)CA. PMID:18475756

  16. Geographical characterization by MAE-HPLC and NIR methodologies and carbonic anhydrase inhibition of Saffron components.

    PubMed

    Nescatelli, Riccardo; Carradori, Simone; Marini, Federico; Caponigro, Vicky; Bucci, Remo; De Monte, Celeste; Mollica, Adriano; Mannina, Luisa; Ceruso, Mariangela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Secci, Daniela

    2017-04-15

    A microwave-assisted extraction method was optimised for the recovery of bioactive compounds from Crocus sativus L. stigmas with the use of water/ethanol mixture. HPLC-DAD was employed to evaluate the extraction parameters, in particular, solvent type and volume, and the duration of the procedure. Microwave-assisted extraction enhanced the recovery of the active principles, limiting extraction time and solvent waste. Moreover, NIR experiments were performed in order to compare spectra in pseudo-absorbance of Saffron samples with different geographical origins through the application of the chemometric techniques. Moreover, the biological evaluation of crocin 1, safranal and its semisynthetic derivatives as selective inhibitors of five isoforms of human carbonic anhydrase was also explored.

  17. Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimers with Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitory Activity and Antiglaucoma Action.

    PubMed

    Carta, Fabrizio; Osman, Sameh M; Vullo, Daniela; Gullotto, Antonella; Winum, Jean-Yves; AlOthman, Zeid; Masini, Emanuela; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-05-14

    Four generations of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers decorated with benzenesulfonamide moieties were prepared by derivatizing the amino groups of the dendrimer with 4-carboxy-benzenesulfonamide functionalities. Compounds incorporating 4, 8, 16, and 32 sulfonamide moieties were thus obtained, which showed an increasing carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitory action with the increase of the number of sulfamoyl groups in the dendrimer. Best inhibitory activity (in the low nanomolar-subnanomolar range) was observed for isoforms CA II and XII, involved among others in glaucoma. In an animal model of this disease, the chronic administration of such dendrimers for 5 days led to a much more efficient drop of intraocular pressure compared to the standard drug dorzolamide.

  18. Dendrimers incorporating benzenesulfonamide moieties strongly inhibit carbonic anhydrase isoforms I-XIV.

    PubMed

    Carta, Fabrizio; Osman, Sameh M; Vullo, Daniela; AlOthman, Zeid; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-06-21

    As extension of our previous study herein we report a comprehensive investigation of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers as modulators of the human carbonic anhydrase (hCA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms I-XIV. Interestingly inhibitory activity was observed for the non-functionalized dendrimers against the hCA I, VII, IX, XII and XIV isoforms, whereas activation properties were reported only for the cytosolic abundant hCA II. Highly efficient inhibitory action against many isoforms having medicinal chemistry applications, such as hCA II, V, VII, IX, XII and XIV, was observed for the PAMAM functionalized counterparts bearing 4, 8, 16 and 32 benzenesulfonamide moieties. Possible applications of dendrimer-CA inhibitors as therapeutic/diagnostic agents are envisaged.

  19. The Complex Relationship between Metals and Carbonic Anhydrase: New Insights and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lionetto, Maria Giulia; Caricato, Roberto; Giordano, Maria Elena; Schettino, Trifone

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase is a ubiquitous metalloenzyme, which catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO2 to HCO3− and H+. Metals play a key role in the bioactivity of this metalloenzyme, although their relationships with CA have not been completely clarified to date. The aim of this review is to explore the complexity and multi-aspect nature of these relationships, since metals can be cofactors of CA, but also inhibitors of CA activity and modulators of CA expression. Moreover, this work analyzes new insights and perspectives that allow translating new advances in basic science on the interaction between CA and metals to applications in several fields of research, ranging from biotechnology to environmental sciences. PMID:26797606

  20. Natural product inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase I and II isoenzymes: osajin and pomiferin.

    PubMed

    Dilek, Esra; Erol, Hüseyin Serkan; Cakir, Ahmet; Koc, Murat; Halici, Mesut Bünyami

    2017-03-24

    The aim of this study is to purify carbonic anhydrase I and II isoenzymes from human erythrocyte, isolate two natural products osajin (OSJ) and pomiferin (PMF) from Maclura pomifera fruits, and evaluate the in vitro effect of these natural metabolites on these isoenzymes. These natural products may be used as starting points for drug discovery (like drugs used in several therapeutic applications, including antiglaucoma activity). For the purification procedure, the Sepharose-4B-l-tyrosine-sulphonamide affinity chromatography was used. Column chromatography and thin layer chromatography methods were used for isolation of OSJ and PMF from M. pomifera fruits and their chemical structures were elucidated by IR, 1D, and 2D NMR methods. We compared inhibitory effects of these natural products with inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds and found that these products demonstrated average inhibition effects. We thought that this study will give inspiration to scientists interested in this issue.

  1. Probing the Surface of Human Carbonic Anhydrase for Clues towards the Design of Isoform Specific Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Pinard, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    The alpha carbonic anhydrases (α-CAs) are a group of structurally related zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of CO2 to HCO3−. Humans have 15 different α-CAs with numerous physiological roles and expression patterns. Of these, 12 are catalytically active, and abnormal expression and activities are linked with various diseases, including glaucoma and cancer. Hence there is a need for CA isoform specific inhibitors to avoid off-target CA inhibition, but due to the high amino acid conservation of the active site and surrounding regions between each enzyme, this has proven difficult. However, residues towards the exit of the active site are variable and can be exploited to design isoform selective inhibitors. Here we discuss and characterize this region of “selective drug targetability” and how these observations can be utilized to develop isoform selective CA inhibitors. PMID:25811028

  2. Saccharin Sulfonamides as Inhibitors of Carbonic Anhydrases I, II, VII, XII, and XIII

    PubMed Central

    Morkūnaitė, Vaida; Baranauskienė, Lina; Zubrienė, Asta; Trapencieris, Pēteris

    2014-01-01

    A series of modified saccharin sulfonamides have been designed as carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors and synthesized. Their binding to CA isoforms I, II, VII, XII, and XIII was measured by the fluorescent thermal shift assay (FTSA) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Saccharin bound the CAs weakly, exhibiting the affinities of 1–10 mM for four CAs except CA I where binding could not be detected. Several sulfonamide-bearing saccharines exhibited strong affinities of 1–10 nM towards particular CA isoforms. The functional group binding Gibbs free energy additivity maps are presented which may provide insights into the design of compounds with increased affinity towards selected CAs. PMID:25276805

  3. Rational engineering of a mesohalophilic carbonic anhydrase to an extreme halotolerant biocatalyst

    PubMed Central

    Warden, Andrew C.; Williams, Michelle; Peat, Thomas S.; Seabrook, Shane A.; Newman, Janet; Dojchinov, Greg; Haritos, Victoria S.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes expressed by highly salt-tolerant organisms show many modifications compared with salt-affected counterparts including biased amino acid and lower α-helix content, lower solvent accessibility and negative surface charge. Here, we show that halotolerance can be generated in an enzyme solely by modifying surface residues. Rational design of carbonic anhydrase II is undertaken in three stages replacing 18 residues in total, crystal structures confirm changes are confined to surface residues. Catalytic activities and thermal unfolding temperatures of the designed enzymes increase at high salt concentrations demonstrating their shift to halotolerance, whereas the opposite response is found in the wild-type enzyme. Molecular dynamics calculations reveal a key role for sodium ions in increasing halotolerant enzyme stability largely through interactions with the highly ordered first Na+ hydration shell. For the first time, an approach to generate extreme halotolerance, a trait with broad application in industrial biocatalysis, in a wild-type enzyme is demonstrated. PMID:26687908

  4. Expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Cell-Surface Transmembrane Carbonic Anhydrases in Human Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Sergey; Liao, Shu-Yuan; Ivanova, Alla; Danilkovitch-Miagkova, Alla; Tarasova, Nadezhda; Weirich, Gregor; Merrill, Marsha J.; Proescholdt, Martin A.; Oldfield, Edward H.; Lee, Joshua; Zavada, Jan; Waheed, Abdul; Sly, William; Lerman, Michael I.; Stanbridge, Eric J.

    2001-01-01

    An acidic extracellular pH is a fundamental property of the malignant phenotype. In von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-defective tumors the cell surface transmembrane carbonic anhydrase (CA) CA9 and CA12 genes are overexpressed because of the absence of pVHL. We hypothesized that these enzymes might be involved in maintaining the extracellular acidic pH in tumors, thereby providing a conducive environment for tumor growth and spread. Using Northern blot analysis and immunostaining with specific antibodies we analyzed the expression of CA9 and CA12 genes and their products in a large sample of cancer cell lines, fresh and archival tumor specimens, and normal human tissues. Expression was also analyzed in cultured cells under hypoxic conditions. Expression of CA IX and CA XII in normal adult tissues was detected only in highly specialized cells and for most tissues their expression did not overlap. Analysis of RNA samples isolated from 87 cancer cell lines and 18 tumors revealed high-to-moderate levels of expression of CA9 and CA12 in multiple cancers. Immunohistochemistry revealed high-to-moderate expression of these enzymes in various normal tissues and multiple common epithelial tumor types. The immunostaining was seen predominantly on the cell surface membrane. The expression of both genes was markedly induced under hypoxic conditions in tumors and cultured tumor cells. We conclude that the cell surface trans-membrane carbonic anhydrases CA IX and CA XII are overexpressed in many tumors suggesting that this is a common feature of cancer cells that may be required for tumor progression. These enzymes may contribute to the tumor microenvironment by maintaining extracellular acidic pH and helping cancer cells grow and metastasize. Our studies show an important causal link between hypoxia, extracellular acidification, and induction or enhanced expression of these enzymes in human tumors. PMID:11238039

  5. Carbonic anhydrase-facilitated CO2 absorption with polyacrylamide buffering bead capture

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmore, Robert; Griffith, Craid; Liu, Zhu; Soong, Yee; Hedges, Sheila W.; Koepsel, Richard; Ataai, M

    2009-07-01

    A novel CO2 separation concept is described wherein the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) is used to increase the overall rate Of CO2 absorption after which hydrated CO2 reacts with regenerable amine-bearing polyacrylamide buffering beads (PABB). Following saturation of the material's immobilized tertiary amines, CA-bearing carrier water is separated and recycled to the absorption stage while CO2-loaded material is thermally regenerated. Process application of this concept would involve operation of two or more columns in parallel with thermal regeneration with low-pressure steam taking place after the capacity of a column of amine-bearing polymeric material was exceeded. PABB CO2- bearing capacity was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for beads of three acrylamido buffering monomer ingredient concentrations: 0 mol/kg bead, 0.857 mol/kg bead, and 2 mol/kg bead. TGA results demonstrate that CO2- bearing capacity increases with increasing PABB buffering concentration and that up to 78% of the theoretical CO2- bearing capacity was realized in prepared PABB samples (0.857 mol/kg recipe). The highest observed CO2-bearing capacity of PABB was 1.37 mol of CO2 per kg dry bead. TGA was also used to assess the regenerability Of CO2-loaded PABB. Preliminary results suggest that CO2 is partially driven from PABB samples at temperatures as low as 55 degrees C, with complete regeneration occurring at 100 degrees C. Other physical characteristics of PABB are discussed. In addition, the effectiveness of bovine carbonic anhydrase for the catalysis Of CO2 dissolution is evaluated. Potential benefits and drawbacks of the proposed process are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Characterization of the Copper(II) Binding Sites in Human Carbonic Anhydrase II

    PubMed Central

    Nettles, Whitnee L.; Song, He; Farquhar, Erik R.; Fitzkee, Nicholas C.; Emerson, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Human carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a well-studied, robust, mononuclear Zn-containing metalloprotein that serves as an excellent biological ligand system to study the thermodynamics associated with metal ion coordination chemistry in aqueous solution. The apo-form of human carbonic anhydrase II (CA) binds two equivalents of copper(II) with high affinity. The Cu2+ ions bind independently forming two non-coupled type-II copper centers in CA (CuA and CuB). However, the location and coordination mode of the CuA site in solution is unclear, compared to the CuB site that has been well characterized. Using paramagnetic NMR techniques and X-ray absorption spectroscopy we have identified an N-terminal Cu2+ binding location and collected information on the coordination mode of the CuA site in CA, which is consistent with a four to five coordinate N-terminal Cu2+ binding site reminiscent to a number of N-terminal copper(II) binding sites including the copper(II)-ATCUN and copper(II)-beta-amyloid complexes. Additionally, we report a more detailed analysis of the thermodynamics associated with copper(II) binding to CA. Although we are still unable to fully deconvolute Cu2+ binding data to the high-affinity CuA site, we have derived pH- and buffer-independent values for the thermodynamics parameters K and ΔH associated with Cu2+ binding to the CuB site of CA to be 2 × 109 and −17.4 kcal/mol, respectively. PMID:26010488

  7. Structure of a monoclinic polymorph of human carbonic anhydrase II with a doubled a axis

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, Arthur H.; Domsic, John F.; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; McKenna, Robert

    2010-05-01

    The crystal structure of human carbonic anhydrase II with a doubled a axis from that of the usually observed monoclinic cell has been determined and refined to 1.4 Å resolution. The two molecules comprising the asymmetric unit are related by a noncrystallographic translation of ½ along a, but one of the molecules has two alternate orientations related by a rotation of approximately 2°. The crystal structure of human carbonic anhydrase II with a doubled a axis from that of the usually observed monoclinic unit cell has been determined and refined to 1.4 Å resolution. The diffraction data with h = 2n + 1 were systematically weaker than those with h = 2n. Consequently, the scaling of the data, structure solution and refinement were challenging. The two molecules comprising the asymmetric unit are related by a noncrystallographic translation of ½ along a, but one of the molecules has two alternate positions related by a rotation of approximately 2°. This rotation axis is located near the edge of the central β-sheet, causing a maximum distance disparity of 1.7 Å between equivalent atoms on the diametrically opposite side of the molecule. The crystal-packing contacts are similar to two sequential combined unit cells along a of the previously determined monoclinic unit cell. Abnormally high final R{sub cryst} and R{sub free} values (20.2% and 23.7%, respectively) are not unusual for structures containing pseudo-translational symmetry and probably result from poor signal to noise in the weak h-odd data.

  8. Tracking solvent and protein movement during CO2 release in carbonic anhydrase II crystals

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chae Un; Song, HyoJin; Avvaru, Balendu Sankara; Gruner, Sol M.; Park, SangYoun; McKenna, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases are mostly zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration/dehydration of CO2/HCO3−. Previously, the X-ray crystal structures of CO2-bound holo (zinc-bound) and apo (zinc-free) human carbonic anhydrase IIs (hCA IIs) were captured at high resolution. Here, we present sequential timeframe structures of holo- [T = 0 s (CO2-bound), 50 s, 3 min, 10 min, 25 min, and 1 h] and apo-hCA IIs [T = 0 s, 50 s, 3 min, and 10 min] during the “slow” release of CO2. Two active site waters, WDW (deep water) and WDW′ (this study), replace the vacated space created on CO2 release, and another water, WI (intermediate water), is seen to translocate to the proton wire position W1. In addition, on the rim of the active site pocket, a water W2′ (this study), in close proximity to residue His64 and W2, gradually exits the active site, whereas His64 concurrently rotates from pointing away (“out”) to pointing toward (“in”) active site rotameric conformation. This study provides for the first time, to our knowledge, structural “snapshots” of hCA II intermediate states during the formation of the His64-mediated proton wire that is induced as CO2 is released. Comparison of the holo- and apo-hCA II structures shows that the solvent network rearrangements require the presence of the zinc ion. PMID:27114542

  9. Isolation and characterization of 2-nitroimidazole produced by Streptomyces species as an inhibitor of both carbonic anhydrase and shell formation in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Mari; Ozaki, Noriaki; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Furihata, Keiko; Hayakawa, Yoichi; Sakuda, Shohei; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2002-03-01

    Carbonic anhydrase is thought to be involved in the process of calcium carbonate deposition in calcified tissues of many organisms. Barnacles form hard calcified shells for protection against predation, and represent a class of marine-fouling animals. In order to inhibit barnacle growth by inhibiting shell formation, we searched for carbonic anhydrase inhibitors from microbial secondary metabolites. A simple assay for assessing carbonic-anhydrase-inhibiting activity was developed. Screening of many microorganisms isolated from soil with this assay resulted in a microbial strain that produced a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. This strain was identified as Streptomyces eurocidicus mf294. The inhibitor was isolated through 4 purification steps and identified as 2-nitroimidazole on the basis of spectroscopic data. 2-Nitroimidazole inhibited barnacle carbonic anhydrase dose-dependently and complete inhibition was reached at the concentration of 1 x 10(-5) M. 2-Nitroimidazole did not affect settlement or metamorphosis of barnacle larvae, but inhibited shell formation at concentrations higher than 1 x 10(-4) M. These findings strongly support the idea that carbonic anhydrase is involved in calcification.

  10. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency in 12 families with the autosomal recessive syndrome of osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification.

    PubMed

    Sly, W S; Whyte, M P; Sundaram, V; Tashian, R E; Hewett-Emmett, D; Guibaud, P; Vainsel, M; Baluarte, H J; Gruskin, A; Al-Mosawi, M

    1985-07-18

    Osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification was identified as a recessively inherited syndrome in 1972. In 1983, we reported a deficiency of carbonic anhydrase II, one of the isozymes of carbonic anhydrase, in three sisters with this disorder. We now describe our study of 18 similarly affected patients with this syndrome in 11 unrelated families of different geographic and ethnic origins. Virtual absence of the carbonic anhydrase II peak on high-performance liquid chromatography, of the esterase and carbon dioxide hydratase activities of carbonic anhydrase II, and of immunoprecipitable isozyme II was demonstrated on extracts of erythrocyte hemolysates from all patients studied. Reduced levels of isozyme II were found in obligate heterozygotes. These observations demonstrate the generality of the findings that we reported earlier in one family and provide further evidence that a deficiency of carbonic anhydrase II is the enzymatic basis for the autosomal recessive syndrome of osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification. We also summarize the clinical findings in these families, propose mechanisms by which a deficiency of carbonic anhydrase II could produce this metabolic disorder of bone, kidney, and brain, and discuss the clinical evidence for genetic heterogeneity in patients from different kindreds with this inborn error of metabolism.

  11. Modulation of the initial mineralization process of SaOS-2 cells by carbonic anhydrase activators and polyphosphate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C; Schlossmacher, Ute; Neufurth, Meik; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-05-01

    Ca-phosphate/hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals constitute the mineral matrix of vertebrate bones, while Ca-carbonate is the predominant mineral of many invertebrates, like mollusks. Recent results suggest that CaCO₃ is also synthesized during early bone formation. We demonstrate that carbonic anhydrase-driven CaCO₃ formation in vitro is activated by organic extracts from the demosponge Suberites domuncula as well as by quinolinic acid, one component isolated from these extracts. Further results revealed that the stimulatory effect of bicarbonate (HCO₃ (-)) ions on mineralization of osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells is strongly enhanced if the cells are exposed to inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), a linear polymer of phosphate linked by energy-rich phosphodiester bonds. The effect of polyP, administered as polyP (Ca²⁺ salt), on HA formation was found to be amplified by addition of the carbonic anhydrase-activating sponge extract or quinolinic acid. Our results support the assumption that CaCO₃ deposits, acting as bio-seeds for Ca-carbonated phosphate formation, are formed as an intermediate during HA mineralization and that the carbonic anhydrase-mediated formation of those deposits is under a positive-negative feedback control by bone alkaline phosphatase-dependent polyP metabolism, offering new targets for therapy of bone diseases/defects.

  12. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors modify intracellular pH transients and contractions of rat middle cerebral arteries during CO2/HCO3(-) fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jacob K; Boedtkjer, Ebbe

    2017-01-01

    The CO2/HCO3(-) buffer minimizes pH changes in response to acid-base loads, HCO3(-) provides substrate for Na(+),HCO3(-)-cotransporters and Cl(-)/HCO3(-)-exchangers, and H(+) and HCO3(-) modify vasomotor responses during acid-base disturbances. We show here that rat middle cerebral arteries express cytosolic, mitochondrial, extracellular, and secreted carbonic anhydrase isoforms that catalyze equilibration of the CO2/HCO3(-) buffer. Switching from CO2/HCO3(-)-free to CO2/HCO3(-)-containing extracellular solution results in initial intracellular acidification due to hydration of CO2 followed by gradual alkalinization due to cellular HCO3(-) uptake. Carbonic anhydrase inhibition decelerates the initial acidification and attenuates the associated transient vasoconstriction without affecting intracellular pH or artery tone at steady-state. Na(+),HCO3(-)-cotransport and Na(+)/H(+)-exchange activity after NH4(+)-prepulse-induced intracellular acidification are unaffected by carbonic anhydrase inhibition. Extracellular surface pH transients induced by transmembrane NH3 flux are evident under CO2/HCO3(-)-free conditions but absent when the buffer capacity and apparent H(+) mobility increase in the presence of CO2/HCO3(-) even after the inhibition of carbonic anhydrases. We conclude that (a) intracellular carbonic anhydrase activity accentuates pH transients and vasoconstriction in response to acute elevations of pCO2, (b) CO2/HCO3(-) minimizes extracellular surface pH transients without requiring carbonic anhydrase activity, and

  13. Immobilization of carbonic anhydrase enzyme purified from Bacillus subtilis VSG-4 and its application as CO(2) sequesterer.

    PubMed

    Oviya, M; Giri, Sib Sankar; Sukumaran, V; Natarajan, P

    2012-01-01

    The purification, immobilization, and characterization of carbonic anhydrase (CA) secreted by Bacillus subtilis VSG-4 isolated from tropical soil have been investigated in this work. Carbonic anhydrase was purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephadex-G-75 column chromatography, and DEAE-cellulose chromatography, achieving a 24.6-fold purification. The apparent molecular mass of purified CA obtained by SDS-PAGE was found to be 37 kD. The purified CA was entrapped within a chitosan-alginate polyelectrolyte complex (C-A PEC) hydrogel for potential use as an immobilized enzyme. The optimum pH and temperature for both free and immobilized enzymes were 8.2 and 37°C, respectively. The immobilized enzyme had a much higher storage stability than the free enzyme. Certain metal ions, namely, Co(2+), Cu(2+), and Fe(3+), increased the enzyme activity, whereas CA activity was inhibited by Pb(2+), Hg(2+), ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB), and acetazolamide. Free and immobilized CAs were tested further for the targeted application of the carbonation reaction to convert CO(2) to CaCO(3). The maximum CO(2) sequestration potential was achieved with immobilized CA (480 mg CaCO(3)/mg protein). These properties suggest that immobilized VSG-4 carbonic anhydrase has the potential to be used for biomimetic CO(2) sequestration.

  14. The role of carbonic anhydrase in C4 photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Studer, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Current pressures on the global food supply have accelerated the urgency for a second green revolution using novel and sustainable approaches to increase crop yield and efficiency. This proposal outlines experiments to address fundamental questions regarding the biology of C4 photosynthesis, the method of carbon fixation utilized by the most productive food, feed and bioenergy crops. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) has been implicated in multiple cellular functions including nitrogen metabolism, water use efficiency, and photosynthesis. CA catalyzes the first dedicated step in C4 photosynthesis, the hydration of CO2 into bicarbonate, and is potentially rate limiting in C4 grasses. Using insertional mutagenesis, we have generated CA mutants in maize, and propose the characterization of these mutants using phenotypic, physiological, and transcriptomic profiling to assay the plant’s response to altered CA activity. In addition, florescent protein tagging experiments will be employed to study the subcellular localization of CA paralogs, providing critical data for modeling carbon fixation in C4 plants. Finally, I propose parallel experiments in Setaria viridis to explore its relevance as model C4 grass. Using a multifaceted approach, this proposal addresses important questions in basic biology, as well as the need for translation research in response to looming global food challenges.

  15. Renal carbonic anhydrases are involved in the reabsorption of endogenous nitrite.

    PubMed

    Chobanyan-Jürgens, Kristine; Schwarz, Alexandra; Böhmer, Anke; Beckmann, Bibiana; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias; Michaelsen, Jan T; Stichtenoth, Dirk O; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2012-02-15

    Nitrite (ONO(-)) exerts nitric oxide (NO)-related biological actions and its concentration in the circulation may be of particular importance. Nitrite is excreted in the urine. Hence, the kidney may play an important role in nitrite/NO homeostasis in the vasculature. We investigated a possible involvement of renal carbonic anhydrases (CAs) in endogenous nitrite reabsorption in the proximal tubule. The potent CA inhibitor acetazolamide was administered orally to six healthy volunteers (5 mg/kg) and nitrite was measured in spot urine samples before and after administration. Acetazolamide increased abruptly nitrite excretion in the urine, strongly suggesting that renal CAs are involved in nitrite reabsorption in healthy humans. Additional in vitro experiments support our hypothesis that nitrite reacts with CO(2), analogous to the reaction of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) with CO(2), to form acid-labile nitrito carbonate [ONOC(O)O(-)]. We assume that this reaction is catalyzed by CAs and that nitrito carbonate represents the nitrite form that is actively transported into the kidney. The significance of nitrite reabsorption in the kidney and the underlying mechanisms, notably a direct involvement of CAs in the reaction between nitrite and CO(2), remain to be elucidated.

  16. Carbonic anhydrases in chick extra-embryonic structures: a role for CA in bicarbonate reabsorption through the chorioallantoic membrane.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, M Gabriella

    2004-06-01

    The villus cavity cells, a specific cell type of the chick chorioallantoic membrane, express both cytosolic carbonic anhydrase in their cytoplasm and HCO3(-)/Cl(-) anion exchangers at their basolateral membranes. By immunohistochemical analysis, we show here that villus cavity cells specifically react with antibodies directed against the membrane-associated form of carbonic anhydrase, CAIV. Staining is restricted to the apical cell membranes, characteristically invaginated toward the shell membrane, as well as to endothelia of blood vessels present in the mesodermal layer. The occurrence of a membrane-associated CA form at the apical pole of villus cavity cells, when definitively confirmed, would be fairly consistent with the role proposed for these cells in bicarbonate reabsorption from the eggshell so to prevent metabolic acidosis in the embryo during development.

  17. Appraisal of casein's inhibitory effects on aggregation accompanying carbonic anhydrase refolding and heat-induced ovalbumin fibrillogenesis.

    PubMed

    Khodarahmi, Reza; Beyrami, Mehdi; Soori, Hosnieh

    2008-09-01

    It is well accepted that whole casein and its purified major components, due to their chaperone-like activity, are able to suppress the thermal and chemical aggregation of several substrate proteins. In this study, we set out to determine whether whole and beta-casein are able to prevent (or attenuate) aggregation accompanying refolding of chemically denatured carbonic anhydrase or to recover lost biological activity after its denaturation. Additionally, we showed attenuated heat-induced fibrillar aggregation of egg white ovalbumin in the presence of these commonly occurring unfolded proteins, as molecular chaperones. Also, the extent, rate and order of aggregation, in the presence and absence of aggregation suppressors, were compared. Although beta-casein did not prevent aggregation as strong as whole casein, both chaperones were efficient not only in suppressing the aggregation extent of denatured carbonic anhydrase, but also in delaying elongation process of amyloid fibril formation with no effect on nucleation phase.

  18. X-ray Crystallographic Studies Reveal That the Incorporation of Spacer Groups in Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Causes Alternate Binding Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher,S.; Govindasamy, L.; Boyle, N.; Agbandje-McKenna, M.; Silverman, D.; Blackburn, G.; McKenna, R.

    2006-01-01

    Human carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are well studied targets for the development of inhibitors for pharmaceutical applications. The crystal structure of human CA II has been determined in complex with two CA inhibitors (CAIs) containing conventional sulfonamide and thiadiazole moieties separated by a -CF{sub 2}- or -CHNH{sub 2}- spacer group. The structures presented here reveal that these spacer groups allow novel binding modes for the thiadiazole moiety compared with conventional CAIs.

  19. Effects of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbonic anhydrase on stomatal conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakir, D.; Stimler, K.; Berry, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    The potential use of COS as tracer of the gross, one-way, CO2 flux into plants is based on its co-diffusion with CO2 into leaves without outflux stimulated research on COS-CO2 interactions during leaf gas exchange. We carried out gas exchange measurements of COS and CO2 in 22 plant species representing deciduous and evergreen trees, grasses, and shrubs, under a range of light intensities and ambient COS concentrations, using mid IR laser spectroscopy. A narrow range in the normalized ratio of the net uptake rates of COS (As) and CO2 (Ac; As/Ac*[CO2]/[COS]) was observed, with a mean value of 1.61±0.26. These results reflect the dominance of stomatal conductance over both COS and CO2 uptake, imposing a relatively constant ratio between the two fluxes (except under low light conditions when CO2, but not COS, metabolism is light limited). A relatively constant ratio under common ambient conditions will facilitate the application of COS as a tracer of gross photosynthesis from leaf to global scales. However, its effect on stomatal conductance may require a special attention. Increasing COS concentrations between 250 and 2800 pmol mol-1 (enveloping atmospheric levels) seems to stimulate stomatal conductance. We examined the stimulation of conductance by COS in a range of species and show that there is a large variation with some species showing almost no response while others are highly responsive (up to doubling stomatal conductance). Using C3 and C4 plants with antisense lines abolishing carbonic anhydrase activity, we show that the activity of this enzyme is essential for both the uptake of COS and the enhancement of stomatal conductance by COS. Since carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the conversion of COS to CO2 and H2S it seems likely that the stomata are responding to H2S produced in the mesophyll. In all natural species examined the uptake of COS and CO2 were highly correlated, and there was no relationship between the sensitivity of stomata and the rate of COS uptake

  20. Allosteric reversion of Haemophilus influenzae β-carbonic anhydrase via a proline shift.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Katherine M; Million-Perez, H Rachael; Merkhofer, Richard; Nicholson, Hilary; Rowlett, Roger S

    2015-01-20

    Haemophilus influenzae β-carbonic anhydrase (HICA) has been reverse-engineered in the allosteric site region to resemble the nonallosteric Pisum sativum enzyme in order to identify critical features of allostery and intersusbunit communication. Three variants (W39V/G41A, P48S/A49P, and W39V/G41A/P48S/A49P) were identified, through a comparison with a crystal structure of nonallosteric P. sativum β-carbonic anhydrase (PSCA, PDB 1EKJ ), to potentially revert HICA to a nonallosteric enzyme. The W39V/G41A and P48S/A49P mutations decreased the apparent kcat/Km proton dependence from 4 to 2 and 1, respectively, increasing the overall maximal kcat/Km to 16 ± 2 μM(-1) s(-1) (380% of wild type) and 17 ± 3 μM(-1) s(-1) (405% of wild type). The pKa values of the metal-bound water molecule based on the pH-rate profile kinetics (8.32 ± 0.04 for W39V/G41A and 8.3 ± 0.1 for P48S/A49P) were also slightly higher than that for the wild-type enzyme (7.74 ± 0.04). The P48S/A49P variant has lost all pH-rate cooperativity. The W39V/G41A/P48S/A49P variant's kinetics were unusual and were fit with a log-linear function with a slope 0.9 ± 0.2. The crystal structure of the W39V/G41A variant revealed an active site very similar to the T-state wild-type oligomer with bicarbonate trapped in the escort site. By contrast, the X-ray crystal structure of a proline shift variant (P48S/A49P) reveals that it has adopted an active site conformation nearly identical to that of nonallosteric β-carbonic anhydrase (R-state) for one chain, including a tight association with the dimer-exchanged N-terminal helices; the second chain in the asymmetric unit is associated in a biologically relevant oligomer, but it adopts a T-state conformation that is not capped by dimer-exchanged N-terminal helices. The hybrid R/T nature of HICA P48S/A49P structurally recapitulates the interruption of pH-rate cooperativity observed for this variant. Comparison of the conformations of the R and T chains of P48S/A49P

  1. Characterization of urease and carbonic anhydrase producing bacteria and their role in calcite precipitation.

    PubMed

    Achal, Varenyam; Pan, Xiangliang

    2011-03-01

    Urease and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are key enzymes in the chemical reaction of living organisms and have been found to be associated with calcification in a number of microorganisms and invertebrates. Three bacterial strains designated as AP4, AP6, and AP9 were isolated from highly alkaline soil samples using the enrichment culture technique. On the basis of various physiological tests and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, these three bacteria were identified as Bacillus sp., B. megaterium, and B. simplex. Further, these Bacillus species have been characterized for the production of urease and CA in the process of biocalcification. One of the isolates, AP6 produced 553 U/ml of urease and 5.61 EU/ml CA. All the strains were able to produce significant amount of exopolymeric substances and biofilm. Further, efficacy of these strains was tested for calcite production ability and results were correlated with urease and CA. Isolate AP6 precipitated 2.26 mg calcite/cell dry mass (mg). Our observations strongly suggest that it is not only urease but CA also plays an important role in microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation process. The current work demonstrates that urease and CA producing microbes can be utilized in biocalcification as a sealing agent for filling the gaps or cracks and fissures in constructed facilities and natural formations alike.

  2. Modulation of carbonic anhydrase activity in two nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria, Nostoc calcicola and Anabaena sp.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Pranita; Prasanna, Radha; Kashyap, Ajai Kumar

    2005-10-01

    The activity of enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) was investigated in two diazotrophic cyanobacteria, Anabaena sp. (ARM 629) and Nostoc calcicola, in the presence of CO2/NaHCO3 and different inhibitors. The CA activity increased when the cells were pretreated with a high concentration of CO2/NaHCO3 and then transferred to ambient level CO2. Maximum activity of CA was observed after 8 h of incubation in light on transfer of cells from high Ci to ambient level CO2, and was low when incubated in dark. Addition of the photosynthetic inhibitor DCMU brought about a differential reduction in CA activity, depending on the carbon source (NaHCO3/CO2). CA inhibitors--ethoxyzolamide (EZ) and acetazolamide (AZ)--inhibited the enzyme activity in both the genera, but the extent of inhibition was greater in Anabaena sp. than in N. calcicola. Such a variation in extent of inhibition/stimulation of CA activity being different in the two genera reflects differences in their inherent potential and genetic background. The relevance of such cyanobacterial strains as CO2 sinks is also discussed.

  3. New insights into the many functions of carbonic anhydrase in fish gills.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Kathleen M

    2012-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible reactions of carbon dioxide and water: CO(2) + H(2)O ↔ H(+) + HCO(3)(-). It has long been recognized that CA is abundant in the fish gill, with attention focused on the role of CA in catalyzing the hydration of CO(2) to provide H(+) and HCO(3)(-) for the branchial ion transport processes that underlie systemic ionic and acid-base regulation. Recent work has explored the diversity of CA isoforms in the fish gill. By linking these isoforms to different cell types in the gill, and by exploiting the diversity of fish species available for study, this work is increasing our understanding of the many roles that CA plays in the fish gill. In particular, recent work has revealed that fish utilize more than one model of CO(2) excretion, that to understand the role of CA and the gill in ionic regulation and acid-base balance means characterizing the transporter and CA complement of individual cell types, and that CA plays roles in branchial sensory mechanisms. The goal of this brief review is to summarize these new developments, while at the same time highlighting key areas in which further research is needed.

  4. Carbonic anhydrase promotes the absorption rate of CO2 in post-combustion processes.

    PubMed

    Vinoba, Mari; Bhagiyalakshmi, Margandan; Grace, Andrews Nirmala; Kim, Dae Hoon; Yoon, Yeoil; Nam, Sung Chan; Baek, Il Hyun; Jeong, Soon Kwan

    2013-05-09

    The rate of carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption by monoethanol amine (MEA), diethanol amine (DEA), N-methyl-2,2'-iminodiethanol (MDEA), and 2-amino-2-methyl 1-propanol (AMP) solutions was found to be enhanced by the addition of bovine carbonic anhydrase (CA), has been investigated using a vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) device. The enthalpy (-ΔHabs) of CO2 absorption and the absorption capacities of aqueous amines were measured in the presence and/or absence of CA enzyme via differential reaction calorimeter (DRC). The reaction temperature (ΔT) under adiabatic conditions was determined based on the DRC analysis. Bicarbonate and carbamate species formation mechanisms were elucidated by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral analysis. The overall CO2 absorption rate (flux) and rate constant (kapp) followed the order MEA > DEA > AMP > MDEA in the absence or presence of CA. Hydration of CO2 by MDEA in the presence of CA directly produced bicarbonate, whereas AMP produced unstable carbamate intermediate, then underwent hydrolytic reaction and converted to bicarbonate. The MDEA > AMP > DEA > MEA reverse ordering of the enhanced CO2 flux and kapp in the presence of CA was due to bicarbonate formation by the tertiary and sterically hindered amines. Thus, CA increased the rate of CO2 absorption by MDEA by a factor of 3 relative to the rate of absorption by MDEA alone. The thermal effects suggested that CA yielded a higher activity at 40 °C.

  5. How to get into bones: proton pump and carbonic anhydrase in Osedax boneworms.

    PubMed

    Tresguerres, Martin; Katz, Sigrid; Rouse, Greg W

    2013-06-22

    Osedax are gutless siboglinid worms that thrive on vertebrate bones lying on the ocean floor, mainly those of whales. The posterior body of female Osedax penetrates into the bone forming extensions known as 'roots', which host heterotrophic symbiotic bacteria in bacteriocytes beneath the epidermis. The Osedax root epithelium presumably absorbs bone collagen and/or lipids, which are metabolized by the symbiotic bacteria that in turn serve for Osedax's nutrition. Here, we show that Osedax roots express extremely high amounts of vacuolar-H(+)-ATPase (VHA), which is located in the apical membrane and in cytoplasmic vesicles of root and ovisac epithelial cells. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), which catalyses the hydration of CO2 into H(+) and HCO3(-), is also expressed in roots and throughout Osedax body. These results suggest Osedax roots have massive acid-secreting capacity via VHA, fuelled by H(+) derived from the CA-catalysed hydration of CO2 produced by aerobic metabolism. We propose the secreted acid dissolves the bone carbonate matrix to then allow the absorption of bone-derived nutrients across the skin. In an exciting example of convergent evolution, this model for acid secretion is remarkably similar to mammalian osteoclast cells. However, while osteoclasts dissolve bone for repairing and remodelling, the Osedax root epithelium secretes acid to dissolve foreign bone to access nutrients.

  6. How to get into bones: proton pump and carbonic anhydrase in Osedax boneworms

    PubMed Central

    Tresguerres, Martin; Katz, Sigrid; Rouse, Greg W.

    2013-01-01

    Osedax are gutless siboglinid worms that thrive on vertebrate bones lying on the ocean floor, mainly those of whales. The posterior body of female Osedax penetrates into the bone forming extensions known as ‘roots’, which host heterotrophic symbiotic bacteria in bacteriocytes beneath the epidermis. The Osedax root epithelium presumably absorbs bone collagen and/or lipids, which are metabolized by the symbiotic bacteria that in turn serve for Osedax's nutrition. Here, we show that Osedax roots express extremely high amounts of vacuolar-H+-ATPase (VHA), which is located in the apical membrane and in cytoplasmic vesicles of root and ovisac epithelial cells. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), which catalyses the hydration of CO2 into H+ and HCO3−, is also expressed in roots and throughout Osedax body. These results suggest Osedax roots have massive acid-secreting capacity via VHA, fuelled by H+ derived from the CA-catalysed hydration of CO2 produced by aerobic metabolism. We propose the secreted acid dissolves the bone carbonate matrix to then allow the absorption of bone-derived nutrients across the skin. In an exciting example of convergent evolution, this model for acid secretion is remarkably similar to mammalian osteoclast cells. However, while osteoclasts dissolve bone for repairing and remodelling, the Osedax root epithelium secretes acid to dissolve foreign bone to access nutrients. PMID:23760644

  7. Catalytic mechanism of α-class carbonic anhydrases: CO2 hydration and proton transfer.

    PubMed

    Boone, Christopher D; Pinard, Melissa; McKenna, Rob; Silverman, David

    2014-01-01

    The carbonic anhydrases (CAs; EC 4.2.1.1) are a family of metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide (CO2) and dehydration of bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) in a two-step ping-pong mechanism: [Formula: see text] CAs are ubiquitous enzymes and are categorized into five distinct classes (α, β, γ, δ and ζ). The α-class is found primarily in vertebrates (and the only class of CA in mammals), β is observed in higher plants and some prokaryotes, γ is present only in archaebacteria whereas the δ and ζ classes have only been observed in diatoms.The focus of this chapter is on α-CAs as the structure-function relationship is best understood for this class, in particular for humans. The reader is referred to other reviews for an overview of the structure and catalytic mechanism of the other CA classes. The overall catalytic site structure and geometry of α-CAs are described in the first section of this chapter followed by the kinetic studies, binding of CO2, and the proton shuttle network.

  8. Hemocompatibility assessment of carbonic anhydrase modified hollow fiber membranes for artificial lungs.

    PubMed

    Oh, Heung-Il; Ye, Sang-Ho; Johnson, Carl A; Woolley, Joshua R; Federspiel, William J; Wagner, William R

    2010-05-01

    Hollow fiber membrane (HFM)-based artificial lungs can require a large blood-contacting membrane surface area to provide adequate gas exchange. However, such a large surface area presents significant challenges to hemocompatibility. One method to improve carbon dioxide (CO(2)) transfer efficiency might be to immobilize carbonic anhydrase (CA) onto the surface of conventional HFMs. By catalyzing the dehydration of bicarbonate in blood, CA has been shown to facilitate diffusion of CO(2) toward the fiber membranes. This study evaluated the impact of surface modifying a commercially available microporous HFM-based artificial lung on fiber blood biocompatibility. A commercial poly(propylene) Celgard HFM surface was coated with a siloxane, grafted with amine groups, and then attached with CA which has been shown to facilitate diffusion of CO(2) toward the fiber membranes. Results following acute ovine blood contact indicated no significant reduction in platelet deposition or activation with the siloxane coating or the siloxane coating with grafted amines relative to base HFMs. However, HFMs with attached CA showed a significant reduction in both platelet deposition and activation compared with all other fiber types. These findings, along with the improved CO(2) transfer observed in CA modified fibers, suggest that its incorporation into HFM design may potentiate the design of a smaller, more biocompatible HFM-based artificial lung.

  9. Limestone dissolution induced by fungal mycelia, acidic materials, and carbonic anhydrase from fungi.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhou, Peng-Peng; Jia, Li-Ping; Yu, Long-Jiang; Li, Xue-Li; Zhu, Min

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms influence the dissolution of a number of minerals. Limestone is one of the most abundant rock types in karst areas, and is predominantly calcium carbonate. Two types of experimental systems were designed in this paper, to make comparisons of limestone dissolution rate among the acidic materials and extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) excreted by fungi and the enwrapping effect of fungal mycelia. One was the simulated experimental system containing microorganisms. Another was the simulated experimental system without microorganisms. Results of previous experiment indicated that the acidic materials and CA like enzymatic materials excreted by fungi and the enwrapping effect of fungal mycelia were important factors influencing limestone dissolution. In the three factors mentioned above, the dissolution effect was mycelia enwraping effect>acidic dissolution effect>CA enzymatic effect. The results of the second experiment demonstrated further that the limestone dissolution effect of the acidic materials excreted by fungi was stronger than that of CA excreted by fungi. Nevertheless, CA still played an important role in promoting the dissolution of limestone.

  10. Carbonic anhydrase I in a cartilaginous fish, the shortspine spurdog ( Squalus mitsukurii)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo Cheol; Sumi, Kanij Rukshana; Kim, Jung Woo; Choi, Myeong Rak; Min, Byung Hwa; Kho, Kang Hee

    2016-09-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA), a ubiquitous enzyme found in many species, including fishes, is involved in physiological functions such as pH homeostasis, calcification, photosynthesis, and ionic regulation. CA I, a member of the α-CA family, is a cytoplasmic isozyme involved in carbon dioxide transport, ion exchange, and acid-base balance. Approximately half of the extant shark species occur only in deep waters; however, few published studies on sharks include these taxa. As fisheries worldwide enter deeper waters, the provision of biological data for these little-known taxa is critical to their management and conservation. To address this limitation, we aimed to detect CA I in various tissues of the shortspine spurdog ( Squalus mitsukurii) and characterize its physicochemical properties by using sodium dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing, together with immunohistochemistry. CA I was detected on SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis as a specific band at 29 kDa in various tissues of the shortspine spurdog, and as a specific band at pI 6.5 in various tissues of the shortspine spurdog by IEF and western blot analysis. CA I immunoreactivity in various tissues of the shortspine spurdog was detected in intracellular locations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the localization of CA isozymes in various tissues of S. mitsukurii.

  11. Optimization of a Novel Peptide Ligand Targeting Human Carbonic Anhydrase IX

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Shoaib; Nissen, Felix; Marr, Annabell; Markert, Annette; Altmann, Annette; Mier, Walter; Debus, Juergen; Haberkorn, Uwe; Askoxylakis, Vasileios

    2012-01-01

    Background Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a hypoxia-regulated transmembrane protein over-expressed in various types of human cancer. Recently, a new peptide with affinity for human carbonic anhydrase IX (CaIX-P1) was identified using the phage display technology. Aim of the present study is to characterize the binding site in the sequence of CaIX-P1, in order to optimize the binding and metabolic properties and use it for targeting purposes. Methodology/Principal Findings Various fragments of CaIX-P1 were synthesized on solid support using Fmoc chemistry. Alanine scanning was performed for identification of the amino acids crucial for target binding. Derivatives with increased binding affinity were radiolabeled and in vitro studies were carried out on the CA IX positive human renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52 and the CA IX negative human pancreatic carcinoma cell line BxPC3. Metabolic stability was investigated in cell culture medium and human serum. Organ distribution and planar scintigraphy studies were performed in Balb/c nu/nu mice carrying subcutaneously transplanted SKRC 52 tumors. The results of our studies clearly identified amino acids that are important for target binding. Among various fragments and derivatives the ligand CaIX-P1-4-10 (NHVPLSPy) was found to possess increased binding potential in SKRC 52 cells, whereas no binding capacity for BxPC3 cells was observed. Binding of radiolabeled CaIX-P1-4-10 on CA IX positive cells could be inhibited by both the unlabeled and the native CaIX-P1 peptide but not by control peptides. Stability experiments indicated the degradation site in the sequence of CaIX-P1-4-10. Biodistribution studies showed a higher in vivo accumulation in the tumor than in most healthy tissues. Conclusions Our data reveal modifications in the sequence of the CA IX affine ligand CaIX-P1 that might be favorable for improvement of target affinity and metabolic stability, which are necessary prior to the use of the ligand in

  12. Fluoroalkyl and alkyl chains have similar hydrophobicities in binding to the "hydrophobic wall" of carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Mecinović, Jasmin; Snyder, Phillip W; Mirica, Katherine A; Bai, Serena; Mack, Eric T; Kwant, Richard L; Moustakas, Demetri T; Héroux, Annie; Whitesides, George M

    2011-09-07

    The hydrophobic effect, the free-energetically favorable association of nonpolar solutes in water, makes a dominant contribution to binding of many systems of ligands and proteins. The objective of this study was to examine the hydrophobic effect in biomolecular recognition using two chemically different but structurally similar hydrophobic groups, aliphatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic fluorocarbons, and to determine whether the hydrophobicity of the two groups could be distinguished by thermodynamic and biostructural analysis. This paper uses isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to examine the thermodynamics of binding of benzenesulfonamides substituted in the para position with alkyl and fluoroalkyl chains (H(2)NSO(2)C(6)H(4)-CONHCH(2)(CX(2))(n)CX(3), n = 0-4, X = H, F) to human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II). Both alkyl and fluoroalkyl substituents contribute favorably to the enthalpy and the entropy of binding; these contributions increase as the length of chain of the hydrophobic substituent increases. Crystallography of the protein-ligand complexes indicates that the benzenesulfonamide groups of all ligands examined bind with similar geometry, that the tail groups associate with the hydrophobic wall of HCA II (which is made up of the side chains of residues Phe131, Val135, Pro202, and Leu204), and that the structure of the protein is indistinguishable for all but one of the complexes (the longest member of the fluoroalkyl series). Analysis of the thermodynamics of binding as a function of structure is compatible with the hypothesis that hydrophobic binding of both alkyl and fluoroalkyl chains to hydrophobic surface of carbonic anhydrase is due primarily to the release of nonoptimally hydrogen-bonded water molecules that hydrate the binding cavity (including the hydrophobic wall) of HCA II and to the release of water molecules that surround the hydrophobic chain of the ligands. This study defines the balance of enthalpic and entropic contributions to the

  13. Physiological and Molecular Biological Characterization of Intracellular Carbonic Anhydrase from the Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum1

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Dan; Hiraoka, Yasutaka; Colman, Brian; Matsuda, Yusuke

    2001-01-01

    A single intracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) was detected in air-grown and, at reduced levels, in high CO2-grown cells of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum (UTEX 642). No external CA activity was detected irrespective of growth CO2 conditions. Ethoxyzolamide (0.4 mm), a CA-specific inhibitor, severely inhibited high-affinity photosynthesis at low concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon, whereas 2 mm acetazolamide had little effect on the affinity for dissolved inorganic carbon, suggesting that internal CA is crucial for the operation of a carbon concentrating mechanism in P. tricornutum. Internal CA was purified 36.7-fold of that of cell homogenates by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and two-step column chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-sephacel and p-aminomethylbenzene sulfone amide agarose. The purified CA was shown, by SDS-PAGE, to comprise an electrophoretically single polypeptide of 28 kD under both reduced and nonreduced conditions. The entire sequence of the cDNA of this CA was obtained by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method and indicated that the cDNA encodes 282 amino acids. Comparison of this putative precursor sequence with the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified CA indicated that it included a possible signal sequence of up to 46 amino acids at the N terminus. The mature CA was found to consist of 236 amino acids and the sequence was homologous to β-type CAs. Even though the zinc-ligand amino acid residues were shown to be completely conserved, the amino acid residues that may constitute a CO2-binding site appeared to be unique among the β-CAs so far reported. PMID:11500545

  14. Effect of carbonic anhydrase on silicate weathering and carbonate formation at present day CO2 concentrations compared to primordial values

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Leilei; Lian, Bin; Hao, Jianchao; Liu, Congqiang; Wang, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    It is widely recognized that carbonic anhydrase (CA) participates in silicate weathering and carbonate formation. Nevertheless, it is still not known if the magnitude of the effect produced by CA on surface rock evolution changes or not. In this work, CA gene expression from Bacillus mucilaginosus and the effects of recombination protein on wollastonite dissolution and carbonate formation under different conditions are explored. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to explore the correlation between CA gene expression and sufficiency or deficiency in calcium and CO2 concentration. The results show that the expression of CA genes is negatively correlated with both CO2 concentration and ease of obtaining soluble calcium. A pure form of the protein of interest (CA) is obtained by cloning, heterologous expression, and purification. The results from tests of the recombination protein on wollastonite dissolution and carbonate formation at different levels of CO2 concentration show that the magnitudes of the effects of CA and CO2 concentration are negatively correlated. These results suggest that the effects of microbial CA in relation to silicate weathering and carbonate formation may have increased importance at the modern atmospheric CO2 concentration compared to 3 billion years ago. PMID:25583135

  15. Effect of carbonic anhydrase on silicate weathering and carbonate formation at present day CO2 concentrations compared to primordial values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Leilei; Lian, Bin; Hao, Jianchao; Liu, Congqiang; Wang, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    It is widely recognized that carbonic anhydrase (CA) participates in silicate weathering and carbonate formation. Nevertheless, it is still not known if the magnitude of the effect produced by CA on surface rock evolution changes or not. In this work, CA gene expression from Bacillus mucilaginosus and the effects of recombination protein on wollastonite dissolution and carbonate formation under different conditions are explored. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to explore the correlation between CA gene expression and sufficiency or deficiency in calcium and CO2 concentration. The results show that the expression of CA genes is negatively correlated with both CO2 concentration and ease of obtaining soluble calcium. A pure form of the protein of interest (CA) is obtained by cloning, heterologous expression, and purification. The results from tests of the recombination protein on wollastonite dissolution and carbonate formation at different levels of CO2 concentration show that the magnitudes of the effects of CA and CO2 concentration are negatively correlated. These results suggest that the effects of microbial CA in relation to silicate weathering and carbonate formation may have increased importance at the modern atmospheric CO2 concentration compared to 3 billion years ago.

  16. Synthesis and carbonic anhydrase inhibitory properties of sulfamides structurally related to dopamine.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Kadir; Nar, Meryem; Tanc, Muhammet; Vullo, Daniela; Gülçin, Ilhami; Göksu, Süleyman; Tümer, Ferhan; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2013-06-01

    A series of novel sulfamides incorporating the dopamine scaffold were synthesized. Reaction of amines and tert-butyl-alcohol/benzyl alcohol in the presence of chlorosulfonyl isocyanate (CSI) afforded sulfamoyl carbamates, which were converted to the title compounds by treatment with trifluoroacetic acid or by palladium-catalyzed hydrogenolysis. Inhibition of six α-carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1), that is, CA I, CA II, CA VA, CA IX, CA XII and CA XIV, and two β-CAs from Candida glabrata (CgCA) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Rv3588) with these sulfamides was investigated. All CA isozymes were inhibited in the low micromolar to nanomolar range by the dopamine sulfamide analogues. K(i)s were in the range of 0.061-1.822 μM for CA I, 1.47-2.94 nM for CA II, 2.25-3.34 μM for CA VA, 0.041-0.37 μM for CA IX, 0.021-1.52 μM for CA XII, 0.007-0.219 μM for CA XIV, 0.35-5.31 μM for CgCA and 0.465-4.29 μM for Rv3588. The synthesized sulfamides may lead to inhibitors targeting medicinally relevant CA isoforms with potential applications as antiepileptic, antiobesity antitumor agents or anti-infective.

  17. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of α-carbonic anhydrase from Thiomicrospira crunogena XCL-2.

    PubMed

    Díaz Torres, Natalia; González, Guillermo; Biswas, Shyamasri; Scott, Kathleen M; McKenna, Robert

    2012-09-01

    Thiomicrospira crunogena XCL-2 is a novel sulfur-oxidizing chemolithoautotroph that plays a significant role in the sustainability of deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities. This recently discovered gammaproteobacterium encodes and expresses four carbonic anhydrases (CAs) from three evolutionarily and structurally distinct CA families: an α-CA, two β-CAs and a γ-CA. In order to characterize and elucidate the physiological roles of these CAs, X-ray crystallographic structural studies have been initiated on the α-CA. The α-CA crystallized in space group C2. The crystals diffracted to a maximum resolution of 2.6 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 127.1, b = 102.2, c = 105.0 Å, β = 127.3°, and a calculated Matthews coefficient of 2.04 Å(3) Da(-1) with four identical protein molecules in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. A preliminary solution was determined by molecular replacement with the PHENIX AutoMR wizard, which had an initial TFZ score of 17.9. Refinement of the structure is currently in progress.

  18. SWATH-based proteomics identified carbonic anhydrase 2 as a potential diagnosis biomarker for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yanzhang; Mok, Tin Seak; Lin, Xiuxian; Zhang, Wanling; Cui, Yizhi; Guo, Jiahui; Chen, Xing; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Tong

    2017-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a serious threat to public health, and the biomarker discovery is of urgent needs. The data-independent mode (DIA) based sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH) mass spectrometry (MS) has been proved to be precise in protein quantitation and efficient for cancer biomarker researches. In this study, we performed the first SWATH-MS analysis comparing the NPC and normal tissues. Spike-in stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (super-SILAC) MS was used as a shotgun reference. We identified and quantified 1414 proteins across all SWATH-MS analyses. We found that SWATH-MS had a unique feature to preferentially detect proteins with smaller molecular weights than either super-SILAC MS or human proteome background. With SWATH-MS, 29 significant differentially express proteins (DEPs) were identified. Among them, carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2) was selected for further validation per novelty, MS quality and other supporting rationale. With the tissue microarray analysis, we found that CA2 had an AUC of 0.94 in differentiating NPC from normal tissue samples. In conclusion, SWATH-MS has unique features in proteome analysis, and it leads to the identification of CA2 as a potentially new diagnostic biomarker for NPC. PMID:28117408

  19. Carbonic anhydrase IX correlates with survival and is a potential therapeutic target for neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ameis, Helen M; Drenckhan, Astrid; Freytag, Morton; Izbicki, Jakob R; Supuran, Claudiu T; Reinshagen, Konrad; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Gros, Stephanie J

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is involved in pathological processes including tumorgenicity, metastases and poor survival in solid tumors. Twenty-two neuroblastoma samples of patients who were surgically treated at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf were evaluated immunohistochemically for expression of CAIX. Results were correlated with clinical parameters and outcome. Neuroblastoma Kelly and SH-EP-Tet-21/N cells were examined for CAIX expression and inhibited with specific inhibitors, FC5-207A and FC8-325A. 32% of neuroblastoma tumors expressed CAIX. This was significantly associated with poorer survival. Kelly and SH-EP-Tet-21/N cells showed a major increase of CAIX RNA under hypoxic conditions. Proliferation of Kelly cells was significantly decreased by CAIX inhibitors, FC5-207A and FC8-325A, while proliferation of SH-EP-Tet-21/N cells was only significantly affected by FC8-325A. CAIX is a potent biomarker that predicts survival in neuroblastoma patients. CAIX-targeted therapy in neuroblastoma cell lines is highly effective and strengthens the potential of CAIX as a clinical therapeutic target in a selected patient collective.

  20. Coumarin or benzoxazinone based novel carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: synthesis, molecular docking and anticonvulsant studies.

    PubMed

    Karataş, Mert Olgun; Uslu, Harun; Sarı, Suat; Alagöz, Mehmet Abdullah; Karakurt, Arzu; Alıcı, Bülent; Bilen, Cigdem; Yavuz, Emre; Gencer, Nahit; Arslan, Oktay

    2016-10-01

    Among many others, coumarin derivatives are known to show human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) inhibitory activity. Since hCA inhibition is one of the underlying mechanisms that account for the activities of some antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), hCA inhibitors are expected to have anti-seizure properties. There are also several studies reporting compounds with an imidazole and/or benzimidazole moiety which exert these pharmacological properties. In this study, we prepared fifteen novel coumarin-bearing imidazolium and benzimidazolium chloride, nine novel benzoxazinone-bearing imidazolium and benzimidazolium chloride derivatives and evaluated their hCA inhibitory activities and along with fourteen previously synthesized derivatives we scanned their anticonvulsant effects. As all compounds inhibited purified hCA isoforms I and II, some of them also proved protective against Maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and ScMet induced seizures in mice. Molecular docking studies with selected coumarin derivatives have revealed that these compounds bind to the active pocket of the enzyme in a similar fashion to that previously described for coumarin derivatives.

  1. Effect of sulfonamides as carbonic anhydrase VA and VB inhibitors on mitochondrial metabolic energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Arechederra, Robert L; Waheed, Abdul; Sly, William S; Supuran, Claudiu T; Minteer, Shelley D

    2013-03-15

    Obesity is quickly becoming an increasing problem in the developed world. One of the major fundamental causes of obesity and diabetes is mitochondria dysfunction due to faulty metabolic pathways which alter the metabolic substrate flux resulting in the development of these diseases. This paper examines the role of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes in the metabolism of pyruvate, acetate, and succinate when specific isozyme inhibitors are present. Using a sensitive electrochemical approach of wired mitochondria to analytically measure metabolic energy conversion, we determine the resulting metabolic difference after addition of an inhibitory compound. We found that certain sulfonamide analogues displayed broad spectrum inhibition of metabolism, where others only had significant effect on some metabolic pathways. Pyruvate metabolism always displayed the most dramatically affected metabolism by the sulfonamides followed by fatty acid metabolism, and then finally succinate metabolism. This allows for the possibility of using designed sulfonamide analogues to target specific mitochondrial CA isozymes in order to subtly shift metabolism and glucogenesis flux to treat obesity and diabetes.

  2. Extracellular carbonic anhydrase in the dogfish, Squalus acanthias: a role in CO2 excretion.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, K M; Perry, S F; Bernier, N J; Henry, R P; Wood, C M

    2001-01-01

    In Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), plasma CO(2) reactions have access to plasma carbonic anhydrase (CA) and gill membrane-associated CA. The objectives of this study were to characterise the gill membrane-bound CA and investigate whether extracellular CA contributes significantly to CO(2) excretion in dogfish. A subcellular fraction containing membrane-associated CA activity was isolated from dogfish gills and incubated with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. This treatment caused significant release of CA activity from its membrane association, a result consistent with identification of the dogfish gill membrane-bound CA as a type IV isozyme. Inhibition constants (K(i)) against acetazolamide and benzolamide were 4.2 and 3.5 nmol L(-1), respectively. Use of a low dose (1.3 mg kg(-1) or 13 micromol L(-1)) of benzolamide to selectively inhibit extracellular CA in vivo caused a significant 30%-60% reduction in the arterial-venous total CO(2) concentration difference, a significant increase in Pco(2) and an acidosis, without affecting blood flow or ventilation. No effect of benzolamide on any measure of CO(2) excretion was detected in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). These results indicate that extracellular CA contributes substantially to CO(2) excretion in the dogfish, an elasmobranch, and confirm that CA is not available to plasma CO(2) reactions in rainbow trout, a teleost.

  3. Nuclear NonO/p54(nrb) protein is a nonclassical carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Karhumaa, P; Parkkila, S; Waheed, A; Parkkila, A K; Kaunisto, K; Tucker, P W; Huang, C J; Sly, W S; Rajaniemi, H

    2000-05-26

    The growing carbonic anhydrase (CA) gene family includes 11 enzymatically active isozymes in mammals. Each of them has a characteristic cellular and subcellular distribution pattern. In this report, we demonstrate for the first time a nuclear protein with CA activity. A polypeptide recognized by CA II antibodies was purified from several rat tissues using CA inhibitor affinity chromatography. This polypeptide of apparent 66 kDa mass was characterized using amino acid sequencing and CA activity measurements. It appeared to be identical to nonO/p54(nrb), a previously cloned and characterized RNA and DNA binding nuclear factor. Recombinant nonO generated in baculovirus bound to the CA inhibitor affinity chromatography matrix and revealed detectable CA activity (25 units/mg). Hansson's histochemical staining of rat lymph nodes followed by light and electron microscopy showed nuclear CA activity in lymphocytes, suggesting that the nuclear nonO protein is catalytically active in vivo. These results demonstrate that a previously known transcription factor is a novel, nonclassical CA. Through its CA activity, the nonO may function in the maintenance of pH homeostasis in the nucleus.

  4. Mitochondrial gamma carbonic anhydrases are required for complex I assembly and plant reproductive development.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Steffanie; Braun, Hans-Peter; Peterhansel, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    Complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) in plants contains an extra domain that is made up from proteins homologous to prokaryotic gamma-carbonic anhydrases (γCA). This domain has been suggested to participate in complex I assembly or to support transport of mitochondrial CO2 to the chloroplast. Here, we generated mutants lacking CA1 and CA2 - two out of three CA proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Double mutants were characterized at the developmental and physiological levels. Furthermore, the composition and activity of the mETC were determined, and mutated CA versions were used for complementation assays. Embryo development of double mutants was strongly delayed and seed development stopped before maturation. Mutant plants could only be rescued on sucrose media, showed severe stress symptoms and never produced viable seeds. By contrast, callus cultures were only slightly affected in growth. Complex I was undetectable in the double mutants, but complex II and complex IV were upregulated concomitant with increased oxygen consumption in mitochondrial respiration. Ectopic expression of inactive CA variants was sufficient to complement the mutant phenotype. Data indicate that CA proteins are structurally required for complex I assembly and that reproductive development is dependent on the presence of complex I.

  5. Interaction of anions with a newly characterized alpha carbonic anhydrase from Halomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Furkan; Şentürk, Murat; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-12-01

    The inhibition and characterization of the α-class carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) from the Halomonas sp. are reported for the first time. The enzyme was purified 91-fold with a yield of 39%, and a specific activity of 600 U/mg proteins was obtained. It has an optimum pH at 7.5, an optimum ionic strength at 20 mM and an optimum temperature at 20 °C. The following anions, SCN(-), Br(-), Cl(-), I(-), [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] showed inhibitory effects on the hydratase activity of the enzyme. Sulfate, sulfide, azide, nitrate, nitrite and iodide exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity, in the micromolar range (KI-s of 5.5-15.5 µM). SCN(-), Br(-), Cl(-), [Formula: see text] were moderate inhibitors, whereas other anions showed only weak activities. Our findings indicate that these anions inhibit the Halomonas sp. CA (HmCA) enzyme in a similar manner to other α-CAs from mammals investigated earlier, but the susceptibility to various anions differs significantly between the Halomonas sp. and other organism CAs.

  6. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase II by steroidal and non-steroidal sulphamates.

    PubMed

    Ho, Y T; Purohit, A; Vicker, N; Newman, S P; Robinson, J J; Leese, M P; Ganeshapillai, D; Woo, L W L; Potter, B V L; Reed, M J

    2003-06-13

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are expressed by many solid tumours where they may act to confer a growth advantage on malignant tissues. In this study we have examined the ability of a series of steroidal and non-steroidal sulphamates (originally developed as steroid sulphatase inhibitors) and related compounds to inhibit human CAII (hCAII) activity in vitro. Using a 96-well plate assay, oestrone-3-O-sulphamate (EMATE) and two coumarin-based sulphamate drugs (667 COUMATE and STX 118) were found to have IC(50) values of 25-59 nM for the inhibition of hCAII activity. These compounds therefore have a similar CAII inhibitory potency to that of acetazolamide (IC(50)=25 nM), a known hCAII inhibitor. Docking studies have been performed with selected compounds to the crystal structure of hCAII and excellent correlation of scores with biological activity was observed. This agrees with our recent observations when we were the first to report the inhibition of hCAII by STS inhibitors. These studies and initial results with docking to the crystal structure of the extracellular domain of hCAXII indicate that the STS sulphamate ester inhibitors should also be interesting candidates to pursue as inhibitors of CA isozymes that are over-expressed in human tumours.

  7. Influence of pesticide exposure on carbonic anhydrase II from sheep stomach.

    PubMed

    Kılınç, Namık; İşgör, Mehmet Mustafa; Şengül, Bülent; Beydemir, Şükrü

    2015-09-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a widely distributed enzyme and has a crucial role in the cells, tissues and organs of living organisms. It is found that CA-II is one of the most abundant CA isoenzymes in the gastrointestinal system. It plays an important role in the gastric acid secretion in stomach. In this study, we purified CA-II isoenzyme from sheep stomach with a 615.2 purification fold, 78% purification yield and 5562.02 specific activity. Moreover, the in vitro effects of some commonly used pesticides including chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, dichlorvos, glyphosate isopropylamine and lambda cyhalomethrin on the enzyme activity were investigated. Of these compounds, glyphosate isopropylamine and dichlorvos showed an inhibition on CA-II esterase activity. They have IC50 values of 0.155 µM and 2.690 µM and Ki values of 0.329 µM and 3.654 µM, respectively. Both glyphosate isopropylamine and dichlorvos inhibited CA-II isoenzyme in a noncompetitive manner.

  8. Inhibition of the β-class carbonic anhydrases from Mycobacterium tuberculosis with carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Maresca, Alfonso; Vullo, Daniela; Scozzafava, Andrea; Manole, Gheorghe; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2013-04-01

    The growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is strongly inhibited by weak acids although the mechanism by which these compounds act is not completely understood. A series of substituted benzoic acids, nipecotic acid, ortho- and para-coumaric acid, caffeic acid and ferulic acid were investigated as inhibitors of three β-class carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) from this pathogen, mtCA 1 (Rv1284), mtCA 2 (Rv3588c) and mtCA 3 (Rv3273). All three enzymes were inhibited with efficacies between the submicromolar to the micromolar one, depending on the scaffold present in the carboxylic acid. mtCA 3 was the isoform mostly inhibited by these compounds (K(I)s in the range of 0.11-0.97 µM); followed by mtCA 2 (K(I)s in the range of 0.59-8.10 µM), whereas against mtCA 1, these carboxylic acids showed inhibition constants in the range of 2.25-7.13 µM. This class of relatively underexplored β-CA inhibitors warrant further in vivo studies, as they may have the potential for developing antimycobacterial agents with a diverse mechanism of action compared to the clinically used drugs for which many strains exhibit multi-drug or extensive multi-drug resistance.

  9. Participation of Two Carbonic Anhydrases of the Alpha Family in Photosynthetic Reactions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhurikova, E M; Ignatova, L K; Rudenko, N N; Mudrik, V A; Vetoshkina, D V; Ivanov, B N

    2016-10-01

    The expression of genes of two carbonic anhydrases (CA) belonging to the α-family, α-CA2 and α-CA4 (according to the nomenclature in N. Fabre et al. (2007) Plant Cell Environ., 30, 617-629), was studied in arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana, var. Columbia) leaves. The expression of the At2g28210 gene coding α-CA2 decreased under increase in plant illumination, while the expression of the At4g20990 gene coding α-CA4 increased. Under conditions close to optimal for photosynthesis, in plants with gene At2g28210 knockout, the effective quantum yield of photosystem 2 and the light-induced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in leaves were lower than in wild type plants, while the coefficient of non-photochemical quenching of leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence and the rate of CO2 assimilation in leaves were higher. In plants with At4g20990 gene knockout, the same characteristics changed in opposite ways relative to wild type. Possible mechanisms of the participation of α-CA2 and α-CA4 in photosynthetic reactions are discussed, taking into account that protons can be either consumed or released in the reactions they catalyze.

  10. Increased water flux induced by an aquaporin-1/carbonic anhydrase II interaction

    PubMed Central

    Vilas, Gonzalo; Krishnan, Devishree; Loganathan, Sampath Kumar; Malhotra, Darpan; Liu, Lei; Beggs, Megan Rachele; Gena, Patrizia; Calamita, Giuseppe; Jung, Martin; Zimmermann, Richard; Tamma, Grazia; Casey, Joseph Roman; Alexander, Robert Todd

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) enables greatly enhanced water flux across plasma membranes. The cytosolic carboxy terminus of AQP1 has two acidic motifs homologous to known carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) binding sequences. CAII colocalizes with AQP1 in the renal proximal tubule. Expression of AQP1 with CAII in Xenopus oocytes or mammalian cells increased water flux relative to AQP1 expression alone. This required the amino-terminal sequence of CAII, a region that binds other transport proteins. Expression of catalytically inactive CAII failed to increase water flux through AQP1. Proximity ligation assays revealed close association of CAII and AQP1, an effect requiring the second acidic cluster of AQP1. This motif was also necessary for CAII to increase AQP1-mediated water flux. Red blood cell ghosts resealed with CAII demonstrated increased osmotic water permeability compared with ghosts resealed with albumin. Water flux across renal cortical membrane vesicles, measured by stopped-flow light scattering, was reduced in CAII-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. These data are consistent with CAII increasing water conductance through AQP1 by a physical interaction between the two proteins. PMID:25609088

  11. The Evolutionary History of Daphniid α-Carbonic Anhydrase within Animalia

    PubMed Central

    Culver, Billy W.; Morton, Philip K.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that drive acid-base regulation in organisms is important, especially for organisms in aquatic habitats that experience rapidly fluctuating pH conditions. Previous studies have shown that carbonic anhydrases (CAs), a family of zinc metalloenzymes, are responsible for acid-base regulation in many organisms. Through the use of phylogenetic tools, this present study attempts to elucidate the evolutionary history of the α-CA superfamily, with particular interest in the emerging model aquatic organism Daphnia pulex. We provide one of the most extensive phylogenies of the evolution of α-CAs, with the inclusion of 261 amino acid sequences across taxa ranging from Cnidarians to Homo sapiens. While the phylogeny supports most of our previous understanding on the relationship of how α-CAs have evolved, we find that, contrary to expectations, amino acid conservation with bacterial α-CAs supports the supposition that extracellular α-CAs are the ancestral state of animal α-CAs. Furthermore, we show that two cytosolic and one GPI-anchored α-CA in Daphnia genus have homologs in sister taxa that are possible candidate genes to study for acid-base regulation. In addition, we provide further support for previous findings of a high rate of gene duplication within Daphnia genus, as compared with other organisms. PMID:25893130

  12. Protonography, a technique applicable for the analysis of η-carbonic anhydrase activity.

    PubMed

    Del Prete, Sonia; De Luca, Viviana; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

    2015-12-01

    Protonography, a sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) technique derived from zymography was recently reported by our group to be an effective, cheap and reproducible technique for evidencing catalytically active α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms, such as the bovine red blood cell isoform bCA or the bacterial enzyme from Vibrio cholerae, VchCA. CA activity was also observed on the protonogram of a cellular extract of Escherichia coli, evidencing the presence of one or more β-class such enzymes. Here we show that protonography can also be applied to the recently discovered η-CA family using the Plasmodium falciparum enzyme PfCA as an example. The protonogram of PfCA clearly showed catalytically active η-CA with a specific band at 22.0 kDa, which was quite distinct from the band of the red blood cell bovine enzyme bCA, which was observed at 28.8 kDa. The different migration pattern of α- and η-CAs might be a useful tool to detect Plasmodium falciparum in infected human red blood cells by an easy, routine inexpensive technique.

  13. Erythroid expression and DNAaseI-hypersensitive sites of the carbonic anhydrase 1 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Sowden, J; Edwards, M; Morrison, K; Butterworth, P H; Edwards, Y H

    1992-01-01

    The carbonic anhydrase 1 gene is expressed in adult human and mouse erythroid cells and colon epithelia from two distinct promoters. We have explored the erythroid promoter for cis-acting sequences involved in transcription using DNAaseI as a probe. Two DNAaseI-hypersensitive sites (DHS-1 and DHS-2) have been identified in the distal erythroid promoter in CA1-expressing erythroleukaemic cells. These sites are present at low levels in K562 cells, which have a foetal/embryonic phenotype and do not express CA1. DHS-1 and DHS-2 are not present in non-erythroid cells, including colon cells, which express CA1 from the proximal colon promoter. DHS-1 and DHS-2 were also generated in an heterologous CA1 gene containing 5 kb of erythroid promoter sequence after transfection into erythroid cells, including K562 cells. These transfection studies showed that both this fragment, and an abbreviated 817 bp promoter fragment which contains only DHS-1, were sufficient to confer erythroid-specific expression to a reporter gene. These promoters were active in cell lines expressing CA1 and in K562 cells. This latter observation implies that a developmental repressor factor is both present in K562 cells and binds to a cis-acting sequence that is absent from the sequence 5 kb upstream of the erythroid transcription start site. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1463458

  14. Molecular mechanism of kNBC1-carbonic anhydrase II interaction in proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Pushkin, Alexander; Abuladze, Natalia; Gross, Eitan; Newman, Debra; Tatishchev, Sergei; Lee, Ivan; Fedotoff, Olga; Bondar, Galyna; Azimov, Rustam; Ngyuen, Matt; Kurtz, Ira

    2004-08-15

    We have recently shown that carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) binds in vitro to the C-terminus of the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter kNBC1 (kNBC1-ct). In the present study we determined the molecular mechanisms for the interaction between the two proteins and whether kNBC1 and CAII form a transport metabolon in vivo wherein bicarbonate is transferred from CAII directly to the cotransporter. Various residues in the C-terminus of kNBC1 were mutated and the effect of these mutations on both the magnitude of CAII binding and the function of kNBC1 expressed in mPCT cells was determined. Two clusters of acidic amino acids, L(958)DDV and D(986)NDD in the wild-type kNBC1-ct involved in CAII binding were identified. In both acidic clusters, the first aspartate residue played a more important role in CAII binding than others. A significant correlation between the magnitude of CAII binding and kNBC1-mediated flux was shown. The results indicated that CAII activity enhances flux through the cotransporter when the enzyme is bound to kNBC1. These data are the first direct evidence that a complex of an electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter with CAII functions as a transport metabolon.

  15. A survey of carbonic anhydrase mRNA expression in enamel cells

    PubMed Central

    LACRUZ, Rodrigo S.; HILVO, Mika; KURTZ, Ira; PAINE, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Enamel formation requires rigid control of pH homeostasis during all stages of development to prevent disruptions to crystal growth. The acceleration of the generation of bicarbonate by carbonic anhydrases (CA) has been suggested as one of the pathways used by ameloblasts cells to regulate extracellular pH yet only two isozymes (CA II and CA VI) have been reported to date during enamel formation. The mammalian CA family contains 16 different isoforms of which 13 are enzymatically active. We have conducted a systematic screening by RT-PCR on the expression of all known CA isoforms in mouse enamel organ epithelium (EOE) cells dissected from new born, in secretory ameloblasts derived from 7-day old animals, and in the LS8 ameloblast cell line. Results show that all CA isoforms are expressed by EOE/ameloblast cells in vivo. The most highly expressed are the catalytic isozymes CA II, VI, IX, and XIII, and the acatalytic CA XI isoform. Only minor differences were found in CA expression levels between 1-day EOE cells and 7-day old secretory stage ameloblasts, whereas LS8 cells expressed fewer CA isoforms than both of these. The broad expression of CAs by ameloblasts reported here contributes to our understanding of pH homeostasis during enamel development and demonstrates its complexity. Our results also highlight the critical role that regulation of pH plays during the development of enamel. PMID:20175995

  16. Synthesis and carbonic anhydrase inhibition of a series of SLC-0111 analogs.

    PubMed

    Carta, Fabrizio; Vullo, Daniela; Osman, Sameh M; AlOthman, Zeid; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2017-05-01

    SLC-0111 is a sulfonamide carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitor (CAI) in Phase I/II clinical trials for the treatment of advanced hypoxic tumors complicated with metastases. Its antitumor effects are due to inhibition of the enzymatic activity of CA IX, an isoform predominantly found in tumors/metastases, but it also reduces the cancer stem cells population. Here we report the synthesis of analogs of SLC-0111, both of the sulfanilamide and metanilamide series, which possess diverse substitution patterns at the terminal ureido-phenyl moiety, thus including one or more halogens, trifluoromethyl, perchloro-/perfluorophenyl groups instead of the 4-fluorophenyl present in SLC-0111. Most of the sulfanilamide ureido derivatives were highly effective inhibitors of the tumor associated isoform and some showed selective CA IX/XII inhibitory profiles. Most of the sulfanilamide ureido derivatives were highly effective and in some cases selective CA IX/XII inhibitors, whereas the metanilamide ureido derivatives were less effective as transmembrane CA isoforms inhibitors. Structure activity relationship for this class of sulfonamides is discussed in detail.

  17. Observed surface lysine acetylation of human carbonic anhydrase II expressed in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Brian P; Lomelino, Carrie L; Salguero, Antonieta L; Driscoll, Jenna M; Pinard, Melissa A; McKenna, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Acetylation of surface lysine residues of proteins has been observed in Escherichia coli (E. coli), an organism that has been extensively utilized for recombinant protein expression. This post-translational modification is shown to be important in various processes such as metabolism, stress-response, transcription, and translation. As such, utilization of E. coli expression systems for protein production may yield non-native acetylation events of surface lysine residues. Here we present the crystal structures of wild-type and a variant of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCA II) that have been expressed in E. coli and exhibit surface lysine acetylation and we speculate on the effect this has on the conformational stability of each enzyme. Both structures were determined to 1.6 Å resolution and show clear electron density for lysine acetylation. The lysine acetylation does not distort the structure and the surface lysine acetylation events most likely do not interfere with the biological interpretation. However, there is a reduction in conformational stability in the hCA II variant compared to wild type (∼4°C decrease). This may be due to other lysine acetylation events that have occurred but are not visible in the crystal structure due to intrinsic disorder. Therefore, surface lysine acetylation events may affect overall protein stability and crystallization, and should be considered when using E. coli expression systems. PMID:26266677

  18. Antibodies reacting to carbonic anhydrase isozymes (I and II) and albumin in sera from dogs.

    PubMed

    Nishita, Toshiho; Miyazaki, Rui; Miyazaki, Takae; Ochiai, Hideharu; Orito, Kensuke

    2016-06-01

    IgGs to carbonic anhydrase isozymes (CA-I and CA-II) and albumin were identified in dog serum. IgG titers were determined in the sera of asymptomatic dogs, and in dogs with atopic dermatitis, diarrhea and/or vomiting, diabetes and/or pancreatitis, kidney disease, hepatic disease, and thyroid gland disease, using ELISA. Low titres of IgG-reactive CA-I, CA-II, BSA, and CSA were found in the sera of healthy beagles. Compared with healthy beagles, there was a significant difference in the titers of antibodies against CA-I in asymptomatic dogs, dogs with diabetes and/or pancreatitis, or thyroid gland disease, or hepatic disease. Compared with healthy beagles, there was a significant difference in the antibody titer of anti-CA-II IgG in asymptomatic dogs and in those with hepatic disease. There was a significant difference in the antibody titer of anti-BSA IgG between healthy beagles and dogs with hepatic disease.

  19. Targeting carbonic anhydrase IX improves the anti-cancer efficacy of mTOR inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Faes, Seraina; Planche, Anne; Uldry, Emilie; Santoro, Tania; Pythoud, Catherine; Stehle, Jean-Christophe; Horlbeck, Janine; Letovanec, Igor; Riggi, Nicolo; Datta, Dipak; Demartines, Nicolas; Dormond, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) by chemical inhibitors, such as rapamycin, has demonstrated anti-cancer activity in preclinical and clinical trials. Their efficacy is, however, limited and tumors eventually relapse through resistance formation. In this study, using two different cancer mouse models, we identify tumor hypoxia as a novel mechanism of resistance of cancer cells against mTORC1 inhibitors. Indeed, we show that the activity of mTORC1 is mainly restricted to the non-hypoxic tumor compartment, as evidenced by a mutually exclusive staining pattern of the mTORC1 activity marker pS6 and the hypoxia marker pimonidazole. Consequently, whereas rapamycin reduces cancer cell proliferation in non-hypoxic regions, it has no effect in hypoxic areas, suggesting that cancer cells proliferate independently of mTORC1 under hypoxia. Targeting the hypoxic tumor compartment by knockdown of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) using short hairpin RNA or by chemical inhibition of CAIX with acetazolamide potentiates the anti-cancer activity of rapamycin. Taken together, these data emphasize that hypoxia impairs the anti-cancer efficacy of rapalogs. Therapeutic strategies targeting the hypoxic tumor compartment, such as the inhibition of CAIX, potentiate the efficacy of rapamycin and warrant further clinical evaluation. PMID:27153561

  20. Expression of cancer-related carbonic anhydrases IX and XII in normal skin and skin neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Syrjänen, Leo; Luukkaala, Tiina; Leppilampi, Mari; Kallioinen, Matti; Pastorekova, Silvia; Pastorek, Jaromir; Waheed, Abdul; Sly, William S; Parkkila, Seppo; Karttunen, Tuomo

    2014-09-01

    Purpose of the study was to evaluate the presence of hypoxia-inducible, tumour-associated carbonic anhydrases IX and XII in normal skin and a series of cutaneous tumours. Human tumour samples were taken during surgical operations performed on 245 patients and were immunohistochemically stained. A histological score value was calculated for statistical analyses which were performed using SPSS for Windows, versions 17.0 and 20.0. In normal skin, the highest expression of CA IX was detected in hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and basal parts of epidermis. CA XII was detected in all epithelial components of skin. Both CA IX and CA XII expression levels were significantly different in epidermal, appendigeal, and melanocytic tumour categories. Both CA IX and XII showed the most intense immunostaining in epidermal tumours, whereas virtually all melanocytic tumours were devoid of CA IX and XII immunostaining. In premalignant lesions, CA IX expression significantly increased when the tumours progressed to more severe dysplasia forms. Both CA IX and XII are highly expressed in different epithelial components of skin. They are also highly expressed in epidermal tumours, in which CA IX expression levels also correlate with the dysplasia grade. Interestingly, both isozymes are absent in melanocytic tumours.

  1. Spectroscopic and MD simulation studies on unfolding processes of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase VA induced by urea.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Danish; Prakash, Amresh; Haque, Md Anzarul; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2016-09-01

    Carbonic anhydrase VA (CAVA) is primarily expressed in the mitochondria and involved in numerous physiological processes including lipogenesis, insulin secretion from pancreatic cells, ureagenesis, gluconeogenesis and neuronal transmission. To understand the biophysical properties of CAVA, we carried out a reversible urea-induced isothermal denaturation at pH 7.0 and 25°C. Spectroscopic probes, [θ]222 (mean residue ellipticity at 222 nm), F344 (Trp-fluorescence emission intensity at 344 nm) and Δε280 (difference absorption at 280 nm) were used to monitor the effect of urea on the structure and stability of CAVA. The urea-induced reversible denaturation curves were used to estimate [Formula: see text], Gibbs free energy in the absence of urea; Cm, the mid-point of the denaturation curve, i.e. molar urea concentration ([urea]) at which ΔGD = 0; and m, the slope (=∂ΔGD/∂[urea]). Coincidence of normalized transition curves of all optical properties suggests that unfolding/refolding of CAVA is a two-state process. We further performed 40 ns molecular dynamics simulation of CAVA to see the dynamics at different urea concentrations. An excellent agreement was observed between in silico and in vitro studies.

  2. Phosphorylation of carbonic anhydrase IX controls its ability to mediate extracellular acidification in hypoxic tumors.

    PubMed

    Ditte, Peter; Dequiedt, Franck; Svastova, Eliska; Hulikova, Alzbeta; Ohradanova-Repic, Anna; Zatovicova, Miriam; Csaderova, Lucia; Kopacek, Juraj; Supuran, Claudiu T; Pastorekova, Silvia; Pastorek, Jaromir

    2011-12-15

    In the hypoxic regions of a tumor, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is an important transmembrane component of the pH regulatory machinery that participates in bicarbonate transport. Because tumor pH has implications for growth, invasion, and therapy, determining the basis for the contributions of CA IX to the hypoxic tumor microenvironment could lead to new fundamental and practical insights. Here, we report that Thr443 phosphorylation at the intracellular domain of CA IX by protein kinase A (PKA) is critical for its activation in hypoxic cells, with the fullest activity of CA IX also requiring dephosphorylation of Ser448. PKA is activated by cAMP, which is elevated by hypoxia, and we found that attenuating PKA in cells disrupted CA IX-mediated extracellular acidification. Moreover, following hypoxia induction, CA IX colocalized with the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter and other PKA substrates in the leading edge membranes of migrating tumor cells, in support of the concept that bicarbonate metabolism is spatially regulated at cell surface sites with high local ion transport and pH control. Using chimeric CA IX proteins containing heterologous catalytic domains derived from related CA enzymes, we showed that CA IX activity was modulated chiefly by the intracellular domain where Thr443 is located. Our findings indicate that CA IX is a pivotal mediator of the hypoxia-cAMP-PKA axis, which regulates pH in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment.

  3. Carbonic anhydrase III: a new target for autoantibodies in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Robert-Pachot, Magali; Desbos, Agnes; Moreira, Annick; Becchi, Michel; Tebib, Jacques; Bonnin, Michel; Aitsiselmi, Tarik; Bienvenu, Jacques; Fabien, Nicole

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify new autoantibodies that could be useful for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using immunoblotting on synovial membrane proteins which represent the best source of candidate RA autoantigens. A new target protein with a molecular weight of 26 kDa was found to be recognized by autoantibodies in RA sera and was identified using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and second-dimension electrophoresis as carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII). Three similar protein spots at 26 kDa were recognized by both human sera and monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against CAIII on immunoblotting using the human recombinant CAIII. Interestingly, CAIII expression within the synovial membrane was not observed in non-RA patients and was differentially expressed among RA patients. The sensitivity of these new autoantibodies for RA, using an immunoenzymatic technique, was 17%. Specificity was high when comparing non-autoimmune diseases (100%), while it was found to be weak (67%) when comparing some other autoimmune diseases, and particularly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that these new autoantibodies against CAIII are not restricted to RA. However the expression of CAIII in the synovial membrane of RA warrants further investigation of the pathophysiological relevance of this finding.

  4. Carbonic anhydrase-encoded dynamic constitutional libraries: toward the discovery of isozyme-specific inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Gihane; Petit, Eddy; Vullo, Daniela; Winum, Jean-Yves; Supuran, Claudiu T; Barboiu, Mihail

    2009-08-13

    A constitutional dynamic library (CDL) was generated under thermodynamic control by using the amino-carbonyl/imine interconversion as reversible chemistry, combined with noncovalent bonding within the active site of the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1). Considering the pharmacological importance to find isoform-selective CA inhibitors (CAIs), two of the 15 human (h) isoform, i.e., hCAI and hCA II, have been subjected to a parallel screening of the same CDL. The use of parallel constitutional screening of CDL chemistry for the discovery of enzyme inhibitors is straightforward and it might provide initial insights toward the generation of efficient classes of selective, high affinity inhibitors. We demonstrate here that the high selectivity and specificity of inhibiting the hCA I and hCA II isozymes with some of the detected hits may be used to describe a complex constitutional behavior through component selection from the dynamic library, driven by the selective binding to the specific isoform active site. These results also point to the possibility of modulating the drug discovery methods by constitutional recomposition induced by a specific enzymatic target.

  5. Enzyme renaturation to higher activity driven by the sol-gel transition: Carbonic anhydrase

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, Vladimir V.; Avnir, David

    2015-01-01

    We describe a so-far unknown route for renaturing denatured enzymes, namely subjecting the denatured enzyme to an oxide sol-gel transition. The phenomenon was revealed in a detailed study of denatured carbonic anhydrase which was subjected to an alumina sol-gel transition, up to the thermally stabilizing entrapment in the final xerogel. Remarkably, not only that the killed enzyme regained its activity during the sol-gel process, but its activity increased to 180% of the native enzyme. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of enhanced activity following by renaturing (a “Phoenix effect”). Kinetic study which revealed a five-orders of magnitude (!) increase in the Arrhenius prefactor upon entrapment compared to solution. Circular dichroism analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, zeta potential analyses as well as synchronous fluorescence measurements, all of which were used to characterize the phenomenon, are consistent with a proposed mechanism which is based on the specific orienting interactions of the active site of the enzyme with respect to the alumina interface and its pores network. PMID:26394694

  6. Imaging of carbonic anhydrase IX with an 111In-labeled dual-motif inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Steven P.; Banerjee, Sangeeta Ray; Gorin, Michael A.; Brummet, Mary; Lee, Hye Soo; Koo, Soo Min; Sysa-Shah, Polina; Mease, Ronnie C.; Nimmagadda, Sridhar; Allaf, Mohamad E.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a new scaffold for radionuclide-based imaging and therapy of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) targeting carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX). Compound XYIMSR-01, a DOTA-conjugated, bivalent, low-molecular-weight ligand, has two moieties that target two separate sites on CAIX, imparting high affinity. We synthesized [111In]XYIMSR-01 in 73.8–75.8% (n = 3) yield with specific radioactivities ranging from 118 – 1,021 GBq/μmol (3,200–27,600 Ci/mmol). Single photon emission computed tomography of [111In]XYIMSR-01 in immunocompromised mice bearing CAIX-expressing SK-RC-52 tumors revealed radiotracer uptake in tumor as early as 1 h post-injection. Biodistribution studies demonstrated 26% injected dose per gram of radioactivity within tumor at 1 h. Tumor-to-blood, muscle and kidney ratios were 178.1 ± 145.4, 68.4 ± 29.0 and 1.7 ± 1.2, respectively, at 24 h post-injection. Retention of radioactivity was exclusively observed in tumors by 48 h, the latest time point evaluated. The dual targeting strategy to engage CAIX enabled specific detection of ccRCC in this xenograft model, with pharmacokinetics surpassing those of previously described radionuclide-based probes against CAIX. PMID:26418876

  7. SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF NEW PHTHALAZINE SUBSTITUTED β-LACTAM DERIVATIVES AS CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS.

    PubMed

    Berber, Nurcan; Arslan, Mustafa; Bilen, Çiğdem; Sackes, Zübeyde; Gençer, Nahit; Arslan, Oktay

    2015-01-01

    A new series of phthalazine substituted β-lactam derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory effects on the activity of purified human carbonic anhydrase (hCA I and II) were evaluated. 2H-Indazolo[2,1-b]phthala- zine-trione derivative was prepared with 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, dimedone, and phthalhydrazide in the presence of TFA in DMF, and the nitro group was reduced to 13-(4-aminophenyl)-3,3-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro- 2H-indazolo[1,2-b]phthalazine-1,6,11(13H)-trione with SnCl2 · 2H2O. The reduced compound was re- acted with different aromatic aldehydes, and phthalazine substituted imines were synthesized. The imine compounds undergo (2+2) cycloaddition reactions with ketenes to produce 2H-indazolo[2,1-b]phthala-zine-trione substituted β-lactam derivatives. The β-lactam compounds were tested as inhibitors of the CA isoenzyme activity. The results showed that all the synthesized compounds inhibited the CA isoenzyme activity. 1-(4-(3,3-dimethyl- 1,6,1 1-trioxo-2,3,4,6,11,13-hexahydro-1H-indazolo[1,2-b]phthalazin-13- yl)phenyl)-2-oxo-4-p-tolylazetidin-3-yl acetate (IC50 = 6.97 µM for hCA I and 8.48 µM for hCA II) had the most inhibitory effect.

  8. Enzyme renaturation to higher activity driven by the sol-gel transition: Carbonic anhydrase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, Vladimir V.; Avnir, David

    2015-09-01

    We describe a so-far unknown route for renaturing denatured enzymes, namely subjecting the denatured enzyme to an oxide sol-gel transition. The phenomenon was revealed in a detailed study of denatured carbonic anhydrase which was subjected to an alumina sol-gel transition, up to the thermally stabilizing entrapment in the final xerogel. Remarkably, not only that the killed enzyme regained its activity during the sol-gel process, but its activity increased to 180% of the native enzyme. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of enhanced activity following by renaturing (a “Phoenix effect”). Kinetic study which revealed a five-orders of magnitude (!) increase in the Arrhenius prefactor upon entrapment compared to solution. Circular dichroism analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, zeta potential analyses as well as synchronous fluorescence measurements, all of which were used to characterize the phenomenon, are consistent with a proposed mechanism which is based on the specific orienting interactions of the active site of the enzyme with respect to the alumina interface and its pores network.

  9. Genetic polymorphisms in the carbonic anhydrase VI gene and dental caries susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Li, Z-Q; Hu, X-P; Zhou, J-Y; Xie, X-D; Zhang, J-M

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the role of 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI gene (rs2274328, rs17032907, rs11576766, rs2274333, rs10864376, rs3765964, and rs6680186) and the possible association between these polymorphisms and dental caries susceptibility in a Northwestern Chinese population. We collected samples from 164 high caries experience and 191 very low caries experience and conducted a case-control study according to the number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth index and genotyped the 7 polymorphisms using a 384-well plate format with the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Individuals carrying the rs17032907 TT genotype were more likely to have an increased risk of dental caries compared with carriers of the C/C genotype in the co-dominant model, with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 2.144 (1.096-4.195). We also found that the haplotype (ACA) (rs2274328, rs17032907 and rs11576766) was associated with a low number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth index with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.635 (0.440-0.918). However, we found no association between dental caries susceptibility and the rs2274328, rs11576766, rs2274333, rs10864376, rs3765964, and rs6680186 polymorphisms and other haplotypes. The rs17032907 genetic variant and the haplotype (ACA) of CA VI may be associated with dental caries susceptibility.

  10. A spectroscopic study on the absorption of carbonic anhydrase onto the nanoporous silica nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Khameneh, Hannaneh Pourjabbari; Bolouri, Termeh Ghorbanian; Nemati, Fahimeh; Rezvani, Fatemeh; Attar, Farnoosh; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Falahati, Mojtaba

    2017-06-01

    Herein, KIT-6 nanoporous silica nanoparticles were used as a solid support for immobilization of bovine carbonic anhydrase, isoform II (BCA II). The zeta potential study revealed that KIT-6 and BCA II provided negative (-13.58±1.95mV) and positive (4.23±0.72mV) charge distribution, respectively. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis also showed that the hydrodynamic radius of KIT-6 is less than 100nm. In addition, the structural studies of free and immobilized BCA II against urea-induced denaturation were investigated by circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopy. CD studies showed that the absorbed BCA II, in comparison with the free enzyme, demonstrated higher stability against rising urea concentration. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed lower values of Stern- Volmer constant (KSV) for immobilized BCA II relative to free enzyme, reflecting the relative enzyme stability of BCA II after immobilization. Melting temperature (Tm) measurement of free and immobilized BCA II showed that immobilized enzyme had a more stable structure (Tm=71.9°C) relative to the free counterpart (Tm=64.7°C). In addition, the immobilized BCA II showed pronounced stability against pH and thermal deactivation. This study may provide new and complementary details regarding the design and development of enzymes in industrial applications.

  11. Building reactive copper center(s) in human carbonic anhydrase II

    PubMed Central

    Song, He; Weitz, Andrew C.; Hendrich, Michael P.; Lewis, Edwin A.; Emerson, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    Re-engineering metalloproteins to generate new biologically relevant metal centers is an effective a way to test our understanding of the structural and mechanistic features that steer chemical transformations in biological systems. Here we report thermodynamic data characterizing the formation of two type-2 (T2) copper sites in carbonic anhydrase and experimental evidence showing one of these new copper centers has characteristics similar to a variety of well-characterized copper centers in synthetic models and in enzymatic systems. Human CA II is known to bind two Cu2+ ions; herein, these binding events are explored using modern isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) techniques that have become a proven method to accurately measure metal-binding thermodynamic parameters. The two Cu2+-binding events have different affinities (Ka ∼ 5 × 1012 and 1 × 1010) and both are enthalpically driven processes. Reconstituting these Cu2+ sites under a range of conditions has allowed us to assign the Cu2+-binding event to the three-histidine, native, metal binding site. Our initial efforts to characterize these Cu2+ sites have yielded data that show distinctive (and noncoupled) EPR signals associated with each copper-binding site, and that this reconstituted enzyme can activate hydrogen peroxide to catalyze the oxidation of 2-aminophenol. PMID:23744511

  12. Immunocytochemical localization of carbonic anhydrase in the pseudobranch tissue of the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, S. M.; Mazlan, A. G.; Simon, K. D.; Delaunoy, J. P.; Laurent, P.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudobranch function has long interested scientists, but its role has yet to be elucidated. Several studies have suggested that pseudobranchs serve respiratory, osmoregulatory, and sensory functions. This work investigated the immunolocalization of pseudobranch carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the teleost fish species rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to clarify its physiological function. CA was purified from rainbow trout gills O. mykiss and specific antibodies were raised. Immunoblotting between tissue homogenates of pseudobranch and gill CA antibodies showed specific immunostaining with only one band corresponding to CA in the pseudobranch homogenate. Results of immunohistochemical technique revealed that CA was distributed within pseudobranch cells and more precisely in the apical parts (anti-vascular) of cells. The basal (vascular) parts of cells, tubular system, blood capillaries, and pillar cells were not immunostained. Immunocytochemistry confirmed these results and showed that some CA enzyme was cytoplasmic and the remainder was linked to membranous structures. The results also showed that the lacunar tissue layers did not display immunoperoxidase activity. Our results indicated that pseudobranch CA may have a function related to the extracellular medium wherein CA intervenes with the mechanism of stimulation of afferent nerve fibers. PMID:24510712

  13. GdnHCl-induced unfolding intermediate in the mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase VA.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Danish; Prakash, Amresh; Haque, Md Anzarul; Islam, Asimul; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz; Ahmad, Faizan

    2016-10-01

    Carbonic anhydrase VA (CAVA) is a mitochondrial enzyme belonging to the α-family of CAs, which is involved in several physiological processes including ureagenesis, lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis and neuronal transmission. Here, we have tried to understand the folding mechanism of CAVA using guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl)-induced denaturation at pH 8.0 and 25°C. The conformational stability was measured from the GdnHCl-induced denaturation study of CAVA monitored by circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence measurements. On increasing the concentration of GdnHCl up to 5.0, a stable intermediate was observed between the concentrations 3.25M to 3.40M of the denaturant. However, CAVA gets completely denatured at 4.0M GdnHCl. The existence of a stable intermediate state was validated by 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (ANS binding) fluorescence and near-UV CD measurements. In silico studies were also performed to analyse the effect of GdnHCl on the structure and stability of CAVA under explicit conditions. Molecular dynamics simulations for 40ns were carried out and a well-defined correlation was established for both in vitro and in silico studies.

  14. Carbonic anhydrase XII is a new therapeutic target to overcome chemoresistance in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Andrea; Frei, Andreas P.; Ghigo, Dario; Wollscheid, Bernd; Riganti, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells is a challenging phenomenon often associated with P-glycoprotein (Pgp) surface expression. Finding new ways to bypass Pgp-mediated MDR still remains a daunting challenge towards the successful treatment of malignant neoplasms such as colorectal cancer. We applied the Cell Surface Capture technology to chemosensitive and chemoresistant human colon cancer to explore the cell surface proteome of Pgp-expressing cells in a discovery-driven fashion. Comparative quantitative analysis of identified cell surface glycoproteins revealed carbonic anhydrase type XII (CAXII) to be up-regulated on the surface of chemoresistant cells, similarly to Pgp. In cellular models showing an acquired MDR phenotype due to the selective pressure of chemotherapy, the progressive increase of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha was paralleled by the simultaneous up-regulation of Pgp and CAXII. CAXII and Pgp physically interacted at the cell surface. CAXII silencing or pharmacological inhibition with acetazolamide decreased the ATPase activity of Pgp by altering the optimal pH at which Pgp operated and promoted chemosensitization to Pgp substrates in MDR cells. We propose CAXII as a new secondary marker of the MDR phenotype that influences Pgp activity directly and can be used as a pharmacological target for MDR research and potential treatment. PMID:25686827

  15. Isatin-pyrazole benzenesulfonamide hybrids potently inhibit tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase isoforms IX and XII.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hany S; Abou-Seri, Sahar M; Tanc, Muhammet; Elaasser, Mahmoud M; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-10-20

    New series of benzenesulfonamide derivatives incorporating pyrazole and isatin moieties were prepared using celecoxib as lead molecule. Biological evaluation of the target compounds was performed against the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) and more precisely against the human isoforms hCA I, II (cytosolic), IX and XII (transmembrane, tumor-associated enzymes). Most of the tested compounds efficiently inhibited hCA I, II and IX, with KIs of 2.5-102 nM, being more effective than the reference drug acetazolamide. Compounds 11e, 11f, 16e and 16f were found to inhibit hCA XII with Ki of 3.7, 6.5, 5.4 and 7.2 nM, respectively. Compounds 11e and 16e, with 5-NO2 substitution on the isatin ring, were found to be selective inhibitors of hCA IX and hCA XII. Docking studies revealed that the NO2 group of both compounds participate in interactions with Asp132 within the hCA IX active site, and with residues Lys67 and Asp130 in hCA XII, respectively.

  16. External carbonic anhydrase in three Caribbean corals: quantification of activity and role in CO2 uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tansik, Anna L.; Fitt, William K.; Hopkinson, Brian M.

    2015-09-01

    Scleractinian corals have complicated inorganic carbon ( C i) transport pathways to support both photosynthesis, by their symbiotic dinoflagellates, and calcification. The first step in C i acquisition, uptake into the coral, is critical as the diffusive boundary layer limits the supply of CO2 to the surface and HCO3 - uptake is energy intensive. An external carbonic anhydrase (eCA) on the oral surface of corals is thought to facilitate CO2 uptake by converting HCO3 - into CO2, helping to overcome the limitation imposed by the boundary layer. However, this enzyme has not yet been identified or detected in corals, nor has its activity been quantified. We have developed a method to quantify eCA activity using a reaction-diffusion model to analyze data on 18O removal from labeled C i. Applying this technique to three species of Caribbean corals ( Orbicella faveolata, Porites astreoides, and Siderastrea radians) showed that all species have eCA and that the potential rates of CO2 generation by eCA greatly exceed photosynthetic rates. This demonstrates that eCA activity is sufficient to support its hypothesized role in CO2 supply. Inhibition of eCA severely reduces net photosynthesis in all species (on average by 46 ± 27 %), implying that CO2 generated by eCA is a major carbon source for photosynthesis. Because of the high permeability of membranes to CO2, CO2 uptake is likely driven by a concentration gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane. The ubiquity of eCA in corals from diverse genera and environments suggests that it is fundamental for photosynthetic CO2 supply.

  17. Immobilized Carbonic Anhydrase on Hollow Fiber Membranes Accelerates CO2 Removal from Blood

    PubMed Central

    Arazawa, David T.; Oh, Heung-Il; Ye, Sang-Ho; Johnson, Carl A.; Woolley, Joshua R.; Wagner, William R.; Federspiel, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Current artificial lungs and respiratory assist devices designed for carbon dioxide removal (CO2R) are limited in their efficiency due to the relatively small partial pressure difference across gas exchange membranes. To offset this underlying diffusional challenge, bioactive hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) increase the carbon dioxide diffusional gradient through the immobilized enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), which converts bicarbonate to CO2 directly at the HFM surface. In this study, we tested the impact of CA-immobilization on HFM CO2 removal efficiency and thromboresistance in blood. Fiber surface modification with radio frequency glow discharge (RFGD) introduced hydroxyl groups, which were activated by 1M CNBr while 1.5M TEA was added drop wise over the activation time course, then incubation with a CA solution covalently linked the enzyme to the surface. The bioactive HFMs were then potted in a model gas exchange device (0.0084 m2) and tested in a recirculation loop with a CO2 inlet of 50mmHg under steady blood flow. Using an esterase activity assay, CNBr chemistry with TEA resulted in 0.99U of enzyme activity, a 3.3 fold increase in immobilized CA activity compared to our previous method. These bioactive HFMs demonstrated 108 ml/min/m2 CO2 removal rate, marking a 36% increase compared to unmodified HFMs (p < 0.001). Thromboresistance of CA-modified HFMs was assessed in terms of adherent platelets on surfaces by using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Results indicated HFMs with CA modification had 95% less platelet deposition compared to unmodified HFM (p < 0.01). Overall these findings revealed increased CO2 removal can be realized through bioactive HFMs, enabling a next generation of more efficient CO2 removal intravascular and paracorporeal respiratory assist devices. PMID:22962517

  18. Immobilized Carbonic Anhydrase on Hollow Fiber Membranes Accelerates CO(2) Removal from Blood.

    PubMed

    Arazawa, David T; Oh, Heung-Il; Ye, Sang-Ho; Johnson, Carl A; Woolley, Joshua R; Wagner, William R; Federspiel, William J

    2012-06-01

    Current artificial lungs and respiratory assist devices designed for carbon dioxide removal (CO(2)R) are limited in their efficiency due to the relatively small partial pressure difference across gas exchange membranes. To offset this underlying diffusional challenge, bioactive hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) increase the carbon dioxide diffusional gradient through the immobilized enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), which converts bicarbonate to CO(2) directly at the HFM surface. In this study, we tested the impact of CA-immobilization on HFM CO(2) removal efficiency and thromboresistance in blood. Fiber surface modification with radio frequency glow discharge (RFGD) introduced hydroxyl groups, which were activated by 1M CNBr while 1.5M TEA was added drop wise over the activation time course, then incubation with a CA solution covalently linked the enzyme to the surface. The bioactive HFMs were then potted in a model gas exchange device (0.0084 m(2)) and tested in a recirculation loop with a CO(2) inlet of 50mmHg under steady blood flow. Using an esterase activity assay, CNBr chemistry with TEA resulted in 0.99U of enzyme activity, a 3.3 fold increase in immobilized CA activity compared to our previous method. These bioactive HFMs demonstrated 108 ml/min/m(2) CO(2) removal rate, marking a 36% increase compared to unmodified HFMs (p < 0.001). Thromboresistance of CA-modified HFMs was assessed in terms of adherent platelets on surfaces by using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Results indicated HFMs with CA modification had 95% less platelet deposition compared to unmodified HFM (p < 0.01). Overall these findings revealed increased CO(2) removal can be realized through bioactive HFMs, enabling a next generation of more efficient CO(2) removal intravascular and paracorporeal respiratory assist devices.

  19. Evidence that an internal carbonic anhydrase is present in 5% CO/sub 2/-grown and air-grown Chlamydomonas. [Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Moroney, J.V.; Togasaki, R.K.; Husic, H.D.; Tolbert, N.E.

    1987-07-01

    Inorganic carbon (C/sub i/) uptake was measured in wild-type cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in cia-3, a mutant strain of C. reinhardtii that cannot grow with air levels of CO/sub 2/. Both air-grown cells, that have a CO/sub 2/ concentrating system, and 5% CO/sub 2/-grown cells that do not have this system, were used. When the external pH was 5.1 or 7.3, air-grown, wild-type cells accumulated inorganic carbon (C/sub i/) and this accumulation was enhanced when the permeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, ethoxyzolamide, was added. When the external pH was 5.1, 5% CO/sub 2/-grown cells also accumulated some C/sub i/, although not as much as air-grown cells and this accumulation was stimulated by the addition of ethoxyzolamide. At the same time, ethoxyzolamide inhibited CO/sub 2/ fixation by high CO/sub 2/-grown, wild-type cells at both pH 5.1 and 7.3. These observations imply that 5% CO/sub 2/-grown, wild-type cells, have a physiologically important internal carbonic anhydrase, although the major carbonic anhydrase located in the periplasmic space is only present in air-grown cells. Inorganic carbon uptake by cia-3 cells supported this conclusion. This mutant strain, which is thought to lack an internal carbonic anhydrase, was unaffected by ethoxyzolamide at pH 5.1. Other physiological characteristics of cia-3 resemble those of wild-type cells that have been treated with ethoxyzolamide. It is concluded that an internal carbonic anhydrase is under different regulatory control than the periplasmic carbonic anhydrase.

  20. Characterization of an Alpha Type Carbonic Anhydrase from Paracentrotus lividus Sea Urchin Embryos.

    PubMed

    Karakostis, Konstantinos; Costa, Caterina; Zito, Francesca; Brümmer, Franz; Matranga, Valeria

    2016-06-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CA) are zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate. In the sea urchin, CA has a role in the formation of the calcitic skeleton during embryo development. Here, we report a newly identified mRNA sequence from embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, referred to as Pl-can. The complete coding sequence was identified with the aid of both EST databases and experimental procedures. Pl-CAN is a 447 aa-long protein, with an estimated molecular mass of 48.5 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.83. The in silico study of functional domains showed, in addition to the alpha type CA-specific domain, the presence of an unexpected glycine-rich region at the N-terminal of the molecule. This is not found in any other species described so far, but probably it is restricted to the sea urchins. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that Pl-CAN is evolutionarily closer to human among chordates than to other species. The putative role(s) of the identified domains is discussed. The Pl-can temporal and spatial expression profiles, analyzed throughout embryo development by comparative qPCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WMISH), showed that Pl-can mRNA is specifically expressed in the primary mesenchyme cells (PMC) of the embryo and levels increase along with the growth of the embryonic skeleton, reaching a peak at the pluteus stage. A recombinant fusion protein was produced in E. coli and used to raise specific antibodies in mice recognized the endogenous Pl-CAN by Western blot in embryo extracts from gastrula and pluteus.

  1. Histochemical localisation of carbonic anhydrase in the inner ear of developing cichlid fish, Oreochromis mossambicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beier, M.; Hilbig, R.; Anken, R.

    2008-12-01

    Inner ear otolith growth in terms of mineralisation mainly depends on the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CAH). CAH is located in specialised, mitochondria-rich macular cells (ionocytes), which are involved in the endolymphatic ion exchange, and the enzyme is responsible for the provision of the pH-value necessary for otolithic calcium carbonate deposition. In the present study, for the first time the localisation of histochemically demonstrated CAH was analysed during the early larval development of a teleost, the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. CAH-reactivity was observed already in stage 7 animals (onset of otocyst development; staging follows Anken et al. [Anken, R., Kappel, T., Slenzka, K., Rahmann, H. The early morphogenetic development of the cichlid fish, Oreochromis mossambicus (Perciformes, Teleostei). Zool. Anz. 231, 1-10, 1993]). Neuroblasts (from which sensory and supporting cells are derived) proved to be CAH-positive. Already at stage 12 (hatch), CAH-positive regions could be attributed to ionocyte containing regions both in the so-called meshwork and patches area of the macula (i.e., clearly before ionocytes can be identified on ultrastructural level or by employing immunocytochemistry). In contrast to the circumstances observed in mammalian species, sensory hair cells stained negative for CAH in the cichlid. With the onset of stage 16 (finray primordia in dorsal fin, yolk-sac being increasingly absorbed), CAH-reactivity was observed in the vestibular nerve. This indicates the onset of myelinisation and thus commencement of operation. The localisation of CAH in the inner ear of fish (especially the differences in comparison to mammals) is discussed on the basis of its role in otolith calcification. Since the vestibular system is a detector of acceleration and thus gravity, also aspects regarding effects of altered gravity on CAH and hence on the mineralisation of otoliths in an adaptive process are addressed.

  2. Suitability of the alkalistable carbonic anhydrase from a polyextremophilic bacterium Aeribacillus pallidus TSHB1 in biomimetic carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Bose, Himadri; Satyanarayana, T

    2016-10-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) was produced from the polyextremophilic (halotolerant, moderately thermophilic and alkaliphilic) bacterium Aeribacillus pallidus TSHB1 isolated from water and sediment samples of Choti Anhoni hot spring of Pipariya, Madhya Pradesh (India), is being reported to be suitable for carbon sequestration. Growth and CA production were inhibited at higher CO2 concentration (5-10 %). Under optimized culture variables (tryptone 0.8 %, yeast extract 0.08 %, glucose 1 %, micronutrient solution 1 %, inoculums size 1.10 %, agitation 200 at pH 8, and temperature 55 °C), 3.7-fold higher CA production was attained than that under unoptimized conditions. The zymogram analysis of the partially purified CA revealed an activity band corresponding to 32 kDa. The enzyme is stable in the pH range between 8.0 and 11.0 with T 1/2 of 40, 15, and 8 min at 60, 70, and 80 °C, respectively. The CA of A. pallidus displayed a marked enhancement in the rate of CaCO3 precipitation from aqueous CO2. The CA-aided formation of CaCO3 was 42.5 mg mg(-1) protein. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of rhomboid calcite crystals. This is the first report on the production and applicability of CA from the polyextremophilic A. pallidus in carbon sequestration.

  3. Expression of Human Carbonic Anhydrase in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942 Creates a High CO2-Requiring Phenotype 1

    PubMed Central

    Price, G. D.; Badger, M. R.

    1989-01-01

    Active human carbonic anhydrase II (HCAII) protein was expressed in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942 by means of transformation with the bidirectional expression vector, pCA. This expression was driven by the bacterial Tac promoter and was regulated by the IacIQ repressor protein, which was expressed from the same plasmid. Expression levels reached values of around 0.3% of total cell protein and this protein appeared to be entirely soluble in nature and located within the cytosol of the cell. The expression of this protein has dramatic effects on the photosynthetic physiology of the cell. Induction of expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity in both high dissolved inorganic carbon (Ci) and low Ci grown cells leads the creation of a high Ci requiring phenotype causing: (a) a dramatic increase in the K0.5 (Ci) for photosynthesis, (b) a loss of the ability to accumulate internal Ci, and (c) a decrease in the lag between the initial Ci accumulation following illumination and the efflux of CO2 from the cells. In addition, the effects of the expressed CA can largely be reversed by the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor ethoxyzolamide. As a result of the above findings, it is concluded that the CO2 concentrating mechanism in Synechococcus PCC7942 is largely dependent on (a) the absence of CA activity from the cytosol, and (b) the specific localization of CA activity in the carboxysome. A theoretical model of photosynthesis and Ci accumulation is developed in which the carboxysome plays a central role as both the site of CO2 generation from HCO3− and a resistance barrier to CO2 efflux from the cell. There is good qualitative agreement between this model and the measured physiological effects of expressed cytosolic CA in Synechococcus cells. Images Figure 7 PMID:16667062

  4. Enzyme-accelerated and structure-guided crystallization of calcium carbonate: role of the carbonic anhydrase in the homologous system.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Schlossmacher, Ute; Schröder, Heinz C; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Glasser, Gunnar; Korzhev, Michael; Neufurth, Meik; Wang, Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    The calcareous spicules from sponges, e.g. from Sycon raphanus, are composed of almost pure calcium carbonate. In order to elucidate the formation of those structural skeletal elements, the function of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), isolated from this species, during the in vitro calcium carbonate-based spicule formation, was investigated. It is shown that the recombinant sponge CA substantially accelerates calcium carbonate formation in the in vitro diffusion assay. A stoichiometric calculation revealed that the turnover rate of the sponge CA during the calcification process amounts to 25 CO2s(-1) × molecule CA(-1). During this enzymatically driven process, initially pat-like particles are formed that are subsequently transformed to rhomboid/rhombohedroid crystals with a dimension of ~50 μm. The CA-catalyzed particles are smaller than those which are formed in the absence of the enzyme. The Martens hardness of the particles formed is ~4 GPa, a value which had been determined for other biogenic calcites. This conclusion is corroborated by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, which revealed that the particles synthesized are composed predominantly of the elements calcium, oxygen and carbon. Surprising was the finding, obtained by light and scanning electron microscopy, that the newly formed calcitic crystals associate with the calcareous spicules from S. raphanus in a highly ordered manner; the calcitic crystals almost perfectly arrange in an array orientation along the two opposing planes of the spicules, leaving the other two plane arrays uncovered. It is concluded that the CA is a key enzyme controlling the calcium carbonate biomineralization process, which directs the newly formed particles to existing calcareous spicular structures. It is expected that with the given tools new bioinspired materials can be fabricated.

  5. Update and critical appraisal of combined timolol and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and the effect on ocular blood flow in glaucoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Adam M; Harris, Alon; Siesky, Brent; Rusia, Deepam; Williamson, Kathleen M; Shoshani, Yochai

    2010-01-01

    Topical hypotensive therapy with both timolol and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors has been shown to be efficacious at reducing intraocular pressure. Many prospective studies have also suggested that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors augment ocular blood flow and vascular regulation independent of their hypotensive effects. Although consistent in their findings, these studies must be cautiously interpreted due to the limitations of study design and specific blood flow imaging modalities. The purpose of this review is to appraise and critically evaluate the current body of literature investigating the effects of combined treatment with topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and timolol in patients with glaucoma with respect to ocular blood flow, visual function, and optic nerve head structure. PMID:20463789

  6. In vitro evaluation of ESE-15-ol, an estradiol analogue with nanomolar antimitotic and carbonic anhydrase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Stander, Barend Andre; Joubert, Fourie; Tu, Chingkuang; Sippel, Katherine H; McKenna, Robert; Joubert, Annie Margaretha

    2012-01-01

    Antimitotic compounds are still one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic anticancer drugs in the clinic today. Given their effectiveness against cancer it is beneficial to continue enhancing these drugs. One way is to improve the bioavailability and efficacy by synthesizing derivatives that reversibly bind to carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) in red blood cells followed by a slow release into the blood circulation system. In the present study we describe the in vitro biological activity of a reduced derivative of 2-ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estradiol (2EE), 2-ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estra-1,3,5(10),15-tetraen-17-ol (ESE-15-ol). ESE-15-ol is capable of inhibiting carbonic anhydrase activity in the nanomolar range and is selective towards a mimic of carbonic anhydrase IX when compared to the CAII isoform. Docking studies using Autodock Vina suggest that the dehydration of the D-ring plays a role towards the selectivity of ESE-15-ol to CAIX and that the binding mode of ESE-15-ol is substantially different when compared to 2EE. ESE-15-ol is able to reduce cell growth to 50% after 48 h at 50-75 nM in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-12A cells. The compound is the least potent against the non-tumorigenic MCF-12A cells. In vitro mechanistic studies demonstrate that the newly synthesized compound induces mitochondrial membrane depolarization, abrogates the phosphorylation status of Bcl-2 and affects gene expression of genes associated with cell death and mitosis.

  7. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency: Single-base deletion in exon 7 is the predominant mutation in Caribbean Hispanic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.Y.; Ernst, A.R.; Sly, W.S. ); Venta, P.J. ); Skaggs, L.A.; Tashian, R.E. )

    1994-04-01

    To date, three different structural gene mutations have been identified in patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification). These include a missense mutation (H107Y) in two families, a splice junction mutation in intron 5 in one of these families, and a splice junction mutation in intron 2 for which many Arabic patients are homozygous. The authors report here a novel mutation for which carbonic anhydrase II-deficient patients from seven unrelated Hispanic families were found to be homozygous. The proband was a 2 1/2-year-old Hispanic girl of Puerto Rican ancestry who was unique clinically, in that she had no evidence of renal tubular acidosis, even though she did have osteopetrosis, developmental delay, and cerebral calcification. She proved to be homozygous for a single-base deletion in the coding region of exon 7 that produces a frameshift that changes the next 12 amino acids before leading to chain termination and that also introduces a new MaeIII restriction site. The 27-kD truncated enzyme produced when the mutant cDNA was expressed in COS cells was enzymatically inactive, present mainly in insoluble aggregates, and detectable immunologically at only 5% the level of the 29-kD normal carbonic anhydrase II expressed from the wild-type cDNA. Metabolic labeling revealed that this 27-kD mutant protein has an accelerated rate of degradation. Six subsequent Hispanic patients of Caribbean ancestry, all of whom had osteopetrosis and renal tubular acidosis but who varied widely in clinical severity, were found to be homozygous for the same mutation. These findings identify a novel mutation common to Hispanic patients from the Caribbean islands and provide a ready means for PCR-based diagnosis of the [open quotes]Hispanic mutation.[close quotes] The basis for their phenotypic variability is not yet clear. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Isoaspartate, Carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1, and Carbonic anhydrase-III as biomarkers of liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Wayne G.; Vigneswara, Vasanthy; Newlaczyl, Anna; Wayne, Declan; Ahmed, Bilal; Saddington, Stephen; Brewer, Charlotte; Raut, Nikhilesh; Gerdes, Henry K.; Erdozain, Amaia M.; Tooth, David; Bolt, Edward L.; Osna, Natalie A.; Tuma, Dean J.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.

    2015-01-01

    We had previously shown that alcohol consumption can induce cellular isoaspartate protein damage via an impairment of the activity of protein isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT), an enzyme that triggers repair of isoaspartate protein damage. To further investigate the mechanism of isoaspartate accumulation, hepatocytes cultured from control or 4-week ethanol-fed rats were incubated in vitro with tubercidin or adenosine. Both these agents, known to elevate intracellular S-adenosylhomocysteine levels, increased cellular isoaspartate damage over that recorded following ethanol consumption in vivo. Increased isoaspartate damage was attenuated by treatment with betaine. To characterize isoaspartate-damaged proteins that accumulate after ethanol administration, rat liver cytosolic proteins were methylated using exogenous PIMT and 3H-S-adenosylmethionine and proteins resolved by gel electrophoresis. Three major protein bands of ~75-80 kDa, ~95-100 kDa, and ~155-160 kDa were identified by autoradiography. Column chromatography used to enrich isoaspartate-damaged proteins indicated that damaged proteins from ethanol-fed rats were similar to those that accrued in the livers of PIMT knockout (KO) mice. Carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1 (CPS-1) was partially purified and identified as the ~160 kDa protein target of PIMT in ethanol-fed rats and in PIMT KO mice. Analysis of the liver proteome of 4-week ethanol-fed rats and PIMT KO mice demonstrated elevated cytosolic CPS-1 and betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase-1 when compared to their respective controls, and a significant reduction of carbonic anhydrase-III (CA-III) evident only in ethanol-fed rats. Ethanol feeding of rats for 8 weeks resulted in a larger (~2.3-fold) increase in CPS-1 levels compared to 4-week ethanol feeding indicating that CPS-1 accumulation correlated with the duration of ethanol consumption. Collectively, our results suggest that elevated isoaspartate and CPS-1, and reduced CA-III levels could serve as

  9. Regional expression and androgen regulation of carbonic anhydrase IV and II in the adult rat epididymis.

    PubMed

    Kaunisto, K; Fleming, R E; Kneer, J; Sly, W S; Rajaniemi, H

    1999-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is implicated in the acidification of epididymal fluid and thereby in the regulation of sperm maturation and motility. Among the CA isoenzymes, CA IV and II have been shown to be present in the rat epididymal duct epithelium. In the present study, we examined the expression and androgen regulation of CA IV and II mRNAs along the epididymal duct. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of CA II mRNA in all regions of the epididymis with the strongest signal in the corpus region, while CA IV mRNA was expressed predominantly in the corpus epididymidis. Three days after bilateral castration, CA IV and II mRNAs were decreased by 80-90% in the corpus epididymidis. Testosterone (T) replacement maintained the expression of CA mRNAs at 50-60% of the control levels, indicating that circulating androgens alone are not sufficient to recover the CA expression in the corpus region. However, unilateral castration did not affect the mRNA levels of CA IV and II, suggesting that factors in testicular fluid do not play a major role in the regulation of CA expression in the corpus epididymidis. Immunoblot analysis showed that CA IV protein levels decreased 3 days after castration, while T administration maintained the protein expression virtually at the precastration levels. These data demonstrate that mRNAs for CA IV and II are predominantly expressed in the corpus region of the rat epididymis and can be regulated by androgens in that region. The present data suggest that the regulation of CA expression in the corpus epididymidis by androgens contributes to the known androgen effects on epididymal acidification.

  10. Branchial membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase activity maintains CO2 excretion in severely anemic dogfish.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, K M; Perry, S F

    2004-06-01

    Plasma CO(2) reactions in Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) have access to plasma and gill membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase (CA). Acute severe experimental anemia and selective CA inhibitors were used to investigate the role of extracellular CA in CO(2) excretion. Anemia was induced by blood withdrawal coupled to volume replacement with saline. Lowering hematocrit from 14.2 +/- 0.4% (mean +/- SE; N = 31) to 5.2 +/- 0.1% (N = 31) had no significant impact on arterial or venous CO(2) tensions (Pa(CO(2)) and Pv(CO(2)), respectively) over the subsequent 2 h. PCO(2) was maintained despite the reduction in red cell number and a significant 32% increase in cardiac output (V(b)), both of which have been found to cause Pa(CO(2)) increases in teleost fish. By contrast, treatment of anemic dogfish with the CA inhibitors benzolamide (1.3 mg/kg) or F3500 (50 mg/kg), to selectively inhibit extracellular CA, elicited rapid and significant increases in Pa(CO(2)) of 0.68 +/- 0.17 Torr (N = 6) and 0.53 +/- 0.11 Torr (N = 7), respectively, by 30 min after treatment. These findings provide a functional context in which extracellular CA in dogfish contributes substantially to CO(2) excretion. Additionally, the apparent lack of effect of V(b) changes on PCO(2) suggests that, in contrast to teleost fish, CO(2) excretion in dogfish does not behave as a diffusion-limited system.

  11. Type IV carbonic anhydrase is present in the gills of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    PubMed

    Gilmour, K M; Bayaa, M; Kenney, L; McNeill, B; Perry, S F

    2007-01-01

    Physiological and biochemical studies have provided indirect evidence for a membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoform, similar to mammalian type IV CA, in the gills of dogfish (Squalus acanthias). This CA isoform is linked to the plasma membrane of gill epithelial cells by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor and oriented toward the plasma, such that it can catalyze the dehydration of plasma HCO(3)(-) ions. The present study directly tested the hypothesis that CA IV is present in dogfish gills in a location amenable to catalyzing plasma HCO(3)(-) dehydration. Homology cloning techniques were used to assemble a 1,127 base pair cDNA that coded for a deduced protein of 306 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that this protein was a type IV CA. For purposes of comparison, a second cDNA (1,107 base pairs) was cloned from dogfish blood; it encoded a deduced protein of 260 amino acids that was identified as a cytosolic CA through phylogenetic analysis. Using real-time PCR and in situ hybridization, mRNA expression for the dogfish type IV CA was detected in gill tissue and specifically localized to pillar cells and branchial epithelial cells that flanked the pillar cells. Immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal antibody raised against rainbow trout type IV CA revealed a similar pattern of CA IV immunoreactivity and demonstrated a limited degree of colocalization with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase immunoreactivity. The presence and localization of a type IV CA isoform in the gills of dogfish is consistent with the hypothesis that branchial membrane-bound CA with an extracellular orientation contributes to CO(2) excretion in dogfish by catalyzing the dehydration of plasma HCO(3)(-) ions.

  12. Structural basis of the oxidative activation of the carboxysomal [gamma]-carbonic anhydrase, CcmM

    SciTech Connect

    Peña, Kerry L.; Castel, Stephane E.; de Araujo, Charlotte; Espie, George S.; Kimber, Matthew S.

    2010-04-26

    Cyanobacterial RuBisCO is sequestered in large, icosahedral, protein-bounded microcompartments called carboxysomes. Bicarbonate is pumped into the cytosol, diffuses into the carboxysome through small pores in its shell, and is then converted to CO{sub 2} by carbonic anhydrase (CA) prior to fixation. Paradoxically, many {beta}-cyanobacteria, including Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1, lack the conventional carboxysomal {beta}-CA, ccaA. The N-terminal domain of the carboxysomal protein CcmM is homologous to {gamma}-CA from Methanosarcina thermophila (Cam) but recombinant CcmM derived from ccaA-containing cyanobacteria show no CA activity. We demonstrate here that either full length CcmM from T. elongatus, or a construct truncated after 209 residues (CcmM209), is active as a CA - the first catalytically active bacterial {gamma}-CA reported. The 2.0 {angstrom} structure of CcmM209 reveals a trimeric, left-handed {beta}-helix structure that closely resembles Cam, except that residues 198-207 form a third {alpha}-helix stabilized by an essential Cys194-Cys200 disulfide bond. Deleting residues 194-209 (CcmM193) results in an inactive protein whose 1.1 {angstrom} structure shows disordering of the N- and C-termini, and reorganization of the trimeric interface and active site. Under reducing conditions, CcmM209 is similarly partially disordered and inactive as a CA. CcmM protein in fresh E. coli cell extracts is inactive, implying that the cellular reducing machinery can reduce and inactivate CcmM, while diamide, a thiol oxidizing agent, activates the enzyme. Thus, like membrane-bound eukaryotic cellular compartments, the {beta}-carboxysome appears to be able to maintain an oxidizing interior by precluding the entry of thioredoxin and other endogenous reducing agents.

  13. Association of carbonic anhydrase with a Calvin cycle enzyme complex in Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Jebanathirajah, J A; Coleman, J R

    1998-02-01

    Chloroplast-localized carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1), an enzyme which catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO2, appears to be associated with other enzymes of the Calvin cycle in a large multienzyme complex. Gel-filtration fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) of soluble proteins obtained by osmotic lysis of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Carlson) chloroplasts results in the co-elution of a protein complex of greater than 600 kDa which includes CA, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), phosphoribulokinase (PRK), and ribose-5-phosphate isomerase. Anion-exchange FPLC of chloroplast extracts indicates that there is an association of CA with other proteins that modifies its elution profile in a NaCl gradient, and that Rubisco co-elutes with the fractions containing CA. Following a protocol described by Süss et al. (1993, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 5514-5518), limited protease treatment of chloroplast extracts was used to show that the association of PRK with other chloroplast proteins appears to protect a number of lysine and arginine residues which may be involved in specific protein-protein interactions. A similar treatment of CA indicates some protection of these residues when CA is associated with other chloroplast polypeptides but the level of protection is not as profound as that exhibited by PRK. In concert with previously published immunolocalization studies, these data indicate that CA may be associated with Rubisco at the stromal periphery of a Calvin cycle enzyme complex in which PRK is more centrally located and associated with thylakoid membranes.

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Affibody Molecules for Radionuclide Imaging of in Vivo Expression of Carbonic Anhydrase IX.

    PubMed

    Garousi, Javad; Honarvar, Hadis; Andersson, Ken G; Mitran, Bogdan; Orlova, Anna; Buijs, Jos; Löfblom, John; Frejd, Fredrik Y; Tolmachev, Vladimir

    2016-11-07

    Overexpression of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is documented for chronically hypoxic malignant tumors as well as for normoxic renal cell carcinoma. Radionuclide molecular imaging of CAIX would be useful for detection of hypoxic areas in malignant tumors, for patients' stratification for CAIX-targeted therapies, and for discrimination of primary malignant and benign renal tumors. Earlier, we have reported feasibility of in vivo radionuclide based imaging of CAIX expressing tumors using Affibody molecules, small affinity proteins based on a nonimmunoglobulin scaffold. In this study, we compared imaging properties of several anti-CAIX Affibody molecules having identical scaffold parts and competing for the same epitope on CAIX, but having different binding paratopes. Four variants were labeled using residualizing (99m)Tc and nonresidualizing (125)I labels. All radiolabeled variants demonstrated high-affinity detection of CAIX-expressing cell line SK-RC-52 in vitro and specific accumulation in SK-RC-52 xenografts in vivo. (125)I-labeled conjugates demonstrated much lower radioactivity uptake in kidneys but higher radioactivity concentration in blood compared with (99m)Tc-labeled counterparts. Although all variants cleared rapidly from blood and nonspecific compartments, there was noticeable difference in their biodistribution. The best variant for imaging of expression of CAIX in disseminated cancer was (99m)Tc-(HE)3-ZCAIX:2 providing tumor uptake of 16.3 ± 0.9% ID/g and tumor-to-blood ratio of 44 ± 7 at 4 h after injection. For primary renal cell carcinoma, the most promising imaging candidate was (125)I-ZCAIX:4 providing tumor-kidney ratio of 2.1 ± 0.5. In conclusion, several clones of scaffold proteins should be evaluated to select the best variant for development of an imaging probe with optimal sensitivity for the intended application.

  15. Prognostic value of serum carbonic anhydrase IX in testicular germ cell tumor patients

    PubMed Central

    Kalavska, Katarina; Chovanec, Michal; Zatovicova, Miriam; Takacova, Martina; Gronesova, Paulina; Svetlovska, Daniela; Baratova, Magdalena; Miskovska, Vera; Obertova, Jana; Palacka, Patrik; Rajec, Jan; Sycova-Mila, Zuzana; Cierna, Zuzana; Kajo, Karol; Spanik, Stanislav; Babal, Pavel; Mardiak, Jozef; Pastorekova, Silvia; Mego, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are one of the most chemosensitive solid tumors, a small proportion of patients fail to be cured following cisplatin-based first line chemotherapy. Upregulation of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) in various solid tumors is associated with poor outcome. The current prospective study investigated the prognostic value of serum CA IX level in TGCTs. In total, 83 patients (16 non-metastatic following orchiectomy with no evidence of disease, 57 metastatic chemotherapy-naïve and 10 metastatic relapsed chemotherapy-pretreated) starting adjuvant and/or new line of chemotherapy and 35 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Serum CA IX values were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and intratumoral CA IX was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Metastatic chemotherapy-naïve patients had significantly higher mean CA IX serum levels than healthy controls (490.6 vs. 249.6 pg/ml, P=0.005), while there was no difference in serum CA IX levels in non-metastatic or relapsed TGCT patients compared with healthy controls. There was no significant difference in the mean serum CA IX levels between different groups of patients and between the first and second cycle of chemotherapy, nor association with patients/tumor characteristics. Serum CA IX was not prognostic for progression-free survival [hazard ratio (HR)=0.81, P=0.730] or overall survival (HR=0.64, P=0.480). However, there was a significant association between intratumoral CA IX expression and serum CA IX concentration (rho=0.51, P=0.040). These results suggest that serum CA IX level correlates with tumor CA IX expression in TGCT patients, but fails to exhibit either a prognostic value or an association with patients/tumor characteristics. PMID:27698832

  16. Carbonic anhydrase activity in Arabidopsis thaliana thylakoid membrane and fragments enriched with PSI or PSII.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Lyudmila K; Rudenko, Natalia N; Mudrik, Vilen A; Fedorchuk, Tat'yana P; Ivanov, Boris N

    2011-12-01

    The procedure of isolating the thylakoids and the thylakoid membrane fragments enriched with either photosystem I or photosystem II (PSI- and PSII-membranes) from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves was developed. It differed from the one used with pea and spinach in durations of detergent treatment and centrifugation, and in concentrations of detergent and Mg(2+) in the media. Both the thylakoid and the fragments preserved carbonic anhydrase (CA) activities. Using nondenaturing electrophoresis followed by detection of CA activity in the gel stained with bromo thymol blue, one low molecular mass carrier of CA activity was found in the PSI-membranes, and two carriers, a low molecular mass one and a high molecular mass one, were found in the PSII-membranes. The proteins in the PSII-membranes differed in their sensitivity to acetazolamide (AA), a specific CA inhibitor. AA at 5 × 10(-7) M inhibited the CA activity of the high molecular mass protein but stimulated the activity of the low molecular mass carrier in the PSII-membranes. At the same concentration, AA moderately inhibited, by 30%, the CA activity of PSI-membranes. CA activity of the PSII-membranes was almost completely suppressed by the lipophilic CA inhibitor, ethoxyzolamide at 10(-9) M, whereas CA activity of the PSI-membranes was inhibited by this inhibitor even at 5 × 10(-7) M just the same as for AA. The observed distribution of CA activity in the thylakoid membranes from A. thaliana was close to the one found in the membranes of pea, evidencing the general pattern of CA activity in the thylakoid membranes of C3-plants.

  17. Effects of carbonic anhydrase inhibition on ventilation-perfusion matching in the dog lung.

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, E R; Robertson, H T; Hlastala, M P

    1993-01-01

    Lung carbonic anhydrase (CA) permits rapid pH responses when changes in regional ventilation or perfusion alter airway and alveolar PCO2. These pH changes affect airway and vascular resistances and lung compliance to optimize the balance of regional ventilation (VA) and perfusion (Q) in the lung. To test the hypothesis that these or other CA-dependent mechanisms contribute to VA/Q matching, we administered acetazolamide (25 mg/kg intravenously) to six anesthetized and paralyzed dogs and measured VA/Q relationships before and after CA inhibition by the multiple inert gas elimination technique. Four other groups of dogs were studied to control for possible confounding effects of time under anesthesia and nonselective CA inhibition by acetazolamide: (a) saline placebo as a control for duration of anesthesia, (b) 4% CO2 inhalation to mimic systemic CO2 retention, (c) 1 mg/kg benzolamide (a selective renal CA inhibitor) or 0.5 meq/kg HCl to mimic systemic metabolic acidosis, and (d) 500 mg/kg 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (an inhibitor of red cell band 3 protein) to mimic the respiratory acidosis arising from an intracapillary block to rapid mobilization of plasma HCO3- in CO2 exchange. Acetazolamide increased VA/Q mismatch and reduced arterial PO2 measured at equilibrium but these did not occur in the control group. There was no deterioration in VA/Q matching when systemic respiratory acidosis produced either by CO2 inhalation or 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate or metabolic acidosis (benzolamide or HCl) were imposed to mimic the effects of acetazolamide apart from its inhibition of lung CA. These results support the concept that lung CA subserves VA/Q matching in the normal lung. Images PMID:8349809

  18. The ctnG gene encodes carbonic anhydrase involved in mycotoxin citrinin biosynthesis from Monascus aurantiacus.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Ping; Tang, Xiao; Wu, Wei; Xu, Yang; Huang, Zhi-Bing; He, Qing-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Citrinin, a fungal secondary metabolite of polyketide origin, is moderately nephrotoxic to vertebrates, including humans. Citrinin is synthesised by condensation of acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA. Six genes involved in the citrinin biosynthesis, including pksCT, ctnA and ctnB, have been cloned in Monascus purpureus. The pksCT gene encodes a polyketide synthase; ctnA is a regulatory factor; and ctnB encodes an oxidoreductase. When the three genes were respectively disrupted, the disruption strains drastically decreased citrinin production or barely produced citrinin. Ten new genes have been discovered in Monascus aurantiacus besides the above six genes. One of these gene displayed the highest similarity to the β-carbonic anhydrase gene from Aspergillus oryzae (74% similarity) and was designated ctnG. To learn more about the citrinin biosynthetic pathway, a ctnG-replacement vector was constructed to disrupt ctnG with the hygromycin resistance gene as the selection marker, then transformed into M. aurantiacus Li AS3.4384 by a protoplast-PEG method. The citrinin content of three disruptants was reduced to about 50%, meanwhile pigment production decreased by 23%, respectively, over those of the wild-type strains. ctnG was deduced to be involved in the formation of malonyl-CoA as a common precursor of red pigments and citrinin. Therefore, the disruption of the ctnG gene decreased citrinin and pigment production. M. aurantiacus Li AS3.4384 can produce higher concentrations of citrinin than other strains such as M. purpureus and M. ruber. Establishing the function of citrinin biosynthetic genes in M. aurantiacus is helpful in understanding the citrinin synthetic pathway and adopting some strategies to control contamination.

  19. Characterization of carbonic anhydrase XIII in the erythrocytes of the Burmese python, Python molurus bivittatus.

    PubMed

    Esbaugh, A J; Secor, S M; Grosell, M

    2015-09-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is one of the most abundant proteins found in vertebrate erythrocytes with the majority of species expressing a low activity CA I and high activity CA II. However, several phylogenetic gaps remain in our understanding of the expansion of cytoplasmic CA in vertebrate erythrocytes. In particular, very little is known about isoforms from reptiles. The current study sought to characterize the erythrocyte isoforms from two squamate species, Python molurus and Nerodia rhombifer, which was combined with information from recent genome projects to address this important phylogenetic gap. Obtained sequences grouped closely with CA XIII in phylogenetic analyses. CA II mRNA transcripts were also found in erythrocytes, but found at less than half the levels of CA XIII. Structural analysis suggested similar biochemical activity as the respective mammalian isoforms, with CA XIII being a low activity isoform. Biochemical characterization verified that the majority of CA activity in the erythrocytes was due to a high activity CA II-like isoform; however, titration with copper supported the presence of two CA pools. The CA II-like pool accounted for 90 % of the total activity. To assess potential disparate roles of these isoforms a feeding stress was used to up-regulate CO2 excretion pathways. Significant up-regulation of CA II and the anion exchanger was observed; CA XIII was strongly down-regulated. While these results do not provide insight into the role of CA XIII in the erythrocytes, they do suggest that the presence of two isoforms is not simply a case of physiological redundancy.

  20. Normal Fertility Requires the Expression of Carbonic Anhydrases II and IV in Sperm*

    PubMed Central

    Wandernoth, Petra M; Mannowetz, Nadja; Szczyrba, Jaroslaw; Grannemann, Laura; Wolf, Anne; Becker, Holger M.; Sly, William S.; Wennemuth, Gunther

    2015-01-01

    HCO3− is a key factor in the regulation of sperm motility. High concentrations of HCO3− in the female genital tract induce an increase in sperm beat frequency, which speeds progress of the sperm through the female reproductive tract. Carbonic anhydrases (CA), which catalyze the reversible hydration of CO2 to HCO3−, represent potential candidates in the regulation of the HCO3− homeostasis in sperm and the composition of the male and female genital tract fluids. We show that two CA isoforms, CAII and CAIV, are distributed along the epididymal epithelium and appear with the onset of puberty. Expression analyses reveal an up-regulation of CAII and CAIV in the different epididymal sections of the knockout lines. In sperm, we find that CAII is located in the principal piece, whereas CAIV is present in the plasma membrane of the entire sperm tail. CAII and CAIV single knockout animals display an imbalanced HCO3− homeostasis, resulting in substantially reduced sperm motility, swimming speed, and HCO3−-enhanced beat frequency. The CA activity remaining in the sperm of CAII- and CAIV-null mutants is 35% and 68% of that found in WT mice. Sperm of the double knockout mutant mice show responses to stimulus by HCO3− or CO2 that were delayed in onset and reduced in magnitude. In comparison with sperm from CAII and CAIV double knockout animals, pharmacological loss of CAIV in sperm from CAII knockout animals, show an even lower response to HCO3−. These results suggest that CAII and CAIV are required for optimal fertilization. PMID:26487715

  1. Chemical Rescue of Enzymes: Proton Transfer in Mutants of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II

    PubMed Central

    Maupin, C. Mark; Castillo, Norberto; Taraphder, Srabani; Tu, Chingkuang; McKenna, Robert; Silverman, David N.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    In human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) the mutation of position 64 from histidine to alanine (H64A) disrupts the rate limiting proton transfer (PT) event, resulting in a reduction of the catalytic activity of the enzyme as compared to the wild-type. Potential of mean force (PMF) calculations utilizing the multistate empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) methodology for H64A HCA II give a PT free energy barrier significantly higher than that found in the wild-type enzyme. This high barrier, determined in the absence of exogenous buffer and assuming no additional ionizable residues in the PT pathway, indicates the likelihood of alternate enzyme pathways that utilize either ionizable enzyme residues (self-rescue) and/or exogenous buffers (chemical rescue). It has been shown experimentally that the catalytic activity of H64A HCA II can be chemically rescued to near wild type levels by the addition of the exogenous buffer 4-methylimidazole (4MI). Crystallographic studies have identified two 4MI binding sites, yet site specific mutations intended to disrupt 4MI binding have demonstrated these sites to be non-productive. In the present work MS-EVB simulations show that binding of 4MI near Thr199 in the H64A HCA II mutant, a binding site determined by NMR spectroscopy, results in a viable chemical rescue pathway. Additional viable rescue pathways are also identified where 4MI acts as a proton transport intermediary from the active site to ionizable residues on the rim of the active site, revealing a probable mode of action for the chemical rescue pathway PMID:21452838

  2. Elucidation of the Proton Transport Mechanism in Human Carbonic Anhydrase II

    PubMed Central

    Maupin, C. Mark; McKenna, Robert; Silverman, David N.

    2009-01-01

    Human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) is one of the fastest known enzymes, which utilizes a rate-limiting proton transport (PT) step in its enzymatic reaction. To evaluate the PT event at an atomistic level, the multistate empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) method has been utilized in this work. It is observed that the PT event in HCA II exploits a transient active site water cluster to transport the excess proton between the catalytic zinc-bound water/hydroxide and the proton shuttling residue, His64. This PT event is found to be dependent on the enzyme's ability to form and stabilize the active site water cluster in addition to its ability to orient His64 in a favorable conformation. Evaluation of the PT free energy barrier for different orientations of His64 reveals this residue's vital role as a proton transporter and elucidates its direct effect on the barrier to PT through the active site water. It is suggested that the rate-limiting step oscillates between the active site water PT event to His64 and the de/protonation of His64 depending on the exogenous buffer concentration and the orientation of His64. In the absence of a PT acceptor/donor at position 64, it is found that the excess proton will utilize one of three distinct paths to enter/leave the active site. This latter result not only allows for an increased understanding of how enzymes capitalize on the protein/solvent interface to guide excess protons to/from areas of interest, it also provides valuable insight into the chemical rescue experiments on HCA II mutants. PMID:19438233

  3. Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of the tumor-associated human carbonic anhydrase IX.

    PubMed

    Alterio, Vincenzo; Hilvo, Mika; Di Fiore, Anna; Supuran, Claudiu T; Pan, Peiwen; Parkkila, Seppo; Scaloni, Andrea; Pastorek, Jaromir; Pastorekova, Silvia; Pedone, Carlo; Scozzafava, Andrea; Monti, Simona Maria; De Simone, Giuseppina

    2009-09-22

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX is a plasma membrane-associated member of the alpha-CA enzyme family, which is involved in solid tumor acidification. It is a marker of tumor hypoxia and a prognostic factor in several human cancers. An aberrant increase in CA IX expression in chronic hypoxia and during development of various carcinomas contributes to tumorigenesis through at least two mechanisms: pH regulation and cell adhesion control. Here we report the X-ray structure of the catalytic domain of CA IX in complex with a classical, clinically used sulfonamide inhibitor, acetazolamide. The structure reveals a typical alpha-CA fold, which significantly differs from the other CA isozymes when the protein quaternary structure is considered. Thus, two catalytic domains of CA IX associate to form a dimer, which is stabilized by the formation of an intermolecular disulfide bond. The active site clefts and the PG domains are located on one face of the dimer, while the C-termini are located on the opposite face to facilitate protein anchoring to the cell membrane. A correlation between the three-dimensional structure and the physiological role of the enzyme is here suggested, based on the measurement of the pH profile of the catalytic activity for the physiological reaction, CO(2) hydration to bicarbonate and protons. On the basis of the structural differences observed between CA IX and the other membrane-associated alpha-CAs, further prospects for the rational drug design of isozyme-specific CA inhibitors are proposed, given that inhibition of this enzyme shows antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Heterologous gene expression driven by carbonic anhydrase gene promoter in Dunaliella salina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurong, Chai; Yumin, Lu; Tianyun, Wang; Weihong, Hou; Lexun, Xue

    2006-12-01

    Dunaliella salina, a halotolerant unicellular green alga without a rigid cell wall, can live in salinities ranging from 0.05 to 5 mol/L NaCl. These features of D. salina make it an ideal host for the production of antibodies, oral vaccine, and commercially valuable polypeptides. To produce high level of heterologous proteins from D. salina, highly efficient promoters are required to drive expression of target genes under controlled condition. In the present study, we cloned a 5' franking region of 1.4 kb from the carbonic anhydrase ( CAH) gene of D. salina by genomic walking and PCR. The fragment was ligated to the pMD18-T vector and characterized. Sequence analysis indicated that this region contained conserved motifs, including a TATA- like box and CAAT-box. Tandem (GT)n repeats that had a potential role of transcriptional control, were also found in this region. The transcription start site (TSS) of the CAH gene was determined by 5' RACE and nested PCR method. Transformation assays showed that the 1.4 kb fragment was able to drive expression of the selectable bar (bialaphos resistance) gene when the fusion was transformed into D. salina by biolistics. Northern blotting hybridizations showed that the bar transcript was most abundant in cells grown in 2 mol/L NaCl, and less abundant in 0.5 mol/L NaCl, indicating that expression of the bar gene was induced at high salinity. These results suggest the potential use of the CAH gene promoter to induce the expression of heterologous genes in D. salina under varied salt condition.

  5. Prognostic value of serum carbonic anhydrase IX in testicular germ cell tumor patients.

    PubMed

    Kalavska, Katarina; Chovanec, Michal; Zatovicova, Miriam; Takacova, Martina; Gronesova, Paulina; Svetlovska, Daniela; Baratova, Magdalena; Miskovska, Vera; Obertova, Jana; Palacka, Patrik; Rajec, Jan; Sycova-Mila, Zuzana; Cierna, Zuzana; Kajo, Karol; Spanik, Stanislav; Babal, Pavel; Mardiak, Jozef; Pastorekova, Silvia; Mego, Michal

    2016-10-01

    Despite the fact that testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are one of the most chemosensitive solid tumors, a small proportion of patients fail to be cured following cisplatin-based first line chemotherapy. Upregulation of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) in various solid tumors is associated with poor outcome. The current prospective study investigated the prognostic value of serum CA IX level in TGCTs. In total, 83 patients (16 non-metastatic following orchiectomy with no evidence of disease, 57 metastatic chemotherapy-naïve and 10 metastatic relapsed chemotherapy-pretreated) starting adjuvant and/or new line of chemotherapy and 35 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Serum CA IX values were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and intratumoral CA IX was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Metastatic chemotherapy-naïve patients had significantly higher mean CA IX serum levels than healthy controls (490.6 vs. 249.6 pg/ml, P=0.005), while there was no difference in serum CA IX levels in non-metastatic or relapsed TGCT patients compared with healthy controls. There was no significant difference in the mean serum CA IX levels between different groups of patients and between the first and second cycle of chemotherapy, nor association with patients/tumor characteristics. Serum CA IX was not prognostic for progression-free survival [hazard ratio (HR)=0.81, P=0.730] or overall survival (HR=0.64, P=0.480). However, there was a significant association between intratumoral CA IX expression and serum CA IX concentration (rho=0.51, P=0.040). These results suggest that serum CA IX level correlates with tumor CA IX expression in TGCT patients, but fails to exhibit either a prognostic value or an association with patients/tumor characteristics.

  6. Isoaspartate, carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1, and carbonic anhydrase-III as biomarkers of liver injury.

    PubMed

    Carter, Wayne G; Vigneswara, Vasanthy; Newlaczyl, Anna; Wayne, Declan; Ahmed, Bilal; Saddington, Stephen; Brewer, Charlotte; Raut, Nikhilesh; Gerdes, Henry K; Erdozain, Amaia M; Tooth, David; Bolt, Edward L; Osna, Natalie A; Tuma, Dean J; Kharbanda, Kusum K

    2015-03-13

    We had previously shown that alcohol consumption can induce cellular isoaspartate protein damage via an impairment of the activity of protein isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT), an enzyme that triggers repair of isoaspartate protein damage. To further investigate the mechanism of isoaspartate accumulation, hepatocytes cultured from control or 4-week ethanol-fed rats were incubated in vitro with tubercidin or adenosine. Both these agents, known to elevate intracellular S-adenosylhomocysteine levels, increased cellular isoaspartate damage over that recorded following ethanol consumption in vivo. Increased isoaspartate damage was attenuated by treatment with betaine. To characterize isoaspartate-damaged proteins that accumulate after ethanol administration, rat liver cytosolic proteins were methylated using exogenous PIMT and (3)H-S-adenosylmethionine and proteins resolved by gel electrophoresis. Three major protein bands of ∼ 75-80 kDa, ∼ 95-100 kDa, and ∼ 155-160 kDa were identified by autoradiography. Column chromatography used to enrich isoaspartate-damaged proteins indicated that damaged proteins from ethanol-fed rats were similar to those that accrued in the livers of PIMT knockout (KO) mice. Carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1 (CPS-1) was partially purified and identified as the ∼ 160 kDa protein target of PIMT in ethanol-fed rats and in PIMT KO mice. Analysis of the liver proteome of 4-week ethanol-fed rats and PIMT KO mice demonstrated elevated cytosolic CPS-1 and betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase-1 when compared to their respective controls, and a significant reduction of carbonic anhydrase-III (CA-III) evident only in ethanol-fed rats. Ethanol feeding of rats for 8 weeks resulted in a larger (∼ 2.3-fold) increase in CPS-1 levels compared to 4-week ethanol feeding indicating that CPS-1 accumulation correlated with the duration of ethanol consumption. Collectively, our results suggest that elevated isoaspartate and CPS-1, and reduced CA

  7. Carbonic anhydrase enzymes II, VII, IX and XII in colorectal carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Viikilä, Pia; Kivelä, Antti J; Mustonen, Harri; Koskensalo, Selja; Waheed, Abdul; Sly, William S; Pastorek, Jaromir; Pastorekova, Silvia; Parkkila, Seppo; Haglund, Caj

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate expression of four alpha-carbonic anhydrases (CAs) in colorectal carcinomas (CRC) and compare the results with patients’ survival. METHODS Colorectal carcinoma samples from 539 CRC patients and control tissues were arranged as tissue microarrays and analyzed with antibodies against CA II, CA VII, CA IX, and CA XII. Intensity and extent of staining were both scored from 0 to 3 in each sample. These enzyme expression levels were then correlated to patients’ survival and clinicopathological parameters, which were tumor differentiation grade and stage, site of tumor, patients’ age, and gender. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression hazard ratio model were used to analyze survival data. RESULTS CA II and CA XII staining intensities correlated with patients’ survival in that higher expression indicated poorer prognosis. In Cox regression analysis one unit increase in the CA II intensity increased the hazard ratio to 1.19 fold (CI: 1.04-1.37, P = 0.009). A significant correlation was also found when comparing CA XII staining intensity with survival of CRC patients (HR = 1.18, 95%CI: 1.01-1.38, P = 0.036). The extent of CA XII immunostaining did not correlate to the patients’ survival (P = 0.242, Kaplan-Meier analysis). A significant interaction between age group and extent of the CA II staining was found. Increased extent of CA II had a significant hazard ratio among patients 65 years and older (1.42, 95%CI: 1.16-1.73, P = 0.0006). No correlations were found between CA VII (intensity P = 0.566, extent P = 0.495, Kaplan-Meier analysis), or CA IX (intensity P = 0.879, extent P = 0.315, Kaplan-Meier analysis) immunostaining results and survival, or the other parameters. CONCLUSION The present findings indicate that CA II and CA XII could be useful in predicting survival in CRC. PMID:27688658

  8. Probing the energetics of dissociation of carbonic anhydrase-ligand complexes in the gas phase.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, J; Wu, Q; Carbeck, J; Lei, Q P; Smith, R D; Whitesides, G M

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the use of electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR-MS) to study the relative stabilities of noncovalent complexes of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII, EC 4.2.1.1) and benzenesulfonamide inhibitors in the gas phase. Sustained off-resonance irradiation collision-induced dissociation (SORI-CID) was used to determine the energetics of dissociation of these CAII-sulfonamide complexes in the gas phase. When two molecules of a benzenesulfonamide (1) were bound simultaneously to one molecule of CAII, one of them was found to exhibit significantly weaker binding (DeltaE50 = 0.4 V, where E50 is defined as the amplitude of sustained off-resonance irradiation when 50% of the protein-ligand complexes are dissociated). In solution, the benzenesulfonamide group coordinates as an anion to a Zn(II) ion bound at the active site of the enzyme. The gas phase stability of the complex with the weakly bound inhibitor was the same as that of the inhibitor complexed with apoCAII (i.e., CAII with the Zn(II) ion removed from the binding site). These results indicate that specific interactions between the sulfonamide group on the inhibitor and the Zn(II) ion on CAII were preserved in the gas phase. Experiments also showed a higher gas phase stability for the complex of para-NO2-benzenesulfonamide-CAII than that for ortho-NO2-benzenesulfonamide-CAII complex. This result further suggests that steric interactions of the inhibitors with the binding pocket of CAII parallel those in solution. Overall, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that CAII retains, at least partially, the structure of its binding pocket in the gas phase on the time scale (seconds to minutes) of the ESI-FTICR measurements. PMID:10354450

  9. Evaluation of selenide, diselenide and selenoheterocycle derivatives as carbonic anhydrase I, II, IV, VII and IX inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Angeli, Andrea; Tanini, Damiano; Viglianisi, Caterina; Panzella, Lucia; Capperucci, Antonella; Menichetti, Stefano; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2017-04-15

    A series of selenides, diselenides and organoselenoheterocycles were evaluated as carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors against the human (h) isoforms hCA I, II, IV, VII and IX, involved in a variety of diseases among which glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa, epilepsy, arthritis and tumors etc. These investigated compounds showed inhibitory action against these isoforms and some of them were selective for inhibiting the cytosolic over the membrane-bound isoforms, thus making them interesting leads for the development of isoform-selective inhibitors.

  10. Monothiocarbamates Strongly Inhibit Carbonic Anhydrases in Vitro and Possess Intraocular Pressure Lowering Activity in an Animal Model of Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Vullo, Daniela; Durante, Mariaconcetta; Di Leva, Francesco Saverio; Cosconati, Sandro; Masini, Emanuela; Scozzafava, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Supuran, Claudiu T; Carta, Fabrizio

    2016-06-23

    A series of monothiocarbamates (MTCs) were prepared from primary/secondary amines and COS as potential carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors, using the dithiocarbamates, the xanthates, and the trithiocarbonates as lead compounds. The MTCs effectively inhibited the pharmacologically relevant human (h) hCAs isoforms I, II, IX, and XII in vitro and showed KIs spanning between the low and medium nanomolar range. By means of a computational study, the MTC moiety binding mode on the CAs was explained. Furthermore, a selection of MTCs were evaluated in a normotensive glaucoma rabbit model for their intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effects and showed interesting activity.

  11. Characterization of a mutant lacking carboxysomal carbonic anhydrase from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803.

    PubMed

    So, Anthony K C; John-McKay, Meryl; Espie, George S

    2002-01-01

    A fully-segregated mutant (ccaA::kanR) defective in the ccaA gene, encoding a carboxysome-associated beta-carbonic anhydrase (CA), was generated in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 by insertional mutagenesis. Immunoblot analysis indicated that the CcaA polypeptide was absent from the carboxysome-enriched fraction obtained from ccaA::kanR, but was present in wild-type (WT) cells. The carboxysome-enriched fraction isolated from WT cells catalyzed 18O exchange between 13C18O2 and H2O, indicative of CA activity, while ccaA::kanR carboxysomes did not. Transmission and immunogold electron microscopy revealed that carboxysomes of WT and ccaA::kanR were of similar size, shape and cellular distribution, and contained most of the cellular complement of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). The ccaA::kanR cells were substantially smaller than WT and were unable to grow autotrophically at air levels of CO2. However, cell division occurred at near-WT rates when ccaA::kanR was supplied with 5% CO2 (v/v) in air. The apparent photosynthetic affinity of the mutant for inorganic carbon (Ci) was 500-fold lower than that of WT cells although intracellular Ci accumulation was comparable to WT measurements. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the CA-like activity associated with the active CO2 transport system was retained by ccaA::kanR cells and was inhibited by H2S, indicating that CO2 transport was distinct from the CcaA-mediated dehydration of intracellular HCO3-. The data suggest that the ccaA mutant was unable to efficiently utilize the internal Ci pool for carbon fixation and that the high-CO2-requiring phenotype of ccaA::kanR was due primarily to an inability to generate enough CO2 in the carboxysomes to sustain normal rates of photosynthesis.

  12. The effects of exogenous extracellular carbonic anhydrase on CO2 excretion in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): role of plasma buffering capacity.

    PubMed

    Desforges, P R; Gilmour, K M; Perry, S F

    2001-08-01

    The buffering capacity (beta) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) plasma was manipulated prior to intravascular injection of bovine carbonic anhydrase to test the idea that proton (H+) availability limits the catalysed dehydration of HCO3- within the extracellular compartment. An extracorporeal blood shunt was employed to continuously monitor blood gases in vivo in fish exhibiting normal plasma beta (-3.9+/-0.3 mmol 1(-1) pH unit(-1)), and in fish with experimentally (using N-[2-hydroxyethyl]piperazine-N'-[2-ethanesulfonic acid]) elevated plasma beta (-12.1+/-1.1 mmol 1(-1) pH unit(-1)). An injection of 5 mg kg(-1) carbonic anhydrase equally reduced (after 90 min) the arterial partial pressure of CO2 in trout with regular (-0.23+/-0.05 Torr) or high (-0.20+/-0.05 Torr) plasma beta; saline injection was without effect. Because ventilation and venous blood gases were unaffected by carbonic anhydrase, the effect of extracellular carbonic anhydrase in lowering arterial partial pressure of CO2 was likely caused solely by a specific enhancement of CO2 excretion owing to acceleration of HCO3- dehydration within the plasma. The lowering of arterial partial pressure of CO2 in trout after injection of exogenous carbonic anhydrase provides the first in vivo evidence that the accessibility of plasma HCO3- to red blood cell carbonic anhydrase constrains CO2 excretion under resting conditions. Because the velocity of red blood cell Cl-/HCO3- exchange governs HCO3- accessibility to red blood cell carbonic anhydrase, the present study also provides evidence that CO2 excretion at rest is limited by the relatively slow rate of Cl-/HCO3- exchange. The effect of carbonic anhydrase in lowering arterial partial pressure of CO2 was unrelated to plasma buffering capacity. While these data could suggest that H+ availability does not limit extracellular HCO3- dehydration in vivo at resting rates of CO2 excretion, it is more likely that the degree to which plasma beta was elevated in the

  13. Linking Carbonic Anhydrase Abundance and Diversity in Soils to Ecological Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, E.; Meredith, L. K.; Welander, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is an ancient enzyme widespread among bacteria, archaea, and eukarya that catalyzes the following reaction: CO2 + H2O ⇌ HCO3- + H+. Its functions are critical for key cellular processes such as concentrating CO2 for autotrophic growth, pH regulation, and pathogen survival in hosts. Currently, there are six known CA classes (α, β, γ, δ, η, ζ) arising from several distinct evolutionary lineages. CA are widespread in sequenced genomes, with many organisms containing multiple classes of CA or multiple CA of the same class. Soils host rich microbial communities with diverse and important ecological functions, but the diversity and abundance of CA in soils has not been explored. CA appears to play an important, but poorly understood, role in some biogeochemical cycles such as those of CO2 and its oxygen isotope composition and also carbonyl sulfide (COS), which are potential tracers in predictive carbon cycle models. Recognizing the prevalence and functional significance of CA in soils, we used a combined bioinformatics and molecular biology approach to address fundamental questions regarding the abundance, diversity, and function of CA in soils. To characterize the abundance and diversity of the different CA classes in soils, we analyzed existing soil metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data from the DOE Joint Genome Institute databases. Out of the six classes of CA, we only found the α, β, and γ classes to be present in soils, with the β class being the most abundant. We also looked at genomes of sequenced soil microorganisms to learn what combination of CA classes they contain, from which we can begin to predict the physiological role of CA. To characterize the functional roles of the different CA classes in soils, we collected soil samples from a variety of biomes with diverse chemical and physical properties and quantified the rate of two CA-mediated processes: soil uptake of COS and acceleration of the oxygen isotope exchange

  14. Induction of carbonic anhydrase in SaOS-2 cells, exposed to bicarbonate and consequences for calcium phosphate crystal formation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Schlossmacher, Ute; Grebenjuk, Vlad A; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Wang, Xiaohong

    2013-11-01

    Ca-phosphate/hydroxyapatite crystals constitute the mineralic matrix of vertebrate bones, while Ca-carbonate dominates the inorganic matrix of otoliths. In addition, Ca-carbonate has been identified in lower percentage in apatite crystals. By using the human osteogenic SaOS-2 cells it could be shown that after exposure of the cells to Ca-bicarbonate in vitro, at concentrations between 1 and 10 mm, a significant increase of Ca-deposit formation results. The crystallite nodules formed on the surfaces of SaOS-2 cells become denser and larger in the presence of bicarbonate if simultaneously added together with the mineralization activation cocktail (β-glycerophosphate/ascorbic acid/dexamethasone). In parallel, with the increase of Ca-deposit formation, the expression of the carbonic anhydrase-II (CA-II) gene becomes upregulated. This effect, measured on transcriptional level is also substantiated by immunohistological studies. The stimulatory effect of bicarbonate on Ca-deposit formation is prevented if the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide is added to the cultures. Mapping the surface of the Ca-deposit producing SaOS-2 cells by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis revealed an accumulation of the signals for the element carbon and, as expected, also for phosphorus. Finally, it is shown that ortho-phosphate and hydrolysis products of polyphosphate inhibit CA-II activity, suggesting a feedback regulatory system between the CA-driven Ca-carbonate deposition and a subsequent inactivation of this process by ortho-phosphate. Based on the presented data we suggest that Ca-carbonate deposits act as bioseeds for a downstream Ca-phosphate deposition process. We propose that activators for CA, especially for CA-II, might be beneficial for the treatment of bone deficiency diseases.

  15. Structural elucidation of the hormonal inhibition mechanism of the bile acid cholate on human carbonic anhydrase II

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, Christopher D.; Tu, Chingkuang; McKenna, Robert

    2014-06-01

    The structure of human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with cholate has been determined to 1.54 Å resolution. Elucidation of the novel inhibition mechanism of cholate will aid in the development of a nonsulfur-containing, isoform-specific therapeutic agent. The carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a family of mostly zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration/dehydration of CO{sub 2} into bicarbonate and a proton. Human isoform CA II (HCA II) is abundant in the surface epithelial cells of the gastric mucosa, where it serves an important role in cytoprotection through bicarbonate secretion. Physiological inhibition of HCA II via the bile acids contributes to mucosal injury in ulcerogenic conditions. This study details the weak biophysical interactions associated with the binding of a primary bile acid, cholate, to HCA II. The X-ray crystallographic structure determined to 1.54 Å resolution revealed that cholate does not make any direct hydrogen-bond interactions with HCA II, but instead reconfigures the well ordered water network within the active site to promote indirect binding to the enzyme. Structural knowledge of the binding interactions of this nonsulfur-containing inhibitor with HCA II could provide the template design for high-affinity, isoform-specific therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases/pathological states, including cancer, glaucoma, epilepsy and osteoporosis.

  16. Evaluation of impacted Brazilian estuaries using the native oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae: Branchial carbonic anhydrase as a biomarker.

    PubMed

    Azevedo-Linhares, Maristela; Freire, Carolina A

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the use of branchial carbonic anhydrase activity in a sessile filter feeding species, the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae, as a biomarker. The oysters were collected in three human impacted Brazilian estuaries, following a crescent latitudinal gradient: in Pernambuco state (Itamaracá), in Espírito Santo state (Piraquê), and in Paraná state (Paranaguá), in August/2003 (Winter in the southern hemisphere) and February/2004 (Summer). Three sites were chosen in each estuary for oyster sampling: Reference (R), Contaminated 1 (C1, close to industrial/harbor contamination), and Contaminated 2 (C2, near to sewage discharges). Comparing to values in oysters sampled in reference sites, there was apparent inhibition in carbonic anhydrase activity (CAA) in gills of oysters from C1 of Itamaracá and from C2 of Piraquê, both cases in Summer. On the other hand, increased CAA was noted in C2 oysters of Itamaracá in winter, and of Paranaguá, in both seasons. Branchial CAA in C. rhizophorae was thus very responsive to coastal contamination. Data are consistent with its usefulness as a supporting biomarker for inexpensive and rapid analysis in the assessment of estuaries using a sessile osmoconformer species, but preferably allied to other biomarkers and with knowledge on the suite of contaminants present.

  17. Role of carbonic anhydrase in bone resorption induced by 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, G. E.; Kenny, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    The calvaria of 5-to-6-day-old mice treated with 1 x 10 to the -8th M of 1,25(OH)2D3 in vitro for 48 hours are examined in order to study the function of carbonic anhydrase in bone resorption. Calcium concentrations in the culture were measured to assess bone resorption. It is observed that 1,25(OH)2D3 effectively stimulates bone resorption in vitro and the resorption is dose-dependent. The effects of azetazolamide on 1,25(OH)2D3-induced bone resorption are investigated. The data reveal that 1,25(OH)2D3-induced calcium release is associated with an increase in the carbonic anhydrase activity of bone, and bone alkaline phosphatase activity is decreased and acid phosphatase activity is increased in response to 1,25(OH)2D3. A two-fold mechanism for 1,25(OH)2D3-induced bone resorption is proposed; the first mechanism is an indirect activation of osteoclasts and the second involves an interaction between hormone and osteoclast precursors.

  18. The structural comparison between membrane-associated human carbonic anhydrases provides insights into drug design of selective inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Alterio, Vincenzo; Pan, Peiwen; Parkkila, Seppo; Buonanno, Martina; Supuran, Claudiu T; Monti, Simona M; De Simone, Giuseppina

    2014-07-01

    Carbonic anhydrase isoform XIV (CA XIV) is the last member of the human (h) CA family discovered so far, being localized in brain, kidneys, colon, small intestine, urinary bladder, liver, and spinal cord. It has recently been described as a possible drug target for treatment of epilepsy, some retinopathies as well as some skin tumors. Human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) XIV is a membrane-associated protein consisting of an N-terminal extracellular domain, a putative transmembrane region, and a small cytoplasmic tail. In this article, we report the expression, purification, and the crystallographic structure of the entire extracellular domain of this enzyme. The analysis of the structure revealed the typical α-CA fold, in which a 10-stranded β-sheet forms the core of the molecule, while the comparison with all the other membrane associated isoforms (hCAs IV, IX, and XII) allowed to identify the diverse oligomeric arrangement and the sequence and structural differences observed in the region 127-136 as the main factors to consider in the design of selective inhibitors for each one of the membrane associated α-CAs.

  19. Effects of cryoprotectants on the structure and thermostability of the human carbonic anhydrase II–acetazolamide complex

    SciTech Connect

    Aggarwal, Mayank; Boone, Christopher D.; Kondeti, Bhargav; Tu, Chingkuang; Silverman, David N.; McKenna, Robert

    2013-05-01

    Here, a case study of the effects of cryoprotectants on the kinetics of carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) and its inhibition by the clinically used inhibitor acetazolamide (AZM) is presented. Protein X-ray crystallography has seen a progressive shift from data collection at cool/room temperature (277–298 K) to data collection at cryotemperature (100 K) because of its ease of crystal preparation and the lessening of the detrimental effects of radiation-induced crystal damage, with 20–25%(v/v) glycerol (GOL) being the preferred choice of cryoprotectant. Here, a case study of the effects of cryoprotectants on the kinetics of carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) and its inhibition by the clinically used inhibitor acetazolamide (AZM) is presented. Comparative studies of crystal structure, kinetics, inhibition and thermostability were performed on CA II and its complex with AZM in the presence of either GOL or sucrose. These results suggest that even though the cryoprotectant GOL was previously shown to be directly bound in the active site and to interact with AZM, it affects neither the thermostability of CA II nor the binding of AZM in the crystal structure or in solution. However, addition of GOL does affect the kinetics of CA II, presumably as it displaces the water proton-transfer network in the active site.

  20. Evaluation of the therapeutic potential of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in two animal models of dystrophin deficient muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Giacomotto, Jean; Pertl, Cordula; Borrel, Caroline; Walter, Maggie C; Bulst, Stefanie; Johnsen, Bob; Baillie, David L; Lochmüller, Hanns; Thirion, Christian; Ségalat, Laurent

    2009-11-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is an inherited muscle degeneration disease for which there is still no efficient treatment. However, compounds active on the disease may already exist among approved drugs but are difficult to identify in the absence of cellular models. We used the Caenorhabditis elegans animal model to screen a collection of 1000 already approved compounds. Two of the most active hits obtained were methazolamide and dichlorphenamide, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors widely used in human therapy. In C. elegans, these drugs were shown to interact with CAH-4, a putative carbonic anhydrase. The therapeutic efficacy of these compounds was further validated in long-term experiments on mdx mice, the mouse model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Mice were treated for 120 days with food containing methazolamide or dichlorphenamide at two doses each. Musculus tibialis anterior and diaphragm muscles were histologically analyzed and isometric muscle force was measured in M. extensor digitorum longus. Both substances increased the tetanic muscle force in the treated M. extensor digitorum longus muscle group, dichlorphenamide increased the force significantly by 30%, but both drugs failed to increase resistance of muscle fibres to eccentric contractions. Histological analysis revealed a reduction of centrally nucleated fibers in M. tibialis anterior and diaphragm in the treated groups. These studies further demonstrated that a C. elegans-based screen coupled with a mouse model validation strategy can lead to the identification of potential pharmacological agents for rare diseases.

  1. Bioavailability, tissue distribution, and excretion characteristics of the novel carbonic anhydrase inhibitor tolsultazolamide in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin-da; Shi, Yong-ping; Yin, Jing; Pan, Zhi-yuan; Cui, Wen-yu; Zhang, Yan-fang; Wang, Hai

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Tolsultazolamide, a novel carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, is designed for the prophylaxis and treatment of acute mountain sickness. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion characteristics of tolsultazolamide and the sex difference in pharmacokinetics in rats. Methods: For pharmacokinetic study, rats were intravenously injected tolsultazolamide at 1 and 2 mg/kg or orally administered tolsultazolamide at 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg) in a pharmacokinetic study. The concentrations of tolsultazolamide in plasma were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography, with a liquid–liquid extraction. For tissue distribution study, tolsultazolamide (80 mg/kg) was orally administered to overnight fasted rats (six per group and three per sex). Samples were collected from the brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, muscle, kidney, stomach, fat, intestines, pancreas and sexual gland. For excretion study, tolsultazolamide (40 mg/kg) was orally administered to 6 rats (three per sex). The urine, feces, and bile samples were collected at 24, 48, and 72 h. Results: After its intravenous administration, tolsultazolamide was rapidly eliminated from the plasma, with T1/2 of about 60–90 min. The AUC0–t and the initial concentration (C0) values were proportional to the intravenous doses. After its oral administration, tolsultazolamide showed dose-independent pharmacokinetic characteristics, with Tmax and T1/2 of approximately 2 h and 5–7 h, respectively, and good oral absolute bioavailability of about 60%. Tolsultazolamide was distributed widely in various tissues. The highest tolsultazolamide levels were detected in the stomach, intestine, spleen, lung, and kidney. Total excretion of unchanged tolsultazolamide in the urine, feces, and bile was less than 2%. The Cmax and AUC of tolsultazolamide were significantly higher in female rats than those in male rats. Clearance and volume of distribution were greater in male rats than

  2. Carotid body chemoreception: the importance of CO2-HCO3- and carbonic anhydrase. (review).

    PubMed

    Iturriaga, R

    1993-01-01

    The current hypotheses of carotid body (CB) chemoreception regard the glomus cells as the initial site of stimulus transduction. The consensus is that the transduction of chemical stimulus is coupled with the release of transmitter(s) from the glomus cells, which in turn generates action potentials in the afferent nerve terminals. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is present in the glomus cells of the CB. Inhibition of CA activity in the CB in situ reduces the carotid chemosensory responses to CO2 and to O2, suggesting a common mechanism of chemosensing for both stimuli. However, CA inhibitors also block the red blood cell enzyme. Thus, the CO2 hydration reaction does not come to completion within the transit time of the blood from the lung to the CB. A steady-state reaction is not reached until later and so the PCO2 and pH levels in arterial blood samples are not the same as those sensed by the CB. Experiments in vitro using cat CB perfused and superfused with cell-free solutions, which had been pre-equilibrated with respiratory gases, strongly support the proposition that the CA activity in CB cells is essential for the speed and amplitude of the initial response to CO2 and for its subsequent adaptation. The immediate response to hypoxia also is delayed, but the late steady-state was less dependent on CA activity. In the nominal absence of CO2-HCO3- from the perfusate, hypoxic chemoreception persisted and its magnitude is not affected by CA inhibition, except for a delay which may be due to the initial alkaline pH of the glomus cells. Recent experiments performed in isolated glomus cells and in the whole CB show that hypoxia does not modify significantly the intracellular pH. By its simple catalytic function, CA can speed up the approach of the CO2 hydration reaction to equilibrium. However, CA may also contribute in the steady-state to the regulation of pHi by providing a continuous supply of H+ and HCO3-. Furthermore, CA performs a facilitatory role in the physiological

  3. Purification of swine carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme III and measurement of its levels in tissues and plasma.

    PubMed

    Nishita, T; Harada, T; Sakanoue, H; Arai, S; Itoh, S; Orito, K; Arishima, K

    2014-02-01

    The changes in the levels of carbonic anhydrase isozyme III (CA-III) in swine plasma and urine have not been previously determined or reported. CA-III is relatively specific to skeletal muscles, and should therefore be a useful diagnostic marker for muscle diseases. We isolated CA-III from swine muscle tissues and determined CA-III levels in the plasma and urine from both healthy and diseased pigs. The levels of CA-III in the tissues of female swine (age, 3 months) and plasma of young swine (age, 1-5 months) and adult female pigs (age, 2-3 years) were determined using the ELISA system for swine CA-III. The mean (± SD) levels of CA-III in the skeletal muscles were 3.8 ± 3.2 mg/g (wet tissue), and in the plasma, 230 ± 193 ng/ml at 1 month, 189 ± 208 ng/ml at 2 months, 141 ± 148 ng/ml at 3 months, 78 ± 142 ng/ml at 4 months and 53 ± 99 ng/ml at 5 months. The mean level of CA-III in the plasma samples from 2- to 3-year-old pigs was 18 ± 60 ng/ml. CA-III in the plasma samples was found to decrease from 1 month until 3 years of age (p < 0.01). We performed far-western blotting to clarify the cause of the observed decrease in CA-III in plasma. Our results demonstrated that CA-III is bound to the transferrin and albumin. In addition, we determined that the levels of CA-III in plasma and urine samples were higher in diseased swine compared with the healthy pigs.

  4. Inhibition of bacterial carbonic anhydrases and zinc proteases: from orphan targets to innovative new antibiotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Supuran, C T

    2012-01-01

    Zinc-containing enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrases (CAs) and metalloproteases (MPs) play critical functions in bacteria, being involved in various steps of their life cycle, which are important for survival, colonization, acquisition of nutrients for growth and proliferation, facilitation of dissemination, invasion and pathogenicity. The development of resistance to many classes of clinically used antibiotics emphasizes the need of new antibacterial drug targets to be explored. There is a wealth of data regarding bacterial CAs and zinc MPs present in many pathogenic species, such as Neisseria spp., Helycobacter pylori Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Brucella spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria spp, Vibrio spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila, Streptomyces spp., Clostridium spp., Enterococcus spp., etc. Some of these enzymes have been cloned, purified and characterized by crystallographic techniques. However, for the moment, few potent and specific inhibitors for bacterial MPs have been reported except for Clostridium histolyticum collagenase, botulinum and tetanus neurotoxin and anthrax lethal factor, which will be reviewed in this article. Bacteria encode α-,β-, and/or γ-CA families, but up to now only the first two classes have been investigated in some detail in different species. The α-CAs from Neisseria spp. and H. pylori as well as the β-class enzymes from E. coli, H. pylori, M. tuberculosis, Brucella spp., S. pneumoniae, S. enterica and H. influenzae have been cloned and characterized. The catalytic/inhibition mechanisms of these CAs are well understood as X-ray crystal structures are available for some of them, but no adducts of these enzymes with inhibitors have been characterized so far. In vitro and in vivo studies with various classes of inhibitors, such as anions, sulfonamides and sulfamates have been reported. Only for Neisseria spp., H. pylori, B. suis and S

  5. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Interaction of isozymes I, II, IV, V, and IX with carboxylates.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Alessio; Vullo, Daniela; Scozzafava, Andrea; Casey, Joseph R; Supuran, Claudiut

    2005-02-01

    A detailed inhibition study of five carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isozymes with carboxylates including aliphatic (formate, acetate), dicarboxylic (oxalate, malonate), hydroxy/keto acids (l-lactate, l-malate, pyruvate), tricarboxylic (citrate), or aromatic (benzoate, tetrafluorobenzoate) representatives, some of which are important intermediates in the Krebs cycle, is presented. The cytosolic isozyme hCA I was strongly activated by acetate, oxalate, pyruvate, l-lactate, and citrate (K(A) around 0.1 microM), whereas formate, malonate, malate, and benzoate were weaker activators (K(A) in the range 0.1-1mM). The cytosolic isozyme hCA II was weakly inhibited by all the investigated anions, with inhibition constants in the range of 0.03-24 mM. The membrane-associated isozyme hCA IV was the most sensitive to inhibition by carboxylates, showing a K(I) of 99 nM for citrate and oxalate, of 2.8 microM for malonate and of 14.5 microM for pyruvate among others. The mitochondrial isozyme hCA V was weakly inhibited by all these carboxylates (K(I)s in the range of 1.67-25.9 mM), with the best inhibitor being citrate (K(I) of 1.67 mM), whereas this is the most resistant CA isozyme to pyruvate inhibition (K(I) of 5.5mM), which may be another proof that CA V is the isozyme involved in the transfer of acetyl groups from the mitochondrion to the cytosol for the provision of substrate(s) for de novo lipogenesis. Furthermore, the relative resistance of CA V to inhibition by pyruvate may be an evolutionary adaptation of this mitochondrial isozyme to the presence of high concentrations of this anion within this organelle. The transmembrane, tumor-associated isozyme hCA IX was similar to isozyme II in its slight inhibition by all these anions (K(I) in the range of 1.12-7.42 mM), except acetate, lactate, and benzoate, which showed a K(I)>150 mM. The lactate insensitivity of CA IX also represents an interesting finding, since it is presumed that this isozyme evolved in such a way as to

  6. Alternative splicing variants of carbonic anhydrase IX in human non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Malentacchi, Francesca; Simi, Lisa; Nannelli, Caterina; Andreani, Matteo; Janni, Alberto; Pastorekova, Silvia; Orlando, Claudio

    2009-06-01

    In human cancers, carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) contributes to maintain intracellular and extracellular pH under hypoxic conditions, but also influences regulation of cell proliferation and tumor progression. CaIX was previously indicated as an independent prognostic marker in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Very recently a CAIX alternative splicing isoform, generating a transcript lacking of exons 8-9, was detected in cancer cells independently from the levels of hypoxia. This alternative splicing (AS) generates a truncated protein lacking the transmembrane region, the intracellular tail and the C-terminal of the catalytic domain and competes with the full-length (FL) isoform in the regulation of the extracellular pH, mainly in a mild hypoxic status. In the present study we measured the mRNA expression of FL and AS CAIX isoforms in 101 NSCLC and in paired not affected tissues. The two isoforms were coexpressed in all NSCLC and normal tissues but while AS mRNA was prevalent in normal tissues (66+/-3%), the FL isoform was higher in NSCLC (58+/-2%, p=0.001). FL mRNA, but not AS, was statistically increased in NSCLC (p=0.01) and showed a statistical association with lymphnode involvement (p=0.009) and tumor stage (p=0.04). Global survival analysis of cancer/related death showed that high levels of FL mRNA were predictive of unfavorable outcome (p<0.0001) and shorter disease-free survival (p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis indicated that FL is an independent prognostic factor for overall survival and higher levels of mRNA in NSCLC sensibly increase hazard ratio ( approximately sixfold). In conclusion, our results seems to indicate that, at least in NSCLC, FL CAIX is the most accurate surrogate of hypoxic stress and represents the only variant with a prognostic role. These data indicate the importance of a separate measurement of the two isoforms in cancer and the need of an accurate re-evaluation of most studies on the clinical role of CAIX in cancer diagnosis.

  7. Transcriptional Regulation of the β-Type Carbonic Anhydrase Gene bca by RamA in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Shah, Adnan; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and maintains the balance of CO2/HCO3- in the intracellular environment, specifically for carboxylation/decarboxylation reactions. In Corynebacterium glutamicum, two putative genes, namely the bca (cg2954) and gca (cg0155) genes, coding for β-type and γ-type carbonic anhydrase, respectively, have been identified. We here analyze the transcriptional organization of these genes. The transcriptional start site (TSS) of the bca gene was shown to be the first nucleotide "A" of its putative translational start codon (ATG) and thus, bca codes for a leaderless transcript. The TSS of the gca gene was identified as an "A" residue located at position -20 relative to the first nucleotide of the annotated translational start codon of the cg0154 gene, which is located immediately upstream of gca. Comparative expression analysis revealed carbon source-dependent regulation of the bca gene, with 1.5- to 2-fold lower promoter activity in cells grown on acetate as compared to glucose as sole carbon source. Based on higher expression of bca in a mutant deficient of the regulator of acetate metabolism RamA as compared to the wild-type of C. glutamicum and based on the binding of His-tagged RamA protein to the bca promoter region, we here present evidence that RamA negatively regulates expression of bca in C. glutamicum. Functional characterization of a gca deletion mutant of C. glutamicum revealed the same growth characteristics of C. glutamicum ∆gca as that of wild-type C. glutamicum and no effect on expression of the bca gene.

  8. Conversion of carbon dioxide to oxaloacetate using integrated carbonic anhydrase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kwang Suk; Jeon, Hancheol; Gu, Man Bock; Pack, Seung Pil; Jin, EonSeon

    2013-12-01

    The development and implementation of strategies for CO2 mitigation are necessary to counteract the greenhouse gas effect of carbon dioxide emissions. To demonstrate the possibility of simultaneously capturing CO2 and utilizing four-carbon compounds, an integrated system using CA and PEPCase was developed, which mimics an in vivo carbon dioxide concentration mechanism. We first cloned the PEPCase 1 gene of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and produced a recombinant PtPEPCase 1. The affinity column purified PtPEPCase 1 exhibited specific enzymatic activity (5.89 U/mg). When the simultaneous and coordinated reactions of CA from Dunaliella sp. and the PtPEPCase 1 occurred, more OAA was produced than when only PEPCase was present. Therefore, this integrated CA-PEPCase system can be used not only to capture CO2 but also for a new technology to produce value-added four-carbon platform chemicals.

  9. A highly selective space-folded photo-induced electron transfer fluorescent probe for carbonic anhydrase isozymes IX and its applications for biological imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shenyi; Yang, Chunmei; Lu, Weiqiang; Huang, Jin; Zhu, Weiping; Li, Honglin; Xu, Yufang; Qian, Xuhong

    2011-08-07

    The first highly selective and sensitive fluorescent probe Z1 for detection of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) over isoforms CA I and CA II was developed. As demonstrated, Z1 worked effectively in both enzymatic systems and living hypoxia cells.

  10. Analyzing the 3D Structure of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II and Its Mutants Using Deep View and the Protein Data Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ship, Noam J.; Zamble, Deborah B.

    2005-01-01

    The self directed study of a 3D image of a biomolecule stresses the complex nature of the intra- and intermolecular interactions that come together to define its structure. This is made up of a series of in vitro experiments with a wild-type and mutants forms of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII) that examine the structure function relationship…

  11. Extraction of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and carbonic anhydrase from stroma-free red blood cell hemolysate for the preparation of the nanobiotechnological complex of polyhemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Guo, C; Gynn, M; Chang, T M S

    2015-06-01

    We report a novel method to simultaneously extract superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and carbonic anhydrase (CA) from the same sample of red blood cells (RBCs). This avoids the need to use expensive commercial enzymes, thus enabling a cost-effective process for large-scale production of a nanobiotechnological polyHb-SOD-CAT-CA complex, with enhancement of all three red blood cell functions. An optimal concentration of phosphate buffer for ethanol-chloroform treatment results in good recovery of CAT, SOD, and CA after extraction. Different concentrations of the enzymes can be used to enhance the activity of polyHb-SOD-CAT-CA to 2, 4, or 6 times that of RBC.

  12. Contractile properties of skeletal muscle fibre bundles from mice deficient in carbonic anhydrase II.

    PubMed

    Beekley, Matthew D; Wetzel, Petra; Kubis, Hans-Peter; Gros, Gerolf

    2006-07-01

    The function of cytosolic carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozyme II is largely unknown in skeletal muscle. Because of this, we compared the in vitro contractile properties of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) fibre bundles from mice deficient in CA II (CAD) to litter mate controls (LM). Twitch rise, 1/2 relaxation time and peak twitch force at 22 degrees C of fibre bundles from CAD EDL [28.4+/-1.4 ms, 31.2+/-2.3 ms, 6.2+/-1.0 Newton/cm(2) (N/cm(2)), respectively] and CAD SOL (54.2+/-7.5 ms, 75.7+/-13.8 ms, 2.9+/-0.5 N/cm(2), respectively) were significantly higher compared to LM EDL (20.5+/-2.2 ms, 21.9+/-3.7 ms, 4.5+/-0.2 N/cm(2)) and LM SOL (42.8+/-3.5 ms, 51.4+/-2.4 ms, 2.1+/-0.4 N/cm(2)). However, in acidic Krebs-Henseleit solution, mimicking the pH, PCO(2), and HCO(3) (-) of arterial blood from CAD mice, twitch rise, 1/2 relaxation time, and peak twitch force of fibre bundles from CAD EDL (19.3+/-0.7 ms, 19.7+/-2.3 ms, 4.8+/-0.8 N/cm(2)) and CAD SOL (41.4+/-3.6 ms, 51.9+/-5.5 ms, 2.2+/-0.7 N/cm(2)) were not significantly different from LM fibre bundles in normal Krebs-Henseleit solution (EDL: 19.7+/-1.1 ms, 21.6+/-0.6 ms, 4.7+/-0.2 N/cm(2); SOL: 42.5+/-3.1 ms, 51.8+/-2.6 ms, 1.8+/-0.3 N/cm(2)). A higher pH(i) during exposure to acidic bathing solution was maintained by CAD EDL (7.37+/-0.02) and CAD SOL (7.33+/-0.05) compared to LM EDL (7.28+/-0.04) and LM SOL (7.22+/-0.02). This suggests that the skeletal muscle of CAD mice possesses an improved defense of pH(i) against elevated pCO(2). In support of this, apparent non-bicarbonate buffer capacity (in mequiv H(+) (pH unit)(-1) (kg cell H(2)O)(-1)) as determined by pH microelectrode was markedly increased in CAD EDL (75.7+/-4.1) and CAD SOL (85.9+/-3.3) compared to LM EDL (39.3+/-4.7) and LM SOL (37.5+/-3.8). Both latter phenomena may be related to the slowed rate of intracellular acidification seen in CAD SOL in comparison with LM SOL upon an increase in PCO(2) of the bath. In conclusion, skeletal

  13. Synthesis and biological evaluation of cyclic imides incorporating benzenesulfonamide moieties as carbonic anhydrase I, II, IV and IX inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aziz, Alaa A-M; Angeli, Andrea; El-Azab, Adel S; Abu El-Enin, Mohamed A; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2017-03-01

    A group of cyclic imides was synthesized by reaction of amino-substituted benzenesulfonamides with a series of acid anhydrides such as succinic, maleic, tetrahydrophthalic, pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid anhydride, and substituted phthalic anhydrides. The synthesized sulfonamides were evaluated as carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors against the human (h) isoforms hCA I, II, IV and IX, involved in a variety of diseases among which glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa, etc. Some of these sulfonamides showed effective inhibitory action (in the nanomolar range) against the cytosolic isoform hCA II and the transmembrane, tumor-associated one hCA IX, making them interesting candidates for preclinical evaluation in glaucoma or various tumors in which the two enzymes are involved. hCA I and IV were on the other hand less inhibited by these sulfonamides, with inhibition constants in the micromolar range.

  14. Carbonic anhydrase inhibition for the management of cerebral ischemia: in vivo evaluation of sulfonamide and coumarin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Micheli, Laura; Carta, Fabrizio; Cozzi, Andrea; Ghelardini, Carla; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-12-01

    Ischemia of brain areas is a global health problem, causing death or long-term disability. Current pharmacological options have limited impact on ischemic damages. Recently, a relationship between hypoxia and carbonic anhydrase (CA) over-expression has been highlighted suggesting CA inhibition as a possible target. This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacological profile of sulfonamide and coumarin CA inhibitors in rats underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). The neurological score of pMCAO rats was dramatically reduced 24 h after occlusion. Repeated subcutaneous injections of the CA inhibitors 4 and 7 (1 mg kg(-1)) were able to increase the neurological score by 40%. Compound 7 showed the tendency to reduce the volume of hemisphere infarction. The standard CA inhibitor acetazolamide was ineffective. The properties of novel CA inhibitors to improve neurological functionalities after cerebral ischemic insult are shown. The CA involvement in cerebral hypoxic phenomena deserves deeper investigations.

  15. Monoclonal antibodies raised against 167-180 aa sequence of human carbonic anhydrase XII inhibit its enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Dekaminaviciute, Dovile; Kairys, Visvaldas; Zilnyte, Milda; Petrikaite, Vilma; Jogaite, Vaida; Matuliene, Jurgita; Gudleviciene, Zivile; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Zvirbliene, Aurelija

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Human carbonic anhydrase XII (CA XII) is a single-pass transmembrane protein with an extracellular catalytic domain. This enzyme is being recognized as a potential biomarker for different tumours. The current study was aimed to generate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) neutralizing the enzymatic activity of CA XII. Bioinformatics analysis of CA XII structure revealed surface-exposed sequences located in a proximity of its catalytic centre. Two MAbs against the selected antigenic peptide spanning 167-180 aa sequence of CA XII were generated. The MAbs were reactive with recombinant catalytic domain of CA XII expressed either in E. coli or mammalian cells. Inhibitory activity of the MAbs was demonstrated by a stopped flow CO2 hydration assay. The study provides new data on the surface-exposed linear CA XII epitope that may serve as a target for inhibitory antibodies with a potential immunotherapeutic application.

  16. Identifying motor and sensory myelinated axons in rabbit peripheral nerves by histochemical staining for carbonic anhydrase and cholinesterase activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Danny A.; Sanger, James R.; Matloub, Hani S.; Yousif, N. John; Bain, James L. W.

    1988-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) and cholinesterase (CE) histochemical staining of rabbit spinal nerve roots and dorsal root ganglia demonstrated that among the reactive myeliated axons, with minor exceptions, sensory axons were CA positive and CE negative whereas motor axons were CA negative and CE positive. The high specificity was achieved by adjusting reaction conditions to stain subpopulations of myelinated axons selectively while leaving 50 percent or so unstained. Fixation with glutaraldehyde appeared necessary for achieving selectivity. Following sciatic nerve transection, the reciprocal staining pattern persisted in damaged axons and their regenerating processes which formed neuromas within the proximal nerve stump. Within the neuromas, CA-stained sensory processes were elaborated earlier and in greater numbers than CE-stained regenerating motor processes. The present results indicate that histochemical axon typing can be exploited to reveal heterogeneous responses of motor and sensory axons to injury.

  17. Size and surface chemistry of nanoparticles lead to a variant behavior in the unfolding dynamics of human carbonic anhydrase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Irem; Lundqvist, Martin; Cabaleiro-Lago, Celia

    2015-10-01

    The adsorption induced conformational changes of human carbonic anhydrase I (HCAi) and pseudo wild type human carbonic anhydrase II truncated at the 17th residue at the N-terminus (trHCAii) were studied in presence of nanoparticles of different sizes and polarities. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies showed that the binding to apolar surfaces is affected by the nanoparticle size in combination with the inherent protein stability. 8-Anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) fluorescence revealed that HCAs adsorb to both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, however the dynamics of the unfolding at the nanoparticle surfaces drastically vary with the polarity. The size of the nanoparticles has opposite effects depending on the polarity of the nanoparticle surface. The apolar nanoparticles induce seconds timescale structural rearrangements whereas polar nanoparticles induce hours timescale structural rearrangements on the same charged HCA variant. Here, a simple model is proposed where the difference in the timescales of adsorption is correlated with the energy barriers for initial docking and structural rearrangements which are firmly regulated by the surface polarity. Near-UV circular dichorism (CD) further supports that both protein variants undergo structural rearrangements at the nanoparticle surfaces regardless of being ``hard'' or ``soft''. However, the conformational changes induced by the apolar surfaces differ for each HCA isoform and diverge from the previously reported effect of silica nanoparticles.The adsorption induced conformational changes of human carbonic anhydrase I (HCAi) and pseudo wild type human carbonic anhydrase II truncated at the 17th residue at the N-terminus (trHCAii) were studied in presence of nanoparticles of different sizes and polarities. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies showed that the binding to apolar surfaces is affected by the nanoparticle size in combination with the inherent protein stability. 8-Anilino

  18. Kinetic and in silico studies of hydroxy-based inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase isoforms I and II.

    PubMed

    Ekhteiari Salmas, Ramin; Mestanoglu, Mert; Durdagi, Serdar; Sentürk, Murat; Kaya, A Afşin; Kaya, Elif Çelenk

    2016-01-01

    A series of hydroxy and phenolic compounds have been assayed for the inhibition of two physiologically relevant carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isozymes, the cytosolic human isozymes I and II. The investigated molecules showed inhibition constants in the range of 1.07-4003 and 0.09-31.5 μM at the hCA I and hCA II enzymes, respectively. In order to investigate the binding mechanisms of these inhibitors, in silico studies were also applied. Molecular docking scores of the studied compounds are compared using three different scoring algorithms, namely Glide/SP, Glide/XP and Glide/IFD. In addition, different ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) analysis was performed. All the examined compounds were found within the acceptable range of pharmacokinetic profiles.

  19. Kinetic and docking studies of cytosolic/tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase isozymes I, II and IX with some hydroxylic compounds.

    PubMed

    Durdagi, Serdar; Korkmaz, Neslihan; Işık, Semra; Vullo, Daniela; Astley, Demet; Ekinci, Deniz; Salmas, Ramin E; Senturk, Murat; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-12-01

    A series of hydroxylic compounds (1-10, NK-154 and NK-168) have been assayed for the inhibition of three physiologically relevant carbonic anhydrase isozymes, the cytosolic isozymes I, II and tumor-associated isozyme IX. The investigated compounds showed inhibition constants in the range of 0.068-4003, 0.012-9.9 and 0.025-115 μm at the hCA I, hCA II and hCA IX enzymes, respectively. In order to investigate the binding mechanisms of these inhibitors, in silico studies were also applied. Molecular docking scores of the studied compounds are calculated using scoring algorithms, namely Glide/induced fit docking. The inhibitory potencies of the novel compounds were analyzed at the human isoforms hCA I, hCA II and hCA IX as targets and the KI values were calculated.

  20. Immunohistochemical localization of carbonic anhydrase I and II in eccrine sweat glands from control subjects and patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Briggman, J. V.; Tashian, R. E.; Spicer, S. S.

    1983-01-01

    Isozymes of carbonic anhydrase (CA) were localized immunohistochemically by the immunoglobulin-peroxidase bridge technique on fixed paraffin sections of human eccrine sweat glands. Low-activity CA I was identified in the cytoplasm of the myoepithelial cells in the secretory coil and in the luminal and basal cells of both the coiled and straight segments of the duct. High-activity CA II was found in the cytoplasm of clear cells of the secretory coil. Although evidence has suggested that CA activity is altered in cystic fibrosis (CF), the present immunohistochemical comparison of CF sweat glands revealed a distribution of and, semiquantitatively, a prevalence of CA isozymes identical to those of normal sweat glands. Abnormal enzyme activity cannot be ruled out, however, on the basis of immunocytochemical staining which depends solely on the antigenic properties of CA. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:6412557

  1. High-resolution structure of human carbonic anhydrase II complexed with acetazolamide reveals insights into inhibitor drug design.

    PubMed

    Sippel, Katherine H; Robbins, Arthur H; Domsic, John; Genis, Caroli; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; McKenna, Robert

    2009-10-01

    The crystal structure of human carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) complexed with the inhibitor acetazolamide (AZM) has been determined at 1.1 A resolution and refined to an R(cryst) of 11.2% and an R(free) of 14.7%. As observed in previous CA II-inhibitor complexes, AZM binds directly to the zinc and makes several key interactions with active-site residues. The high-resolution data also showed a glycerol molecule adjacent to the AZM in the active site and two additional AZMs that are adventitiously bound on the surface of the enzyme. The co-binding of AZM and glycerol in the active site demonstrate that given an appropriate ring orientation and substituents, an isozyme-specific CA inhibitor may be developed.

  2. Carbonic anhydrase activators. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine, sertraline and citalopram are strong activators of isozymes I and II.

    PubMed

    Casini, Angela; Caccia, Silvio; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2003-08-18

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) fluoxetine, sertraline and citalopram have been investigated for their ability to activate two carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes, hCA I and hCA II, in parallel with two standard activators for which the X-ray structure (in complex with isozyme II) has been resolved: histamine and phenylalanine. All three SSRI activated both isozymes with potencies comparable to that of the standards although the profile was different: for hCA I, best activators were fluoxetine and histamine, with citalopram and sertraline showing weaker activity. For hCA II, the best activators were phenylalanine and citalopram, and the weakest histamine and sertraline, whereas fluoxetine showed an intermediate behavior. These results suggest that SSRI efficacy in major depression complicating Alzheimer's disease may be partly due to their ability to activate CA isozymes and may lead to the development of potent activators for the therapy of diseases associated with significant decreases in brain CA activity.

  3. [Radiocompetitive assay of sulfamido-3-chloro-4-benzoic acid with carbonic anhydrase as binding reagent (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Khiat, M; Bali, J P; Guibert, M S; Chanal, J L; Marignan, R

    1978-01-16

    The control of patients treated by diuretic sulfonamides can be carried out by a radiocompetitive assay using their binding properties to carbonic anhydrase (CA). In this paper we have studied the assay of sulfamido-3-chloro-4-benzoic acid (SD3) using dialysis equilibrium as separation procedure. With (CA) 2 X 10(-6) M and 14C-SD3 0.5 X 10(-6) M (specific activity: 2 muCi/mg), can be detected 0.5 X 10(-6) M of (SD3) in the assay medium. 6.5 mg protein present in serum lower the assay sensitivity twenty times, owing to an elevated value of the affinity constant, Ka, of albumin-(SD3) complex (10(3) mol-1). On the other hand, the molecules with sulfamidobenzoic group cannot be differentiated in this procedure.

  4. Comparison of electron paramagnetic resonance methods to determine distances between spin labels on human carbonic anhydrase II.

    PubMed Central

    Persson, M; Harbridge, J R; Hammarström, P; Mitri, R; Mårtensson, L G; Carlsson, U; Eaton, G R; Eaton, S S

    2001-01-01

    Four doubly spin-labeled variants of human carbonic anhydrase II and corresponding singly labeled variants were prepared by site-directed spin labeling. The distances between the spin labels were obtained from continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectra by analysis of the relative intensity of the half-field transition, Fourier deconvolution of line-shape broadening, and computer simulation of line-shape changes. Distances also were determined by four-pulse double electron-electron resonance. For each variant, at least two methods were applicable and reasonable agreement between methods was obtained. Distances ranged from 7 to 24 A. The doubly spin-labeled samples contained some singly labeled protein due to incomplete labeling. The sensitivity of each of the distance determination methods to the non-interacting component was compared. PMID:11371461

  5. Design of a carbonic anhydrase IX active-site mimic to screen inhibitors for possible anticancer properties.

    PubMed

    Genis, Caroli; Sippel, Katherine H; Case, Nicolette; Cao, Wengang; Avvaru, Balendu Sankara; Tartaglia, Lawrence J; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Tu, Chingkuang; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Silverman, David N; Rosser, Charles J; McKenna, Robert

    2009-02-17

    Recently, a convincing body of evidence has accumulated suggesting that the overexpression of carbonic anhydrase isozyme IX (CA IX) in some cancers contributes to the acidification of the extracellular matrix, which in turn promotes the growth and metastasis of the tumor. These observations have made CA IX an attractive drug target for the selective treatment of certain cancers. Currently, there is no available X-ray crystal structure of CA IX, and this lack of availability has hampered the rational design of selective CA IX inhibitors. In light of these observations and on the basis of structural alignment homology, using the crystal structure of carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) and the sequence of CA IX, a double mutant of CA II with Ala65 replaced by Ser and Asn67 replaced by Gln has been constructed to resemble the active site of CA IX. This CA IX mimic has been characterized kinetically using (18)O-exchange and structurally using X-ray crystallography, alone and in complex with five CA sulfonamide-based inhibitors (acetazolamide, benzolamide, chlorzolamide, ethoxzolamide, and methazolamide), and compared to CA II. This structural information has been evaluated by both inhibition studies and in vitro cytotoxicity assays and shows a correlated structure-activity relationship. Kinetic and structural studies of CA II and CA IX mimic reveal chlorzolamide to be a more potent inhibitor of CA IX, inducing an active-site conformational change upon binding. Additionally, chlorzolamide appears to be cytotoxic to prostate cancer cells. This preliminary study demonstrates that the CA IX mimic may provide a useful model to design more isozyme-specific CA IX inhibitors, which may lead to development of new therapeutic treatments of some cancers.

  6. The role of carbonic anhydrase 9 in regulating extracellular and intracellular ph in three-dimensional tumor cell growths.

    PubMed

    Swietach, Pawel; Patiar, Shalini; Supuran, Claudiu T; Harris, Adrian L; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D

    2009-07-24

    We have studied the role of carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9), a cancer-associated extracellular isoform of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase in multicellular spheroid growths (radius of approximately 300 microm) of human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. Spheroids were transfected with CA9 (or empty vector) and imaged confocally (using fluorescent dyes) for both intracellular pH (pH(i)) and pH in the restricted extracellular spaces (pH(e)). With no CA9 expression, spheroids developed very low pH(i) (approximately 6.3) and reduced pH(e) (approximately 6.9) at their core, associated with a diminishing gradient of acidity extending out to the periphery. With CA9 expression, core intracellular acidity was less prominent (pH(i) = approximately 6.6), whereas extracellular acidity was enhanced (pH(e) = approximately 6.6), so that radial pH(i) gradients were smaller and radial pH(e) gradients were larger. These effects were reversed by eliminating CA9 activity with membrane-impermeant CA inhibitors. The observation that CA9 activity reversibly reduces pH(e) indicates the enzyme is facilitating CO(2) excretion from cells (by converting vented CO(2) to extracellular H(+)), rather than facilitating membrane H(+) transport (such as H(+) associated with metabolically generated lactic acid). This latter process requires titration of exported H(+) ions with extracellular HCO(3)(-), which would reduce rather than increase extracellular acidity. In a multicellular structure, the net effect of CA9 on pH(e) will depend on the cellular CO(2)/lactic acid emission ratio (set by local oxygenation and membrane HCO(3)(-) uptake). Our results suggest that CO(2)-producing tumors may express CA9 to facilitate CO(2) excretion, thus raising pH(i) and reducing pH(e), which promotes tumor proliferation and survival. The results suggest a possible basis for attenuating tumor development through inhibiting CA9 activity.

  7. Identifying potential selective fluorescent probes for cancer-associated protein carbonic anhydrase IX using a computational approach.

    PubMed

    Kamstra, Rhiannon L; Floriano, Wely B

    2014-11-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a biomarker for tumor hypoxia. Fluorescent inhibitors of CAIX have been used to study hypoxic tumor cell lines. However, these inhibitor-based fluorescent probes may have a therapeutic effect that is not appropriate for monitoring treatment efficacy. In the search for novel fluorescent probes that are not based on known inhibitors, a database of 20,860 fluorescent compounds was virtually screened against CAIX using hierarchical virtual ligand screening (HierVLS). The screening database contained 14,862 compounds tagged with the ATTO680 fluorophore plus an additional 5998 intrinsically fluorescent compounds. Overall ranking of compounds to identify hit molecular probe candidates utilized a principal component analysis (PCA) approach. Four potential binding sites, including the catalytic site, were identified within the structure of the protein and targeted for virtual screening. Available sequence information for 23 carbonic anhydrase isoforms was used to prioritize the four sites based on the estimated "uniqueness" of each site in CAIX relative to the other isoforms. A database of 32 known inhibitors and 478 decoy compounds was used to validate the methodology. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis using the first principal component (PC1) as predictive score for the validation database yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.92. AUC is interpreted as the probability that a binder will have a better score than a non-binder. The use of first component analysis of binding energies for multiple sites is a novel approach for hit selection. The very high prediction power for this approach increases confidence in the outcome from the fluorescent library screening. Ten of the top scoring candidates for isoform-selective putative binding sites are suggested for future testing as fluorescent molecular probe candidates.

  8. Hepatoprotective effects of Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase] on alcohol-damaged primary rat hepatocyte culture in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenhua; Bian, Yuzhu; Wang, Zhenghui; Chang, Thomas Ming Swi

    2017-02-01

    We have prepared a novel nanobiotherapeutic, Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase], which not only transports both oxygen and carbon dioxide but also a therapeutic antioxidant. Our previous study in a severe sustained 90 min hemorrhagic shock rat model shows that it has a hepatoprotective effect. We investigate its hepatoprotective effect further in this present report using an alcohol-damaged primary hepatocyte culture model. Results show that it significantly reduced ethanol-induced AST release, lipid peroxidation, and ROS production in rat primary hepatocytes culture. It also significantly enhanced the viability of ethanol-treated hepatocytes. Thus, the result shows that Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase] also has some hepatoprotective effects against alcohol-induced injury in in vitro rat primary hepatocytes cell culture. This collaborate our previous observation of its hepatoprotective effect in a severe sustained 90-min hemorrhagic shock rat model.

  9. Biochemical characterization of the δ-carbonic anhydrase from the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, TweCA.

    PubMed

    Del Prete, Sonia; Vullo, Daniela; De Luca, Viviana; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

    2014-12-01

    Diatom genome sequences clearly reveal the presence of different systems for HCO3(-) uptake. Carbon-concentrating mechanisms (CCM) based on HCO3(-) transport and a plastid-localized carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) appear to be more probable than the others because CAs have been identified in the genome of many diatoms. CAs are key enzymes involved in the acquisition of inorganic carbon for photosynthesis in phytoplankton, as they catalyze efficiently the interconversion between carbon dioxide and bicarbonate. Five genetically distinct classes of CAs exist, α-, β-, γ-, δ- and ζ and all of them are metalloenzymes. Recently we investigated for the first time the catalytic activity and inhibition of the δ-class CA from the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, named TweCA. This enzyme is an efficient catalyst for the CO2 hydration and its inhibition profile with sulfonamide/sulfamate and anions have also been investigated. Here, we report the detailed biochemical characterization and chemico-physical properties of the δ-CA of T. weissflogii. The δ-CA encoding gene was cloned and expressed in Artic Express cells and the recombinant protein purified to homogeneity. Interesting to note that TweCA has no intrinsic esterase activity with 4-nitrophenyl acetate (pNpA) as substrate although the phylogenetic analysis showed that δ-CAs are closer to the α-CAs than to the other classes of such enzymes.

  10. Activity and stability of immobilized carbonic anhydrase for promoting CO2 absorption into a carbonate solution for post-combustion CO2 capture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, S.; Zhang, Z.; Lu, Y.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Jones, A.

    2011-01-01

    An Integrated Vacuum Carbonate Absorption Process (IVCAP) currently under development could significantly reduce the energy consumed when capturing CO2 from the flue gases of coal-fired power plants. The biocatalyst carbonic anhydrase (CA) has been found to effectively promote the absorption of CO2 into the potassium carbonate solution that would be used in the IVCAP. Two CA enzymes were immobilized onto three selected support materials having different pore structures. The thermal stability of the immobilized CA enzymes was significantly greater than their free counterparts. For example, the immobilized enzymes retained at least 60% of their initial activities after 90days at 50??C compared to about 30% for their free counterparts under the same conditions. The immobilized CA also had significantly improved resistance to concentrations of sulfate (0.4M), nitrate (0.05M) and chloride (0.3M) typically found in flue gas scrubbing liquids than their free counterparts. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. A human transmembrane protein-tyrosine-phosphatase, PTP zeta, is expressed in brain and has an N-terminal receptor domain homologous to carbonic anhydrases.

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, N X; Saito, H

    1992-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine-phosphatases (PTPases, EC 3.1.3.48) play a crucial role in the regulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Recently, it was found that the PTPase gene family exhibits a large variety of different functional domains associated with the PTPase catalytic domains. In this paper, we report the complete cDNA sequence of a human transmembrane PTPase, PTP zeta, isolated from fetal brain cDNA libraries. The deduced amino acid sequence of human PTP zeta is composed of a putative signal peptide of 19 amino acids, a very large extracellular domain of 1616 amino acids, a transmembrane peptide of 26 amino acids, and a cytoplasmic domain of 653 amino acids. The extracellular portion of human PTP zeta contains two striking structural features: the N-terminal 280-amino acid sequence that is homologous to carbonic anhydrases (carbonate hydro-lyase, EC 4.2.1.1), and a sequence of 1048 amino acids without a cysteine residue. While it is unlikely that the carbonic anhydrase-like domain of PTP zeta has any carbonic anhydrase activity, its three-dimensional structure may be quite similar to that of carbonic anhydrases, a structure that appears ideal for binding a small soluble ligand. The cytoplasmic portion of human PTP zeta contains two repeated PTPase-like domains, which, when expressed in Escherichia coli, had PTPase activity in vitro. Mutational analyses indicate that only the membrane-proximal PTPase domain is catalytically active. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses indicate that human PTP zeta is highly expressed in a glioblastoma cell line. Images PMID:1323835

  12. Expression, purification, kinetic, and structural characterization of an alpha-class carbonic anhydrase from Aedes aegypti (AaCA1).

    PubMed

    Fisher, S Zoë; Tariku, Iyerus; Case, Nicolette M; Tu, Chingkuang; Seron, Teri; Silverman, David N; Linser, Paul J; McKenna, Robert

    2006-08-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are zinc-containing metalloenzymes that catalyze the interconversion of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate. The alpha-class CAs are found predominantly in vertebrates, but they are also expressed in insects like mosquitoes. Recently, an alpha-CA from the midgut of Aedes aegypti larvae (AaCA1) was identified, cloned, and subsequently shown to share high sequence homologous to human CA I (HCA I). This paper presents the bacterial expression, purification, and kinetic characterization of the soluble CA domain of AaCA1. The data show AaCA1 is a highly active CA that displays inhibition by methazolamide and ethoxzolamide with nM affinity. Additionally, a homology model of AaCA1, based on the crystal structure of HCA I, is presented and the overall structure, active site, and surface charge properties are compared to those of HCA I and II. Measurements of catalysis show that AaCA1 is more like HCA II in terms of proton transfer, but more similar to HCA I in terms of conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate, and these differences are rationalized in terms of structure. These results also indicate that amino acid differences in the active site of AaCA1 compared to human CAs could be used to design specific CA inhibitors for the management of mosquito populations.

  13. Synchrotron Radiation Provides a Plausible Explanation for the Generation of a Free Radical Adduct of Thioxolone in Mutant Carbonic Anhydrase II.

    PubMed

    Sippel, Katherine H; Genis, Caroli; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Kiddle, James J; Tripp, Brian C; McKenna, Robert

    2010-10-07

    Thioxolone acts as a prodrug in the presence of carbonic anhydrase II (CA II), whereby the molecule is cleaved by thioester hydrolysis to the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, 4-mercaptobenzene-1,3-diol (TH0). Thioxolone was soaked into the proton transfer mutant H64A of CA II in an effort to capture a reaction intermediate via X-ray crystallography. Structure determination of the 1.2 Å resolution data revealed the TH0 had been modified to a 4,4'-disulfanediyldibenzene-1,3-diol, a product of crystallization conditions, and a zinc ligated 2,4-dihydroxybenzenesulfenic acid, most likely induced by radiation damage. Neither ligand was likely a result of an enzymatic mechanism.

  14. Protein Stretching III: Force-Extension Curves of Tethered Bovine Carbonic Anhydrase B to the Silicon Substrate under Native, Intermediate and Denaturing Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Ikai, Atsushi

    1999-06-01

    Atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to measure theforce-extension relationship of the globular protein, carbonic anhydrase B, having 259 amino acid residues, under native, denaturing and intermediate solution conditions. For thispurpose, the protein was genetically engineered in order toendow it with -SH groups at its N- and C- termini and was fixed tothe silanized surface of a silicon wafer using a covalent cross-linker with the reactive end to -SH and with a long spacer of polyethylene glycol. The silicon nitride tip of the AFM was covered with a cross-linker with the reactive end to -SH and was brought into contact with the protein on the silicon surface. Subsequent force curve measurements showed occasional stable bond formation, and the force extension relationship obtained from such curves showed distinct characteristics of the native, denatured and intermediate forms of carbonic anhydrase B.

  15. Elevated CO2 levels affect the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase in the calcifying rhodophyte Corallina officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Laurie C.

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of CO2 in global surface ocean waters is increasing due to rising atmospheric CO2 emissions, resulting in lower pH and a lower saturation state of carbonate ions. Such changes in seawater chemistry are expected to impact calcification in calcifying marine organisms. However, other physiological processes related to calcification might also be affected, including enzyme activity. In a mesocosm experiment, macroalgal communities were exposed to three CO2 concentrations (380, 665, and 1486 µatm) to determine how the activity of two enzymes related to inorganic carbon uptake and nutrient assimilation in Corallina officinalis, an abundant calcifying rhodophyte, will be affected by elevated CO2 concentrations. The activity of external carbonic anhydrase, an important enzyme functioning in macroalgal carbon-concentrating mechanisms, was inversely related to CO2 concentration after long-term exposure (12 weeks). Nitrate reductase, the enzyme responsible for reduction of nitrate to nitrite, was stimulated by CO2 and was highest in algae grown at 665 µatm CO2. Nitrate and phosphate uptake rates were inversely related to CO2, while ammonium uptake was unaffected, and the percentage of inorganic carbon in the algal skeleton decreased with increasing CO2. The results indicate that the processes of inorganic carbon and nutrient uptake and assimilation are affected by elevated CO2 due to changes in enzyme activity, which change the energy balance and physiological status of C. officinalis, therefore affecting its competitive interactions with other macroalgae. The ecological implications of the physiological changes in C. officinalis in response to elevated CO2 are discussed. PMID:23314813

  16. Elevated CO2 levels affect the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase in the calcifying rhodophyte Corallina officinalis.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Laurie C; Straub, Sandra; Bischof, Kai

    2013-02-01

    The concentration of CO(2) in global surface ocean waters is increasing due to rising atmospheric CO(2) emissions, resulting in lower pH and a lower saturation state of carbonate ions. Such changes in seawater chemistry are expected to impact calcification in calcifying marine organisms. However, other physiological processes related to calcification might also be affected, including enzyme activity. In a mesocosm experiment, macroalgal communities were exposed to three CO(2) concentrations (380, 665, and 1486 µatm) to determine how the activity of two enzymes related to inorganic carbon uptake and nutrient assimilation in Corallina officinalis, an abundant calcifying rhodophyte, will be affected by elevated CO(2) concentrations. The activity of external carbonic anhydrase, an important enzyme functioning in macroalgal carbon-concentrating mechanisms, was inversely related to CO(2) concentration after long-term exposure (12 weeks). Nitrate reductase, the enzyme responsible for reduction of nitrate to nitrite, was stimulated by CO(2) and was highest in algae grown at 665 µatm CO(2). Nitrate and phosphate uptake rates were inversely related to CO(2), while ammonium uptake was unaffected, and the percentage of inorganic carbon in the algal skeleton decreased with increasing CO(2). The results indicate that the processes of inorganic carbon and nutrient uptake and assimilation are affected by elevated CO(2) due to changes in enzyme activity, which change the energy balance and physiological status of C. officinalis, therefore affecting its competitive interactions with other macroalgae. The ecological implications of the physiological changes in C. officinalis in response to elevated CO(2) are discussed.

  17. Mono- and di-halogenated histamine, histidine and carnosine derivatives are potent carbonic anhydrase I, II, VII, XII and XIV activators.

    PubMed

    Saada, Mohamed-Chiheb; Vullo, Daniela; Montero, Jean-Louis; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T; Winum, Jean-Yves

    2014-09-01

    Mono- and di-halogenated histamines, l-histidine methyl ester derivatives and carnosine derivatives incorporating chlorine, bromine and iodine were prepared and investigated as activators of five carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms, the cytosolic hCA I, II and VII, and the transmembrane hCA XII and XIV. All of them were activated in a diverse manner by the investigated compounds, with a distinct activation profile.

  18. Carbonic anhydrase-related protein XI: structure of the gene in the greater false vampire bat (Megaderma lyra) compared with human and domestic pig.

    PubMed

    Porter, Calvin A; Hewett-Emmett, David; Tashian, Richard E

    2013-06-01

    Carbonic anhydrase-related protein XI (CA-RP XI) is a member of the α-carbonic anhydrase family (encoded by the gene CA-11), which has lost features of the active site required for enzymatic activity. Using PCR, we amplified CA-11 from genomic DNA of the bat Megaderma lyra. To elucidate the gene structure, we sequenced PCR products and compared their sequences with genomic and mRNA sequences known from human and domestic pig. We identified and sequenced eight introns in the bat CA-11. Five introns (introns 3-7) are located in identical or similar positions in other members of the vertebrate α-carbonic anhydrase gene family. Two 5' introns and one 3' intron are located in the regions of little or no sequence similarity with other members of the gene family. The low sequence similarity and additional introns suggest a separate evolutionary origin for the 5' and 3' portions of the CA-RP XI gene.

  19. Enzymatic Electrosynthesis of Formic Acid through CO2 Reduction in Bioelectrochemical System (BES): Effect of Immobilization and Carbonic Anhydrase Addition.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, Sandipam; Alvarez Gallego, Yolanda; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; Pant, Deepak

    2017-03-17

    Enzymatic electrosynthesis of formic acid from carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction using formate dehydrogenase (FDH) as catalyst at cathode both in its free and immobilized forms was studied in detail in bioelectrochemical system (BES). The essential role of solubilizing CO2 for its conversion was also studied by adding carbonic anhydrase (CA) to the FDH enzyme both in free and immobilized forms. FDH alone in the free form showed large variation in reduction current (-6.2±3.9 A/m2), while the immobilized form showed less variation (-3.8±0.5 A/m2) due to increased enzyme stability. Addition of CA with FDH increased the current consumption in both forms due to the fact that it makes the CO2 rapidly dissolve and available for the catalytic reaction of FDH. Remarkably stable current consumption was observed throughout operation when both the CA and FDH were immobilized onto the electrode (-3.9±0.2 A/m2). The product formation by the immobilized enzyme was also continued for 3 repetitive cycles indicating the longevity of the enzyme after immobilization. NADH recyclability was also clearly evidenced on the derivative voltammetric signature. Extension of this study for continuous and long-term operation may reveal more possibilities for the rapid CO2 capture and conversion.

  20. Cloning, characterization and anion inhibition study of a β-class carbonic anhydrase from the caries producing pathogen Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Dedeoglu, Nurcan; De Luca, Viviana; Isik, Semra; Yildirim, Hatice; Kockar, Feray; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-07-01

    The oral pathogenic bacterium involved in human dental caries formation Streptococcus mutans, encodes for two carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) one belonging to the α- and the other one to the β-class. This last enzyme (SmuCA) has been cloned, characterized and investigated for its inhibition profile with a major class of CA inhibitors, the inorganic anions. Here we show that SmuCA has a good catalytic activity for the CO2 hydration reaction, with kcat 4.2×10(5)s(-1) and kcat/Km of 5.8×10(7)M(-1)×s(-1), being inhibited by cyanate, carbonate, stannate, divannadate and diethyldithiocarbamate in the submillimolar range (KIs of 0.30-0.64mM) and more efficiently by sulfamide, sulfamate, phenylboronic acid and phenylarsonic acid (KIs of 15-46μM). The anion inhibition profile of the S. mutans enzyme is very different from other α- and β-CAs investigated earlier. Identification of effective inhibitors of this new enzyme may lead to pharmacological tools useful for understanding the role of S. mutans CAs in dental caries formation, and eventually the development of pharmacological agents with a new mechanism of antibacterial action.

  1. Sulfa and trimethoprim-like drugs - antimetabolites acting as carbonic anhydrase, dihydropteroate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances in microbial genomics, synthetic organic chemistry and X-ray crystallography provided opportunities to identify novel antibacterial targets for the development of new classes of antibiotics and to design more potent antimicrobial compounds derived from existing antibiotics in clinical use for decades. The antimetabolites, sulfa drugs and trimethoprim (TMP)-like agents, are inhibitors of three families of enzymes. One family belongs to the carbonic anhydrases, which catalyze a simple but physiologically relevant reaction in all life kingdoms, carbon dioxide hydration to bicarbonate and protons. The other two enzyme families are involved in the synthesis of tetrahydrofolate (THF), i.e. dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) and dihydrofolate reductase. The antibacterial agents belonging to the THF and DHPS inhibitors were developed decades ago and present significant bacterial resistance problems. However, the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance both to sulfa drugs and TMP-like inhibitors were understood in detail only recently, when several X-ray crystal structures of such enzymes in complex with their inhibitors were reported. Here, we revue the state of the art in the field of antibacterials based on inhibitors of these three enzyme families.

  2. Thylakoid luminal θ-carbonic anhydrase critical for growth and photosynthesis in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    Kikutani, Sae; Nakajima, Kensuke; Nagasato, Chikako; Tsuji, Yoshinori; Miyatake, Ai; Matsuda, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    The algal pyrenoid is a large plastid body, where the majority of the CO2-fixing enzyme, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) resides, and it is proposed to be the hub of the algal CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) and CO2 fixation. The thylakoid membrane is often in close proximity to or penetrates the pyrenoid itself, implying there is a functional cooperation between the pyrenoid and thylakoid. Here, GFP tagging and immunolocalization analyses revealed that a previously unidentified protein, Pt43233, is targeted to the lumen of the pyrenoid-penetrating thylakoid in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. The recombinant Pt43233 produced in Escherichia coli cells had both carbonic anhydrase (CA) and esterase activities. Furthermore, a Pt43233:GFP-fusion protein immunoprecipitated from P. tricornutum cells displayed a greater specific CA activity than detected for the purified recombinant protein. In an RNAi-generated Pt43233 knockdown mutant grown in atmospheric CO2 levels, photosynthetic dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) affinity was decreased and growth was constantly retarded; in contrast, overexpression of Pt43233:GFP yielded a slightly greater photosynthetic DIC affinity. The discovery of a θ-type CA localized to the thylakoid lumen, with an essential role in photosynthetic efficiency and growth, strongly suggests the existence of a common role for the thylakoid-luminal CA with respect to the function of diverse algal pyrenoids. PMID:27531955

  3. Cloning, expression and biochemical characterization of a β-carbonic anhydrase from the soil bacterium Enterobacter sp. B13.

    PubMed

    Eminoğlu, Ayşenur; Vullo, Daniela; Aşık, Aycan; Çolak, Dilşat Nigar; Supuran, Claudiu T; Çanakçı, Sabriye; Osman Beldüz, Ali

    2016-12-01

    A recombinant carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) from the soil-dwelling bacterium Enterobacter sp. B13 was cloned and purified by Co(2+) affinity chromatography. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the new enzyme (denominated here B13-CA) belongs to the β-class CAs and to possess 95% homology with the ortholog enzyme from Escherichia coli encoded by the can gene, whereas its sequence homology with the other such enzyme from E. coli (encoded by the cynT gene) was of 33%. B13-CA was characterized kinetically as a catalyst for carbon dioxide hydration to bicarbonate and protons. The enzyme shows a significant catalytic activity, with the following kinetic parameters at 20 °C and pH of 8.3: kcat of 4.8 × 10(5) s(-1) and kcat/Km of 5.6 × 10(7) M(-1) × s(-1). This activity was potently inhibited by acetazolamide which showed a KI of 78.9 nM. Although only this compound was investigated for the moment as B13-CA inhibitor, further studies may reveal new classes of inhibitors/activators of this enzyme which may show biomedical or environmental applications, considering the posssible role of this enzyme in CaCO3 biomineralization processes.

  4. Expression of the CHOP-inducible carbonic anhydrase CAVI-b is required for BDNF-mediated protection from hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Tori A; Abel, Allyssa; Demme, Chris; Sherman, Teresa; Pan, Pei-wen; Halterman, Marc W; Parkkila, Seppo; Nehrke, Keith

    2014-01-16

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) comprise a family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. CAs contribute to a myriad of physiological processes, including pH regulation, anion transport and water balance. To date, 16 known members of the mammalian alpha-CA family have been identified. Given that the catalytic family members share identical reaction chemistry, their physiologic roles are influenced greatly by their tissue and sub-cellular locations. CAVI is the lone secreted CA and exists in both saliva and the gastrointestinal mucosa. An alternative, stress-inducible isoform of CAVI (CAVI-b) has been shown to be expressed from a cryptic promoter that is activated by the CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein Homologous Protein (CHOP). The CAVI-b isoform is not secreted and is currently of unknown physiological function. Here we use neuronal models, including a model derived using Car6 and CHOP gene ablations, to delineate a role for CAVI-b in ischemic protection. Our results demonstrate that CAVI-b expression, which is increased through CHOP-signaling in response to unfolded protein stress, is also increased by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). While enforced expression of CAVI-b is not sufficient to protect against ischemia, CHOP regulation of CAVI-b is necessary for adaptive changes mediated by BDNF that reduce subsequent ischemic damage. These results suggest that CAVI-b comprises a necessary component of a larger adaptive signaling pathway downstream of CHOP.

  5. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of the beta-class enzyme from the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata with anions.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Alessio; Leewattanapasuk, Worraanong; Mühlschlegel, Fritz A; Mastrolorenzo, Antonio; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2009-08-15

    A beta-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1), the protein encoded by the NCE103 gene of Candida glabrata which also present in Candida albicans and Saccharomycescerevisiae, was cloned, purified, characterized kinetically and investigated for its inhibition by a series simple, inorganic anions such as halogenides, pseudohalogenides, bicarbonate, carbonate, nitrate, nitrite, hydrogen sulfide, bisulfite, perchlorate, sulfate and some isosteric species. The enzyme showed significant CO(2) hydrase activity, with a k(cat) of 3.8 x 10(5)s(-1) and k(cat)/K(M) of 4.8 x 10(7)M(-1)s(-1). The Cà glabrata CA (CgCA) was moderately inhibited by metal poisons (cyanide, azide, cyanate, thiocyanate, K(I)s of 0.60-1.12 mM) but strongly inhibited by bicarbonate, nitrate, nitrite and phenylarsonic acid (K(I)s of 86-98 microM). The other anions investigated showed inhibition constants in the low millimolar range, with the exception of bromide and iodide (K(I)s of 27-42 mM).

  6. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of the beta-class enzyme from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with anions.

    PubMed

    Isik, Semra; Kockar, Feray; Arslan, Oktay; Guler, Ozen Ozensoy; Innocenti, Alessio; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2008-12-15

    The protein encoded by the Nce103 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a beta-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) designated as scCA, has been cloned, purified, characterized kinetically, and investigated for its inhibition with a series simple, inorganic anions such as halogenides, pseudohalogenides, bicarbonate, carbonate, nitrate, nitrite, hydrogen sulfide, bisulfite, perchlorate, sulfate, and some of its isosteric species. The enzyme showed high CO(2) hydrase activity, with a k(cat) of 9.4x10(5) s(-1) and k(cat)/K(m) of 9.8x10(7) M(-1) s(-1). scCA was weakly inhibited by metal poisons (cyanide, azide, cyanate, thiocyanate, K(I)s of 16.8-55.6 mM) and strongly inhibited by bromide, iodide, and sulfamide (K(I)s of 8.7-10.8 microM). The other investigated anions showed inhibition constants in the low millimolar range.

  7. Activity and anion inhibition studies of the α-carbonic anhydrase from Thiomicrospira crunogena XCL-2 Gammaproteobacterium.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Brian P; Díaz-Torres, Natalia A; Pinard, Melissa A; Tu, Chingkuang; Silverman, David N; Scott, Kathleen M; McKenna, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Thiomicrospira crunogena XCL-2 expresses an α-carbonic anhydrase (TcruCA). Sequence alignments reveal that TcruCA displays a high sequence identity (>30%) relative to other α-CAs. This includes three conserved histidines that coordinate the active site zinc, a histidine proton shuttling residue, and opposing hydrophilic and hydrophobic sides that line the active site. The catalytic efficiency of TcruCA is considered moderate relative to other α-CAs (k(cat)/K(M)=1.1×10(7) M(-1) s(-1)), being a factor of ten less efficient than the most active α-CAs. TcruCA is also inhibited by anions with Cl(-), Br(-), and I(-), all showing Ki values in the millimolar range (53-361 mM). Hydrogen sulfide (HS(-)) revealed the highest affinity for TcruCA with a Ki of 1.1 μM. It is predicted that inhibition of TcruCA by HS(-) (an anion commonly found in the environment where Thiomicrospira crunogena is located) is a way for Thiomicrospira crunogena to regulate its carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) and thus the organism's metabolic functions. Results from this study provide preliminary insights into the role of TcruCA in the general metabolism of Thiomicrospira crunogena.

  8. How does the exchange of one oxygen atom with sulfur affect the catalytic cycle of carbonic anhydrase?

    PubMed

    Schenk, Stephan; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Anders, Ernst

    2004-06-21

    We have extended our investigations of the carbonic anhydrase (CA) cycle with the model system [(H(3)N)(3)ZnOH](+) and CO(2) by studying further heterocumulenes and catalysts. We investigated the hydration of COS, an atmospheric trace gas. This reaction plays an important role in the global COS cycle since biological consumption, that is, uptake by higher plants, algae, lichens, and soil, represents the dominant terrestrial sink for this gas. In this context, CA has been identified by a member of our group as the key enzyme for the consumption of COS by conversion into CO(2) and H(2)S. We investigated the hydration mechanism of COS by using density functional theory to elucidate the details of the catalytic cycle. Calculations were first performed for the uncatalyzed gas phase reaction. The rate-determining step for direct reaction of COS with H(2)O has an energy barrier of deltaG=53.2 kcal mol(-1). We then employed the CA model system [(H(3)N)(3)ZnOH](+) (1) and studied the effect on the catalytic hydration mechanism of replacing an oxygen atom with sulfur. When COS enters the carbonic anhydrase cycle, the sulfur atom is incorporated into the catalyst to yield [(H(3)N)(3)ZnSH](+) (27) and CO(2). The activation energy of the nucleophilic attack on COS, which is the rate-determining step, is somewhat higher (20.1 kcal mol(-1) in the gas phase) than that previously reported for CO(2). The sulfur-containing model 27 is also capable of catalyzing the reaction of CO(2) to produce thiocarbonic acid. A larger barrier has to be overcome for the reaction of 27 with CO(2) compared to that for the reaction of 1 with CO(2). At a well-defined stage of this cycle, a different reaction path can emerge: a water molecule helps to regenerate the original catalyst 1 from 27, a process accompanied by the formation of thiocarbonic acid. We finally demonstrate that nature selected a surprisingly elegant and efficient group of reactants, the [L(3)ZnOH](+)/CO(2)/H(2)O system, that helps

  9. Fluoroalkyl and Alkyl Chains Have Similar Hydrophobicities in Binding to the “Hydrophobic Wall” of Carbonic Anhydrase

    PubMed Central

    Mecinović, Jasmin; Snyder, Phillip W.; Mirica, Katherine A.; Bai, Serena; Mack, Eric T.; Kwant, Richard L.; Moustakas, Demetri T.; Heroux, Annie; Whitesides, George M.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrophobic effect—the free-energetically favorable association of non-polar solutes in water—makes a dominant contribution to binding of many systems of ligands and proteins. The objective of this study was to examine the hydrophobic effect in biomolecular recognition using two chemically different, but structurally similar hydrophobic groups—aliphatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic fluorocarbons—and to determine whether the hydrophobicity of the two groups could be distinguished by thermodynamic and biostructural analysis. This paper uses isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to examine the thermodynamics of binding of benzenesulfonamides substituted in the para position with alkyl and fluoroalkyl chains (H2NSO2C6H4-CONHCH2(CX2)nCX3, n = 0–4, X = H, F) to human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II). Both alkyl and fluoroalkyl substituents contribute favorably to the enthalpy and the entropy of binding; these contributions increase as the length of chain of the hydrophobic substituent increases. Crystallography of the protein-ligand complexes indicates that the benzenesulfonamide groups of all ligands examined bind with similar geometry, that the tail groups associate with the hydrophobic wall of HCA II (which is made up of the side chains of residues Phe131, Val135, Pro202, and Leu204), and that the structure of the protein is indistinguishable for all but one of the complexes (the longest member of the fluoroalkyl series). Analysis of the thermodynamics of binding as a function of structure is compatible with the hypothesis that hydrophobic binding of both alkyl and fluoroalkyl chains to hydrophobic surface of carbonic anhydrase is due primarily to the release of non-optimally hydrogen-bonded water molecules that hydrate the binding cavity (including the hydrophobic wall) of HCA II and to the release of water molecules that surround the hydrophobic chain of the ligands. This study defines the balance of enthalpic and entropic contributions to the hydrophobic

  10. Fluoroalkyl and Alkyl Chains Have Similar Hydrophobicities in Binding to the “Hydrophobic Wall” of Carbonic Anhydrase

    SciTech Connect

    J Mecinovic; P Snyder; K Mirica; S Bai; E Mack; R Kwant; D Moustakas; A Heroux; G Whitesides

    2011-12-31

    The hydrophobic effect, the free-energetically favorable association of nonpolar solutes in water, makes a dominant contribution to binding of many systems of ligands and proteins. The objective of this study was to examine the hydrophobic effect in biomolecular recognition using two chemically different but structurally similar hydrophobic groups, aliphatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic fluorocarbons, and to determine whether the hydrophobicity of the two groups could be distinguished by thermodynamic and biostructural analysis. This paper uses isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to examine the thermodynamics of binding of benzenesulfonamides substituted in the para position with alkyl and fluoroalkyl chains (H{sub 2}NSO{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-CONHCH{sub 2}(CX{sub 2}){sub n}CX{sub 3}, n = 0-4, X = H, F) to human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II). Both alkyl and fluoroalkyl substituents contribute favorably to the enthalpy and the entropy of binding; these contributions increase as the length of chain of the hydrophobic substituent increases. Crystallography of the protein-ligand complexes indicates that the benzenesulfonamide groups of all ligands examined bind with similar geometry, that the tail groups associate with the hydrophobic wall of HCA II (which is made up of the side chains of residues Phe131, Val135, Pro202, and Leu204), and that the structure of the protein is indistinguishable for all but one of the complexes (the longest member of the fluoroalkyl series). Analysis of the thermodynamics of binding as a function of structure is compatible with the hypothesis that hydrophobic binding of both alkyl and fluoroalkyl chains to hydrophobic surface of carbonic anhydrase is due primarily to the release of nonoptimally hydrogen-bonded water molecules that hydrate the binding cavity (including the hydrophobic wall) of HCA II and to the release of water molecules that surround the hydrophobic chain of the ligands. This study defines the balance of enthalpic and

  11. Effects of ocean acidification on the photosynthetic performance, carbonic anhydrase activity and growth of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Pamela A; Roleda, Michael Y; Hurd, Catriona L

    2015-06-01

    Under ocean acidification (OA), the 200 % increase in CO2(aq) and the reduction of pH by 0.3-0.4 units are predicted to affect the carbon physiology and growth of macroalgae. Here we examined how the physiology of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera is affected by elevated pCO2/low pH. Growth and photosynthetic rates, external and internal carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity, HCO3 (-) versus CO2 use were determined over a 7-day incubation at ambient pCO2 400 µatm/pH 8.00 and a future OA treatment of pCO2 1200 µatm/pH 7.59. Neither the photosynthetic nor growth rates were changed by elevated CO2 supply in the OA treatment. These results were explained by the greater use of HCO3 (-) compared to CO2 as an inorganic carbon (Ci) source to support photosynthesis. Macrocystis is a mixed HCO3 (-) and CO2 user that exhibits two effective mechanisms for HCO3 (-) utilization; as predicted for species that possess carbon-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs), photosynthesis was not substantially affected by elevated pCO2. The internal CA activity was also unaffected by OA, and it remained high and active throughout the experiment; this suggests that HCO3 (-) uptake via an anion exchange protein was not affected by OA. Our results suggest that photosynthetic Ci uptake and growth of Macrocystis will not be affected by elevated pCO2/low pH predicted for the future, but the combined effects with other environmental factors like temperature and nutrient availability could change the physiological response of Macrocystis to OA. Therefore, further studies will be important to elucidate how this species might respond to the global environmental change predicted for the ocean.

  12. Evidence for the involvement of carbonic anhydrase and urease in calcium carbonate formation in the gravity-sensing organ of Aplysia californica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedrozo, H. A.; Schwartz, Z.; Dean, D. D.; Harrison, J. L.; Campbell, J. W.; Wiederhold, M. L.; Boyan, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    To better understand the mechanisms that could modulate the formation of otoconia, calcium carbonate granules in the inner ear of vertebrate species, we examined statoconia formation in the gravity-sensing organ, the statocyst, of the gastropod mollusk Aplysia californica using an in vitro organ culture model. We determined the type of calcium carbonate present in the statoconia and investigated the role of carbonic anhydrase (CA) and urease in regulating statocyst pH as well as the role of protein synthesis and urease in statoconia production and homeostasis in vitro. The type of mineral present in statoconia was found to be aragonitic calcium carbonate. When the CA inhibitor, acetazolamide (AZ), was added to cultures of statocysts, the pH initially (30 min) increased and then decreased. The urease inhibitor, acetohydroxamic acid (AHA), decreased statocyst pH. Simultaneous addition of AZ and AHA caused a decrease in pH. Inhibition of urease activity also reduced total statoconia number, but had no effect on statoconia volume. Inhibition of protein synthesis reduced statoconia production and increased statoconia volume. In a previous study, inhibition of CA was shown to decrease statoconia production. Taken together, these data show that urease and CA play a role in regulating statocyst pH and the formation and maintenance of statoconia. CA produces carbonate ion for calcium carbonate formation and urease neutralizes the acid formed due to CA action, by production of ammonia.

  13. Cloning, characterization and sulfonamide inhibition studies of an α-carbonic anhydrase from the living fossil sponge Astrosclera willeyana.

    PubMed

    Ohradanova, Anna; Vullo, Daniela; Pastorekova, Silvia; Pastorek, Jaromir; Jackson, Daniel J; Wörheide, Gert; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2012-02-15

    The α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) Astrosclerin-3 previously isolated from the living fossil sponge Astrosclera willeyana (Jackson et al., Science 2007, 316, 1893), was cloned, kinetically characterized and investigated for its inhibition properties with sulfonamides and sulfamates. Astrosclerin-3 has a high catalytic activity for the CO(2) hydration reaction to bicarbonate and protons (k(cat) of 9.0×10(5) s(-1) and k(cat)/K(m) of 1.1×10(8) M(-1) × s(-1)), and is inhibited by various aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides and sulfamates with inhibition constants in the range of 2.9 nM-8.85 μM. Astrosclerin, and the human isoform CA II, display similar kinetic properties and affinities for sulfonamide inhibitors, despite more than 550 million years of independent evolution. Because Astrosclerin-3 is involved in biocalcification, the inhibitors characterized here may be used to gain insights into such processes in other metazoans.

  14. Inhibition studies of bacterial, fungal and protozoan β-class carbonic anhydrases with Schiff bases incorporating sulfonamide moieties.

    PubMed

    Ceruso, Mariangela; Carta, Fabrizio; Osman, Sameh M; Alothman, Zeid; Monti, Simona Maria; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-08-01

    A series of new Schiff bases derived from sulfanilamide, 3-fluorosulfanilamide or 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonamide containing either a hydrophobic or a hydrophilic tail, have been investigated as inhibitors of three β-carbonic anhydrases (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) from three different microorganisms. Their antifungal, antibacterial and antiprotozoan activities have been determined against the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, the bacterial pathogen Brucella suis and the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani chagasi, responsible for Leishmaniasis. The results of these inhibition studies show that all three enzymes were efficiently inhibited by the Schiff base sulfonamides with KI values in the nanomolar or submicromolar range, depending on the nature of the tail, coming from the aryl/heteroaryl moiety present in the starting aldehyde employed in the synthesis. Furthermore, the compounds hereby investigated revealed high β-CAs selectivity over the ubiquitous, physiologically relevant and off-target human isoforms (CA I and II) and to be more potent as antifungal and antibacterial than as antiprotozoan potential drugs.

  15. Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption and Neurovascular Unit Dysfunction in Diabetic Mice: Protection with the Mitochondrial Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor Topiramate.

    PubMed

    Salameh, Therese S; Shah, Gul N; Price, Tulin O; Hayden, Melvin R; Banks, William A

    2016-12-01

    All forms of diabetes mellitus are characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, resulting in the development of a number of microvascular and macrovascular pathologies. Diabetes is also associated with changes in brain microvasculature, leading to dysfunction and ultimately disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). These changes are correlated with a decline in cognitive function. In diabetes, BBB damage is associated with increased oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species. This occurs because of the increased oxidative metabolism of glucose caused by hyperglycemia. Decreasing the production of bicarbonate with the use of a mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (mCAi) limits oxidative metabolism and the production of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we have demonstrated that 1) streptozotocin-induced diabetes resulted in BBB disruption, 2) ultrastructural studies showed a breakdown of the BBB and changes to the neurovascular unit (NVU), including a loss of brain pericytes and retraction of astrocytes, the two cell types that maintain the BBB, and 3) treatment with topiramate, a mCAi, attenuated the effects of diabetes on BBB disruption and ultrastructural changes in the neurovascular unit.

  16. Intrinsic Thermodynamics and Structures of 2,4- and 3,4-Substituted Fluorinated Benzenesulfonamides Binding to Carbonic Anhydrases.

    PubMed

    Zubrienė, Asta; Smirnov, Alexey; Dudutienė, Virginija; Timm, David D; Matulienė, Jurgita; Michailovienė, Vilma; Zakšauskas, Audrius; Manakova, Elena; Gražulis, Saulius; Matulis, Daumantas

    2017-01-20

    The goal of rational drug design is to understand structure-thermodynamics correlations in order to predict the chemical structure of a drug that would exhibit excellent affinity and selectivity for a target protein. In this study we explored the contribution of added functionalities of benzenesulfonamide inhibitors to the intrinsic binding affinity, enthalpy, and entropy for recombinant human carbonic anhydrases (CA) CA I, CA II, CA VII, CA IX, CA XII, and CA XIII. The binding enthalpies of compounds possessing similar chemical structures and affinities were found to be very different, spanning a range from -90 to +10 kJ mol(-1) , and are compensated by a similar opposing entropy contribution. The intrinsic parameters of binding were determined by subtracting the linked protonation reactions. The sulfonamide group pKa values of the compounds were measured spectrophotometrically, and the protonation enthalpies were measured by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Herein we describe the development of meta- or ortho-substituted fluorinated benzenesulfonamides toward the highly potent compound 10 h, which exhibits an observed dissociation constant value of 43 pm and an intrinsic dissociation constant value of 1.1 pm toward CA IX, an anticancer target that is highly overexpressed in various tumors. Fluorescence thermal shift assays, ITC, and X-ray crystallography were all applied in this work.

  17. Pretransition and progressive softening of bovine carbonic anhydrase II as probed by single molecule atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Afrin, Rehana; Alam, Mohammad T.; Ikai, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    To develop a simple method for probing the physical state of surface adsorbed proteins, we adopted the force curve mode of an atomic force microscope (AFM) to extract information on the mechanical properties of surface immobilized bovine carbonic anhydrase II under native conditions and in the course of guanidinium chloride–induced denaturation. A progressive increase in the population of individually softened molecules was probed under mildly to fully denaturing conditions. The use of the approach regime of force curves gave information regarding the height and rigidity of the molecule under compressive stress, whereas use of the retracting regime of the curves gave information about the tensile characteristics of the protein. The results showed that protein molecules at the beginning of the transition region possessed slightly more flattened and significantly more softened conformations compared with that of native molecules, but were still not fully denatured, in agreement with results based on solution studies. Thus the force curve mode of an AFM was shown to be sensitive enough to provide information concerning the different physical states of single molecules of globular proteins. PMID:15929995

  18. Temperature Responses of C4 Photosynthesis: Biochemical Analysis of Rubisco, Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase, and Carbonic Anhydrase in Setaria viridis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Ryan A.; Gandin, Anthony; Cousins, Asaph B.

    2015-01-01

    The photosynthetic assimilation of CO2 in C4 plants is potentially limited by the enzymatic rates of Rubisco, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc), and carbonic anhydrase (CA). Therefore, the activity and kinetic properties of these enzymes are needed to accurately parameterize C4 biochemical models of leaf CO2 exchange in response to changes in CO2 availability and temperature. There are currently no published temperature responses of both Rubisco carboxylation and oxygenation kinetics from a C4 plant, nor are there known measurements of the temperature dependency of the PEPc Michaelis-Menten constant for its substrate HCO3−, and there is little information on the temperature response of plant CA activity. Here, we used membrane inlet mass spectrometry to measure the temperature responses of Rubisco carboxylation and oxygenation kinetics, PEPc carboxylation kinetics, and the activity and first-order rate constant for the CA hydration reaction from 10°C to 40°C using crude leaf extracts from the C4 plant Setaria viridis. The temperature dependencies of Rubisco, PEPc, and CA kinetic parameters are provided. These findings describe a new method for the investigation of PEPc kinetics, suggest an HCO3− limitation imposed by CA, and show similarities between the Rubisco temperature responses of previously measured C3 species and the C4 plant S. viridis. PMID:26373659

  19. Evaluation of in vitro effects of some analgesic drugs on erythrocyte and recombinant carbonic anhydrase I and II.

    PubMed

    Gökçe, Başak; Gençer, Nahit; Arslan, Oktay; Turkoğlu, Sumeyye Aydogan; Alper, Meltem; Köçkar, Feray

    2012-02-01

    The in vitro effects of the injectable form of analgesic drugs, dexketoprofen trometamol, dexamethasone sodium phosphate, metamizole sodium, diclofenac sodium, thiocolchicoside, on the activity of purified human carbonic anhydrase I and II were evaluated. The effect of these drugs on erythrocyte hCA I and hCA II was compared to recombinant hCA I and hCA II expressed in Ecoli. IC(50) values of the drugs that caused inhibition were determined by means of activity percentage diagrams. The IC(50) concentrations of dexketoprofen trometamol and dexamethasone sodium phosphate on hCA I were 683 μM and 4250 μM and for hCA II 950 μM and 6200 μM respectively. Conversely, the enzyme activity was increased by diflofenac sodium. In addition, thiocolchicoside has not any affect on hCA I and hCA II. The effect of these drugs on erythrocyte hCA I and hCA II were consistent with the inhibition of recombinant enzymes.

  20. Synthesis and carbonic anhydrase inhibitory properties of amino acid - coumarin/quinolinone conjugates incorporating glycine, alanine and phenylalanine moieties.

    PubMed

    Küçükbay, F Zehra; Küçükbay, Hasan; Tanc, Muhammet; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-12-01

    N-Protected amino acids (Gly, Ala and Phe) were reacted with amino substituted coumarin and quinolinone derivatives, leading to the corresponding N-protected amino acid-coumarin/quinolinone conjugates. The carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitory activity of the new compounds was assessed against various human (h) isoforms, such as hCA I, hCA II, hCA IV and hCA XII. The quinolinone conjugates were inactive as enzyme inhibitors, whereas the coumarins were ineffective hCA I/II inhibitors (KIs > 50 μM) but were submicromolar hCA IV and XII inhibitors, with inhibition constants ranging between 92 nM and 1.19 μM for hCA IV, and between 0.11 and 0.79 μM for hCA XII. These coumarin derivatives, as many others reported earlier, thus show an interesting selective inhibitory profile for the membrane-bound over the cytosolic CA isoforms.

  1. Optimizing lutetium 177-anti-carbonic anhydrase IX radioimmunotherapy in an intraperitoneal clear cell renal cell carcinoma xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Muselaers, Constantijn H J; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Bos, Desirée L; Oyen, Wim J G; Mulders, Peter F A; Boerman, Otto C

    2014-01-01

    A new approach in the treatment of clear cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC) is radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using anti-carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) antibody G250. To investigate the potential of RIT with lutetium 177 (177Lu)-labeled G250, we conducted a protein dose escalation study and subsequently an RIT study in mice with intraperitoneally growing ccRCC lesions. Mice with intraperitoneal xenografts were injected with 1, 3, 10, 30, or 100 μg of G250 labeled with 10 MBq indium 111 (111In) to determine the optimal protein dose. The optimal protein dose determined with imaging and biodistribution studies was used in a subsequent RIT experiment in three groups of 10 mice with intraperitoneal SK-RC-52 tumors. One group received 13 MBq 177Lu-DOTA-G250, a control group received 13 MBq nonspecific 177Lu-MOPC21, and the second control group was not treated and received 20 MBq 111In-DOTA-G250. The optimal G250 protein dose to target ccRCC in this model was 10 μg G250. Treatment with 13 MBq 177Lu-DOTA-G250 was well tolerated and resulted in significantly prolonged median survival (139 days) compared to controls (49-53 days, p  =  .015), indicating that RIT has potential in this metastatic ccRCC model.

  2. Mitochondrial Carbonic Anhydrase VA Deficiency Resulting from CA5A Alterations Presents with Hyperammonemia in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    van Karnebeek, Clara D.; Sly, William S.; Ross, Colin J.; Salvarinova, Ramona; Yaplito-Lee, Joy; Santra, Saikat; Shyr, Casper; Horvath, Gabriella A.; Eydoux, Patrice; Lehman, Anna M.; Bernard, Virginie; Newlove, Theresa; Ukpeh, Henry; Chakrapani, Anupam; Preece, Mary Anne; Ball, Sarah; Pitt, James; Vallance, Hilary D.; Coulter-Mackie, Marion; Nguyen, Hien; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Bhavsar, Amit P.; Sinclair, Graham; Waheed, Abdul; Wasserman, Wyeth W.; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Four children in three unrelated families (one consanguineous) presented with lethargy, hyperlactatemia, and hyperammonemia of unexplained origin during the neonatal period and early childhood. We identified and validated three different CA5A alterations, including a homozygous missense mutation (c.697T>C) in two siblings, a homozygous splice site mutation (c.555G>A) leading to skipping of exon 4, and a homozygous 4 kb deletion of exon 6. The deleterious nature of the homozygous mutation c.697T>C (p.Ser233Pro) was demonstrated by reduced enzymatic activity and increased temperature sensitivity. Carbonic anhydrase VA (CA-VA) was absent in liver in the child with the homozygous exon 6 deletion. The metabolite profiles in the affected individuals fit CA-VA deficiency, showing evidence of impaired provision of bicarbonate to the four enzymes that participate in key pathways in intermediary metabolism: carbamoylphosphate synthetase 1 (urea cycle), pyruvate carboxylase (anaplerosis, gluconeogenesis), propionyl-CoA carboxylase, and 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (branched chain amino acids catabolism). In the three children who were administered carglumic acid, hyperammonemia resolved. CA-VA deficiency should therefore be added to urea cycle defects, organic acidurias, and pyruvate carboxylase deficiency as a treatable condition in the differential diagnosis of hyperammonemia in the neonate and young child. PMID:24530203

  3. Diarylsulfonamides and their bioisosteres as dual inhibitors of alkaline phosphatase and carbonic anhydrase: Structure activity relationship and molecular modelling studies.

    PubMed

    Al-Rashida, Mariya; Ejaz, Syeda Abida; Ali, Sharafat; Shaukat, Aisha; Hamayoun, Mehwish; Ahmed, Maqsood; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2015-05-15

    The effect of bioisosteric replacement of carboxamide linking group with sulfonamide linking group, on alkaline phosphatase (AP) and carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibition activity of aromatic benzenesulfonamides was investigated. A series of carboxamide linked aromatic benzenesulfonamides 1a-1c, 2a-2d and their sulfonamide linked bioisosteres 3a-3d, 4a-4d was synthesized and evaluated for inhibitory activity against bovine tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and bCA II. A significant increase in CA inhibition activity was observed upon bioisosteric replacement of carboxamide linking group with a sulfonamide group. Some of these compounds were identified as highly potent and selective AP inhibitors. Compounds 1b, 2b, 3d, 4d 5b and 5c were found to be selective bTNAP inhibitors, whereas compounds 1a, 1c, 2a, 2c, 2d, 3a, 3c, 4a, 4b, 4c, 5a were found to be selective bIAP inhibitors. For most active AP inhibitor 3b, detailed kinetic studies indicated a competitive mode of inhibition against tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and non-competitive mode of inhibition against intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP). Molecular docking studies were carried out to rationalize important binding site interactions.

  4. Characterization and anions inhibition studies of an α-carbonic anhydrase from the teleost fish Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Deniz; Ceyhun, Saltuk Buğrahan; Sentürk, Murat; Erdem, Deryanur; Küfrevioğlu, Omer İrfan; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2011-01-15

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) was purified from the gill of the teleost fish Dicentrarchus labrax (European seabass). The purification procedure consisted of a single step affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B-tyrosine-sulfanilamide. The enzyme was purified 84.9-fold with a yield of 58%, and a specific activity of 838.9 U/mg proteins. It has an optimum pH at 8.0; an optimum temperature at 10°C. The kinetic parameters of this enzyme were determined for its esterase activity, with 4-nitrophenyl acetate (NPA) as substrate. The following anions, H₂NSO₃⁻, I⁻, SCN⁻, NO₃⁻, NO₂⁻, N₃⁻, Br⁻, Cl⁻, SO₄²⁻, and F⁻ showed inhibitory effects on the enzyme. Sulfamic acid, iodide, and thiocyanate exhibited the strongest inhibitory action, in the micromolar range (K(i)s of 87-187 μM). NO₃⁻, NO₂⁻ and N₃⁻ were moderate inhibitors, whereas other anions showed only weak actions. All tested anions inhibited the enzyme in a competitive manner. Our findings indicate that these anions inhibit the fish enzyme in a similar manner to other α-CAs from mammals investigated earlier, but the susceptibility to various anions differs significantly between the fish and mammalian CAs.

  5. Amyloid-like aggregates formation by bovine apo-carbonic anhydrase in various alcohols: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Es-Haghi, Ali; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh; Sabbaghian, Marjan; Nemat-Gorgani, Mohsen

    2016-11-01

    Peptides and proteins convert from their native states to amyloid fibrillar aggregates in a number of pathological conditions. Characterizing these species could provide useful information on their pathogenicity and the key factors involved in their generation. In this study, we have observed the ability of the model protein apo-bovine carbonic anhydrase (apo-BCA) to form amyloid-like aggregates in the presence of halogenated and non-halogenated alcohols. Far-UV circular dichroism, ThT fluorescence, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering were used to characterize these structures. The concentration required for effective protein aggregation varied between the solvents, with non-halogenated alcohols acting in a wider range. These aggregates show amyloid-like structures as determined by specific techniques used for characterizing amyloid structures. Oligomers were obtained with various size distributions, but fibrillar structures were not observed. Use of halogenated alcohols resulted into smaller hydrodynamic radii, and most stable oligomers were formed in hexafluoropropan-2-ol (HFIP). At optimal concentrations used to generate these structures, the non-halogenated alcohols showed higher hydrophobicity, which may be related to the lower stability of the generated oligomers. These oligomers have the potential to be used as models in the search for effective treatments in proteinopathies.

  6. Dexamethasone downregulates expression of carbonic anhydrase IX via HIF-1α and NF-κB-dependent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Simko, Veronika; Takacova, Martina; Debreova, Michaela; Laposova, Katarina; Ondriskova-Panisova, Elena; Pastorekova, Silvia; Csaderova, Lucia; Pastorek, Jaromir

    2016-01-01

    Dexamethasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid frequently used to suppress side-effects of anticancer chemotherapy. In the present study, we showed that dexamethasone treatment leads to concentration-dependent downregulation of cancer-associated marker, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), at the level of promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression in 2D and 3D cancer cell models. The effect of dexamethasone on CA IX expression under hypoxic conditions is predominantly mediated by impaired transcriptional activity and decreased protein level of the main hypoxic transcription factor HIF-1α. In addition, CA9 downregulation can be caused by protein-protein interactions between activated glucocorticoid receptors, major effectors of glucocorticoid action, and transcription factors that trigger CA9 transcription (e.g. AP-1). Moreover, we identified a potential NF-κB binding site in the CA9 promoter and propose the involvement of NF-κB in the dexamethasone-mediated inhibition of CA9 transcription. As high level of CA IX is often linked to aggressive tumor behavior, poor prognosis and chemo- and radiotherapy resistance, uncovering its reduction after dexa-methasone treatment and implication of additional regulatory mechanisms can be relevant for the CA IX-related clinical applications. PMID:27431580

  7. A multivariate approach for the determination of isoelectric point of human carbonic anhydrase isoforms by capillary isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Lecoeur, Marie; Goossens, Jean-François; Vaccher, Claude; Bonte, Jean-Paul; Foulon, Catherine

    2011-10-01

    Human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) IX and XII are isoenzymes which are highly overexpressed in many cancer types. Recently, it has been shown that hCA IX contributes to the acidification of the tumor environment leading to chemoresistance with basic antitumoral drugs. The development of selective hCA inhibitors constitutes a new therapeutic axis. In order to elucidate the specific interactions between hCA and inhibitors, physico-chemical properties of hCA must be evaluated. This work reports the determination of the isoelectric point (pI) of a series of hCA isoforms by capillary isoelectric focusing. First, the method was optimized with synthetic UV-detectable pI markers using a central composite design. The separation was performed in a fused-silica capillary chemically derivatized with hydroxypropylcellulose and using a glycerol-water medium as the anticonvective gel. Three main factors (ampholyte content, focusing time and mobilization pressure) were optimized in order to obtain the best resolution, detection threshold and precision on the pI determination. Then, the model was validated through the analysis of standard proteins mixture having known pI values, before investigating the pI of hCA isoforms.

  8. The role of carbonic anhydrase VI in bitter taste perception: evidence from the Car6−/− mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Carbonic anhydrase VI (CA VI) is a secretory isozyme of the α-CA gene family. It is highly expressed in the salivary and mammary glands and secreted into saliva and milk. Although CA VI was first described as a gustatory protein, its exact functional roles have remained enigmatic. Interestingly, polymorphism of the CA6 gene was recently linked to bitter taste perception in humans. In this study, we compared the preference of Car6−/− and wild-type mice for different taste modalities in an IntelliCage monitoring environment. Morphologies of taste buds, tongue papillae, and von Ebner’s glands were evaluated by light microscopy. Cell proliferation and rate of apoptosis in tongue specimens were examined by Ki67 immunostaining and fluorescent DNA fragmentation staining, respectively. Results The behavioral follow up of the mice in an IntelliCage system revealed that Car6−/− mice preferred 3 μM quinine (bitter) solution, whereas wild type mice preferred water. When the quinine concentration increased, both groups preferentially selected water. Histological analysis, Ki67 immunostaining and detection of apoptosis did not reveal any significant changes between tongue specimens of the knockout and wild type mice. Conclusions Our knockout mouse model confirms that CA VI is involved in bitter taste perception. CA VI may be one of the factors which contribute to avoidance of bitter, potentially harmful, substances. PMID:25134447

  9. Degradation of carbonyl sulfide by Actinomycetes and detection of clade D of β-class carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Takahiro; Kato, Hiromi; Higashide, Mitsuru; Nishimiya, Mami; Katayama, Yoko

    2016-09-25

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is an atmospheric trace gas and one of the sources of stratospheric aerosol contributing to climate change. Although one of the major sinks of COS is soil, the distribution of COS degradation ability among bacteria remains unclear. Seventeen out of 20 named bacteria belonging to Actinomycetales had COS degradation activity at mole fractions of 30 parts per million by volume (ppmv) COS. Dietzia maris NBRC 15801(T) and Mycobacterium sp. THI405 had the activity comparable to a chemolithoautotroph Thiobacillus thioparus THI115 that degrade COS by COS hydrolase for energy production. Among 12 bacteria manifesting rapid degradation at 30 ppmv COS, Dietzia maris NBRC 15801(T) and Streptomyces ambofaciens NBRC 12836(T) degraded ambient COS (∼500 parts per trillion by volume). Geodermatophilus obscurus NBRC 13315(T) and Amycolatopsis orientalis NBRC 12806(T) increased COS concentrations. Moreover, six of eight COS degrading bacteria isolated from soils had partial nucleotide sequences similar to that of the gene encoding clade D of β-class carbonic anhydrase, which included COS hydrolase. These results indicate the potential importance of Actinomycetes in the role of soils as sinks of atmospheric COS.

  10. A Class of 4-Sulfamoylphenyl-ω-aminoalkyl Ethers with Effective Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitory Action and Antiglaucoma Effects

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report a series of 4-sulfamoylphenyl-ω-aminoalkyl ethers as carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors. The structure–activity relationship was drawn for the inhibition of four physiologically relevant isoforms: hCA I, II, IX, and XII. Many of these compounds were highly effective, low nanomolar inhibitors of all CA isoforms, whereas several isoform-selective were also identified. X-ray crystal structures of two new sulfonamides bound to the physiologically dominant CA II isoform showed the tails of these derivatives bound within the hydrophobic half of the enzyme active site through van der Waals contacts with Val135, Leu198, Leu204, Trp209, Pro201, and Pro202 amino acids. One of the highly water-soluble compound (as trifluoroacetate salt) showed effective IOP lowering properties in an animal model of glaucoma. Several fluorescent sulfonamides incorporating either the fluorescein-thiourea (7a–c) or tetramethylrhodamine-thiourea (9a,b) moieties were also obtained and showed interesting CA inhibitory properties for the tumor-associated isoforms CA IX and XII. PMID:25358036

  11. Effects of reduced carbonic anhydrase activity on CO2 assimilation rates in Setaria viridis: a transgenic analysis.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Hannah L; Alonso-Cantabrana, Hugo; Sharwood, Robert E; Covshoff, Sarah; Evans, John R; Furbank, Robert T; von Caemmerer, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    In C4 species, the major β-carbonic anhydrase (β-CA) localized in the mesophyll cytosol catalyses the hydration of CO2 to HCO3(-), which phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase uses in the first step of C4 photosynthesis. To address the role of CA in C4 photosynthesis, we generated transgenic Setaria viridis depleted in β-CA. Independent lines were identified with as little as 13% of wild-type CA. No photosynthetic defect was observed in the transformed lines at ambient CO2 partial pressure (pCO2). At low pCO2, a strong correlation between CO2 assimilation rates and CA hydration rates was observed. C(18)O(16)O isotope discrimination was used to estimate the mesophyll conductance to CO2 diffusion from the intercellular air space to the mesophyll cytosol (gm) in control plants, which allowed us to calculate CA activities in the mesophyll cytosol (Cm). This revealed a strong relationship between the initial slope of the response of the CO2 assimilation rate to cytosolic pCO2 (ACm) and cytosolic CA activity. However, the relationship between the initial slope of the response of CO2 assimilation to intercellular pCO2 (ACi) and cytosolic CA activity was curvilinear. This indicated that in S. viridis, mesophyll conductance may be a contributing limiting factor alongside CA activity to CO2 assimilation rates at low pCO2.

  12. Transport Activity of the Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter NBCe1 Is Enhanced by Different Isoforms of Carbonic Anhydrase

    PubMed Central

    Schueler, Christina; Becker, Holger M.; McKenna, Robert; Deitmer, Joachim W.

    2011-01-01

    Transport metabolons have been discussed between carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and several membrane transporters. We have now studied different CA isoforms, expressed in Xenopus oocytes alone and together with the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBCe1), to determine their catalytic activity and their ability to enhance NBCe1 transport activity. pH measurements in intact oocytes indicated similar activity of CAI, CAII and CAIII, while in vitro CAIII had no measurable activity and CAI only 30% of the activity of CAII. All three CA isoforms increased transport activity of NBCe1, as measured by the transport current and the rate of intracellular sodium rise in oocytes. Two CAII mutants, altered in their intramolecular proton pathway, CAII-H64A and CAII-Y7F, showed significant catalytic activity and also enhanced NBCe1 transport activity. The effect of CAI, CAII, and CAII mutants on NBCe1 activity could be reversed by blocking CA activity with ethoxyzolamide (EZA, 10 µM), while the effect of the less EZA-sensitive CAIII was not reversed. Our results indicate that different CA isoforms and mutants, even if they show little enzymatic activity in vitro, may display significant catalytic activity in intact cells, and that the ability of CA to enhance NBCe1 transport appears to depend primarily on its catalytic activity. PMID:22076132

  13. Sulfonamide inhibition studies of the β-carbonic anhydrase from the newly discovered bacterium Enterobacter sp. B13.

    PubMed

    Eminoğlu, Ayşenur; Vullo, Daniela; Aşık, Aycan; Çolak, Dilşat Nigar; Çanakçı, Sabriye; Beldüz, Ali Osman; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-04-01

    The genome of the newly identified bacterium Enterobacter sp. B13 encodes for a β-class carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1), EspCA. This enzyme was recently cloned, and characterized kinetically by this group (J. Enzyme Inhib. Med. Chem. 2016, 31). Here we report an inhibition study with sulfonamides and sulfamates of this enzyme. The best EspCA inhibitors were some sulfanylated sulfonamides with elongated molecules, metanilamide, 4-aminoalkyl-benzenesulfonamides, acetazolamide, and deacetylated methazolamide (KIs in the range of 58.7-96.5nM). Clinically used agents such as methazolamide, ethoxzolamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide, benzolamide, zonisamide, sulthiame, sulpiride, topiramate and valdecoxib were slightly less effective inhibitors (KIs in the range of 103-138nM). Saccharin, celecoxib, dichlorophenamide and many simple benzenesulfonamides were even less effective as EspCA inhibitors, with KIs in the range of 384-938nM. Identification of effective inhibitors of this bacterial enzyme may lead to pharmacological tools useful for understanding the physiological role(s) of the β-class CAs in bacterial pathogenicity/virulence.

  14. Anion inhibition studies of the dandruff-producing fungus Malassezia globosa β-carbonic anhydrase MgCA.

    PubMed

    Del Prete, Sonia; Vullo, Daniela; Osman, Sameh M; AlOthman, Zeid; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-11-15

    The genome of the fungal parasite Malassezia globosa, the causative agent of dandruff, contains a single gene annotated as encoding a carbonic anhydrase (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) belonging to the β-class (MgCA). In an earlier work (J. Med. Chem. 2012, 55, 3513) we have validated this enzyme as an anti-dandruff drug target, reporting that sulfonamide inhibitors show in vitro and in vivo effects, in an animal model of Malassezia infection. However, few classes of compounds apart the sulfonamides, were investigated for their activity against MgCA. Here we present an anion inhibition study of this enzyme, reporting that metal complexing anions such as cyanate, thiocyanate, cyanide, azide are weak MgCA inhibitors (KIs ranging between 6.81 and 45.2 mM) whereas bicarbonate (KI of 0.59 mM) and diethyldithiocarbamate (KI of 0.30 mM) together with sulfamide, sulfamate, phenylboronic acid and phenylarsonic acid were the most effective inhibitors detected so far, with KIs ranging between 83 and 94 μM. This study may help a better understanding of the inhibition profile of this enzyme and may offer the possibility to design new such modulators of activity belonging to different chemical classes.

  15. Carbonic anhydrase activity in the vas deferens of the cotton leafworm - Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) controlled by circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Kotwica, J; Ciuk, M A; Joachimiak, E; Rowinski, S; Cymborowski, B; Bebas, P

    2006-11-01

    The male reproductive tract of Lepidoptera is an ideal model for the study of the physiological role of peripheral clocks in insects. The latter are significant in the generation and coordination of rhythmic phenomena which facilitate the initial stages of sperm capacitation. This process requires the maintenance of pH in the upper vas deferens (UVD) aided by, among others, H+-ATPase. Our aim was to determine the potential involvement of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in this process, an enzyme tasked with generating protons subsequently utilized by H+-ATPase to acidify the UVD milieu in S. littoralis, during the time when the lumen of this organ is filled with sperm. We attempted to answer the question whether CA activity can be controlled by the biological oscillator present in the male reproductive tract of the cotton leafworm. Using PAGE zymography, the presence of CA was demonstrated in the UVD wall, but not in the luminal fluid nor in the sperm. Using histochemistry, it was shown that CA is active in the UVD epithelium, and that this activity varies throughout the day and is most likely controlled by an endogenous biological clock. Conversely, the application of CA inhibitors, acetazolamide and sodium thiocyanate, in conjunction with an analysis of H+-ATPase activity in the acidification the UVD environment shows that CA most likely does not play a direct role in the regulation of the pH in this organ.

  16. A Widespread Silent Polymorphism of Human Carbonic Anhydrase III (31 Ile ↔ Val): Implications for Evolutionary Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Hewett-Emmett, David; Welty, Rosalind J.; Tashian, Richard E.

    1983-01-01

    During amino acid sequence studies of carbonic anhydrase (CA) III, purified from a pool of human skeletal muscles, an electrophoretically undetectable (silent) variation was found at residue 31 which was either valine and/or isoleucine. To distinguish a simple allelic polymorphism from more complex models involving gene duplication, 11 separate CA III samples were purified from individuals of different age and racial backgrounds. Peptide mapping by high performance liquid chromatography and sequencing indicated that four were homozygous for 31-Val, three homozygous for 31-Ile and four were apparent heterozygotes. Since the ratio of Val/Ile at residue 31 was approximately 1.0 in the heterozygotes, the present observations are consistent with a simple allelic polymorphism model. Despite the small sample size, there are preliminary indications that the gene frequencies may differ among racial groups. The finding of this silent allelic polymorphism together with the finding of an electrophoretically detectable polymorphism of CA II permits us to test the linkage of the CA II and CA III genes which appear to have been formed by gene dupliction more than 300 million years ago. The possibility that the Val/Ile variation may represent a neutral mutation is discussed. PMID:6414885

  17. Carbonic anhydrase IX-directed immunoliposomes for targeted drug delivery to human lung cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wong, Blenda Chi Kwan; Zhang, Hongqi; Qin, Ling; Chen, Hubiao; Fang, Chen; Lu, Aiping; Yang, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery to cancer cells by use of antibody-conjugated liposomes (immunoliposomes) has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Despite increasing efforts in developing immunoliposomes as drug carriers, the investigation of useful tumor-associated antigen targets is far from complete. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a cell surface antigen characterized by hypoxia-induced expression in many solid tumors. This study investigated the feasibility of CA IX-directed immunoliposomes for targeted delivery of docetaxel to human lung cancer cells in vitro. Docetaxel-loaded immunoliposomes targeting CA IX were developed with an encapsulation efficiency of 84.4±3.9% and an average particle size of 143.9±11.1 nm. Using fluorescence-based flow cytometry, the in vitro binding activity of the immunoliposomes was found to be significantly higher (by 1.65-fold) than that of the nontargeted liposomes in CA IX-positive lung cancer cells, whereas no such difference was observed between the two groups when CA IX was not expressed. Furthermore, immunoliposomal docetaxel exhibited the strongest growth inhibitory effect against CA IX-positive lung cancer cells when compared with nontargeted liposomal docetaxel or free docetaxel solution. These data suggested that CA IX-directed immunoliposomes could serve as a promising drug delivery system for targeted killing of lung cancer cells.

  18. Poly(amidoamine) dendrimers show carbonic anhydrase inhibitory activity against α-, β-, γ- and η-class enzymes.

    PubMed

    Carta, Fabrizio; Osman, Sameh M; Vullo, Daniela; AlOthman, Zeid; Del Prete, Sonia; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-11-01

    Four generations of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers incorporating benzenesulfonamide moieties were investigated as inhibitors of carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) belonging to the α-, β-, γ- and η-classes which are present in pathogenic bacteria, fungi or protozoa. The following bacterial, fungal and protozoan organisms were included in the study: Vibrio cholerae, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani chagasi, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida glabrata, and Plasmodium falciparum. The eight pathozymes present in these organisms were efficiently inhibited by the four generations PAMAM-sulfonamide dendrimers, but multivalency effects were highly variable among the different enzyme classes. The Vibrio enzyme VchCA was best inhibited by the G3 dendrimer incorporating 32 sulfamoyl moieties. The Trypanosoma enzyme TcCA on the other hand was best inhibited by the first generation dendrimer G0 (with 4 sulfamoyl groups), whereas for other enzymes the optimal inhibitory power was observed for the G1 or G2 dendrimers, with 8 and 16 sulfonamide functionalities. This study thus proves that the multivalency may be highly relevant for enzyme inhibition for some but not all CAs from pathogenic organisms. On the other hand, some dendrimers investigated here showed a better inhibitory power compared to acetazolamide for enzymes from widespread pathogens, such as the η-CA from Plasmodium falciparum. Overall, the main conclusion is that this class of molecules may lead to important developments in the field of anti-infective CA inhibitors.

  19. Fluorescent sulfonamide carbonic anhydrase inhibitors incorporating 1,2,3-triazole moieties: Kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies.

    PubMed

    Carta, Fabrizio; Ferraroni, Marta; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-01-15

    Fluorescent sulfonamide carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors (CAIs) were essential for demonstrating the role played by the tumor-associated isoform CA IX in acidification of tumors, cancer progression towards metastasis and for the development of imaging and therapeutic strategies for the management of hypoxic tumors which overexpress CA IX. However, the presently available such compounds are poorly water soluble which limits their use. Here we report new fluorescent sulfonamides 7, 8 and 10 with increased water solubility. The new derivatives showed poor hCA I inhibitory properties, but were effective inhibitors against the hCA II (KIs of 366-127 nM), CA IX (KIs of 8.1-36.9 nM), CA XII (KIs of 4.1-20.5 nM) and CA XIV (KIs of 12.8-53.6 nM). A high resolution X-ray crystal structure of one of these compounds bound to hCA II revealed the factors associated with the good inhibitory properties. Furthermore, this compound showed a three-fold increase of water solubility compared to a similar derivative devoid of the triazole moiety, making it an interesting candidate for ex vivo/in vivo studies.

  20. Self-healing of early age cracks in cement-based materials by mineralization of carbonic anhydrase microorganism

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Chunxiang; Chen, Huaicheng; Ren, Lifu; Luo, Mian

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the self-healing potential of early age cracks in cement-based materials incorporating the bacteria which can produce carbonic anhydrase. Cement-based materials specimens were pre-cracked at the age of 7, 14, 28, 60 days to study the repair ability influenced by cracking time, the width of cracks were between 0.1 and 1.0 mm to study the healing rate influenced by width of cracks. The experimental results indicated that the bacteria showed excellent repairing ability to small cracks formed at early age of 7 days, cracks below 0.4 mm was almost completely closed. The repair effect reduced with the increasing of cracking age. Cracks width influenced self-healing effectiveness significantly. The transportation of CO2and Ca2+ controlled the self-healing process. The computer simulation analyses revealed the self-healing process and mechanism of microbiologically precipitation induced by bacteria and the depth of precipitated CaCO3 could be predicted base on valid Ca2+. PMID:26583014

  1. Human monoclonal antibodies targeting carbonic anhydrase IX for the molecular imaging of hypoxic regions in solid tumours

    PubMed Central

    Ahlskog, J K J; Schliemann, C; Mårlind, J; Qureshi, U; Ammar, A; Pedley, R B; Neri, D

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hypoxia, which is commonly observed in areas of primary tumours and of metastases, influences response to treatment. However, its characterisation has so far mainly been restricted to the ex vivo analysis of tumour sections using monoclonal antibodies specific to carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) or by pimonidazole staining, after the intravenous administration of this 2-nitroimidazole compound in experimental animal models. Methods: In this study, we describe the generation of high-affinity human monoclonal antibodies (A3 and CC7) specific to human CA IX, using phage technology. Results: These antibodies were able to stain CA IX ex vivo and to target the cognate antigen in vivo. In one of the two animal models of colorectal cancer studied (LS174T), CA IX imaging closely matched pimonidazole staining, with a preferential staining of tumour areas characterised by little vascularity and low perfusion. In contrast, in a second animal model (SW1222), distinct staining patterns were observed for pimonidazole and CA IX targeting. We observed a complementary pattern of tumour regions targeted in vivo by the clinical-stage vascular-targeting antibody L19 and the anti-CA IX antibody A3, indicating that a homogenous pattern of in vivo tumour targeting could be achieved by a combination of the two antibodies. Conclusion: The new human anti-CA IX antibodies are expected to be non-immunogenic in patients with cancer and may serve as broadly applicable reagents for the non-invasive imaging of hypoxia and for pharmacodelivery applications. PMID:19623173

  2. Exploring associations between taste perception, oral anatomy and polymorphisms in the carbonic anhydrase (gustin) gene CA6

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Emma L.; Hayes, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that polymorphisms in the carbonic anhydrase gene CA6 (also known as gustin) may explain additional variation in the bitterness of 6-n-propylthiouracil beyond that explained by variation in the bitter receptor gene TAS2R38. CA6 (gustin) has been implicated in taste bud function and salivary buffer capacity. In the present study we examined associations between polymorphisms in the CA6 gene with salt and bitter taste perception, and oral anatomy. 243 subjects (146 female) aged 18–45 rated the intensity of five concentrations of 6-n-propylthiouracil and NaCl on a generalized Labeled Magnitude Scale (gLMS) in duplicate and one concentration of potassium chloride (KCl). Using salivary DNA, we examined 12 SNPs within CA6 in relation to taste intensity and number of fungiform papillae. We observed no difference in bitter taste perception from 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) or from potassium chloride for any of the SNPs examined. Perceived saltiness of NaCl on the other hand was significantly associated with a number of CA6 polymorphisms, and particularly rs3737665. Nonetheless, FP density did not vary between alleles of rs3737665, nor with any of the other CA6 SNPs. Also, we fail to find any evidence that CA6 effects on taste perception are due to differences in fungiform papilla number. Additional work is needed to confirm whether variations within the CA6 gene may be responsible for differences in salt taste perception. PMID:24534176

  3. Intrinsic thermodynamics of 4-substituted-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzenesulfonamide binding to carbonic anhydrases by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Zubrienė, Asta; Smirnovienė, Joana; Smirnov, Alexey; Morkūnaitė, Vaida; Michailovienė, Vilma; Jachno, Jelena; Juozapaitienė, Vaida; Norvaišas, Povilas; Manakova, Elena; Gražulis, Saulius; Matulis, Daumantas

    2015-10-01

    Para substituted tetrafluorobenzenesulfonamides bind to carbonic anhydrases (CAs) extremely tightly and exhibit some of the strongest known protein-small ligand interactions, reaching an intrinsic affinity of 2 pM as determined by displacement isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The enthalpy and entropy of binding to five CA isoforms were measured by ITC in two buffers of different protonation enthalpies. The pKa values of compound sulfonamide groups were measured potentiometrically and spectrophotometrically, and enthalpies of protonation were measured by ITC in order to evaluate the proton linkage contributions to the observed binding thermodynamics. Intrinsic means the affinity of a sulfonamide anion for the Zn bound water form of CAs. Fluorination of the benzene ring significantly enhanced the observed affinities as it increased the fraction of deprotonated ligand while having little impact on intrinsic affinities. Intrinsic enthalpy contributions to the binding affinity were dominant over entropy and were more exothermic for CA I than for other CA isoforms. Thermodynamic measurements together with the X-ray crystallographic structures of protein-ligand complexes enabled analysis of structure-activity relationships in this enzyme ligand system.

  4. Identification of an inflammation-inducible serum protein recognized by anti-disialic acid antibodies as carbonic anhydrase II.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Zenta; Sato, Chihiro; Kitajima, Ken

    2007-03-01

    Acute-phase proteins are an important marker of inflammation and sometimes have a role in the general defense response towards tissue injury. In the present study, we identified a 32-kDa protein that was immunoreactive with monoclonal antibody 2-4B (mAb.2-4B), which is specific to di/oligoNeu5Gc structures, and that behaved as an acute-phase protein following stimulation with either turpentine oil or lipopolysaccharides. The 32-kDa protein was identified as carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II), based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses of the purified protein. Mouse and human CA-II was immunoreactive and immunoprecipitated with mAb.2-4B, but contained no sialic acid. In addition to mAb.2-4B, the mAb. S2-566 an antibody specific for diNeu5Ac-containing glycans, recognized the CA-II, whereas an anti-oligo/polysialic acid antibody did not. These results indicate that a part of the CA-II protein structure mimics the disialic acid structure recognized by the monoclonal antibodies. This is the first report that CA-II circulates in the serum following inflammation.

  5. Cryoannealing-induced space-group transition of crystals of the carbonic anhydrase psCA3.

    PubMed

    Pinard, Melissa A; Kurian, Justin J; Aggarwal, Mayank; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; McKenna, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Cryoannealing has been demonstrated to improve the diffraction quality and resolution of crystals of the β-carbonic anhydrase psCA3 concomitant with a change in space group. After initial flash-cooling in a liquid-nitrogen cryostream an X-ray diffraction data set from a psCA3 crystal was indexed in space group P21212 and was scaled to 2.6 Å resolution, but subsequent cryoannealing studies revealed induced protein rearrangements in the crystal contacts, which transformed the space group to I222, with a corresponding improvement of 0.7 Å in resolution. Although the change in diffraction resolution was significant, only minor changes in the psCA3 structure, which retained its catalytic `open' conformation, were observed. These findings demonstrate that cryoannealing can be successfully utilized to induce higher diffraction-quality crystals while maintaining enzymatically relevant conformations and may be useful as an experimental tool for structural studies of other enzymes where the initial diffraction quality is poor.

  6. Assessment of carbonic anhydrase IX expression and extracellular pH in B-cell lymphoma cell line models

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liu Qi; Howison, Christine M.; Spier, Catherine; Stopeck, Alison T.; Malm, Scott W.; Pagel, Mark D.; Baker, Amanda F.

    2015-01-01

    The expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA IX) and it’s relation to acidosis in lymphomas has not been widely studied. We investigated the protein expression of CA IX in a human B-cell lymphoma tissue microarray, and in Raji, Ramos, and Granta 519 lymphoma cell lines and tumor models, while also investigating the relation with hypoxia. An imaging method, acidoCEST MRI, was used to estimate lymphoma xenograft extracellular pH (pHe). Our results showed that clinical lymphoma tissues and cell line models in vitro and in vivo had moderate CA IX expression. Although in vitro studies showed that CA IX expression was induced by hypoxia, in vivo studies did not show this correlation. Untreated lymphoma xenograft tumor pHe had acidic fractions, and an Acidity Score was qualitatively correlated with CA IX expression. Therefore, CA IX is expressed in B-cell lymphomas and is qualitatively correlated with extracellular acidosis in xenograft tumor models. PMID:25130478

  7. Internal carbonic anhydrase activity in the tissue of scleractinian corals is sufficient to support proposed roles in photosynthesis and calcification.

    PubMed

    Hopkinson, Brian M; Tansik, Anna L; Fitt, William K

    2015-07-01

    Reef-building corals import inorganic carbon (Ci) to build their calcium carbonate skeletons and to support photosynthesis by the symbiotic algae that reside in their tissue. The internal pathways that deliver Ci for both photosynthesis and calcification are known to involve the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), which interconverts CO2 and HCO3 (-). We have developed a method for absolute quantification of internal CA (iCA) activity in coral tissue based on the rate of (18)O-removal from labeled Ci. The method was applied to three Caribbean corals (Orbicella faveolata, Porites astreoides and Siderastrea radians) and showed that these species have similar iCA activities per unit surface area, but that S. radians has ∼10-fold higher iCA activity per unit tissue volume. A model of coral Ci processing shows that the measured iCA activity is sufficient to support the proposed roles for iCA in Ci transport for photosynthesis and calcification. This is the case even when iCA activity is homogeneously distributed throughout the coral, but the model indicates that it would be advantageous to concentrate iCA in the spaces where calcification (the calcifying fluid) and photosynthesis (the oral endoderm) take place. We argue that because the rates of photosynthesis and calcification per unit surface area are similar among the corals studied here, the areal iCA activity used to deliver Ci for these reactions should also be similar. The elevated iCA activity per unit volume of S. radians compared with that of the other species is probably due to the thinner effective tissue thickness in this species.

  8. Epidermal carbonic anhydrase activity and exoskeletal metal content during the molting cycle of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Stacy; Zou, Enmin

    2016-03-01

    During the crustacean molting cycle, the exoskeleton is first mineralized in postmolt and intermolt and then presumably demineralized in premolt in order for epidermal retraction to occur. The mineralization process calls for divalent metal ions, such as Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) , and bicarbonate ions whereas protons are necessary for dissolution of carbonate salts. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) has been suggested to be involved in exoskeletal mineralization by providing bicarbonate ions through catalyzing the reaction of carbon dioxide hydration. However, results of earlier studies on the role of epidermal CA in metal incorporation in crustacean exoskeleton are not consistent. This study was aimed to provide further evidence to support the notion that epidermal CA is involved in exoskeletal mineralization using the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun 1896), as the model crustacean. Significant increases first in calcium and magnesium then in manganese post-ecdysis indicate significant metal deposition during postmolt and intermolt. Significant positive correlation between calcium or magnesium content and epidermal CA activity in postmolt and intermolt constitutes evidence that CA is involved in the mineralization of the crustacean exoskeleton. Additionally, we proposed a hypothetical model to describe the role of epidermal CA in both mineralization and demineralization of the exoskeleton based on the results of epidermal CA activity and exoskeletal metal content during the molting cycle. Furthermore, we found that the pattern of epidermal CA activity during the molting cycle of C. sapidus is similar to that of ecdysteroids reported for the same species, suggesting that epidermal CA activity may be under control of the molting hormones.

  9. Carbonic anhydrase inhibition blocks skeletogenesis and echinochrome production in Paracentrotus lividus and Heliocidaris tuberculata embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Zito, Francesca; Koop, Demian; Byrne, Maria; Matranga, Valeria

    2015-09-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a family of widely distributed metalloenzymes, involved in diverse physiological processes. These enzymes catalyse the reversible conversion of carbon dioxide to protons and bicarbonate. At least 19 genes encoding for CAs have been identified in the sea urchin genome, with one of these localized to the skeletogenic mesoderm (primary mesenchyme cells, PMCs). We investigated the effects of a specific inhibitor of CA, acetazolamide (AZ), on development of two sea urchin species with contrasting investment in skeleton production, Paracentrotus lividus and Heliocidaris tuberculata, to determine the role of CA on PMC differentiation, skeletogenesis and on non-skeletogenic mesodermal (NSM) cells. Embryos were cultured in the presence of AZ from the blastula stage prior to skeleton formation and development to the larval stage was monitored. At the dose of 8 mmol/L AZ, 98% and 90% of P. lividus and H. tuberculata embryos lacked skeleton, respectively. Nevertheless, an almost normal PMC differentiation was indicated by the expression of msp130, a PMC-specific marker. Strikingly, the AZ-treated embryos also lacked the echinochrome pigment produced by the pigment cells, a subpopulation of NSM cells with immune activities within the larva. Conversely, all ectoderm and endoderm derivatives and other subpopulations of mesoderm developed normally. The inhibitory effects of AZ were completely reversed after removal of the inhibitor from the medium. Our data, together with new information concerning the involvement of CA on skeleton formation, provide evidence for the first time of a possible role of the CAs in larval immune pigment cells.

  10. Carbonic anhydrase IX, a hypoxia-induced catalytic component of the pH regulating machinery in tumors.

    PubMed

    Sedlakova, Olga; Svastova, Eliska; Takacova, Martina; Kopacek, Juraj; Pastorek, Jaromir; Pastorekova, Silvia

    2014-01-08

    Acidic tissue microenvironment contributes to tumor progression via multiple effects including the activation of angiogenic factors and proteases, reduced cell-cell adhesion, increased migration and invasion, etc. In addition, intratumoral acidosis can influence the uptake of anticancer drugs and modulate the response of tumors to conventional therapy. Acidification of the tumor microenvironment often develops due to hypoxia-triggered oncogenic metabolism, which leads to the extensive production of lactate, protons, and carbon dioxide. In order to avoid intracellular accumulation of the acidic metabolic products, which is incompatible with the survival and proliferation, tumor cells activate molecular machinery that regulates pH by driving transmembrane inside-out and outside-in ion fluxes. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a hypoxia-induced catalytic component of the bicarbonate import arm of this machinery. Through its catalytic activity, CA IX directly participates in many acidosis-induced features of tumor phenotype as demonstrated by manipulating its expression and/or by in vitro mutagenesis. CA IX can function as a survival factor protecting tumor cells from hypoxia and acidosis, as a pro-migratory factor facilitating cell movement and invasion, as a signaling molecule transducing extracellular signals to intracellular pathways (including major signaling and metabolic cascades) and converting intracellular signals to extracellular effects on adhesion, proteolysis, and other processes. These functional implications of CA IX in cancer are supported by numerous clinical studies demonstrating the association of CA IX with various clinical correlates and markers of aggressive tumor behavior. Although our understanding of the many faces of CA IX is still incomplete, existing knowledge supports the view that CA IX is a biologically and clinically relevant molecule, exploitable in anticancer strategies aimed at targeting adaptive responses to hypoxia and/or acidosis.

  11. Biochemical characterization of the native α-carbonic anhydrase purified from the mantle of the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Perfetto, Rosa; Del Prete, Sonia; Vullo, Daniela; Sansone, Giovanni; Barone, Carmela; Rossi, Mosè; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

    2017-12-01

    A α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) has been purified and characterized biochemically from the mollusk Mytilus galloprovincialis. As in most mollusks, this α-CA is involved in the biomineralization processes leading to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the mussel shell. The new enzyme had a molecular weight of 50 kDa, which is roughly two times higher than that of a monomeric α-class enzyme. Thus, Mytilus galloprovincialis α-CA is either a dimer, or similar to the Tridacna gigas CA described earlier, may have two different CA domains in its polypeptide chain. The Mytilus galloprovincialis α-CA sequence contained the three His residues acting as zinc ligands and the gate-keeper residues present in all α-CAs (Glu106-Thr199), but had a Lys in position 64 and not a His as proton shuttling residue, being thus similar to the human isoform hCA III. This probably explains the relatively low catalytic activity of Mytilus galloprovincialis α-CA, with the following kinetic parameters for the CO2 hydration reaction: kcat = 4.1 × 10(5) s(-1) and kcat/Km of 3.6 × 10(7) M(-1) × s(-1). The enzyme activity was poorly inhibited by the sulfonamide acetazolamide, with a KI of 380 nM. This study is one of the few describing in detail the biochemical characterization of a molluskan CA and may be useful for understanding in detail the phylogeny of these enzymes, their role in biocalcification processes and their potential use in the biomimetic capture of the CO2.

  12. Biomimetic CO2 capture using a highly thermostable bacterial α-carbonic anhydrase immobilized on a polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Migliardini, Fortunato; De Luca, Viviana; Carginale, Vincenzo; Rossi, Mosè; Corbo, Pasquale; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

    2014-02-01

    The biomimetic approach represents an interesting strategy for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, offering advantages over other methods, due to its specificity for CO2 and its eco-compatibility, as it allows concentration of CO2 from other gases, and its conversion to water soluble ions. This approach uses microorganisms capable of fixing CO2 through metabolic pathways or via the use of an enzyme, such as carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1). Recently, our group cloned and purified a novel bacterial α-CA, named SspCA, from the thermophilic bacteria, Sulfurihydrogenibium yellowstonense YO3AOP1 living in hot springs at temperatures of up to 110 °C. This enzyme showed an exceptional thermal stability, retaining its high catalytic activity for the CO2 hydration reaction even after being heated at 70 °C for several hours. In the present paper, the SspCA was immobilized within a polyurethane (PU) foam. The immobilized enzyme was found to be catalytically active and showed a long-term stability. A bioreactor containing the "PU-immobilized enzyme" (PU-SspCA) as shredded foam was used for experimental tests aimed to verify the CO2 capture capability in conditions close to those of a power plant application. In this bioreactor, a gas phase, containing CO2, was put into contact with a liquid phase under conditions, where CO2 contained in the gas phase was absorbed and efficiently converted into bicarbonate by the extremo-α-CA.

  13. Carbonic anhydrase 2-like and Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase α gene expression in medaka (Oryzias latipes) under carbonate alkalinity stress.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zongli; Lai, Qifang; Hao, Zhuoran; Chen, Ling; Lin, Tingting; Zhou, Kai; Wang, Hui

    2015-12-01

    High carbonate alkalinity is one of the major stress factors for living organisms in saline-alkaline water areas. Acute and chronic effects of carbonate alkalinity on expression of two genes, carbonic anhydrase 2-like (CA2-like) and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α subunit (NKA-α) mRNA in medaka (Oryzias latipes) were evaluated to better understand the responses important for coping with a carbonate alkalinity stress. In the acute exposure experiment, the expression of CA2-like and NKA-α mRNA in the gill and kidney of medaka were examined from 0 h to 7 days exposed to 30.4 mM carbonate alkalinity water. Exposure to high carbonate alkalinity resulted in a transitory alkalosis, followed by a transient increase in gill and kidney CA2-like and NKA-α mRNA expression. In the chronic exposure experiment, the expression of these two genes was examined in the gill and kidney at 50 days post-exposure to six different carbonate alkalinity concentrations ranging from 1.5 to 30.4 mM. Gill and kidney CA2-like mRNA levels in 30.4 mM were approximately 10 and 30 times higher than that of the control (1.5 mM), respectively. Less differences were found in NKA-α expression in the 50-days exposure. The results indicate that when transferred to high carbonate alkalinity water, a transitory alkalosis may occur in medaka, followed by compensatory acid-base and ion regulatory responses. Thus, CA2-like and NKA-α are at least two of the important factors that contribute to the regulation of alkalinity stress.

  14. Analysis of a shortened form of human carbonic anhydrase VII expressed in vitro compared to the full-length enzyme.

    PubMed

    Bootorabi, Fatemeh; Jänis, Janne; Smith, Elona; Waheed, Abdul; Kukkurainen, Sampo; Hytönen, Vesa; Valjakka, Jarkko; Supuran, Claudiu T; Vullo, Daniela; Sly, William S; Parkkila, Seppo

    2010-08-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes are expressed in all organs of the mammalian body where they participate in important physiological functions. CA VII is a cytosolic isozyme which may be expressed as two forms according to the recent GenBank data. We designed a present study to express and characterize the human CA VII forms: full-length CA VII and short form (predicted to lack 56 residues from the N-terminus). Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis revealed mRNAs for both CA VII forms in the human brain. These different forms were expressed as recombinant proteins to investigate their biochemical properties. The full-length CA VII was used to raise a polyclonal antiserum in a rabbit, and the antiserum was then employed in western blot analyses and immunohistochemistry of mouse tissues. Data from mass spectrometry and comparative modeling showed that CA VII protein contains a single intramolecular disulfide bridge (Cys-56 to Cys-180) which is lacking in the short form. The computer model suggested distinctly different folding for the different forms. The more exposed structure and the absence of the disulfide bridge in the short form could make this protein more susceptible to degradation. In fact, this was realized in several protein purification efforts in which the short form readily degraded during the experimental procedures. From these results, we conclude that the full-length CA VII is a predominant active form in human brain and also in other tissues. In addition to the brain, CA VII is expressed in several other organs including the stomach, duodenum, colon, liver, and skeletal muscle. The distribution pattern suggests multiple functions for CA VII in different organs.

  15. T tubules and surface membranes provide equally effective pathways of carbonic anhydrase-facilitated lactic acid transport in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hallerdei, Janine; Scheibe, Renate J; Parkkila, Seppo; Waheed, Abdul; Sly, William S; Gros, Gerolf; Wetzel, Petra; Endeward, Volker

    2010-12-13

    We have studied lactic acid transport in the fast mouse extensor digitorum longus muscles (EDL) by intracellular and cell surface pH microelectrodes. The role of membrane-bound carbonic anhydrases (CA) of EDL in lactic acid transport was investigated by measuring lactate flux in muscles from wildtype, CAIV-, CAIX- and CAXIV-single ko, CAIV-CAXIV double ko and CAIV-CAIX-CAXIV-triple ko mice. This was complemented by immunocytochemical studies of the subcellular localization of CAIV, CAIX and CAXIV in mouse EDL. We find that CAXIV and CAIX single ko EDL exhibit markedly but not maximally reduced lactate fluxes, whereas triple ko and double ko EDL show maximal or near-maximal inhibition of CA-dependent lactate flux. Interpretation of the flux measurements in the light of the immunocytochemical results leads to the following conclusions. CAXIV, which is homogeneously distributed across the surface membrane of EDL fibers, facilitates lactic acid transport across this membrane. CAIX, which is associated only with T tubular membranes, facilitates lactic acid transport across the T tubule membrane. The removal of lactic acid from the lumen of T tubuli towards the interstitial space involves a CO2-HCO3- diffusional shuttle that is maintained cooperatively by CAIX within the T tubule and, besides CAXIV, by the CAIV, which is strategically located at the opening of the T tubules. The data suggest that about half the CA-dependent muscular lactate flux occurs across the surface membrane, while the other half occurs across the membranes of the T tubuli.

  16. 5-Aryl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acids as selective inhibitors of human carbonic anhydrases IX and XII.

    PubMed

    Cvijetić, Ilija N; Tanç, Muhammet; Juranić, Ivan O; Verbić, Tatjana Ž; Supuran, Claudiu T; Drakulić, Branko J

    2015-08-01

    Inhibitory activity of a congeneric set of 23 phenyl-substituted 5-phenyl-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acids toward human carbonic anhydrase (hCA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms I, II, IX and XII was evaluated by a stopped-flow CO2 hydrase assay. These compounds exerted a clear, selective inhibition of hCA IX and XII over hCAI and II, with Ki in two to one digit micromolar concentrations (4-50 μM). Derivatives bearing bulkier substituents in para-position of the phenyl ring inhibited hCA XII at one-digit micromolar concentrations, while derivatives having alkyl substituents in both ortho- and meta-positions inhibited hCA IX with Kis ranging between 5 and 25 μM. Results of docking experiments offered a rational explanation on the selectivity of these compounds toward CA IX and XII, as well as on the substitution patterns leading to best CA IX or CA XII inhibitors. By examining the active sites of these four isoforms with GRID generated molecular-interaction fields, striking differences between hCA XII and the other three isoforms were observed. The field of hydrophobic probe (DRY) appeared significantly different in CA XII active site, comparing to other three isoforms studied. To the best of our knowledge such an observation was not reported in literature so far. Considering the selectivity of these carboxylates towards membrane-associated over cytosolic CA isoforms, the title compounds could be useful for the development of isoform-specific non-sulfonamide CA inhibitors.

  17. The Relationship between Serum Carbonic Anhydrase I-II Autoantibody Levels and Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Türk, Adem; Mollamehmetoğlu, Süleyman; Alver, Ahmet; Menteşe, Ahmet; Nuhoğlu, İrfan; Erem, Cihangir; İmamoğlu, Halil İbrahim

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between serum carbonic anhydrase I-II (CA-I and II) autoantibody levels and diabetic retinopathy (DRP) in cases with type 1 diabetes. Materials and Methods: A total of 37 type-1 diabetic patients, 17 with DRP (group 1) and 20 without (group 2), and 38 healthy control subjects (group 3) were included. CA-I and CA-II autoantibody levels were measured in serum samples obtained from each of the three groups and compared statistically. Additionally, the correlation between CA-I and CA-II autoantibody levels and the presence of diabetic macular edema was examined. Results: Mean measured CA-I autoantibody levels were 0.145±0.072, 0.117±0.047, and 0.138±0.061 ABSU in group 1, group 2, and group 3, respectively (p=0.327). The average CA-II autoantibody levels achieved in the same groups were 0.253±0.174, 0.155±0.137, and 0.131±0.085 ABSU, respectively (p=0.005). No significant difference was obtained between the subgroups of group 1, with macular edema (n=8) and without (n=9), in terms of both CA-I and CA-II autoantibody levels (p=0.501, p=0.178, respectively). Conclusion: A significant correlation was observed between the development of DRP and serum CA-II autoantibody levels in type 1 diabetic cases. However, there was no correlation between the autoantibody levels and the presence of diabetic macular edema in cases with DRP.

  18. C4 photosynthesis evolution in the transitional grass Neurachne: loss of a carbonic anhydrase chloroplast transit peptide.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Harmony; Saladié, Montserrat; Rolland, Vivien; Sharwood, Robert E; Macfarlane, Terry; Ludwig, Martha

    2017-02-02

    Neurachne is the only known grass lineage containing closely related C3, C3-C4 intermediate and C4 species, making it an ideal taxon with which to study the evolution of C4 photosynthesis in the grasses. To begin dissecting the molecular changes that led to the evolution of C4 photosynthesis in this group, the cDNAs encoding four distinct β-carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoforms were characterized from leaf tissue of Neurachne munroi (C4), N. minor (C3-C4), and N. alopecuroidea (C3). Two genes (CA1 and CA2) each encode two different isoforms: CA1a, CA1b, CA2a and CA2b. Transcript analyses found CA1 mRNAs were significantly more abundant than transcripts from the CA2 gene in the leaves of each species examined, comprising approximately 99% of all β-CA transcripts measured. Localization experiments using green fluorescent protein fusion constructs showed that while CA1b is a cytosolic CA in all three species, the CA1a proteins are differentially localized. The N. alopecuroidea and N. minor CA1a isoforms were imported into chloroplasts of Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells whereas N. munroi CA1a localized to the cytosol. Sequence analysis indicated an 11 amino acid deletion in the N-terminus of N. munroi CA1a relative to the C3 and C3-C4 proteins, suggesting chloroplast targeting of CA1a is the ancestral state, and that loss of a functional chloroplast transit peptide in N. munroi CA1a is associated with the evolution of C4 photosynthesis in Neurachne. Remarkably, this mechanism is homoplastic with evolution of the C4-associated CA in the dicotyledonous Flaveria, although the actual mutations in the two lineages differ.

  19. Non-invasive Detection of Breast Cancer Lymph Node Metastasis using Carbonic Anhydrases IX and XII Targeted Imaging Probes

    PubMed Central

    Tafreshi, Narges K.; Bui, Marilyn M.; Bishop, Kellsey; Lloyd, Mark C.; Enkemann, Steven A.; Lopez, Alexis S.; Abrahams, Dominique; Carter, Bradford W.; Vagner, Josef; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Gillies, Robert J.; Morse, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop targeted molecular imaging probes for the non-invasive detection of breast cancer lymph node metastasis. Methods Six cell surface or secreted markers were identified by expression profiling and from the literature as being highly expressed in breast cancer lymph node metastases. Two of these markers were cell surface carbonic anhydrase isozymes (CAIX and/or CAXII) and were validated for protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) of patient tissue samples on a breast cancer tissue microarray containing 47 normal breast tissue samples, 42 ductal carcinoma in situ, 43 invasive ductal carcinomas without metastasis, 46 invasive ductal carcinomas with metastasis and 49 lymph node macrometastases of breast carcinoma. Targeted probes were developed by conjugation of CAIX and CAXII specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to a near-infrared fluorescent dye. Results Together, these two markers were expressed in 100% of the lymph node metastases surveyed. Selectivity of the imaging probes were confirmed by intravenous injection into nude mice bearing mammary fat pad tumors of marker expressing cells, and non-expressing cells or by pre-injection of unlabeled antibody. Imaging of LN metastases showed that peritumorally-injected probes detected nodes harboring metastatic tumor cells. As few as 1,000 cells were detected, as determined by implanting, under ultrasound guidance, a range in number of CAIX and CAXII expressing cells into the axillary LNs. Conclusion These imaging probes have potential for non-invasive staging of breast cancer in the clinic and elimination of unneeded surgery, which is costly and associated with morbidities. PMID:22016510

  20. Carbonic Anhydrase I, II, and VI, Blood Plasma, Erythrocyte and Saliva Zinc and Copper Increase After Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Henkin, Robert I.; Potolicchio, Samuel J.; Levy, Lucien M.; Moharram, Ramy; Velicu, Irina; Martin, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used to treat symptoms from many disorders; biochemical changes occurred with this treatment. Preliminary studies with rTMS in patients with taste and smell dysfunction improved sensory function and increased salivary carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI and erythrocyte CA I, II. To obtain more information about these changes after rTMS, we measured changes in several CA enzymes, proteins, and trace metals in their blood plasma, erythrocytes, and saliva. Methods Ninety-three patients with taste and smell dysfunction were studied before and after rTMS in an open clinical trial. Before and after rTMS, we measured erythrocyte CA I, II and salivary CA VI, zinc and copper in parotid saliva, blood plasma, and erythrocytes, and appearance of novel salivary proteins by using mass spectrometry. Results After rTMS, CA I, II and CA VI activity and zinc and copper in saliva, plasma, and erythrocytes increased with significant sensory benefit. Novel salivary proteins were induced at an m/z value of 21.5K with a repetitive pattern at intervals of 5K m/z. Conclusions rTMS induced biochemical changes in specific enzymatic activities, trace metal concentrations, and induction of novel salivary proteins, with sensory improvement in patients with taste and smell dysfunction. Because patients with several neurologic disorders exhibit taste and smell dysfunction, including Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and multiple sclerosis, and because rTMS improved their clinical symptoms, the biochemical changes we observed may be relevant not only in our patients with taste and smell dysfunction but also in patients with neurologic disorders with these sensory abnormalities. PMID:20090508

  1. The impact of heavy metals on the activity of carbonic anhydrase from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) kidney.

    PubMed

    Söyüt, Hakan; Beydemir, Sükrü

    2012-05-01

    Many environmental and health problems have become a consequence of contamination of soil and water by toxic heavy metals and organic pollutants in the present age of technology. Heavy metals play vital roles in enzyme activities and other metabolic events with their bioaccumulative and nonbiodegradable properties among aquatic pollutants. Metal toxicity causes irregular metallothioneins protein synthesis, renal damage, and disruption of bone structure in humans and wildlife. In this study, we investigated in vitro effects of some metals on chemical-targeted carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme from rainbow trout kidney. The enzyme was purified with a specific activity of 17,285 EU × mg(-1) and 31.7% yield and approximately 1800-fold using simple affinity purification method. Molecular weights of the subunit and native enzyme were estimated as 28.7 kDa and 26.9 kDa via sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Sephadex-G 200 column, respectively. Other kinetic properties of the enzyme were determined. Apparent K(m) , V (max) and k (cat) values were 0.40 mM, 0.097 µmol min(-1) and 15.2 s(-1) for p-nitrophenylacetate substrate, respectively. Inhibitory effects of cobalt, zinc, copper, cadmium and silver on CA activity were determined using the esterase method under in vitro conditions. IC(50) and K(i) values were calculated for metals. K(i) values for Co(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Ag(+) were 0.035, 1.2, 34.8, 103 and 257 from Lineweaver-Burk graphs, respectively. Consequently, in vitro inhibition rank order was determined as Co(2+) > Zn(2+) > Cu(2+) > Cd(2+) > Ag(+). The potential inhibitor for CA was found as Co(2+) from these results.

  2. High Stromal Carbonic Anhydrase IX Expression Is Associated With Decreased Survival in p16-Negative Head-and-Neck Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Brockton, Nigel; Dort, Joseph; Lau, Harold; Hao, Desiree; Brar, Sony; Klimowicz, Alexander; Petrillo, Stephanie; Diaz, Roman; Doll, Corinne; Magliocco, Anthony

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide. Alcohol use and tobacco use are the most established risk factors; however, human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is a major risk factor for a subset of HNSCCs. Although HPV-positive tumors typically present at a more advanced stage at diagnosis, they are associated with a better prognosis. Tumor hypoxia confers poor prognosis and treatment failure, but direct tumor oxygen measurement is challenging. Endogenous markers of hypoxia (EMHs) have been proposed but have not replicated the prognostic utility of direct oxygen measurement. The expression of endogenous markers of hypoxia may be influenced by oxygen-independent factors, such as the HPV status of the tumor. Methods and Materials: Consecutive cases of locally advanced HNSCC, treated with a uniform regimen of combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy, were identified. Tissue microarrays were assembled from triplicate 0.6-mm cores of archived tumor tissue. HPV status was inferred from semiquantitative p16 immunostaining and directly measured by use of HPV-specific chromogenic in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. Automated quantitative fluorescent immunohistochemistry was conducted to measure epithelial and stromal expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). Results: High stromal CAIX expression was associated with significantly reduced overall survival (p = 0.03) in patients with p16-negative tumors. Conclusions: This is the first study to use quantitative immunohistochemistry to examine endogenous markers of hypoxia stratified by tumor p16/HPV status. Assessment of CAIX expression in p16-negative HNSCC could identify patients with the least favorable prognosis and inform therapeutic strategies.

  3. Intracellular carbonic anhydrase activity sensitizes cancer cell pH signaling to dynamic changes in CO2 partial pressure.

    PubMed

    Hulikova, Alzbeta; Aveyard, Nicholas; Harris, Adrian L; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D; Swietach, Pawel

    2014-09-12

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes catalyze the chemical equilibration among CO2, HCO3(-) and H(+). Intracellular CA (CAi) isoforms are present in certain types of cancer, and growing evidence suggests that low levels correlate with disease severity. However, their physiological role remains unclear. Cancer cell CAi activity, measured as cytoplasmic CO2 hydration rate (kf), ranged from high in colorectal HCT116 (∼2 s(-1)), bladder RT112 and colorectal HT29, moderate in fibrosarcoma HT1080 to negligible (i.e. spontaneous kf = 0.18 s(-1)) in cervical HeLa and breast MDA-MB-468 cells. CAi activity in cells correlated with CAII immunoreactivity and enzymatic activity in membrane-free lysates, suggesting that soluble CAII is an important intracellular isoform. CAi catalysis was not obligatory for supporting acid extrusion by H(+) efflux or HCO3(-) influx, nor for maintaining intracellular pH (pHi) uniformity. However, in the absence of CAi activity, acid loading from a highly alkaline pHi was rate-limited by HCO3(-) supply from spontaneous CO2 hydration. In solid tumors, time-dependence of blood flow can result in fluctuations of CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) that disturb cytoplasmic CO2-HCO3(-)-H(+) equilibrium. In cancer cells with high CAi activity, extracellular pCO2 fluctuations evoked faster and larger pHi oscillations. Functionally, these resulted in larger pH-dependent intracellular [Ca(2+)] oscillations and stronger inhibition of the mTORC1 pathway reported by S6 kinase phosphorylation. In contrast, the pHi of cells with low CAi activity was less responsive to pCO2 fluctuations. Such low pass filtering would "buffer" cancer cell pHi from non-steady-state extracellular pCO2. Thus, CAi activity determines the coupling between pCO2 (a function of tumor perfusion) and pHi (a potent modulator of cancer cell physiology).

  4. Oral colonization by Streptococcus mutans and caries development is reduced upon deletion of carbonic anhydrase VI expression in saliva.

    PubMed

    Culp, David J; Robinson, Bently; Parkkila, Seppo; Pan, Pei-Wen; Cash, Melanie N; Truong, Helen N; Hussey, Thomas W; Gullett, Sarah L

    2011-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrase VI (CA VI), encoded by type A transcripts of the gene Car6, is a secretory product of salivary glands and is found in the enamel pellicle. Because higher caries prevalence is associated with lower salivary concentrations of CA VI in humans, we tested whether CA VI protects enamel surfaces from caries induced by Streptococcus mutans, using Car6(-/-) mice, in which salivary CA VI expression is absent. We detected aberrant Car6 type A transcripts in Car6(-/-) mice, likely targets for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Expression of the intracellular stress-induced isoform of CA VI encoded by type B transcripts was restricted to parotid and submandibular glands of wild type mice. The salivary function of Car6(-/-) mice was normal as assessed by the histology and protein/glycoprotein profiles of glands, salivary flow rates and protein/glycoprotein compositions of saliva. Surprisingly, total smooth surface caries and sulcal caries in Car6(-/-) mice were more than 6-fold and 2-fold lower than in wild type mice after infection with S. mutans strain UA159. Recoveries of S. mutans and total microbiota from molars were also lower in Car6(-/-) mice. To explore possible mechanisms for increased caries susceptibility, we found no differences in S. mutans adherence to salivary pellicles, in vitro. Interestingly, higher levels of Lactobacillus murinus and an unidentified Streptococcus species were cultivated from the oral microbiota of Car6(-/-) mice. Collective results suggest salivary CA VI may promote caries by modulating the oral microbiota to favor S. mutans colonization and/or by the enzymatic production of acid within plaque.

  5. Carbonic anhydrase III and four-and-a-half LIM protein 1 are preferentially oxidized with muscle unloading.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiao-nan; Ferrington, Deborah A; Thompson, LaDora V

    2008-11-01

    The identities of proteins that show disuse-related changes in the content of oxidative modification are unknown. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the global accumulation of oxidized proteins is greater in aged animals with muscle disuse. The purposes of this study are 1) to identify the exact proteins that show disuse-related changes in oxidation levels and 2) to test the hypothesis that the global accumulation of oxidized proteins with muscle disuse would be greater in aged animals. Adult and old rats were randomized into four groups: weight bearing and 3, 7, or 14 days of hindlimb unloading. Soleus muscles were harvested to investigate the protein oxidation with unloading. Slot blot, SDS-PAGE, and Western blot analyses were used to detect the accumulation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenol (HNE)- and nitrotyrosine (NT)-modified proteins. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and tandem mass spectroscopy were used to identify modified proteins. We found that global HNE- and NT-modified proteins accumulated significantly with aging but not with muscle unloading. Two HNE and NT target proteins, four-and-a-half LIM protein 1 (FHL1) and carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII), showed changes in the oxidation levels with muscle unloading. The changes in the oxidation levels happened to adult rats but not old rats. However, old rats had higher baseline levels of HNE-modified FHL1. In summary, the data suggest that the muscle unloading-related changes of protein oxidation are more significant in specific proteins and that the changes are age related.

  6. Carbonic anhydrase II binds to and increases the activity of the epithelial sodium-proton exchanger, NHE3

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Devishree; Liu, Lei; Wiebe, Shane A.; Casey, Joseph R.; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Alexander, R. Todd

    2016-01-01

    Two-thirds of sodium filtered by the renal glomerulus is reabsorbed from the proximal tubule via a sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3)-dependent mechanism. Since sodium and bicarbonate reabsorption are coupled, we postulated that the molecules involved in their reabsorption [NHE3 and carbonic anhydrase II (CAII)] might physically and functionally interact. Consistent with this, CAII and NHE3 were closely associated in a renal proximal tubular cell culture model as revealed by a proximity ligation assay. Direct physical interaction was confirmed in solid-phase binding assays with immobilized CAII and C-terminal NHE3 glutathione-S-transferase fusion constructs. To assess the effect of CAII on NHE3 function, we expressed NHE3 in a proximal tubule cell line and measured NHE3 activity as the rate of intracellular pH recovery, following an acid load. NHE3-expressing cells had a significantly greater rate of intracellular pH recovery than controls. Inhibition of endogenous CAII activity with acetazolamide significantly decreased NHE3 activity, indicating that CAII activates NHE3. To ascertain whether CAII binding per se activates NHE3, we expressed NHE3 with wild-type CAII, a catalytically inactive CAII mutant (CAII-V143Y), or a mutant unable to bind other transporters (CAII-HEX). NHE3 activity increased upon wild-type CAII coexpression, but not in the presence of the CAII V143Y or HEX mutant. Together these studies support an association between CAII and NHE3 that alters the transporter’s activity. PMID:26041446

  7. Some Anti-Inflammatory Agents Inhibit Esterase Activities of Human Carbonic Anhydrase Isoforms I and II: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Alım, Zuhal; Kılınç, Namık; İşgör, Mehmet M; Şengül, Bülent; Beydemir, Şükrü

    2015-10-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are known as a drug-target enzymes. The inhibitors of the enzyme are important compounds for discovering new therapeutic agents and understanding in detail protein-drug interactions at the molecular level. For this purpose, the in vitro effects of some anti-inflammatory agents such as tenoxicam, fluorometholone acetate, and dexamethasone were investigated on esterase activity of human erythrocyte CA-I and CA-II in this study. hCA-I and hCA-II were purified by affinity chromatography with a yield of 47.25% and 87%, and a specific activity of 642.8 EU/mg proteins and 5576.9 EU/mg proteins, respectively. SDS-PAGE was performed to determine the purity of the enzymes. Inhibitory effects of the drugs on hCA-I and hCA-II were determined by spectrophotometric method. IC50 values for hCA-I and hCA-II were 0.198, 2.18, 11.7, 0.11, 17.5 and 14 μm using tenoxicam, fluorometholone acetate, and dexamethasone, respectively. For fluorometholone acetate and dexamethasone, Ki values from Lineweaver-Burk plots were obtained as 1.044 and 21.2 μm (noncompetitive) for hCA-I and 9.98 and 8.66 μm (non-competitive) for hCA-II. In conclusion, tenoxicam, fluorometholone acetate, and dexamethasone showed potent inhibitory effects on esterase activity of hCA-I and hCA-II isozymes under in vitro conditions.

  8. Screening of novel chemical compounds as possible inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase and photosynthetic activity of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Karacan, Mehmet Sayım; Zharmukhamedov, Sergei K; Mamaş, Serhat; Kupriyanova, Elena V; Shitov, Alexandr V; Klimov, Vyacheslav V; Özbek, Neslihan; Özmen, Ümmühan; Gündüzalp, Ayla; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Karacan, Nurcan; Friedrich, Thomas; Los, Dmitry A; Carpentier, Robert; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2014-08-01

    Thirty novel chemical compounds were designed and synthesized expecting that they would be possible inhibitors. From this number eleven were organic bases, twenty-four were their organic derivatives and fourteen were metal complexes. Screening of these chemicals by their action on photosynthetic electron transfer (PET) and carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity (CAA) of photosystem II (PSII), α-CA, as well as β-CA was done. Several groups were revealed among them. Some of them are capable to suppress either one, two, three, or even all of the measured activities. As example, one of the Cu(II)-phenyl sulfonylhydrazone complexes (compound 25) suppresses CAA of α-CA by 88%, CAA of β-CA by 100% inhibition; CAA of PSII by 100% and the PSII photosynthetic activity by 66.2%. The Schiff base compounds (12, 15) and Cu(II)-phenyl sulfonylhydrazone complexes (25, 26) inhibited the CAA and PET of PSII significantly. The obtained data indicate that the PSII donor side is a target of the inhibitory action of these agents. Some physico- or electrochemical properties such as diffusion coefficient, number of transferred electrons, peak potential and heterogeneous standard rate constants of the compounds were determined in nonaqueous media. pKa values were also determined in nonaqueous and aqueous media. Availability in the studied group of novel chemical agents possessing different inhibitory activity allow in future to isolate the "active part" in the structure of the inhibitors responsible for different inhibitory mechanisms, as well as to determine the influence of side substituters on its inhibitory efficiency.

  9. Novel use of chemical shift in NMR as molecular descriptor: a first report on modeling carbonic anhydrase inhibitory activity and related parameters.

    PubMed

    Khadikar, Padmakar V; Sharma, Vimukta; Karmarkar, Sneha; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2005-02-15

    A novel use of NMR chemical shift of the SO(2)NH(2) protons (in dioxane as solvent) as a molecular descriptor is described for modeling the inhibition constant for benzene sulfonamides against the zinc enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1). The methodology is extended to model diuretic activity and lipophilicity of benzene sulfonamide derivatives. The regression analysis of the data has shown that the NMR chemical shift is incapable of modeling lipophilicity. However, it is quite useful for modeling the diuretic activity of these derivatives. The results are compared with those obtained using distance-based topological indices: Wiener (W)-, Szeged (Sz)-, and PI (Padmakar-Ivan) indices.

  10. Kinetic and X-ray crystallographic investigations of substituted 2-thio-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyrimidine-benzenesulfonamides acting as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Scozzafava, Andrea; De Simone, Giuseppina; Monti, Simona Maria; Alterio, Vincenzo; Carta, Fabrizio

    2016-08-15

    Herein we report an in vitro kinetic evaluation against the most relevant human carbonic anhydrase (hCA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms (I, II, IX and XII) of a small series of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27) inhibitors. All compounds contain a primary sulfonamide zinc-binding group (ZBG) substituted with the 2-thio-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyrimidine scaffold. By means of X-ray crystallographic experiments we explored the ligand-enzyme binding modes, thus highlighting the contribution of the 2-thio-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyrimidine moiety to the stabilization of the complex.

  11. Neutron structure of human carbonic anhydrase II: A hydrogen bonded water network switch is observed between pH 7.8 and 10.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Zoe; Langan, Paul; Mustyakimov, Marat; Kovalevsky, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    The neutron structure of wild type human carbonic anhydrase II at pH 7.8 has been determined to 2.0 resolution. Detailed analysis and comparison to the previous determined structure at pH 10.0 shows important differences in protonation of key catalytic residues in the active site as well as a rearrangement of the hydrogen bonded water network. For the first time, a completed hydrogen bonded network stretching from the Zn-bound solvent to the proton shuttling residue His64 has been directed observed.

  12. Neutron structure of human carbonic anhydrase II: a hydrogen-bonded water network "switch" is observed between pH 7.8 and 10.0.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Zoë; Kovalevsky, Andrey Y; Mustyakimov, Marat; Silverman, David N; McKenna, Robert; Langan, Paul

    2011-11-08

    The neutron structure of wild-type human carbonic anhydrase II at pH 7.8 has been determined to 2.0 Å resolution. Detailed analysis and comparison to the previously determined structure at pH 10.0 show important differences in the protonation of key catalytic residues in the active site as well as a rearrangement of the H-bonded water network. For the first time, a completed H-bonded network stretching from the Zn-bound solvent to the proton shuttling residue, His64, has been directly observed.

  13. Molecular dynamics study of human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with Zn(2+) and acetazolamide on the basis of all-atom force field simulations.

    PubMed

    Wambo, Thierry O; Chen, Liao Y; McHardy, Stanton F; Tsin, Andrew T

    2016-01-01

    Human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII) represents an ultimate example of the perfectly efficient metalloenzymes, which is capable of catalyzing the hydration of carbon dioxide with a rate approaching the diffusion controlled limit. Extensive experimental studies of this physiologically important metalloprotein have been done to elucidate the fundamentals of its enzymatic actions: what residues anchor the Zn(2+) (or another divalent cation) at the bottom of the binding pocket; how the relevant residues work concertedly with the divalent cation in the reversible conversions between CO2 and HCO3(-); what are the protonation states of the relevant residues and acetazolamide, an inhibitor complexed with hCAII, etc. In this article, we present a detailed computational study on the basis of the all-atom CHARMM force field where Zn(2+) is represented with a simple model of divalent cation using the transferrable parameters available from the current literature. We compute the hydration free energy of Zn(2+), the characteristics of hCAII-Zn(2+) complexation, and the absolute free energy of binding acetazolamide to the hCAII-Zn(2+) complex. In each of these three problems, our computed results agree with the experimental data within the known margin of error without making any case-by-case adjustments to the parameters. The quantitatively accurate insights we gain in this all-atom molecular dynamics study should be helpful in the search and design of more specific inhibitors of this and other carbonic anhydrases.

  14. Autosomal recessive hyponatremia due to isolated salt wasting in sweat associated with a mutation in the active site of Carbonic Anhydrase 12.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Emad; Leventhal, Neta; Parvari, Galit; Hanukoglu, Aaron; Hanukoglu, Israel; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Feinstein, Yael; Weinbrand, Jenny; Jacoby, Harel; Manor, Esther; Nagar, Tal; Beck, John C; Sheffield, Val C; Hershkovitz, Eli; Parvari, Ruti

    2011-04-01

    Genetic disorders of excessive salt loss from sweat glands have been observed in pseudohypoaldosteronism type I (PHA) and cystic fibrosis that result from mutations in genes encoding epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) subunits and the transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), respectively. We identified a novel autosomal recessive form of isolated salt wasting in sweat, which leads to severe infantile hyponatremic dehydration. Three affected individuals from a small Bedouin clan presented with failure to thrive, hyponatremic dehydration and hyperkalemia with isolated sweat salt wasting. Using positional cloning, we identified the association of a Glu143Lys mutation in carbonic anhydrase 12 (CA12) with the disease. Carbonic anhydrase is a zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to form a bicarbonate anion and a proton. Glu143 in CA12 is essential for zinc coordination in this metalloenzyme and lowering of the protein-metal affinity reduces its catalytic activity. This is the first presentation of an isolated loss of salt from sweat gland mimicking PHA, associated with a mutation in the CA12 gene not previously implicated in human disorders. Our data demonstrate the importance of bicarbonate anion and proton production on salt concentration in sweat and its significance for sodium homeostasis.

  15. X-ray structure of the first `extremo-α-carbonic anhydrase', a dimeric enzyme from the thermophilic bacterium Sulfurihydrogenibium yellowstonense YO3AOP1.

    PubMed

    Di Fiore, Anna; Capasso, Clemente; De Luca, Viviana; Monti, Simona Maria; Carginale, Vincenzo; Supuran, Claudiu T; Scozzafava, Andrea; Pedone, Carlo; Rossi, Mosè; De Simone, Giuseppina

    2013-06-01

    SspCA, a novel `extremo-α-carbonic anhydrase' isolated from the thermophilic bacterium Sulfurihydrogenibium yellowstonense YO3AOP1, is an efficient catalyst for the hydration of CO2 and presents exceptional thermostability. Indeed, SspCA retains a high catalytic activity even after being heated to 343-373 K for several hours. Here, the crystallographic structure of this α-carbonic anhydrase (α-CA) is reported and the factors responsible for its function at high temperature are elucidated. In particular, the study suggests that increased structural compactness, together with an increased number of charged residues on the protein surface and a greater number of ionic networks, seem to be the key factors involved in the higher thermostability of this enzyme with respect to its mesophilic homologues. These findings are of extreme importance, since they provide a structural basis for the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for thermal stability in the α-CA family for the first time. The data obtained offer a tool that can be exploited to engineer α-CAs in order to obtain enzymes with enhanced thermostability for use in the harsh conditions of the CO2 capture and sequestration processes.

  16. A High-Resolution Crystal Structure of a Psychrohalophilic α–Carbonic Anhydrase from Photobacterium profundum Reveals a Unique Dimer Interface

    PubMed Central

    Somalinga, Vijayakumar; Buhrman, Greg; Arun, Ashikha; Rose, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial α–carbonic anhydrases (α-CA) are zinc containing metalloenzymes that catalyze the rapid interconversion of CO2 to bicarbonate and a proton. We report the first crystal structure of a pyschrohalophilic α–CA from a deep-sea bacterium, Photobacterium profundum. Size exclusion chromatography of the purified P. profundum α–CA (PprCA) reveals that the protein is a heterogeneous mix of monomers and dimers. Furthermore, an “in-gel” carbonic anhydrase activity assay, also known as protonography, revealed two distinct bands corresponding to monomeric and dimeric forms of PprCA that are catalytically active. The crystal structure of PprCA was determined in its native form and reveals a highly conserved “knot-topology” that is characteristic of α–CA’s. Similar to other bacterial α–CA’s, PprCA also crystallized as a dimer. Furthermore, dimer interface analysis revealed the presence of a chloride ion (Cl-) in the interface which is unique to PprCA and has not been observed in any other α–CA’s characterized so far. Molecular dynamics simulation and chloride ion occupancy analysis shows 100% occupancy for the Cl- ion in the dimer interface. Zinc coordinating triple histidine residues, substrate binding hydrophobic patch residues, and the hydrophilic proton wire residues are highly conserved in PprCA and are identical to other well-studied α–CA’s. PMID:27936100

  17. Expression of carbonic anhydrase, cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) and V-H(+)-ATPase in the lancelet Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pallas, 1774).

    PubMed

    Pederzoli, Aurora; Mandrioli, Mauro; Mola, Lucrezia

    2014-04-01

    Sequencing of the amphioxus genome revealed that it contains a basic set of chordate genes involved in development and cell signaling. Despite the availability of genomic data, up till now no studies have been addressed on the comprehension of the amphioxus osmoregulation. Using primers designed on Branchiostoma floridae carbonic anhydrase (CA) II, cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) and V-H(+)-ATPase, a 100bp long region, containing the protein region recognized by the respective antibodies, has been amplified and sequenced in B. lanceolatum indicating the presence of hortologous V-ATPase, CFTR and carbonic anhydrase II genes in Branchiostoma lanceolatum. Immunohistochemical results showed that all three transporting proteins are expressed in almost 90% of epithelial cells of the skin in B. lanceolatum adults with a different degree of positivity in different regions of body wall and with a different localization in the cells. The comparison of results between young and adult lancelets showed that the distribution of these transporters is quite different. Indeed, in the young specimens the expression pattern of all tested molecules appears concentrated at the gut level, whereas in adult the gut loses its key role that is mostly supported by skin.

  18. A High-Resolution Crystal Structure of a Psychrohalophilic α–Carbonic Anhydrase from Photobacterium profundum Reveals a Unique Dimer Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Somalinga, Vijayakumar; Buhrman, Greg; Arun, Ashikha; Rose, Robert B.; Grunden, Amy M.; Hofmann, Andreas

    2016-12-09

    Bacterial α–carbonic anhydrases (α-CA) are zinc containing metalloenzymes that catalyze the rapid interconversion of CO2 to bicarbonate and a proton. We report the first crystal structure of a pyschrohalophilic α–CA from a deep-sea bacterium, Photobacterium profundum. Size exclusion chromatography of the purified P. profundum α–CA (PprCA) reveals that the protein is a heterogeneous mix of monomers and dimers. Furthermore, an “in-gel” carbonic anhydrase activity assay, also known as protonography, revealed two distinct bands corresponding to monomeric and dimeric forms of PprCA that are catalytically active. The crystal structure of PprCA was determined in its native form and reveals a highly conserved “knot-topology” that is characteristic of α–CA’s. Similar to other bacterial α–CA’s, PprCA also crystallized as a dimer. Furthermore, dimer interface analysis revealed the presence of a chloride ion (Cl-) in the interface which is unique to PprCA and has not been observed in any other α–CA’s characterized so far. Molecular dynamics simulation and chloride ion occupancy analysis shows 100% occupancy for the Cl- ion in the dimer interface. Zinc coordinating triple histidine residues, substrate binding hydrophobic patch residues, and the hydrophilic proton wire residues are highly conserved in PprCA and are identical to other well-studied α–CA’s.

  19. Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and carbonic anhydrase enzyme inhibitor effects of salicilaldehyde-N-methyl p-toluenesulfonylhydrazone and its Palladium(II), Cobalt(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alyar, Saliha; Adem, Şevki

    2014-10-01

    We report the synthesis of the ligand, salicilaldehyde-N-methyl p-toluenesulfonylhydrazone (salptsmh) derived from p-toluenesulfonicacid-1-methylhydrazide (ptsmh) and its Pd(II) and Co(II) metal complexes were synthesized for the first time. The structure of the ligand and their complexes were investigated using elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance and spectral (IR, NMR and LC-MS) measurements. Salptsmh has also been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. 1H and 13C shielding tensors for crystal structure were calculated with GIAO/DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) methods in CDCl3. The complexes were found to have general composition [ML2]. The results of elemental analysis showed 1:2 (metal/ligand) stoichiometry for all the complex. Magnetic and spectral data indicate a square planar geometry for Pd(II) complex and a distorted tetrahedral geometry for Co(II) complexes. The ligand and its metal chelates have been screened for their antimicrobial activities using the disk diffusion method against the selected Gram positive bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Gram negative bacteria: Eschericha coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia. The inhibition activities of these compounds on carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) and carbonic anhydrase I (CA I) have been investigated by comparing IC50 and Ki values and it has been found that Pd(II) complex have more enzyme inhibition efficiency than salptsmh and Co(II) complex.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro inhibition of metal complexes of pyrazole based sulfonamide on human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase isozymes I and II.

    PubMed

    Büyükkıdan, Nurgün; Büyükkıdan, Bülent; Bülbül, Metin; Kasımoğulları, Rahmi; Mert, Samet

    2017-12-01

    Sulfonamides represent an important class of biologically active compounds. A sulfonamide possessing carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitory properties obtained from a pyrazole based sulfonamide, ethyl 1-(3-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-3-((5-sulfamoyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)carbamoyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate (1), and its metal complexes with the Ni(II) for (2), Cu(II) for (3) and Zn(II) for (4) have been synthesized. The structures of metal complexes (2-4) were established on the basis of their elemental analysis, (1)H NMR, IR, UV-Vis and MS spectral data. The inhibition of two human carbonic anhydrase (hCA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoenzymes I and II, with 1 and synthesized complexes (2-4) and acetazolamide (AAZ) as a control compound was investigated in vitro by using the hydratase and esterase assays. The complexes 2, 3 and 4 showed inhibition constant in the range 0.1460-0.3930 µM for hCA-I and 0.0740-0.0980 µM for hCA-II, and they had effective more inhibitory activity on hCA-I and hCA-II than corresponding free ligand 1 and than AAZ.

  1. A Novel Stopped-Flow Assay for Quantitating Carbonic-Anhydrase Activity and Assessing Red-Blood-Cell Hemolysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Pan; Geyer, R. Ryan; Boron, Walter F.

    2017-01-01

    We report a novel carbonic-anhydrase (CA) assay and its use for quantitating red-blood-cell (RBC) lysis during stopped-flow (SF) experiments. We combine two saline solutions, one containing HEPES/pH 7.03 and the other, ~1% CO2/44 mM HCO3-/pH 8.41, to generate an out-of-equilibrium CO2/HCO3- solution containing ~0.5% CO2/22 HCO3-/pH ~7.25 (10°C) in the SF reaction cell. CA catalyzes relaxation of extracellular pH to ~7.50: HCO3- + H+ → CO2 + H2O. Proof-of-concept studies (no intact RBCs) show that the pH-relaxation rate constant (kΔpH)—measured via pyranine fluorescence—rises linearly with increases in [bovine CAII] or [murine-RBC lysate]. The y-intercept (no CA) was kΔpH = 0.0183 s−1. Combining increasing amounts of murine-RBC lysate with ostensibly intact RBCs (pre-SF hemolysis ≅0.4%)—fixing total [hemoglobin] at 2.5 μM in the reaction cell to simulate hemolysis from ostensibly 0 to 100%—causes kΔpH to increase linearly. This y-intercept (0% lysate/100% ostensibly intact RBCs) was kΔpH = 0.0820 s−1, and the maximal kΔpH (100% lysate/0% intact RBCs) was 1.304 s−1. Thus, mean percent hemolysis in the reaction cell was ~4.9%. Phenol-red absorbance assays yield indistinguishable results. The increase from 0.4 to 4.9% presumably reflects mechanical RBC disruption during rapid mixing. In all fluorescence studies, the CA blocker acetazolamide reduces kΔpH to near-uncatalyzed values, implying that all CA activity is extracellular. Our lysis assay is simple, sensitive, and precise, and will be valuable for correcting for effects of lysis in physiological SF experiments. The underlying CA assay, applied to blood plasma, tissue-culture media, and organ perfusates could assess lysis in a variety of applications.

  2. Identification and characterization of a carboxysomal γ-carbonic anhydrase from the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Charlotte; Arefeen, Dewan; Tadesse, Yohannes; Long, Benedict M; Price, G Dean; Rowlett, Roger S; Kimber, Matthew S; Espie, George S

    2014-09-01

    Carboxysomes are proteinaceous microcompartments that encapsulate carbonic anhydrase (CA) and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco); carboxysomes, therefore, catalyze reversible HCO3 (-) dehydration and the subsequent fixation of CO2. The N- and C-terminal domains of the β-carboxysome scaffold protein CcmM participate in a network of protein-protein interactions that are essential for carboxysome biogenesis, organization, and function. The N-terminal domain of CcmM in the thermophile Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 is also a catalytically active, redox regulated γ-CA. To experimentally determine if CcmM from a mesophilic cyanobacterium is active, we cloned, expressed and purified recombinant, full-length CcmM from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 as well as the N-terminal 209 amino acid γ-CA-like domain. Both recombinant proteins displayed ethoxyzolamide-sensitive CA activity in mass spectrometric assays, as did the carboxysome-enriched TP fraction. NstCcmM209 was characterized as a moderately active and efficient γ-CA with a k cat of 2.0 × 10(4) s(-1) and k cat/K m of 4.1 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) at 25 °C and pH 8, a pH optimum between 8 and 9.5 and a temperature optimum spanning 25-35 °C. NstCcmM209 also catalyzed the hydrolysis of the CO2 analog carbonyl sulfide. Circular dichroism and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence analysis demonstrated that NstCcmM209 was progressively and irreversibly denatured above 50 °C. NstCcmM209 activity was inhibited by the reducing agent tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine, an effect that was fully reversed by a molar excess of diamide, a thiol oxidizing agent, consistent with oxidative activation being a universal regulatory mechanism of CcmM orthologs. Immunogold electron microscopy and Western blot analysis of TP pellets indicated that Rubisco and CcmM co-localize and are concentrated in Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 carboxysomes.

  3. Two developmental switches in GABAergic signalling: the K+–Cl− cotransporter KCC2 and carbonic anhydrase CAVII

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Claudio; Voipio, Juha; Kaila, Kai

    2005-01-01

    GABAergic signalling has the unique property of ‘ionic plasticity’, which is based on short-term and long-term changes in the Cl− and HCO3− ion concentrations in the postsynaptic neurones. While short-term ionic plasticity is caused by activity-dependent, channel-mediated anion shifts, long-term ionic plasticity depends on changes in the expression patterns and kinetic regulation of molecules involved in anion homeostasis. During development the efficacy and also the qualitative nature (depolarization/excitation versus hyperpolarization/inhibition) of GABAergic transmission is influenced by the neuronal expression of two key molecules: the chloride-extruding K+–Cl− cotransporter KCC2, and the cytosolic carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoform CAVII. In rat hippocampal pyramidal neurones, a steep up-regulation of KCC2 accounts for the ‘developmental switch’, which converts depolarizing and excitatory GABA responses of immature neurones to classical hyperpolarizing inhibition by the end of the second postnatal week. The immature hippocampus generates large-scale network activity, which is abolished in parallel by the up-regulation of KCC2 and the consequent increase in the efficacy of neuronal Cl− extrusion. At around postnatal day 12 (P12), an abrupt, steep increase in intrapyramidal CAVII expression takes place, promoting excitatory responses evoked by intense GABAergic activity. This is largely caused by a GABAergic potassium transient resulting in spatially widespread neuronal depolarization and synchronous spike discharges. These facts point to CAVII as a putative target of CA inhibitors that are used as antiepileptic drugs. KCC2 expression in adult rat neurones is down-regulated following epileptiform activity and/or neuronal damage by BDNF/TrkB signalling. The lifetime of membrane-associated KCC2 is very short, in the range of tens of minutes, which makes KCC2 ideally suited for mediating GABAergic ionic plasticity. In addition, factors influencing

  4. Characterization of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) as an endogenous marker of chronic hypoxia in live human tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vordermark, Dirk . E-mail: vordermark_d@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.de; Kaffer, Anja; Riedl, Susanne; Katzer, Astrid; Flentje, Michael

    2005-03-15

    Purpose: Published clinical studies provide conflicting data regarding the prognostic significance of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) overexpression as an endogenous marker of tumor hypoxia and its comparability with other methods of hypoxia detection. We performed a systematic analysis of CA IX protein levels under various in vitro conditions of tumor hypoxia in HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma and FaDu human pharyngeal carcinoma cells. Because sorting of live CA IX positive cells from tumors provides a tool to study the radiosensitivity of chronically hypoxic cells, we modified and tested a CA IX flow cytometry protocol on mixed hypoxic/aerobic suspensions of HT 1080 and FaDu cells. Methods and materials: HT 1080 and FaDu cells were treated with up to 24 h of in vitro hypoxia and up to 96 h of reoxygenation. To test the effect of nonhypoxic stimuli, glucose and serum availability, pH and cell density were modified. CA IX protein was quantified in Western blots of whole-cell lysates. Mixed suspensions with known percentages of hypoxic cells were prepared for CA IX flow cytometry. The same mixtures were assayed for clonogenic survival after 10 Gy. Results: Hypoxia-induced CA IX protein expression was seen after >6 h at {<=}5% O{sub 2}, and protein was stable over 96 h of reoxygenation in both cell lines. Glucose deprivation abolished the hypoxic CA IX response, and high cell density caused CA IX induction under aerobic conditions. Measured percentages of CA IX-positive cells in mixtures closely reflected known percentages of hypoxic cells in HT 1080 and were associated with radioresistance of mixtures after 10 Gy. Conclusion: CA IX is a stable marker of current or previous chronic hypoxia but influenced by nonhypoxic stimuli. Except the time course of accumulation, all properties of this marker resembled our previous findings for hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}. A modified flow cytometry protocol provided good separability of CA IX-negative and -positive cells in vitro

  5. Carbon Dioxide is a Powerful Inducer of Monokaryotic Hyphae and Spore Development in Cryptococcus gattii and Carbonic Anhydrase Activity is Dispensable in This Dimorphic Transition

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Ping; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Chaturvedi, Sudha

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcus gattii is unique among human pathogenic fungi with specialized ecological niche on trees. Since leaves concentrate CO2, we investigated the role of this gaseous molecule in C. gattii biology and virulence. We focused on the genetic analyses of β-carbonic anhydrase (β-CA) encoded by C. gattii CAN1 and CAN2 as later is critical for CO2 sensing in a closely related pathogen C. neoformans. High CO2 conditions induced robust development of monokaryotic hyphae and spores in C. gattii. Conversely, high CO2 completely repressed hyphae development in sexual mating. Both CAN1 and CAN2 were dispensable for CO2 induced morphogenetic transitions. However, C. gattii CAN2 was essential for growth in ambient air similar to its reported role in C. neoformans. Both can1 and can2 mutants retained full pathogenic potential in vitro and in vivo. These results provide insight into C. gattii adaptation for arboreal growth and production of infectious propagules by β-CA independent mechanism(s). PMID:25478697

  6. Carbon dioxide is a powerful inducer of monokaryotic hyphae and spore development in Cryptococcus gattii and carbonic anhydrase activity is dispensable in this dimorphic transition.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ping; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Chaturvedi, Sudha

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcus gattii is unique among human pathogenic fungi with specialized ecological niche on trees. Since leaves concentrate CO2, we investigated the role of this gaseous molecule in C. gattii biology and virulence. We focused on the genetic analyses of β-carbonic anhydrase (β-CA) encoded by C. gattii CAN1 and CAN2 as later is critical for CO2 sensing in a closely related pathogen C. neoformans. High CO2 conditions induced robust development of monokaryotic hyphae and spores in C. gattii. Conversely, high CO2 completely repressed hyphae development in sexual mating. Both CAN1 and CAN2 were dispensable for CO2 induced morphogenetic transitions. However, C. gattii CAN2 was essential for growth in ambient air similar to its reported role in C. neoformans. Both can1 and can2 mutants retained full pathogenic potential in vitro and in vivo. These results provide insight into C. gattii adaptation for arboreal growth and production of infectious propagules by β-CA independent mechanism(s).

  7. Novel alkalistable α-carbonic anhydrase from the polyextremophilic bacterium Bacillus halodurans: characteristics and applicability in flue gas CO2 sequestration.

    PubMed

    Faridi, Shazia; Satyanarayana, T

    2016-08-01

    The emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere have been constantly rising due to anthropogenic activities, which have led to global warming and climate change. Among various methods proposed for mitigating CO2 levels in the atmosphere, carbonic anhydrase (CA)-mediated carbon sequestration represents a greener and safer approach to capture and convert it into stable mineral carbonates. Despite the fact that CA is an extremely efficient metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydration of CO2 (CO2 + H2O ↔ HCO3 (-) + H(+)) with a kcat of ∼10(6) s(-1), a thermostable, and alkalistable CA is desirable for the process to take place efficiently. The purified CA from alkaliphilic, moderately thermophilic, and halotolerant Bacillus halodurans TSLV1 (BhCA) is a homodimeric enzyme with a subunit molecular mass of ~37 kDa with stability in a broad pH range between 6.0 and 11.0. It has a moderate thermostability with a T1/2 of 24.0 ± 1.0 min at 60 °C. Based on the sensitivity of CA to specific inhibitors, BhCA is an α-CA; this has been confirmed by nucleotide/amino acid sequence analysis. This has a unique property of stimulation by SO4 (2-), and it remains unaffected by SO3 (2-), NOx, and most other components present in the flue gas. BhCA is highly efficient in accelerating the mineralization of CO2 as compared to commercial bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) and is also efficient in the sequestration of CO2 from the exhaust of petrol driven car, thus, a useful biocatalyst for sequestering CO2 from flue gas.

  8. Effects of sodium bicarbonate concentration on growth, photosynthesis, and carbonic anhydrase activity of macroalgae Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and Gracilaria chouae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Sui, Zhenghong; Wang, Jinguo; Hu, Yiyi; Kang, Kyoung Ho; Hong, Hye Ran; Niaz, Zeeshan; Wei, Huihui; Du, Qingwei; Peng, Chong; Mi, Ping; Que, Zhou

    2016-06-01

    There is potential for bicarbonate to improve crop yields and economic efficiency of marine algae. However, few studies have focused on the effect of bicarbonate on the growth, photosynthesis, and enzyme activity associated with carbon utilization, especially in commercial macroalgae. Here, the addition of bicarbonate (up to 420 mg L(-1)) to macroalgal cultures has been evaluated for Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and Gracilaria chouae with respect to growth rate, photosynthetic activity, carbonic anhydrase activity, and biochemical composition. The results showed that the effects of NaHCO3 on growth, chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin, photosynthetic oxygen evolution, photochemical parameters of PSI and PSII, carbonic anhydrase activity, and nitrogen content were significant (P < 0.05) and followed the same pattern in the three species. The parameter values were promoted in lower NaHCO3 concentrations (up to 252 or 336 mg L(-1)) and inhibited in higher NaHCO3 concentrations (>336 mg L(-1) for Gp. lemaneiformis and >420 mg L(-1) for the other two species). Moreover, species-specific differences induced by supplementation with bicarbonate were discovered during culture. Optimal concentrations of NaHCO3 used in this study were 252 mg L(-1) for Gp. lemaneiformis and 336 mg L(-1) for G. vermiculophylla and G. chouae. These results suggest that an adequate supplementation of sodium bicarbonate is a viable strategy for promoting growth and photosynthetic activity in some macroalgae as well as for improving biochemical composition. The study will help to accelerate the growth rate of algae and improve the quality of thalli, and will also be useful for enhancing the understanding of carbon utilization in macroalgae.

  9. Feedforward non-Michaelis-Menten mechanism for CO(2) uptake by Rubisco: contribution of carbonic anhydrases and photorespiration to optimization of photosynthetic carbon assimilation.

    PubMed

    Igamberdiev, Abir U; Roussel, Marc R

    2012-03-01

    Rubisco, the most abundant protein serving as the primary engine generating organic biomass on Earth, is characterized by a low catalytic constant (in higher plants approx. 3s(-1)) and low specificity for CO(2) leading to photorespiration. We analyze here why this enzyme evolved as the main carbon fixation engine. The high concentration of Rubisco exceeding the concentration of its substrate CO(2) by 2-3 orders of magnitude makes application of Michaelis-Menten kinetics invalid and requires alternative kinetic approaches to describe photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation. Efficient operation of Rubisco is supported by a strong flux of CO(2) to the chloroplast stroma provided by fast equilibration of bicarbonate and CO(2) and forwarding the latter to Rubisco reaction centers. The main part of this feedforward mechanism is a thylakoidal carbonic anhydrase associated with photosystem II and pumping CO(2) from the thylakoid lumen in coordination with the rate of electron transport, water splitting and proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane. This steady flux of CO(2) limits photosynthesis at saturating CO(2) concentrations. At low ambient CO(2) and correspondingly limited capacity of the bicarbonate pool in the stroma, its depletion at the sites of Rubisco is relieved by utilizing O(2) instead of CO(2), i.e. by photorespiration, a process which supplies CO(2) back to Rubisco and buffers the redox state and energy level in the chloroplast. Thus, the regulation of Rubisco function aims to keep steady non-equilibrium levels of CO(2), NADPH/NADP and ATP/ADP in the chloroplast stroma and to optimize the condition of homeostatic photosynthetic flux of matter and energy.

  10. Microwave-assisted extraction, HPLC analysis, and inhibitory effects on carbonic anhydrase I, II, VA, and VII isoforms of 14 blueberry Italian cultivars.

    PubMed

    Mollica, Adriano; Locatelli, Marcello; Macedonio, Giorgia; Carradori, Simone; Sobolev, Anatoly P; De Salvador, Roberto F; Monti, Simona M; Buonanno, Martina; Zengin, Gokhan; Angeli, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-01-01

    The multi-component fingerprint and the biological evaluation of plant-derived material are indispensable for the pharmaceutical field, in food quality control procedures, and in all plant-based products. We investigated the quantitative content of biologically active compounds (anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid) of microwave-assisted blueberry extracts from 14 different Italian cultivars, using validated high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA) method and routinely instrument configuration. The carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibition profiles against several pharmacologically relevant CA isoforms of blueberry extracts and some bioactive compounds were also investigated. The various cultivars showed a highly variable content in anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid, and their CA inhibitory effects were also highly variable. Overall these data prove that antioxidant natural products found in blueberries may be useful for designing pharmacological agents in which various CAs are involved, e.g., antiobesity, antitumor, or anticonvulsants agents.

  11. Synthesis and in Vivo Biological Evaluation of (68)Ga-Labeled Carbonic Anhydrase IX Targeting Small Molecules for Positron Emission Tomography.

    PubMed

    Sneddon, Deborah; Niemans, Raymon; Bauwens, Matthias; Yaromina, Ala; van Kuijk, Simon J A; Lieuwes, Natasja G; Biemans, Rianne; Pooters, Ivo; Pellegrini, Paul A; Lengkeek, Nigel A; Greguric, Ivan; Tonissen, Kathryn F; Supuran, Claudiu T; Lambin, Philippe; Dubois, Ludwig; Poulsen, Sally-Ann

    2016-07-14

    Tumor hypoxia contributes resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy, while oxygenated tumors are sensitive to these treatments. The indirect detection of hypoxic tumors is possible by targeting carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), an enzyme overexpressed in hypoxic tumors, with sulfonamide-based imaging agents. In this study, we present the design and synthesis of novel gallium-radiolabeled small-molecule sulfonamides targeting CA IX. The compounds display favorable in vivo pharmacokinetics and stability. We demonstrate that our lead compound, [(68)Ga]-2, discriminates CA IX-expressing tumors in vivo in a mouse xenograft model using positron emission tomography (PET). This compound shows specific tumor accumulation and low uptake in blood and clears intact to the urine. These findings were reproduced in a second study using PET/computed tomography. Small molecules investigated to date utilizing (68)Ga for preclinical CA IX imaging are scarce, and this is one of the first effective (68)Ga compounds reported for PET imaging of CA IX.

  12. Anti-tubercular and antioxidant activities of C-glycosyl carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: towards the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Zaro, María J; Bortolotti, Ana; Riafrecha, Leonardo E; Concellón, Analía; Morbidoni, Héctor R; Colinas, Pedro A

    2016-12-01

    During the treatment of tuberculosis infection, oxidative stress due to anti-tubercular drugs may result in tissue inflammation. It was suggested that treatment with antioxidant drugs could be beneficial as an adjunct to anti-tuberculosis drug therapy. Recently our group has shown that several C-glycosides are inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis β-carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1). In an effort to develop novel chemotherapeutic agents against tuberculosis, the anti-tubercular and antioxidant activities of a series of C-glycosides containing the phenol or the methoxyaryl moiety were studied. Many compounds showed inhibition of growth of M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain and good antioxidant ability. A glycomimetic incorporating the 3-hydroxyphenyl moiety showed the best activity profile and therefore this functionality represents lead for the development of novel anti-tubercular agents with dual mechanisms of action.

  13. The impact of Carbonic Anhydrase on the partitioning of leaf and soil CO18O and COS gas exchange across scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingate, L.; Wehr, R. A.; Commane, R.; Ogee, J.; Sauze, J.; Jones, S.; Launois, T.; Wohl, S.; Whelan, M.; Meredith, L. K.; Genty, B.; Gimeno, T.; Kesselmeier, J.; Bosc, A.; Cuntz, M.; Munger, J. W.; Nelson, D. D.; Saleska, S. R.; Wofsy, S. C.; Zahniser, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthesis (GPP), the largest CO2 flux to the land surface, is currently estimated with considerable uncertainty at between 100-175 Pg C yr-1. More robust estimates of global GPP could be obtained from the atmospheric budgets of other valuable tracers, such as carbonyl sulfide (COS) or the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of atmospheric CO2. However, quantifying GPP using these tracers hinges on a better understanding of how soil micro-organisms modify the atmospheric concentrations of CO18O and COS at large scales. In particular, understanding better the role and activity of the enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) in soil micro-organisms is critical. We present novel datasets and model simulations demonstrating the progress in the collection of multi-tracer field datasets and how a new generation of multi-tracer land surface models can provide valuable constraints on photosynthesis and respiration across scales.

  14. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Part 91. Metal Complexes of Heterocyclic Sulfonamides as Potential Pharmacological Agents in the Treatment of Gastric Acid Secretion Imbalances

    PubMed Central

    Ilies, Marc A.; Scozzafava, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    Zinc, magnesium, aluminum and copper complexes of several potent, clinically used carbonic anhydrase (CA) sulfonamide inhibitors, such as acetazolamide, methazolamide, ethoxzolamide and benzolamide were tested for their possible applications as antacids, in experimental animals. Gastric acid secretion parameters 3 days after treatment with these CA inhibitors (2 × 500 mg, twice a day), in dogs with chronic gastric fistulas, led to the observation that the gastric acid parameters BAO (the basal acid output), and MAO (the maximal acid output after stimulation with histamine) were drastically reduced, as compared to the same parameters in animals that did not receive these enzyme inhibitors. These are promising results for the possible use of metal complexes of heterocyclic sulfonamides as treatment alternatives (alone or in combination with other drugs) for gastric acid secretion imbalances. PMID:18475926

  15. Metalloprotein-inhibitor binding: Human carbonic anhydrase II as a model for probing metal-ligand interactions in a metalloprotein active site

    PubMed Central

    Martin, David P.; Hann, Zachary S.; Cohen, Seth M.

    2013-01-01

    An ever increasing number of metalloproteins are being discovered that play essential roles in physiological processes. Inhibitors of these proteins have significant potential for the treatment of human disease, but clinical success of these compounds has been limited. Herein, Zn(II)-dependent metalloprotein inhibitors in clinical use are reviewed, and the potential for using novel metal-binding groups (MBGs) in the design of these inhibitors is discussed. By using human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII) as a model system, the nuances of MBG-metal interactions in the context of a protein environment can be probed. Understanding how metal coordination influences inhibitor binding may help in the design new therapeutics targeting metalloproteins. PMID:23706138

  16. Absence or reduction of carbonic anhydrase II in the red cells of the beluga whale and llama: implications for adaptation to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Hewett-Emmett, D; Tashian, R E

    2000-08-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) expression was examined in the red cells of two mammals that have adapted to low oxygen stress: the llama, which has adapted to high altitudes, and the beluga (or white) whale, which routinely dives for extended periods. Immunodiffusion analyses of their Hb-free hemolysates and partial amino acid sequencing of their HPLC-separated nonheme proteins indicate that the low-activity CA I isozyme is the major nonheme protein in erythrocytes of both the beluga whale and the llama. The high-activity CA II isozyme was not detected in the whale red cells but was present at low levels in erythrocytes of the llama. These results suggest that the absence or decrease in the expression of the high-activity CA II isozyme may be advantageous under hypoxic conditions.

  17. Design and Synthesis of Novel Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Hybrids (NSAIDs-CAIs) for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bua, Silvia; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Vullo, Daniela; Ghelardini, Carla; Bartolucci, Gianluca; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T; Carta, Fabrizio

    2017-02-09

    We report the synthesis of a series of hybrid compounds incorporating 6- and 7-substituted coumarins (carbonic anhydrase, CA inhibitors) derivatized with clinically used NSAIDs (indomethacin, sulindac, ketoprofen, ibuprofen, diclofenac, ketorolac, etc., cyclooxygenase inhibitors) as agents for the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Most compounds were effective in inhibiting the RA overexpressed hCA IX and XII, with KI values in the low nanomolar-subnanomolar ranges. The antihyperalgesic activity of such compounds was assessed by means of the paw-pressure and incapacitance tests using an in vivo RA model. Among all tested compounds, the 7-coumarine hybrid with ibuprofen showed potent and persistent antihyperalgesic effect up to 60 min after administration.

  18. Effect of high concentration of inert cosolutes on the refolding of an enzyme: carbonic anhydrase B in sucrose and ficoll 70.

    PubMed

    Monterroso, Begoña; Minton, Allen P

    2007-11-16

    The kinetics of refolding of carbonic anhydrase II following transfer from a buffer containing 5 m guanidinium chloride to a buffer containing 0.5 m guanidinium chloride were studied by measuring the time-dependent recovery of enzymatic activity. Experiments were carried out in buffer containing concentrations of two "inert" cosolutes, sucrose and Ficoll 70, a sucrose polymer, at concentrations up to 150 g/liter. Data analysis indicates that both cosolutes significantly accelerate the rate of refolding to native or compact near-native conformations, but decrease the fraction of catalytically active enzyme recovered in the limit of long time. According to the simplest model that fits the data, both cosolutes accelerate a competing side reaction yielding inactive compact species. Acceleration of the side reaction by Ficoll is significantly greater than that of sucrose at equal w/v concentrations.

  19. Light and CO2/cAMP Signal Cross Talk on the Promoter Elements of Chloroplastic β-Carbonic Anhydrase Genes in the Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Ohno, Naoki; Nakajima, Kensuke; Matsuda, Yusuke

    2016-02-01

    Our previous study showed that three CO2/cAMP-responsive elements (CCRE) CCRE1, CCRE2, and CCRE3 in the promoter of the chloroplastic β-carbonic anhydrase 1 gene in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Pptca1) were critical for the cAMP-mediated transcriptional response to ambient CO2 concentration. Pptca1 was activated under CO2 limitation, but the absence of light partially disabled this low-CO2-triggered transcriptional activation. This suppression effect disappeared when CCRE2 or two of three CCREs were replaced with a NotI restriction site, strongly suggesting that light signal cross-talks with CO2 on the cAMP-signal transduction pathway that targets CCREs. The paralogous chloroplastic carbonic anhydrase gene, ptca2 was also CO2/cAMP-responsive. The upstream truncation assay of the ptca2 promoter (Pptca2) revealed a short sequence of -367 to -333 relative to the transcription-start site to be a critical regulatory region for the CO2 and light responses. This core-regulatory region comprises one CCRE1 and two CCRE2 sequences. Further detailed analysis of Pptca2 clearly indicates that two CCRE2s are the cis-element governing the CO2/light response of Pptca2. The transcriptional activation of two Pptcas in CO2 limitation was evident under illumination with a photosynthetically active light wavelength, and an artificial electron acceptor from the reduction side of PSI efficiently inhibited Pptcas activation, while neither inhibition of the linear electron transport from PSII to PSI nor inhibition of ATP synthesis showed an effect on the promoter activity, strongly suggesting a specific involvement of the redox level of the stromal side of the PSI in the CO2/light cross talk.

  20. Natural protein engineering: a uniquely salt-tolerant, but not halophilic, alpha-type carbonic anhydrase from algae proliferating in low- to hyper-saline environments.

    PubMed

    Bageshwar, Umesh K; Premkumar, Lakshmanane; Gokhman, Irena; Savchenko, Tatyana; Sussman, Joel L; Zamir, Ada

    2004-02-01

    Dunaliella salina is a unicellular green alga thriving in environments ranging from fresh water to hyper-saline lakes, such as the Dead Sea. An unusual, internally duplicated, 60 kDa alpha-type carbonic anhydrase (dCA I), located on the surface of this alga, is expected to function over a broad range of salinities. It would therefore differ from other carbonic anhydrases that already lose activity at low salinities and also from halophilic proteins that require high salinities for conformational stability. Enzymatic analyses indeed indicated that dCA I retained activity at salt concentrations ranging from low salt to at least 1.5 M NaCl or KCl for CO(2) hydration, 2.0 M NaCl for esterase activity and 0.5 M for bicarbonate dehydration. Although measurements at higher salinities were constrained by the interference of salt in the respective assayed reactions, activity was noticeable even at 4.0 M NaCl. Comparisons of the internally duplicated dCA I to single-domain derivatives indicated that inter-domain interactions played a decisive role in the stability, activity, salt tolerance and pH responses of dCA I. Hence dCA I is a uniquely salt- tolerant protein, retaining an active conformation over a large range of salinities and, as a Zn metalloenzyme, largely immune to the specific inhibitory effects of anions. Its unique features make dCA I a useful model to understand the physico-chemical basis of halotolerance and protein-salt interactions in general.

  1. Inhibition of the β-carbonic anhydrase from Streptococcus pneumoniae by inorganic anions and small molecules: Toward innovative drug design of antiinfectives?

    PubMed

    Burghout, Peter; Vullo, Daniela; Scozzafava, Andrea; Hermans, Peter W M; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2011-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human respiratory tract pathogen that contributes significantly to global mortality and morbidity. It was recently shown that this bacterial pathogen depends on a conserved β-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) for in vitro growth in environmental ambient air and during intracellular survival in host cells. Hence, it is to be expected that this pneumococcal carbonic anhydrase (PCA) contributes to transmission and pathogenesis of the bacterium, making it a potential therapeutic target. In this study, purified recombinant PCA has been further characterized kinetically and for inhibition with a series of inorganic anions and small molecules useful as leads. PCA has appreciable activity as catalyst for the hydration of CO(2) to bicarbonate, with a k(cat) of 7.4×10(5)s(-1) and k(cat)/K(m) of 6.5×10(7) M(-1)s(-1) at an optimum pH of 8.4. Inorganic anions such as chloride, bromide, iodide, cyanate, selenocyanate, trithiocarbonate, and cyanide were effective inhibitors of PCA (K(I)s of 21-98μM). Sulfamide, sulfamic acid, phenylboronic, phenylarsonic acid, and diethyldithiocarbamate showed inhibition constants in the low micromolar/submicromolar range (K(I)s of 0.61-6.68μM), whereas that of the sulfonamide acetazolamide was in the nanomolar range (K(I)s 89nM). In conclusion, our results show that PCA can effectively be inhibited by a range of molecules that could be interesting leads for obtaining more potent PCA inhibitors. PCA might be a novel target for designing antimicrobial drugs with a new mechanism of action.

  2. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of isozymes I, II, IV, V, and IX with anions isosteric and isoelectronic with sulfate, nitrate, and carbonate.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Alessio; Vullo, Daniela; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2005-02-01

    The inhibition of five human carbonic anhydrase (hCA, EC 4.2.1.1) isozymes; the cytosolic hCA I and II, the membrane-bound hCA IV, the mitochondrial hCA V, and the tumor-associated, transmembrane hCA IX, with anions isosteric and isoelectronic with sulfate, nitrate, and carbonate; such as chlorate, perchlorate, bromate, iodate, periodate, silicate, bismuthate, vanadate, molybdate, and wolframate is reported. Apparently, the geometry of the inhibitor (tetrahedral or trigonal) does not influence its binding to the Zn(II) ion of the enzyme active site, but the nature of the central element is the most important factor influencing potency. Isozymes hCA I and II are best inhibited by chlorate, perchlorate, and silicate, together with the anions structurally related to sulfate, sulfamate, and sulfamidate, but sulfate itself is a weak inhibitor (inhibition constant of 74 mM against hCA I and 183 mM against hCA II). Molybdate is a very weak hCA I inhibitor (K(I) of 914 mM) but it interacts with hCA II (K(I) of 27.5mM). Isozyme IV is well inhibited by sulfate (K(I) of 9 mM), sulfamate, and sulfamidate (in the low micromolar range), but not by perchlorate (K(I) of 767 mM). The mitochondrial isozyme V has the lowest affinity for sulfate (K(I) of 680 mM) and carbonate (K(I) of 95 mM) among all the investigated isozymes, suggesting on one hand its possible participation in metabolon(s) with sulfate anion exchanger(s), and on the other hand an evolutionary adaptation to working at higher pH values (around 8.5 in mitochondria) where rather high amounts of carbonate in equilibrium with bicarbonate may be present. Metasilicate, isosteric to carbonate, is also about a 10 times weaker inhibitor of this isozyme as compared to other CAs investigated here (K(I) of 28.2 mM). Surprisingly, the tumor-associated isozyme IX is resistant to sulfate inhibition (K(I) of 154 mM) but has affinity in the low micromolar range for carbonate, sulfamate, and sulfamidate (K(I) in the range of 8

  3. Major contribution of the type II beta carbonic anhydrase CanB (Cj0237) to the capnophilic growth phenotype of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Al-Haideri, Halah; White, Michael A; Kelly, David J

    2016-02-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis, requires low environmental oxygen and high carbon dioxide for optimum growth, but the molecular basis for the carbon dioxide requirement is unclear. One factor may be inefficient conversion of gaseous CO2 to bicarbonate, the required substrate of various carboxylases. Two putative carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are encoded in the genome of C. jejuni strain NCTC 11168 (Cj0229 and Cj0237). Here, we show that the deletion of the cj0237 (canB) gene alone prevents growth in complex media at low (1% v/v) CO2 and significantly reduces the growth rate at high (5% v/v) CO2. In minimal media incubated under high CO2, the canB mutant grew on L-aspartate but not on the key C3 compounds L-serine, pyruvate and L-lactate, showing that CanB is crucial in bicarbonate provision for pyruvate carboxylase-mediated oxaloacetate synthesis. Nevertheless, purified CanB (a dimeric, anion and acetazolamide sensitive, zinc-containing type II beta-class enzyme) hydrates CO2 actively only above pH 8 and with a high Km (∼ 34 mM). At typical cytoplasmic pH values and low CO2, these kinetic properties might limit intracellular bicarbonate availability. Taken together, our data suggest CanB is a major contributor to the capnophilic growth phenotype of C. jejuni.

  4. Investigating the adduct formation of organic mercury species with carbonic anhydrase and hemoglobin from human red blood cell hemolysate by means of LC/ESI-TOF-MS and LC/ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Hogeback, Jens; Schwarzer, Miriam; Wehe, Christoph A; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of mercury species with human erythrocytes is studied to investigate possible high molecular binding partners for mercury species. Human blood hemolysate was spiked with methylmercury and investigated by means of liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to electrospray ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-ToF-MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Beside adduct formation of mercury species with hemoglobin, the main compound of the erythrocytes, mercury binding to the enzyme carbonic anhydrase was revealed. Due to an enzymatic digest of the protein-mercury adduct, the binding site at the free thiol group of the protein was identified. These results indicate that carbonic anhydrase might play a role in mercury toxicity.

  5. High glucose-induced mitochondrial respiration and reactive oxygen species in mouse cerebral pericytes is reversed by pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases: Implications for cerebral microvascular disease in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shah, Gul N; Morofuji, Yoichi; Banks, William A; Price, Tulin O

    2013-10-18

    Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress leads to diabetes-associated damage to the microvasculature of the brain. Pericytes in close proximity to endothelial cells in the brain microvessels are vital to the integrity of the blood-brain barrier and are especially susceptible to oxidative stress. According to our recently published results, streptozotocin-diabetic mouse brain exhibits oxidative stress and loose pericytes by twelve weeks of diabetes, and cerebral pericytes cultured in high glucose media suffer intracellular oxidative stress and apoptosis. Oxidative stress in diabetes is hypothesized to be caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during hyperglycemia-induced enhanced oxidative metabolism of glucose (respiration). To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of high glucose on respiration rate and ROS production in mouse cerebral pericytes. Previously, we showed that pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases protects the brain from oxidative stress and pericyte loss. The high glucose-induced intracellular oxidative stress and apoptosis of pericytes in culture were also reversed by inhibition of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases. Therefore, we extended our current study to determine the effect of these inhibitors on high glucose-induced increases in pericyte respiration and ROS. We now report that both the respiration and ROS are significantly increased in pericytes challenged with high glucose. Furthermore, inhibition of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases significantly slowed down both the rate of respiration and ROS production. These data provide new evidence that pharmacological inhibitors of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases, already in clinical use, may prove beneficial in protecting the brain from oxidative stress caused by ROS produced as a consequence of hyperglycemia-induced enhanced respiration.

  6. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of two carbonic anhydrase in the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus and its expression in response to salinity and pH stress.

    PubMed

    Pan, Luqing; Hu, Dongxu; Liu, Maoqi; Hu, Yanyan; Liu, Shengnan

    2016-01-15

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is involved in ion transport, acid-base balance and pH regulation by catalyzing the interconversion of CO2 and HCO3(-). In this study, full-length cDNA sequences of two CA isoforms were identified from Portunus trituberculatus. One was Portunus trituberculatus cytoplasmic carbonic anydrase (PtCAc) and the other one was Portunus trituberculatus glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked carbonic anhydrase (PtCAg). The sequence of PtCAc was formed by an ORF of 816 bp, encoding a protein of 30.18 kDa. The PtCAg was constituted by an ORF of 927 bp, encoding a protein of 34.09 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequences of the two CA isoforms were compared to other crustacean' CA sequences. Both of them reflected high conservation of the residues and domains essential to the function of the two enzymes. The tissue expression analysis of PtCAc and PtCAg were detected in gill, muscle, hepatopancreas, hemocytes and gonad. PtCAc and PtCAg gene expressions were studied under salinity and pH challenge. The results showed that when salinity decreased (30 to 20 ppt), the mRNA expression of PtCAc increased significantly at 24 and 48 h, and the highest value appeared at 24h. The mRNA expression of PtCAg had the same situation with PtCAc. However, when salinity increased (30 to 35 ppt), only the mRNA expression of PtCAc increased significantly at 48 h. When pH changed, only the mRNA expression of PtCAc increased significantly at 12h, which was under low pH situation. The mRNA expression of PtCAg increased significantly at 12-48 h, and there was no significant difference of the expression between the pH challenged group and the control group in other experimental time. The results provided the base of understanding CA' function and the underlying mechanism in response to environmental changes in crustaceans.

  7. A Limited Role for Carbonic Anhydrase in C4 Photosynthesis as Revealed by a ca1ca2 Double Mutant in Maize1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Studer, Anthony J.; Gandin, Anthony; Kolbe, Allison R.; Wang, Lin; Cousins, Asaph B.; Brutnell, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) catalyzes the first biochemical step of the carbon-concentrating mechanism of C4 plants, and in C4 monocots it has been suggested that CA activity is near limiting for photosynthesis. Here, we test this hypothesis through the characterization of transposon-induced mutant alleles of Ca1 and Ca2 in maize (Zea mays). These two isoforms account for more than 85% of the CA transcript pool. A significant change in isotopic discrimination is observed in mutant plants, which have as little as 3% of wild-type CA activity, but surprisingly, photosynthesis is not reduced under current or elevated CO2 partial pressure (pCO2). However, growth and rates of photosynthesis under subambient pCO2 are significantly impaired in the mutants. These findings suggest that, while CA is not limiting for C4 photosynthesis in maize at current pCO2, it likely maintains high rates of photosynthesis when CO2 availability is reduced. Current atmospheric CO2 levels now exceed 400 ppm (approximately 40.53 Pa) and contrast with the low-pCO2 conditions under which C4 plants expanded their range approximately 10 million years ago, when the global atmospheric CO2 was below 300 ppm (approximately 30.4 Pa). Thus, as CO2 levels continue to rise, selective pressures for high levels of CA may be limited to arid climates where stomatal closure reduces CO2 availability to the leaf. PMID:24706552

  8. Production, purification, and characterization of a fusion protein of carbonic anhydrase from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and cellulose binding domain from Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhu; Bartlow, Patrick; Dilmore, Robert M.; Soong, Yee; Pan, Zhiwei; Koepsel, Richard; Ataai, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide capture technologies have the potential to become an important climate change mitigation option through sequestration of gaseous CO2, A new concept for CO2 capture involves use of immobilized carbonic anhydrase (CA) that catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO2 to HCO3- and H+. Cost-efficient production of the enzyme and an inexpensive immobilization system are critical for development of economically feasible CA-based CO2 capture processes. An artificial, bifunctional enzyme containing CA from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and a cellulose binding domain (CBD) from Clostridium thermocellum was constructed with a His6 tag. The chimeric enzyme exhibited both CA activity and CBD binding affinity. This fusion enzyme is of particular interest due to its binding affinity for cellulose and retained CA activity, which could serve as the basis for improved technology to capture CO2 from flue gasses.

  9. Expression and characterization of a codon-optimized alkaline-stable carbonic anhydrase from Aliivibrio salmonicida for CO2 sequestration applications.

    PubMed

    Jun, So-Young; Kim, Sung Ho; Kanth, Bashista Kumar; Lee, Jinwon; Pack, Seung Pil

    2017-03-01

    The CO2 mineralization process, accelerated by carbonic anhydrase (CA) was proposed for the efficient capture and storage of CO2, the accumulation of which in the atmosphere is the main cause of global warming. Here, we characterize a highly stable form of the cloned CA from the Gram-negative marine bacterium Aliivibrio salmonicida, named ASCA that can promote CO2 absorption in an alkaline solvent required for efficient carbon capture. We designed a mature form of ASCA (mASCA) using a codon optimization of ASCA gene and removal of ASCA signal peptide. mASCA was highly expressed (255 mg/L) with a molecular weight of approximately 26 kDa. The mASCA enzyme exhibited stable esterase activity within a temperature range of 10-60 °C and a pH range of 6-11. mASCA activity remained stable for 48 h at pH 10. We also investigated its inhibition profiles using inorganic anions, such as acetazolamide, sulfanilamide, iodide, nitrate, and azide. We also demonstrate that mASCA is capable of catalyzing the conversion of CO2 to CaCO3 (calcite form) in the presence of Ca(2+). It should be noted that mASCA enzyme exhibits high production yield and sufficient stabilities against relatively high temperature and alkaline pH, which are required conditions for the development of more efficient enzymatic CCS systems.

  10. A limited role for carbonic anhydrase in C4 photosynthesis as revealed by a ca1ca2 double mutant in maize.

    DOE PAGES

    Studer, Anthony J.; Gandin, Anthony; Kolbe, Allison R.; ...

    2014-04-04

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) catalyzes the first biochemical step of the carbon concentrating mechanism of C4 plants, and in C4 monocots, it has been suggested that CA activity is near limiting for photosynthesis. Here, we test this hypothesis through the characterization of transposon induced mutant alleles of Ca1 and Ca2 in Zea mays. In addition, these two isoforms account for more than 85% of the CA transcript pool. A significant change in isotopic discrimination is observed in mutant plants, which have as little as 3% of wild-type CA activity, but surprisingly, photosynthesis is not reduced under current or elevated pCO2. However,more » growth and rates of photosynthesis under sub-ambient pCO2 are significantly impaired in the mutants. These findings suggest, that while CA is not limiting for C4 photosynthesis in Z. mays at current pCO2, it likely maintains high rates of photosynthesis when CO2 availability is reduced. Current atmospheric CO2 levels now exceed 400 ppm (~40.53 Pa) and contrast the low CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) conditions under which C4 plants expanded their range ~10 million years ago when the global atmospheric CO2 was below 300 ppm (~30.40 Pa). Thus, as CO2 levels continue to rise, selective pressures for high levels of CA may be limited to arid climates where stomatal closure reduces CO2 availability to the leaf.« less

  11. CO2 reduction and organic compounds production by photosynthetic bacteria with surface displayed carbonic anhydrase and inducible expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju-Yong; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Min, Jiho

    2017-01-01

    In Rhodobacter sphaeroides, carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) is a zinc-containing metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO2 to HCO3(-) while phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; 4.1.1.31), an enzyme involved in the carbon metabolism that catalyzed the fixation of CO2 to PEP, is a key factor for biological fixation of CO2 and enhances the production of organic compounds. In this study, the recombinant R. sphaeroides with highly-expressed CA was developed based on a surface displayed system of CA (pJY-OmpCA) on the outer membrane of R. sphaeroides using outer membrane protein (Omp) in R. sphaeroides, Finally, two more different recombinant R. sphaeroides were developed, which transformed with a two-vector system harboring cytosolic expressed CA (pJY-OmpCA-CA)or PEPC (pJY-OMPCA-PEPC) in R. sphaeroides with surface displayed CA on the outer membrane. In case of recombinant R. sphaeroides with the pJY-OmpCA-PEPC, it has shown the highest CO2 reduction efficiency and the production of several organic compounds (carotenoids, polyhydroxybutyrate, malic acid, succinic acid). It means that the surface displayed CA on the R. sphaeroides would accelerate the CO2-bicabonate conversion on the bacterial outer membrane. Moreover, inducible over-expression of PEPC with surface-displayed CA was successfully used to facilitate a rapider CO2 reduction and quicker production of organic compounds.

  12. Discovery and microassay of a nitrite-dependent carbonic anhydrase activity by stable-isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zinke, Maximilian; Hanff, Erik; Böhmer, Anke; Supuran, Claudiu T; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA) is the hydration of CO2 to carbonic acid and its dehydration to CO2. CA may also function as esterase and phosphatase. Recently, we demonstrated that renal CA is mainly responsible for the reabsorption of nitrite (NO2(-)) which is the most abundant reservoir of the biologically highly potent nitric oxide (NO). By means of a stable-isotope dilution GC-MS method, we discovered a novel CA activity which strictly depends upon nitrite. We found that bovine erythrocytic CAII (beCAII) catalyses the incorporation of (18)O from H2 (18)O into nitrite at pH 7.4. After derivatization with pentafluorobenzyl bromide, gas chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric analysis, we detected ions at m/z 48 for singly (18)O-labelled nitrite ((16)O=N-(18)O(-)/(18)O=N-(16)O(-)) and at m/z 50 for doubly (18)O-labelled nitrite ((18)O=N-(18)O(-)) in addition to m/z 46 for unlabelled nitrite. Using (15)N-labelled nitrite ((15)NO2 (-), m/z 47) as an internal standard and selected-ion monitoring of m/z 46, m/z 48, m/z 50 and m/z 47, we developed a GC-MS microassay for the quantitative determination of the nitrite-dependent beCAII activity. The CA inhibitors acetazolamide and FC5 207A did not alter beCAII-catalysed formation of singly and doubly (18)O-labelled nitrite. Cysteine and the experimental CA inhibitor DIDS (a diisothiocyanate) increased several fold the beCAII-catalysed formation of the (18)O-labelled nitrite species. Cysteine, acetazolamide, FC5 207A, and DIDS by themselves had no effect on the incorporation of (18)O from H2 (18)O into nitrite. We conclude that erythrocytic CA possesses a nitrite-dependent activity which can only be detected when nitrite is used as the substrate and the reaction is performed in buffers of neutral pH values prepared in H2 (18)O. This novel CA activity, i.e., the nitrous acid anhydrase activity, represents a bioactivation of nitrite and may have both beneficial (via S-nitrosylation and subsequent

  13. Design and synthesis of benzothiazole-6-sulfonamides acting as highly potent inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase isoforms I, II, IX and XII.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Diaa A; Lasheen, Deena S; Zaky, Maysoun Y; Ibrahim, Amany W; Vullo, Daniela; Ceruso, Mariangela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Abou El Ella, Dalal A

    2015-08-01

    A series of novel 2-aminobenzothiazole derivatives bearing sulfonamide at position 6 was designed, synthesized and investigated as inhibitors of four isoforms of the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1), the cytosolic CA I and II, and the tumor-associated isozymes CA IX and XII. Docking and binding energy studies were carried out to reveal details regarding the favorable interactions between the scaffolds of these new inhibitors and the active sites of the investigated CA isoforms. Most of the novel compounds were acting as highly potent inhibitors of the tumor-associated hCA IX and hCA XII with KIs in the nanomolar range. The ubiquitous and dominant rapid cytosolic isozyme hCA II was also inhibited with KIs ranging from 3.5 to 45.4 nM. The favorable interactions between some of the new compounds and the active site of different CA isoforms were delineated by using molecular docking which may be useful for designing compounds with high affinity and selectivity for some CAs with biomedical applications.

  14. Targeting erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase and 18O-isotope of breath CO2 for sorting out type 1 and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Chiranjit; Mandal, Santanu; Banik, Gourab D.; Maity, Abhijit; Mukhopadhyay, Prabuddha; Ghosh, Shibendu; Pradhan, Manik

    2016-01-01

    The inability to envisage the acute onset and progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been a major clinical stumbling block and an important area of biomedical research over the last few decades. Therefore there is a pressing need to develop a new and an effective strategy for early detection of T1D and to precisely distinguish T1D from type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here we describe the precise role of the enzymatic activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in erythrocytes in the pathogenesis of T1D and T2D. We show that CA activities are markedly altered during metabolism of T1D and T2D and this facilitates to the oxygen-18 (18O) isotopic fractionations of breath CO2. In our observations, T1D exhibited considerable depletions of 18O-isotopes of CO2, whereas T2D manifested isotopic enrichments of 18O in breath CO2, thus unveiling a missing link of breath18O-isotopic fractionations in T1D and T2D. Our findings suggest that the alterations in erythrocytes CA activities may be the initial step of altered metabolism of T1D and T2D, and breath 18O-isotope regulated by the CA activity is a potential diagnostic biomarker that can selectively and precisely distinguish T1D from T2D and thus may open a potential unifying strategy for treating these diseases. PMID:27767104

  15. Inhibition of bone resorption in vitro by antisense RNA and DNA molecules targeted against carbonic anhydrase II or two subunits of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Laitala, T; Väänänen, H K

    1994-01-01

    The bone resorbing cells, osteoclasts, express high levels of carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) and vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) during bone resorption. We have used antisense RNA and DNA molecules targeted against CA II, and against 16- and 60-kD subunits of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase), to block the expression of these proteins in vitro. Osteoclastic bone resorption was studied in two in vitro culture systems: release of 45Calcium from prelabeled newborn mouse calvaria cultures, and resorption pit assays performed with rat osteoclasts cultured on bovine bone slices. Both antisense RNA and DNA against CA II and the V-ATPase were used to compare their specificities as regards inhibiting bone resorption in vitro. The antisense molecules inhibited the synthesis of these proteins by decreasing the amounts of mRNA in the cells in a highly specific manner. In osteoclast cultures treated with the 16-kD V-ATPase antisense RNA, acidification of an unknown population of intracellular vesicles was highly stimulated. The acidification of these vesicles was not sensitive to amiloride or bafilomycin A1. This suggests the existence of a back-up system for acidification of intracellular vesicles, when the expression of the V-ATPase is blocked. Our results further indicate that blocking the expression of CA II and V-ATPase with antisense RNA or DNA leads to decreased bone resorption. Images PMID:8200964

  16. Comparative Proteomics Reveals that Phosphorylation of β Carbonic Anhydrase 1 Might be Important for Adaptation to Drought Stress in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limin; Jin, Xiang; Li, Qingbin; Wang, Xuchu; Li, Zaiyun; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the mechanism of drought tolerance in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). In this study, different morphological and physiological responses to drought stress were studied in three rapeseed cultivars. For the cultivar 2AF009 with high drought tolerance, comparative proteomic analyses were conducted to determine the molecular mechanism behind. Approximately 138 differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) and 1232 phosphoproteins containing 4469 phosphopeptides were identified. Furthermore, 337 phosphoproteins containing 547 phosphorylation sites demonstrated significant changes. These drought-responsive DAPs and phosphoproteins were mainly involved in signal transduction, photosynthesis, and glutathione-ascorbate metabolism. Notably, 9 DAPs were also identified as drought-responsive phosphoproteins, especially beta carbonic anhydrase 1 (βCA1), which was represented by eight distinct protein spots with different abundant levels during drought stress. Tyr207 phosphorylated site of βCA1 was down-regulated at the phosphorylation level during drought stress, which was also located in the substrate-binding active region of three-dimensional (3D) structure. Moreover, drought stress inhibited CA activity. We concluded that Tyr207 was the most likely phosphorylation target affecting the enzyme activity, and phosphorylation of βCA1 might be important for the response to drought stress in rapeseed. The study provided a new clue for the drought tolerance mechanism in B.napus. PMID:27966654

  17. Comparative studies of the artificial chaperone-assisted refolding of thermally denatured bovine carbonic anhydrase using different capturing ionic detergents and beta-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Yazdanparast, Razieh; Khodarahmi, Reza; Soori, Effat

    2005-05-15

    Artificial chaperone-assisted refolding has been shown to be an effective approach for improving the refolding yield of some of the denatured proteins. Since identical concentrations of various detergents do not induce similar variations in the protein structures, we arranged to evaluate the artificial chaperoning capabilities of several ionic detergents as a function of charge, structure, and the hydrophobic tail length of the detergent. Our results indicate that carbonic anhydrase can be refolded from its denatured state via artificial chaperone strategy using both anionic and cationic detergents. However, the extent of refolding assistance (kinetic and refolding yield) were different due to protein and detergent net charges, detergent concentrations, and the length of hydrophobic portion of each detergent. These observed differences were attributed to physical properties of CA-detergent complexes and/or to the kinetics of detergent stripping by beta-cyclodextrin from the protein-detergent complexes which is apparently dependent on the detergent-beta-CD association constants and the nature of the partially stripped complexes.

  18. Regulation of photosynthesis and stomatal and mesophyll conductance under water stress and recovery in olive trees: correlation with gene expression of carbonic anhydrase and aquaporins.

    PubMed

    Perez-Martin, Alfonso; Michelazzo, Chiara; Torres-Ruiz, Jose M; Flexas, Jaume; Fernández, José E; Sebastiani, Luca; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    The hypothesis that aquaporins and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are involved in the regulation of stomatal (g s) and mesophyll (g m) conductance to CO2 was tested in a short-term water-stress and recovery experiment in 5-year-old olive plants (Olea europaea) growing outdoors. The evolution of leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and plant water status, and a quantitative analysis of photosynthesis limitations, were followed during water stress and recovery. These variables were correlated with gene expression of the aquaporins OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1, and stromal CA. At mild stress and at the beginning of the recovery period, stomatal limitations prevailed, while the decline in g m accounted for up to 60% of photosynthesis limitations under severe water stress. However, g m was restored to control values shortly after rewatering, facilitating the recovery of the photosynthetic rate. CA was downregulated during water stress and upregulated after recovery. The use of structural equation modelling allowed us to conclude that both OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1 expression could explain most of the variations observed for g s and g m. CA expression also had a small but significant effect on g m in olive under water-stress conditions.

  19. Effect of CO{sub 2} concentration on carbonic anhydrase and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase expression in pea

    SciTech Connect

    Majeau, N.; Coleman, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    The effect of external CO{sub 2} concentration on the expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was examined in pea (Pisum sativum cv Little Marvel) leaves. Enzyme activities and their transcript levels were reduced in plants grown at 1000 {mu}L/L CO{sub 2} compared with plants grown in ambient air. Growth at 160 {mu}L/L CO{sub 2} also appeared to reduce steady-state transcript levels for the rbcS, the gene encoding the small subunit of Rubisco, and for ca, the gene encoding CA; however, rbcS transcripts were reduced to a greater extent at this concentration. Rubisco activity was slightly lower in plants grown at 160 {mu}L/L CO{sub 2}, and CA activity was significantly higher than that observed in air-grown plants. Transfer of plants from 1000 {mu}L/L to air levels of CO{sub 2} resulted in a rapid increase in both ca and rbcS transcript abundance in fully expanded leaves, followed by an increase in enzyme activity. Plants transferred from air to high-CO{sub 2} concentrations appeared to modulate transcript abundance and enzyme activity less quickly. Foliar carbohydrate levels were also examined in plants grown continuously at high and ambient CO{sub 2}, and following changes in growth conditions that rapidly altered ca and rbcS transcript abundance and enzyme activities. 39 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. A sucrose-binding site provides a lead towards an isoform-specific inhibitor of the cancer-associated enzyme carbonic anhydrase IX

    DOE PAGES

    Pinard, Melissa A.; Aggarwal, Mayank; Mahon, Brian P.; ...

    2015-09-23

    Human carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) isoform IX (CA IX) is an extracellular zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO2to HCO3$-$, thereby playing a role in pH regulation. The majority of normal functioning cells exhibit low-level expression of CA IX. However, in cancer cells CA IX is upregulated as a consequence of a metabolic transition known as the Warburg effect. The upregulation of CA IX for cancer progression has drawn interest in it being a potential therapeutic target. CA IX is a transmembrane protein, and its purification, yield and crystallization have proven challenging to structure-based drug design, whereasmore » the closely related cytosolic soluble isoform CA II can be expressed and crystallized with ease. Therefore, we have utilized structural alignments and site-directed mutagenesis to engineer a CA II that mimics the active site of CA IX. In this paper, the X-ray crystal structure of this CA IX mimic in complex with sucrose is presented and has been refined to a resolution of 1.5 Å, anRcryst of 18.0% and anRfree of 21.2%. Finally, the binding of sucrose at the entrance to the active site of the CA IX mimic, and not CA II, in a non-inhibitory mechanism provides a novel carbohydrate moiety binding site that could be further exploited to design isoform-specific inhibitors of CA IX.« less

  1. Evaluation of vanillic acid as inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase isozyme III by using a modified Hummel-Dreyer method: approach for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Alzweiri, Muhammed; Al-Hiari, Yusuf

    2013-09-01

    α-3 carbonic anhydrase isozyme (CAIII) is the most abundant protein in adipocytes and considered insensitive to sulfonamide inhibitors. It was reported recently that the knock-down of CAIII is attributed with controlling lipogenesis. Thus inhibition of this target may lead to the discovery of new therapies against obesity and insulin resistance. Vanillic acid as a small molecule with coordinating groups and has a potential to bind zinc atoms in CA binding sites. Inhibition of CAIII by vanillic acid was evaluated by Hummel-Dreyer chromatography because it provides free interaction between ligand and macromolecule and introduces solution for faulty results obtained by current colorimetric assays. HPLC system of vanillic acid produces vacancy (negative) peak representing the amount of attached vanillic acid with CAIII. It was found that vanillic acid is able to bind with CAIII through two equilibria, one at equimolar ratio and another at 2:1 (vanillic acid-CAIII) ratio. The affinity constant of equimolar binding between CAIII and vanillic acid was found to be 14,400 m(-1) . It was found that vanillic acid binding with CAIII is much stronger than phenol and acetazolamide (positive controls).

  2. DISCLOSING THE INTERACTION OF CARBONIC ANHYDRASE IX WITH CULLIN-ASSOCIATED NEDD8-DISSOCIATED PROTEIN 1 BY MOLECULAR MODELING AND INTEGRATED BINDING MEASUREMENTS.

    PubMed

    Buonanno, Martina; Langella, Emma; Zambrano, Nicola; Succoio, Mariangela; Sasso, Emanuele; Alterio, Vincenzo; Di Fiore, Anna; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Supuran, Claudiu T; Scaloni, Andrea; Monti, Simona Maria; De Simone, Giuseppina

    2017-04-07

    Human Carbonic Anhydrase (hCA) IX is a membrane-associated member of the CA enzyme family, involved in solid tumor acidification. This enzyme is a marker of tumor hypoxia and a prognostic factor for several human cancers. In a recent paper we showed that CA IX interacts with cullin-associated NEDD8-dissociated protein 1 (CAND1), a nuclear protein involved in gene transcription and assembly of SCF ubiquitin ligase complexes. A functional role for this interaction was also identified, since lower CA IX levels were observed in cells with decreased CAND1 expression via shRNA-mediated interference. In this paper, we describe the identification of the structural determinants responsible of the CA IX/CAND1 interaction by means of a multidisciplinary approach, consisting of binding assay measurements, molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis. These data open a novel scenario in the design of anticancer drugs targeting CA IX. Indeed, the knowledge of the structural determinants responsible for the CAND1/CA IX interaction provides the molecular basis to design molecules able to destabilize it. Due to the proposed function of CAND1 in stabilizing CA IX, these molecules could represent an efficient tool to lower the amount of CA IX in hypoxic cancer cells, thus limiting its action in survival and metastatic spread of tumors.

  3. Blood Oxygenation Level-dependent Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Breast Cancer: Correlation with Carbonic Anhydrase IX and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Min; Jin, Mu-Lan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI) is a functional MRI technique which involves using the paramagnetic properties of deoxyhemoglobin to image the local tissue oxygen concentration. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether BOLD-MRI could evaluate hypoxia and angiogenesis of breast invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Methods: Ninety-eight female patients with IDC were retrospectively included in this research. All patients underwent breast BOLD-MRI at 3.0 T before surgery. R2* values of BOLD-MRI were measured. The expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Spearman's correlation analysis was used to correlate R2* value with CA IX and VEGF levels. Results: Heterogeneous intensity on BOLD-MRI images was the main finding of IDCs. The mean R2* value was 52.8 ± 18.6 Hz. The R2* values in patients with axillary lymph node metastasis were significantly higher than the R2* values in patients without axillary lymph node metastasis (t = 2.882, P = 0.005). R2* values increased with CA IX level and positively correlated with the level of CA IX (r = 0.616, P < 0.001); however, R2* value had no significantly correlation with the level of VEGF (r = 0.110, P = 0.281). Conclusion: BOLD-MRI could noninvasively evaluate chronic hypoxia of IDC, but not angiogenesis. PMID:28051026

  4. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of human cytosolic isoforms I and II with (reduced) Schiff's bases incorporating sulfonamide, carboxylate and carboxymethyl moieties.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Gihane; Cristian, Alina; Barboiu, Mihail; Vullo, Daniella; Winum, Jean-Yves; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2014-05-15

    A library of Schiff bases was synthesized by condensation of aromatic amines incorporating sulfonamide, carboxylic acid or carboxymethyl functionalities as Zn(2+)-binding groups, with aromatic aldehydes incorporating tert-butyl, hydroxy and/or methoxy groups. The corresponding amines were thereafter obtained by reduction of the imines. These compounds were assayed for the inhibition of two cytosolic human carbonic anhydrase (hCA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoenzymes, hCA I and II. The Ki values of the Schiff bases were in the range of 7.0-21,400nM against hCA II and of 52-8600nM against hCA I, respectively. The corresponding amines showed Ki values in the range of 8.6nM-5.3μM against hCA II, and of 18.7-251nM against hCA I, respectively. Unlike the imines, the reduced Schiff bases are stable to hydrolysis and several low-nanomolar inhibitors were detected, most of them incorporating sulfonamide groups. Some carboxylates also showed interesting CA inhibitory properties. Such hydrosoluble derivatives may show pharmacologic applications.

  5. Expression and characterization of a recombinant psychrophilic γ-carbonic anhydrase (NcoCA) identified in the genome of the Antarctic cyanobacteria belonging to the genus Nostoc.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Viviana; Del Prete, Sonia; Vullo, Daniela; Carginale, Vincenzo; Di Fonzo, Pietro; Osman, Sameh M; AlOthman, Zeid; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

    2016-10-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) catalyze the CO2 hydration/dehydration reversible reaction: CO2 + H2O ⇄ [Formula: see text] + H(+). Living organisms encode for at least six distinct genetic families of such catalyst, the α-, β-, γ-, δ-, ζ- and η-CAs. The main function of the CAs is to quickly process the CO2 derived by metabolic processes in order to regulate acid-base homeostasis, connected to the production of protons (H(+)) and bicarbonate. Few data are available in the literature on Antarctic CAs and most of the scientific information regards CAs isolated from mammals or prokaryotes (as well as other mesophilic sources). It is of great interest to study the biochemical behavior of such catalysts identified in organism living in the Antarctic sea where temperatures average -1.9 °C all year round. The enzymes isolated from Antarctic organisms represent a useful tool to study the relations among structure, stability and function of proteins in organisms adapted to living at constantly low temperatures. In the present paper, we report in detail the cloning, purification, and physico-chemical properties of NcoCA, a γ-CA isolated from the Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. This enzyme showed a higher catalytic efficiency at lower temperatures compared to mesophilic counterparts belonging to α-, β-, γ-classes, as well as a limited stability at moderate temperatures.

  6. Synthesis, characterization, antibacterial activities and carbonic anhydrase enzyme inhibitor effects of new arylsulfonylhydrazone and their Ni(II), Co(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ummühan Ozmen; Arslan, Fatma; Hamurcu, Fatma

    2010-01-01

    Ethane sulfonic acide hydrazide (esh: CH(3)CH(2)SO(2)NHNH(2)) derivatives as 5-methylsalicyl-aldehydeethanesulfonylhydrazone (5msalesh), 5-methyl-2-hydroxyacetophenoneethane sulfonylhydrazone (5mafesh) and their Ni(II), Co(II) complexes have been synthesized for the first time. The structure of these compounds has been investigated by elemental analysis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, LC/MS, UV-vis spectrophotometric method, magnetic susceptibility, thermal studies and conductivity measurements. The antibacterial activities of synthesized compounds were studied against Gram positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus magaterium and Gram negative bacteria; Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli by using the microdilution broth method. The biological activity screening showed that ligands have more activity than complexes against the tested bacteria. The inhibition activities of these compounds on carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) have been investigated by comparing IC(50) and K(i) values and it has been found that 5msalesh and its complexes have more enzyme inhibition efficiency than other compounds.

  7. Synthesis, characterization, antibacterial activities and carbonic anhydrase enzyme inhibitor effects of new arylsulfonylhydrazone and their Ni(II), Co(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Ümmühan Özmen; Arslan, Fatma; Hamurcu, Fatma

    2010-01-01

    Ethane sulfonic acide hydrazide ( esh: CH 3CH 2SO 2NHNH 2) derivatives as 5-methylsalicyl-aldehydeethanesulfonylhydrazone ( 5msalesh), 5-methyl-2-hydroxyacetophenoneethane sulfonylhydrazone ( 5mafesh) and their Ni(II), Co(II) complexes have been synthesized for the first time. The structure of these compounds has been investigated by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, LC/MS, UV-vis spectrophotometric method, magnetic susceptibility, thermal studies and conductivity measurements. The antibacterial activities of synthesized compounds were studied against Gram positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus magaterium and Gram negative bacteria; Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli by using the microdilution broth method. The biological activity screening showed that ligands have more activity than complexes against the tested bacteria. The inhibition activities of these compounds on carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) have been investigated by comparing IC 50 and Ki values and it has been found that 5msalesh and its complexes have more enzyme inhibition efficiency than other compounds.

  8. Structural and biophysical characterization of the α-carbonic anhydrase from the gammaproteobacterium Thiomicrospira crunogena XCL-2: insights into engineering thermostable enzymes for CO2 sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Torres, Natalia A.; Mahon, Brian P.; Boone, Christopher D.; Pinard, Melissa A.; Tu, Chingkuang; Ng, Robert; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Silverman, David; Scott, Kathleen; McKenna, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Biocatalytic CO2 sequestration to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from industrial processes is an active area of research. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are attractive enzymes for this process. However, the most active CAs display limited thermal and pH stability, making them less than ideal. As a result, there is an ongoing effort to engineer and/or find a thermostable CA to fulfill these needs. Here, the kinetic and thermal characterization is presented of an α-CA recently discovered in the mesophilic hydrothermal vent-isolate extremophile Thiomicrospira crunogena XCL-2 (TcruCA), which has a significantly higher thermostability compared with human CA II (melting temperature of 71.9°C versus 59.5°C, respectively) but with a tenfold decrease in the catalytic efficiency. The X-ray crystallographic structure of the dimeric TcruCA shows that it has a highly conserved yet compact structure compared with other α-CAs. In addition, TcruCA contains an intramolecular disulfide bond that stabilizes the enzyme. These features are thought to contribute significantly to the thermostability and pH stability of the enzyme and may be exploited to engineer α-CAs for applications in industrial CO2 sequestration. PMID:26249355

  9. Carbonic anhydrase activation enhances object recognition memory in mice through phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the cortex and the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Canto de Souza, Lucas; Provensi, Gustavo; Vullo, Daniela; Carta, Fabrizio; Scozzafava, Andrea; Costa, Alessia; Schmidt, Scheila Daiane; Passani, Maria Beatrice; Supuran, Claudiu T; Blandina, Patrizio

    2017-03-09

    Rats injected with by d-phenylalanine, a carbonic anhydrase (CA) activator, enhanced spatial learning, whereas rats given acetazolamide, a CA inhibitor, exhibited impairments of fear memory consolidation. However, the related mechanisms are unclear. We investigated if CAs are involved in a non-spatial recognition memory task assessed using the object recognition test (ORT). Systemic administration of acetazolamide to male CD1 mice caused amnesia in the ORT and reduced CA activity in brain homogenates, while treatment with d-phenylalanine enhanced memory and increased CA activity. We provided also the first evidence that d-phenylalanine administration rapidly activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways, a critical step for memory formation, in the cortex and the hippocampus, two brain areas involved in memory processing. Effects elicited by d-phenylalanine were completely blunted by co-administration of acetazolamide, but not of 1-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl-ethyl)-2,4,6-trimethylpyridinium perchlorate ((C18),) a CA inhibitor that, differently from acetazolamide, does not cross the blood brain barrier. Our results strongly suggest that brain but not peripheral CAs activation potentiates memory as a result of ERK pathway enhanced activation.

  10. Immunoaffinity enrichment and liquid chromatography-selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry for quantitation of carbonic anhydrase 12 in cultured renal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Rafalko, Agnes; Iliopoulos, Othon; Fusaro, Vincent A.; Hancock, William; Hincapie, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Liquid chromatography-selected reaction monitoring (LC-SRM) is a highly specific and sensitive mass spectrometry (MS) technique that is widely being applied to selectively qualify and validate candidate markers within complex biological samples. However, in order for LC-SRM methods to take on these attributes, target-specific optimization of sample processing is required, in order to reduce analyte complexity, prior to LC-SRM. In this study, we have developed a targeted platform consisting of protein immunoaffinity enrichment on magnetic beads and LC-SRM for measuring carbonic anhydrase 12 (CA12) protein in a renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell line (PRC3), a candidate biomarker for RCC whose expression at the protein level has not been previously reported. Sample processing and LC-SRM assay were optimized for signature peptides selected as surrogate markers of CA12 protein. Using LC-SRM coupled with stable isotope dilution, we achieved limits of quantitation in the low fmol range sufficient for measuring clinically relevant biomarkers with good intra- and inter-assay accuracy and precision (≤17%). Our results show that using a quantitative immunoaffinity capture approach provides specific, accurate, and robust assays amenable to high-throughput verification of potential biomarkers. PMID:20936840

  11. Carbonic anhydrase IX induction defines a heterogeneous cancer cell response to hypoxia and mediates stem cell-like properties and sensitivity to HDAC inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Wigfield, Simon; Buffa, Francesca; McGowan, Simon; Baban, Dilair; Li, Ji-liang; Harris, Adrian L.

    2015-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is strongly induced by hypoxia and its overexpression is associated with poor therapeutic outcome in cancer. Here, we report that hypoxia promotes tumour heterogeneity through the epigenetic regulation of CAIX. Based on hypoxic CAIX expression we identify and characterize two distinct populations of tumour cells, one that has inducible expression of CAIX and one that does not. The CAIX+ve population is enriched with cells expressing cancer stem cell markers and which have high self-renewal capacity. We show that differential CAIX expression is due to differences in chromatin structure. To further investigate the relationship between chromatin organization and hypoxic induction of CAIX expression we investigated the effect of JQ1 an inhibitor of BET bromodomain proteins and A366 a selective inhibitor of the H3K9 methyltransferase G9a/GLP. We identified that these drugs were able to modulate hypoxic CAIX expression induction. This further highlights the role of epigenetic modification in adaption to hypoxia and also in regulation of heterogeneity of cells within tumours. Interestingly, we identified that the two subpopulations show a differential sensitivity to HDAC inhibitors, NaBu or SAHA, with the CAIX positive showing greater sensitivity to treatment. We propose that drugs modulating chromatin regulation of expression may be used to reduce heterogeneity induced by hypoxia and could in combination have significant clinical consequences. PMID:26305601

  12. A sucrose-binding site provides a lead towards an isoform-specific inhibitor of the cancer-associated enzyme carbonic anhydrase IX

    PubMed Central

    Pinard, Melissa A.; Aggarwal, Mayank; Mahon, Brian P.; Tu, Chingkuang; McKenna, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Human carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) isoform IX (CA IX) is an extracellular zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO2 to HCO3 −, thereby playing a role in pH regulation. The majority of normal functioning cells exhibit low-level expression of CA IX. However, in cancer cells CA IX is upregulated as a consequence of a metabolic transition known as the Warburg effect. The upregulation of CA IX for cancer progression has drawn interest in it being a potential therapeutic target. CA IX is a transmembrane protein, and its purification, yield and crystallization have proven challenging to structure-based drug design, whereas the closely related cytosolic soluble isoform CA II can be expressed and crystallized with ease. Therefore, we have utilized structural alignments and site-directed mutagenesis to engineer a CA II that mimics the active site of CA IX. In this paper, the X-ray crystal structure of this CA IX mimic in complex with sucrose is presented and has been refined to a resolution of 1.5 Å, an R cryst of 18.0% and an R free of 21.2%. The binding of sucrose at the entrance to the active site of the CA IX mimic, and not CA II, in a non-inhibitory mechanism provides a novel carbohydrate moiety binding site that could be further exploited to design isoform-specific inhibitors of CA IX. PMID:26457530

  13. Carbonic anhydrase IX promotes myeloid-derived suppressor cell mobilization and establishment of a metastatic niche by stimulating G-CSF production.

    PubMed

    Chafe, Shawn C; Lou, Yuanmei; Sceneay, Jaclyn; Vallejo, Marylou; Hamilton, Melisa J; McDonald, Paul C; Bennewith, Kevin L; Möller, Andreas; Dedhar, Shoukat

    2015-03-15

    The mobilization of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC) to distant tissues before the arrival of disseminated tumor cells has been shown preclinically to facilitate metastasis through the establishment of metastatic niches. Primary tumor hypoxia has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in the production of chemokines and cytokines responsible for the mobilization of these BMDCs, especially in breast cancer. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX, CA9) expression is highly upregulated in hypoxic breast cancer cells through the action of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF1). Preclinical evidence has demonstrated that CAIX is required for breast tumor growth and metastasis; however, the mechanism by which CAIX exerts its prometastatic function is not well understood. Here, we show that CAIX is indispensable for the production of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) by hypoxic breast cancer cells and tumors in an orthotopic model. Furthermore, we demonstrate that tumor-expressed CAIX is required for the G-CSF-driven mobilization of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) to the breast cancer lung metastatic niche. We also determined that CAIX expression is required for the activation of NF-κB in hypoxic breast cancer cells and constitutive activation of the NF-κB pathway in CAIX-depleted cells restored G-CSF secretion. Together, these findings identify a novel hypoxia-induced CAIX-NF-κB-G-CSF cellular signaling axis culminating in the mobilization of granulocytic MDSCs to the breast cancer lung metastatic niche.

  14. Carbonic anhydrase activity and photosynthetic rate in the tree species Paulownia tomentosa Steud. Effect of dimethylsulfoxide treatment and zinc accumulation in leaves.

    PubMed

    Lazova, Galia N; Naidenova, Tsveta; Velinova, Katya

    2004-03-01

    The enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) (EC 4.2.1.1) catalyzes the reversible conversion of CO2 to HCO3- and has been shown to be involved in photosynthesis. The enzyme has been shown in animals, plants, eubacteria and viruses, but similar reports on the evidence for CA activity in tree plants does not be appear to be available. In the preliminary analyses of the work, the CA activity in leaf extracts from the tree species Paulownia tomentosa Steud. (introduced in Bulgaria) is described. A connection between CA activity and the rate of photosynthetic CO2 fixation is shown. In the second portion of the work, the effect of 10(-4) mol/L and 10(-2) mol/L dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on the zinc accumulation in leaves is demonstrated. It is suggested that CA activity is an indicator of the level of physiologically active zinc in leaves of P. tomentosa Steud. A connection between the process of zinc accumulation in leaves and the activity of the enzymes CA and glycolate oxidase (GO) (EC 1.1.3.1) is established.

  15. Induction by hypoxia combined with low glucose or low bicarbonate and high posttranslational stability upon reoxygenation contribute to carbonic anhydrase IX expression in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rafajová, Monika; Zatovicová, Miriam; Kettmann, Richard; Pastorek, Jaromír; Pastoreková, Silvia

    2004-04-01

    Hypoxia is an important factor of tumor microenvironment that significantly influences behaviour of tumor cells via activation of genes whose products are involved in adaptation to hypoxic stress, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and glucose transporter (GLUT-1). Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is one of the most strongly hypoxia-inducible proteins with potential value as an intrinsic marker of hypoxia. However, intratumoral distribution of CA IX only partially overlaps with distribution of VEGF and GLUT-1 indicating that regulation of CA IX differs from the regulation of other hypoxic markers. Therefore, we analysed CA IX expression in response to hypoxia combined with other stresses, and determined the stability of CA IX protein upon reoxygenation using HeLa cells as a model. We found that both hypoxia-induced transcription and CA IX protein level are further increased by reduced glucose or bicarbonate concentrations. Post-translational stability of CA IX was assessed by monitoring the quantity of biotinylated protein extracted at different time points from the cells labelled immediately after shift to reoxygenation. CA IX protein half-life in reoxygenated cells was 38 h and was independent of the duration of the foregoing hypoxia. This finding has potential implications for interpretation of clinical data as it suggests that CA IX expression may detect not only actually hypoxic tumor regions, but also the regions affected by hypoxia and adverse microenvironmental stresses before biopsy or tumor removal.

  16. The Relationship of Oxidation Sensitivity of Red Blood Cells and Carbonic Anhydrase Activity in Stored Human Blood: Effect of Certain Phenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Şekeroğlu, Mehmet Ramazan; Balahoroğlu, Ragıp; Karakoyun, Tahsin; Çokluk, Erdem

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that many modifications occur with the increase of oxidative stress during storage in erythrocytes. In order to delay these negative changes, we evaluated whether the addition of substances likely to protect antioxidant capacity in stored blood would be useful. Therefore, we investigated the effects of resveratrol, tannic acid, and caffeic acid in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of erythrocytes in stored blood. Donated blood was taken into four CPD containing blood bags. One bag was used as the control, and the others were supplemented with caffeic acid (30 μg/mL), resveratrol (30 μg/mL), and tannic acid (15 μg/mL), respectively. Erythrocyte lipid peroxidation, sensitivity to oxidation, glutathione levels and carbonic anhydrase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities were measured on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28. In the control group, erythrocyte malondialdehyde levels and sensitivity to oxidation were increased whereas glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase levels were decreased (p < 0.05). Resveratrol and caffeic acid prevented malondialdehyde accumulation and preserved glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities in erythrocytes. We demonstrated that resveratrol, caffeic acid, and tannic acid in stored blood could decrease the sensitivity to oxidation of erythrocytes in vitro but did not exhibit such effects on CA activity. PMID:27413740

  17. Waterborne copper exposure inhibits ammonia excretion and branchial carbonic anhydrase activity in euryhaline guppies acclimated to both fresh water and sea water.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Alex M; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Wood, Chris M; Bianchini, Adalto

    2012-10-15

    Inhibition of ammonia excretion (J(amm)) is a common response to Cu exposure in freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW) organisms. To determine the mechanism of this response, a euryhaline species of guppy (Poecilia vivipara) was exposed to 20 μg Cu/l in FW (0 ppt) and SW (25 ppt) for 96 h. In both salinities, Cu transiently inhibited ammonia excretion (J(amm)) followed by a full recovery by the end of the 96 h exposure. The activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, H(+)-ATPase, and carbonic anhydrase (CA) were examined in the gills at 12 and 96 h of Cu exposure. In both salinity acclimations, CA activity was significantly inhibited following 12h of Cu exposure in P. vivipara, marking the first in vivo evidence of Cu-induced inhibition of CA in fish. Moreover, the inhibition and recovery of this enzyme were correlated with the inhibition and recovery of J(amm) in both salinity acclimations. The blockade of CA potentially acts as a common mechanism of J(amm) inhibition in FW and SW. There were no significant effects on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase or H(+)-ATPase activity at either time point or salinity. However, H(+)-ATPase activity was upregulated at 96 h relative to the 12h time point, potentially involving this enzyme in re-establishing J(amm).

  18. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase isoforms I, II, IX and XII with novel Schiff bases: identification of selective inhibitors for the tumor-associated isoforms over the cytosolic ones.

    PubMed

    Sarikaya, Busra; Ceruso, Mariangela; Carta, Fabrizio; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2014-11-01

    A series of new Schiff bases was obtained from sulfanilamide, 3-fluorosulfanilamide or 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonamide and aromatic/heterocyclic aldehydes incorporating both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties. The obtained sulfonamides were investigated as inhibitors of four physiologically relevant carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms, the cytosolic CA I and II, as well as the transmembrane, tumor-associated CA IX and XII. Most derivatives were medium potency or weak hCA I/II inhibitors, but several of them showed nanomolar affinity for CA IX and/or XII, making them an interesting example of isoform-selective compounds. The nature of the aryl/hetaryl moiety present in the initial aldehyde was the main factor influencing potency and isoform selectivity. The best and most CA IX-selective compounds incorporated moieties such as 4-methylthiophenyl, 4-cyanophenyl-, 4-(2-pyridyl)-phenyl and the 4-aminoethylbenzenesulfonamide scaffold. The best hCA XII inhibitors, also showing selectivity for this isoform, incorporated 2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl-, 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl and 4-(2-pyridyl)-phenyl functionalities and were also derivatives of 4-aminoethylbenzenesulfonamide. The sulfanilamide and 3-fluorosulfanilamide derived Schiff bases were less active compared to the corresponding 4-aminoethyl-benzenesulfonamide derivatives. As hCA IX/XII selective inhibition is attractive for obtaining antitumor agents/diagnostic tools with a new mechanism of action, compounds of the type described here may be considered interesting preclinical candidates.

  19. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: in vitro inhibition of α isoforms (hCA I, hCA II, bCA III, hCA IV) by flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Derya; Karagoz, Lutfi; Ekinci, Deniz; Senturk, Murat; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2013-04-01

    A series of flavonoids, such as quercetin, catechin, apigenin, luteolin, morin, were investigated for their inhibitory effects against the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA). The compounds were tested against four α-CA isozymes purified from human and bovine (hCA I, hCA II, bCA III, hCA IV) tissues. The four isozymes showed quite diverse inhibition profiles with these compounds. The flavonoids inhibited hCA I with K(I)-s in the range of 2.2-12.8 μM, hCA II with K(I)-s in the range of 0.74-6.2 μM, bCA III with K(I)-s in the range of 2.2-21.3 μM, and hCA IV with inhibition constants in the range of 4.4-15.7, with an esterase assay using 4-nitrophenyl acetate as substrate. Some simple phenols/sulfonamides were also investigated as standard inhibitors. The flavonoids incorporate phenol moieties which inhibit these CAs through a diverse, not yet determined inhibition mechanism, compared to classic inhibitors such as the sulfonamide/sulfamate ones.

  20. Structural and biophysical characterization of the α-carbonic anhydrase from the gammaproteobacterium Thiomicrospira crunogena XCL-2: insights into engineering thermostable enzymes for CO2 sequestration.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Torres, Natalia A; Mahon, Brian P; Boone, Christopher D; Pinard, Melissa A; Tu, Chingkuang; Ng, Robert; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Silverman, David; Scott, Kathleen; McKenna, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Biocatalytic CO2 sequestration to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from industrial processes is an active area of research. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are attractive enzymes for this process. However, the most active CAs display limited thermal and pH stability, making them less than ideal. As a result, there is an ongoing effort to engineer and/or find a thermostable CA to fulfill these needs. Here, the kinetic and thermal characterization is presented of an α-CA recently discovered in the mesophilic hydrothermal vent-isolate extremophile Thiomicrospira crunogena XCL-2 (TcruCA), which has a significantly higher thermostability compared with human CA II (melting temperature of 71.9°C versus 59.5°C, respectively) but with a tenfold decrease in the catalytic efficiency. The X-ray crystallographic structure of the dimeric TcruCA shows that it has a highly conserved yet compact structure compared with other α-CAs. In addition, TcruCA contains an intramolecular disulfide bond that stabilizes the enzyme. These features are thought to contribute significantly to the thermostability and pH stability of the enzyme and may be exploited to engineer α-CAs for applications in industrial CO2 sequestration.

  1. Open saccharin-based secondary sulfonamides as potent and selective inhibitors of cancer-related carbonic anhydrase IX and XII isoforms.

    PubMed

    D'Ascenzio, Melissa; Guglielmi, Paolo; Carradori, Simone; Secci, Daniela; Florio, Rosalba; Mollica, Adriano; Ceruso, Mariangela; Akdemir, Atilla; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2017-12-01

    A large number of novel secondary sulfonamides based on the open saccharin scaffold were synthesized and evaluated as selective inhibitors of four different isoforms of human carbonic anhydrase (hCA I, II, IX and XII, EC 4.2.1.1). They were obtained by reductive ring opening of the newly synthesized N-alkylated saccharin derivatives and were shown to be inactive against the two cytosolic off-target hCA I and II (Kis > 10 µM). Interestingly, these compounds inhibited hCA IX in the low nanomolar range with Kis ranging between 20 and 298 nM and were extremely potent inhibitors of hCA XII isoenzyme (Kis ranging between 4.3 and 432 nM). Since hCA IX and XII are the cancer-related isoforms recently validated as drug targets, these results represent an important goal in the development of new anticancer candidates. Finally, a computational approach has been performed to better correlate the biological data to the binding mode of these inhibitors.

  2. pH-dependent association of carbonic anhydrase (CA) with gastric light microsomal membranes isolated from bovine abomasum. Partial characterization of membrane-associated activity.

    PubMed

    López Mañanes, A A; Daleo, G R; Vega, F V

    1993-05-01

    1. The effect of pH on the association of carbonic anhydrase (CA) with bovine gastric light microsomal membranes (LMMs) was investigated (a) by washing LMMs containing CA activity with solutions of different pHs; (b) by studying the adsorption at various pHs of soluble bovine erythrocyte CA to washed gastric LMMs. In both cases, the association of CA with gastric LMMs was dependent on pH, being lower at neutral or alkaline pH. 2. The amount of soluble CA associated with gastric LMMs at pHs 8.0 and 9.0 was reduced when 140 mM K+/10 mM Na+ was added to the incubation medium. 3. Two sources of CA activity in bovine gastric LMMs were assumed: a loosely- and a firmly-membrane-associated activity. Both CA activities were dose-dependently inhibited by acetazolamide (I50: 3.6 x 10(-9) and 8.4 x 10(-9) M, respectively) and by chloride, acetate, iodide, bromide and nitrate at 100 mM. Firmly-membrane-associated activity appeared to be less sensitive to inhibition by acetazolamide, chloride and iodide. 4. Both activities exhibited different behavior and stability following treatment with alkaline Triton X-100. 5. The possible importance of a membrane-associated CA activity in gastric LMMs related to gastric acid secretion is discussed.

  3. Intrinsic Thermodynamics and Structure Correlation of Benzenesulfonamides with a Pyrimidine Moiety Binding to Carbonic Anhydrases I, II, VII, XII, and XIII

    PubMed Central

    Kišonaitė, Miglė; Zubrienė, Asta; Čapkauskaitė, Edita; Smirnov, Alexey; Smirnovienė, Joana; Kairys, Visvaldas; Michailovienė, Vilma; Manakova, Elena; Gražulis, Saulius; Matulis, Daumantas

    2014-01-01

    The early stage of drug discovery is often based on selecting the highest affinity lead compound. To this end the structural and energetic characterization of the binding reaction is important. The binding energetics can be resolved into enthalpic and entropic contributions to the binding Gibbs free energy. Most compound binding reactions are coupled to the absorption or release of protons by the protein or the compound. A distinction between the observed and intrinsic parameters of the binding energetics requires the dissection of the protonation/deprotonation processes. Since only the intrinsic parameters can be correlated with molecular structural perturbations associated with complex formation, it is these parameters that are required for rational drug design. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoforms are important therapeutic targets to treat a range of disorders including glaucoma, obesity, epilepsy, and cancer. For effective treatment isoform-specific inhibitors are needed. In this work we investigated the binding and protonation energetics of sixteen [(2-pyrimidinylthio)acetyl]benzenesulfonamide CA inhibitors using isothermal titration calorimetry and fluorescent thermal shift assay. The compounds were built by combining four sulfonamide headgroups with four tailgroups yielding 16 compounds. Their intrinsic binding thermodynamics showed the limitations of the functional group energetic additivity approach used in fragment-based drug design, especially at the level of enthalpies and entropies of binding. Combined with high resolution crystal structural data correlations were drawn between the chemical functional groups on selected inhibitors and intrinsic thermodynamic parameters of CA-inhibitor complex formation. PMID:25493428

  4. Purification and characterization of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme from Black Sea trout (Salmo trutta Labrax Coruhensis) kidney and inhibition effects of some metal ions on enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Murat; Gulcin, İlhami

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme was purified from Black Sea trout (Salmo trutta Labrax Coruhensis) kidney with a specific activity of 603.77EU/mg and a yield of 35.5% using Sepharose-4B-l-tyrosine- sulphanilamide affinity column chromatography. For determining the enzyme purity and subunit molecular mass, sodiumdodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed and single band was observed. The molecular mass of subunit was found approximately 29.71kDa. The optimum temperature, activation energy (Ea), activation enthalpy (ΔH) and Q10 values were obtained from Arrhenius plot. Km and Vmax values for p-nitrophenyl acetate of the purified enzyme were calculated from Lineweaver-Burk graphs. In addition, the inhibitory effects of different heavy metal ions (Fe(2+), Pb(2+), Co(2+), Ag(+) and Cu(2+)) on Black Sea trout kidney tissue CA enzyme activities were investigated by using esterase method under in vitro conditions. The heavy metal concentrations inhibiting 50% of enzyme activity (IC50) were obtained. Finally Ki values and inhibition types were calculated from Lineweaver-Burk graphs.

  5. Anion inhibition study of the β-carbonic anhydrase (CahB1) from the cyanobacterium Coleofasciculus chthonoplastes (ex-Microcoleus chthonoplastes).

    PubMed

    Vullo, Daniela; Kupriyanova, Elena V; Scozzafava, Andrea; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the catalytic activity and inhibition of the β-class carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) CahB1, from the relict cyanobacterium Coleofasciculus chthonoplastes (previously denominated Microcoleus chthonoplastes). The enzyme showed good activity as a catalyst for the CO2 hydration, with a kcat of 2.4 × 10(5)s(-1) and a kcat/Km of 6.3 × 10(7)M(-1)s(-1). A range of inorganic anions and small molecules were investigated as inhibitors of CahB1. Perchlorate and tetrafluoroborate did not inhibit the enzyme (KIs >200 mM) whereas selenate and selenocyanide were ineffective inhibitors too, with KIs of 29.9-48.61 mM. The halides, pseudohalides, carbonate, bicarbonate, trithiocarbonate and a range of heavy metal ions-containing anions were submillimolar-millimolar inhibitors (KIs in the range of 0.15-0.90 mM). The best CahB1 inhibitors were N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate, sulfamate, sulfamide, phenylboronic acid and phenylarsonic acid, with KIs in the range of 8-75 μM, whereas acetazolamide inhibited the enzyme with a KI of 76 nM. This is the first kinetic and inhibition study of a cyanobacterial CA. As these enzymes are widespread in many cyanobacteria, being crucial for the carbon concentrating mechanism which assures substrate to RubisCO for the CO2 fixation by these organisms, a detailed kinetic/inhibition study may be essential for a better understanding of this superfamily of metalloenzymes and for potential biotechnological applications in biomimetic CO2 capture processes.

  6. Carbonic Anhydrase Activity Monitored In Vivo by Hyperpolarized 13C-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Demonstrates Its Importance for pH Regulation in Tumors.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Ferdia A; Sladen, Helen; Kettunen, Mikko I; Serrao, Eva M; Rodrigues, Tiago B; Wright, Alan; Gill, Andrew B; McGuire, Sarah; Booth, Thomas C; Boren, Joan; McIntyre, Alan; Miller, Jodi L; Lee, Shen-Han; Honess, Davina; Day, Sam E; Hu, De-En; Howat, William J; Harris, Adrian L; Brindle, Kevin M

    2015-10-01

    Carbonic anhydrase buffers tissue pH by catalyzing the rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) and bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)). We assessed the functional activity of CAIX in two colorectal tumor models, expressing different levels of the enzyme, by measuring the rate of exchange of hyperpolarized (13)C label between bicarbonate (H(13)CO3(-)) and carbon dioxide ((13)CO2), following injection of hyperpolarized H(13)CO3(-), using (13)C-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((13)C-MRS) magnetization transfer measurements. (31)P-MRS measurements of the chemical shift of the pH probe, 3-aminopropylphosphonate, and (13)C-MRS measurements of the H(13)CO3(-)/(13)CO2 peak intensity ratio showed that CAIX overexpression lowered extracellular pH in these tumors. However, the (13)C measurements overestimated pH due to incomplete equilibration of the hyperpolarized (13)C label between the H(13)CO3(-) and (13)CO2 pools. Paradoxically, tumors overexpressing CAIX showed lower enzyme activity using magnetization transfer measurements, which can be explained by the more acidic extracellular pH in these tumors and the decreased activity of the enzyme at low pH. This explanation was confirmed by administration of bicarbonate in the drinking water, which elevated tumor extracellular pH and restored enzyme activity to control levels. These results suggest that CAIX expression is increased in hypoxia to compensate for the decrease in its activity produced by a low extracellular pH and supports the hypothesis that a major function of CAIX is to lower the extracellular pH.

  7. Carbonic anhydrase activity monitored in vivo by hyperpolarized 13C-magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrate its importance for pH regulation in tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Ferdia A.; Sladen, Helen; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Serrao, Eva M.; Rodrigues, Tiago B.; Wright, Alan; Gill, Andrew B.; McGuire, Sarah; Booth, Thomas C.; Boren, Joan; McIntyre, Alan; Miller, Jodi L.; Lee, Shen-Han; Honess, Davina; Day, Sam E.; Hu, De-en; Howat, William J.; Harris, Adrian L.; Brindle, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) buffers tissue pH by catalyzing the rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) and bicarbonate (HCO3−). We assessed the functional activity of CAIX in two colorectal tumor models, expressing different levels of the enzyme, by measuring the rate of exchange of hyperpolarized 13C label between bicarbonate (H13CO3−) and carbon dioxide (13CO2), following injection of hyperpolarized H13CO3−, using 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C-MRS) magnetization transfer measurements. 31P-MRS measurements of the chemical shift of the pH probe, 3-aminopropylphosphonate, and 13C-MRS measurements of the H13CO3−/13CO2 peak intensity ratio showed that CAIX overexpression lowered extracellular pH in these tumors. However, the 13C measurements overestimated pH due to incomplete equilibration of the hyperpolarized 13C label between the H13CO3− and 13CO2 pools. Paradoxically, tumors overexpressing CAIX showed lower enzyme activity using magnetization transfer measurements, which can be explained by the more acidic extracellular pH in these tumors and the decreased activity of the enzyme at low pH. This explanation was confirmed by administration of bicarbonate in the drinking water, which elevates tumor extracellular pH and restored enzyme activity to control levels. These results suggest that CAIX expression is increased in hypoxia to compensate for the decrease in its activity produced by a low extracellular pH, and supports the hypothesis that a major function of CAIX is to lower the extracellular pH. PMID:26249175

  8. Crystal structure of human carbonic anhydrase II at 1.95 Å resolution in complex with 667-coumate, a novel anti-cancer agent

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    CA (carbonic anhydrase) catalyses the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide into bicarbonate, and at least 14 isoforms have been identified in vertebrates. The role of CA type II in maintaining the fluid and pH balance has made it an attractive drug target for the treatment of glaucoma and cancer. 667-Coumate is a potent inhibitor of the novel oncology target steroid sulphatase and is currently in Phase 1 clinical trials for hormone-dependent breast cancer. It also inhibits CA II in vitro. In the present study, CA II was crystallized with 667-coumate and the structure was determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.95 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) resolution. The structure reported here is the first for an inhibitor based on a coumarin ring and shows ligation of the sulphamate group to the active-site zinc at 2.15 Å through a nitrogen anion. The first two rings of the coumarin moiety are bound within the hydrophobic binding site of CA II. Important residues contributing to binding include Val-121, Phe-131, Val-135, Leu-141, Leu-198 and Pro-202. The third seven-membered ring is more mobile and is located in the channel leading to the surface of the enzyme. Pharmacokinetic studies show enhanced stability of 667-coumate in vivo and this has been ascribed to binding of CA II in erythrocytes. This result provides a structural basis for the stabilization and long half-life of 667-coumate in blood compared with its rapid disappearance in plasma, and suggests that reversible binding of inhibitors to CA may be a general method of delivering this type of labile drug. PMID:15453828

  9. Inhibitory effects of nitrite on the reactions of bovine carbonic anhydrase II with CO2 and bicarbonate consistent with zinc-bound nitrite.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Per M; Fago, Angela

    2015-08-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a zinc enzyme that catalyzes hydration of carbon dioxide (CO2) and dehydration of bicarbonate in red blood cells, thus facilitating CO2 transport and excretion. Bovine CA II may also react with nitrite to generate nitric oxide, although nitrite is a known inhibitor of the CO2 hydration reaction. To address the potential in vivo interference of these reactions and the nature of nitrite binding to the enzyme, we here investigate the inhibitory effect of 10-30 mM nitrite on Michaelis-Menten kinetics of CO2 hydration and bicarbonate dehydration by stopped-flow spectroscopy. Our data show that nitrite significantly affects the apparent dissociation constant KM for CO2 (11 mM) and bicarbonate (221 mM), and the turnover number kcat for the CO2 hydration (1.467 × 10(6) s(-1)) but not for the bicarbonate dehydration (7.927 × 10(5) s(-1)). These effects demonstrate mixed and competitive inhibition for the reaction with CO2 and bicarbonate, respectively, and are consistent with nitrite binding to the active site zinc. The high apparent dissociation constant found here for CO2, bicarbonate and nitrite (16-120 mM) are all overall consistent with published data and reveal a large capacity of free enzyme available for binding each of the three substrates at their in vivo levels, with little or no significant interference among reactions. The low affinity of the enzyme for nitrite suggests that the in vivo interaction between red blood cell CA II and nitrite requires compartmentalization at the anion exchanger protein of the red cell membrane to be physiologically relevant.

  10. Roles of α and β Carbonic Anhydrases of Helicobacter pylori in the Urease-Dependent Response to Acidity and in Colonization of the Murine Gastric Mucosa▿

    PubMed Central

    Bury-Moné, Stéphanie; Mendz, George L.; Ball, Graham E.; Thibonnier, Marie; Stingl, Kerstin; Ecobichon, Chantal; Avé, Patrick; Huerre, Michel; Labigne, Agnès; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; De Reuse, Hilde

    2008-01-01

    Carbon dioxide occupies a central position in the physiology of Helicobacter pylori owing to its capnophilic nature, the large amounts of carbon dioxide produced by urease-mediated urea hydrolysis, and the constant bicarbonate supply in the stomach. Carbonic anhydrases (CA) catalyze the interconversion of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate and are involved in functions such as CO2 transport or trapping and pH homeostasis. H. pylori encodes a periplasmic α-CA (α-CA-HP) and a cytoplasmic β-CA (β-CA-HP). Single CA inactivation and double CA inactivation were obtained for five genetic backgrounds, indicating that H. pylori CA are not essential for growth in vitro. Bicarbonate-carbon dioxide exchange rates were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy using lysates of parental strains and CA mutants. Only the mutants defective in the α-CA-HP enzyme showed strongly reduced exchange rates. In H. pylori, urease activity is essential for acid resistance in the gastric environment. Urease activity measured using crude cell extracts was not modified by the absence of CA. With intact CA mutant cells incubated in acidic conditions (pH 2.2) in the presence of urea there was a delay in the increase in the pH of the incubation medium, a phenotype most pronounced in the absence of H. pylori α-CA. This correlated with a delay in acid activation of the urease as measured by slower ammonia production in whole cells. The role of CA in vivo was examined using the mouse model of infection with two mouse-adapted H. pylori strains, SS1 and X47-2AL. Compared to colonization by the wild-type strain, colonization by X47-2AL single and double CA mutants was strongly reduced. Colonization by SS1 CA mutants was not significantly different from colonization by wild-type strain SS1. However, when mice were infected by SS1 Δ(β-CA-HP) or by a SS1 double CA mutant, the inflammation scores of the mouse gastric mucosa were strongly reduced. In conclusion, CA contribute to the urease

  11. Seasonal variations in soil carbonic anhydrase activity in a pine forest ecosystem as inferred from soil CO18O flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogee, Jerome; Wingate, Lisa; Bosc, Alexandre; Burlett, Régis

    2015-04-01

    Quantifying terrestrial carbon storage and predicting the sensitivity of ecosystems to climate change relies on our ability to obtain observational constraints on photosynthesis and respiration at large scales (ecosystem, regional and global). Photosynthesis (GPP), the largest CO2 flux from the land surface, is currently estimated with considerable uncertainty (1-3). Robust estimates of global GPP can be obtained from an atmospheric budget of the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of atmospheric CO2, provided that we have a good knowledge of the δ18O signatures of the terrestrial CO2 fluxes (1,4). The latter reflect the δ18O of leaf and soil water pools because CO2 exchanges 'isotopically' with water [CO2+H218O⇔H2O+CO18O]. This exchange can be accelerated by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA). In leaves, where CA is present and abundant, this isotopic equilibrium is reached almost instantaneously. As a consequence, and because soil and leaf water pools have different δ18O signatures, CO2 fluxes from leaves and soils carry very distinct δ18O signals and can thus be tracked from the fluctuations in the δ18O of atmospheric CO2 (δa). There is growing evidence that the accelerated isotopic exchange between CO2 and water due to CA activity is a widespread phenomenon in soils as well (4). At the global scale, accounting for soil CA activity dramatically shifts the influence of soil and leaf fluxes on δa, thus changing the estimates of terrestrial gross CO2 fluxes (1,4). In this talk we will briefly present the current state of understanding of the environmental and ecological causes behind the variability in CA activity observed in soils and illustrate, using field data from a temperate pine forest, how soil CA activity varies over a single growing season and how it responds to soil surface environmental variables. References 1. L. R. Welp et al., Interannual variability in the oxygen isotopes of atmospheric CO2 driven by El Niño, Nature 477, 579-582 (2011

  12. Embryonic exposure to o,p'-DDT causes eggshell thinning and altered shell gland carbonic anhydrase expression in the domestic hen.

    PubMed

    Holm, Lena; Blomqvist, Alexandra; Brandt, Ingvar; Brunström, Björn; Ridderstråle, Yvonne; Berg, Cecilia

    2006-10-01

    The mechanism for contaminant-induced eggshell thinning in wild birds remains to be clarified. It is generally assumed, however, that it results from exposure of the adult laying female. We have reported that embryonic exposure to the synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol (EE2) results in eggshell thinning in the domestic hen. The objective of this study was to investigate whether eggshell thinning can be induced following in ovo exposure to a bioaccumulating estrogenic environmental contaminant, o,p'-DDT. Ethynylestradiol was used as a positive control. Domestic hens exposed in ovo to o,p'-DDT (37 or 75 microg/g egg) or EE2 (60 ng/g egg) laid eggs with thinner shells than the control birds. The hens from these exposure groups also had a significantly reduced frequency of shell gland capillaries with carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity, a key enzyme in eggshell formation. The decreased number of capillaries with CA activity suggests that a developmentally induced disruption of CA expression in the shell gland was involved in the eggshell thinning found in this study. Egg laying was not affected in hens exposed embryonically to 37 or 75 microg o,p'-DDT/g egg, whereas it was inhibited in hens exposed to higher doses. Decreased lengths of the left oviduct and its infundibulum were seen after embryonic treatment with o,p'-DDT or EE2. In addition, o,p'-DDT exposure resulted in right oviduct retention. The results support our hypothesis that eggshell thinning in avian wildlife can result from a functional malformation in the shell gland, induced by embryonic exposure to estrogenic substances.

  13. Chiral separation of new sulfonamide derivatives and evaluation of their enantioselective affinity for human carbonic anhydrase II by microscale thermophoresis and surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Rogez-Florent, Tiphaine; Foulon, Catherine; Drucbert, Anne-Sophie; Schifano, Nadège; Six, Perrine; Devassine, Stéphanie; Depreux, Patrick; Danzé, Pierre-Marie; Goossens, Laurence; Danel, Cécile; Goossens, Jean-François

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a method combining chiral separation and biophysical techniques to evaluate the enantioselective affinity of original sulfonamide derivatives towards their therapeutic target, the human carbonic anhydrase II (hACII). The first step consisted in the preparation of the enantiomers by chromatographic separation. The performances of HPLC and Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) were studied at the analytical scale by optimization of various experimental conditions using adsorbed polysaccharide chiral stationary phases (amylose AD-H and cellulose OD-H). Since SFC allowed obtaining higher enantioresolutions per time unit, it was selected for the semi-preparative scale and successfully used to isolate each enantiomer with a satisfactory enantiomeric purity (>98%). Secondly, microscale thermophoresis (MST) method and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) used as reference method were developed to measure potential enantioselective affinities of these enantiomers towards the hACII. The optimizations of both methods were performed using a reference compound, i.e. acetazolamide, which affinity for hCAII has previously been demonstrated. For all compounds, KD values obtained using MST and SPR were in good agreement, leading to similar affinity scales despite both approaches totally differ (labeling for MST versus immobilization of the protein for SPR). The equilibrium dissociation constants of our original compounds for the hCAII were in the range 100-1000nM and an enantioselectivity was observed using the MST and SPR methods for the diarylpyrazole 2. Finally, by comparing the MST and SPR techniques, MST appears especially adapted for further screening of a series of sulfonamide derivatives due to the lower time required to estimate a binding constant while consuming as little hCAII as SPR.

  14. A new role for carbonic anhydrase 2 in the response of fish to copper and osmotic stress: implications for multi-stressor studies.

    PubMed

    de Polo, Anna; Margiotta-Casaluci, Luigi; Lockyer, Anne E; Scrimshaw, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    The majority of ecotoxicological studies are performed under stable and optimal conditions, whereas in reality the complexity of the natural environment faces organisms with multiple stressors of different type and origin, which can activate pathways of response often difficult to interpret. In particular, aquatic organisms living in estuarine zones already impacted by metal contamination can be exposed to more severe salinity variations under a forecasted scenario of global change. In this context, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of copper exposure on the response of fish to osmotic stress by mimicking in laboratory conditions the salinity changes occurring in natural estuaries. We hypothesized that copper-exposed individuals are more sensitive to osmotic stresses, as copper affects their osmoregulatory system by acting on a number of osmotic effector proteins, among which the isoform two of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA2) was identified as a novel factor linking the physiological responses to both copper and osmotic stress. To test this hypothesis, two in vivo studies were performed using the euryhaline fish sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) as test species and applying different rates of salinity transition as a controlled way of dosing osmotic stress. Measured endpoints included plasma ions concentrations and gene expression of CA2 and the α1a-subunit of the enzyme Na+/K+ ATPase. Results showed that plasma ions concentrations changed after the salinity transition, but notably the magnitude of change was greater in the copper-exposed groups, suggesting a sensitizing effect of copper on the responses to osmotic stress. Gene expression results demonstrated that CA2 is affected by copper at the transcriptional level and that this enzyme might play a role in the observed combined effects of copper and osmotic stress on ion homeostasis.

  15. V-H+ -ATPase translocation during blood alkalosis in dogfish gills: interaction with carbonic anhydrase and involvement in the postfeeding alkaline tide.

    PubMed

    Tresguerres, Martin; Parks, Scott K; Wood, Chris M; Goss, Greg G

    2007-05-01

    We investigated the involvement of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in mediating V-H(+)-ATPase translocation into the basolateral membrane in gills of alkalotic Squalus acanthias. Immunolabeling revealed that CA is localized in the same cells as V-H(+)-ATPase. Blood plasma from dogfish injected with acetazolamide [30 mg/kg at time (t) = 0 and 6 h] and infused with NaHCO(3) for 12 h (1,000 microeq.kg(-1).h(-1)) had significantly higher plasma HCO(3)(-) concentration than fish that were infused with NaHCO(3) alone (28.72 +/- 0.41 vs. 6.57 +/- 2.47 mmol/l, n = 3), whereas blood pH was similar in both treatments (8.03 +/- 0.11 vs. 8.04 +/- 0.11 pH units at t = 12 h). CA inhibition impaired V-H(+)-ATPase translocation into the basolateral membrane, as estimated from immunolabeled gill sections and Western blotting on gill cell membranes (0.24 +/- 0.08 vs. 1.00 +/- 0.28 arbitrary units, n = 3; P < 0.05). We investigated V-H(+)-ATPase translocation during a postfeeding alkalosis ("alkaline tide"). Gill samples were taken 24-26 h after dogfish were fed to satiety in a natural-like feeding regime. Immunolabeled gill sections revealed that V-H(+)-ATPase translocated to the basolateral membrane in the postfed fish. Confirming this result, V-H(+)-ATPase abundance was twofold higher in gill cell membranes of the postfed fish than in fasted fish (n = 4-5; P < 0.05). These results indicate that 1) intracellular H(+) or HCO(3)(-) produced by CA (and not blood pH or HCO(3)(-)) is likely the stimulus that triggers the V-H(+)-ATPase translocation into the basolateral membrane in alkalotic fish and 2) V-H(+)-ATPase translocation is important for enhanced HCO(3)(-) secretion during a naturally occurring postfeeding alkalosis.

  16. DNA Damage Is a Prerequisite for p53-Mediated Proteasomal Degradation of HIF-1α in Hypoxic Cells and Downregulation of the Hypoxia Marker Carbonic Anhydrase IX

    PubMed Central

    Kaluzová, Milota; Kaluz, Stefan; Lerman, Michael I.; Stanbridge, Eric J.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between the tumor suppressor p53 and the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)-dependent expression of the hypoxia marker, carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX). MCF-7 (wt p53) and Saos-2 (p53-null) cells displayed similar induction of CAIX expression and CA9 promoter activity under hypoxic conditions. Activation of p53 by the DNA damaging agent mitomycin C (MC) was accompanied by a potent repression of CAIX expression and the CA9 promoter in MCF-7 but not in Saos-2 cells. The activated p53 mediated increased proteasomal degradation of HIF-1α protein, resulting in considerably lower steady-state levels of HIF-1α protein in hypoxic MCF-7 cells but not in Saos-2 cells. Overexpression of HIF-1α relieved the MC-induced repression in MCF-7 cells, confirming regulation at the HIF-1α level. Similarly, CA9 promoter activity was downregulated by MC in HCT 116 p53+/+ but not the isogenic p53−/− cells. Activated p53 decreased HIF-1α protein levels by accelerated proteasome-dependent degradation without affecting significantly HIF-1α transcription. In summary, our results demonstrate that the presence of wtp53 under hypoxic conditions has an insignificant effect on the stabilization of HIF-1α protein and HIF-1-dependent expression of CAIX. However, upon activation by DNA damage, wt p53 mediates an accelerated degradation of HIF-1α protein, resulting in reduced activation of CA9 transcription and, correspondingly, decreased levels of CAIX protein. A model outlining the quantitative relationship between p53, HIF-1α, and CAIX is presented. PMID:15199132

  17. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of middle-aged vs. aged vastus lateralis reveals increased levels of carbonic anhydrase isoform 3 in senescent human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Staunton, Lisa; Zweyer, Margit; Swandulla, Dieter; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2012-10-01

    The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and associated progressive decline in contractile strength is a serious pathophysiological issue in the elderly. In order to investigate global changes in the skeletal muscle proteome after the fifth decade of life, this study analysed total extracts from human vastus lateralis muscle by fluorescence difference in-gel electrophoresis. Tissue specimens were derived from middle-aged (47-62 years) vs. aged (76-82 years) individuals and potential changes in the protein expression profiles were compared between these two age groups by a comprehensive gel electrophoresis-based survey. Age-dependent alterations in the concentration of 19 protein spots were revealed and mass spectrometry identified these components as being involved in the excitation-contraction-relaxation cycle, muscle metabolism, ion handling and the cellular stress response. This indicates a generally perturbed protein expression pattern in senescent human muscle. Increased levels of mitochondrial enzymes and isoform switching of the key contractile protein, actin, support the idea of glycolytic-to-oxidative and fast-to-slow transition processes during muscle aging. Importantly, the carbonic anhydrase (CA)3 isoform displayed an increased abundance during muscle aging, which was independently verified by immunoblotting of differently aged human skeletal muscle samples. Since the CA3 isoform is relatively muscle-specific and exhibits a fibre type-specific expression pattern, this enzyme may represent an interesting new biomarker of sarcopenia. Increased levels of CA are indicative of an increased demand of CO₂-removal in senescent muscle, and also suggest age-related fibre type shifting to slower-contracting muscles during human aging.

  18. Identification of putative unfolding intermediates of the mutant His-107-tyr of human carbonic anhydrase II in a multidimensional property space.

    PubMed

    Halder, Puspita; Taraphder, Srabani

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we develop an extensive search procedure of the multi-dimensional folding energy landscape of a protein. Our aim is to identify different classes of structures that have different aggregation propensities and catalytic activity. Following earlier studies by Daggett et al. [Jong, D. D.; Riley, R.: Alonso, D.O.: Dagett, V. J. Mol. Biol. 2002, 319, 229], a series of high temperature all-atom classical molecular simulation studies has been carried out to derive a multi-dimensional property space. Dynamical changes in these properties are then monitored by projecting them along a one-dimensional reaction coordinate, dmean . We have focused on the application of this method to partition a wide array of conformations of wild type human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) and its unstable mutant His-107-Tyr along dmean by sampling a 35-dimensional property space. The resultant partitioning not only reveals the distribution of conformations corresponding to stable structures of HCA II and its mutant, but also allows the monitoring of several partially unfolded and less stable conformations of the mutant. We have investigated the population of these conformations at different stages of unfolding and collected separate sets of structures that are widely separated in the property space. The dynamical diversity of these sets are examined in terms of the loading of their respective first principal component. The partially unfolded structures thus collected are qualitatively mapped on to the experimentally postulated light molten globule (MGL) and molten globule (MG) intermediates with distinct aggregation propensities and catalytic activities. Proteins 2016; 84:726-743. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A sucrose-binding site provides a lead towards an isoform-specific inhibitor of the cancer-associated enzyme carbonic anhydrase IX

    SciTech Connect

    Pinard, Melissa A.; Aggarwal, Mayank; Mahon, Brian P.; Tu, Chingkuang; McKenna, Robert

    2015-09-23

    Human carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) isoform IX (CA IX) is an extracellular zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO2to HCO3$-$, thereby playing a role in pH regulation. The majority of normal functioning cells exhibit low-level expression of CA IX. However, in cancer cells CA IX is upregulated as a consequence of a metabolic transition known as the Warburg effect. The upregulation of CA IX for cancer progression has drawn interest in it being a potential therapeutic target. CA IX is a transmembrane protein, and its purification, yield and crystallization have proven challenging to structure-based drug design, whereas the closely related cytosolic soluble isoform CA II can be expressed and crystallized with ease. Therefore, we have utilized structural alignments and site-directed mutagenesis to engineer a CA II that mimics the active site of CA IX. In this paper, the X-ray crystal structure of this CA IX mimic in complex with sucrose is presented and has been refined to a resolution of 1.5 Å, anRcryst of 18.0% and anRfree of 21.2%. Finally, the binding of sucrose at the entrance to the active site of the CA IX mimic, and not CA II, in a non-inhibitory mechanism provides a novel carbohydrate moiety binding site that could be further exploited to design isoform-specific inhibitors of CA IX.

  20. Neutron structure of human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with methazolamide: mapping the solvent and hydrogen-bonding patterns of an effective clinical drug

    DOE PAGES

    Aggarwal, Mayank; Kovalevsky, Andrey Y.; Velazquez, Hector; ...

    2016-07-22

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs; EC 4.2.1.1) catalyze the interconversion of CO 2 and HCO 3 − , and their inhibitors have long been used as diuretics and as a therapeutic treatment for many disorders such as glaucoma and epilepsy. Acetazolamide (AZM) and methazolamide (MZM, a methyl derivative of AZM) are two of the classical CA inhibitory drugs that have been used clinically for decades. The jointly refined X-ray/neutron structure of MZM in complex with human CA isoform II (hCA II) has been determined to a resolution of 2.2 Å with an R cryst of ∼16.0%. Presented in this article, along withmore » only the second neutron structure of a clinical drug-bound hCA, is an in-depth structural comparison and analyses of differences in hydrogen-bonding network, water-molecule orientation and solvent displacement that take place upon the binding of AZM and MZM in the active site of hCA II. Even though MZM is slightly more hydrophobic and displaces more waters than AZM, the overall binding affinity ( K i ) for both of the drugs against hCA II is similar (∼10 n M ). The plausible reasons behind this finding have also been discussed using molecular dynamics and X-ray crystal structures of hCA II–MZM determined at cryotemperature and room temperature. This study not only allows a direct comparison of the hydrogen bonding, protonation states and solvent orientation/displacement of AZM and MZM, but also shows the significant effect that the methyl derivative has on the solvent organization in the hCA II active site.« less

  1. Carbonic Anhydrase III Is Expressed in Mouse Skeletal Muscles Independent of Fiber Type-Specific Myofilament Protein Isoforms and Plays a Role in Fatigue Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Han-Zhong; Jin, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is a metabolic enzyme and a regulator for intracellular pH. CAIII has been reported with high level expression in slow twitch skeletal muscles. Here we demonstrate that CAIII is expressed in multiple slow and fast twitch muscles of adult mouse independent of the expression of myosin isoforms. Expressing similar fast type of myofilament proteins, CAIII-positive tibial anterior (TA) muscle exhibits higher tolerance to fatigue than that of CAIII-negative fast twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle in in situ contractility studies. We further studied the muscles of CAIII knockout (Car3-KO) mice. The loss of CAIII in soleus and TA muscles in Car3-KO mice did not change muscle mass, sarcomere protein isoform contents, and the baseline twitch and tetanic contractility as compared with age-matched wild type (WT) controls. On the other hand, Car3-KO TA muscle showed faster force reduction at the beginning but higher resistance at the end during a fatigue test, followed by slower post fatigue recovery than that of WT TA muscle. Superfused Car3-KO soleus muscle also had faster total force reduction during fatigue test than that of WT soleus. However, it showed a less elevation of resting tension followed by a better post fatigue recovery under acidotic stress. CAIII was detected in neonatal TA and EDL muscle, downregulated during development, and then re-expressed in adult TA but not EDL muscles. The expression of CAIII in Tnnt1-KO myopathy mouse soleus muscle that has diminished slow fiber contents due to the loss of slow troponin T remained high. Car3-KO EDL, TA, and soleus muscles showed no change in the expression of mitochondria biomarker proteins. The data suggest a fiber type independent expression of CAIII with a role in the regulation of intracellular pH in skeletal muscle and may be explored as a target for improving fatigue resistance and for the treatment of TNNT1 myopathies. PMID:28018233

  2. Evidence from simultaneous intracellular- and surface-pH transients that carbonic anhydrase IV enhances CO2 fluxes across Xenopus oocyte plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Musa-Aziz, Raif; Occhipinti, Rossana; Boron, Walter F

    2014-11-01

    Human carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV) is GPI-anchored to the outer membrane surface, catalyzing CO2/HCO3 (-) hydration-dehydration. We examined effects of heterologously expressed CA IV on intracellular-pH (pHi) and surface-pH (pHS) transients caused by exposing oocytes to CO2/HCO3 (-)/pH 7.50. CO2 influx causes a sustained pHi fall and a transient pHS rise; CO2 efflux does the opposite. Both during CO2 addition and removal, CA IV increases magnitudes of maximal rate of pHi change (dpHi/dt)max, and maximal pHS change (ΔpHS) and decreases time constants for pHi changes (τpHi ) and pHS relaxations (τpHS ). Decreases in time constants indicate that CA IV enhances CO2 fluxes. Extracellular acetazolamide blocks all CA IV effects, but not those of injected CA II. Injected acetazolamide partially reduces CA IV effects. Thus, extracellular CA is required for, and the equivalent of cytosol-accessible CA augments, the effects of CA IV. Increasing the concentration of the extracellular non-CO2/HCO3 (-) buffer (i.e., HEPES), in the presence of extracellular CA or at high [CO2], accelerates CO2 influx. Simultaneous measurements with two pHS electrodes, one on the oocyte meridian perpendicular to the axis of flow and one downstream from the direction of extracellular-solution flow, reveal that the downstream electrode has a larger (i.e., slower) τpHS , indicating [CO2] asymmetry over the oocyte surface. A reaction-diffusion mathematical model (third paper in series) accounts for the above general features, and supports the conclusion that extracellular CA, which replenishes entering CO2 or consumes exiting CO2 at the extracellular surface, enhances the gradient driving CO2 influx across the cell membrane.

  3. Expression and purification of TAT-fused carbonic anhydrase III and its effect on C2C12 cell apoptosis induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Xiliang; Bao, Yuanyuan; Ren, Huimin; Huang, He; Li, Yunxia

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is remarkably abundant in slow skeletal muscles. It has multiple biological activities which could dissipate or resist some fatigue-related substances. In this study, we purified trans-activating transcriptional activator (TAT) fused CAIII protein and investigated its effect on C2C12 cell apoptosis induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation. Material and methods The CAIII and TAT-CAIII genes were constructed, cloned into plasmid pET28a and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The fusion proteins were purified with a nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography column and then verified by Western blot and phosphatase activity staining subsequently. The C2C12 cells were treated respectively with serum-free medium containing 1 μM TAT-CAIII or 1 μM CAIII for 1 h and the intracellular distributions of fusion proteins were observed by indirect immunofluorescence. The effect of TAT-CAIII on C2C12 cell apoptosis induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation was detected by flow cytometry. Results The CAIII and TAT-CAIII fusion proteins were expressed and purified successfully. After being cultured for 1 h, green fluorescence was visible in TAT-CAIII group cells under the fluorescence microscope, while no fluorescence was found in the CAIII group. Compared with the oxygen-glucose deprivation group, the apoptosis rate of C2C12 cells induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation in the TAT-CAIII group decreased significantly (p < 0.001). Conclusions The purified TAT-CAIII could be transferred into cells efficiently and clearly decreased the apoptosis rate of C2C12 cells induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation, which indicated that it had antioxidative activity. This study lays an experimental basis for future research on the relationship between CAIII and muscle fatigue. PMID:23056085

  4. Reconstitution of CO2 Regulation of SLAC1 Anion Channel and Function of CO2-Permeable PIP2;1 Aquaporin as CARBONIC ANHYDRASE4 Interactor

    PubMed Central

    Zeise, Brian; Xu, Danyun; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Boron, Walter F.; Schroeder, Julian I