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Sample records for carbonic anhydrase cah3

  1. Crystal structure and functional characterization of photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase CAH3 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Benlloch, Reyes; Shevela, Dmitriy; Hainzl, Tobias; Grundström, Christin; Shutova, Tatyana; Messinger, Johannes; Samuelsson, Göran; Sauer-Eriksson, A Elisabeth

    2015-03-01

    In oxygenic photosynthesis, light energy is stored in the form of chemical energy by converting CO2 and water into carbohydrates. The light-driven oxidation of water that provides the electrons and protons for the subsequent CO2 fixation takes place in photosystem II (PSII). Recent studies show that in higher plants, HCO3 (-) increases PSII activity by acting as a mobile acceptor of the protons produced by PSII. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a luminal carbonic anhydrase, CrCAH3, was suggested to improve proton removal from PSII, possibly by rapid reformation of HCO3 (-) from CO2. In this study, we investigated the interplay between PSII and CrCAH3 by membrane inlet mass spectrometry and x-ray crystallography. Membrane inlet mass spectrometry measurements showed that CrCAH3 was most active at the slightly acidic pH values prevalent in the thylakoid lumen under illumination. Two crystal structures of CrCAH3 in complex with either acetazolamide or phosphate ions were determined at 2.6- and 2.7-Å resolution, respectively. CrCAH3 is a dimer at pH 4.1 that is stabilized by swapping of the N-terminal arms, a feature not previously observed in α-type carbonic anhydrases. The structure contains a disulfide bond, and redox titration of CrCAH3 function with dithiothreitol suggested a possible redox regulation of the enzyme. The stimulating effect of CrCAH3 and CO2/HCO3 (-) on PSII activity was demonstrated by comparing the flash-induced oxygen evolution pattern of wild-type and CrCAH3-less PSII preparations. We showed that CrCAH3 has unique structural features that allow this enzyme to maximize PSII activity at low pH and CO2 concentration.

  2. Thylakoid lumen carbonic anhydrase (CAH3) mutation suppresses air-Dier phenotype of LCIB mutant in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Duanmu, Deqiang; Wang, Yingjun; Spalding, Martin H

    2009-02-01

    An active CO2-concentrating mechanism is induced when Chlamydomonas reinhardtii acclimates to limiting inorganic carbon (Ci), either low-CO2 (L-CO2; air level; approximately 0.04% CO2) or very low-CO2 (VL-CO2; approximately 0.01% CO2) conditions. A mutant, ad1, which is defective in the limiting-CO2-inducible, plastid-localized LCIB, can grow in high-CO2 or VL-CO2 conditions but dies in L-CO2, indicating a deficiency in a L-CO2-specific Ci uptake and accumulation system. In this study, we identified two ad1 suppressors that can grow in L-CO2 but die in VL-CO2. Molecular analyses revealed that both suppressors have mutations in the CAH3 gene, which encodes a thylakoid lumen localized carbonic anhydrase. Photosynthetic rates of L-CO2-acclimated suppressors under acclimation CO2 concentrations were more than 2-fold higher than ad1, apparently resulting from a more than 20-fold increase in the intracellular concentration of Ci as measured by direct Ci uptake. However, photosynthetic rates of VL-CO2-acclimated cells under acclimation CO2 concentrations were too low to support growth in spite of a significantly elevated intracellular Ci concentration. We conclude that LCIB functions downstream of CAH3 in the CO2-concentrating mechanism and probably plays a role in trapping CO2 released by CAH3 dehydration of accumulated Ci. Apparently dehydration by the chloroplast stromal carbonic anhydrase CAH6 of the very high internal Ci caused by the defect in CAH3 provides Rubisco sufficient CO2 to support growth in L-CO2-acclimated cells, but not in VL-CO2-acclimated cells, even in the absence of LCIB.

  3. Plant Carbonic Anhydrases

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, C. A.; Patterson, B. D.; Graham, D.

    1972-01-01

    On the basis of polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis of leaf extracts from 24 species of higher plants, two main forms of carbonic anhydrase (EC 4.2.1.1) were recognized; the “dicotyledon” type and the “monocotyledon” type. More than one band of enzyme was found on gels from most species, suggesting the possibility of carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes in higher plants. Images PMID:16658144

  4. Genetics Home Reference: carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lonlay P, Burlina A, van Karnebeek CD, Häberle J. Defective hepatic bicarbonate production due to carbonic anhydrase ... on PubMed GeneReview: Carbonic Anhydrase VA Deficiency Häberle J. Clinical and biochemical aspects of primary and secondary ...

  5. Carbonic anhydrases of anaerobic microbes.

    PubMed

    Ferry, James G

    2013-03-15

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and are abundantly distributed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. There are five classes (α,β,γ,δ,ζ) with no significant sequence or structural identity among them, a remarkable example of convergent evolution. The β and γ classes predominate in anaerobic microbes, living without O2, that comprise a substantial portion of the living protoplasm on Earth. Anaerobes reside in the lower intestinal tract of humans, one of many O2-free environments on Earth, where they convert complex biomass to methane and CO2 contributing an essential link in the global carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide is a universal metabolite of anaerobes necessitating CA for a diversity of proposed functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Accelerating Mineral Carbonation Using Carbonic Anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Power, Ian M; Harrison, Anna L; Dipple, Gregory M

    2016-03-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes have gained considerable attention for their potential use in carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technologies because they are able to catalyze rapidly the interconversion of aqueous CO2 and bicarbonate. However, there are challenges for widespread implementation including the need to develop mineralization process routes for permanent carbon storage. Mineral carbonation of highly reactive feedstocks may be limited by the supply rate of CO2. This rate limitation can be directly addressed by incorporating enzyme-catalyzed CO2 hydration. This study examined the effects of bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) and CO2-rich gas streams on the carbonation rate of brucite [Mg(OH)2], a highly reactive mineral. Alkaline brucite slurries were amended with BCA and supplied with 10% CO2 gas while aqueous chemistry and solids were monitored throughout the experiments (hours to days). In comparison to controls, brucite carbonation using BCA was accelerated by up to 240%. Nesquehonite [MgCO3·3H2O] precipitation limited the accumulation of hydrated CO2 species, apparently preventing BCA from catalyzing the dehydration reaction. Geochemical models reproduce observed reaction progress in all experiments, revealing a linear correlation between CO2 uptake and carbonation rate. Data demonstrates that carbonation in BCA-amended reactors remained limited by CO2 supply, implying further acceleration is possible.

  7. Kinetic studies of pea carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Johansson, I M; Forsman, C

    1993-12-01

    Chloroplast carbonic anhydrase from Pisum sativum has been isolated. The kinetic properties of the enzyme have been studied and comparisons to the well characterised human carbonic anhydrase II made. Pea carbonic anhydrase was found to be dependent on a reducing agent in order to retain the catalytic activity. Oxidised, inactive, enzyme could be activated by the addition of a SH-agent. However, such activation gave only 60% of the activity of an enzyme kept in a reduced state all the time. The kinetics of CO2 hydration show an increase in kcat as well as in kcat/Km with pH, but the pH profile does not follow a simple titration curve. The pH dependence is more complicated and it seems as if there are several titratable groups affecting the activity. At pH 9 we obtain a turnover number of 4 x 10(5) s-1 and a kcat/Km value of 1.8 x 10(8) M-1 s-1 with reference to the subunit. We also find that the enzyme needs high concentrations of buffer to work at a maximal rate. Apparent Km values with respect to the total buffer concentration are found between 52-185 mM at neutral and high pH. At low pH the situation is complex with deviations from Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Chloroplast carbonic anhydrase from higher plants have been reported to have primary structures that are completely different from the enzyme from animals. In addition, we find the circular dichroic spectrum of pea carbonic anhydrase to be well distinguished from that of human carbonic anhydrase II. Despite those structural differences the kinetic parameters indicate that pea carbonic anhydrase is equally efficient as human carbonic anhydrase II in catalysing the hydration of CO2. However, the mechanism for proton transfer from the active site to the surrounding medium seems to differ between the two enzymes.

  8. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors drug design.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Robert; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) has pharmacologic applications in the field of antiglaucoma, anticonvulsant, antiobesity, and anticancer agents but is also emerging for designing anti-infectives (antifungal and antibacterial agents) with a novel mechanism of action. As a consequence, the drug design of CA inhibitors (CAIs) is a very dynamic field. Sulfonamides and their isosteres (sulfamates/sulfamides) constitute the main class of CAIs which bind to the metal ion in the enzyme active site. Recently the dithiocarbamates, possessing a similar mechanism of action, were reported as a new class of inhibitors. Other families of CAIs possess a distinct mechanism of action: phenols, polyamines, some carboxylates, and sulfocoumarins anchor to the zinc-coordinated water molecule. Coumarins and five/six-membered lactones are prodrug inhibitors, binding in hydrolyzed form at the entrance of the active site cavity. Novel drug design strategies have been reported principally based on the tail approach for obtaining all these types of CAIs, which exploit more external binding regions within the enzyme active site (in addition to coordination to the metal ion), leading thus to isoform-selective compounds. Sugar-based tails as well as click chemistry were the most fruitful developments of the tail approach. Promising compounds that inhibit CAs from bacterial and fungal pathogens, of the dithiocarbamate, phenol and carboxylate types have also been reported.

  9. Thermostable Carbonic Anhydrases in Biotechnological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Di Fiore, Anna; Alterio, Vincenzo; Monti, Simona M.; De Simone, Giuseppina; D’Ambrosio, Katia

    2015-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases are ubiquitous metallo-enzymes which catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide in bicarbonate ions and protons. Recent years have seen an increasing interest in the utilization of these enzymes in CO2 capture and storage processes. However, since this use is greatly limited by the harsh conditions required in these processes, the employment of thermostable enzymes, both those isolated by thermophilic organisms and those obtained by protein engineering techniques, represents an interesting possibility. In this review we will provide an extensive description of the thermostable carbonic anhydrases so far reported and the main processes in which these enzymes have found an application. PMID:26184158

  10. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOEpatents

    Novick, Scott J; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-10-29

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  11. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOEpatents

    Novick, Scott; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-01-15

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  12. Regulation of Chloroplastic Carbonic Anhydrase 1

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Michael A.; Grodzinski, Bernard

    1983-01-01

    It was previously reported that magnesium ion inhibited carbonic anhydrase (Bamberger and Avron 1975 Plant Physiol 56: 481-485). Studies with partially purified carbonic anhydrase from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts show that the effect was the result of the chloride counterion and not the magnesium ion. Enzyme activity was reduced 50% upon addition of 3 to 10 millimolar MgCl2 or KCl while all additions of MgSO4 between 0.3 and 10 millimolar were mildly stimulatory. PMID:16663052

  13. Coral Carbonic Anhydrases: Regulation by Ocean Acidification

    PubMed Central

    Zoccola, Didier; Innocenti, Alessio; Bertucci, Anthony; Tambutté, Eric; Supuran, Claudiu T.; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Global change is a major threat to the oceans, as it implies temperature increase and acidification. Ocean acidification (OA) involving decreasing pH and changes in seawater carbonate chemistry challenges the capacity of corals to form their skeletons. Despite the large number of studies that have investigated how rates of calcification respond to ocean acidification scenarios, comparatively few studies tackle how ocean acidification impacts the physiological mechanisms that drive calcification itself. The aim of our paper was to determine how the carbonic anhydrases, which play a major role in calcification, are potentially regulated by ocean acidification. For this we measured the effect of pH on enzyme activity of two carbonic anhydrase isoforms that have been previously characterized in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. In addition we looked at gene expression of these enzymes in vivo. For both isoforms, our results show (1) a change in gene expression under OA (2) an effect of OA and temperature on carbonic anhydrase activity. We suggest that temperature increase could counterbalance the effect of OA on enzyme activity. Finally we point out that caution must, thus, be taken when interpreting transcriptomic data on carbonic anhydrases in ocean acidification and temperature stress experiments, as the effect of these stressors on the physiological function of CA will depend both on gene expression and enzyme activity. PMID:27271641

  14. Coral Carbonic Anhydrases: Regulation by Ocean Acidification.

    PubMed

    Zoccola, Didier; Innocenti, Alessio; Bertucci, Anthony; Tambutté, Eric; Supuran, Claudiu T; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2016-06-03

    Global change is a major threat to the oceans, as it implies temperature increase and acidification. Ocean acidification (OA) involving decreasing pH and changes in seawater carbonate chemistry challenges the capacity of corals to form their skeletons. Despite the large number of studies that have investigated how rates of calcification respond to ocean acidification scenarios, comparatively few studies tackle how ocean acidification impacts the physiological mechanisms that drive calcification itself. The aim of our paper was to determine how the carbonic anhydrases, which play a major role in calcification, are potentially regulated by ocean acidification. For this we measured the effect of pH on enzyme activity of two carbonic anhydrase isoforms that have been previously characterized in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. In addition we looked at gene expression of these enzymes in vivo. For both isoforms, our results show (1) a change in gene expression under OA (2) an effect of OA and temperature on carbonic anhydrase activity. We suggest that temperature increase could counterbalance the effect of OA on enzyme activity. Finally we point out that caution must, thus, be taken when interpreting transcriptomic data on carbonic anhydrases in ocean acidification and temperature stress experiments, as the effect of these stressors on the physiological function of CA will depend both on gene expression and enzyme activity.

  15. Physiological functions of the alpha class of carbonic anhydrases.

    PubMed

    Frost, Susan C

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. These enzymes are of ancient origin as they are found in the deepest of branches of the evolutionary tree. Of the five different classes of carbonic anhydrases, the alpha class has perhaps received the most attention because of its role in human pathology. This review focuses on the physiological function of this class of carbonic anhydrases organized by their cellular location.

  16. Non-Classical Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrase

    PubMed Central

    Lomelino, Carrie L.; Supuran, Claudiu T.; McKenna, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Specific isoforms from the carbonic anhydrase (CA) family of zinc metalloenzymes have been associated with a variety of diseases. Isoform-specific carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) are therefore a major focus of attention for specific disease treatments. Classical CAIs, primarily sulfonamide-based compounds and their bioisosteres, are examined as antiglaucoma, antiepileptic, antiobesity, antineuropathic pain and anticancer compounds. However, many sulfonamide compounds inhibit all CA isoforms nonspecifically, diluting drug effectiveness and causing undesired side effects due to off-target inhibition. In addition, a small but significant percentage of the general population cannot be treated with sulfonamide-based compounds due to a sulfa allergy. Therefore, CAIs must be developed that are not only isoform specific, but also non-classical, i.e. not based on sulfonamides, sulfamates, or sulfamides. This review covers the classes of non-classical CAIs and the recent advances in the development of isoform-specific inhibitors based on phenols, polyamines, coumarins and their derivatives. PMID:27438828

  17. Overview of the carbonic anhydrase family.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Robert; Frost, Susan C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this collection of chapters is to provide a glimpse of where the carbonic anhydrase (CA) field is. This book is by no means fully inclusive, as only a few of the lead researchers around the world contributed; it serves only to show that the CA field is still pushing the boundaries of research as it has done since its discovery, and will do for a long time to come.

  18. Atomic resolution studies of carbonic anhydrase II

    PubMed Central

    Behnke, Craig A.; Le Trong, Isolde; Godden, Jeff W.; Merritt, Ethan A.; Teller, David C.; Bajorath, Jürgen; Stenkamp, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase has been well studied structurally and functionally owing to its importance in respiration. A large number of X-ray crystallographic structures of carbonic anhydrase and its inhibitor complexes have been determined, some at atomic resolution. Structure determination of a sulfonamide-containing inhibitor complex has been carried out and the structure was refined at 0.9 Å resolution with anisotropic atomic displacement parameters to an R value of 0.141. The structure is similar to those of other carbonic anhydrase complexes, with the inhibitor providing a fourth nonprotein ligand to the active-site zinc. Comparison of this structure with 13 other atomic resolution (higher than 1.25 Å) isomorphous carbonic anhydrase structures provides a view of the structural similarity and variability in a series of crystal structures. At the center of the protein the structures superpose very well. The metal complexes superpose (with only two exceptions) with standard deviations of 0.01 Å in some zinc–protein and zinc–ligand bond lengths. In contrast, regions of structural variability are found on the protein surface, possibly owing to flexibility and disorder in the individual structures, differences in the chemical and crystalline environments or the different approaches used by different investigators to model weak or complicated electron-density maps. These findings suggest that care must be taken in interpreting structural details on protein surfaces on the basis of individual X-ray structures, even if atomic resolution data are available. PMID:20445237

  19. 21 CFR 866.5200 - Carbonic anhydrase B and C immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques specific carbonic anhydrase protein molecules in serum and other body fluids. Measurements of carbonic anhydrase B and C aid in the diagnosis of abnormal hemoglobin metabolism....

  20. 21 CFR 866.5200 - Carbonic anhydrase B and C immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques specific carbonic anhydrase protein molecules in serum and other body fluids. Measurements of carbonic anhydrase B and C aid in the diagnosis of abnormal hemoglobin metabolism....

  1. Radioimmunoassay of carbonic anhydrase III in rat tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Shiels, A; Jeffery, S; Wilson, C; Carter, N

    1984-01-01

    A specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay for the rat carbonic anhydrase III isoenzyme was developed. High concentrations of carbonic anhydrase III were detected in soleus muscle and male liver. Female liver and other skeletal muscles contained significantly lower concentrations, and only trace amounts were found in heart, prostate, kidney, brain, plasma, urine and, possibly, erythrocytes. PMID:6424658

  2. Calcium, carbonic anhydrase and gastric acid secretion.

    PubMed

    Puscas, I; Coltau, M; Baican, M; Domuta, G; Hecht, A

    2001-01-01

    Previous data concerning the action of calcium (Ca) on gastric acid secretion (GAS) indicated that calcium ions increase GAS elicited by gastrin released through a vagal mechanism, and also by a direct effect on parietal cells. Our research showed that the stimulating effect of calcium on gastric acid secretion can be antagonized by verapamil administration, which reduces gastric acid secretion . In the present study we followed the effect induced by administration of calcium and Ca-chelating agents (disodium EDTA) on gastric acid secretion and on carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity. We selected two groups of healthy volunteers: Group I (n=21) received a single i.v. dose of CaCl2 (15 mg/kg b.w.), whereas Group II (n=22) received a single i.v. dose of disodium EDTA (5 mg/kg b.w.). We determined blood calcium before and after treatment, gastric acid secretion at 2 hours. erythrocyte CA II activity, and CA IV activity in membrane parietal cells, which were isolated from gastric mucosa obtained by endoscopic biopsy. Assessment of carbonic anhydrase activity was achieved by the stopped-flow method. In Group I calcium administration increased blood calcium, HCl output, CA II and CA IV activity as compared to initial values. In Group II, disodium EDTA reduced blood calcium, HCl output, CA II and CA IV activity as compared to initial values. The results demonstrated that increased blood calcium and GAS values after calcium administration correlated with the increase of erythrocyte CA II and parietal cell CA IV activity, while disodium EDTA induced a reversed process. Our results also show that cytosolic CA II and membrane CA IV values are sensitive to calcium changes and they directly depend on these levels. Our data suggest that intra- and extracellular pH changes induced by carbonic anhydrase might account for the modulation of the physiological and pathological secretory processes in the organism.

  3. Paralysis Episodes in Carbonic Anhydrase II Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Al-Ibrahim, Alia; Al-Harbi, Mosa; Al-Musallam, Sulaiman

    2003-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder manifest by osteopetrosis, renal tubular acidosis, and cerebral calcification. Other features include growth failure and mental retardation. Complications of the osteopetrosis include frequent bone fractures, cranial nerve compression, and dental mal-occlusion. A hyper-chloremic metabolic acidosis, sometimes with hypokalemia, occurs due to renal tubular acidosis that may be proximal, distal, or more commonly, the combined type. Such patients may present with global hypotonia, muscle weakness or paralysis. We report a case of CA II deficiency with recurrent attacks of acute paralysis which was misdiagnosed initially as Guillian-Barre syndrome.

  4. The γ Class of Carbonic Anhydrases

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, James G.

    2009-01-01

    Homologs of the γ class of carbonic anhydrases, one of five independently evolved classes, are found in the genomic sequences of diverse species from all three domains of life. The archetype (Cam) from the Archaea domain is a homotrimer of which the crystal structure reveals monomers with a distinctive left-handed parallel β-helix fold. Histidines from adjacent monomers ligate the three active site metals surrounded by residues in a hydrogen bond network essential for activity. Cam is most active with iron, the physiologically relevant metal. Although the active site residues bear little resemblance to the other classes, kinetic analyses indicate a two-step mechanism analogous to all carbonic anhydrases investigated. Phylogenetic analyses of Cam homologs derived from the databases show that Cam is representative of a minor subclass with the great majority belonging to a subclass (CamH) with significant differences in active site residues and apparent mechanism from Cam. A physiological function for any of the Cam and CamH homologs is unknown, although roles in transport of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate across membranes has been proposed. PMID:19747990

  5. The gamma class of carbonic anhydrases.

    PubMed

    Ferry, James G

    2010-02-01

    Homologs of the gamma class of carbonic anhydrases, one of five independently evolved classes, are found in the genomic sequences of diverse species from all three domains of life. The archetype (Cam) from the Archaea domain is a homotrimer of which the crystal structure reveals monomers with a distinctive left-handed parallel beta-helix fold. Histidines from adjacent monomers ligate the three active site metals surrounded by residues in a hydrogen bond network essential for activity. Cam is most active with iron, the physiologically relevant metal. Although the active site residues bear little resemblance to the other classes, kinetic analyses indicate a two-step mechanism analogous to all carbonic anhydrases investigated. Phylogenetic analyses of Cam homologs derived from the databases show that Cam is representative of a minor subclass with the great majority belonging to a subclass (CamH) with significant differences in active site residues and apparent mechanism from Cam. A physiological function for any of the Cam and CamH homologs is unknown, although roles in transport of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate across membranes has been proposed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of Carbonic Anhydrase 9 in the Alimentary Canal of Aedes aegypti and Its Relationship to Homologous Mosquito Carbonic Anhydrases

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Daniel P.; Van Ekeris, Leslie; Linser, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    In the mosquito midgut, luminal pH regulation and cellular ion transport processes are important for the digestion of food and maintenance of cellular homeostasis. pH regulation in the mosquito gut is affected by the vectorial movement of the principal ions including bicarbonate/carbonate and protons. As in all metazoans, mosquitoes employ the product of aerobic metabolism carbon dioxide in its bicarbonate/carbonate form as one of the major buffers of cellular and extracellular pH. The conversion of metabolic carbon dioxide to bicarbonate/carbonate is accomplished by a family of enzymes encoded by the carbonic anhydrase gene family. This study characterizes Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrases using bioinformatic, molecular, and immunohistochemical methods. Our analyses show that there are fourteen Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrase genes, two of which are expressed as splice variants. The carbonic anhydrases were classified as either integral membrane, peripheral membrane, mitochondrial, secreted, or soluble cytoplasmic proteins. Using polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, one of the carbonic anhydrases, Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrase 9, was analyzed and found in each life stage, male/female pupae, male/female adults, and in the female posterior midgut. Next, carbonic anhydrase 9 was analyzed in larvae and adults using confocal microscopy and was detected in the midgut regions. According to our analyses, carbonic anhydrase 9 is a soluble cytoplasmic enzyme found in the alimentary canal of larvae and adults and is expressed throughout the life cycle of the mosquito. Based on previous physiological analyses of adults and larvae, it appears AeCA9 is one of the major carbonic anhydrases involved in producing bicarbonate/carbonate which is involved in pH regulation and ion transport processes in the alimentary canal. Detailed understanding of the molecular bases of ion homeostasis in mosquitoes will provide targets for novel mosquito control strategies into the

  7. Characterization of Carbonic Anhydrase 9 in the Alimentary Canal of Aedes aegypti and Its Relationship to Homologous Mosquito Carbonic Anhydrases.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Daniel P; Van Ekeris, Leslie; Linser, Paul J

    2017-02-21

    In the mosquito midgut, luminal pH regulation and cellular ion transport processes are important for the digestion of food and maintenance of cellular homeostasis. pH regulation in the mosquito gut is affected by the vectorial movement of the principal ions including bicarbonate/carbonate and protons. As in all metazoans, mosquitoes employ the product of aerobic metabolism carbon dioxide in its bicarbonate/carbonate form as one of the major buffers of cellular and extracellular pH. The conversion of metabolic carbon dioxide to bicarbonate/carbonate is accomplished by a family of enzymes encoded by the carbonic anhydrase gene family. This study characterizes Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrases using bioinformatic, molecular, and immunohistochemical methods. Our analyses show that there are fourteen Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrase genes, two of which are expressed as splice variants. The carbonic anhydrases were classified as either integral membrane, peripheral membrane, mitochondrial, secreted, or soluble cytoplasmic proteins. Using polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, one of the carbonic anhydrases, Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrase 9, was analyzed and found in each life stage, male/female pupae, male/female adults, and in the female posterior midgut. Next, carbonic anhydrase 9 was analyzed in larvae and adults using confocal microscopy and was detected in the midgut regions. According to our analyses, carbonic anhydrase 9 is a soluble cytoplasmic enzyme found in the alimentary canal of larvae and adults and is expressed throughout the life cycle of the mosquito. Based on previous physiological analyses of adults and larvae, it appears AeCA9 is one of the major carbonic anhydrases involved in producing bicarbonate/carbonate which is involved in pH regulation and ion transport processes in the alimentary canal. Detailed understanding of the molecular bases of ion homeostasis in mosquitoes will provide targets for novel mosquito control strategies into the

  8. Carbonic anhydrase expression in kidney and renal cancer: implications for diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Oosterwijk, Egbert

    2014-01-01

    Four different carbonic anhydrases are expressed in the human nephron, the functional unit of the kidney. These are specifically expressed in different nephron segments, emphasizing the critical role carbonic anhydrases play in maintaining the homeostasis of this crucial organ.Whereas the localization of carbonic anhydrases in the kidney has been long established, interest in carbonic anhydrases has increased dramatically for renal cancer, in particular for the clear cell variant of renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) because carbonic anhydrase IX is specifically expressed in ccRCC. Therefore carbonic anhydrase IX is being studied as potential diagnostic and therapeutic target, despite carbonic anhydrase IX expression in non-renal tissues.

  9. Polyamines and α-Carbonic Anhydrases.

    PubMed

    Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T; Carta, Fabrizio

    2016-12-15

    Natural products represent a straightforward source for molecular structures bearing a vast array of chemical features and potentially useful for biomedical purposes. Recent examples of this type include the discovery of the coumarins and the polyamine natural products as atypical chemotypes for the inhibition of the metalloenzymes carbonic anhydrases (CAs; EC 4.2.2.1). CA enzymes are established pharmacological targets for important pathologies, which, among others, include glaucoma, hypoxic tumors, and central nervous system (CNS)-affecting diseases. Moreover, they are expressed in many bacteria, fungi and helminths which are the etiological agents of the majority of infectious diseases. In this context, natural products represent the ideal source of new and selective druggable CA modulators for biomedical purposes. Herein we report the state of the art on polyamines of natural origin as well as of synthetic derivatives as inhibitors of human CAs.

  10. Carbonic Anhydrase Catalysis: An Experiment on Enzyme Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spyridis, Greg T.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate enzyme kinetics experiment which uses bovine erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase, a very stable enzyme commercially available in lyophilized form. Includes background information, reactions involved, procedures used, and the calculation of typical results obtained. (JN)

  11. Carbon dioxide transport and carbonic anhydrase in blood and muscle.

    PubMed

    Geers, C; Gros, G

    2000-04-01

    CO(2) produced within skeletal muscle has to leave the body finally via ventilation by the lung. To get there, CO(2) diffuses from the intracellular space into the convective transport medium blood with the two compartments, plasma and erythrocytes. Within the body, CO(2) is transported in three different forms: physically dissolved, as HCO(3)(-), or as carbamate. The relative contribution of these three forms to overall transport is changing along this elimination pathway. Thus the kinetics of the interchange have to be considered. Carbonic anhydrase accelerates the hydration/dehydration reaction between CO(2), HCO(3)(-), and H(+). In skeletal muscle, various isozymes of carbonic anhydrase are localized within erythrocytes but are also bound to the capillary wall, thus accessible to plasma; bound to the sarcolemma, thus producing catalytic activity within the interstitial space; and associated with the sarcoplasmic reticulum. In some fiber types, carbonic anhydrase is also present in the sarcoplasm. In exercising skeletal muscle, lactic acid contributes huge amounts of H(+) and by these affects the relative contribution of the three forms of CO(2). With a theoretical model, the complex interdependence of reactions and transport processes involved in CO(2) exchange was analyzed.

  12. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, D E; Venta, P J; Tashian, R E; Sly, W S

    1992-01-01

    Deficiency of carbonic anhydrase II (carbonate hydro-lyase, EC 4.2.1.1) is the primary defect in the syndrome of osteopetrosis, renal tubular acidosis, and cerebral calcification. In this report we describe the molecular basis for carbonic anhydrase II deficiency in the American family in which the association of carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with this syndrome was first recognized. The three affected siblings from this family are compound heterozygotes, each having inherited two different mutations in the structural gene for carbonic anhydrase II. The paternal mutation is a splice acceptor site mutation at the 3' end of intron 5. The maternal mutation is a missense mutation in exon 3 that substitutes a tyrosine for histidine-107. We show that the mutant enzyme expressed in bacteria from the cDNA containing the His-107----Tyr mutation has detectable, though greatly reduced, activity. We suggest that residual activity of the His-107----Tyr mutant enzyme may explain the absence of mental retardation and the relatively mild phenotype of carbonic anhydrase II deficiency in affected members of this family. Images PMID:1542674

  13. Multimeric xanthates as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Abellán-Flos, Marta; Tanç, Muhammet; Supuran, Claudiu T; Vincent, Stéphane P

    2016-12-01

    The field of multivalent inhibition of enzymes is growing exponentially from the first reported multivalent effect on a glycosidase enzyme. However, the investigations have generally remained restricted to carbohydrate-processing enzymes. Carbonic anhydrases are ubiquitous metallo-enzymes involved in many key biological processes, that catalyze the reversible hydration/dehydration of [Formula: see text]. This study reports the first synthesis of multimeric xanthates addressing the selectivity and potency of CA multivalent inhibition. Six multivalent compounds containing three, four, and six xanthate moieties were prepared and assayed against four relevant CA isoforms together with their monovalent analogues. Some of the multimers were stronger inhibitors than the monomeric species. For hCA I, the two best molecules 18 and 20 showed an improvement of the ligand affinity of 4.8 and 2.3 per xanthate units (valence-corrected values), respectively, which corresponds to a clear multivalent effect. Moreover, the biochemical assays demonstrated that the multimeric presentation of xanthates, also affected the selectivity of the relative inhibition among the four CAs assayed.

  14. 21 CFR 866.5200 - Carbonic anhydrase B and C immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques specific carbonic anhydrase protein molecules in serum and other body fluids. Measurements of carbonic anhydrase B and C aid in the diagnosis of abnormal hemoglobin metabolism. (b...

  15. Evaluation of a carbonic anhydrase mimic for industrial carbon capture.

    PubMed

    Floyd, William C; Baker, Sarah E; Valdez, Carlos A; Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Bearinger, Jane P; Satcher, Joe H; Aines, Roger D

    2013-09-03

    Zinc(II) cyclen, a small molecule mimic of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, was evaluated under rigorous conditions resembling those in an industrial carbon capture process: high pH (>12), nearly saturated salt concentrations (45% K2CO3) and elevated temperatures (100-130 °C). We found that the catalytic activity of zinc cyclen increased with increasing temperature and pH and was retained after exposure to a 45% w/w K2CO3 solution at 130 °C for 6 days. However, high bicarbonate concentrations markedly reduced the activity of the catalyst. Our results establish a benchmark level of stability and provide qualitative insights for the design of improved small-molecule carbon capture catalysts.

  16. Enzymes for carbon sequestration: neutron crystallographic studies of carbonic anhydrase

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S. Z. Kovalevsky, A. Y.; Domsic, J.; Mustyakimov, M.; Silverman, D. N.; McKenna, R.; Langan, P.

    2010-11-01

    The first neutron crystal structure of carbonic anhydrase is presented. The structure reveals interesting and unexpected features of the active site that affect catalysis. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a ubiquitous metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO{sub 2} to form HCO{sub 3}{sup −} and H{sup +} using a Zn–hydroxide mechanism. The first part of catalysis involves CO{sub 2} hydration, while the second part deals with removing the excess proton that is formed during the first step. Proton transfer (PT) is thought to occur through a well ordered hydrogen-bonded network of waters that stretches from the metal center of CA to an internal proton shuttle, His64. These waters are oriented and ordered through a series of hydrogen-bonding interactions to hydrophilic residues that line the active site of CA. Neutron studies were conducted on wild-type human CA isoform II (HCA II) in order to better understand the nature and the orientation of the Zn-bound solvent (ZS), the charged state and conformation of His64, the hydrogen-bonding patterns and orientations of the water molecules that mediate PT and the ionization of hydrophilic residues in the active site that interact with the water network. Several interesting and unexpected features in the active site were observed which have implications for how PT proceeds in CA.

  17. Fluorescence Analysis of Sulfonamide Binding to Carbonic Anhydrase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Sheila C.; Zamble, Deborah B.

    2006-01-01

    A practical laboratory experiment is described that illustrates the application of fluorescence resonance energy transfer to the study of protein-ligand binding. The affinities of wild-type and mutant human carbonic anhydrase II for dansylamide were determined by monitoring the increase in ligand fluorescence that occurs due to energy transfer…

  18. Fluorescence Analysis of Sulfonamide Binding to Carbonic Anhydrase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Sheila C.; Zamble, Deborah B.

    2006-01-01

    A practical laboratory experiment is described that illustrates the application of fluorescence resonance energy transfer to the study of protein-ligand binding. The affinities of wild-type and mutant human carbonic anhydrase II for dansylamide were determined by monitoring the increase in ligand fluorescence that occurs due to energy transfer…

  19. Chloroplast and cytoplasmic enzymes : V. Pea-leaf carbonic anhydrases.

    PubMed

    Kachru, R B; Anderson, L E

    1974-09-01

    Chloroplastic and cytoplasmic forms of pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaf carbonic anhydrase were separated by isoelectric focusing. The two forms have identical pH optima, 7.0 for the hydration reaction and 7.5 for the dehydration reaction, and identical Michaelis constants for CO2, 0.03 M. Neither isozyme is affected by any of several compounds involved in carbon metabolism in the green plant.

  20. Electropolymerized carbonic anhydrase immobilization for carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Merle, Geraldine; Fradette, Sylvie; Madore, Eric; Barralet, Jake E

    2014-06-17

    Biomimetic carbonation carried out with carbonic anhydrase (CA) in CO2-absorbing solutions, such as methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), is one approach that has been developed to accelerate the capture of CO2. However, there are several practical issues, such as high cost and limited enzyme stability, that need to be overcome. In this study, the capacity of CA immobilization on a porous solid support was studied to improve the instability in the tertiary amine solvent. We have shown that a 63% porosity macroporous carbon foam support makes separation and reuse facile and allows for an efficient supply and presentation of CO2 to an aqueous solvent and the enzyme catalytic center. These enzymatic supports conserved 40% of their initial activity after 42 days at 70 °C in an amine solvent, whereas the free enzyme shows no activity after 1 h in the same conditions. In this work, we have overcome the technical barrier associated with the recovery of the biocatalyst after operation, and most of all, these electropolymerized enzymatic supports have shown a remarkable increase of thermal stability in an amine-based CO2 sequestration solvent.

  1. The role of carbonic anhydrase in hepatic glucose production.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ibrahim Salihu

    2016-12-14

    Considerable efforts are being made daily to discover novel therapeutic targets to better understand the mechanism for designing drugs in treating diabetes. Inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis by metformin remains the first line of oral therapy for managing type 2 diabetes. The link between rise in blood lactate level and reduction of hepatic glucose production with metformin usage remains to be determined. Carbonic anhydrase is proposed to be the link connecting blood lactate accumulation and inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis and thus could serve as a new therapeutic target for reducing hepatic glucose production. Understanding the link between rise in blood lactate level and the role of carbonic anhydrase in lactate uptake will be essential towards the development of a promising new antidiabetic medication.

  2. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitory properties of some uracil derivatives.

    PubMed

    Alper Türkoğlu, Emir; Şentürk, Murat; Supuran, Claudiu T; Ekinci, Deniz

    2017-12-01

    Inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase (CA) have been carried out in many therapeutic applications, especially antiglaucoma activity. In this study, we investigated some uracil derivatives (4-12) to inhibit human CA I (hCA I) and II (hCA II) isoenzymes. The KI values of the compounds 4-12 are in the range of 0.085-428 µM for hCA I and of 0.1715-645 µM against hCA II, respectively. It is concluded from the kinetic investigations, all compounds used in the study act as competitive inhibitors with substrate, 4-NPA. Uracil derivatives are emerging agents for the inhibiton of carbonic anhydrase which could be used in biomedicine.

  3. Mitochondrial proteomic profiling reveals increased carbonic anhydrase II in aging and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Amelia; Shephard, Freya; Freed, James; Liddell, Susan; Chakrabarti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are used to treat glaucoma and cancers. Carbonic anhydrases perform a crucial role in the conversion of carbon dioxide and water into bicarbonate and protons. However, there is little information about carbonic anhydrase isoforms during the process of ageing. Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicit in ageing brain and muscle. We have interrogated isolated mitochondrial fractions from young adult and middle aged mouse brain and skeletal muscle. We find an increase of tissue specific carbonic anhydrases in mitochondria from middle-aged brain and skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase II was measured in the Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd5J) mouse model. In pcd5J we find mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase II is also elevated in brain from young adults undergoing a process of neurodegeneration. We show C.elegans exposed to carbonic anhydrase II have a dose related shorter lifespan suggesting that high CAII levels are in themselves life limiting. We show for the first time that the mitochondrial content of brain and skeletal tissue are exposed to significantly higher levels of active carbonic anhydrases as early as in middle-age. Carbonic anhydrases associated with mitochondria could be targeted to specifically modulate age related impairments and disease. PMID:27743511

  4. CO2 Removal using a Synthetic Analogue of Carbonic Anhydrase

    SciTech Connect

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-09-14

    Project attempts to develop a synthetic analogue for carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it in a membrane for separation of CO2 from coal power plant flue gas. Conference poster presents result of first 9 months of project progress including concept, basic system architecture and membrane properties target, results of molecular modeling for analogue - CO2 interaction, and next steps of testing analogue resistance to flue gas contaminants.

  5. Fluorescent Silica Nanoparticles with Multivalent Inhibitory Effects towards Carbonic Anhydrases.

    PubMed

    Touisni, Nadia; Kanfar, Nasreddine; Ulrich, Sébastien; Dumy, Pascal; Supuran, Claudiu T; Mehdi, Ahmad; Winum, Jean-Yves

    2015-07-13

    Invited for the cover of this issue are Jean-Yves Winum and co-workers at University of Montpellier (France) and University of Florence (Italy). The image depicts the multivalency approach applied to zinc metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrases. Read the full text of the article at 10.1002/chem.201501037. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. An Update on Natural Products with Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitory Activity.

    PubMed

    Karioti, Anastasia; Carta, Fabrizio; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) catalyze the fundamental reaction of CO2 hydration in all living organisms, being actively involved in the regulation of a plethora of patho/physiological processes. They represent a typical example of enzyme convergent evolution, as six genetically unrelated families of such enzymes were described so far. It is more than 70 years that synthetic compounds, mainly sulfonamides, have been used in clinical practice as diuretics and systemic acting antiglaucoma drugs. Recent studies using natural product libraries and isolated constituents from natural sources (such as fungi and plants) have disclosed novel chemotypes possessing carbonic anhydrase inhibition activities. These natural sources offer new opportunities in the search for new and more effective carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, and may serve as new leads for the design and development of future drugs. This review will discuss the most recent advances in the search of naturally occurring products and their synthetic derivatives that inhibit the CAs and their mechanisms of action at molecular level. Plant extracts are not considered in the present review.

  7. The carbonic anhydrase domain of plant mitochondrial complex I.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Steffanie; Senkler, Jennifer; Zabaleta, Eduardo; Peterhänsel, Christoph; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2016-07-01

    The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex (complex I) consists of several functional domains which independently arose during evolution. In higher plants, it contains an additional domain which includes proteins resembling gamma-type carbonic anhydrases. The Arabidopsis genome codes for five complex I-integrated gamma-type carbonic anhydrases (γCA1, γCA2, γCA3, γCAL1, γCAL2), but only three copies of this group of proteins form an individual extra domain. Biochemical analyses revealed that the domain is composed of one copy of either γCAL1 or γCAL2 plus two copies of the γCA1/γCA2 proteins. Thus, the carbonic anhydrase domain can have six distinct subunit configurations. Single and double mutants with respect to the γCA/γCAL proteins were employed to genetically dissect the function of the domain. New insights into complex I biology in plants will be reviewed and discussed. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  8. Erythrocyte catalase and carbonic anhydrase activities in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cobanoglu, Ufuk; Demir, Halit; Duran, Memet; Şehitogullari, Abidin; Mergan, Duygu; Demir, Canan

    2010-01-01

    To study the relationship between the pathogenesis of lung cancer and antioxidant status and acidic media by measuring the activities of erythrocyte catalase (CAT) and carbonic anhydrase (CA). A total of 26 patients with lung cancer and 15 healthy individuals were included in the study. The CAT and CA activities of erythrocytes were defined. The catalase (CAT) activity of erythrocytes was measured using Aebi's method. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity was analyzed by CO2 hydration. It was found that erythrocyte CA and CAT activities were significantly lower in patients with lung cancer compared to controls (p<0.05). Of the 26 patients with lung cancer, seven (26.9%) had metastasis, and the CA and CAT levels in patients with metastasis were significantly decreased (p=0.0001). Development of oxidative stress due to lung cancer may be related to the balance between prooxidant and antioxidant reactions. Catalase may have a preventive effect for malignant lung cancers and the gene of the antioxidant enzymes may be one of the anti-oncogenes, and inactivation of one of these genes in the process of carcinogenesis may lead to tumor development. This may be an explanation for the very low levels of antioxidant CAT in patients with lung cancer compared to healthy individuals. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) in tumor cells may be an indicator of the acid-base balance in lung cancer. Decreased levels of CA in patients with lung cancer may provide a convenient media for tumor development, growth and metastasis by creating an acidic media.

  9. Carbonic anhydrase isozymes IV and II in urinary membranes from carbonic anhydrase II-deficient patients.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, S; Zhu, X L; Sly, W S

    1990-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) deficiency has been shown to be the primary defect in the recessively inherited syndrome of osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis. Until now, the absence of CA II in kidney of CA II-deficient patients has not been shown directly, and the status of the membrane-associated CA in kidney of CA II-deficient patients has been unclear. To address these questions, we analyzed urinary membranes and soluble fractions from normal and CA II-deficient subjects. The CA activity in membrane fractions of normal urine was found to comprise two components--(i) a vesicle-enclosed, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-sensitive fraction, which was shown immunochemically to be the 29-kDa CA II, and (ii) an SDS-resistant fraction, which was due to native and cleaved forms of the 35-kDa, membrane-anchored isozyme CA IV. Urinary membranes from CA II-deficient patients showed little or no SDS-sensitive activity and no immunoreactivity for CA II, providing direct evidence that their mutation, which produces CA II deficiency in erythrocytes, also affects CA II in kidney. CA IV activity and immunoreactivity were present in normal amounts in urinary membranes from CA II-deficient patients. We conclude from the enzymatic and immunological evidence presented that both CA II and CA IV are present in urinary membranes from normal subjects, that renal CA IV is present but renal CA II is absent in urinary membranes from patients with the CA II-deficiency syndrome, and that the methods presented should be useful in studying renal CA II and renal CA IV in other disorders of impaired bicarbonate reabsorption. Images PMID:2117271

  10. Removal of Zinc Form Carbonic Anhydrase: A Kinetics Experiment for Upper-Level Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kathryn R.; Adhyaru, Bhavin

    2004-01-01

    An experiment on kinetics of deactivation of carbonic anhydrase by removal of zinc is demonstrated. Carbonic anhydrase, the enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, requires on Zn(II) ion in its active site, and removal of the zinc cofactor by complexion to another ligand leaves the apoenzyme, which is totally…

  11. Removal of Zinc Form Carbonic Anhydrase: A Kinetics Experiment for Upper-Level Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kathryn R.; Adhyaru, Bhavin

    2004-01-01

    An experiment on kinetics of deactivation of carbonic anhydrase by removal of zinc is demonstrated. Carbonic anhydrase, the enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, requires on Zn(II) ion in its active site, and removal of the zinc cofactor by complexion to another ligand leaves the apoenzyme, which is totally…

  12. Carbon dioxide "trapped" in a β-carbonic anhydrase

    DOE PAGES

    Aggarwal, Mayank; Chua, Teck Khiang; Pinard, Melissa A.; ...

    2015-10-12

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are enzymes that catalyze the hydration/ dehydration of CO2/HCO3- with rates approaching diffusion-controlled limits (kcat/KM ~ 108 M–1s–1). Here, this family of enzymes has evolved disparate protein folds that all perform the same reaction at near catalytic perfection. Presented here is a structural study of a beta-CA (psCA3) expressed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in complex with CO2, using pressurized cryocooled crystallography. The structure has been refined to 1.6 angstrom resolution with Rcryst and Rfree values of 17.3 and 19.9%, respectively, and is compared with the α-CA, human CA isoform II (hCA II), the only other CA to havemore » CO2, captured in its active site. Despite the lack of structural similarity between psCA3 and hCA II, the CO2, binding orientation relative to the zinc-bound solvent is identical. In addition, a second CO2, binding site was located at the dimer interface of psCA3. Interestingly, all β-CAs function as dirners or higher-order oligomeric states, and the CO2, bound at the interface may contribute to the allosteric nature of this family of enzymes or may be a convenient alternative binding site as this pocket has been previously shown to be a promiscuous site for a variety of ligands, including bicarbonate, sulfate, and phosphate ions.« less

  13. Highly stable beta-class carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOEpatents

    Alvizo, Oscar; Benoit, Mike; Novick, Scott

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure relates to .beta.-class carbonic anhydrase polypeptides having improved properties including increased thermostability and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides formulations and uses of the polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering. Also provided are polynucleotides encoding the carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and host cells capable of expressing them.

  14. Highly stable beta-class carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOEpatents

    Alvizo, Oscar; Benoit, Michael R; Novick, Scott J

    2013-08-20

    The present disclosure relates to .beta.-class carbonic anhydrase polypeptides having improved properties including increased thermostability and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides formulations and uses of the polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering. Also provided are polynucleotides encoding the carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and host cells capable of expressing them.

  15. Carbon dioxide "trapped" in a β-carbonic anhydrase

    SciTech Connect

    Aggarwal, Mayank; Chua, Teck Khiang; Pinard, Melissa A.; Szebenyi, Doletha M.; McKenna, Robert

    2015-10-12

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are enzymes that catalyze the hydration/ dehydration of CO2/HCO3- with rates approaching diffusion-controlled limits (kcat/KM ~ 108 M–1s–1). Here, this family of enzymes has evolved disparate protein folds that all perform the same reaction at near catalytic perfection. Presented here is a structural study of a beta-CA (psCA3) expressed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in complex with CO2, using pressurized cryocooled crystallography. The structure has been refined to 1.6 angstrom resolution with Rcryst and Rfree values of 17.3 and 19.9%, respectively, and is compared with the α-CA, human CA isoform II (hCA II), the only other CA to have CO2, captured in its active site. Despite the lack of structural similarity between psCA3 and hCA II, the CO2, binding orientation relative to the zinc-bound solvent is identical. In addition, a second CO2, binding site was located at the dimer interface of psCA3. Interestingly, all β-CAs function as dirners or higher-order oligomeric states, and the CO2, bound at the interface may contribute to the allosteric nature of this family of enzymes or may be a convenient alternative binding site as this pocket has been previously shown to be a promiscuous site for a variety of ligands, including bicarbonate, sulfate, and phosphate ions.

  16. Bioindication potential of carbonic anhydrase activity in anemones and corals.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, A L; Guzmán, H M

    2001-09-01

    Activity levels of carbonic anhydrase (CA) were assessed in anemones Condylactis gigantea and Stichodactyla helianthus with laboratory exposures to copper, nickel, lead, and vanadium, and also in animals collected from polluted vs pristine field sites. CA activity was found to be decreased with increase in metal concentration and also in animals collected from the polluted field site. Preliminary assessments to adapt the CA assay for use in the widespread coral Montastraea cavernosa show decreased CA activity in specimens from the polluted field site and provide an avenue for future research aimed at more thoroughly describing coral CA activity for potential application in bioindication.

  17. Bioinformatic analysis of beta carbonic anhydrase sequences from protozoans and metazoans.

    PubMed

    Zolfaghari Emameh, Reza; Barker, Harlan; Tolvanen, Martti E E; Ortutay, Csaba; Parkkila, Seppo

    2014-01-21

    Despite the high prevalence of parasitic infections, and their impact on global health and economy, the number of drugs available to treat them is extremely limited. As a result, the potential consequences of large-scale resistance to any existing drugs are a major concern. A number of recent investigations have focused on the effects of potential chemical inhibitors on bacterial and fungal carbonic anhydrases. Among the five classes of carbonic anhydrases (alpha, beta, gamma, delta and zeta), beta carbonic anhydrases have been reported in most species of bacteria, yeasts, algae, plants, and particular invertebrates (nematodes and insects). To date, there has been a lack of knowledge on the expression and molecular structure of beta carbonic anhydrases in metazoan (nematodes and arthropods) and protozoan species. Here, the identification of novel beta carbonic anhydrases was based on the presence of the highly-conserved amino acid sequence patterns of the active site. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on codon-aligned DNA sequences. Subcellular localization prediction for each identified invertebrate beta carbonic anhydrase was performed using the TargetP webserver. We verified a total of 75 beta carbonic anhydrase sequences in metazoan and protozoan species by proteome-wide searches and multiple sequence alignment. Of these, 52 were novel, and contained highly conserved amino acid residues, which are inferred to form the active site in beta carbonic anhydrases. Mitochondrial targeting peptide analysis revealed that 31 enzymes are predicted with mitochondrial localization; one was predicted to be a secretory enzyme, and the other 43 were predicted to have other undefined cellular localizations. These investigations identified 75 beta carbonic anhydrases in metazoan and protozoan species, and among them there were 52 novel sequences that were not previously annotated as beta carbonic anhydrases. Our results will not only change the current information in

  18. Carbonic Anhydrase from Porphyromonas Gingivalis as a Drug Target.

    PubMed

    Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

    2017-07-15

    Periodontitis originates from a microbial synergy causing the development of a mouth microbial imbalance (dysbiosis), consisting of a microbial community composed of anaerobic bacteria. Most studies concerning the treatment of periodontitis have primarily take into account the Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis, because it is a prominent component of the oral microbiome and a successful colonizer of the oral epithelium. Here, we focus our attention on the study of the carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) encoded in the genome of this pathogen as a possible drug target. Carbonic anhydrases are a superfamily of metalloenzymes, which catalyze the simple but physiologically crucial reaction of carbon dioxide hydration to bicarbonate and protons. Bacterial CAs have attracted significant attention for affecting the survival, invasion, and pathogenicity of many microorganisms. The P. gingivalis genome encodes for two CAs belonging to β-CA (PgiCAβ) and γ-CA (PgiCAγ) families. These two enzymes were cloned, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to homogeneity. Moreover, they were subject to extensive inhibition studies using the classical CA inhibitors (sulfonamides and anions) with the aim of identifying selective inhibitors of PgiCAβ and PgiCAγ to be used as pharmacological tools for P. gingivalis eradication.

  19. Carbonic anhydrase from Apis mellifera: purification and inhibition by pesticides.

    PubMed

    Soydan, Ercan; Güler, Ahmet; Bıyık, Selim; Şentürk, Murat; Supuran, Claudiu T; Ekinci, Deniz

    2017-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes have been shown to play an important role in ion transport and in pH regulation in several organisms. Despite this information and the wealth of knowledge regarding the significance of CA enzymes, few studies have been reported about bee CA enzymes and the hazardous effects of chemicals. Using Apis mellifera as a model, this study aimed to determine the risk of pesticides on Apis mellifera Carbonic anhydrase enzyme (Am CA). CA was initially purified from Apis mellifera spermatheca for the first time in the literature. The enzyme was purified with an overall purification of ∼35-fold with a molecular weight of ∼32 kDa. The enzyme was then exposed to pesticides, including tebuconazole, propoxur, carbaryl, carbofuran, simazine and atrazine. The six pesticides dose-dependently inhibited in vitro AmCA activity at low micromolar concentrations. IC50 values for the pesticides were 0.0030, 0.0321, 0.0031, 0.0087, 0.0273 and 0.0165 μM, respectively. The AmCA inhibition mechanism of these compounds is unknown at this moment.

  20. Histochemical carbonic anhydrase in rat inner medullary collecting duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinman, J. G.; Bain, J. L.; Fritsche, C.; Riley, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) secretes substantial amounts of H+. However, carbonic anhydrase (CA), a concomitant of H+ secretion, has been generally reported absent in this segment. To reexamine this problem, we investigated CA and the morphological phenotypes of cells comprising the IMCD by CA histochemistry, using a modified Hansson technique with light and electron microscopy. Throughout the medulla, tubule cells exhibit histochemical CA activity. In the initial third of the inner medulla, a small proportion have features of intercalated cells and demonstrate some degree of CA activity. However, the majority population in the early portions of the IMCD appears to consist of principal cells. These also show CA staining of widely variable intensity, both among and within cells. A third cell type, previously called "IMCD cells", appears in the middle portion of the IMCD and is the only cell type present near the papilla tip. In contrast to previous reports, these "IMCD cells" have histochemical CA staining, also of highly variable intensity. These results demonstrate that stainable carbonic anhydrase to support acidification is present throughout the rat IMCD, both in intercalated cells and in some cells clearly not of this type. Therefore, the presence of CA is not specific for the intercalated cell type and suggests that other cell types may participate in acid secretion in IMCD.

  1. Histochemical carbonic anhydrase in rat inner medullary collecting duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinman, J. G.; Bain, J. L.; Fritsche, C.; Riley, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) secretes substantial amounts of H+. However, carbonic anhydrase (CA), a concomitant of H+ secretion, has been generally reported absent in this segment. To reexamine this problem, we investigated CA and the morphological phenotypes of cells comprising the IMCD by CA histochemistry, using a modified Hansson technique with light and electron microscopy. Throughout the medulla, tubule cells exhibit histochemical CA activity. In the initial third of the inner medulla, a small proportion have features of intercalated cells and demonstrate some degree of CA activity. However, the majority population in the early portions of the IMCD appears to consist of principal cells. These also show CA staining of widely variable intensity, both among and within cells. A third cell type, previously called "IMCD cells", appears in the middle portion of the IMCD and is the only cell type present near the papilla tip. In contrast to previous reports, these "IMCD cells" have histochemical CA staining, also of highly variable intensity. These results demonstrate that stainable carbonic anhydrase to support acidification is present throughout the rat IMCD, both in intercalated cells and in some cells clearly not of this type. Therefore, the presence of CA is not specific for the intercalated cell type and suggests that other cell types may participate in acid secretion in IMCD.

  2. Carbonic anhydrase inhibition in glaucoma: hazard or benefit for the chronic lunger?

    PubMed

    Block, E R; Rostand, R A

    1978-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, of proven value in the longterm management of glaucoma, have a number of troublesome side effects, most of which are well-known. However, their potential hazards to patients with chronic obstructive lung disease have received little attention. The author reviews the physiological effects of carbonic anhydrase inhibition on carbon dioxide metabolism and the implications for the chronic lung patient. The untoward pulmonary complications associated with the use of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are of particular importance to ophthalmologists, since chronic lung disease and glaucoma, both common disorders in the elderly, frequently coexist in the same patient.

  3. On the lack of specificity of the cobalt-bicarbonate method for carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Muther, T F

    1977-09-01

    Data are presented that support a nonenzymic mechanism for the staining obtained with the cobalt-bicarbonate method. The biochemically inactive apocarbonic anhydrase and Cu+2 apocarbonic anhydrase stain positively and this stain is inhibited by acetazolamide. The staining of the acetazolamide resistant carbonic anhydrase of male rat liver is inhibited by 10-6 M acetazolamide, at which concentration no biochemical inhibition is observed. There is no correlation between the biochemical and histochemical inhibitory potencies of a number of sulfonamides. The nonsulfonamide inhibitor, KCNO, does not inhibit staining. When incubations are performed in media exposed to atmospheres of increasing CO2 content, staining is not abolished until the atmospheric pCO2 approaches that generated by the medium itself. This finding renders the carbonic anhydrase catalyzed dehydration of HCO3- an improbable reaction for the staining. Studies with modified media show differences in staining patterns and in sensitivity to acetazolamide inhibition which question the specificity of the method for carbonic anhydrase.

  4. A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase molecular switch occurs in the gills of metamorphic sea lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferreira-Martins, D.; McCormick, Stephen; Campos, A.; Lopes-Marques, M.; Osorio, H.; Coimbra, J.; Castro, L.F.C.; Wilson, Jonthan M

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase plays a key role in CO2 transport, acid-base and ion regulation and metabolic processes in vertebrates. While several carbonic anhydrase isoforms have been identified in numerous vertebrate species, basal lineages such as the cyclostomes have remained largely unexamined. Here we investigate the repertoire of cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrases in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), that has a complex life history marked by a dramatic metamorphosis from a benthic filter-feeding ammocoete larvae into a parasitic juvenile which migrates from freshwater to seawater. We have identified a novel carbonic anhydrase gene (ca19) beyond the single carbonic anhydrase gene (ca18) that was known previously. Phylogenetic analysis and synteny studies suggest that both carbonic anhydrase genes form one or two independent gene lineages and are most likely duplicates retained uniquely in cyclostomes. Quantitative PCR of ca19 and ca18 and protein expression in gill across metamorphosis show that the ca19 levels are highest in ammocoetes and decrease during metamorphosis while ca18 shows the opposite pattern with the highest levels in post-metamorphic juveniles. We propose that a unique molecular switch occurs during lamprey metamorphosis resulting in distinct gill carbonic anhydrases reflecting the contrasting life modes and habitats of these life-history stages.

  5. Role of carbonic anhydrase in bone resorption induced by prostaglandin E2 in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, G. E.; Kenny, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    The possible role of carbonic anhydrase in bone resorption induced by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was studied using an in vitro neonatal mouse calvarial culture system. PGE2 (10 to the -6th M) was effective in stimulating resorption, as assessed by calcium release into culture media. This enhanced resorption was accompanied by significant increases in calvarial carbonic anhydrase activity over control values at 48 and 96 h. At 48 h, bones treated with PGE2 had 20 percent more carbonic anhydrase activity than controls. By 96 h, treated bones contained 79 percent more carbonic anhydrase activity than controls. PGE2-induced bone resorption was inhibited by the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide in a dose-dependent fashion from 10 to the -5th to 10 to the -4th M with 77 percent inhibition observed at 10 to the -4th M. The acetazolamide analogue CL 13,850 (N-t-butylacetazolamide), which does not inhibit carbonic anhydrase, failed to inhibit PGE2-induced resorption. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that carbonic anhydrase is a necessary component of the osteoclastic bone resorptive mechanism.

  6. Role of carbonic anhydrase in bone resorption induced by prostaglandin E2 in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, G. E.; Kenny, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    The possible role of carbonic anhydrase in bone resorption induced by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was studied using an in vitro neonatal mouse calvarial culture system. PGE2 (10 to the -6th M) was effective in stimulating resorption, as assessed by calcium release into culture media. This enhanced resorption was accompanied by significant increases in calvarial carbonic anhydrase activity over control values at 48 and 96 h. At 48 h, bones treated with PGE2 had 20 percent more carbonic anhydrase activity than controls. By 96 h, treated bones contained 79 percent more carbonic anhydrase activity than controls. PGE2-induced bone resorption was inhibited by the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide in a dose-dependent fashion from 10 to the -5th to 10 to the -4th M with 77 percent inhibition observed at 10 to the -4th M. The acetazolamide analogue CL 13,850 (N-t-butylacetazolamide), which does not inhibit carbonic anhydrase, failed to inhibit PGE2-induced resorption. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that carbonic anhydrase is a necessary component of the osteoclastic bone resorptive mechanism.

  7. A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase molecular switch occurs in the gills of metamorphic sea lamprey

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Martins, D.; McCormick, S. D.; Campos, A.; Lopes-Marques, M.; Osório, H.; Coimbra, J.; Castro, L. F. C.; Wilson, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase plays a key role in CO2 transport, acid-base and ion regulation and metabolic processes in vertebrates. While several carbonic anhydrase isoforms have been identified in numerous vertebrate species, basal lineages such as the cyclostomes have remained largely unexamined. Here we investigate the repertoire of cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrases in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), that has a complex life history marked by a dramatic metamorphosis from a benthic filter-feeding ammocoete larvae into a parasitic juvenile which migrates from freshwater to seawater. We have identified a novel carbonic anhydrase gene (ca19) beyond the single carbonic anhydrase gene (ca18) that was known previously. Phylogenetic analysis and synteny studies suggest that both carbonic anhydrase genes form one or two independent gene lineages and are most likely duplicates retained uniquely in cyclostomes. Quantitative PCR of ca19 and ca18 and protein expression in gill across metamorphosis show that the ca19 levels are highest in ammocoetes and decrease during metamorphosis while ca18 shows the opposite pattern with the highest levels in post-metamorphic juveniles. We propose that a unique molecular switch occurs during lamprey metamorphosis resulting in distinct gill carbonic anhydrases reflecting the contrasting life modes and habitats of these life-history stages. PMID:27703170

  8. Effect of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors on Inorganic Carbon Accumulation by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1

    PubMed Central

    Moroney, James V.; Husic, H. David; Tolbert, N. E.

    1985-01-01

    Membrane-permeable and impermeable inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase have been used to assess the roles of extracellular and intracellular carbonic anhydrase on the inorganic carbon concentrating system in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Acetazolamide, ethoxzolamide, and a membrane-impermeable, dextran-bound sulfonamide were potent inhibitors of extracellular carbonic anhydrase measured with intact cells. At pH 5.1, where CO2 is the predominant species of inorganic carbon, both acetazolamide and the dextran-bound sulfonamide had no effect on the concentration of CO2 required for the half-maximal rate of photosynthetic O2 evolution (K0.5[CO2]) or inorganic carbon accumulation. However, a more permeable inhibitor, ethoxzolamide, inhibited CO2 fixation but increased the accumulation of inorganic carbon as compared with untreated cells. At pH 8, the K0.5(CO2) was increased from 0.6 micromolar to about 2 to 3 micromolar with both acetazolamide and the dextran-bound sulfonamide, but to a higher value of 60 micromolar with ethoxzolamide. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that CO2 is the species of inorganic carbon which crosses the plasmalemma and that extracellular carbonic anhydrase is required to replenish CO2 from HCO3− at high pH. These data also implicate a role for intracellular carbonic anhydrase in the inorganic carbon accumulating system, and indicate that both acetazolamide and the dextran-bound sulfonamide inhibit only the extracellular enzyme. It is suggested that HCO3− transport for internal accumulation might occur at the level of the chloroplast envelope. PMID:16664365

  9. Fish erythrocytes are bicarbonate permeable: problems with determining carbonic anhydrase activity using the modified boat technique.

    PubMed

    Heming, T A; Randall, D J

    1982-01-10

    Effects of foaming agents (blood plasma, bovine serum albumin, polyvinyl-pyrrolidinone) and defoaming agents (octanol, n-foam) on manometric determination of carbonic anhydrase activity in intact erythrocytes of fish were examined. Foaming agents abolished the activity of red cells. Defoaming agents increased the activity and negated any differences in carbonic anhydrase activity between whole blood (red cells in plasma) and "Cortland" blood (red cells in saline). It is concluded that effects of plasma on the carbonic anhydrase activity of intact erythrocytes of fish measured using the modified boat technique are largely nonspecific and related to reagent foaming during mixing, rather than to the action of a specific enzyme inhibitor.

  10. The archetype gamma-class carbonic anhydrase (Cam) contains iron when synthesized in vivo.

    PubMed

    Macauley, Sheridan R; Zimmerman, Sabrina A; Apolinario, Ethel E; Evilia, Caryn; Hou, Ya-Ming; Ferry, James G; Sowers, Kevin R

    2009-02-10

    A recombinant protein overproduction system was developed in Methanosarcina acetivorans to facilitate biochemical characterization of oxygen-sensitive metalloenzymes from strictly anaerobic species in the Archaea domain. The system was used to overproduce the archetype of the independently evolved gamma-class carbonic anhydrase. The overproduced enzyme was oxygen sensitive and had full incorporation of iron instead of zinc observed when overproduced in Escherichia coli. This, the first report of in vivo iron incorporation for any carbonic anhydrase, supports the need to reevaluate the role of iron in all classes of carbonic anhydrases derived from anaerobic environments.

  11. Characterization of human carbonic anhydrase III from skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Carter, N; Jeffery, S; Shiels, A; Edwards, Y; Tipler, T; Hopkinson, D A

    1979-10-01

    A third form of human carbonic anhydrase (CA III), found at high concentrations in skeletal muscle, has been purified and characterized. This isozyme shows relatively poor hydratase and esterase activities compared to the red cell isozymes, CA I and CA II, but is similar to these isozymes in subunit structure (monomer) and molecular size (28,000). CA III is liable to posttranslational modification by thiol group interaction. Monomeric secondary isozymes, sensitive to beta-mercaptoethanol, are found in both crude and purified material and can be generated in vitro by the addition of thiol reagents. Active dimeric isozymes, generated apparently by the formation of intermolecular disulfide bridges, also occur but account for only a small proportion of the total protein and appear only when the concentration of CA III is particularly high.

  12. Recent Developments in Targeting Carbonic Anhydrase IX for Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Paul C.; Winum, Jean-Yves; Supuran, Claudiu T.; Dedhar, Shoukat

    2012-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a hypoxia-inducible enzyme that is overexpressed by cancer cells from many tumor types, and is a component of the pH regulatory system invoked by these cells to combat the deleterious effects of a high rate of glycolytic metabolism. CAIX functions to help produce and maintain an intracellular pH (pHi) favorable for tumor cell growth and survival, while at the same time participating in the generation of an increasingly acidic extracellular space, facilitating tumor cell invasiveness. Pharmacologic interference of CAIX catalytic activity using monoclonal antibodies or CAIX-specific small molecule inhibitors, consequently disrupting pH regulation by cancer cells, has been shown recently to impair primary tumor growth and metastasis. Many of these agents are in preclinical or clinical development and constitute a novel, targeted strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:22289741

  13. Carbonic anhydrase III protects osteocytes from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chao; Uda, Yuhei; Dedic, Christopher; Azab, Ehab; Sun, Ningyuan; Hussein, Amira I; Petty, Christopher A; Fulzele, Keertik; Mitterberger-Vogt, Maria C; Zwerschke, Werner; Pereira, Renata; Wang, Kunzheng; Pajevic, Paola Divieti

    2017-09-19

    Osteocytes are master orchestrators of bone remodeling; they control osteoblast and osteoclast activities both directly via cell-to-cell communication and indirectly via secreted factors, and they are the main postnatal source of sclerostin and RANKL (receptor activator of NF-kB ligand), two regulators of osteoblast and osteoclast function. Despite progress in understanding osteocyte biology and function, much remains to be elucidated. Recently developed osteocytic cell lines-together with new genome editing tools-has allowed a closer look at the biology and molecular makeup of these cells. By using single-cell cloning, we identified genes that are associated with high Sost/sclerostin expression and analyzed their regulation and function. Unbiased transcriptome analysis of high vs. low Sost/sclerostin-expressing cells identified known and novel genes. Dmp1 (dentin matrix protein 1), Dkk1 (Dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 1), and Phex were among the most up-regulated known genes, whereas Srpx2, Cd200, and carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) were identified as novel markers of differentiated osteocytes. Aspn, Enpp2, Robo2, Nov, and Serpina3g were among the transcripts that were most significantly suppressed in high-Sost cells. Considering that CAII was recently identified as being regulated by Sost/sclerostin and capable of controlling mineral homeostasis, we focused our attention on CAIII. Here, we report that CAIII is highly expressed in osteocytes, is regulated by parathyroid hormone both in vitro and in vivo, and protects osteocytes from oxidative stress.-Shi, C., Uda, Y., Dedic, C., Azab, E., Sun, N., Hussein, A. I., Petty, C. A., Fulzele, K., Mitterberger-Vogt, M. C., Zwerschke, W., Pereira, R., Wang, K., Divieti Pajevic, P. Carbonic anhydrase III protects osteocytes from oxidative stress. © FASEB.

  14. Carbonic anhydrase activity in isolated chloroplasts of chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Katzman, G.; Togasaki, R.K. ); Marcus, Y. ); Moroney, J.V. )

    1989-04-01

    In a new assay of carbonic anhydrase, NaH{sup 14}CO{sub 3} solution at the bottom of a sealed vessel releases {sup 14}CO{sub 3} which diffuses to the top of the vessel to be assimilated by actively photosynthesizing Chlamydomonas cells. The assay is initiated by illuminating cells and stopped by turning the light off and killing the cells with acid. Enzyme activity was estimated from acid stable radioactivity above the uncatalyzed background level. With bovine carbonic anhydrase, 1.5 Wilbur Anderson Unit (WAU) can be consistantly measured at 5-6 fold above background. Sonicated whole cells of air adapted wild type (+)gave 741.1 {plus minus} 12.4 WAU/mg chl. Intact washed cells of mixotrophically grown wall-less mutant CWD(-) and a high CO2 requiring wall-less double mutant CIA-3/CW15 (-) gave 7.1 {plus minus} 1.9 and 2.8 {plus minus} 7.8 WAU/mg chl respectively. Chloroplasts isolated from CWD and CIA-3/CW15 and subsequently disrupted gave 64.0 {plus minus} 14.7 and 2.8 {plus minus} 3.2 WAU/mg chl respectively. Chloroplast sonicate from another wall-less mutant CW15(-) gave activity comparable to CWD. Thus on a chlorophyll basis, enzyme activity in chloroplasts from mixotrophically grown cells is about 1/10th of the level found in air adapted wild type cells. CIA-3 seems to lack this activity.

  15. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isozymes II and VII with simple aromatic sulfonamides and some azo dyes.

    PubMed

    Carta, Fabrizio; Pothen, Blessy; Maresca, Alfonso; Tiwari, Meena; Singh, Vineet; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2009-08-01

    Several substituted benzenesulfonamides were synthesized by various pathways starting from sulfanilamide. The sulfanilamide diazonium salt was reacted with copper (I) halides, potassium iodide and/or aromatic derivatives, leading to 4-halogeno-, and 4-hydroxy-benzenesulfonamides as well as diazo dyes incorporating sulfamoyl moieties. These sulfonamides were assayed as inhibitors of two physiologically relevant isoforms of the zinc enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1), i.e., the cytosolic CA II (ubiquitous), and CA VII (brain-specific enzyme). Good CA inhibitory activity was detected for some of these derivatives, with inhibition constants (Ki) in the range of 17.5-863 nm against CA II; and 30-4200 nm against CA VII.

  16. Carbonic anhydrase and control of breathing: different effects of benzolamide and methazolamide in the anaesthetized cat.

    PubMed Central

    Teppema, L; Berkenbosch, A; DeGoede, J; Olievier, C

    1995-01-01

    1. The effect of inhibition of erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase on the ventilatory response to CO2 was studied by administering benzolamide (70 mg kg-1, i.v.), an inhibitor which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, to carotid body denervated cats which were anaesthetized with chloralose-urethane. 2. In the same animals the effect on the ventilatory response to CO2 of subsequent inhibition of central nervous system (CNS) carbonic anhydrase was studied by infusing methazolamide (20 mg kg-1), an inhibitor which rapidly penetrates into brain tissue. 3. The results show that inhibition of erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase by benzolamide leads to a decrease in the slope of the normoxic CO2 response curve, and a decrease of the extrapolated arterial PCO2 at zero ventilation. 4. Inhibition of CNS carbonic anhydrase by methazolamide results in an increase in slope and alpha-intercept of the ventilatory CO2 response curve. 5. Using a mass balance equation for CO2 of a brain compartment, it is argued that inhibition of erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase results in a decrease in slope of the in vivo CO2 dissociation curve, which can explain the effects of benzolamide. 6. The changes in slope and intercept induced by methazolamide are discussed in relation to effects on neurones containing carbonic anhydrase, which may include central chemoreceptors. PMID:8576866

  17. Effect of ZnSO4 upon gastric acid secretion and carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Puscas, I; Sturzu, L; Búzás, G

    1985-11-01

    Starting from the multiple role zinc holds in the enzymatic processes of the body and from some positive data concerning treatment with zinc sulphate in gastric ulcer, we have studied the effect of ZnSO4 on gastric acid secretion in duodenal ulcer patients, as well as that on purified and gastric mucosa carbonic anhydrase. Gastric secretory testing showed that zinc sulphate administered in doses of 60 ml/day (1% solution) for 10 days reduced basal acid secretion in duodenal ulcer patients by 57.7%. In vitro, concentrations of ZnSO4 ranging between 10(-6) and 10(-2)M, inhibit purified carbonic anhydrase activity in a dose-dependent manner, reaching maximum effect at 10(-2)M, when carbonic anhydrase activity dropped from 2060 +/- 65 IU to 660 +/- 85 IU. A similar dose-dependent inhibition was found with gastric mucosa carbonic anhydrase activity, where ZnSO4 at 10(-2)M reduces enzyme activity from its basal value of 1.58 +/- 0.36 EU/mg to 0.88 +/- 0.21 EU/mg. Besides this effect, zinc sulphate antagonized in vitro the activation of both purified and gastric mucosa carbonic anhydrase by histamine. In conclusion, the mechanism of antisecretory effect of ZnSO4 might well be the inhibition of the carbonic anhydrase in the gastric mucosa.

  18. Carbonic anhydrase and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effects of carbamates and sulfamoylcarbamates.

    PubMed

    Göçer, Hülya; Akincioğlu, Akın; Göksu, Süleyman; Gülçin, İlhami; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CA), as a family of metalloenzymes, are found in almost every type of tissue and play an important role in catalyzing the equilibration of carbon dioxide and carbonic acid. In this study, a series of carbamate derivative was synthesized, and their inhibition effects on hCA I, hCA II and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymes were investigated. They were determined to be very good inhibitor against for both isoenzymes (hCA I and hCA II) and AChE. The hCA I and hCA II were effectively inhibited by the carbamate derivatives, with inhibition constants (Ki) in the range of 194.4-893.5 nM (for hCA I) and 103.9-835.7 nM (for hCA II). On the other hand, Ki parameters of these compounds for AChE enzyme inhibition were determined in the range of 12.0-61.3 nM. The results clearly showed that both CA isoenzymes and AChE were inhibited by carbamate derivatives at the nM levels.

  19. Capsaicin: a potent inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Arabaci, Betul; Gulcin, Ilhami; Alwasel, Saleh

    2014-07-10

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) is a zinc containing metalloenzyme that catalyzes the rapid and reversible conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) into a proton (H+) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) ion. On the other hand, capsaicin is the main component in hot chili peppers and is used extensively used in spices, food additives and drugs; it is responsible for their spicy flavor and pungent taste. There are sixteen known CA isoforms in humans. Human CA isoenzymes I, and II (hCA I and hCA II) are ubiquitous cytosolic isoforms. In this study, the inhibition properties of capsaicin against the slow cytosolic isoform hCA I, and the ubiquitous and dominant rapid cytosolic isozymes hCA II were studied. Both CA isozymes were inhibited by capsaicin in the micromolar range. This naturally bioactive compound has a Ki of 696.15 µM against hCA I, and of 208.37 µM against hCA II.

  20. The effects of some avermectins on bovine carbonic anhydrase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Kose, Leyla Polat; Gülçin, İlhami; Özdemir, Hasan; Atasever, Ali; Alwasel, Saleh H; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-10-01

    Avermectins are effective agricultural pesticides and antiparasitic agents that are widely employed in the agricultural, veterinary and medical fields. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of selected avermectins including abamectin, doramectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin and moxidectin that are used as drugs against a wide variety of internal and external mammalian parasites, on the carbonic anhydrase enzyme (CA, EC 4.2.1.1.) purified from fresh bovine erythrocyte. CA catalyses the rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) to bicarbonate ([Formula: see text]) and protons (H(+)) and regulate the acidity of the local tissues. Bovine erythrocyte CA (bCA) enzyme was purified by Sepharose-4B affinity chromatography with a yield of 21.96% and 262.7-fold purification. The inhibition results obtained from this study showed Ki values of 9.73, 17.39, 20.43, 13.39, 16.44 and 17.73 nM for abamectin, doramectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin and moxidectin, respectively. However, acetazolamide, well-known clinically established CA inhibitor, possessed a Ki value of 27.68 nM.

  1. Phylogeny and expression of carbonic anhydrase-related proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are found in many organisms, in which they contribute to several important biological processes. The vertebrate α-CA family consists of 16 subfamilies, three of which (VIII, X and XI) consist of acatalytic proteins. These are named carbonic anhydrase related proteins (CARPs), and their inactivity is due to absence of one or more Zn-binding histidine residues. In this study, we analyzed and evaluated the distribution of genes encoding CARPs in different organisms using bioinformatic methods, and studied their expression in mouse tissues using immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative PCR. Results We collected 84 sequences, of which 22 came from novel or improved gene models which we created from genome data. The distribution of CARP VIII covers vertebrates and deuterostomes, and CARP X appears to be universal in the animal kingdom. CA10-like genes have had a separate history of duplications in the tetrapod and fish lineages. Our phylogenetic analysis showed that duplication of CA10 into CA11 has occurred only in tetrapods (found in mammals, frogs, and lizards), whereas an independent duplication of CA10 was found in fishes. We suggest the name CA10b for the second fish isoform. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a high expression level of CARP VIII in the mouse cerebellum, cerebrum, and also moderate expression in the lung, liver, salivary gland, and stomach. These results also demonstrated low expression in the colon, kidney, and Langerhans islets. CARP X was moderately expressed in the cerebral capillaries and the lung and very weakly in the stomach and heart. Positive signals for CARP XI were observed in the cerebellum, cerebrum, liver, stomach, small intestine, colon, kidney, and testis. In addition, the results of real-time quantitative PCR confirmed a wide distribution for the Car8 and Car11 mRNAs, whereas the expression of the Car10 mRNA was restricted to the frontal cortex, parietal cortex, cerebellum, midbrain

  2. The active site architecture of Pisum sativum β-carbonic anhydrase is a mirror image of that of α-carbonic anhydrases

    PubMed Central

    Kimber, Matthew S.; Pai, Emil F.

    2000-01-01

    We have determined the structure of the β–carbonic anhydrase from the dicotyledonous plant Pisum sativum at 1.93 Å resolution, using a combination of multiple anomalous scattering off the active site zinc ion and non-crystallographic symmetry averaging. The mol– ecule assembles as an octamer with a novel dimer of dimers of dimers arrangement. Two distinct patterns of conservation of active site residues are observed, implying two potentially mechanistically distinct classes of β–carbonic anhydrases. The active site is located at the interface between two monomers, with Cys160, His220 and Cys223 binding the catalytic zinc ion and residues Asp162 (oriented by Arg164), Gly224, Gln151, Val184, Phe179 and Tyr205 interacting with the substrate analogue, acetic acid. The substrate binding groups have a one to one correspondence with the functional groups in the α–carbonic anhydrase active site, with the corresponding residues being closely superimposable by a mirror plane. Therefore, despite differing folds, α- and β–carbonic anhydrase have converged upon a very similar active site design and are likely to share a common mechanism. PMID:10747009

  3. Hemolymph and gill carbonic anhydrase are more sensitive to aquatic contamination than mantle carbonic anhydrase in the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Matheus Barbosa; Monteiro Neto, Ignácio Evaristo; de Souza Melo, Sarah Rachel Candido; Amado, Enelise Marcelle

    2017-09-06

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a ubiquitous metalloenzyme of great importance in several physiological processes. Due to its physiological importance and sensitivity to various pollutants, CA activity has been used as biomarker of aquatic contamination. Considering that in bivalves the sensitivity of CA to pollutants seems to be tissue-specific, we proposed here to analyze CA activity of hemolymph, gill and mantle of Crassostrea rhizophorae collected in two tropical Brazilian estuaries with different levels of anthropogenic impact, in dry and rainy season. We found increased carbonic anhydrase activity in hemolymph, gill and mantle of oysters collected in the Paraíba Estuary (a site of high anthropogenic impact) when compared to oysters from Mamanguape Estuary (inserted in an area of environmental preservation), especially in the rainy season. CA of hemolymph and gill were more sensitive than mantle CA to aquatic contamination. This study enhances the suitability of carbonic anhydrase activity for field biomarker applications with bivalves and brings new and relevant information on hemolymph carbonic anhydrase activity as biomarker of aquatic contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-destructive measurement of carbonic anhydrase activity and the oxygen isotope composition of soil water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Sam; Sauze, Joana; Ogée, Jérôme; Wohl, Steven; Bosc, Alexandre; Wingate, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrases are a group of metalloenzymes that catalyse the hydration of aqueous carbon dioxide (CO2). The expression of carbonic anhydrase by bacteria, archaea and eukarya has been linked to a variety of important biological processes including pH regulation, substrate supply and biomineralisation. As oxygen isotopes are exchanged between CO2 and water during hydration, the presence of carbonic anhydrase in plants and soil organisms also influences the oxygen isotope budget of atmospheric CO2. Leaf and soil water pools have distinct oxygen isotope compositions, owing to differences in pool sizes and evaporation rates, which are imparted on CO2during hydration. These differences in the isotopic signature of CO2 interacting with leaves and soil can be used to partition the contribution of photosynthesis and soil respiration to net terrestrial CO2 exchange. However, this relies on our knowledge of soil carbonic anhydrase activity and currently, the prevalence and function of these enzymes in soils is poorly understood. Isotopic approaches used to estimate soil carbonic anhydrase activity typically involve the inversion of models describing the oxygen isotope composition of CO2 fluxes to solve for the apparent, potentially catalysed, rate of oxygen exchange during hydration. This requires information about the composition of CO2 in isotopic equilibrium with soil water obtained from destructive, depth-resolved soil water sampling. This can represent a significant challenge in data collection given the considerable potential for spatial and temporal variability in the isotopic composition of soil water and limited a priori information with respect to the appropriate sampling resolution and depth. We investigated whether we could circumvent this requirement by constraining carbonic anhydrase activity and the composition of soil water in isotopic equilibrium with CO2 by solving simultaneously the mass balance for two soil CO2 steady states differing only in the

  5. Sulfamide derivatives with selective carbonic anhydrase VII inhibitory action.

    PubMed

    Villalba, Maria Luisa; Palestro, Pablo; Ceruso, Mariangela; Gonzalez Funes, Jose L; Talevi, Alan; Bruno Blanch, Luis; Supuran, Claudiu T; Gavernet, Luciana

    2016-02-15

    A set of N,N'-disubstituted sulfamides and sodium cyclamate have been tested for their inhibitory action against six isoforms of carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) found in the brain, that is, CA I, CA II, CA VII, CA IX, CA XII and CA XIV, some of which are involved in epileptogenesis. The biological data showed interesting results for CA VII inhibition, the isozyme thought to be a novel antiepileptic target. Strong CA VII inhibitors, with Ki values in the low nanomolar-subnanomolar range were identified. Some of these derivatives showed selectivity for inhibition of CA VII versus the ubiquitous isoform CA II, for which the Ki values were in the micromolar range. Molecular modeling approaches were employed to understand the binding interactions between these compounds and the two CA isoforms, since the mechanism of action of such disubstituted sulfamides was not yet investigated by means of X-ray crystallography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of the HBx oncoprotein in carbonic anhydrase 9 induction.

    PubMed

    Holotnakova, Tereza; Tylkova, Lucia; Takacova, Martina; Kopacek, Juraj; Petrik, Juraj; Pastorekova, Silvia; Pastorek, Jaromir

    2010-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9), as one of the most hypoxia-responsive genes, has been associated almost exclusively with hypoxic tumors. Its principal role is in pH regulation which helps tumor cells overcome intracellular acidosis and survive extended periods of time with low oxygen. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is the main transcriptional activator of CA9. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) has been shown to increase the transcriptional activity of HIF-1. HBx is often expressed from the gene integrated in the hepatocytes infected persistently and contributes significantly to alterations in host gene expression that can lead to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with Hepatitis B virus (HBV). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HBx on expression of CA9. Transient transfection of HBx led to an increase in the expression of CA9 as assessed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. HBx was able to increase CA9 promoter activity significantly in several cell lines. The effect was mediated via HIF-1 and a functional HRE element located -10/-3 bp upstream of the CA9 transcription initiation site. These data suggest that CA9 may be involved in the development of HCC by contributing to the survival of hepatocytes infected with HBV in liver tissue with fibrosis.

  7. Dynamics of oligomer formation by denatured carbonic anhydrase II.

    PubMed

    Prokhorov, Dmitry A; Timchenko, Alexander A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Khristoforov, Vladimir S; Kihara, Hiroshi; Kimura, Kazumoto; Kutyshenko, Viktor P

    2008-05-01

    Aggregation and subsequent development of protein deposition diseases originate from conformational changes in corresponding amyloidogenic proteins. Many proteins unrelated to amyloidoses also fibrillate at the appropriate conditions. These proteins serve as a model for studying the processes of protein misfolding, oligomerization and fibril formation. The accumulated data support the model where protein fibrillogenesis proceeds via the formation of a relatively unfolded amyloidogenic conformation. The urea-induced unfolding of bovine carbonic anhydrase II, BCA II, is characterized by a combination of high-resolution NMR, circular dichroism spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. It is shown that the formation of associates of protein molecules in complex with solvent (water and urea), APS, takes place in the presence of 4-6 M urea. The subsequent increase in urea concentration to 8 M is accompanied by a disruption of APS and leads to a complete unfolding of a protein molecule. Analysis of BCA II self-association in the presence of 4.2 M urea revealed that APS are relatively large mostly beta-structural blocks with the averaged molecular mass of 190-220 kDa. This work also demonstrates some novel NMR-based methodological approaches that provide useful information on protein self-association.

  8. Quaternary ammonium sulfanilamide: a membrane-impermeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Henry, R P

    1987-05-01

    A novel carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor, quaternary ammonium sulfanilamide (QAS), was tested for potency as a CA inhibitor and for its ability to be excluded from permeating biological membranes. Inhibitor titration plots of QAS vs. pure bovine CA II and CA from the gills of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, yielded Ki values of approximately 15 microM; thus QAS is a relatively weak but effective CA inhibitor. Permeability of the QAS was directly tested by two independent methods. The inhibitor was excluded from human erythrocytes incubated in 5 mM QAS for 24 h as determined using an 18O-labeled mass spectrometer CA assay for intact cells. Also QAS injected into the hemolymph of C. sapidus (1 or 10 mM) did not cross the basal membrane of the gill. The compound was cleared from the hemolymph by 96 h after injection, and at no time during that period could the QAS be detected in homogenates of gill tissue. Total branchial CA activity was only slightly reduced following the QAS injection. These data indicate that QAS is a CA inhibitor to which biological membranes are impermeable and that can be used in vivo or in vitro in the study of membrane-associated CA.

  9. Circulating Carbonic Anhydrase IX and Antiangiogenic Therapy in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brown-Glaberman, Ursa; Marron, Marilyn; Chalasani, Pavani; Livingston, Robert; Iannone, Maria; Specht, Jennifer; Stopeck, Alison T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a hypoxia regulated metalloenzyme integral to maintaining cellular pH. Increased CAIX expression is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. To explore CAIX as a biomarker for breast cancer therapies, we measured plasma CAIX levels in healthy control subjects and in breast cancer patients. Methods. In control subjects we evaluated plasma CAIX stability via commercially available ELISA. We then similarly quantified plasma CAIX levels in (1) locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients treated with neoadjuvant paclitaxel + sunitinib (T + S) followed by doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC); (2) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients treated with systemic chemotherapy. Results. Plasma CAIX levels were stable at room temperature for at least 48 hours in control subjects. Mean baseline plasma CAIX levels were lower in controls compared to patients with LABC or MBC. In LABC, CAIX levels rose significantly in response to administration of antiangiogenic therapy (T + S) (p = 0.02) but not AC (p = 0.37). In patients with MBC treated without an antiangiogenic agent CAIX levels did not change with therapy. Conclusions. Our results suggest that CAIX may be an easily obtained, stable measure of tumor associated hypoxia as well as a useful pharmacodynamic biomarker for antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:26941473

  10. Characterization of carbonic anhydrase-inhibitor noncovalent complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Xueheng; Chen, R.; Bruce, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    Competitive binding of two mixtures of inhibitors to bovine carbonic anhydrase H (BCAII) was studied using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The first mixture contained inhibitors with hydrocarbon/fluorohydrocarbon linker groups and with an 800 fold span of binding constants. The second contained inhibitors with dipeptide extensions synthesized using the solid phase method. Noncovalent enzyme-inhibitor complexes were observed from solutions in 10 mM ammonia acetate having abundances consistent with their relative binding constants measured in solution. The inhibitor with highest affinity was readily identified in an equimolar mixture. The inhibitors with very low affinity were identified to form specific complexes as well. Several control experiments including acidifying the solution or removing the Zn metal from the enzyme resulted in the disappearance of the enzyme-inhibitor complexes, (mass spectrometrically) observed complexation and characterization of biomolecular binding. Good correlation between gas phase inhibitor ion abundances and their binding constants in solution were observed. Structural information and relative binding constants of masses were obtained using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) through multi-stage dissociation experiments. These results support the role of ESI-FTICR-MS in the study of specific noncovalent associations from solution, and show that its unique capabilities can be exploited to extend studies to large mixtures of inhibitors in drug leads discovery.

  11. Carbonic anhydrase enzymes regulate mast cell-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Henry, Everett K; Sy, Chandler B; Inclan-Rico, Juan M; Espinosa, Vanessa; Ghanny, Saleena S; Dwyer, Daniel F; Soteropoulos, Patricia; Rivera, Amariliz; Siracusa, Mark C

    2016-08-22

    Type 2 cytokine responses are necessary for the development of protective immunity to helminth parasites but also cause the inflammation associated with allergies and asthma. Recent studies have found that peripheral hematopoietic progenitor cells contribute to type 2 cytokine-mediated inflammation through their enhanced ability to develop into mast cells. In this study, we show that carbonic anhydrase (Car) enzymes are up-regulated in type 2-associated progenitor cells and demonstrate that Car enzyme inhibition is sufficient to prevent mouse mast cell responses and inflammation after Trichinella spiralis infection or the induction of food allergy-like disease. Further, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology and illustrate that genetically editing Car1 is sufficient to selectively reduce mast cell development. Finally, we demonstrate that Car enzymes can be targeted to prevent human mast cell development. Collectively, these experiments identify a previously unrecognized role for Car enzymes in regulating mast cell lineage commitment and suggest that Car enzyme inhibitors may possess therapeutic potential that can be used to treat mast cell-mediated inflammation. © 2016 Henry et al.

  12. New natural product carbonic anhydrase inhibitors incorporating phenol moieties.

    PubMed

    Karioti, Anastasia; Ceruso, Mariangela; Carta, Fabrizio; Bilia, Anna-Rita; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-11-15

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) catalyze the fundamental reaction of CO2 hydration in all living organisms, being actively involved in the regulation of a plethora of patho/physiological conditions. They represent a typical example of enzyme convergent evolution, as six genetically unrelated families of such enzymes were described so far. The need to find selective CA inhibitors (CAIs) triggered the investigation of natural product libraries, which proved to be a valid source of agents with such an activity, as demonstrated for the phenols, polyamines and coumarins. Herein we report an in vitro inhibition study of human (h) CA isoforms hCAs I, II, IV, VII and XII with a panel of natural polyphenols including flavones, flavonols, flavanones, flavanols, isoflavones and depsides, some of which extracted from Quercus ilex and Salvia miltiorrhiza. Several of the investigated derivatives showed interesting inhibition activity and selectivities for inhibiting some important isoforms over the off-target ones hCA I and II.

  13. Effect of plasma carbonic anhydrase on ventilation in exercising dogs.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S M; Hill, E P

    1980-10-01

    Recent studies suggest pH sampled by arterial chemoreceptors may not equal that sampled by external pH electrodes, because the uncatalyzed hydration of CO2 in plasma is a slow reaction (t 1/2 approximately 9 S). The importance of this reaction rate to ventilatory control (particularly during exercise) is not known. We studied the effect of catalyzing the CO2-pH reaction in three awake exercising dogs with chronic tracheostomies and carotid loops; the dogs were trained to run on a treadmill. Respiration frequency, tidal volume, total ventilation, and end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) were continuously monitored. Periodically, carotid artery blood was drawn and analyzed for partial pressure of O2 (PO2), PCO2, pH, and plasma carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity. Measurements were made during steady-state exercise (3 mph and 10% grade), during a control period, after injection of a 5 ml bolus of saline, and after injection of 5 mg/kg of bovine CA dissolved in 5 ml of saline. This dose of CA increased the reaction rate by more than 80-fold. Neither the control nor the CA injections significantly altered the ventilatory parameters. Saline and CA date differed by less than 5% in ventilation, 1 Torr in arterial PCO2, 0.01 in pH units, and 1.5 Torr in end-tidal PCO2. Thus the of CO2 hydration in plasma is not a significant factor in ventilatory control.

  14. Carbonic anhydrase enzymes regulate mast cell–mediated inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Soteropoulos, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 cytokine responses are necessary for the development of protective immunity to helminth parasites but also cause the inflammation associated with allergies and asthma. Recent studies have found that peripheral hematopoietic progenitor cells contribute to type 2 cytokine–mediated inflammation through their enhanced ability to develop into mast cells. In this study, we show that carbonic anhydrase (Car) enzymes are up-regulated in type 2–associated progenitor cells and demonstrate that Car enzyme inhibition is sufficient to prevent mouse mast cell responses and inflammation after Trichinella spiralis infection or the induction of food allergy–like disease. Further, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology and illustrate that genetically editing Car1 is sufficient to selectively reduce mast cell development. Finally, we demonstrate that Car enzymes can be targeted to prevent human mast cell development. Collectively, these experiments identify a previously unrecognized role for Car enzymes in regulating mast cell lineage commitment and suggest that Car enzyme inhibitors may possess therapeutic potential that can be used to treat mast cell–mediated inflammation. PMID:27526715

  15. Carbonic anhydrase and the molecular evolution of C4 photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Martha

    2012-01-01

    C(4) photosynthesis, a biochemical CO(2)-concentrating mechanism (CCM), evolved more than 60 times within the angiosperms from C(3) ancestors. The genus Flaveria, which contains species demonstrating C(3), C(3)-C(4), C(4)-like or C(4) photosynthesis, is a model for examining the molecular evolution of the C(4) pathway. Work with carbonic anhydrase (CA), and C(3) and C(4) Flaveria congeners has added significantly to the understanding of this process. The C(4) form of CA3, a β-CA, which catalyses the first reaction in the C(4) pathway by hydrating atmospheric CO(2) to bicarbonate in the cytosol of mesophyll cells (mcs), evolved from a chloroplastic C(3) ancestor. The molecular modifications to the ancestral CA3 gene included the loss of the sequence encoding the chloroplast transit peptide, and mutations in regulatory regions that resulted in high levels of expression in the C(4) mesophyll. Analyses of the CA3 proteins and regulatory elements from Flaveria photosynthetic intermediates indicated C(4) biochemistry very likely evolved in a specific, stepwise manner in this genus. The details of the mechanisms involved in the molecular evolution of other C(4) plant β-CAs are unknown; however, comparative genetics indicate gene duplication and neofunctionalization played significant roles as they did in Flaveria. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Quaternary ammonium sulfanilamide: a membrane-impermeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.P.

    1987-05-01

    A novel carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor, quaternary ammonium sulfanilamide (QAS), was tested for potency as a CA inhibitor and for its ability to be excluded from permeating biological membranes. Inhibitor titration plots of QAS vs. pure bovine CA II and CA from the gills of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, yielded K/sub i/ values of approx. 15 ..mu..M; thus QAS is a relatively weak but effective CA inhibitor. Permeability of the QAS was directly tested by two independent methods. The inhibitor was excluded from human erythrocytes incubated in 5 mM QAS for 24 h as determined using an /sup 18/O-labeled mass spectrometer CA assay for intact cells. Also QAS injected into the hemolymph of C. sapidus (1 or 10 mM) did not cross the basal membrane of the gill. The compound was cleared from the hemolymph by 96 h after injection, and at no time during that period could the QAS be detected in homogenates of gill tissue. Total branchial CA activity was only slightly reduced following the QAS injection. These data indicate that QAS is a CA inhibitor to which biological membranes are impermeable and that can be used in vivo and in vitro in the study of membrane-associated CA.

  17. Carbonic anhydrase II. A novel biomarker for gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Parkkila, Seppo; Lasota, Jerzy; Fletcher, Jonathan A; Ou, Wen-Bin; Kivelä, Antti J; Nuorva, Kyösti; Parkkila, Anna-Kaisa; Ollikainen, Jyrki; Sly, William S; Waheed, Abdul; Pastorekova, Silvia; Pastorek, Jaromir; Isola, Jorma; Miettinen, Markku

    2010-05-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are clinically distinct mesenchymal tumors, which generally result from expression of mutant KIT or PDGFRA receptor tyrosine kinase oncogenes. Most GISTs feature strong expression of KIT that serves as a crucial diagnostic adjunct. However, a subset of tumors lacks KIT expression and otherwise may also be difficult to distinguish from other sarcomas, including leiomyosarcoma. Because various carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes have been identified as potential treatment targets against different cancers, we evaluated CA II expression in 175 GISTs. Western blotting experiments indicated that CA II is highly expressed in GIST cell lines. Immunohistochemically, 95% of GISTs showed positive signal. The CA II expression in GISTs did not correlate with particular KIT or PDGFRA mutation types. CA II immunoreactivity was absent or low in other mesenchymal tumor categories analyzed. High CA II expression was associated with a better disease-specific survival rate than low or no expression (Mantel-Cox test, P<0.0001). The present results indicate that CA II is overexpressed in most GISTs, is quite selective to this tumor type among mesenchymal tumors, and therefore might be a useful biomarker in diagnostics.

  18. Intrinsic thermodynamics of inhibitor binding to human carbonic anhydrase IX.

    PubMed

    Linkuvienė, Vaida; Matulienė, Jurgita; Juozapaitienė, Vaida; Michailovienė, Vilma; Jachno, Jelena; Matulis, Daumantas

    2016-04-01

    Human carbonic anhydrase 9th isoform (CA IX) is an important marker of numerous cancers and is increasingly interesting as a potential anticancer drug target. Various synthetic aromatic sulfonamide-bearing compounds are being designed as potent inhibitors of CA IX. However, sulfonamide compound binding to CA IX is linked to several reactions, the deprotonation of the sulfonamide amino group and the protonation of the CA active site Zn(II)-bound hydroxide. These linked reactions significantly affect the affinities and other thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpies and entropies of binding. The observed and intrinsic affinities of compound binding to CA IX were determined by the fluorescent thermal shift assay. The enthalpies and entropies of binding were determined by the isothermal titration calorimetry. The pKa of CA IX was determined to be 6.8 and the enthalpy of CA IX-Zn(II)-bound hydroxide protonation was -24 kJ/mol. These values enabled the analysis of intrinsic thermodynamics of a library of compounds binding to CA IX. The most strongly binding compounds exhibited the intrinsic affinity of 0.01 nM and the observed affinity of 2 nM. The intrinsic thermodynamic parameters of compound binding to CA IX helped to draw the compound structure to thermodynamics relationship. It is important to distinguish the intrinsic from observed parameters of any disease target protein interaction with its inhibitors as drug candidates when drawing detailed compound structure to thermodynamics correlations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Lead Development of Thiazolylsulfonamides with Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitory Action.

    PubMed

    Carta, Fabrizio; Birkmann, Alexander; Pfaff, Tamara; Buschmann, Helmut; Schwab, Wilfried; Zimmermann, Holger; Maresca, Alfonso; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2017-03-17

    A series of congeners structurally related to pritelivir, N-[5-(aminosulfonyl)-4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]-N-methyl-2-[4-(2-pyridinyl)phenyl]acetamide, a helicase-primase inhibitor for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infections, was prepared. The synthesized primary and secondary sulfonamides were investigated as inhibitors of six physiologically and pharmacologically relevant human (h) carbonic anhydrase (hCA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms, the cytosolic enzymes hCA I and II, the mitochondrial ones hCA VA and VB, and the transmembrane, tumor associated hCA IX and XII. Low nanomolar inhibition KI values were detected for all of them, with a very interesting and well-defined structure-activity relationship. As many CAs are involved in serious pathologies, among which are cancer, obesity, epilepsy, glaucoma, etc., sulfonamide inhibitors as those reported here may be of interest as drug candidates. Furthermore, pritelivir itself is an effective inhibitor of some CAs, also inhibiting whole blood enzymes from several mammalian species, which may be a favorable pharmacokinetic feature of the drug which can be transported throughout the body bound to blood CA I and II.

  20. A class of carbonic anhydrase I - selective activators.

    PubMed

    Licsandru, Erol; Tanc, Muhammet; Kocsis, Istvan; Barboiu, Mihail; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2017-12-01

    A series of ureido and bis-ureido derivatives were prepared by reacting histamine with alkyl/aryl-isocyanates or di-isocyanates. The obtained derivatives were assayed as activators of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1), due to the fact that histamine itself has this biological activity. Although inhibition of CAs has pharmacological applications in the field of antiglaucoma, anticonvulsant, anticancer, and anti-infective agents, activation of these enzymes is not yet properly exploited pharmacologically for cognitive enhancement or Alzheimer's disease treatment, conditions in which a diminished CA activity was reported. The ureido/bis-ureido histamine derivatives investigated here showed activating effects only against the cytosolic human (h) isoform hCA I, having no effect on the widespread, physiologically dominant isoform hCA II. This is the first report in which CA I-selective activators were identified. Such compounds may constitute interesting tools for better understanding the physiological/pharmacological effects connected to activation of this widespread CA isoform, whose physiological function is not fully understood.

  1. A magnificent enzyme superfamily: carbonic anhydrases, their purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Ozensoy Guler, Ozen; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the purification and characterization methods of the α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) class. Six genetic families (α-, β-, γ-, δ-, ζ- and η-CAs) all know to date, all encoding such enzymes in organisms widely distributed over the phylogenetic tree. Starting from the manuscripts published in the 1930s on the isolation and purification of α-CAs from blood and other tissues, and ending with the recent discovery of the last genetic family in protozoa, the η-CAs, considered for long time an α-CA, we present historically the numerous and different procedures which were employed for obtaining these catalysts in pure form. α-CAs possess important application in medicine (as many human α-CA isoforms are drug targets) as well as biotechnological processes, in which the enzymes are ultimately used for CO2 capture in order to mitigate the global warming effects due to greenhouse gases. Recently, it was discovered an involvement of CAs in cancerogenesis as well as infection caused by pathogenic agents such as bacteria, fungi and protozoa. Inhibition studies of CAs identified in the genome of the aforementioned organisms might lead to the discovery of innovative drugs with a novel mechanism of action.

  2. N-Nitrosulfonamides: A new chemotype for carbonic anhydrase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Nocentini, Alessio; Vullo, Daniela; Bartolucci, Gianluca; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-08-15

    A series of N(1)-substituted aromatic sulfonamides was obtained by applying a selective sulfonamide nitration synthetic strategy leading to Ar-SO2NHNO2 derivatives which were investigated as carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors. Two human (h) hCA isoforms, the cytosolic hCA II and the transmembrane hCA IX, in addition to the fungal enzyme from Malassezia globosa, MgCA, were included in the study. Most of the new compounds reported selectively inhibited hCA IX over hCA II and at the same time showed effective MgCA inhibitory properties, with KIs ranging between 0.22 and 8.09μM. The N-nitro sulfonamides are a new chemotype with CA inhibitory effects. As hCA IX was recently validated as antitumor/antimetastatic drug target, its selective inhibition could be exploited for interesting biomedical applications. Moreover, due to the effective MgCAs inhibitory properties of the N-nitro sulfonamides, of considerable interest in the cosmetics field as potential anti-dandruff agents, the N-nitro sulfonamides may be considered as interesting leads for the design of more efficient compounds targeting fungal enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Roles of Carbonic Anhydrase IX in Development of Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuji; Dong, Ming; Sheng, Weiwei; Huang, Longping

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to study the effects of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) towards the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer. The expressions of CA IX in 58 cases of pancreatic cancer and paired paracancerous normal tissues, obtained from 2005 to 2012 in the first Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, were detected, as well as its expressions in different pancreatic cancer cell lines, aiming to detect the impacts of CA IX silencing towards the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells. The CA IX expressions in 58 pancreatic cancer cases were higher than those in the paired paracancerous normal tissues (P < 0.01), and positively correlated with the tumor size and the UICC staging UICC (P < 0.05), the multivariate analysis showed that the high expression of CA IX was the independent risk factor towards the prognosis of pancreatic cancer (P < 0.05). The CA IX was highly expressed in AxPC-1 and Miapaca-2, and the interference effects were significant. CA IX silencing could significantly inhibit the invasion and metastasis of AxPC-1 and Miapaca. We support a pro-tumor role of CA IX in the development and progression of pancreatic cancer.

  4. Plant Carbonic Anhydrases: Structures, Locations, Evolution, and Physiological Roles.

    PubMed

    DiMario, Robert J; Clayton, Harmony; Mukherjee, Ananya; Ludwig, Martha; Moroney, James V

    2017-01-09

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the interconversion of CO2 and HCO3(-) and are ubiquitous in nature. Higher plants contain three evolutionarily distinct CA families, αCAs, βCAs, and γCAs, where each family is represented by multiple isoforms in all species. Alternative splicing of CA transcripts appears common; consequently, the number of functional CA isoforms in a species may exceed the number of genes. CAs are expressed in numerous plant tissues and in different cellular locations. The most prevalent CAs are those in the chloroplast, cytosol, and mitochondria. This diversity in location is paralleled in the many physiological and biochemical roles that CAs play in plants. In this review, the number and types of CAs in C3, C4, and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants are considered, and the roles of the α and γCAs are briefly discussed. The remainder of the review focuses on plant βCAs and includes the identification of homologs between species using phylogenetic approaches, a consideration of the inter- and intracellular localization of the proteins, along with the evidence for alternative splice forms. Current understanding of βCA tissue-specific expression patterns and what controls them are reviewed, and the physiological roles for which βCAs have been implicated are presented. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Purification and characterization of a high-Mr carbonic anhydrase from sheep parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    Fernley, R T; Coghlan, J P; Wright, R D

    1988-01-01

    Approximately half the carbonic anhydrase activity of sheep parotid-gland homogenate is derived from a high-Mr protein [Fernley, Wright & Coghlan (1979) FEBS Lett. 105, 299-302]. This enzyme has now been purified to homogeneity, and its properties were compared with those of the well-characterized sheep carbonic anhydrase II. The protein has an apparent Mr of 540,000 as measured by gel filtration under non-denaturing conditions and an apparent subunit Mr of 45,000 as measured by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. After deglycosylation with the enzyme N-glycanase the protein migrates with an apparent Mr of 36,000 on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The CO2-hydrating activity was 340 units/mg compared with 488 units/mg for sheep carbonic anhydrase II measured under identical conditions. This enzyme does not, however, hydrolyse p-nitrophenyl acetate. The enzyme contains 0.8 g-atom of zinc/mol of protein subunit. The peptide maps of the two carbonic anhydrases differ significantly from one another, indicating they are not related closely structurally. Unlike the carbonic anhydrase II isoenzyme, which has a blocked N-terminus, the high-Mr enzyme has a free glycine residue at its N-terminus. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3124821

  6. Interprotein metal ion exchange between cadmium-carbonic anhydrase and apo- or zinc-metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Ejnik, J; Muñoz, A; Gan, T; Shaw, C F; Petering, D H

    1999-12-01

    The ligand substitution reactions of cadmium-carbonic anhydrase with EDTA and pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid were compared with one in which rabbit apometallothionein was the competing metal-binding agent. This last reaction occurred more rapidly than the other two at a much smaller ratio of competing ligand to Cd-carbonic anhydrase. It was characterized as a second-order reaction, first-order in Cd-carbonic anhydrase and in apometallothionein, having a rate constant of 5.8 +/- 0.1 M-1 s-1 at 25 degrees C and pH 7.4 in Tris.HCl buffer and 0.1 M KCl. At 25 degrees C, Zn7-metallothionein also exchanged metal ions with Cd-carbonic anhydrase with a rate constant of 0.33 +/- 0.02 M-1 s-1 to reconstitute enzymatically active protein. Cd-carbonic anhydrase reacted within the time of mixing with the peptide sequence 49-61 of rabbit metallothionein 2 which contains four cysteinyl residues, leading to the exchange of most of the Cd2+ into the peptide. At pH 7.4 and 25 degrees C, Cd2+ has higher affinity for apometallothionein than for the apo-peptide.

  7. Carbohydrazones as new class of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: Synthesis, kinetics, and ligand docking studies.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Sarosh; Saleem, Muhammad; Azim, M Kamran; Taha, Muhammad; Salar, Uzma; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Perveen, Shahnaz; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2017-06-01

    Discovery and development of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors is crucial for their clinical use as antiepileptic, diurectic and antiglaucoma agents. Keeping this in mind, we have synthesized carbohydrazones 1-27 and evaluated them for their in vitro carbonic anhydrase inhibitory potential. Out of twenty-seven compounds, compounds 1 (IC50=1.33±0.01µM), 2 (IC50=1.85±0.24µM), 3 (IC50=1.37±0.06µM), and 9 (IC50=1.46±0.12µM) have showed carbonic anhydrase inhibition better than the standard drug zonisamide (IC50=1.86±0.03µM). Moreover, compounds 4 (IC50=2.32±0.04µM), 5 (IC50=3.96±0.35µM), 7 (IC50=2.33±0.02µM), and 8 (IC50=2.67±0.01µM) showed good inhibitory activity. Cheminformatic analysis has shown that compounds 1 and 2 possess lead-like properties. In addition, kinetic and molecular docking studies were also performed to investigate the binding interaction between carbohydrazones and carbonic anhydrase enzyme. This study has identified a novel and potent class of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors with the potential to be investigated further. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of Intracellular Carbonic Anhydrase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii which Is Distinct from the Periplasmic Form of the Enzyme 1

    PubMed Central

    Husic, H. David; Kitayama, Masahiko; Togasaki, Robert K.; Moroney, James V.; Morris, Kristin L.; Tolbert, N. E.

    1989-01-01

    A physiologically significant level of intracellular carbonic anhydrase has been identified in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii after lysis of the cell wall-less mutant, cw15, and two intracellular polypeptides have been identified which bind to anti-carbonic anhydrase antisera. The susceptibility of the intracellular activity to sulfonamide carbonic anhydrase inhibitors is more than three orders-of-magnitude less than that of the periplasmic enzyme, indicating that the intracellular activity was distinct from the periplasmic from of the enzyme. When electrophoretically separated cell extracts or chloroplast stromal fractions were probed with either anti-C. reinhardtii periplasmic carbonic anhydrase antiserum or anti-spinach carbonic anhydrase antiserum, immunoreactive polypeptides of 45 kilodaltons and 110 kilodaltons were observed with both antisera. The strongly immunoreactive 37 kilodalton polypeptide due to the periplasmic carbonic anhydrase was also observed in lysed cells, but neither the 37 kilodalton nor the 110 kilodalton polypeptides were present in the chloroplast stromal fraction. These studies have identified intracellular carbonic anhydrase activity, and putative intracellular carbonic anhydrase polypeptides in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii represented by a 45 kilodalton polypeptide in the chloroplast and a 110 kilodalton form probably in the cytoplasm, which may be associated with an intracellular inorganic carbon concentrating system. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16666640

  9. Thermodynamics of binding of Zn2+ to carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remko, Milan; Garaj, Vladimír

    The Becke3LYP functional of DFT theory and the two-layered ONIOM (B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p): MNDO) method were used to characterize 46 gas-phase complexes of 34 neutral and anionic ligands (H2O, CH3OH, CH3COOH, CH3CONH2, HOSO2NH2, CO2, HSO2NH2, CH3SO2NH2, CH3C(=O)NHOH, imidazole, NH2SO2NH2, anions of 4-aminobenzenesulphonamide, saccharin, 1I9L, brinzolamide, dorzolamide, acetazolamide, further HO(-), CH3O(-), CH3COO(-), CH3CONH(-), N=N=N(-), S=C=N(-), CH3C(=O)NHO(-), HOCOO(-), imidazoleN(-), phenol-O(-), HOSO2NH(-), (-)OSO2NH(-), (-)OSO2NH2, H2NSO2NH(-), HSO2NH(-), CH3SO2NH(-), and CF3SO2NH(-), respectively) with Zn2+. Proton dissociation enthalpies and Gibbs energies of acidic inhibitors in the presence of zinc were computed. Their gas-phase acidity considerably increases upon chelation. Of the bases investigated, the weakest zinc affinity is exhibited by carbon dioxide (-313.5 kJ mol-1). Deprotonated inhibitors have higher affinities for zinc than the neutral ones. Compared to the other mono-deprotonated ligands the acetohydroxamic acid anion has the highest affinity for zinc (-1872.7 kJ mol-1). The zinc affinity of the acetazolamide anion computed using the hybrid ONIOM (B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p): MNDO) method is in very good agreement with the full DFT ones and this method can be adopted to model large complexes of inhibitors with the active site of carbonic anhydrase.

  10. Legionella pneumophila Carbonic Anhydrases: Underexplored Antibacterial Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Supuran, Claudiu T.

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes which catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. Many pathogenic bacteria encode such enzymes belonging to the α-, β-, and/or γ-CA families. In the last decade, enzymes from some of these pathogens, including Legionella pneumophila, have been cloned and characterized in detail. These enzymes were shown to be efficient catalysts for CO2 hydration, with kcat values in the range of (3.4–8.3) × 105 s−1 and kcat/KM values of (4.7–8.5) × 107 M−1·s−1. In vitro inhibition studies with various classes of inhibitors, such as anions, sulfonamides and sulfamates, were also reported for the two β-CAs from this pathogen, LpCA1 and LpCA2. Inorganic anions were millimolar inhibitors, whereas diethyldithiocarbamate, sulfamate, sulfamide, phenylboronic acid, and phenylarsonic acid were micromolar ones. The best LpCA1 inhibitors were aminobenzolamide and structurally similar sulfonylated aromatic sulfonamides, as well as acetazolamide and ethoxzolamide (KIs in the range of 40.3–90.5 nM). The best LpCA2 inhibitors belonged to the same class of sulfonylated sulfonamides, together with acetazolamide, methazolamide, and dichlorophenamide (KIs in the range of 25.2–88.5 nM). Considering such preliminary results, the two bacterial CAs from this pathogen represent promising yet underexplored targets for obtaining antibacterials devoid of the resistance problems common to most of the clinically used antibiotics, but further studies are needed to validate them in vivo as drug targets. PMID:27322334

  11. Molecular and biochemical characterization of carbonic anhydrases of Paracoccidioides

    PubMed Central

    Tomazett, Mariana Vieira; Zanoelo, Fabiana Fonseca; Bailão, Elisa Flávia Cardoso; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Carbonic anhydrases (CA) belong to the family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate. In the present work, we characterized the cDNAs of four Paracoccidioides CAs (CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4). In the presence of CO2, there was not a significant increase in fungal ca1, ca2 and ca4 gene expression. The ca1 transcript was induced during the mycelium-to-yeast transition, while ca2 and ca4 gene expression was much higher in yeast cells, when compared to mycelium and mycelium-to-yeast transition. The ca1 transcript was induced in yeast cells recovered directly from liver and spleen of infected mice, while transcripts for ca2 and ca4 were down-regulated. Recombinant CA1 (rCA1) and CA4 (rCA4), with 33 kDa and 32 kDa respectively, were obtained from bacteria. The enzymes rCA1 (β-class) and rCA4 (α-class) were characterized regarding pH, temperature, ions and amino acids addition influence. Both enzymes were stable at pHs 7.5-8.5 and temperatures of 30-35 °C. The enzymes were dramatically inhibited by Hg+2 and activated by Zn+2, while only rCA4 was stimulated by Fe2+. Among the amino acids tested (all in L configuration), arginine, lysine, tryptophan and histidine enhanced residual activity of rCA1 and rCA4. PMID:27560991

  12. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: Synthesis, characterization and inhibition activities of furan sulfonylhydrazones against carbonic anhydrase I (hCA I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gündüzalp, Ayla Balaban; Parlakgümüş, Gökhan; Uzun, Demet; Özmen, Ümmuhan Özdemir; Özbek, Neslihan; Sarı, Musa; Tunç, Tuncay

    2016-02-01

    The methane sulfonic acide hydrazide (1) was used to obtain furan sulfonylhydrazones; 2-acetylfuranmethanesulfonylhydrazone (2), 2-furaldehydemethanesulfonylhydrazone (3), 5-nitro-2-furaldehydemethanesulfonylhydrazone (4). The structures of furan sulfonylhydrazones were determined by using elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-vis methods. The structure of 5-nitro-2-furaldehydemethanesulfonylhydrazone (4) was also supported with X-ray difraction method and found that compound 4 was crystallized in triclinic, space group P 1 bar . In order to gain insight into the structure of the compounds, we performed computational studies by using 6-311G(d,p) basic set in which B3LYP correlation function was implemented. The geometry of the sulfonylhydrazones were optimized at DFT method with Gaussian 09 program package and the global reactivity descriptors were also calculated by this basic set. The enzyme inhibition activities of the sulfonylhydrazones were investigated on carbonic anhydrase I (hCA I) isoenzyme and their activity parameters (Km, IC50 and Ki) were calculated by spectrophotometric method. And also, their inhibitor effects were also investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) methods. Inhibition results show that compound 4 containing electron withdrawing group (NO2) has higher inhibition effect on hCA I isoenzyme than other's.

  13. Strong topical steroid, NSAID, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor cocktail for treatment of cystoid macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Asahi, Masumi G; Bobarnac Dogaru, Gabriela L; Onishi, Spencer M; Gallemore, Ron P

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the combination cocktail of strong steroid, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor drops for treatment of cystoid macular edema. Methods This is a retrospective case series of patients with cystoid macular edema managed with a topical combination of strong steroid (difluprednate), NSAID, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor drops. The patients were followed with optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography. Results In our six cases, resolution of the cystic edema with improvement in visual acuity was achieved with the use of a combination cocktail of drops. Leakage on fluorescein angiography and cystic edema on optical coherence tomography both responded to treatment with the topical cocktail of drops. Conclusion A topical cocktail of strong steroid, NSAID, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor drops are effective for managing cystoid macular edema. Further studies comparing this combination with more invasive treatments should be undertaken to determine the efficacy of this cocktail over other treatment options. PMID:26664246

  14. In vivo effects of radioactive properties of Tl-201 on human carbonic anhydrase activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Ali; Senturk, Murat

    2017-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a family of metalloenzymes that requires Zn as a cofactor and catalyze the quick conversion of CO2 to HCO3- and H+. Inhibitors of the carbonic anhydrases (CAs) have medical usage of significant diseases such as glaucoma, epilepsy, gastroduodenal ulcers, acid-base disequilibria and neurological disorders. The most useful radioisotope, Tl-201, decays by electron capture, emitting Hg X-rays ( 70-80 keV), and photons of 135 and 167 keV in 10% total abundance. Therefore, it has good imaging characteristics without excessive patient radiation dose. It is the most popular isotope used for thallium 201 nuclear cardiac stress tests. In the present study, In vivo inhibitory effect of Tl-201 (Thallium-201) on human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity were investigated.

  15. Selected trace elements and esterase activity of carbonic anhydrase levels in lambs with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ekin, Suat; Berber, Ismet; Kozat, Suleyman; Gunduz, Handan

    2006-09-01

    The levels of, zinc, copper, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Mg, K, Na, and Cl and the activity of carbonic anhydrase were determined in lambs with pneumonia. A significant decrease of p < 0.01 level in Zn concentration, in Cu level (p < 0.001) and significant increases in K and Na levels (p < 0.05) and of the Cu/Zn ratio (p < 0.001) were observed in the study group. The carbonic anhydrase activity was decreased in the study group, but the decrease was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Also, nonsignificant decreases of Fe, Mg, and Cl and increase of the Mn concentration were also observed in the lambs with pneumonia (p > 0.05). Our results suggest that the significant element changes reported here and the Cu/Zn ratio, but not the activity of carbonic anhydrase, can be used as indicators of pneumococcal infection.

  16. Carbonic anhydrase and chemoreception in the cat carotid body.

    PubMed

    Iturriaga, R; Lahiri, S; Mokashi, A

    1991-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that CO2 and O2 chemoreception in the carotid body (CB) may depend on its carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity, we used an in vitro cat CB preparation and studied the effects of methazolamide, a permeable CA inhibitor (pK 7.3), on the chemosensory responses to CO2, O2, and nicotine. The isolated CB was perfused and superfused with Tyrode solution, free of CO2-HCO3-, at 36.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C. The frequency of chemosensory discharges was recorded from the whole carotid sinus nerve. The responses to bolus injections (0.3-0.5 ml) of Tyrode solution equilibrated with PCO2 of 38-110 Torr, switching from HEPES to CO2-HCO3- Tyrode (PCO2 = 25-60 Torr) for about 3 min, hypoxic Tyrode (PO2 = 25-30 Torr) for 2-8 min, perfusate flow interruptions for approximately 4 min, and bolus injections of nicotine (4 nmol) were studied before, during, and after perfusion (30-45 min) with methazolamide (42.4 microM). Methazolamide reversibly inhibited, delayed, and reduced the responses to transient CO2 stimulus, diminished the onset of but not the late response to prolonged CO2 stimulus, and delayed but did not decrease the responses to hypoxia and perfusate interruption. The response to nicotine did not change. The results indicated that CA in the glomus cells played a crucial role primarily in the speed and magnitude of the initial response to CO2 stimulus and indirectly influenced O2 chemoreception. These effects were upstream from the nicotine receptor-mediated sensory response.

  17. Extramitochondrial domain rich in carbonic anhydrase activity improves myocardial energetics.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Marie A; Ali, Mohammad A; Hulikova, Alzbeta; Supuran, Claudiu T; Clarke, Kieran; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D; Tyler, Damian J; Swietach, Pawel

    2013-03-05

    CO2 is produced abundantly by cardiac mitochondria. Thus an efficient means for its venting is required to support metabolism. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes, expressed at various sites in ventricular myocytes, may affect mitochondrial CO2 clearance by catalyzing CO2 hydration (to H(+) and HCO3(-)), thereby changing the gradient for CO2 venting. Using fluorescent dyes to measure changes in pH arising from the intracellular hydration of extracellularly supplied CO2, overall CA activity in the cytoplasm of isolated ventricular myocytes was found to be modest (2.7-fold above spontaneous kinetics). Experiments on ventricular mitochondria demonstrated negligible intramitochondrial CA activity. CA activity was also investigated in intact hearts by (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy from the rate of H(13)CO3(-) production from (13)CO2 released specifically from mitochondria by pyruvate dehydrogenase-mediated metabolism of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate. CA activity measured upon [1-(13)C]pyruvate infusion was fourfold higher than the cytoplasm-averaged value. A fluorescent CA ligand colocalized with a mitochondrial marker, indicating that mitochondria are near a CA-rich domain. Based on immunoreactivity, this domain comprises the nominally cytoplasmic CA isoform CAII and sarcoplasmic reticulum-associated CAXIV. Inhibition of extramitochondrial CA activity acidified the matrix (as determined by fluorescence measurements in permeabilized myocytes and isolated mitochondria), impaired cardiac energetics (indexed by the phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratio measured by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy of perfused hearts), and reduced contractility (as measured from the pressure developed in perfused hearts). These data provide evidence for a functional domain of high CA activity around mitochondria to support CO2 venting, particularly during elevated and fluctuating respiratory activity. Aberrant distribution of CA activity therefore may reduce the heart's energetic

  18. Identification of a Nuclear Carbonic Anhydrase in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Teresa A.; Rongali, Sharath; Matthews, Tori A.; Pfeiffer, Jason; Nehrke, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Background Carbonic anhydrases (CA) catalyze the inter-conversion of CO2 with HCO3 and H+, and are involved in a wide variety of physiologic processes such as anion transport, pH regulation, and water balance. In mammals there are sixteen members of the classical α-type CA family, while the simple genetic model organism C. elegans codes for six αCA isoforms (cah-1 through cah-6). Methods Fluorescent reporter constructs were used to analyze gene promoter usage, splice variation, and protein localization in transgenic worms. Catalytic activity of recombinant CA proteins was assessed using Hanssons histochemistry. CA’s ability to regulate pH as a function of CO2 and HCO3 was measured using dynamic fluorescent imaging of genetically-targeted biosensors. Results Each of the six CA genes was found to be expressed in a distinct repertoire of cell types. Surprisingly, worms also expressed a catalytically-active CA splice variant, cah-4a, in which an alternative first exon targeted the protein to the nucleus. Cah-4a expression was restricted mainly to the nervous system, where it was found in nearly all neurons, and recombinant CAH-4A protein could regulate pH in the nucleus. Conclusions In addition to establishing C. elegans as a platform for studying αCA function, this is the first example of a nuclear-targeted αCA in any organism to date. General Significance A classical αCA isoform is targeted exclusively to the nucleus where its activity may impact nuclear physiologic and pathophysiologic responses. PMID:22245567

  19. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase augments GABAA receptor-mediated analgesia via a spinal mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Asiedu, Marina N.; Mejia, Galo L.; Hübner, Christian A.; Kaila, Kai; Price, Theodore J.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury negatively influences spinal GABAergic networks via a reduction in the neuron-specific K+-Cl- cotransporter KCC2. This process has been linked to the emergence of neuropathic allodynia. In vivo pharmacological and modeling studies show that a loss of KCC2 function results in a decrease in the efficacy of GABAA -mediated spinal inhibition. One potential strategy to mitigate this effect entails inhibition of carbonic anhydrase activity to reduce HCO3- -dependent depolarization via GABAA receptors when KCC2 function is compromised. We have tested this hypothesis here. Our results show that, similarly to when KCC2 is pharmacologically blocked, peripheral nerve injury causes a loss of analgesic effect for neurosteroid GABAA allosteric modulators at maximally effective doses in naïve mice in the tail flick test. Remarkably, inhibition of carbonic anhydrase activity with intrathecal acetazolamide rapidly restores an analgesic effect for these compounds suggesting an important role of carbonic anhydrase activity in regulating GABAA -mediated analgesia after peripheral nerve injury. Moreover, spinal acetazolamide administration leads to a profound reduction in the mouse formalin pain test indicating that spinal carbonic anhydrase inhibition produces analgesia when primary afferent activity is driven by chemical mediators. Finally, we demonstrate that systemic administration of acetazolamide to rats with peripheral nerve injury produces an anti-allodynia effect by itself and an enhancement of the peak analgesic effect with a change in the shape of the dose response curve of the α1-sparing benzodiazepine L-838,417. Thus, carbonic anhydrase inhibition mitigates the negative effects of loss of KCC2 function after nerve injury in multiple species and through multiple administration routes resulting in an enhancement of analgesic effects for several GABAA allosteric modulators. We suggest that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, many of which are clinically

  20. Carbonic anhydrase mimics for enhanced CO2 absorption in an amine-based capture solvent.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Rachael A; Miller, David A; Parkin, Sean R; Liu, Kun; Remias, Joe E; Yang, Yue; Lightstone, Felice C; Liu, Kunlei; Lippert, Cameron A; Odom, Susan A

    2016-01-07

    Two new small-molecule enzyme mimics of carbonic anhydrase were prepared and characterized. These complexes contain the salen-like ligand bis(hydroxyphenyl)phenanthroline. This ligand is similar to the salen-type ligands previously incorporated into carbonic anhydrase mimics but contains no hydrolyzable imine groups and therefore serves as a promising ligand scaffold for the synthesis of a more robust CO2 hydration catalyst. These homogeneous catalysts were investigated for CO2 hydration in concentrated primary amine solutions through which a dilute CO2 (14%) fluid stream was flowed and showed exceptional activity for increased CO2 absorption rates.

  1. Carbonic anhydrase binding site parameterization in OPLS-AA force field.

    PubMed

    Bernadat, Guillaume; Supuran, Claudiu T; Iorga, Bogdan I

    2013-03-15

    The parameterization of carbonic anhydrase binding site in OPLS-AA force field was performed using quantum chemistry calculations. Both OH2 and OH(-) forms of the binding site were considered, showing important differences in terms of atomic partial charges. Three different parameterization protocols were used, and the results obtained highlighted the importance of including an extended binding site in the charge calculation. The force field parameters were subsequently validated using standard molecular dynamics simulations. The results presented in this work should greatly facilitate the use of molecular dynamics simulations for studying the carbonic anhydrase, and more generally, the metallo-enzymes.

  2. Dissolved carbonic anhydrase for enhancing post-combustion carbon dioxide hydration in aqueous ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, James R.; Heck, Robert W.; Zwoster, Andy

    2011-04-01

    Aqueous ammonia solvents that capture CO2 as ionic complexes of carbonates with ammonium have recently been advanced as alternatives to amine-based solvents due to their lower energy requirements for thermal regeneration. In ammonia based solvents, the hydration of CO2 to form bicarbonate may become a rate-limiting step as the CO2 loading increases and the resulting pH level of the solvent decreases. Variants of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase can accelerate the reversible hydration of CO2 to yield bicarbonate by more than 10(6)-fold. The possible benefit of bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) addition to solutions of aqueous ammonia to enhance CO2 hydration was investigated in semi-batch reactions within continuously stirred tank reactors or in a bubble column gas-liquid contactor. Adding 154 mg/liter of BCA to 2 M aqueous ammonia provided a 34.1% overall increase in the rate of CO2 hydration (as indicated by the production of [H+]) as the pH declined from 9.6 to 8.6 during sparging with a 15% CO2, 85% N-2 gas at a flow rate of 3 lpm. The benefits of adding BCA to enhance CO2 hydration were only discernable below similar to pH 9. The implications of the apparent pH limitations on the utility of BCA are discussed in the context of absorber unit operation design. Possible embodiments of carbonic anhydrase as either an immobilized catalyst or as a dissolved, recirculating catalyst in potential plant scale aqueous ammonia systems are considered as well. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Part 461 Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrase Isozymes I, II and IV With Trifluoromethylsulfonamide Derivatives and Their Zinc(II) and Copper(II) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Mincione, Giovanna; Scozzafava, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    Reaction of aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides containing a free amino group with triflic anhydride afforded compounds possessing trifluoromethanesulfonamido moieties in their molecule. The Zn(II) and Cu(II) complexes of these new sulfonamides were prepared and characterized by standard procedures (elemental analysis, spectroscopic, magnetic, thermogravimetric and conductimetric measurements). The new derivatives showed good inhibitory activity against three isozymes of carbonic anhydrase (CA), i.e., CA I, II and IV. PMID:18475762

  4. Carboxysomal carbonic anhydrases: Structure and role in microbial CO2 fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Gordon C.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2010-06-23

    Cyanobacteria and some chemoautotrophic bacteria are able to grow in environments with limiting CO2 concentrations by employing a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) that allows them to accumulate inorganic carbon in their cytoplasm to concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than that on the outside. The final step of this process takes place in polyhedral protein microcompartments known as carboxysomes, which contain the majority of the CO2-fixing enzyme, RubisCO. The efficiency of CO2 fixation by the sequestered RubisCO is enhanced by co-localization with a specialized carbonic anhydrase that catalyzes dehydration of the cytoplasmic bicarbonate and ensures saturation of RubisCO with its substrate, CO2. There are two genetically distinct carboxysome types that differ in their protein composition and in the carbonic anhydrase(s) they employ. Here we review the existing information concerning the genomics, structure and enzymology of these uniquely adapted carbonic anhydrases, which are of fundamental importance in the global carbon cycle.

  5. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: guaiacol and catechol derivatives effectively inhibit certain human carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes (hCA I, II, IX and XII).

    PubMed

    Scozzafava, Andrea; Passaponti, Maurizio; Supuran, Claudiu T; Gülçin, İlhami

    2015-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are widespread metalloenzymes in higher vertebrates including humans. A series of phenolic compounds, including guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, 4-propylguaiacol, eugenol, isoeugenol, vanillin, syringaldehyde, catechol, 3-methyl catechol, 4-methyl catechol and 3-methoxy catechol were investigated for their inhibition of all the catalytically active mammalian isozymes of the Zn(2+)-containing CA (EC 4.2.1.1). All the phenolic compounds effectively inhibited human carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes (hCA I, II, IX and XII), with Kis in the range of 2.20-515.98 μM. The various isozymes showed diverse inhibition profiles. Among the tested phenolic derivatives, compounds 4-methyl catechol and 3-methoxy catechol showed potent activity as inhibitors of the tumour-associated transmembrane isoforms (hCA IX and XII) in the submicromolar range, with high selectivity. The results obtained from this research may lead to the design of more effective carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme inhibitors (CAIs) based on such phenolic compound scaffolds.

  6. Purification of carbonic anhydrase from bovine erythrocytes and its application in the enzymic capture of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    da Costa Ores, Joana; Sala, Luisa; Cerveira, Guido Picaluga; Kalil, Susana Juliano

    2012-06-01

    This work presents a study of industrially applicable techniques to obtain a biologically supported carbon dioxide capture system, based on the extraction of carbonic anhydrase from bovine blood. Carbonic anhydrase is a metalloenzyme which catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. The objective of this study was to establish conditions to obtain carbonic anhydrase from bovine erythrocytes and apply it in the capture of carbon dioxide. To achieve this, two different purification techniques were evaluated: one by extraction with the organic solvents chloroform and ethanol, where different solvent proportions were studied; and the other by ammonium sulfate precipitation, testing percent saturations between 10% and 80%. Carbon dioxide was enzymatically captured by its precipitation as calcium carbonate with the enzyme obtained by both techniques. The enzyme extracted by ethanol and chloroform showed an activity of 2623 U mL(-1), recovery of 98% and purification factor of 104-fold. That precipitated by ammonium sulfate showed an activity of 2162 U mL(-1), recovery of 66% and purification factor of 1.4-fold using 60% ammonium sulfate saturation. The results obtained in the carbon dioxide capture experiments showed that the carbonic anhydrase extracted in this study not only enhanced the hydration of CO(2), but also promoted the formation of CaCO(3).

  7. Evidence for membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase in the air bladder of bowfin (Amia calva), a primitive air-breathing fish.

    PubMed

    Gervais, M R; Tufts, B L

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the subcellular distribution and isoenzyme characteristics of carbonic anhydrase from the gills and respiratory air bladder of bowfin Amia calva, a primitive air-breathing fish. Separation of subcellular fractions by differential centrifugation revealed that the vast majority of carbonic anhydrase from the gills of bowfin originated from the cytoplasmic fraction. Washing of the gill microsomal pellet also indicated that the carbonic anhydrase originally associated with this pellet was largely due to contamination from the cytoplasmic fraction. Experiments with a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, sulphanilamide, and the plasma carbonic anhydrase inhibitor from this species confirmed that the bowfin gill probably contains only one carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme which had properties resembling those of CA II. In contrast to the situation in the gills, a relatively large percentage (27%) of the total air bladder carbonic anhydrase was associated with the microsomal fraction. Washing of the air bladder microsomal pellet removed little of the carbonic anhydrase activity, indicating that most of the carbonic anhydrase in the microsomal fraction was associated with the membranes. Like the mammalian pulmonary CA IV isoenzyme, microsomal carbonic anhydrase from the bowfin air bladder was less sensitive to the bowfin plasma carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) and sulphanilamide than was cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrase from the air bladder. Microsomal carbonic anhydrase from the bowfin air bladder also resembled CA IV in that it appears to be anchored to the membrane via a phosphatidylinositol-glycan linkage which could be cleaved by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. Taken together, these results suggest that a membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme resembling mammalian CA IV in terms of inhibition characteristics and membrane attachment is present in the air-breathing organ of one of the most primitive

  8. Carbonic anhydrase immobilized on hollow fiber membranes using glutaraldehyde activated chitosan for artificial lung applications

    PubMed Central

    Kimmel, J. D.; Arazawa, D. T.; Ye, S.-H.; Shankarraman, V.; Wagner, W. R.

    2013-01-01

    Extracorporeal CO2 removal from circulating blood is a promising therapeutic modality for the treatment of acute respiratory failure. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase accelerates CO2 removal within gas exchange devices by locally catalyzing HCO3− into gaseous CO2 within the blood. In this work, we covalently immobilized carbonic anhydrase on the surface of polypropylene hollow fiber membranes using glutaraldehyde activated chitosan tethering to amplify the density of reactive amine functional groups for enzyme immobilization. XPS and a colorimetric amine assay confirmed higher amine densities on the chitosan coated fiber compared to control fiber. Chitosan/CA coated fibers exhibited accelerated CO2 removal in scaled-down gas exchange devices in buffer and blood (115 % enhancement vs. control, 37 % enhancement vs. control, respectively). Carbonic anhydrase immobilized directly on hollow fiber membranes without chitosan tethering resulted in no enhancement in CO2 removal. Additionally, fibers coated with chitosan/carbonic anhydrase demonstrated reduced platelet adhesion when exposed to blood compared to control and heparin coated fibers. PMID:23888352

  9. Carbonic anhydrase immobilized on hollow fiber membranes using glutaraldehyde activated chitosan for artificial lung applications.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, J D; Arazawa, D T; Ye, S-H; Shankarraman, V; Wagner, W R; Federspiel, W J

    2013-11-01

    Extracorporeal CO2 removal from circulating blood is a promising therapeutic modality for the treatment of acute respiratory failure. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase accelerates CO2 removal within gas exchange devices by locally catalyzing HCO3 (-) into gaseous CO2 within the blood. In this work, we covalently immobilized carbonic anhydrase on the surface of polypropylene hollow fiber membranes using glutaraldehyde activated chitosan tethering to amplify the density of reactive amine functional groups for enzyme immobilization. XPS and a colorimetric amine assay confirmed higher amine densities on the chitosan coated fiber compared to control fiber. Chitosan/CA coated fibers exhibited accelerated CO2 removal in scaled-down gas exchange devices in buffer and blood (115% enhancement vs. control, 37% enhancement vs. control, respectively). Carbonic anhydrase immobilized directly on hollow fiber membranes without chitosan tethering resulted in no enhancement in CO2 removal. Additionally, fibers coated with chitosan/carbonic anhydrase demonstrated reduced platelet adhesion when exposed to blood compared to control and heparin coated fibers.

  10. Docking studies of sulphamate inhibitors of estrone sulphatase in human carbonic anhydrase II.

    PubMed

    Vicker, Nigel; Ho, Yaikat; Robinson, James; Woo, Lawrence L W; Purohit, Atul; Reed, Michael J; Potter, Barry V L

    2003-03-10

    We describe the docking of selected steroidal and non-steroidal estrone sulphatase inhibitors, including the Phase I clinical trial candidate 667COUMATE (6), into the active site of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCA II). The docking scores are compared with the inhibition of hCA II and show good correlation with biological activity.

  11. Thyroid hormone drives the expression of mouse carbonic anhydrase Car4 in kidney, lung and brain.

    PubMed

    Vujovic, Milica; Dudazy-Gralla, Susi; Hård, Joanna; Solsjö, Peter; Warner, Amy; Vennström, Björn; Mittag, Jens

    2015-11-15

    Thyroid hormone is a well-known regulator of brain, lung and kidney development and function. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the hormone exerts its function have remained largely enigmatic, and only a limited set of target genes have been identified in these tissues. Using a mouse model with a mutation in thyroid hormone receptor α1 (TRα1), we here demonstrate that the expression of carbonic anhydrase 4 in lung and brain of the adult animal depends on intact TRα1 signaling. In the kidney, carbonic anhydrase 4 mRNA and protein are not affected by the mutant TRα1, but are acutely repressed by thyroid hormone. However, neither lung function--as measured by respiration rate and oxygen saturation--nor urine pH levels were affected by altered carbonic anhydrase 4 levels, suggesting that other carbonic anhydrases are likely to compensate. Taken together, our findings identify a previously unknown marker of TRα1 action in brain and lung, and provide a novel negatively regulated target gene to assess renal thyroid hormone status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydroxylamine-O-sulfonamide is a versatile lead compound for the development of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Di Fiore, Anna; Vergara, Alessandro; Caterino, Marco; Alterio, Vincenzo; Monti, Simona M; Ombouma, Joanna; Dumy, Pascal; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Winum, Jean-Yves; De Simone, Giuseppina

    2015-07-21

    Hydroxylamine-O-sulfonamide, a molecule incorporating two zinc-binding groups (ZBGs), has been investigated as a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CAI) by means of kinetic, crystallographic and Raman spectroscopy studies, highlighting interesting results on its mechanism of action. These data can be exploited to design new, effective and selective CAIs.

  13. 21 CFR 866.5200 - Carbonic anhydrase B and C immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... system. 866.5200 Section 866.5200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5200 Carbonic anhydrase B and C immunological test system. (a) Identification. A...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5200 - Carbonic anhydrase B and C immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... system. 866.5200 Section 866.5200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5200 Carbonic anhydrase B and C immunological test system. (a) Identification. A...

  15. Structure and Metal Exchange in the Cadmium Carbonic anhydrase of Marine Diatoms

    SciTech Connect

    Xu,Y.; Feng, l.; Jeffrey, P.; Shi, Y.; Morel, F.

    2008-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase, a zinc enzyme found in organisms from all kingdoms, catalyses the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide and is used for inorganic carbon acquisition by phytoplankton. In the oceans, where zinc is nearly depleted, diatoms use cadmium as a catalytic metal atom in cadmium carbonic anhydrase (CDCA). Here we report the crystal structures of CDCA in four distinct forms: cadmium-bound, zinc-bound, metal-free and acetate-bound. Despite lack of sequence homology, CDCA is a structural mimic of a functional {beta}-carbonic anhydrase dimer, with striking similarity in the spatial organization of the active site residues. CDCA readily exchanges cadmium and zinc at its active site--an apparently unique adaptation to oceanic life that is explained by a stable opening of the metal coordinating site in the absence of metal. Given the central role of diatoms in exporting carbon to the deep sea, their use of cadmium in an enzyme critical for carbon acquisition establishes a remarkable link between the global cycles of cadmium and carbon.

  16. Directed evolution of an ultrastable carbonic anhydrase for highly efficient carbon capture from flue gas

    PubMed Central

    Alvizo, Oscar; Nguyen, Luan J.; Savile, Christopher K.; Bresson, Jamie A.; Lakhapatri, Satish L.; Solis, Earl O. P.; Fox, Richard J.; Broering, James M.; Benoit, Michael R.; Zimmerman, Sabrina A.; Novick, Scott J.; Liang, Jack; Lalonde, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is one of nature’s fastest enzymes and can dramatically improve the economics of carbon capture under demanding environments such as coal-fired power plants. The use of CA to accelerate carbon capture is limited by the enzyme’s sensitivity to the harsh process conditions. Using directed evolution, the properties of a β-class CA from Desulfovibrio vulgaris were dramatically enhanced. Iterative rounds of library design, library generation, and high-throughput screening identified highly stable CA variants that tolerate temperatures of up to 107 °C in the presence of 4.2 M alkaline amine solvent at pH >10.0. This increase in thermostability and alkali tolerance translates to a 4,000,000-fold improvement over the natural enzyme. At pilot scale, the evolved catalyst enhanced the rate of CO2 absorption 25-fold compared with the noncatalyzed reaction. PMID:25368146

  17. Directed evolution of an ultrastable carbonic anhydrase for highly efficient carbon capture from flue gas.

    PubMed

    Alvizo, Oscar; Nguyen, Luan J; Savile, Christopher K; Bresson, Jamie A; Lakhapatri, Satish L; Solis, Earl O P; Fox, Richard J; Broering, James M; Benoit, Michael R; Zimmerman, Sabrina A; Novick, Scott J; Liang, Jack; Lalonde, James J

    2014-11-18

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is one of nature's fastest enzymes and can dramatically improve the economics of carbon capture under demanding environments such as coal-fired power plants. The use of CA to accelerate carbon capture is limited by the enzyme's sensitivity to the harsh process conditions. Using directed evolution, the properties of a β-class CA from Desulfovibrio vulgaris were dramatically enhanced. Iterative rounds of library design, library generation, and high-throughput screening identified highly stable CA variants that tolerate temperatures of up to 107 °C in the presence of 4.2 M alkaline amine solvent at pH >10.0. This increase in thermostability and alkali tolerance translates to a 4,000,000-fold improvement over the natural enzyme. At pilot scale, the evolved catalyst enhanced the rate of CO2 absorption 25-fold compared with the noncatalyzed reaction.

  18. Directed evolution of an ultrastable carbonic anhydrase for highly efficient carbon capture from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Alvizo, Oscar; Nguyen, Luan J.; Savile, Christopher K.; Bresson, Jamie A.; Lakhapatri, Satish L.; Solis, Earl O. P.; Fox, Richard J.; Broering, James M.; Benoit, Michael R.; Zimmerman, Sabrina A.; Novick, Scott J.; Liang, Jack; Lalonde, James J.

    2014-11-03

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is one of nature’s fastest enzymes and can dramatically improve the economics of carbon capture under demanding environments such as coal-fired power plants. The use of CA to accelerate carbon capture is limited by the enzyme’s sensitivity to the harsh process conditions. Using directed evolution, the properties of a β-class CA from Desulfovibrio vulgaris were dramatically enhanced. Iterative rounds of library design, library generation, and high-throughput screening identified highly stable CA variants that tolerate temperatures of up to 107 °C in the presence of 4.2 M alkaline amine solvent at pH >10.0. This increase in thermostability and alkali tolerance translates to a 4,000,000-fold improvement over the natural enzyme. In conclusion, at pilot scale, the evolved catalyst enhanced the rate of CO2 absorption 25-fold compared with the noncatalyzed reaction.

  19. Directed evolution of an ultrastable carbonic anhydrase for highly efficient carbon capture from flue gas

    DOE PAGES

    Alvizo, Oscar; Nguyen, Luan J.; Savile, Christopher K.; ...

    2014-11-03

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is one of nature’s fastest enzymes and can dramatically improve the economics of carbon capture under demanding environments such as coal-fired power plants. The use of CA to accelerate carbon capture is limited by the enzyme’s sensitivity to the harsh process conditions. Using directed evolution, the properties of a β-class CA from Desulfovibrio vulgaris were dramatically enhanced. Iterative rounds of library design, library generation, and high-throughput screening identified highly stable CA variants that tolerate temperatures of up to 107 °C in the presence of 4.2 M alkaline amine solvent at pH >10.0. This increase in thermostability andmore » alkali tolerance translates to a 4,000,000-fold improvement over the natural enzyme. In conclusion, at pilot scale, the evolved catalyst enhanced the rate of CO2 absorption 25-fold compared with the noncatalyzed reaction.« less

  20. Investigation of sulfonamides inhibition of carbonic anhydrase enzyme using multiphotometric and electrochemical techniques.

    PubMed

    Bourais, Ilhame; Maliki, Sara; Mohammadi, Hasna; Amine, Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Two approaches for sulfonamides (SA's) determination, based on carbonic anhydrase enzyme inhibition have been investigated in this work. In the first method, nine different SA's have been screened using simultaneous multiphotometric measurement in multiwell plates. The sulfanilamide (SAD) showed significant inhibition compared to other sulfonamides. The carbonic anhydrase (CA) kinetic interactions reveal noncompetitive binding of SAD. Interferences from other inhibitors with enzyme were studied and the results showed very good selectivity toward SAD. In the second approach, an electrochemical enzyme inhibition biosensor, based on CA entrapped in a carbon paste electrode using carbon black nanoparticles and solid paraffin, was successfully applied to SAD measurements. Results from the quantitative analysis of SAD are discussed in terms of detection limit, linear range and sensitivity using multiphotometric and biosensor-based methods The biosensor developed was successfully applied to the determination of SAD at submicromolar levels and it is recommended for application for in situ analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Targeting carbonic anhydrase to treat diabetic retinopathy: Emerging evidences and encouraging results

    SciTech Connect

    Weiwei, Zhang; Hu, Renming

    2009-12-18

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of vision loss among working-age populations in developed countries. Current treatment options are limited to tight glycemic, blood pressure control and destructive laser surgery. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a group of enzymes involving in the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. Emerging evidences reveal CA inhibitors hold the promise for the treatment of DR. This article summarizes encouraging results from clinical and animal studies, and reviews the possible mechanisms.

  2. Carbonic anhydrase IX is a marker of hypoxia and correlates with higher Gleason scores and ISUP grading in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Maria Raffaella; Di Serio, Claudia; Danza, Giovanna; Rocca, Bruno Jim; Ginori, Alessandro; Prudovsky, Igor; Marchionni, Niccolò; Del Vecchio, Maria Teresa; Tarantini, Francesca

    2016-05-25

    Carbonic anhydrase IX is a member of α-carbonic anhydrases that is preferentially expressed in solid tumors. It enables bicarbonate transport across the plasma membrane, neutralizing intracellular pH and conferring to cancer cells a survival advantage in hypoxic/acidic microenvironments. Overexpression of carbonic anhydrase IX in cancer tissues is regulated by hypoxia inducible factor 1α - mediated transcription and the enzyme is considered a marker of tumor hypoxia and poor outcome. The role of carbonic anhydrase IX in prostate cancer has not been fully clarified and controversy has arisen on whether this enzyme is overexpressed in hypoxic prostate cancer tissues. We analyzed the expression of carbonic anhydrase IX and hypoxia inducible factor 1α in two prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and PC-3, and in 110 cancer biopsies, by western blotting and immunocyto/histochemistry. In LNCaP and PC-3 cells, carbonic anhydrase IX was mostly cytoplasmic/nuclear, with very limited membrane localization. Nuclear staining became stronger under hypoxia. When we analyzed carbonic anhydrase IX expression in human prostate cancer biopsies, we found that protein staining positively correlated with hypoxia inducible factor 1α and with Gleason pattern and score, as well as with the novel grading system proposed by the International Society of Urological Pathology for prostate cancer. Once more, carbonic anhydrase IX was mainly cytoplasmic in low grade carcinomas, whereas in high grade tumors was strongly expressed in the nucleus of the neoplastic cell. An association between carbonic anhydrase IX expression level and the main clinic-pathological features involved in prostate cancer aggressiveness was identified. There was a statistically significant association between carbonic anhydrase IX and hypoxia inducible factor 1α in prostate cancer tissues, that identifies the enzyme as a reliable marker of tumor hypoxia. In addition, carbonic anhydrase IX expression positively

  3. Precipitation of hydrated Mg carbonate with the aid of carbonic anhydrase for CO2 sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, I. M.; Harrison, A. L.; Dipple, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    Strategies for sequestering CO2 directly from the atmosphere are likely required to achieve the desired reduction in CO2 concentration and avoid the most damaging effects of climate change [1]. Numerous studies have demonstrated the accelerated precipitation of calcium carbonate minerals with the aid of carbonic anhydrase (CA) as a means of sequestering CO2 in solid carbonate form; however, no study has examined precipitation of magnesium carbonate minerals using CA. Precipitation of magnesite (MgCO3) is kinetically inhibited [2]; therefore, Mg2+ must be precipitated as hydrated carbonate minerals. In laboratory experiments, the uptake of atmospheric CO2 into brine solutions (0.1 M Mg) was rate-limiting for the precipitation of dypingite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2-5H2O] with initial precipitation requiring 15 days [3]. It was also found that dypingite precipitation outpaced the uptake of CO2 gas into solution. CO2 uptake is limited by the hydration of CO2 to form carbonate ions [4]. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes are among the fastest known in nature and are able to catalyze the hydration of CO2, i.e., converting CO2(aq) to CO32- and HCO3- [5]. CA plays an important role in the carbon concentrating mechanism of photoautotrophic, chemoautotrophic, and heterotrophic prokaryotes and is involved in pH homeostasis, facilitated diffusion of CO2, ion transport, and the interconversion of CO2 and HCO3- [6]. Introducing CA into buffered Mg-rich solutions should allow for more rapid precipitation of hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals. Batch experiments were conducted using 125 mL flasks containing 100 mL of Millipore deionized water with 0.2 M of MgCl2-6H2O. To buffer pH, 1.0 g of pulverized brucite [Mg(OH)2] or 1.0 g of NaOH was added to the systems, which were amended with Bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) (Sigma-Aldrich). Solutions were stirred continuously and kept at room temperature (~22°C) with laboratory air introduced by bubbling. Temperature and pH were measured routinely

  4. Preparation and characterization of carbonic anhydrase-conjugated liposomes for catalytic synthesis of calcium carbonate particles.

    PubMed

    Maeshima, Keisuke; Yoshimoto, Makoto

    2017-10-01

    The biomimetic approach using immobilized enzymes is useful for the synthesis of structurally defined inorganic materials. In this work, carbonic anhydrase (CA) from bovine erythrocytes was covalently conjugated at 25°C to the liposomes composed of 15mol% 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-(glutaryl) (NG-POPE), and the zwitterionic and anionic phospholipids with the same acyl chains as NG-POPE. For the conjugation, the carboxyl groups of liposomal NG-POPE were activated with 11mM 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) and 4.6mM N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (sulfo-NHS). The carbonic anhydrase-conjugated liposomes (CALs) with the mean hydrodynamic diameter of 149nm showed the esterase activity corresponding to on average 5.5×10(2) free CA molecules per liposome. On the other hand, the intrinsic fluorescence and absorbance measurements consistently revealed that on average 1.4×10(3) CA molecules were conjugated to a liposome, suggesting that the molecular orientation of enzyme affected its activity. The formation of calcium carbonate particles was significantly accelerated by the CALs ([lipid]=50μ M) in the 0.3M Tris solution at 10-40°C with dissolved CO2 (≈17mM) and CaCl2 (46mM). The anionic CALs were adsorbed with calcium as revealed with the ζ-potential measurements. The CAL system offered the calcium-rich colloidal interface where the bicarbonate ions were catalytically produced by the liposome-conjugated CA molecules. The CALs also functioned in the external loop airlift bubble column operated with a model flue gas (10vol/vo% CO2), yielding partly agglomerated calcium carbonate particles as observed with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural Basis for the Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori α-Carbonic Anhydrase by Sulfonamides

    PubMed Central

    Modakh, Joyanta K.; Liu, Yu C.; Machuca, Mayra A.; Supuran, Claudiu T.; Roujeinikova, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Periplasmic α-carbonic anhydrase of Helicobacter pylori (HpαCA), an oncogenic bacterium in the human stomach, is essential for its acclimation to low pH. It catalyses the conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate using Zn(II) as the cofactor. In H. pylori, Neisseria spp., Brucella suis and Streptococcus pneumoniae this enzyme is the target for sulfonamide antibacterial agents. We present structural analysis correlated with inhibition data, on the complexes of HpαCA with two pharmacological inhibitors of human carbonic anhydrases, acetazolamide and methazolamide. This analysis reveals that two sulfonamide oxygen atoms of the inhibitors are positioned proximal to the putative location of the oxygens of the CO2 substrate in the Michaelis complex, whilst the zinc-coordinating sulfonamide nitrogen occupies the position of the catalytic water molecule. The structures are consistent with acetazolamide acting as site-directed, nanomolar inhibitors of the enzyme by mimicking its reaction transition state. Additionally, inhibitor binding provides insights into the channel for substrate entry and product exit. This analysis has implications for the structure-based design of inhibitors of bacterial carbonic anhydrases. PMID:26010545

  6. Borate-catalyzed carbon dioxide hydration via the carbonic anhydrase mechanism.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dongfang; Thee, Hendy; da Silva, Gabriel; Chen, Jian; Fei, Weiyang; Kentish, Sandra; Stevens, Geoffrey W

    2011-06-01

    The hydration of CO(2) plays a critical role in carbon capture and geoengineering technologies currently under development to mitigate anthropogenic global warming and in environmental processes such as ocean acidification. Here we reveal that borate catalyzes the conversion of CO(2) to HCO(3)(-) via the same fundamental mechanism as the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which is responsible for CO(2) hydration in the human body. In this mechanism the tetrahydroxyborate ion, B(OH)(4)(-), is the active form of boron that undergoes direct reaction with CO(2). In addition to being able to accelerate CO(2) hydration in alkaline solvents used for carbon capture, we hypothesize that this mechanism controls CO(2) uptake by certain saline bodies of water, such as Mono Lake (California), where previously inexplicable influx rates of inorganic carbon have created unique chemistry. The new understanding of CO(2) hydration provided here should lead to improved models for the carbon cycle in highly saline bodies of water and to advances in carbon capture and geoengineering technology.

  7. Discovery of Potent Carbonic Anhydrase and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: 2-Aminoindan β-Lactam Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Genç, Hayriye; Kalin, Ramazan; Köksal, Zeynep; Sadeghian, Nastaran; Kocyigit, Umit M.; Zengin, Mustafa; Gülçin, İlhami; Özdemir, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    β-Lactams are pharmacologically important compounds because of their various biological uses, including antibiotic and so on. β-Lactams were synthesized from benzylidene-inden derivatives and acetoxyacetyl chloride. The inhibitory effect of these compounds was examined for human carbonic anhydrase I and II (hCA I, and II) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The results reveal that β-lactams are inhibitors of hCA I, II and AChE. The Ki values of β-lactams (2a–k) were 0.44–6.29 nM against hCA I, 0.93–8.34 nM against hCA II, and 0.25–1.13 nM against AChE. Our findings indicate that β-lactams (2a–k) inhibit both carbonic anhydrases (CA) isoenzymes and AChE at low nanomolar concentrations. PMID:27775608

  8. Sulfa drugs as inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase: new targets for the old drugs.

    PubMed

    al-Rashida, Mariya; Hussain, Sajad; Hamayoun, Mehwish; Altaf, Aisha; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2014-01-01

    Sulfa drugs are well-known antibacterial agents containing N-substituted sulfonamide group on para position of aniline ring (NH2RSO2NHR'). In this study 2,4-dichloro-1,3,5-triazine derivatives of sulfa drugs, sulfamerazine (1b), sulfaquinoxaline (2b), sulfadiazine (3b), sulfadimidine (4b), and sulfachloropyrazine (5b) (1a-5a) were synthesized and characterized. Their carbonic anhydrase inhibition activity was evaluated against bovine cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isozyme II (bCA II). For the sake of comparison the CA inhibition activity of the parent sulfa drugs (1b-5b) was also evaluated. A significant increase in CA inhibition activity of sulfa drugs was observed upon substitution with 2,4-dichloro-1,3,5-triazine moiety. Molecular docking studies were carried out to highlight binding site interactions. ADME properties were calculated to evaluate drug likeness of the compounds.

  9. Sulfa Drugs as Inhibitors of Carbonic Anhydrase: New Targets for the Old Drugs

    PubMed Central

    al-Rashida, Mariya; Hussain, Sajad; Hamayoun, Mehwish; Altaf, Aisha

    2014-01-01

    Sulfa drugs are well-known antibacterial agents containing N-substituted sulfonamide group on para position of aniline ring (NH2RSO2NHR′). In this study 2,4-dichloro-1,3,5-triazine derivatives of sulfa drugs, sulfamerazine (1b), sulfaquinoxaline (2b), sulfadiazine (3b), sulfadimidine (4b), and sulfachloropyrazine (5b) (1a–5a) were synthesized and characterized. Their carbonic anhydrase inhibition activity was evaluated against bovine cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isozyme II (bCA II). For the sake of comparison the CA inhibition activity of the parent sulfa drugs (1b–5b) was also evaluated. A significant increase in CA inhibition activity of sulfa drugs was observed upon substitution with 2,4-dichloro-1,3,5-triazine moiety. Molecular docking studies were carried out to highlight binding site interactions. ADME properties were calculated to evaluate drug likeness of the compounds. PMID:25538942

  10. Carbonic anhydrase activity in the red blood cells of sea level and high altitude natives.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, J; Caceda, R; Gamboa, A; Monge-C, C

    2000-01-01

    Red blood cell carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity has not been studied in high altitude natives. Because CA is an intraerythocytic enzyme and high altitude natives are polycythemic, it is important to know if the activity of CA per red cell volume is different from that of their sea level counterparts. Blood was collected from healthy subjects living in Lima (150m) and from twelve subjects from Cerro de Pasco (4330m), and hematocrit and carbonic anhydrase activity were measured. As expected, the high altitude natives had significantly higher hematocrits than the sea level controls (p = 0.0002). No difference in the CA activity per milliliter of red cells was found between the two populations. There was no correlation between the hematocrit and CA activity.

  11. Co-production of carbonic anhydrase and phycobiliproteins by Spirulina sp. and Synechococcus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Ores, Joana da Costa; Amarante, Marina Campos Assumpção de; Kalil, Susana Juliano

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the co-production of the carbonic anhydrase, C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin during cyanobacteria growth. Spirulina sp. LEB 18 demonstrated a high potential for simultaneously obtaining the three products, achieving a carbonic anhydrase (CA) productivity of 0.97U/L/d and the highest C-phycocyanin (PC, 5.9μg/mL/d) and allophycocyanin (APC, 4.3μg/mL/d) productivities. In the extraction study, high extraction yields were obtained from Spirulina using an ultrasonic homogenizer (CA: 25.5U/g; PC: 90mg/g; APC: 70mg/g). From the same biomass, it was possible to obtain three biomolecules that present high industrial value.

  12. Lacosamide derivatives with anticonvulsant activity as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Molecular modeling, docking and QSAR analysis.

    PubMed

    Garro Martinez, Juan C; Vega-Hissi, Esteban G; Andrada, Matías F; Duchowicz, Pablo R; Torrens, Francisco; Estrada, Mario R

    2014-01-01

    Lacosamide is an anticonvulsant drug which presents carbonic anhydrase inhibition. In this paper, we analyzed the apparent relationship between both activities performing a molecular modeling, docking and QSAR studies on 18 lacosamide derivatives with known anticonvulsant activity. Docking results suggested the zinc-binding site of carbonic anhydrase is a possible target of lacosamide and lacosamide derivatives making favorable Van der Waals interactions with Asn67, Gln92, Phe131 and Thr200. The mathematical models revealed a poor relationship between the anticonvulsant activity and molecular descriptors obtained from DFT and docking calculations. However, a QSAR model was developed using Dragon software descriptors. The statistic parameters of the model are: correlation coefficient, R=0.957 and standard deviation, S=0.162. Our results provide new valuable information regarding the relationship between both activities and contribute important insights into the essential molecular requirements for the anticonvulsant activity.

  13. [Mode of action, clinical profile and relevance of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in glaucoma therapy].

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, M

    2013-02-01

    Since their introduction the local carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAH) dorzolamide and brinzolamide have become well established in the drug therapy of glaucoma. They lower intraocular pressure (IOP) by blocking specifically carbonic anhydrase in the ciliary epithelium and thereby the secretion of aqueous humor. The IOP lowering effect is comparable with that of beta-blockers, but less than that of prostaglandin agonists. Because of their specific mode of action they produce an additive pressure lowering effect with any other glaucoma drug. Therefore they are ideal for being combined with other drugs. In addition, CAH may improve perfusion of the posterior eye. Preliminary results in glaucoma patients under dorzolamide therapy suggesting a reduction in the risk of progression due to enhanced blood flow need further confirmation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. A structurally novel salt-regulated promoter of duplicated carbonic anhydrase gene 1 from Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Lu, Yumin; Xue, Lexun; Xie, Hua

    2010-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that the duplicated carbonic anhydrase is induced by salt in the Dunaliella salina (D. salina) and duplicated carbonic anhydrase 1 (DCA1) is a member of carbonic anhydrase family. The purpose of this study was to identify whether both the DCA1 gene and its promoter from D. salina are salt-inducible. In this study, the results of real time RT-PCR showed that the transcripts of DCA1 were induced by gradient concentration of sodium chloride. Subsequently, a structurally novel promoter containing highly repeated GT/AC sequences of the DCA1 gene was isolated, which was able to drive a stable expression of the foreign bar gene in transformed cells of D. salina, and the gradient concentrations of sodium chloride in media paralleled regulations in the levels of both proteins and mRNA of the bar gene driven by the DCA1 promoter. Furthermore, analysis of GUS activities revealed that the salt-inducible expression of the external gus gene was regulated by the promoter fragments containing highly repeated GT sequences, but not by the promoter fragments deleting highly repeated GT sequences. The findings above-mentioned suggest that the highly repeated GT sequence in the DCA1 promoter is involved in the salt-inducible regulation in D. salina and may be a novel salt-inducible element.

  15. Specific arginine modification at the phosphatase site of muscle carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Pullan, L M; Noltmann, E A

    1985-01-29

    Mammalian carbonic anhydrase III has previously been shown to catalyze the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate in addition to possessing the conventional CO2 hydratase and p-nitrophenylacetate esterase activities. Modification of pig muscle carbonic anhydrase III with the arginine reagent phenylglyoxal yielded two clearly distinctive results. Reaction of the enzyme with phenylglyoxal at concentrations equivalent to those of the enzyme yielded stoichiometric inactivation titration of the enzyme's phosphatase activity, approaching 100% loss of activity with the simultaneous modification of one arginine residue, the latter based on a 1:1 reaction of phenylglyoxal with arginine. At this low ratio of phenylglyoxal to enzyme, neither the CO2 hydratase activity nor the acetate esterase activity was affected. When the modification was performed with a significant excess of phenylglyoxal, CO2 hydratase and acetate esterase activities were diminished as well. That loss of activity was accompanied by the incorporation of an additional half dozen phenylglyoxals and, presumably, the modification of an equal number of arginine residues. The data in their entirety are interpreted to show that the p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity is a unique property of carbonic anhydrase III and that excessive amounts of the arginine-modifying reagent lead to unspecific structural changes of the enzyme as a result of which all of its enzymatic activities are inactivated.

  16. Possible CO2 concentrating mechanism in chloroplasts of C3 plants. Role of carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Fridlyand, L E; Kaler, V L

    1987-12-01

    The possibility of a specific CO2 concentrating mechanism present in chloroplasts of C3 plants is analyzed. Proton gradient between thylakoids and the stroma is assumed to be the driving force for this process. The possible CO2 concentrating mechanisms are: 1. HCO3- permeation into thylakoids, its dehydration there and diffusion of CO2 formed into the stroma; 2. Dehydration of HCO3- present in the stroma at the thylakoid surface in a reaction with H+ leaving the thylakoids through: a) channels of membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase; b) channels of the ATPase complex. A system of equations describing CO3- and CO2 diffusion as well as CO2 assimilation and formation was used. The increase in photosynthesis rate, upon CO2 diffusion being facilitated in the presence of carbonic anhydrase, and due to the action of CO2 concentrating mechanisms, was numerically estimated. The CO2 concentrating mechanism was shown to function effectively only with the entire chloroplast being the CO2 concentrating zone. This is the case when the bulk of stromal carbonic anhydrase is localized near the inner chloroplast envelope. The existence of CO2 concentrating mechanisms around a single granum or around thylakoids is hardly possible. Approaches enabling the detection of similar concentrating mechanisms are discussed.

  17. Carbonic anhydrases are upstream regulators of CO2-controlled stomatal movements in guard cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Honghong; Boisson-Dernier, Aurélien; Israelsson-Nordström, Maria; Böhmer, Maik; Xue, Shaowu; Ries, Amber; Godoski, Jan; Kuhn, Josef M; Schroeder, Julian I

    2010-01-01

    The continuing rise in atmospheric CO2 causes stomatal pores in leaves to close and thus globally affects CO2 influx into plants, water use efficiency and leaf heat stress. However, the CO2-binding proteins that control this response remain unknown. Moreover, which cell type responds to CO2, mesophyll or guard cells, and whether photosynthesis mediates this response are matters of debate. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana double-mutant plants in the beta-carbonic anhydrases betaCA1 and betaCA4 show impaired CO2-regulation of stomatal movements and increased stomatal density, but retain functional abscisic-acid and blue-light responses. betaCA-mediated CO2-triggered stomatal movements are not, in first-order, linked to whole leaf photosynthesis and can function in guard cells. Furthermore, guard cell betaca-overexpressing plants exhibit instantaneous enhanced water use efficiency. Guard cell expression of mammalian alphaCAII complements the reduced sensitivity of ca1 ca4 plants, showing that carbonic anhydrase-mediated catalysis is an important mechanism for betaCA-mediated CO2-induced stomatal closure and patch clamp analyses indicate that CO2/HCO3- transfers the signal to anion channel regulation. These findings, together with ht1-2 (ref. 9) epistasis analysis demonstrate that carbonic anhydrases function early in the CO2 signalling pathway, which controls gas-exchange between plants and the atmosphere.

  18. Characterization and inhibition studies of carbonic anhydrase from gill of Russian Sturgeon Fish (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii).

    PubMed

    Dinçer, Barbaros; Ekinci, Arife Pınar; Akyüz, Gülay; Kurtoğlu, İlker Zeki

    2016-12-01

    An α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) was purified and characterized kinetically from gill of Acipenser gueldenstaedtii as an endangered sturgeon species. The carbonic anhydrase was purified 66-folds with yield 20.7% by Sepharose-4B-l-tyrosine-sulfanilamide affinity column and the specific activity was determined as 222.2 EU/mg protein. Km and Vmax kinetic values for gill carbonic anhydrase were calculated by a Lineweaver-Burk graph using p-nitrophenol acetate (p-NPA) as a substrate, and was defined as 2.5 mM and 5 × 10(6 )μM/min, respectively. It was observed that CA from the sturgeon gill in the presence of the sulfanilamide and acetazolamide as an inhibitor had very low IC50 values such as 13.0 and 0.1 μM, respectively. In addition, it was determined that the enzyme was inhibited by Fe(2+,) Co(2+,) Ni(2+), and Zn(2+)-Ba(2+) with the IC50 values of 0.2, 1.7, 1.2, and 1.1 mM, respectively.

  19. An investigation of carbonic anhydrase activity in the gills and blood plasma of brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus), longnose skate (Raja rhina), and spotted raffish (Hydrolagus colliei).

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Kathleen M; Shah, Bina; Szebedinszky, Cheryl

    2002-01-01

    Separated plasma and whole blood non-bicarbonate buffering capacities, together with plasma and gill carbonic anhydrase activities and endogenous plasma carbonic anhydrase inhibitor activity were investigated in three species of fish: the brown bullhead (Ameirus nebulosus), a teleost; the longnose skate (Raja rhina), an elasmobranch; and the spotted ratfish (Hydrolagus colliei), a chimaeran. The objective was to test the hypothesis that species possessing gill membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase and/or plasma carbonic anhydrase activity would also exhibit high plasma nonbicarbonate buffering capacity relative to whole blood non-bicarbonate buffering capacity and would lack an endogenous plasma carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Separated plasma non-bicarbonate buffering capacity constituted > or = 40% of whole-blood buffering in all three species. In addition, all species lacked an endogenous plasma carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Separated plasma from skate and ratfish contained carbonic anhydrase activity, whereas bullhead plasma did not. Examination of the subcellular distribution and characteristics of branchial carbonic anhydrase activity revealed that the majority of branchial carbonic anhydrase activity originated from the cytoplasmic fraction in all species, with only 3-5% being associated with a microsomal fraction. The microsomal carbonic anhydrase activity of bullhead and ratfish was significantly reduced by washing, indicating the presence of carbonic anhydrase activity that was not integrally associated with the membrane pellet, microsomal carbonic anhydrase activity in skate was unaffected by washing. In addition, microsomal carbonic anhydrase activity from skate and ratfish but not bullhead gills was released to a significant extent from its membrane association by treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. The results obtained for skate are consistent with published data for dogfish, suggesting that the possession of branchial membrane

  20. Trends, application and future prospectives of microbial carbonic anhydrase mediated carbonation process for CCUS.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Chintan; Dudhagara, Pravin; Tank, Shantilal

    2017-09-18

    Growing industrialisation and desire for better economy of countries accelerated the emission of greenhouse gasses, more than the buffering capacity of earth atmosphere. Among, various Green House Gasses (GHGs), CO2 occupies the first position in anthroposphere and has detrimental effects on the ecosystem. For decarbonization, several non-biological methods of carbon capture, utilisation, and storage (CCUS) are in use from last few decades, but they are suffering from narrow applicability. Recently, CO2 emission and its disposal related problem encourage for implementation of bioprocessing to achieve zero waste economy for a sustainable environment. Microbial carbonic anhydrase (CA) catalyse the reversible CO2 hydration and forming metal carbonates that mimic natural phenomenon of weathering/carbonation and is getting merits for CCUS. Thus, diversity and specificity of CAs from the different microorganisms would be explored for CCUS. In literature, more than 50 different microbial CAs explored for mineral carbonation. Further, microbial CAs can be engineered for mineral carbonation process to develop new technology. CA driven carbonation is an encouraging due to its large storage capacity, favourable chemistries, allowing site-specific sequestration and reusable product formation for other industries. Moreover, carbonation based CCUS holds fivefold more sequestration capacity for next hundred year. Thus, it is an eco-friendly, feasible, viable option and believed to be impending technology for CCUS. Here, we attempt to enlighten the distribution of various types of microbial CAs with their potential applications and future direction for carbon capture. Although, there are few key challenges in the bio-based technology, need to be addressed to commercialise the technology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Engineering de novo disulfide bond in bacterial α-type carbonic anhydrase for thermostable carbon sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Byung Hoon; Park, Tae Yoon; Park, Hyun June; Yeon, Young Joo; Yoo, Young Je; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme that rapidly catalyzes carbon dioxide hydration, is an attractive biomimetic route for carbon sequestration due to its environmental compatibility and potential economic viability. However, the industrial applications of CA are strongly hampered by the unstable nature of enzymes. In this work, we introduced in silico designed, de novo disulfide bond in a bacterial α-type CA to enhance thermostability. Three variants were selected and expressed in Escherichia coli with an additional disulfide bridge. One of the variants showed great enhancement in terms of both kinetic and thermodynamic stabilities. This improvement could be attributed to the loss of conformational entropy of the unfolded state, showing increased rigidity. The variant showed an upward-shifted optimal temperature and appeared to be thermoactivated, which compensated for the lowered activity at 25 °C. Collectively, the variant constructed by the rapid and effective de novo disulfide engineering can be used as an efficient biocatalyst for carbon sequestration under high temperature conditions. PMID:27385052

  2. Involvement of H(+)-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase in inorganic carbon uptake for endosymbiont photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Furla, P; Allemand, D; Orsenigo, M N

    2000-04-01

    Symbiotic cnidarians absorb inorganic carbon from seawater to supply intracellular dinoflagellates with CO(2) for their photosynthesis. To determine the mechanism of inorganic carbon transport by animal cells, we used plasma membrane vesicles prepared from ectodermal cells isolated from tentacles of the sea anemone, Anemonia viridis. H(14)CO(-)(3) uptake in the presence of an outward NaCl gradient or inward H(+) gradient, showed no evidence for a Cl(-)- or H(+)- driven HCO(-)(3) transport. H(14)CO(-)(3) and (36)Cl(-) uptakes were stimulated by a positive inside-membrane diffusion potential, suggesting the presence of HCO(-)(3) and Cl(-) conductances. A carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity was measured on plasma membrane (4%) and in the cytoplasm of the ectodermal cells (96%) and was sensitive to acetazolamide (IC(50) = 20 nM) and ethoxyzolamide (IC(50) = 2.5 nM). A strong DIDS-sensitive H(+)-ATPase activity was observed (IC(50) = 14 microM). This activity was also highly sensitive to vanadate and allyl isothiocyanate, two inhibitors of P-type H(+)-ATPases. Present data suggest that HCO(-)(3) absorption by ectodermal cells is carried out by H(+) secretion by H(+)-ATPase, resulting in the formation of carbonic acid in the surrounding seawater, which is quickly dehydrated into CO(2) by a membrane-bound CA. CO(2) then diffuses passively into the cell where it is hydrated in HCO(-)(3) by a cytosolic CA.

  3. Engineering de novo disulfide bond in bacterial α-type carbonic anhydrase for thermostable carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Byung Hoon; Park, Tae Yoon; Park, Hyun June; Yeon, Young Joo; Yoo, Young Je; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2016-07-01

    Exploiting carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme that rapidly catalyzes carbon dioxide hydration, is an attractive biomimetic route for carbon sequestration due to its environmental compatibility and potential economic viability. However, the industrial applications of CA are strongly hampered by the unstable nature of enzymes. In this work, we introduced in silico designed, de novo disulfide bond in a bacterial α-type CA to enhance thermostability. Three variants were selected and expressed in Escherichia coli with an additional disulfide bridge. One of the variants showed great enhancement in terms of both kinetic and thermodynamic stabilities. This improvement could be attributed to the loss of conformational entropy of the unfolded state, showing increased rigidity. The variant showed an upward-shifted optimal temperature and appeared to be thermoactivated, which compensated for the lowered activity at 25 °C. Collectively, the variant constructed by the rapid and effective de novo disulfide engineering can be used as an efficient biocatalyst for carbon sequestration under high temperature conditions.

  4. Microbial Carbonic Anhydrases in Biomimetic Carbon Sequestration for Mitigating Global Warming: Prospects and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bose, Himadri; Satyanarayana, Tulasi

    2017-01-01

    All the leading cities in the world are slowly becoming inhospitable for human life with global warming playing havoc with the living conditions. Biomineralization of carbon dioxide using carbonic anhydrase (CA) is one of the most economical methods for mitigating global warming. The burning of fossil fuels results in the emission of large quantities of flue gas. The temperature of flue gas is quite high. Alkaline conditions are necessary for CaCO3 precipitation in the mineralization process. In order to use CAs for biomimetic carbon sequestration, thermo-alkali-stable CAs are, therefore, essential. CAs must be stable in the presence of various flue gas contaminants too. The extreme environments on earth harbor a variety of polyextremophilic microbes that are rich sources of thermo-alkali-stable CAs. CAs are the fastest among the known enzymes, which are of six basic types with no apparent sequence homology, thus represent an elegant example of convergent evolution. The current review focuses on the utility of thermo-alkali-stable CAs in biomineralization based strategies. A variety of roles that CAs play in various living organisms, the use of CA inhibitors as drug targets and strategies for overproduction of CAs to meet the demand are also briefly discussed.

  5. Microbial Carbonic Anhydrases in Biomimetic Carbon Sequestration for Mitigating Global Warming: Prospects and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Himadri; Satyanarayana, Tulasi

    2017-01-01

    All the leading cities in the world are slowly becoming inhospitable for human life with global warming playing havoc with the living conditions. Biomineralization of carbon dioxide using carbonic anhydrase (CA) is one of the most economical methods for mitigating global warming. The burning of fossil fuels results in the emission of large quantities of flue gas. The temperature of flue gas is quite high. Alkaline conditions are necessary for CaCO3 precipitation in the mineralization process. In order to use CAs for biomimetic carbon sequestration, thermo-alkali-stable CAs are, therefore, essential. CAs must be stable in the presence of various flue gas contaminants too. The extreme environments on earth harbor a variety of polyextremophilic microbes that are rich sources of thermo-alkali-stable CAs. CAs are the fastest among the known enzymes, which are of six basic types with no apparent sequence homology, thus represent an elegant example of convergent evolution. The current review focuses on the utility of thermo-alkali-stable CAs in biomineralization based strategies. A variety of roles that CAs play in various living organisms, the use of CA inhibitors as drug targets and strategies for overproduction of CAs to meet the demand are also briefly discussed. PMID:28890712

  6. Mechanistic insights into biomimetic carbonic anhydrase action catalyzed by doped carbon nanotubes and graphene.

    PubMed

    Verma, Manju; Deshpande, Parag A

    2017-03-29

    Electronic structural analyses of hydrogen terminated metal doped carbon nanotube/graphene (M-CNT/Gr, MN3-CNT/Gr, M = Ru/Rh) and ruthenium cluster decorated carbon nanotube/graphene (Ru4-CNT/Gr) were carried out for examining the biomimetic catalytic activity towards CO2 hydration reaction. The carbonic anhydrase action was followed for the reaction of CO2 with H2O resulting in a bicarbonate ion and a proton. All the catalysts were found to be active for CO2 hydration and the mechanism proved them to be biomimetic. Interconversion of CO2 to a HCO3(-) ion took place with five elementary steps viz. OH(-) formation by H2O dissociation, linear CO2 complexation, CO2 bending by nucleophilic attack of an OH(-) ion over CO2, HCO3(-) ion formation by intramolecular proton migration and HCO3(-) ion displacement by H2O addition. Free energy landscapes over the catalysts were developed for CO2 hydration reaction. The activation energies of H2O dissociation and CO2 bending were observed to be substantially smaller over Ru4-CNT when compared to those over the other catalysts. Ru4-CNT was found to be the best catalyst for CO2 hydration with the rate limiting step being HCO3(-) ion formation.

  7. Oxygen-18 incorporation into malic acid during nocturnal carbon dioxide fixation in crassulacean acid metabolism plants: a new approach to estimating in vivo carbonic anhydrase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Holtum, J.A.M.; Summons, R.; Roeske, C.A.; Comins, H.N.; O'Leary, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants fix carbon dioxide at night by the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate. If CO2 fixation is conducted with TC YO2, then in the absence of carbonic anhydrase, the malate formed by dark CO2 fixation should also contain high levels of carbon-13 and oxygen-18. Conversely, if carbonic anhydrase is present and highly active, oxygen exchange between CO2 and cellular H2O will occur more rapidly than carboxylation, and the ( TC) malate formed will contain little or no oxygen-18 above the natural abundance level. The presence of oxygen-18 in these molecules can be detected either by nuclear magnetic resonance or by mass spectrometry. Studies of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in the presence and absence of carbonic anhydrase in vitro confirm the validity of the method. When CAM plants are studied by this method, we find that most species show incorporation of a significant amount of oxygen-18. Comparison of these results with results of isotope fractionation and gas exchange studies permits calculation of the in vivo activity of carbonic anhydrase toward HCO3 compared with that of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. The ratio (carbonic anhydrase activity/phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity) is species dependent and varies from a low of about 7 for Ananas comosus to values near 20 for Hoya carnosa and Bryophyllum pinnatum, 40 for Kalanchoee daigremontiana, and 100 or greater for Bryophyllum tubiflorum, Kalanchoee serrata, and Kalanchoae tomentosa. Carbonic anhydrase activity increases relative to phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity at higher temperature. 37 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

  8. Evidence That an Internal Carbonic Anhydrase Is Present in 5% CO(2)-Grown and Air-Grown Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Moroney, J V; Togasaki, R K; Husic, H D; Tolbert, N E

    1987-07-01

    Inorganic carbon (C(i)) uptake was measured in wild-type cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in cia-3, a mutant strain of C. reinhardtii that cannot grow with air levels of CO(2). Both air-grown cells, that have a CO(2) concentrating system, and 5% CO(2)-grown cells that do not have this system, were used. When the external pH was 5.1 or 7.3, air-grown, wild-type cells accumulated inorganic carbon (C(i)) and this accumulation was enhanced when the permeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, ethoxyzolamide, was added. When the external pH was 5.1, 5% CO(2)-grown cells also accumulated some C(i), although not as much as air-grown cells and this accumulation was stimulated by the addition of ethoxyzolamide. At the same time, ethoxyzolamide inhibited CO(2) fixation by high CO(2)-grown, wild-type cells at both pH 5.1 and 7.3. These observations imply that 5% CO(2)-grown, wild-type cells, have a physiologically important internal carbonic anhydrase, although the major carbonic anhydrase located in the periplasmic space is only present in air-grown cells. Inorganic carbon uptake by cia-3 cells supported this conclusion. This mutant strain, which is thought to lack an internal carbonic anhydrase, was unaffected by ethoxyzolamide at pH 5.1. Other physiological characteristics of cia-3 resemble those of wild-type cells that have been treated with ethoxyzolamide. It is concluded that an internal carbonic anhydrase is under different regulatory control than the periplasmic carbonic anhydrase.

  9. Evidence That an Internal Carbonic Anhydrase Is Present in 5% CO2-Grown and Air-Grown Chlamydomonas1

    PubMed Central

    Moroney, James V.; Togasaki, Robert K.; Husic, H. David; Tolbert, N. E.

    1987-01-01

    Inorganic carbon (Ci) uptake was measured in wild-type cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in cia-3, a mutant strain of C. reinhardtii that cannot grow with air levels of CO2. Both air-grown cells, that have a CO2 concentrating system, and 5% CO2-grown cells that do not have this system, were used. When the external pH was 5.1 or 7.3, air-grown, wild-type cells accumulated inorganic carbon (Ci) and this accumulation was enhanced when the permeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, ethoxyzolamide, was added. When the external pH was 5.1, 5% CO2-grown cells also accumulated some Ci, although not as much as air-grown cells and this accumulation was stimulated by the addition of ethoxyzolamide. At the same time, ethoxyzolamide inhibited CO2 fixation by high CO2-grown, wild-type cells at both pH 5.1 and 7.3. These observations imply that 5% CO2-grown, wild-type cells, have a physiologically important internal carbonic anhydrase, although the major carbonic anhydrase located in the periplasmic space is only present in air-grown cells. Inorganic carbon uptake by cia-3 cells supported this conclusion. This mutant strain, which is thought to lack an internal carbonic anhydrase, was unaffected by ethoxyzolamide at pH 5.1. Other physiological characteristics of cia-3 resemble those of wild-type cells that have been treated with ethoxyzolamide. It is concluded that an internal carbonic anhydrase is under different regulatory control than the periplasmic carbonic anhydrase. PMID:16665517

  10. Surfactants Facilitating Carbonic Anhydrase Enzyme-Mediated CO2 Absorption into a Carbonate Solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihan; Lu, Yongqi

    2017-08-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme-mediated absorption processes are regarded as promising alternatives to the conventional amine-based process for CO2 capture because of their low energy penalty and low risk of causing secondary pollution. The activity and stability of the CA enzyme are crucial to reducing the equipment and operating costs of the enzyme-mediated process. This work investigated three cationic and nonionic surfactants to improve the activity and stability of a technical-grade CA enzyme in a 20 wt % potassium carbonate solution. Experimental results revealed that the impact of the surfactants on the CA enzyme depended on their properties. For example, the cationic surfactant significantly enhanced the activity of CA enzyme but adversely affected enzyme stability. However, in the presence of the cationic surfactant after 30 days at 50 °C, the activity of the CA enzyme still outperformed that of CA without added surfactant. The nonionic surfactant significantly improved enzyme stability. Furthermore, the addition of surfactants within a critical micelle concentration of 1.0 did not distinctly influence the gas-liquid mass transfer, indicating that surfactant-enzyme interaction was responsible for the observed variations in the activity and stability of the tested enzyme.

  11. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration by Using a Model Carbonic Anhydrase Complex in Tertiary Amine Medium.

    PubMed

    Sivanesan, Dharmalingam; Choi, Youngju; Lee, Jiyeon; Youn, Min Hye; Park, Ki Tae; Grace, Andrew Nirmala; Kim, Hak-Joo; Jeong, Soon Kwan

    2015-12-07

    Globally, the elevation of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) levels due to the anthropogenic effect poses a serious threat to the ecosystem. Hence, it is important to control and/or mitigate the level of CO2 in the atmosphere, which necessitates novel tools. Herein, it is proposed to improve CO2 sequestration by using model complexes based on the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) in aqueous tertiary amine medium. The effect of substituents on the model CA model complexes on CO2 absorption and desorption was determined by using a stopped-flow spectrophotometer to follow pH changes through coupling to pH indicator and a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR). The CO2 hydration rate constants were determined under basic conditions and compound 6, which contained a hydrophilic group, showed the highest absorption or hydration levels of CO2 (2.860×10(3)  L mol(-1)  s(-1) ). In addition, CSTR results for the absorption and desorption of CO2 suggest that simple model CA complexes could be used in post-combustion processing. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Engineered Escherichia coli with Periplasmic Carbonic Anhydrase as a Biocatalyst for CO2 Sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Byung Hoon; Kim, Im Gyu; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Kang, Dong Gyun

    2013-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase is an enzyme that reversibly catalyzes the hydration of carbon dioxide (CO2). It has been suggested recently that this remarkably fast enzyme can be used for sequestration of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, making this a promising alternative for chemical CO2 mitigation. To promote the economical use of enzymes, we engineered the carbonic anhydrase from Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ngCA) in the periplasm of Escherichia coli, thereby creating a bacterial whole-cell catalyst. We then investigated the application of this system to CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation, a process with the potential to store large quantities of CO2. ngCA was highly expressed in the periplasm of E. coli in a soluble form, and the recombinant bacterial cell displayed the distinct ability to hydrate CO2 compared with its cytoplasmic ngCA counterpart and previously reported whole-cell CA systems. The expression of ngCA in the periplasm of E. coli greatly accelerated the rate of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) formation and exerted a striking impact on the maximal amount of CaCO3 produced under conditions of relatively low pH. It was also shown that the thermal stability of the periplasmic enzyme was significantly improved. These results demonstrate that the engineered bacterial cell with periplasmic ngCA can successfully serve as an efficient biocatalyst for CO2 sequestration. PMID:23974145

  13. Engineered Escherichia coli with periplasmic carbonic anhydrase as a biocatalyst for CO2 sequestration.

    PubMed

    Jo, Byung Hoon; Kim, Im Gyu; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Kang, Dong Gyun; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2013-11-01

    Carbonic anhydrase is an enzyme that reversibly catalyzes the hydration of carbon dioxide (CO2). It has been suggested recently that this remarkably fast enzyme can be used for sequestration of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, making this a promising alternative for chemical CO2 mitigation. To promote the economical use of enzymes, we engineered the carbonic anhydrase from Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ngCA) in the periplasm of Escherichia coli, thereby creating a bacterial whole-cell catalyst. We then investigated the application of this system to CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation, a process with the potential to store large quantities of CO2. ngCA was highly expressed in the periplasm of E. coli in a soluble form, and the recombinant bacterial cell displayed the distinct ability to hydrate CO2 compared with its cytoplasmic ngCA counterpart and previously reported whole-cell CA systems. The expression of ngCA in the periplasm of E. coli greatly accelerated the rate of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) formation and exerted a striking impact on the maximal amount of CaCO3 produced under conditions of relatively low pH. It was also shown that the thermal stability of the periplasmic enzyme was significantly improved. These results demonstrate that the engineered bacterial cell with periplasmic ngCA can successfully serve as an efficient biocatalyst for CO2 sequestration.

  14. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Part 551 Metal Complexes of 1,3,4-Thiadiazole-2-Sulfonamide Derivatives: In Vitro Inhibition Studies With Carbonic Anhydrase Isozymes I, II and IV

    PubMed Central

    Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio; Ilies, Marc A.; Jitianu, Andrei

    1998-01-01

    Coordination compounds of 5-chloroacetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide (Hcaz) with V(IV), Cr(lll), Fe(ll), Co(ll), Ni(ll) and Cu(ll) have been prepared and characterized by standard procedures (spectroscopic, magnetic, EPR, thermogravimetric and conductimetric measurements). Some of these compounds showed very good in vitro inhibitory properties against three physiologically relevant carbonic anhydrase (CA)isozymes, i.e., CA I, II, and IV. The differences between these isozymes in susceptibility to inhibition by these metal complexes is discussed in relationship to the characteristic features of their active sites, and is rationalized in terms useful for developing isozyme-specific CA inhibitors. PMID:18475829

  15. Cadmium-Containing Carbonic Anhydrase CDCA1 in Marine Diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii

    PubMed Central

    Alterio, Vincenzo; Langella, Emma; De Simone, Giuseppina; Monti, Simona Maria

    2015-01-01

    The Carbon Concentration Mechanism (CCM) allows phytoplakton species to accumulate the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) necessary for an efficient photosynthesis even under carbon dioxide limitation. In this mechanism of primary importance for diatoms, a key role is played by carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes which catalyze the reversible hydration of CO2, thus taking part in the acquisition of inorganic carbon for photosynthesis. A novel CA, named CDCA1, has been recently discovered in the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. CDCA1 is a cambialistic enzyme since it naturally uses Cd2+ as catalytic metal ion, but if necessary can spontaneously exchange Cd2+ to Zn2+. Here, the biochemical and structural features of CDCA1 enzyme will be presented together with its putative biotechnological applications for the detection of metal ions in seawaters. PMID:25815892

  16. Polymorphic gene for human carbonic anhydrase II: a molecular disease marker located on chromosome 8.

    PubMed Central

    Venta, P J; Shows, T B; Curtis, P J; Tashian, R E

    1983-01-01

    A panel of 28 mouse-human somatic cell hybrids of known karyotype was screened for the presence of the human carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) gene, which encodes one of the three well-characterized, genetically distinct carbonic anhydrase isozymes (carbonate dehydratase; carbonate hydro-lyase, EC 4.2.1.1). The human and mouse CA II genes can be clearly distinguished by Southern blot analysis of BamHI-digested genomic DNA with a mouse CA II cDNA hybridization probe. The two major hybridizing fragments in mouse were 15 and 6.0 kilobase pairs, and in human they were 15 and 4.3 kilobase pairs. Analysis of the somatic cell hybrids by this technique identified those containing human CA II gene sequences. Segregation analysis of the molecular marker and chromosomes in cell hybrids indicated a clear correlation between the presence of chromosome 8 and the human CA II gene (CA2). This finding provides the second polymorphic marker for human chromosome 8 and, moreover, a molecular disease marker, because human CA II deficiency has recently been linked to an autosomal recessive syndrome of osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification. Images PMID:6410391

  17. Improved molecular recognition of Carbonic Anhydrase IX by polypeptide conjugation to acetazolamide.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Koruza, Katarina; Fisher, Zoë; Knecht, Wolfgang; Baltzer, Lars

    2017-10-15

    The small molecule inhibitor acetazolamide (AZM) was conjugated to a set of designed polypeptides and the resulting conjugates were evaluated for their affinity to Human Carbonic Anhydrase II (HCA II) using surface plasmon resonance. The dissociation constant of the AZM-HCA II complex was 38nM and that of the AZM conjugated polypeptide (4-C10L17-AZM) to HCA II was found to be 4nM, an affinity enhancement of a factor of 10 due to polypeptide conjugation. For Human Carbonic Anhydrase IX (HCA IX) the dissociation constant of AZM was 3nM, whereas that of the 4-C10L17-AZM conjugate was 90pM, a 33-fold affinity enhancement. This dramatic affinity increase due to polypeptide conjugation was achieved for a small molecule ligand with an already high affinity to the target protein. This supports the concept that enhancements due to polypeptide conjugation are not limited to small molecule ligands that bind proteins in the mM to μM range but may be used also for nM ligands to provide recognition elements with dissociation constants in the pM range. Evaluations of two HCA IX constructs that do not carry the proteoglycan (PG) domain did not show significant affinity differences between AZM and the polypeptide conjugate, providing evidence that the improved binding of 4-C10L17-AZM to HCA IX emanated from interactions between the polypeptide segment and the PG domain found only in one carbonic anhydrase, HCA IX. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A New Peptide Ligand for Targeting Human Carbonic Anhydrase IX, Identified through the Phage Display Technology

    PubMed Central

    Askoxylakis, Vasileios; Garcia-Boy, Regine; Rana, Shoaib; Krämer, Susanne; Hebling, Ulrike; Mier, Walter; Altmann, Annette; Markert, Annette; Debus, Jürgen; Haberkorn, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a transmembrane enzyme found to be overexpressed in various tumors and associated with tumor hypoxia. Ligands binding this target may be used to visualize hypoxia, tumor manifestation or treat tumors by endoradiotherapy. Methods Phage display was performed with a 12 amino acid phage display library by panning against a recombinant extracellular domain of human carbonic anhydrase IX. The identified peptide CaIX-P1 was chemically synthesized and tested in vitro on various cell lines and in vivo in Balb/c nu/nu mice carrying subcutaneously transplanted tumors. Binding, kinetic and competition studies were performed on the CAIX positive human renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52, the CAIX negative human renal cell carcinoma cell line CaKi 2, the human colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT 116 and on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Organ distribution studies were carried out in mice, carrying SKRC 52 tumors. RNA expression of CAIX in HCT 116 and HUVEC cells was investigated by quantitative real time PCR. Results In vitro binding experiments of 125I-labeled-CaIX-P1 revealed an increased uptake of the radioligand in the CAIX positive renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52. Binding of the radioligand in the colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT 116 increased with increasing cell density and correlated with the mRNA expression of CAIX. Radioligand uptake was inhibited up to 90% by the unlabeled CaIX-P1 peptide, but not by the negative control peptide octreotide at the same concentration. No binding was demonstrated in CAIX negative CaKi 2 and HUVEC cells. Organ distribution studies revealed a higher accumulation in SKRC 52 tumors than in heart, spleen, liver, muscle, intestinum and brain, but a lower uptake compared to blood and kidney. Conclusions These data indicate that CaIX-P1 is a promising candidate for the development of new ligands targeting human carbonic anhydrase IX. PMID:21209841

  19. Structural and Kinetic Characterization of an Archaeal β-Class Carbonic Anhydrase

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kerry S.; Cosper, Nathaniel J.; Stalhandske, Christina; Scott, Robert A.; Ferry, James G.

    2000-01-01

    The β-class carbonic anhydrase from the archaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum (Cab) was structurally and kinetically characterized. Analytical ultracentrifugation experiments show that Cab is a tetramer. Circular dichroism studies of Cab and the Spinacia oleracea (spinach) β-class carbonic anhydrase indicate that the secondary structure of the β-class enzymes is predominantly α-helical, unlike that of the α- or γ-class enzymes. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure results indicate the active zinc site of Cab is coordinated by two sulfur and two O/N ligands, with the possibility that one of the O/N ligands is derived from histidine and the other from water. Both the steady-state parameters kcat and kcat/Km for CO2 hydration are pH dependent. The steady-state parameter kcat is buffer-dependent in a saturable manner at both pH 8.5 and 6.5, and the analysis suggested a ping-pong mechanism in which buffer is the second substrate. At saturating buffer conditions and pH 8.5, kcat is 2.1-fold higher in H2O than in D2O, consistent with an intramolecular proton transfer step being rate contributing. The steady-state parameter kcat/Km is not dependent on buffer, and no solvent hydrogen isotope effect was observed. The results suggest a zinc hydroxide mechanism for Cab. The overall results indicate that prokaryotic β-class carbonic anhydrases have fundamental characteristics similar to the eukaryotic β-class enzymes and firmly establish that the α-, β-, and γ-classes are convergently evolved enzymes that, although structurally distinct, are functionally equivalent. PMID:11073902

  20. Carbon dioxide capture using Escherichia coli expressing carbonic anhydrase in a foam bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Watson, Stuart K; Han, Zhenlin; Su, Wei Wen; Deshusses, Marc A; Kan, Eunsung

    2016-12-01

    The present study reports CO2 capture and conversion to bicarbonate using Escherichia coli expressing carbonic anhydrase (CA) on its cell surface in a novel foam bioreactor. The very large gas-liquid interfacial area in the foam bioreactor promoted rapid CO2 absorption while the CO2 in the aqueous phase was subsequently converted to bicarbonate ions by the CA. CO2 gas removal in air was investigated at various conditions such as gas velocity, cell density and CO2 inlet concentration. Regimes for kinetic and mass transfer limitations were defined. Very high removal rates of CO2 were observed: 9570 g CO2 m(-3) bioreactor h(-1) and a CO2 removal efficiency of 93% at 4% inlet CO2 when the gas retention time was 24 s, and cell concentration was 4 gdw L(-1). These performances are superior to earlier reports of experimental bioreactors using CA for CO2 capture. Overall, this bioreactor system has significant potential as an alternative CO2 capture technology.

  1. Saccharin: a Lead Compound for Structure-Based Drug Design of Carbonic Anhydrase IX Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Brian P.; Hendon, Alex M.; Driscoll, Jenna M.; Rankin, Gregory M.; Poulsen, Sally-Ann; Supuran, Claudiu T.; McKenna, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a key modulator of aggressive tumor behavior and a prognostic marker and target for several cancers. Saccharin (SAC) based compounds may provide an avenue to overcome CA isoform specificity, as they display both nanomolar affinity and preferential binding, for CA IX compared to CA II (>50-fold for SAC and >1000-fold when SAC is conjugated to a carbohydrate moiety). The X-ray crystal structures of SAC and a SAC-carbohydrate conjugate bound to a CA IX-mimic are presented and compared to CA II. The structures provide substantial new insight into the mechanism of SAC selective CA isoform inhibition. PMID:25614109

  2. A Case of Carbonic Anhydrase Type 2 Deficiency Syndrome with Autistic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    KILIÇ, Birim Günay; UĞUR, Çağatay; SADAY DUMAN, Nagihan; AKÇAKIN, Melda

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic Anhydrase Type II Deficiency Syndrome (CADS) is a disease with an autosomal recessive inheritance that mainly includes characteristics of osteopetrosis, renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification. Pathological fractures, poor vision due to cranial nerve pressure, wide forehead, disproportionate mouth and jaw, physical and mental developmental delay are other features. In this paper, we present the case of a patient who was referred to our department with a diagnosis of CADS and diagnosed with autistic disorder after a psychiatric evaluation. We performed a detailed literature search, however, we did not find any report of co-existence of CADS (osteopetrosis intermediate type) and autistic disorder.

  3. Saccharin sulfonamides as inhibitors of carbonic anhydrases I, II, VII, XII, and XIII.

    PubMed

    Morkūnaitė, Vaida; Baranauskienė, Lina; Zubrienė, Asta; Kairys, Visvaldas; Ivanova, Jekaterina; Trapencieris, Pēteris; Matulis, Daumantas

    2014-01-01

    A series of modified saccharin sulfonamides have been designed as carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors and synthesized. Their binding to CA isoforms I, II, VII, XII, and XIII was measured by the fluorescent thermal shift assay (FTSA) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Saccharin bound the CAs weakly, exhibiting the affinities of 1-10 mM for four CAs except CA I where binding could not be detected. Several sulfonamide-bearing saccharines exhibited strong affinities of 1-10 nM towards particular CA isoforms. The functional group binding Gibbs free energy additivity maps are presented which may provide insights into the design of compounds with increased affinity towards selected CAs.

  4. Saccharin: a lead compound for structure-based drug design of carbonic anhydrase IX inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Brian P; Hendon, Alex M; Driscoll, Jenna M; Rankin, Gregory M; Poulsen, Sally-Ann; Supuran, Claudiu T; McKenna, Robert

    2015-02-15

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a key modulator of aggressive tumor behavior and a prognostic marker and target for several cancers. Saccharin (SAC) based compounds may provide an avenue to overcome CA isoform specificity, as they display both nanomolar affinity and preferential binding, for CA IX compared to CA II (>50-fold for SAC and >1000-fold when SAC is conjugated to a carbohydrate moiety). The X-ray crystal structures of SAC and a SAC-carbohydrate conjugate bound to a CA IX-mimic are presented and compared to CA II. The structures provide substantial new insight into the mechanism of SAC selective CA isoform inhibition. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Carbonic anhydrase II-induced selection of inhibitors from a dynamic combinatorial library of Schiff's bases.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Gihane; Petit, Eddy; Supuran, Claudiu T; Winum, Jean-Yves; Barboiu, Mihail

    2009-11-01

    A dynamic combinatorial library (DCL) has been generated under thermodynamic control by using the aminocarbonyl/imine interconversion as reversible chemistry, combined with non-covalent binding within the active site of the metalloenzyme human carbonic anhydrase II (hCA II, EC 4.2.1.1). The high affinity of hCA II isozyme towards some sulfonamide inhibitors obtained here was used to select from the dynamic library specific inhibitors of this isoform. These results point out to the possibility of identifying sulfonamide amplified compounds presenting potent inhibition and high yield of formation in the presence of the isoform(s) towards which the inhibitors were designed.

  6. Carbonic Anhydrase as Pollution Biomarker: An Ancient Enzyme with a New Use

    PubMed Central

    Lionetto, Maria Giulia; Caricato, Roberto; Giordano, Maria Elena; Erroi, Elisa; Schettino, Trifone

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of cellular and sub-cellular responses to chemical contaminants (referred to as biomarkers) in living organisms represents a recent tool in environmental monitoring. The review focuses on carbonic anhydrase, a ubiquitous metalloenzyme which plays key roles in a wide variety of physiological processes involving CO2 and HCO3−. In the last decade a number of studies have demonstrated the sensitivity of this enzyme to pollutants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals in both humans and wildlife. The review analyses these studies and discusses the potentiality of this enzyme as novel biomarker in environmental monitoring and assessment. PMID:23202827

  7. Synthesis and carbonic anhydrase inhibitory effects of new N-glycosylsulfonamides incorporating the phenol moiety.

    PubMed

    Riafrecha, Leonardo E; Bua, Silvia; Supuran, Claudiu T; Colinas, Pedro A

    2016-08-15

    A small series of N-glycosylsulfonamides incorporating the phenol moiety has been prepared by Ferrier sulfonamidoglycosylation of d-glycals. N-Glycosides were tested for the inhibition of four isoforms of carbonic anhydrase. In this study, all compounds showed good inhibitory activity against hCA I and II, with selectivity against the cytosolic hCA II versus the tumor associated isozymes. These results confirm that attaching carbohydrate moieties to CA phenol pharmacophore improves and enhances its inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Eriocitrin and Apigenin as New Carbonic Anhydrase VA Inhibitors from a Virtual Screening of Calabrian Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Gidaro, Maria Concetta; Alcaro, Francesca; Carradori, Simone; Costa, Giosuè; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Alcaro, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we performed a structure-based virtual screening against five carbonic anhydrase isoforms using, as a ligand library, natural components of Citrus bergamia (Bergamot) and Allium cepa var. Tropea (red onion) sources, which are some typical Calabrian products. The most relevant Bergamot and red onion components, identified as potentially new hits by means of the computational work, were submitted to in vitro tests in order to confirm the ability to exert the predicted biological activity. Apigenin and eriocitrin were identified as new potent inhibitors of human carbonic anhydrase VA isozyme.

  9. Identification and characterization of a gene encoding a vertebrate-type carbonic anhydrase in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Soltes-Rak, E; Mulligan, M E; Coleman, J R

    1997-01-01

    A gene (designated ecaA) encoding a vertebrate-like (alpha-type) carbonic anhydrase (CA) has been isolated from two disparate cyanobacteria, Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 and Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. The deduced amino acid sequences correspond to proteins of 29 and 26 kDa, respectively, and revealed significant sequence similarity to human CAI and CAII, as well as Chlamydomonas CAHI, including conservation of most active-site residues identified in the animal enzymes. Structural similarities between the animal and cyanobacterial enzymes extend to the levels of antigenicity, as the Anabaena protein cross-reacts with antisera derived against chicken CAII. Expression of the cyanobacterial ecaA is regulated by CO2 concentration and is highest in cells grown at elevated levels of CO2. Immunogold localization using an antibody derived against the ecaA protein indicated an extracellular location. Preliminary analysis of Synechococcus mutants in which ecaA has been inactivated by insertion of a drug resistance cassette suggests that extracellular carbonic anhydrase plays a role in inorganic-carbon accumulation by maintaining equilibrium levels of CO2 and HCO3- in the periplasm. PMID:9006032

  10. CARBONIC ANHYDRASE ACTIVITY OF INTEGRAL-FUNCTIONAL COMPLEXES OF THYLAKOID MEMBRANES OF SPINACH CHLOROPLASTS.

    PubMed

    Semenihin, A V; Zolotareva, O K

    2015-01-01

    Isolated thylakoid membranes were disrupted by treatment with nonionic detergents digitonin or dodecyl maltoside. Solubilized polypeptide complexes were separated by native gel charge shift electrophoresis. The position of ATP-synthase complex and its isolated catalytic part (CF1) within gel was determined using the color reaction for ATPase activity. Due to the presence of cytochromes, the red band in unstained gels corresponded to the cytochrome b6f complex. Localization of the cytochrome b6f complex, ATP synthase and coupling CF1 in the native gel was confirmed by their subunit composition determined after SDS-electrophoretic analysis. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity in polypeptide zones of PS II, cytochrome b6f complex, and ATP-synthase CF1 was identified in native gels using indicator bromothymol blue. CA activity of isolated CF1 in solution was determined by infrared gas analysis as the rate of bicarbonate dehydration. The water-soluble acetazolamide, an inhibitor of CA, unlike lipophilic ethoxyzolamide inhibited CA activity of CF1 Thus, it was shown for the first time that ATP-synthase has a component which is capable of catalyzing the interconversion of forms of carbonic acid associated with proton exchange. The data obtained suggest the presence of multiple forms of carbonic anhydrase in the thylakoid membranes of spinach chloroplasts and confirm their involvement in the proton transfer to the ATP synthase.

  11. Catalytic activity of human carbonic anhydrase isoform IX is displayed both extra- and intracellularly.

    PubMed

    Klier, Michael; Jamali, Somayeh; Ames, Samantha; Schneider, Hans-Peter; Becker, Holger M; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2016-01-01

    Most carbonic anhydrases catalyse the reversible conversion of carbon dioxide to protons and bicarbonate, either as soluble cytosolic enzymes, in or at intracellular organelles, or at the extracellular face of the cell membrane as membrane-anchored proteins. Carbonic anhydrase isoform IX (CA IX), a membrane-bound enzyme with catalytic activity at the extracellular membrane surface, has come to prominence in recent years because of its association with hypoxic tissue, particularly tumours, often indicating poor prognosis. We have evaluated the catalytic activity of CA IX heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes by measuring the amplitude and rate of cytosolic pH changes as well as pH changes at the outer membrane surface (pHs ) during addition and removal of 5% CO2 /25 mm HCO3-, and by mass spectrometry. Our results indicate both extracellular and intracellular catalytic activity of CA IX. Reduced rates of CO2 -dependent intracellular pH changes after knockdown of CA IX confirmed these findings in two breast cancer cell lines: MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Our results demonstrate a new function of CA IX that may be important in the search for therapeutic cancer drugs targeting CA IX.

  12. Diversity of the cadmium-containing carbonic anhydrase in marine diatoms and natural waters.

    PubMed

    Park, Haewon; Song, Bongkeun; Morel, François M M

    2007-02-01

    A recent report of a novel carbonic anhydrase (CDCA1) with Cd as its metal centre in the coastal diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii has led us to search for the occurrence of this Cd enzyme (CDCA) in other marine phytoplankton and in the environment. Using degenerate primers designed from the published sequences from T. weissflogii and a putative sequence in the genome of Thalassiosira pseudonana, we show that CDCA is widespread in diatom species and ubiquitous in the environment. All detected genes share more than 64% amino acid identity with the CDCA of T. pseudonana. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of CDCA shows that the putative Cd binding site resembles that of beta-class carbonic anhydrases (CAs). The prevalence of CAs in diatoms that presumably contain Cd at their active site probably reflects the very low concentration of Zn in the marine environment and the difficulty in acquiring inorganic carbon for photosynthesis. The cdca primers developed in this study should be useful for detecting cdca genes in the field, and studying the conditions under which they are expressed.

  13. CREB is a key negative regulator of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanqiao; Cheng, Zhenguo; Liu, Funan; Zhang, Hongyan; Li, Jiabin; Li, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX(CA9)is a member of the carbonic anhydrase family that catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide, and plays a key role in the regulation of pH. Although a large number of studies have shown that CA9 is strongly up-regulated by HIF1-α, little is known about the negative regulation mechanism of CA9 in cancer cells. Here we find that CREB is a key negative regulator of CA9 in gastric cancer. Over-expression of CREB can significantly repress the expression of CA9. Treating with anisomycin (ANS), an activator of p38, the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of CREB are both promoted, while the transcription of CA9 is repressed. Besides, our results firstly identify that CREB can recruit SIRT1 (class III HDACS) by adaptor protein p300, then repress the expression of CA9. These findings may contribute to understand the negative regulation mechanisms of CA9 in gastric cancer.

  14. Carbonic anhydrase III regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}2

    SciTech Connect

    Mitterberger, Maria C.; Kim, Geumsoo; Rostek, Ursula; Levine, Rodney L.; Zwerschke, Werner

    2012-05-01

    Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is an isoenzyme of the CA family. Because of its low specific anhydrase activity, physiological functions in addition to hydrating CO{sub 2} have been proposed. CAIII expression is highly induced in adipogenesis and CAIII is the most abundant protein in adipose tissues. The function of CAIII in both preadipocytes and adipocytes is however unknown. In the present study we demonstrate that adipogenesis is greatly increased in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from CAIII knockout (KO) mice, as demonstrated by a greater than 10-fold increase in the induction of fatty acid-binding protein-4 (FABP4) and increased triglyceride formation in CAIII{sup -/-} MEFs compared with CAIII{sup +/+} cells. To address the underlying mechanism, we investigated the expression of the two adipogenic key regulators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}2 (PPAR{gamma}2) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-{alpha}. We found a considerable (approximately 1000-fold) increase in the PPAR{gamma}2 expression in the CAIII{sup -/-} MEFs. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated knockdown of endogenous CAIII in NIH 3T3-L1 preadipocytes resulted in a significant increase in the induction of PPAR{gamma}2 and FABP4. When both CAIII and PPAR{gamma}2 were knocked down, FABP4 was not induced. We conclude that down-regulation of CAIII in preadipocytes enhances adipogenesis and that CAIII is a regulator of adipogenic differentiation which acts at the level of PPAR{gamma}2 gene expression. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We discover a novel function of Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that CAIII is a regulator of adipogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrate that CAIII acts at the level of PPAR{gamma}2 gene expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our data contribute to a better understanding of the role of CAIII in fat tissue.

  15. Distinct Cellular Locations of Carbonic Anhydrases Mediate Carbon Dioxide Control of Stomatal Movements.

    PubMed

    Hu, Honghong; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Occhipinti, Rossana; Ries, Amber; Böhmer, Maik; You, Lei; Xiao, Chuanlei; Engineer, Cawas B; Boron, Walter F; Schroeder, Julian I

    2015-10-01

    Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) in leaves closes stomatal apertures. Research has shown key functions of the β-carbonic anhydrases (βCA1 and βCA4) in rapid CO2-induced stomatal movements by catalytic transmission of the CO2 signal in guard cells. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, because initial studies indicate that these Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) βCAs are targeted to distinct intracellular compartments upon expression in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) cells. Which cellular location of these enzymes plays a key role in native guard cells in CO2-regulated stomatal movements remains unknown. Here, we express fluorescently tagged CAs in guard cells of ca1ca4 double-mutant plants and show that the specific locations of βCA4 at the plasma membrane and βCA1 in native guard cell chloroplasts each can mediate rapid CO2 control of stomatal movements. Localization and complementation analyses using a mammalian αCAII-yellow fluorescent protein in guard cells further show that cytoplasmic localization is also sufficient to restore CO2 regulation of stomatal conductance. Mathematical modeling of cellular CO2 catalysis suggests that the dynamics of the intracellular HCO3 (-) concentration change in guard cells can be driven by plasma membrane and cytoplasmic localizations of CAs but not as clearly by chloroplast targeting. Moreover, modeling supports the notion that the intracellular HCO3 (-) concentration dynamics in guard cells are a key mechanism in mediating CO2-regulated stomatal movements but that an additional chloroplast role of CAs exists that has yet to be identified. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Distinct Cellular Locations of Carbonic Anhydrases Mediate Carbon Dioxide Control of Stomatal Movements1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Honghong; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Occhipinti, Rossana; Ries, Amber; Böhmer, Maik; You, Lei; Xiao, Chuanlei; Engineer, Cawas B.; Boron, Walter F.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) in leaves closes stomatal apertures. Research has shown key functions of the β-carbonic anhydrases (βCA1 and βCA4) in rapid CO2-induced stomatal movements by catalytic transmission of the CO2 signal in guard cells. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, because initial studies indicate that these Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) βCAs are targeted to distinct intracellular compartments upon expression in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) cells. Which cellular location of these enzymes plays a key role in native guard cells in CO2-regulated stomatal movements remains unknown. Here, we express fluorescently tagged CAs in guard cells of ca1ca4 double-mutant plants and show that the specific locations of βCA4 at the plasma membrane and βCA1 in native guard cell chloroplasts each can mediate rapid CO2 control of stomatal movements. Localization and complementation analyses using a mammalian αCAII-yellow fluorescent protein in guard cells further show that cytoplasmic localization is also sufficient to restore CO2 regulation of stomatal conductance. Mathematical modeling of cellular CO2 catalysis suggests that the dynamics of the intracellular HCO3− concentration change in guard cells can be driven by plasma membrane and cytoplasmic localizations of CAs but not as clearly by chloroplast targeting. Moreover, modeling supports the notion that the intracellular HCO3− concentration dynamics in guard cells are a key mechanism in mediating CO2-regulated stomatal movements but that an additional chloroplast role of CAs exists that has yet to be identified. PMID:26243620

  17. Structural mechanics of the pH-dependent activity of beta-carbonic anhydrase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Covarrubias, Adrian Suarez; Bergfors, Terese; Jones, T Alwyn; Högbom, Martin

    2006-02-24

    Carbonic anhydrases catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to form bicarbonate, a reaction required for many functions, including carbon assimilation and pH homeostasis. Carbonic anhydrases are divided into at least three classes and are believed to share a zinc-hydroxide mechanism for carbon dioxide hydration. beta-carbonic anhydrases are broadly spread among the domains of life, and existing structures from different organisms show two distinct active site setups, one with three protein coordinations to the zinc (accessible) and the other with four (blocked). The latter is believed to be inconsistent with the zinc-hydroxide mechanism. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3588c gene, shown to be required for in vivo growth of the pathogen, encodes a beta-carbonic anhydrase with a steep pH dependence of its activity, being active at pH 8.4 but not at pH 7.5. We have recently solved the structure of this protein, which was a dimeric protein with a blocked active site. Here we present the structure of the thiocyanate complexed protein in a different crystal form. The protein now forms distinct tetramers and shows large structural changes, including a carboxylate shift yielding the accessible active site. This structure demonstrated for the first time that a beta-carbonic anhydrase can switch between the two states. A pH-dependent dimer to tetramer equilibrium was also demonstrated by dynamic light scattering measurements. The data presented here, therefore, suggest a carboxylate shift on/off switch for the enzyme, which may, in turn, be controlled by a dimer-to-tetramer equilibrium.

  18. Kinetics of Formation of Cobalt(II)- and Nickel(II) Carbonic Anhydrase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuate, Robert S.; Reardon, John E.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the kinetic behavior associated with the interaction of metal ions with apocarbonic anhydrase, focusing on the formation of two metallocarbonic anhydrase--the biochemically active Co(II) and the inactive Ni(II)derivatives. (GA)

  19. Kinetics of Formation of Cobalt(II)- and Nickel(II) Carbonic Anhydrase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuate, Robert S.; Reardon, John E.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the kinetic behavior associated with the interaction of metal ions with apocarbonic anhydrase, focusing on the formation of two metallocarbonic anhydrase--the biochemically active Co(II) and the inactive Ni(II)derivatives. (GA)

  20. Carbonic anhydrase in calcified endoskeleton: novel activity in biocalcification in alcyonarian.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Oomori, Tamotsu; Uehara, Tsuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a key enzyme in the chemical reaction of living organisms and has been found to be associated with calcification in a number of invertebrates including calcareous sponges, but until now no direct evidence has been advanced to show CA activity in alcyonarian corals. However, it is essential to understand the role of CA in the process of biocalcification in alcyonarian. Here we describe the novel activity of CA and its relationship to the formation of calcified hard tissues in alcyonarian coral, Lobophytum crassum. We find that two CA proteins, which were partially purified by electro-elution treatment, can control the morphology of CaCO(3) crystals and one of them is potentially involved in the process of biocalcification. Previously, we isolated CA from the total extract of alcyonarian, and further, we report here a single protein, which has both calcium-binding and CA activities and is responsible for CaCO(3) nucleation and crystal growth. This matrix protein inhibited the precipitation of CaCO(3) from a saturated solution containing CaCl(2) and NaHCO(3), indicating that it can act as a negative regulator for calcification in the sclerites of alcyonarians. The effect of an inhibitor on the enzyme activity was also examined. These findings strongly support the idea that carbonic anhydrase domain in alcyonarian is involved in the calcification process. Our observations strongly suggest that the matrix protein in alcyonarian coral is not only a structural protein but also a catalyst.

  1. A capillary electrophoresis-based enzyme assay for kinetics and inhibition studies of carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shoaib; Nisar-ur-Rahman; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based enzyme assay for characterization and inhibition study of bovine carbonic anhydrase II (bCA II) was developed. The developed method is the first CE assay for carbonic anhydrase (CA). The method was optimized in order to get short analysis time, minimal sample volume consumption, and high resolution of substrate and product. The CE conditions were optimized as follows: fused-silica capillary (30 cm effective length×75 μm i.d.), pressure injection for 5s, 20mM sodium borate buffer (pH 9.0), constant voltage of 15 kV, constant capillary temperature of 25 °C, and detection at 260 nm. For precise measurements, uridine was used as an internal standard during optimization of the CE methods. The limits of detection and quantification for p-nitrophenyl acetate (p-NPA) were 3.01 and 9.12 μM, respectively, whereas for p-nitrophenolate they were 2.05 and 6.22 μM, respectively. The performance of the developed method was confirmed by determination of kinetic parameters (i.e., K(m) and V(max) of bCA for p-NPA); the inhibition constant (K(i)) was determined for furosemide, a standard inhibitor of CA. The new method proved to be fast and efficient, and it can be used for the investigation of inhibitors of all isoforms of CAs.

  2. Toxicity and Physiological Actions of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors to Aedes aegypti and Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Sheena A. M.; Taylor-Wells, Jennina; Gross, Aaron D.; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    The physiological role of carbonic anhydrases in pH and ion regulation is crucial to insect survival. We examined the toxic and neurophysiological effects of five carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) against Aedes aegypti. The 24 h larvicidal toxicities followed this rank order of potency: dichlorphenamide > methazolamide > acetazolamide = brinzolamide = dorzolamide. Larvicidal activity increased modestly in longer exposures, and affected larvae showed attenuated responses to probing without overt tremors, hyperexcitation, or convulsions. Acetazolamide and dichlorphenamide were toxic to adults when applied topically, but were of low potency and had an incomplete effect (<50% at 300 ng/mosquito) even after injection. Dichlorphenamide was also the most toxic compound when fed to adult mosquitoes, and they displayed loss of posture and occasionally prolonged fluttering of the wings. Co-exposure with 500 ng of the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) increased the toxicity of dichlorphenamide ca. two-fold in feeding assays, indicating that low toxicity was not related to oxidative metabolism. Dichlorphenamide showed mild depolarizing and nerve discharge actions on insect neuromuscular and central nervous systems, respectively. These effects were increased in low buffer salines, indicating they were apparently related to loss of pH control in these tissues. Overall, sulfonamides displayed weak insecticidal properties on Aedes aegypti and are weak lead compounds. PMID:28025488

  3. Carbonic Anhydrase is Required for Statoconia Homeostasis in Organ Cultures of Statocysts from Aplysia californica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedrozo, H. A.; Schwartz, Z.; Nakaya, H.; Harrison, J. L.; Dean, D. D.; Wiederhold, M. L.; Boyan, B. D.

    1995-01-01

    A novel organ culture system has been developed to study the regulation of statoconia production in the gravity sensing organ in Aplysia californica. Statocysts were cultured in Leibovitz (LI5) medium supplemented with salts and Aplysia haemolymph for four days at 17 C. The viability of the system was evaluated by examining four parameters: statocyst morphology, the activity of the mechanosensory cilia in the statocyst, production of new statoconia during culture and change in statoconia volume after culture. There were no morphological differences in statocysts before and after culture when ciliary beating was maintained. There was a 29% increase in the number of statoconia after four days in culture. Mean statocyst, statolith and statoconia volumes were not affected by culture conditions. The presence of carbonic anhydrase in the statocysts was shown using immunohistochemistry. When statocysts were cultured in the presence of 4.0 x 10(exp -4) M acetazolamide to inhibit the enzyme activity, there was a decrease in statoconia production and statoconia volume, indicating a role for this enzyme in statoconia homeostasis, potentially, via pH regulation. These studies are the first to report a novel system for the culture of statocysts and show that carbonic anhydrase is involved in the regulation of statoconia volume and production.

  4. Characteristics of recombinant α-carbonic anhydrase of polyextremophilic bacterium Bacillus halodurans TSLV1.

    PubMed

    Faridi, Shazia; Satyanarayana, T

    2016-08-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a biocatalyst that catalyzes the hydration of CO2 to bicarbonate and protons, thus useful in mitigating green house effect by sequestering CO2 from various point sources. An alkalistable and moderately thermostable α- carbonic anhydrase encoding gene (BhCA) from Bacillus halodurans TSLV1 has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. A 31.4-fold enhancement in CA production was achieved due to cloning and expression in E. coli. About 50% of the CA produced was secreted when recombinant E. coli with BhCA-pET22b was cultivated in a medium with EDTA and lysozyme because of the efficient pelB leader sequence. rBhCA is a ∼75kDa homodimeric protein with a Tm of 72°C and T1/2 values of 66 and 24min at 50 and 60°C, respectively. SDM analysis revealed that H137, H139, H156 and H110 present in the active site play an important role in catalysis. Mineralization of CO2 using rBhCA led to the accelerated precipitation of CaCO3 in calcite form. rBhCA also functions as an efficient virtual peroxidase when Zn(2+) is substituted with Mn(2+).

  5. Synthesis and inhibitory properties of some carbamates on carbonic anhydrase and acetylcholine esterase.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Süleyman; Akbaba, Yusuf; Özgeriş, Bünyamin; Köse, Leyla Polat; Göksu, Süleyman; Gülçin, İlhami; Alwasel, Saleh H; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-12-01

    A series of carbamate derivatives were synthesized and their carbonic anhydrase I and II isoenzymes and acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) inhibitory effects were investigated. All carbamates were synthesized from the corresponding carboxylic acids via the Curtius reactions of the acids with diphenyl phosphoryl azide followed by addition of benzyl alcohol. The carbamates were determined to be very good inhibitors against for AChE and hCA I, and II isoenzymes. AChE inhibition was determined in the range 0.209-0.291 nM. On the other hand, tacrine, which is used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease possessed lower inhibition effect (Ki: 0.398 nM). Also, hCA I and II isoenzymes were effectively inhibited by the carbamates, with inhibition constants (Ki) in the range of 4.49-5.61 nM for hCA I, and 4.94-7.66 nM for hCA II, respectively. Acetazolamide, which was clinically used carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor demonstrated Ki values of 281.33 nM for hCA I and 9.07 nM for hCA II. The results clearly showed that AChE and both CA isoenzymes were effectively inhibited by carbamates at the low nanomolar levels.

  6. β-carbonic anhydrases play a role in salicylic acid perception in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Puche, Laura; Castelló, María José; Canet, Juan Vicente; Lamilla, Julián; Colombo, María Laura

    2017-01-01

    The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) is required for defense responses. NON EXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (NPR1) and NON RECOGNITION OF BTH-4 (NRB4) are required for the response to SA in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, we isolated several interactors of NRB4 using yeast two-hybrid assays. Two of these interactors, βCA1 and βCA2, are β-carbonic anhydrase family proteins. Since double mutant βca1 βca2 plants did not show any obvious phenotype, we investigated other βCAs and found that NRB4 also interacts with βCA3 and βCA4. Moreover, several βCAs interacted with NPR1 in yeast, including one that interacted in a SA-dependent manner. This interaction was abolished in loss-of-function alleles of NPR1. Interactions between βCAs and both NRB4 and NPR1 were also detected in planta, with evidence for a triple interaction, NRB4-βCA1-NPR1. The quintuple mutant βca1 βca2 βca3 βca4 βca6 showed partial insensitivity to SA. These findings suggest that one of the functions of carbonic anhydrases is to modulate the perception of SA in plants. PMID:28753666

  7. Catalase, carbonic anhydrase and xanthine oxidase activities in patients with mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Beyaztas, Serap; Gokce, Basak; Arslan, Oktay; Guler, Ozen Ozensoy

    2015-04-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. In several studies the relationship between catalase (CAT), human cytosolic carbonic anhydrases (CA; hCA-I and hCA-II) and xanthine oxidase (XO) enzyme activities have been investigated in various types of cancers but carbonic anhydrase, catalase and xanthine oxidase activities in patients with MF have not been previously reported. Therefore, in this preliminary study we aim to investigate CAT, CA and XO activities in patients with MF. This study enrolled 32 patients with MF and 26 healthy controls. According to the results, CA and CAT activities were significantly lower in patients with mycosis fungoides than controls (p < 0.001) (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in XO activity between patient and control group (p = 0.601). Within these findings, we believe these enzyme activity levels might be a potentially important finding as an additional diagnostic biochemical tool for MF.

  8. The functional and physical relationship between the DRA bicarbonate transporter and carbonic anhydrase II.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Deborah; Brown, Nathan J D; Supuran, Claudiu T; Casey, Joseph R

    2002-11-01

    COOH-terminal cytoplasmic tails of chloride/bicarbonate anion exchangers (AE) bind cytosolic carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) to form a bicarbonate transport metabolon, a membrane protein complex that accelerates transmembrane bicarbonate flux. To determine whether interaction with CAII affects the downregulated in adenoma (DRA) chloride/bicarbonate exchanger, anion exchange activity of DRA-transfected HEK-293 cells was monitored by following changes in intracellular pH associated with bicarbonate transport. DRA-mediated bicarbonate transport activity of 18 +/- 1 mM H+ equivalents/min was inhibited 53 +/- 2% by 100 mM of the CAII inhibitor, acetazolamide, but was unaffected by the membrane-impermeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, 1-[5-sulfamoyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl-(aminosulfonyl-4-phenyl)]-2,6-dimethyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium perchlorate. Compared with AE1, the COOH-terminal tail of DRA interacted weakly with CAII. Overexpression of a functionally inactive CAII mutant, V143Y, reduced AE1 transport activity by 61 +/- 4% without effect on DRA transport activity (105 +/- 7% transport activity relative to DRA alone). We conclude that cytosolic CAII is required for full DRA-mediated bicarbonate transport. However, DRA differs from other bicarbonate transport proteins because its transport activity is not stimulated by direct interaction with CAII.

  9. Regulation of tumor pH and the role of carbonic anhydrase 9.

    PubMed

    Swietach, Pawel; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D; Harris, Adrian L

    2007-06-01

    The high metabolic rate required for tumor growth often leads to hypoxia in poorly-perfused regions. Hypoxia activates a complex gene expression program, mediated by hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1alpha). One of the consequences of HIF1alpha activation is up-regulation of glycolysis and hence the production of lactic acid. In addition to the lactic acid-output, intracellular titration of acid with bicarbonate and the engagement of the pentose phosphate shunt release CO(2) from cells. Expression of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase 9 on the tumor cell surface catalyses the extracellular trapping of acid by hydrating cell-generated CO(2) into [see text] and H(+). These mechanisms contribute towards an acidic extracellular milieu favoring tumor growth, invasion and development. The lactic acid released by tumor cells is further metabolized by the tumor stroma. Low extracellular pH may adversely affect the intracellular milieu, possibly triggering apoptosis. Therefore, primary and secondary active transporters operate in the tumor cell membrane to protect the cytosol from acidosis. We review mechanisms regulating tumor intracellular and extracellular pH, with a focus on carbonic anhydrase 9. We also review recent evidence that may suggest a role for CA9 in coordinating pH(i) among cells of large, unvascularized cell-clusters.

  10. Carbonic Anhydrases Function in Anther Cell Differentiation Downstream of the Receptor-Like Kinase EMS1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Li, Zhiyong; Biener, Gabriel; Xiong, Erhui; Malik, Shikha; Eaton, Nathan; Zhao, Catherine Z; Raicu, Valerica; Kong, Hongzhi; Zhao, Dazhong

    2017-06-01

    Plants extensively employ leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs), the largest family of RLKs, to control a wide range of growth and developmental processes as well as defense responses. To date, only a few direct downstream effectors for LRR-RLKs have been identified. We previously showed that the LRR-RLK EMS1 (EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES1) and its ligand TPD1 (TAPETUM DETERMINANT1) are required for the differentiation of somatic tapetal cells and reproductive microsporocytes during early anther development in Arabidopsis thaliana Here, we report the identification of β-carbonic anhydrases (βCAs) as the direct downstream targets of EMS1. EMS1 biochemically interacts with βCA proteins. Loss of function of βCA genes caused defective tapetal cell differentiation, while overexpression of βCA1 led to the formation of extra tapetal cells. EMS1 phosphorylates βCA1 at four sites, resulting in increased βCA1 activity. Furthermore, phosphorylation-blocking mutations impaired the function of βCA1 in tapetal cell differentiation; however, a phosphorylation mimic mutation promoted the formation of tapetal cells. βCAs are also involved in pH regulation in tapetal cells. Our findings highlight the role of βCA in controlling cell differentiation and provide insights into the posttranslational modification of carbonic anhydrases via receptor-like kinase-mediated phosphorylation. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  11. A class of sulfonamide carbonic anhydrase inhibitors with neuropathic pain modulating effects.

    PubMed

    Carta, Fabrizio; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Pinard, Melissa; Ghelardini, Carla; Scozzafava, Andrea; McKenna, Robert; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-04-15

    A series of benzene sulfonamide carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors which incorporate lipophilic 4-alkoxy- and 4-aryloxy moieties, together with several derivatives of ethoxzolamide and sulfanilamide are reported. These derivatives were investigated as inhibitors of the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) of which multiple isoforms are known, and some appear to be involved in pain. These sulfonamides showed modest inhibition against the cytosolic isoform CA I, but were generally effective, low nanomolar CA II, VII, IX and XII inhibitors. X-ray crystallographic data for the adduct of several such sulfonamides with CA II allowed us to rationalize the good inhibition data. In a mice model of neuropathic pain induced by oxaliplatin, one of the strong CA II/VII inhibitors reported here induced a long lasting pain relieving effect, a fact never observed earlier. This is the first report of rationally designed sulfonamide CA inhibitors with pain effective modulating effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antipsychotic agents screened as human carbonic anhydrase I and II inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Erzengin, Mahmut; Bilen, Cigdem; Ergun, Adem; Gencer, Nahit

    2014-02-01

    The antipsychotic drugs currently used to treat schizophrenia can be divided into two distinct classes, typical and atypical antipsychotics. Many drug molecules are enzyme inhibitors that bind reversibly or irreversibly to their target through intermolecular interactions. That's why enzyme inhibition studies are an important issue for drug design and biochemical applications. In this study, in vitro inhibition effect of some antipsychotic drugs on the purified carbonic anhydrase (CA) I and II isoenzymes were investigated by using CO2 as a substrate. CA I and II were purified from human erythrocytes by a simple one step procedure using Sepharose 4B-L-tyrosine-sulfonamide affinity column. The results showed that all the drugs inhibited the cytosolic carbonic anhydrases enzyme activity in a concentration-dependent fashion. Among the studied drugs, aripiprazole and pramipexole were found to be the most active one for hCA I (IC50: 3.64 and 5.37 μM) and hCA II (IC50: 4.16 and 4.81 μM) activity, respectively.

  13. Maleate-induced bicarbonaturia in the dog: a carbonic anhydrase-independene effect.

    PubMed

    Gougoux, A; Lemieux, G; Lavoie, N

    1976-10-01

    Studies were performed to characterize the renal effects of maleate in anesthetized dogs. Following the intravenous administration of maleate or maleic acid (50 mg/kg), mean fractional bicarbonate excretion (CHCO3/GFR) rose to as high as 26%. Na, K, and phosphate excretion also increased markedly, whereas C1 excretion remained low. An initial transient fall in urinary pH from 6.53 to 6.13 contrasted sharply with the rapid alkalinization of the urine induced by acetazolamide administration. During saline expansion CHCO3/GFR rose from 4 to 37% after maleate administration, whereas Cl excretion did not change significantly. During continuous carbonic anhydrase inhibition with acetazolamide, maleate administration resulted in a further rise in CHCO3/GFR from 22 to 35%. Whereas CPO4/GFR increased only from 1 to 3% during acetazolamide administration, this ratio reached 75% following the addition of maleate. Fumarate, the transisomer of maleate, and malonate, a well-known inhibitor of Krebs cycle, failed to affect bicarbonate excretion. This study demonstrates that maleate inhibits the fraction of bicarbonate reabsorption uncatalyzed by carbonic anhydrase. Impaired anionic reabsorption of bicarbonate or accelerated passive backflux of this ion into proximal tubular lumen are the two mechanisms that best explain the bicarbonaturia induced by maleate.

  14. β-carbonic anhydrases play a role in salicylic acid perception in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Medina-Puche, Laura; Castelló, María José; Canet, Juan Vicente; Lamilla, Julián; Colombo, María Laura; Tornero, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) is required for defense responses. NON EXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (NPR1) and NON RECOGNITION OF BTH-4 (NRB4) are required for the response to SA in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, we isolated several interactors of NRB4 using yeast two-hybrid assays. Two of these interactors, βCA1 and βCA2, are β-carbonic anhydrase family proteins. Since double mutant βca1 βca2 plants did not show any obvious phenotype, we investigated other βCAs and found that NRB4 also interacts with βCA3 and βCA4. Moreover, several βCAs interacted with NPR1 in yeast, including one that interacted in a SA-dependent manner. This interaction was abolished in loss-of-function alleles of NPR1. Interactions between βCAs and both NRB4 and NPR1 were also detected in planta, with evidence for a triple interaction, NRB4-βCA1-NPR1. The quintuple mutant βca1 βca2 βca3 βca4 βca6 showed partial insensitivity to SA. These findings suggest that one of the functions of carbonic anhydrases is to modulate the perception of SA in plants.

  15. Comparison of inhibition effects of some benzoic acid derivatives on sheep heart carbonic anhydrase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiliç, Deryanur; Yildiz, Melike; Şentürk, Murat; Erdoǧan, Orhan; Küfrevioǧlu, Ömer Irfan

    2016-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a family of metalloenzymes that requires Zn as a cofactor and catalyze the quick conversion of CO2 to HCO3- and H+. Inhibitors of the carbonic anhydrases (CAs) have medical usage of significant diseases such as glaucoma, epilepsy, gastroduodenal ulcers, acid-base disequilibria and neurological disorders. In the present study, inhibition of CA with some benzoic derivatives (1-6) were investigated. Sheep heart CA (shCA) enzyme was isolated by means of designed affinity chromatography gel (cellulose-benzyl-sulfanylamide) 42.45-fold in a yield of 44 % with 564.65 EU/mg. Purified shCA enzyme was used in vitro studies. In the studies, IC50 values were calculated for 3-aminobenzoic acid (1), 4-aminobenzoic acid (2), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), 2-benzoylbenzoic acid (4), 2,3-dimethoxybenzoic acid (5), and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid (6), showing the inhibition effects on the purified enzyme. Such molecules can be used as pioneer for discovery of novel effective CA inhibitors for medicinal chemistry applications.

  16. Carbonic anhydrase II increases the activity of the human electrogenic Na+/HCO3- cotransporter.

    PubMed

    Becker, Holger M; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2007-05-04

    Several acid/base-coupled membrane transporters, such as the electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1), have been shown to bind to different carbonic anhydrase isoforms to create a "transport metabolon." We have expressed NBCe1 derived from human kidney in oocytes of Xenopus leavis and determined its transport activity by recording the membrane current in voltage clamp, and the cytosolic H(+) and Na(+) concentrations using ion-selective microelectrodes. When carbonic anhydrase isoform II (CAII) had been injected into oocytes, the membrane current and the rate of cytosolic Na(+) rise, indicative for NBCe1 activity, increased significantly with the amount of injected CAII (2-200 ng). The CAII inhibitor ethoxyzolamide reversed the effects of CAII on the NBCe1 activity. Co-expressing wild-type CAII or NH(2)-terminal mutant CAII together with NBCe1 provided similar results, whereas co-expressing the catalytically inactive CAII mutant V143Y had no effect on NBCe1 activity. Mass spectrometric analysis and the rate of cytosolic H(+) change following addition of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) confirmed the catalytic activity of injected and expressed CAII in oocytes. Our results show that the transport capacity of NBCe1 is enhanced by the catalytic activity of CAII, in line with the notion that CAII forms a transport metabolon with NBCe1.

  17. P-glycoprotein-mediated chemoresistance is reversed by carbonic anhydrase XII inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kopecka, Joanna; Rankin, Gregory M.; Salaroglio, Iris C.

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase XII (CAXII) is a membrane enzyme that maintains pH homeostasis and sustains optimum P-glycoprotein (Pgp) efflux activity in cancer cells. Here, we investigated a panel of eight CAXII inhibitors (compounds 1–8), for their potential to reverse Pgp mediated tumor cell chemoresistance. Inhibitors (5 nM) were screened in human and murine cancer cells (colon, lung, breast, bone) with different expression levels of CAXII and Pgp. We identified three CAXII inhibitors (compounds 1, 2 and 4) that significantly (≥ 2 fold) increased the intracellular retention of the Pgp-substrate and chemotherapeutic doxorubicin, and restored its cytotoxic activity. The inhibitors lowered intracellular pH to indirectly impair Pgp activity. Ca12-knockout assays confirmed that the chemosensitizing property of the compounds was dependent on active CAXII. Furthermore, in a preclinical model of drug-resistant breast tumors compound 1 (1900 ng/kg) restored the efficacy of doxorubicin to the same extent as the direct Pgp inhibitor tariquidar. The expression of carbonic anhydrase IX had no effect on the intracellular doxorubicin accumulation. Our work provides strong evidence that CAXII inhibitors are effective chemosensitizer agents in CAXII-positive and Pgp-positive cancer cells. The use of CAXII inhibitors may represent a turning point in combinatorial chemotherapeutic schemes to treat multidrug-resistant tumors. PMID:27811376

  18. Tracking solvent and protein movement during CO2 release in carbonic anhydrase II crystals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chae Un; Song, HyoJin; Avvaru, Balendu Sankara; Gruner, Sol M; Park, SangYoun; McKenna, Robert

    2016-05-10

    Carbonic anhydrases are mostly zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration/dehydration of CO2/HCO3 (-) Previously, the X-ray crystal structures of CO2-bound holo (zinc-bound) and apo (zinc-free) human carbonic anhydrase IIs (hCA IIs) were captured at high resolution. Here, we present sequential timeframe structures of holo- [T = 0 s (CO2-bound), 50 s, 3 min, 10 min, 25 min, and 1 h] and apo-hCA IIs [T = 0 s, 50 s, 3 min, and 10 min] during the "slow" release of CO2 Two active site waters, WDW (deep water) and WDW' (this study), replace the vacated space created on CO2 release, and another water, WI (intermediate water), is seen to translocate to the proton wire position W1. In addition, on the rim of the active site pocket, a water W2' (this study), in close proximity to residue His64 and W2, gradually exits the active site, whereas His64 concurrently rotates from pointing away ("out") to pointing toward ("in") active site rotameric conformation. This study provides for the first time, to our knowledge, structural "snapshots" of hCA II intermediate states during the formation of the His64-mediated proton wire that is induced as CO2 is released. Comparison of the holo- and apo-hCA II structures shows that the solvent network rearrangements require the presence of the zinc ion.

  19. Structure-Activity Relationship for Sulfonamide Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori α-Carbonic Anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Modak, Joyanta K; Liu, Yu C; Supuran, Claudiu T; Roujeinikova, Anna

    2016-12-22

    α-Carbonic anhydrase of Helicobacter pylori (HpαCA) plays an important role in the acclimation of this oncobacterium to the acidic pH of the stomach. Sulfonamide inhibitors of HpαCA possess anti-H. pylori activity. The crystal structures of complexes of HpαCA with a family of acetazolamide-related sulfonamides have been determined. Analysis of the structures revealed that the mode of sulfonamide binding correlates well with their inhibitory activities. In addition, comparisons with the corresponding inhibitor complexes of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCAII) indicated that HpαCA possesses an additional, alternative binding site for sulfonamides that is not present in HCAII. Furthermore, the hydrophobic pocket in HCAII that stabilizes the apolar moiety of sulfonamide inhibitors is replaced with a more open, hydrophilic pocket in HpαCA. Thus, our analysis identified major structural features can be exploited in the design of selective and more potent inhibitors of HpαCA that may lead to novel antimicrobials.

  20. Effects of dopaminergic compounds on carbonic anhydrase isozymes I, II, and VI.

    PubMed

    Sentürk, Murat; Ekinci, Deniz; Göksu, Süleyman; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2012-06-01

    Studies on carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors have increased due to several therapeutic applications while there are few investigations on activators. Here we investigated CA inhibitory and activatory capacities of a series of dopaminergic compounds on human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) isozymes I, II, and VI. 2-Amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-6,7-diol hydrobromide and 2-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-5,6-diol hydrobromide were found to show effective inhibitory action on hCA I and II whereas 2-amino-5,6-dibromoindan hydrobromide and 2-amino-5-bromoindan hydrobromide exhibited only moderate inhibition against both isoforms, being more effective inhibitors of hCA VI. K(i) values of the molecules 3-6 were in the range of 41.12-363 μM against hCA I, of 0.381-470 μM against hCA II and of 0.578-1.152 μM against hCA VI, respectively. Compound 7 behaved as a CA activator with K(A) values of 27.3 μM against hCA I, of 18.4 μM against hCA II and of 8.73 μM against hCA VI, respectively.

  1. Proton transfer from exogenous donors in catalysis by human carbonic anhydrase II.

    PubMed

    Elder, Ileana; Tu, Chingkuang; Ming, Li-June; McKenna, Robert; Silverman, David N

    2005-05-01

    In the site-specific mutant of human carbonic anhydrase in which the proton shuttle His64 is replaced with alanine, H64A HCA II, catalysis can be activated in a saturable manner by the proton donor 4-methylimidazole (4-MI). From 1H NMR relaxivities, we found 4-MI bound as a second-shell ligand of the tetrahedrally coordinated cobalt in Co(II)-substituted H64A HCA II, with 4-MI located about 4.5 A from the metal. Binding constants of 4-MI to H64A HCA II were estimated from: (1) NMR relaxation of the protons of 4-MI by Co(II)-H64A HCA II, (2) the visible absorption spectrum of Co(II)-H64A HCA II in the presence of 4-MI, (3) the inhibition by 4-MI of the catalytic hydration of CO2, and (4) from the catalyzed exchange of 18O between CO2 and water. These experiments along with previously reported crystallographic and catalytic data help identify a range of distances at which proton transfer is efficient in carbonic anhydrase II.

  2. Carbonic anhydrase, a respiratory enzyme in the gills of the shore crab Carcinus maenas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, K.; Siebers, D.; Sender, S.

    1995-03-01

    This paper summarizes investigations on the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the gills of the osmoregulating shore crab Carcinus maenas. Carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme catalyzing the reversible hydration of CO2 to HCO3 - and H+, is localized with highest activities in the posterior salt-transporting gills of the shore crab- and here CA activity is strongly dependent on salinity. Contrary to the earlier hypothesis established for the blue crab Callinectes sapidus that cytoplasmic branchial CA provides the counter ions HCO3 - and H+ for apical exchange against Na+ and Cl-, the involvement of CA in NaCl uptake mechanisms can be excluded in Carcinus. Differential and density gradient centrifugations indicate that branchial CA is a predominantly membrane-associated protein. Branchial CA was greatly inhibited by the sulfonamide acetazolamide (AZ) Ki=2.4·10-8 mol/l). Using the preparation of the isolated perfused gill, application of 10-4 mol/l AZ resulted in an 80% decrease of CO2/HCO3 - excretion. Thus we conclude that CA is localized in plasma membranes, maintaining the CO2 gradient by accelerating adjustment of the pH-dependent CO2/HCO3 - equilibrium.

  3. [Carbonic anhydrase of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis].

    PubMed

    Komarova, Iu M; Terekhova, I V; Doman, N G; Al'bitskaia, O N

    1976-01-01

    Carboanhydrase (carbonate-hydroliase EC 4.2.1.1.) is found in the extract of Spirulina platensis cells. A linear dependency of the enzyme activity on the protein concentration; pH optimum is found to be 8.0. Specific activity of carboanhydrase is 3 muM/min-mg of protein under the concentration of CO2 of 4-10(-3) M, appearing Michelis constant being 4.9-10(-3) M. The enzyme was stabilized with 10 mM of cisteine, its activity was inhibited by 50% with sulphanylamide (1-10(-5) M), acetazolamide (8--10(-7) M) and Cl- ions (5-10(-2) M). The activity of carboanhydrase, as well as the rate of NaH14CO3 fixation, depended on the pH value of cultural medium.

  4. Metabolic Effect of Estrogen Receptor Agonists on Breast Cancer Cells in the Presence or Absence of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Belkaid, Anissa; Čuperlović-Culf, Miroslava; Touaibia, Mohamed; Ouellette, Rodney J.; Surette, Marc E.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic shift is one of the major hallmarks of cancer development. Estrogen receptor (ER) activity has a profound effect on breast cancer cell growth through a number of metabolic changes driven by its effect on transcription of several enzymes, including carbonic anhydrases, Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and oncogenes including HER2. Thus, estrogen receptor activators can be expected to lead to the modulation of cell metabolism in estrogen receptor positive cells. In this work we have investigated the effect of 17β-estradiol, an ER activator, and ferulic acid, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, as well as ER activator, in the absence and in the presence of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide on the metabolism of MCF7 cells and MCF7 cells, stably transfected to express HER2 (MCF7HER2). Metabolic profiles were studied using 1D and 2D metabolomic Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments, combined with the identification and quantification of metabolites, and the annotation of the results in the context of biochemical pathways. Overall changes in hydrophilic metabolites were largest following treatment of MCF7 and MC7HER2 cells with 17β-estradiol. However, the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide had the largest effect on the profile of lipophilic metabolites. PMID:27240414

  5. Dithiocarbamates strongly inhibit carbonic anhydrases and show antiglaucoma action in vivo.

    PubMed

    Carta, Fabrizio; Aggarwal, Mayank; Maresca, Alfonso; Scozzafava, Andrea; McKenna, Robert; Masini, Emanuela; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2012-02-23

    A series of dithiocarbamates were prepared by reaction of primary/secondary amines with carbon disulfide in the presence of bases. These compounds were tested for the inhibition of four human (h) isoforms of the zinc enzyme carbonic anhydrase, CA (EC 4.2.1.1), hCA I, II, IX, and XII, involved in pathologies such as glaucoma (CA II and XII) or cancer (CA IX). Several low nanomolar inhibitors targeting these CAs were detected. The X-ray crystal structure of the hCA II adduct with morpholine dithiocarbamate evidenced the inhibition mechanism of these compounds, which coordinate to the metal ion through a sulfur atom from the dithiocarbamate zinc-binding function. Some dithiocarbamates showed an effective intraocular pressure lowering activity in an animal model of glucoma.

  6. Dithiocarbamates strongly inhibit carbonic anhydrases and show antiglaucoma action in vivo#

    PubMed Central

    Carta, Fabrizio; Aggarwal, Mayank; Maresca, Alfonso; Scozzafava, Andrea; McKenna, Robert; Masini, Emanuela; Supuran, Claudiu T.

    2012-01-01

    A series of dithiocarbamates was prepared by reaction of primary/secondary amines with carbon disulfide in the presence of bases. These compounds were tested for the inhibition of 4 human (h) isoforms of the zinc enzyme carbonic anhydrase, CA (EC 4.2.1.1), hCA I, II, IX and XII, involved in pathologies such as glaucoma (CA II and XII) or cancer (CA IX). Several low nanomolar inhibitors targeting these CAs were detected. X-ray crystal structure of hCA II adduct with morpholine dithiocarbamate evidenced the inhibition mechanism of these compounds, which coordinate to the metal ion through a sulfur atom from the dithiocarbamate zinc-binding function. Some dithiocarbamates showed effective intraocular pressure lowering activity in an animal model of glucoma. PMID:22276570

  7. [Advances in researches on β-carbonic anhydrases as anti-parasitic drug targets].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong-hui; Zhu, Huai-min

    2016-02-01

    β-carbonic anhydrases (β-CAs) are ubiquitous metalloenzymes which active site contains a zinc ion (Zn²⁺), and they could catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons efficiently and are involved in many biological processes, such as respiration, pH and CO₂ homeostasis, biosynthetic reactions, virulence regulation and so on, and may play a critical role in the life activity of many organisms which contain these enzymes. β-CAs are widely distributed in fungi, bacteria, algae, plants and a small number of protozoan and metazoan except vertebrates. Therefore, as potential drug targets for designing and developing antibacterial and anti-parasitic drugs, β-CAs promise a broad application prospect. This paper focuses on the distribution, physiological function and the progress of researches on β-CAs in parasites and their vectors.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and carbonic anhydrase inhibitory activity of novel benzothiazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Küçükbay, F Zehra; Buğday, Nesrin; Küçükbay, Hasan; Tanc, Muhammet; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-12-01

    N-protected amino acids were reacted with substituted benzothiazoles to give the corresponding N-protected amino acid-benzothiazole conjugates (60-89%). Their structures were confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR), IR and elemental analysis. Their carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitory activities were determined against two cytosolic human isoforms (hCA I and hCA II), one membrane-associated (hCA IV) and one transmembrane (hCA XII) enzyme by a stopped-flow CO2 hydrase assay method. The new compounds showed rather weak, micromolar inhibitory activity against most of these enzymes.

  9. Molecular evolution and selection pressure in alpha-class carbonic anhydrase family members.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, Meghan E; Lambert, Lisa A

    2011-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CA) are ubiquitous, and their involvement in diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and glaucoma is well known. Most members of this family of metalloenzymes convert carbon dioxide to bicarbonate with the help of a Zn(2+) cofactor. While the expression patterns and kinetic activities of many of these isozymes have been studied, little is known about the differences in the conservation patterns of individual residues. To better understand the molecular evolution of the CA gene family, we created multiple sequence alignments and analyzed the selection pressure (dN/dS ratios) on surface and active site residues in 248 mammalian sequences of the 14 known family members. Using the values found for amino acids of known functional importance (i.e. the three histidines that bind the zinc cofactor) as our baseline, we were able to identify other regions of possible structural and functional importance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chapter 13: Carbonic Anhydrase IX as an Imaging and Therapeutic Target for Tumors and Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Tafreshi, Narges K.; Lloyd, Mark C.; Bui, Marilyn M.; Gillies, Robert J.; Morse, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) which is a zinc containing metalloprotein, efficiently catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. It is constitutively up-regulated in several cancer types and has an important role in tumor progression, acidification and metastasis. High expression of CAIX generally correlates with poor prognosis and is related to a decrease in the disease-free interval following successful therapy. Therefore, it is considered as a prognostic indicator in oncology. In this review, we describe CAIX regulation and its role in tumor hypoxia, acidification and metastasis. In addition, the molecular imaging of CAIX and its potential for use in cancer detection, diagnosis, staging, and for use in following therapy response is discussed. Both antibodies and small molecular weight compounds have been used for targeted imaging of CAIX expression. The use of CAIX expression as an attractive and promising candidate marker for systemic anticancer therapy is also discussed. PMID:24146382

  11. Carbonic anhydrases, EPF2 and a novel protease mediate CO2 control of stomatal development.

    PubMed

    Engineer, Cawas B; Ghassemian, Majid; Anderson, Jeffrey C; Peck, Scott C; Hu, Honghong; Schroeder, Julian I

    2014-09-11

    Environmental stimuli, including elevated carbon dioxide levels, regulate stomatal development; however, the key mechanisms mediating the perception and relay of the CO2 signal to the stomatal development machinery remain elusive. To adapt CO2 intake to water loss, plants regulate the development of stomatal gas exchange pores in the aerial epidermis. A diverse range of plant species show a decrease in stomatal density in response to the continuing rise in atmospheric CO2 (ref. 4). To date, one mutant that exhibits deregulation of this CO2-controlled stomatal development response, hic (which is defective in cell-wall wax biosynthesis, ref. 5), has been identified. Here we show that recently isolated Arabidopsis thaliana β-carbonic anhydrase double mutants (ca1 ca4) exhibit an inversion in their response to elevated CO2, showing increased stomatal development at elevated CO2 levels. We characterized the mechanisms mediating this response and identified an extracellular signalling pathway involved in the regulation of CO2-controlled stomatal development by carbonic anhydrases. RNA-seq analyses of transcripts show that the extracellular pro-peptide-encoding gene EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR 2 (EPF2), but not EPF1 (ref. 9), is induced in wild-type leaves but not in ca1 ca4 mutant leaves at elevated CO2 levels. Moreover, EPF2 is essential for CO2 control of stomatal development. Using cell-wall proteomic analyses and CO2-dependent transcriptomic analyses, we identified a novel CO2-induced extracellular protease, CRSP (CO2 RESPONSE SECRETED PROTEASE), as a mediator of CO2-controlled stomatal development. Our results identify mechanisms and genes that function in the repression of stomatal development in leaves during atmospheric CO2 elevation, including the carbonic-anhydrase-encoding genes CA1 and CA4 and the secreted protease CRSP, which cleaves the pro-peptide EPF2, in turn repressing stomatal development. Elucidation of these mechanisms advances the understanding

  12. Carbonic anhydrases, EPF2 and a novel protease mediate CO2 control of stomatal development

    PubMed Central

    Engineer, Cawas B.; Ghassemian, Majid; Anderson, Jeffrey C.; Peck, Scott C.; Hu, Honghong; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental stimuli, including elevated carbon dioxide levels, regulate stomatal development1–3; however, the key mechanisms mediating the perception and relay of the CO2 signal to the stomatal development machinery remain elusive. To adapt CO2 intake to water loss, plants regulate the development of stomatal gas exchange pores in the aerial epidermis. A diverse range of plant species show a decrease in stomatal density in response to the continuing rise in atmospheric CO2 (ref. 4). To date, one mutant that exhibits deregulation of this CO2-controlled stomatal development response, hic (which is defective in cell-wall wax biosynthesis, ref. 5), has been identified. Here we show that recently isolated Arabidopsis thaliana β-carbonic anhydrase double mutants (ca1 ca4)6 exhibit aninversion in their response to elevated CO2, showing increased stomatal development at elevated CO2 levels. We characterized the mechanisms mediating this response and identified an extracellular signalling pathway involved in the regulation of CO2-controlled stomatal development by carbonic anhydrases. RNA-seq analyses of transcripts show that the extracellular pro-peptide-encoding gene EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR 2 (EPF2)7,8, but not EPF1 (ref. 9), is induced in wild-type leaves but not inca1 ca4 mutant leaves at elevated CO2 levels. Moreover, EPF2 is essential for CO2 control of stomatal development. Using cell-wall proteomic analyses and CO2-dependent transcriptomic analyses, we identified a novel CO2-induced extracellular protease, CRSP (CO2 RESPONSE SECRETED PROTEASE), as a mediator of CO2-controlled stomatal development. Our results identify mechanisms and genes that function in the repression of stomatal development in leaves during atmospheric CO2 elevation, including the carbonic-anhydrase-encoding genes CA1 and CA4 and the secreted protease CRSP, which cleaves the pro-peptide EPF2, in turn repressing stomatal development. Elucidation of these mechanisms advances the

  13. Carbonic anhydrases, EPF2 and a novel protease mediate CO2 control of stomatal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engineer, Cawas B.; Ghassemian, Majid; Anderson, Jeffrey C.; Peck, Scott C.; Hu, Honghong; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-09-01

    Environmental stimuli, including elevated carbon dioxide levels, regulate stomatal development; however, the key mechanisms mediating the perception and relay of the CO2 signal to the stomatal development machinery remain elusive. To adapt CO2 intake to water loss, plants regulate the development of stomatal gas exchange pores in the aerial epidermis. A diverse range of plant species show a decrease in stomatal density in response to the continuing rise in atmospheric CO2 (ref. 4). To date, one mutant that exhibits deregulation of this CO2-controlled stomatal development response, hic (which is defective in cell-wall wax biosynthesis, ref. 5), has been identified. Here we show that recently isolated Arabidopsis thaliana β-carbonic anhydrase double mutants (ca1 ca4) exhibit an inversion in their response to elevated CO2, showing increased stomatal development at elevated CO2 levels. We characterized the mechanisms mediating this response and identified an extracellular signalling pathway involved in the regulation of CO2-controlled stomatal development by carbonic anhydrases. RNA-seq analyses of transcripts show that the extracellular pro-peptide-encoding gene EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR 2 (EPF2), but not EPF1 (ref. 9), is induced in wild-type leaves but not in ca1 ca4 mutant leaves at elevated CO2 levels. Moreover, EPF2 is essential for CO2 control of stomatal development. Using cell-wall proteomic analyses and CO2-dependent transcriptomic analyses, we identified a novel CO2-induced extracellular protease, CRSP (CO2 RESPONSE SECRETED PROTEASE), as a mediator of CO2-controlled stomatal development. Our results identify mechanisms and genes that function in the repression of stomatal development in leaves during atmospheric CO2 elevation, including the carbonic-anhydrase-encoding genes CA1 and CA4 and the secreted protease CRSP, which cleaves the pro-peptide EPF2, in turn repressing stomatal development. Elucidation of these mechanisms advances the understanding of

  14. Carbonic anhydrase activity of dinuclear Cu(II) complexes with patellamide model ligands.

    PubMed

    Comba, Peter; Gahan, Lawrence R; Hanson, Graeme R; Maeder, Marcel; Westphal, Michael

    2014-02-28

    The dicopper(II) complexes of six pseudo-octapeptides, synthetic analogues of ascidiacyclamide and the patellamides, found in ascidians of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, are shown to be efficient carbonic anhydrase model complexes with k(cat) up to 7.3 × 10(3) s(-1) (uncatalyzed: 3.7 × 10(-2) s(-1); enzyme-catalyzed: 2 × 10(5)-1.4 × 10(6) s(-1)) and a turnover number (TON) of at least 1700, limited only by the experimental conditions used. So far, no copper-based natural carbonic anhydrases are known, no faster model systems have been described and the biological role of the patellamide macrocycles is so far unknown. The observed CO2 hydration rates depend on the configuration of the isopropyl side chains of the pseudo-octapeptide scaffold, and the naturally observed R*,S*,R*,S* geometry is shown to lead to more efficient catalysts than the S*,S*,S*,S* isomers. The catalytic efficiency also depends on the heterocyclic donor groups of the pseudo-octapeptides. Interestingly, the dicopper(II) complex of the ligand with four imidazole groups is a more efficient catalyst than that of the close analogue of ascidiacyclamide with two thiazole and two oxazoline rings. The experimental observations indicate that the nucleophilic attack of a Cu(II)-coordinated hydroxide at the CO2 carbon center is rate determining, i.e. formation of the catalyst-CO2 adduct and release of carbonate/bicarbonate are relatively fast processes.

  15. Structural and inhibition insights into carbonic anhydrase CDCA1 from the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii.

    PubMed

    Alterio, Vincenzo; Langella, Emma; Viparelli, Francesca; Vullo, Daniela; Ascione, Giuseppina; Dathan, Nina A; Morel, François M M; Supuran, Claudiu T; De Simone, Giuseppina; Monti, Simona Maria

    2012-05-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) catalyze with high efficiency the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide, an essential reaction for many biological processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, renal tubular acidification, and bone resorption. Diatoms, which are one of the most common types of phytoplankton and are widespread in oceans, possess CAs fundamental for acquisition of inorganic carbon. Recently, in the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii a novel enzyme, CDCA1, naturally using Cd in its active site, has been isolated and categorized in a new CA class, namely zeta-CA. This enzyme, which consists of three repeats (R1, R2 and R3), is a cambialistic carbonic anhydrase that can spontaneously exchange Zn or Cd at its active centre, presumably an adaptative advantage for diatoms that grow fast in the metal-poor environment of the surface ocean. In this paper we completed the characterization of this enzyme, reporting the X-ray structure of the last repeat, CDCA1-R3 in its cadmium-bound form, and presenting a model of the full length protein obtained by docking approaches. Results show that CDCA1 has a quite compact not symmetric structure, characterized by two covalently linked R1-R2 and R2-R3 interfaces and a small non-covalent R1-R3 interface. The three dimensional arrangement shows that most of the non-conserved aminoacids of the three repeats are located at the interface regions and that the active sites are far from each other and completely accessible to the substrate. Finally, a detailed inhibition study of CDCA1-R3 repeat in both cadmium- and zinc- bound form has been performed with sulfonamides and sulfamates derivatives. The results have been compared with those previously reported for other CA classes, namely alpha- and beta-classes, and correlated with the structural features of these enzymes.

  16. Update and critical appraisal of combined timolol and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and the effect on ocular blood flow in glaucoma patients.

    PubMed

    Moss, Adam M; Harris, Alon; Siesky, Brent; Rusia, Deepam; Williamson, Kathleen M; Shoshani, Yochai

    2010-04-26

    Topical hypotensive therapy with both timolol and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors has been shown to be efficacious at reducing intraocular pressure. Many prospective studies have also suggested that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors augment ocular blood flow and vascular regulation independent of their hypotensive effects. Although consistent in their findings, these studies must be cautiously interpreted due to the limitations of study design and specific blood flow imaging modalities. The purpose of this review is to appraise and critically evaluate the current body of literature investigating the effects of combined treatment with topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and timolol in patients with glaucoma with respect to ocular blood flow, visual function, and optic nerve head structure.

  17. Vasorelaxation induced by dodoneine is mediated by calcium channels blockade and carbonic anhydrase inhibition on vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Carre, Grégoire; Ouedraogo, Maurice; Magaud, Christophe; Carreyre, Hélène; Becq, Frédéric; Bois, Patrick; Supuran, Claudiu T; Thibaudeau, Sébastien; Vandebrouck, Clarisse; Bescond, Jocelyn

    2015-07-01

    Dodoneine (Ddn) is one of the active compounds identified from Agelanthus dodoneifolius (DC.) Polhill and Wiens, a medicinal plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of hypertension. This dihydropyranone exerts hypotensive and vasorelaxant effects on rats, and two molecular targets have been characterized: the carbonic anhydrase and the L-type calcium channel in cardiomyocytes with biochemical and electrophysiological techniques, respectively. To further evaluate the involvement of these two molecular targets in vasorelaxation, the effect of Ddn on rat vascular smooth muscle was investigated. The effects of Ddn on L-type calcium current and on resting membrane potential were characterized in A7r5 cell line using the whole-cell patch-clamp configuration. The molecular identities of carbonic anhydrase isozymes in smooth muscle cells were examined with RT-PCR. Vascular response was measured on rat aortic rings in an organ bath apparatus and the effect of Ddn on intracellular pH was determined by flow cytometry using the pH-sensitive fluorescent probe BCECF-AM [2,7-Bis-(2-Carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-Carboxyfluorescein, Acetoxymethyl Ester]. 100µM Ddn reduced calcium current density of about 30%. In addition, carbonic anhydrase II, III, XIII and XIV were shown to be expressed in rat aorta and inhibited in smooth muscle cells by Ddn. This inhibition resulted in a rise in pHi of about 0.31, leading to KCa channel activation, thereby inducing membrane hyperpolarization and vasorelaxation. The results of vascular reactivity experiments obtained with pharmacological tools acting on the L-type calcium current and carbonic anhydrase suggest that Ddn produces its vasorelaxant effect via the inhibition of these two molecular targets. This study demonstrates that Ddn induced vasorelaxation by targeting two proteins involved in the modulation of excitation-contraction coupling: L-type calcium channels and carbonic anhydrase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  18. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors with dual-tail moieties to match the hydrophobic and hydrophilic halves of the carbonic anhydrase active site.

    PubMed

    Tanpure, Rajendra P; Ren, Bin; Peat, Thomas S; Bornaghi, Laurent F; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Poulsen, Sally-Ann

    2015-02-12

    We present a new approach to carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) inhibitor design that enables close interrogation of the regions of the CA active site where there is the greatest variability in amino acid residues among the different CA isozymes. By appending dual tail groups onto the par excellence CA inhibitor acetazolamide, compounds that may interact with the distinct hydrophobic and hydrophilic halves of the CA II active site were prepared. The dual-tail combinations selected included (i) two hydrophobic moieties, (ii) two hydrophilic moieties, and (iii) one hydrophobic and one hydrophilic moiety. The CA enzyme inhibition profile as well as the protein X-ray crystal structure of compound 3, comprising one hydrophobic and one hydrophilic tail moiety, in complex with CA II is described. This novel dual-tail approach has provided an enhanced opportunity to more fully exploit interactions with the CA active site by enabling these molecules to interact with the distinct halves of the active site. In addition to the dual-tail compounds, a corresponding set of single-tail derivatives was synthesized, enabling a comparative analysis of the single-tail versus dual-tail compound CA inhibition profile.

  19. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: synthesis and inhibition of the human carbonic anhydrase isoforms I, II, IX and XII with benzene sulfonamides incorporating 4- and 3-nitrophthalimide moieties.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Kalyan K; Verma, Saurabh M; Tanç, Muhammet; Purper, Gaultier; Calafato, Gaetan; Carta, Fabrizio; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2014-03-01

    A series of 4 and 5 nitro-1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl benzenesulfonamide derivatives (compounds 1-8) was synthesized by reaction of benzenesulfonamide derivatives with 4 and 3-nitrophthalic anhydrides. These new sulfonamides were investigated as inhibitors of the zinc metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) and more specifically against the human (h) cytosolic isoforms hCA I and II and the transmembrane, tumor-associated hCA IX and XII. Most of the novel compounds were medium potency-weak hCA I inhibitors (Kis in the range of 295-10,000 nM), but were more effective hCA II inhibitors (Kis of 1.7-887 nM). The tumor-associated hCA IX was also inhibited, with Kis in the micromolar range, whereas against hCA XII the inhibition constants were in the range of 90-3,746 nM. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) with this series of sulfonamides is straightforward, with the main features leading to good activity for each isoforms being established. The high sequence hCA alignment homology and molecular docking studies was performed in order to rationalize the activities reported and binding mode to different hCA as inhibitors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase II by thioxolone: a mechanistic and structural study.

    PubMed

    Barrese, Albert A; Genis, Caroli; Fisher, S Zoe; Orwenyo, Jared N; Kumara, Mudalige Thilak; Dutta, Subodh K; Phillips, Eric; Kiddle, James J; Tu, Chingkuang; Silverman, David N; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; McKenna, Robert; Tripp, Brian C

    2008-03-11

    This paper examines the functional mechanism of thioxolone, a compound recently identified as a weak inhibitor of human carbonic anhydrase II by Iyer et al. (2006) J. Biomol. Screening 11, 782-791 . Thioxolone lacks sulfonamide, sulfamate, or hydroxamate functional groups that are typically found in therapeutic carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors, such as acetazolamide. Analytical chemistry and biochemical methods were used to investigate the fate of thioxolone upon binding to CA II, including Michaelis-Menten kinetics of 4-nitrophenyl acetate esterase cleavage, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), oxygen-18 isotope exchange studies, and X-ray crystallography. Thioxolone is proposed to be a prodrug inhibitor that is cleaved via a CA II zinc-hydroxide mechanism known to catalyze the hydrolysis of esters. When thioxolone binds in the active site of CA II, it is cleaved and forms 4-mercaptobenzene-1,3-diol via the intermediate S-(2,4-thiophenyl)hydrogen thiocarbonate. The esterase cleavage product binds to the zinc active site via the thiol group and is therefore the active CA inhibitor, while the intermediate is located at the rim of the active-site cavity. The time-dependence of this inhibition reaction was investigated in detail. Because this type of prodrug inhibitor mechanism depends on cleavage of ester bonds, this class of inhibitors may have advantages over sulfonamides in determining isozyme specificity. A preliminary structure-activity relationship study with a series of structural analogues of thioxolone yielded similar estimates of inhibition constants for most compounds, although two compounds with bromine groups at the C1 carbon of thioxolone were not inhibitory, suggesting a possible steric effect.

  1. Carbonic Anhydrases in Cnidarians: Novel Perspectives from the Octocorallian Corallium rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Le Goff, Carine; Ganot, Philippe; Zoccola, Didier; Caminiti-Segonds, Natacha; Allemand, Denis; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Although the ability to elaborate calcium carbonate biominerals was apparently gained independently during animal evolution, members of the alpha carbonic anhydrases (α-CAs) family, which catalyze the interconversion of CO2 into HCO3-, are involved in the biomineralization process across metazoans. In the Mediterranean red coral Corallium rubrum, inhibition studies suggest an essential role of CAs in the synthesis of two biominerals produced in this octocoral, the axial skeleton and the sclerites. Hitherto no molecular characterization of these enzymes was available. In the present study we determined the complete set of α-CAs in C. rubrum by data mining the genome and transcriptome, and measured their differential gene expression between calcifying and non-calcifying tissues. We identified six isozymes (CruCA1-6), one cytosolic and five secreted/membrane-bound among which one lacked two of the three zinc-binding histidines and was so referred to as a carbonic anhydrase related protein (CARP). One secreted isozyme (CruCA4) showed specific expression both by qPCR and western-blot in the calcifying tissues, suggesting its involvement in biomineralization. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of α-CAs, identified in six representative cnidarians with complete genome, support an independent recruitment of α-CAs for biomineralization within anthozoans. Finally, characterization of cnidarian CARPs highlighted two families: the monophyletic cytosolic CARPs, and the polyphyletic secreted CARPs harboring a cnidarian specific cysteine disulfide bridge. Alignment of the cytosolic CARPs revealed an evolutionary conserved R-H-Q motif in place of the characteristic zinc-binding H-H-H necessary for the catalytic function of α-CAs. PMID:27513959

  2. Carbonic Anhydrases in Cnidarians: Novel Perspectives from the Octocorallian Corallium rubrum.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Carine; Ganot, Philippe; Zoccola, Didier; Caminiti-Segonds, Natacha; Allemand, Denis; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Although the ability to elaborate calcium carbonate biominerals was apparently gained independently during animal evolution, members of the alpha carbonic anhydrases (α-CAs) family, which catalyze the interconversion of CO2 into HCO3-, are involved in the biomineralization process across metazoans. In the Mediterranean red coral Corallium rubrum, inhibition studies suggest an essential role of CAs in the synthesis of two biominerals produced in this octocoral, the axial skeleton and the sclerites. Hitherto no molecular characterization of these enzymes was available. In the present study we determined the complete set of α-CAs in C. rubrum by data mining the genome and transcriptome, and measured their differential gene expression between calcifying and non-calcifying tissues. We identified six isozymes (CruCA1-6), one cytosolic and five secreted/membrane-bound among which one lacked two of the three zinc-binding histidines and was so referred to as a carbonic anhydrase related protein (CARP). One secreted isozyme (CruCA4) showed specific expression both by qPCR and western-blot in the calcifying tissues, suggesting its involvement in biomineralization. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of α-CAs, identified in six representative cnidarians with complete genome, support an independent recruitment of α-CAs for biomineralization within anthozoans. Finally, characterization of cnidarian CARPs highlighted two families: the monophyletic cytosolic CARPs, and the polyphyletic secreted CARPs harboring a cnidarian specific cysteine disulfide bridge. Alignment of the cytosolic CARPs revealed an evolutionary conserved R-H-Q motif in place of the characteristic zinc-binding H-H-H necessary for the catalytic function of α-CAs.

  3. Kinetics of CO2 exchange with carbonic anhydrase immobilized on fiber membranes in artificial lungs.

    PubMed

    Arazawa, D T; Kimmel, J D; Federspiel, W J

    2015-06-01

    Artificial lung devices comprised of hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) coated with the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), accelerate removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from blood for the treatment of acute respiratory failure. While previous work demonstrated CA coatings increase HFM CO2 removal by 115 % in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), testing in blood revealed a 36 % increase compared to unmodified HFMs. In this work, we sought to characterize the CO2 mass transport processes within these biocatalytic devices which impede CA coating efficacy and develop approaches towards improving bioactive HFM efficiency. Aminated HFMs were sequentially reacted with glutaraldehyde (GA), chitosan, GA and afterwards incubated with a CA solution, covalently linking CA to the surface. Bioactive CA-HFMs were potted in model gas exchange devices (0.0119 m(2)) and tested for esterase activity and CO2 removal under various flow rates with PBS, whole blood, and solutions containing individual blood components (plasma albumin, red blood cells or free carbonic anhydrase). Results demonstrated that increasing the immobilized enzyme activity did not significantly impact CO2 removal rate, as the diffusional resistance from the liquid boundary layer is the primary impediment to CO2 transport by both unmodified and bioactive HFMs under clinically relevant conditions. Furthermore, endogenous CA within red blood cells competes with HFM immobilized CA to increase CO2 removal. Based on our findings, we propose a bicarbonate/CO2 disequilibrium hypothesis to describe performance of CA-modified devices in both buffer and blood. Improvement in CO2 removal rates using CA-modified devices in blood may be realized by maximizing bicarbonate/CO2 disequilibrium at the fiber surface via strategies such as blood acidification and active mixing within the device.

  4. Properties of a Mutant from Synechocystis PCC6803 Resistant to Acetazolamide, an Inhibitor of Carbonic Anhydrase 1

    PubMed Central

    Bédu, Sylvie; Peltier, Gilles; Sarrey, Frédéric; Joset, Françoise

    1990-01-01

    A spontaneous mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 was isolated for its resistance to acetazolamide, an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase. The mutant showed a deficiency in oxygen exchange between CO2 and H2O, a lower level of stable internal CO2 pool and a decreased capacity to adapt its photosynthetic affinity under limited inorganic carbon regime. The initial rate of uptake of inorganic carbon was identical to that of wild-type cells. It is demonstrated that the mutation affects the carbonic anhydrase activity. This could result from either of two impairments: a deficiency in the enzyme activity detectable by mass spectrometric determinations, or a modification of the cellular compartment in which the enzyme is located, preventing its activity. PMID:16667618

  5. Probing the surface of human carbonic anhydrase for clues towards the design of isoform specific inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pinard, Melissa A; Mahon, Brian; McKenna, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The alpha carbonic anhydrases (α-CAs) are a group of structurally related zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of CO2 to HCO3(-). Humans have 15 different α-CAs with numerous physiological roles and expression patterns. Of these, 12 are catalytically active, and abnormal expression and activities are linked with various diseases, including glaucoma and cancer. Hence there is a need for CA isoform specific inhibitors to avoid off-target CA inhibition, but due to the high amino acid conservation of the active site and surrounding regions between each enzyme, this has proven difficult. However, residues towards the exit of the active site are variable and can be exploited to design isoform selective inhibitors. Here we discuss and characterize this region of "selective drug targetability" and how these observations can be utilized to develop isoform selective CA inhibitors.

  6. The Complex Relationship between Metals and Carbonic Anhydrase: New Insights and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lionetto, Maria Giulia; Caricato, Roberto; Giordano, Maria Elena; Schettino, Trifone

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase is a ubiquitous metalloenzyme, which catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO2 to HCO3− and H+. Metals play a key role in the bioactivity of this metalloenzyme, although their relationships with CA have not been completely clarified to date. The aim of this review is to explore the complexity and multi-aspect nature of these relationships, since metals can be cofactors of CA, but also inhibitors of CA activity and modulators of CA expression. Moreover, this work analyzes new insights and perspectives that allow translating new advances in basic science on the interaction between CA and metals to applications in several fields of research, ranging from biotechnology to environmental sciences. PMID:26797606

  7. Nitric oxide-donating carbonic anhydrase inhibitors for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Steele, Rebecca M; Benedini, Francesca; Biondi, Stefano; Borghi, Valentina; Carzaniga, Laura; Impagnatiello, Francesco; Miglietta, Daniela; Chong, Wesley K M; Rajapakse, Ranjan; Cecchi, Alessandro; Temperini, Claudia; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2009-12-01

    Novel bi-functional compounds with a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing moiety bound to a dorzolamide scaffold were investigated. Several compounds were synthesized and their activity as selective carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAI) evaluated in vitro on recombinant hCA type I, II and IV enzyme isoforms where they showed different degrees of potency and selectivity to hCA II. A high resolution X-ray crystal structure for the CA II adduct with 8 confirmed the high affinity of this class of compounds for the enzyme. Compounds 4, 6, and 8 showed highly potent and efficacious NO-mediated properties as assessed by their vascular relaxant effect on methoxamine-precontracted rabbit aortic rings. Finally, compounds 4 and 6 exerted potent intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effects in vivo in normotensive rabbits thereby anticipating their potential for the treatment of hypertensive glaucoma.

  8. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of human and murine mitochondrial isozymes V with anions.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Marco; Vullo, Daniela; Gallori, Enzo; Antel, Jochen; Wurl, Michael; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2003-09-01

    In addition to sulfonamides, metal complexing anions represent the second class of inhibitors of the zinc enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1). The first inhibition study of the mitochondrial isozyme CA V (of murine and human origin) with anions is reported here. Inhibition data of the cytosolic isozymes CA I and CA II as well as the membrane-bound isozyme CA IV with a large number of anionic species such as halides, pseudohalides, bicarbonate, nitrate, hydrosulfide, arsenate, sulfamate, and sulfamidate and so on, are also provided for comparison. Isozyme V has an inhibition profile by anions completely different to those of CA I and IV, but similar to that of hCA II, which may have interesting physiological consequences. Similarly to hCA II, the mitochondrial isozymes show micro-nanomolar affinity for sulfonamides such as sulfanilamide and acetazolamide.

  9. Carbonic Anhydrase Interaction With Lipothioars Enites: A Novel Class of Isozymes I and II Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Timotheatou, Despina; Ioannou, Panayiotis V.; Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes I and II with a series of As(III) derivatives, dialkyl and diaryl rac-2,3-dimyristoyloxypropyldithioarsonites, was investigated kinetically and spectrophotometrically, utilizing the native and Co(II)-substituted enzymes. Depending on the substitution pattern at the -As(SR)2 moiety of the investigated derivatives, inactive compounds were found for R = phenyl or naphthyl, and active ones for derivatives containing carboxyl groups (R = CH2COOH, cysteinyl and glutathionyl). Together with the arsonolipids previously investigated, the active compounds of this series - the "lipothioarsenites"- constitute a novel class of CA inhibitors that bind to the metal ion within the enzyme active site, as proved by changes in the electronic spectra of adducts of such inhibitors with Co(II)CA. PMID:18475756

  10. Geographical characterization by MAE-HPLC and NIR methodologies and carbonic anhydrase inhibition of Saffron components.

    PubMed

    Nescatelli, Riccardo; Carradori, Simone; Marini, Federico; Caponigro, Vicky; Bucci, Remo; De Monte, Celeste; Mollica, Adriano; Mannina, Luisa; Ceruso, Mariangela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Secci, Daniela

    2017-04-15

    A microwave-assisted extraction method was optimised for the recovery of bioactive compounds from Crocus sativus L. stigmas with the use of water/ethanol mixture. HPLC-DAD was employed to evaluate the extraction parameters, in particular, solvent type and volume, and the duration of the procedure. Microwave-assisted extraction enhanced the recovery of the active principles, limiting extraction time and solvent waste. Moreover, NIR experiments were performed in order to compare spectra in pseudo-absorbance of Saffron samples with different geographical origins through the application of the chemometric techniques. Moreover, the biological evaluation of crocin 1, safranal and its semisynthetic derivatives as selective inhibitors of five isoforms of human carbonic anhydrase was also explored.

  11. Mice carrying a CAR-2 null allele lack carbonic anhydrase II immunohistochemically and show vascular calcification.

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, S. S.; Lewis, S. E.; Tashian, R. E.; Schulte, B. A.

    1989-01-01

    Mutant mice reported to lack carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme II (CA II) have been examined here for immunocytochemical evidence of CA II and for histopathologic change. All histologic sites that immunostain for CA II in a wide range of organs in normal mice failed to show such immunoreactivity in the homozygous mutants. The CA II-deficient mice differed from controls in evidencing an age dependent medial calcification of small arteries in a number of organs. The male genital tract revealed the most extensive arterial calcinosis and males were possibly more affected in general than females. One or another Car-2n/Car-2n mouse showed changes additionally in uterus, small bowel, lymph nodes, or renal pelvis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:2495727

  12. Water-Restructuring Mutations Can Reverse the Thermodynamic Signature of Ligand Binding to Human Carbonic Anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jerome M; Kang, Kyungtae; Sastry, Madhavi; Sherman, Woody; Sankaran, Banumathi; Zwart, Peter H; Whitesides, George M

    2017-03-27

    This study uses mutants of human carbonic anhydrase (HCAII) to examine how changes in the organization of water within a binding pocket can alter the thermodynamics of protein-ligand association. Results from calorimetric, crystallographic, and theoretical analyses suggest that most mutations strengthen networks of water-mediated hydrogen bonds and reduce binding affinity by increasing the enthalpic cost and, to a lesser extent, the entropic benefit of rearranging those networks during binding. The organization of water within a binding pocket can thus determine whether the hydrophobic interactions in which it engages are enthalpy-driven or entropy-driven. Our findings highlight a possible asymmetry in protein-ligand association by suggesting that, within the confines of the binding pocket of HCAII, binding events associated with enthalpically favorable rearrangements of water are stronger than those associated with entropically favorable ones.

  13. Expression of Carbonic Anhydrase I in Motor Neurons and Alterations in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaochen; Lu, Deyi; Bowser, Robert; Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase I (CA1) is the cytosolic isoform of mammalian α-CA family members which are responsible for maintaining pH homeostasis in the physiology and pathology of organisms. A subset of CA isoforms are known to be expressed and function in the central nervous system (CNS). CA1 has not been extensively characterized in the CNS. In this study, we demonstrate that CA1 is expressed in the motor neurons in human spinal cord. Unexpectedly, a subpopulation of CA1 appears to be associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes. In addition, the membrane-associated CA1s are preferentially upregulated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and exhibit altered distribution in motor neurons. Furthermore, long-term expression of CA1 in mammalian cells activates apoptosis. Our results suggest a previously unknown role for CA1 function in the CNS and its potential involvement in motor neuron degeneration in ALS. PMID:27809276

  14. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase isoforms I, II, IX and XII with secondary sulfonamides incorporating benzothiazole scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Anthi; Geronikaki, Athina; Terzi, Emine; Guler, Ozen Ozensoy; Tuccinardi, Tiziano; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) catalyze the fundamental reaction of CO2 hydration in all living organisms, being actively involved in the regulation of a plethora of patho/physiological conditions. A series of benzothiazole-based sulfonamides were synthesized and tested as possible CA inhibitors. Their inhibitory activity was assessed against the cytosolic human isoforms hCA I and hCA II and the transmembrane hCA IX and hCA XII. Several of the investigated derivatives showed interesting inhibition activity and selectivities for inhibiting hCA IX and hCA XII over the off-target ones hCA I and hCA II. Furthermore, computational procedures were used to investigate the binding mode of this class of compounds, within the active site of hCA IX.

  15. Tyrosine nitration provokes inhibition of sunflower carbonic anhydrase (β-CA) activity under high temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Chaki, Mounira; Carreras, Alfonso; López-Jaramillo, Javier; Begara-Morales, Juan C; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Valderrama, Raquel; Corpas, Francisco J; Barroso, Juan B

    2013-02-28

    Protein tyrosine nitration is a post-translational modification (PTM) mediated by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and it is a new area of research in higher plants. Previously, it was demonstrated that the exposition of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings to high temperature (HT) caused both oxidative and nitrosative stress. The nitroproteome analysis under this stress condition showed the induction of 13 tyrosine-nitrated proteins being the carbonic anhydrase (CA) one of these proteins. The analysis of CA activity under high temperature showed that this stress inhibited the CA activity by a 43%. To evaluate the effect of nitration on the CA activity in sunflower it was used 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) (peroxynitrite donor) as the nitrating agent. Thus the CA activity was inhibited by 41%. In silico analysis of the pea CA protein sequence suggests that Tyr(205) is the most likely potential target for nitration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimers with Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitory Activity and Antiglaucoma Action.

    PubMed

    Carta, Fabrizio; Osman, Sameh M; Vullo, Daniela; Gullotto, Antonella; Winum, Jean-Yves; AlOthman, Zeid; Masini, Emanuela; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-05-14

    Four generations of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers decorated with benzenesulfonamide moieties were prepared by derivatizing the amino groups of the dendrimer with 4-carboxy-benzenesulfonamide functionalities. Compounds incorporating 4, 8, 16, and 32 sulfonamide moieties were thus obtained, which showed an increasing carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitory action with the increase of the number of sulfamoyl groups in the dendrimer. Best inhibitory activity (in the low nanomolar-subnanomolar range) was observed for isoforms CA II and XII, involved among others in glaucoma. In an animal model of this disease, the chronic administration of such dendrimers for 5 days led to a much more efficient drop of intraocular pressure compared to the standard drug dorzolamide.

  17. Dendrimers incorporating benzenesulfonamide moieties strongly inhibit carbonic anhydrase isoforms I-XIV.

    PubMed

    Carta, Fabrizio; Osman, Sameh M; Vullo, Daniela; AlOthman, Zeid; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-06-21

    As extension of our previous study herein we report a comprehensive investigation of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers as modulators of the human carbonic anhydrase (hCA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms I-XIV. Interestingly inhibitory activity was observed for the non-functionalized dendrimers against the hCA I, VII, IX, XII and XIV isoforms, whereas activation properties were reported only for the cytosolic abundant hCA II. Highly efficient inhibitory action against many isoforms having medicinal chemistry applications, such as hCA II, V, VII, IX, XII and XIV, was observed for the PAMAM functionalized counterparts bearing 4, 8, 16 and 32 benzenesulfonamide moieties. Possible applications of dendrimer-CA inhibitors as therapeutic/diagnostic agents are envisaged.

  18. Bioactive isoflavones from Pueraria lobata root and starch: Different extraction techniques and carbonic anhydrase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mocan, Andrei; Carradori, Simone; Locatelli, Marcello; Secci, Daniela; Cesa, Stefania; Mollica, Adriano; Riga, Simona; Angeli, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T; Celia, Christian; Di Marzio, Luisa

    2017-08-12

    Kudzu, the dried root of an important edible plant (Pueraria lobata), is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for the important nutritional value strictly related to its isoflavone derivatives. These compounds characterize the quality of kudzu contained in different preparations, as pharmaceutical ingredient as well as dietary/food supplement (e.g. starch). The optimization of the isoflavones recovery, monitored by HPLC-PDA, through different innovative and conventional extraction techniques, e.g. microwave-assisted, ultrasound-assisted and conventional extraction, represented a suitable challenge in food industry and natural products evaluation. The impact on the isoflavone extraction by using an ionic liquid-assisted procedure was also considered. Furthermore, the inhibitory activity of the most representative isoflavones, isolated from kudzu, was evaluated using four isoforms (I, II, IX and XII) of human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) due to their role in several physiopathological processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Conformational Effects on the Circular Dichroism of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II: A Multilevel Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Karabencheva-Christova, Tatyana G.; Carlsson, Uno; Balali-Mood, Kia; Black, Gary W.; Christov, Christo Z.

    2013-01-01

    Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is a powerful method for investigating conformational changes in proteins and therefore has numerous applications in structural and molecular biology. Here a computational investigation of the CD spectrum of the Human Carbonic Anhydrase II (HCAII), with main focus on the near-UV CD spectra of the wild-type enzyme and it seven tryptophan mutant forms, is presented and compared to experimental studies. Multilevel computational methods (Molecular Dynamics, Semiempirical Quantum Mechanics, Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory) were applied in order to gain insight into the mechanisms of interaction between the aromatic chromophores within the protein environment and understand how the conformational flexibility of the protein influences these mechanisms. The analysis suggests that combining CD semi empirical calculations, crystal structures and molecular dynamics (MD) could help in achieving a better agreement between the computed and experimental protein spectra and provide some unique insight into the dynamic nature of the mechanisms of chromophore interactions. PMID:23526922

  20. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Part 541: Metal Complexes of Heterocyclic Sulfonamides: A New Class of Antiglaucoma Agents

    PubMed Central

    Scozzafava, Andrea; Jitianu, Andrei

    1997-01-01

    Metal complexes of heterocyclic sulfonamides possessing carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitory properties were recently shown to be useful as intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering agents in experimental animals, and might be developed as a novel class of antiglaucoma drugs. Here we report the synthesis of a heterocyclic sulfonamide CA inhibitor and of the metal complexes containing main group metal ions, such as Be(II), Mg(II), Al(III), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) and the new sulfonamide as well as 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide as ligands. The new complexes were characterized by standard physico-chemical procedures, and assayed as inhibitors of three CA isozymes, CA I, II and IV. Some of them (but not the parent sulfonamides) strongly lowered IOP in rabbits when administered as a 2% solution into the eye. PMID:18475811

  1. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Part 721 Synthesis and Antiglaucoma Properties of Metal Complexes of p-Fluorobenzolamide

    PubMed Central

    Scozzafava, Andrea; Menabuoni, Luca; Mincione, Francesco; Briganti, Fabrizio; Mincione, Giovanna

    1999-01-01

    Metal complexes of a heterocyclic sulfonamides possessing very strong carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitory properties, i.e., 5-(p-fluorobenzenesulfonylamido)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide (p-fluorobenzolamide) were prepared. The new complexes contained metal ions such as Zn(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cd(II) and Mn(II). The new compounds were characterized by standard physico-chemical procedures, and assayed as inhibitors of three CA isozymes, CA I, II and IV. Very good inhibition has been evidenced both for the parent sulfonamides as well as for the prepared complexes, against all three investigated isozymes. Some of these new complexes as well as the parent sulfonamide, strongly lowered intraocular pressure (IOP) in normotensive rabbits when administered as a 2% solution into the eye. PMID:18475883

  2. Exploring Heteroaryl-pyrazole Carboxylic Acids as Human Carbonic Anhydrase XII Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cadoni, Roberta; Pala, Nicolino; Lomelino, Carrie; Mahon, Brian P; McKenna, Robert; Dallocchio, Roberto; Dessì, Alessandro; Carcelli, Mauro; Rogolino, Dominga; Sanna, Vanna; Rassu, Mauro; Iaccarino, Ciro; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Sechi, Mario

    2017-09-14

    We report the synthesis, biological evaluation, and structural study of a series of substituted heteroaryl-pyrazole carboxylic acid derivatives. These compounds have been developed as inhibitors of specific isoforms of carbonic anhydrase (CA), with potential as prototypes of a new class of chemotherapeutics. Both X-ray crystallography and computational modeling provide insights into the CA inhibition mechanism. Results indicate that this chemotype produces an indirect interference with the zinc ion, thus behaving differently from other related nonclassical inhibitors. Among the tested compounds, 2c with Ki = 0.21 μM toward hCA XII demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity against hypoxic tumor cell lines. Taken together, the results thus provide the basis of structural determinants for the development of novel anticancer agents.

  3. Carbonic anhydrase inhibition and cytotoxicity studies of Mannich base derivatives of thymol.

    PubMed

    Inci Gul, Halise; Yamali, Cem; Tugce Yasa, Asiye; Unluer, Elif; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Tanc, Muhammet; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-12-01

    Mannich bases of thymol were synthesized. The aminomethylation reaction was realised in the ortho position of the phenol for compounds 2 (dipropylamine), 3 (benzylamine), and 4 (dibenzylamine) while it was from para position for 1 (dimethylamine), 5 (piperidine), 6 (morpholine) and 7 (N-methylpiperazine). The carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitory effects of the compounds were asssessed against hCA I and hCA II. All compounds moderately inhibited hCA I and hCA II. The cytotoxicity of the compounds against four human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were compared those against three normal oral cells. Tumor specificity values were about 2 or slightly more for the compounds 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Compound 2 showed cytostatic activity against OSCC cell lines at 16 to 32-fold lower concentrations as compared with normal cells. This suggests that compound 2 can be considered as cytotoxicity enhancing drug candidate for further investigations.

  4. Inhibitory effects of isatin Mannich bases on carbonic anhydrases, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Ozgun, Dilan Ozmen; Yamali, Cem; Gul, Halise Inci; Taslimi, Parham; Gulcin, Ilhami; Yanik, Telat; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-12-01

    The effects of isatin Mannich bases incorporating (1-[piperidin-1-yl (P1)/morpholin-4-yl (P2)/N-methylpiperazin-1-yl (P3)]methyl)-1H-indole-2,3-dione) moieties against human (h) carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoenzymes hCA I and hCA II, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes were evaluated. P1-P3 demonstrated impressive inhibition profiles against AChE and BChE and also inhibited both CAs at nanomolar level. These inhibitory effects were more powerful in all cases than the reference compounds used for all these enzymes. This study suggests that isatin Mannich bases P1-P3 are good candidate compounds especially for the development of new cholinesterase inhibitors since they were 2.2-5.9 times better inhibitors than clinically used drug Tacrine.

  5. Carbonic anhydrase I and II inhibition with natural products: caffeine and piperine.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Kalyan K; Sahoo, Suvendu K; Pichikala, Jayaprakash N; Suresh, Padilam

    2012-02-01

    Novel chemotypes with carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitory action, in addition to the sulphonamide and sulphamate were discovered, many of which are based on natural products. Caffeine and piperine were extracted and tested for inhibition of the human (h) cytosolic isoforms hCA I and II. The IC(50) values of caffeine against hCA I was of 55 mM, whereas that of piperine of 60 mM. The IC(50) values of caffeine and piperine against hCA II were of 2 mM. Although these are quite weak inhibitors they may constitute leads for developing tighter binding compounds.

  6. Structural insights into the LCIB protein family reveals a new group of β-carbonic anhydrases

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shengyang; Sun, Jian; Wunder, Tobias; Tang, Desong; Cousins, Asaph B.; Sze, Siu Kwan; Mueller-Cajar, Oliver; Gao, Yong-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic microalgae have evolved diverse CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) to saturate the carboxylase with its substrate, to compensate for the slow kinetics and competing oxygenation reaction of the key photosynthetic CO2-fixing enzyme rubisco. The limiting CO2-inducible B protein (LCIB) is known to be essential for CCM function in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. To assign a function to this previously uncharacterized protein family, we purified and characterized a phylogenetically diverse set of LCIB homologs. Three of the six homologs are functional carbonic anhydrases (CAs). We determined the crystal structures of LCIB and limiting CO2-inducible C protein (LCIC) from C. reinhardtii and a CA-functional homolog from Phaeodactylum tricornutum, all of which harbor motifs bearing close resemblance to the active site of canonical β-CAs. Our results identify the LCIB family as a previously unidentified group of β-CAs, and provide a biochemical foundation for their function in the microalgal CCMs. PMID:27911826

  7. Synthesis, carbonic anhydrase inhibition and cytotoxic activity of novel chromone-based sulfonamide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Awadallah, Fadi M; El-Waei, Tamer A; Hanna, Mona M; Abbas, Safinaz E; Ceruso, Mariangela; Oz, Beyza Ecem; Guler, Ozen Ozensoy; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-01-01

    Four series of sulfonamides incorporating chromone moieties were synthesized and assessed for their cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 and A-549 cell lines, considering the fact that some of these tumors overexpress isoforms of carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) which is inhibited by sulfonamides. Most new sulfonamides showed weak inhibitory activity against the offtarget, cytosolic isoforms hCA I, II but effectively inhibited the tumor-associated hCA IX and XII. The most active compounds featured a primary SO2NH2 group and were active in the low micromolar range against MCF-7 and A-549 cell lines. Compound 4a showed IC50 of 0.72 and 0.50 μM against MCF-7 and A-549 cell lines, respectively, and was further evaluated for its proapoptotic activity which proved enhanced in both tumor types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Saccharin Sulfonamides as Inhibitors of Carbonic Anhydrases I, II, VII, XII, and XIII

    PubMed Central

    Morkūnaitė, Vaida; Baranauskienė, Lina; Zubrienė, Asta; Trapencieris, Pēteris

    2014-01-01

    A series of modified saccharin sulfonamides have been designed as carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors and synthesized. Their binding to CA isoforms I, II, VII, XII, and XIII was measured by the fluorescent thermal shift assay (FTSA) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Saccharin bound the CAs weakly, exhibiting the affinities of 1–10 mM for four CAs except CA I where binding could not be detected. Several sulfonamide-bearing saccharines exhibited strong affinities of 1–10 nM towards particular CA isoforms. The functional group binding Gibbs free energy additivity maps are presented which may provide insights into the design of compounds with increased affinity towards selected CAs. PMID:25276805

  9. Natural product inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase I and II isoenzymes: osajin and pomiferin.

    PubMed

    Dilek, Esra; Erol, Hüseyin Serkan; Cakir, Ahmet; Koc, Murat; Halici, Mesut Bünyami

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to purify carbonic anhydrase I and II isoenzymes from human erythrocyte, isolate two natural products osajin (OSJ) and pomiferin (PMF) from Maclura pomifera fruits, and evaluate the in vitro effect of these natural metabolites on these isoenzymes. These natural products may be used as starting points for drug discovery (like drugs used in several therapeutic applications, including antiglaucoma activity). For the purification procedure, the Sepharose-4B-l-tyrosine-sulphonamide affinity chromatography was used. Column chromatography and thin layer chromatography methods were used for isolation of OSJ and PMF from M. pomifera fruits and their chemical structures were elucidated by IR, 1D, and 2D NMR methods. We compared inhibitory effects of these natural products with inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds and found that these products demonstrated average inhibition effects. We thought that this study will give inspiration to scientists interested in this issue.

  10. Probing the Surface of Human Carbonic Anhydrase for Clues towards the Design of Isoform Specific Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Pinard, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    The alpha carbonic anhydrases (α-CAs) are a group of structurally related zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of CO2 to HCO3−. Humans have 15 different α-CAs with numerous physiological roles and expression patterns. Of these, 12 are catalytically active, and abnormal expression and activities are linked with various diseases, including glaucoma and cancer. Hence there is a need for CA isoform specific inhibitors to avoid off-target CA inhibition, but due to the high amino acid conservation of the active site and surrounding regions between each enzyme, this has proven difficult. However, residues towards the exit of the active site are variable and can be exploited to design isoform selective inhibitors. Here we discuss and characterize this region of “selective drug targetability” and how these observations can be utilized to develop isoform selective CA inhibitors. PMID:25811028

  11. Rational engineering of a mesohalophilic carbonic anhydrase to an extreme halotolerant biocatalyst

    PubMed Central

    Warden, Andrew C.; Williams, Michelle; Peat, Thomas S.; Seabrook, Shane A.; Newman, Janet; Dojchinov, Greg; Haritos, Victoria S.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes expressed by highly salt-tolerant organisms show many modifications compared with salt-affected counterparts including biased amino acid and lower α-helix content, lower solvent accessibility and negative surface charge. Here, we show that halotolerance can be generated in an enzyme solely by modifying surface residues. Rational design of carbonic anhydrase II is undertaken in three stages replacing 18 residues in total, crystal structures confirm changes are confined to surface residues. Catalytic activities and thermal unfolding temperatures of the designed enzymes increase at high salt concentrations demonstrating their shift to halotolerance, whereas the opposite response is found in the wild-type enzyme. Molecular dynamics calculations reveal a key role for sodium ions in increasing halotolerant enzyme stability largely through interactions with the highly ordered first Na+ hydration shell. For the first time, an approach to generate extreme halotolerance, a trait with broad application in industrial biocatalysis, in a wild-type enzyme is demonstrated. PMID:26687908

  12. Structure of a monoclinic polymorph of human carbonic anhydrase II with a doubled a axis

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, Arthur H.; Domsic, John F.; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; McKenna, Robert

    2010-05-01

    The crystal structure of human carbonic anhydrase II with a doubled a axis from that of the usually observed monoclinic cell has been determined and refined to 1.4 Å resolution. The two molecules comprising the asymmetric unit are related by a noncrystallographic translation of ½ along a, but one of the molecules has two alternate orientations related by a rotation of approximately 2°. The crystal structure of human carbonic anhydrase II with a doubled a axis from that of the usually observed monoclinic unit cell has been determined and refined to 1.4 Å resolution. The diffraction data with h = 2n + 1 were systematically weaker than those with h = 2n. Consequently, the scaling of the data, structure solution and refinement were challenging. The two molecules comprising the asymmetric unit are related by a noncrystallographic translation of ½ along a, but one of the molecules has two alternate positions related by a rotation of approximately 2°. This rotation axis is located near the edge of the central β-sheet, causing a maximum distance disparity of 1.7 Å between equivalent atoms on the diametrically opposite side of the molecule. The crystal-packing contacts are similar to two sequential combined unit cells along a of the previously determined monoclinic unit cell. Abnormally high final R{sub cryst} and R{sub free} values (20.2% and 23.7%, respectively) are not unusual for structures containing pseudo-translational symmetry and probably result from poor signal to noise in the weak h-odd data.

  13. Carbonic anhydrase-facilitated CO2 absorption with polyacrylamide buffering bead capture

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmore, Robert; Griffith, Craid; Liu, Zhu; Soong, Yee; Hedges, Sheila W.; Koepsel, Richard; Ataai, M

    2009-07-01

    A novel CO2 separation concept is described wherein the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) is used to increase the overall rate Of CO2 absorption after which hydrated CO2 reacts with regenerable amine-bearing polyacrylamide buffering beads (PABB). Following saturation of the material's immobilized tertiary amines, CA-bearing carrier water is separated and recycled to the absorption stage while CO2-loaded material is thermally regenerated. Process application of this concept would involve operation of two or more columns in parallel with thermal regeneration with low-pressure steam taking place after the capacity of a column of amine-bearing polymeric material was exceeded. PABB CO2- bearing capacity was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for beads of three acrylamido buffering monomer ingredient concentrations: 0 mol/kg bead, 0.857 mol/kg bead, and 2 mol/kg bead. TGA results demonstrate that CO2- bearing capacity increases with increasing PABB buffering concentration and that up to 78% of the theoretical CO2- bearing capacity was realized in prepared PABB samples (0.857 mol/kg recipe). The highest observed CO2-bearing capacity of PABB was 1.37 mol of CO2 per kg dry bead. TGA was also used to assess the regenerability Of CO2-loaded PABB. Preliminary results suggest that CO2 is partially driven from PABB samples at temperatures as low as 55 degrees C, with complete regeneration occurring at 100 degrees C. Other physical characteristics of PABB are discussed. In addition, the effectiveness of bovine carbonic anhydrase for the catalysis Of CO2 dissolution is evaluated. Potential benefits and drawbacks of the proposed process are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Malaria parasite carbonic anhydrase: inhibition of aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides and its therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Krungkrai, Sudaratana R; Krungkrai, Jerapan

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) is responsible for the majority of life-threatening cases of human malaria, causing 1.5-2.7 million annual deaths. The global emergence of drug-resistant malaria parasites necessitates identification and characterization of novel drug targets and their potential inhibitors. We identified the carbonic anhydrase (CA) genes in P. falciparum. The pfCA gene encodes anα-carbonic anhydrase, a Zn2+-metalloenzme, possessing catalytic properties distinct from that of the human host CA enzyme. The amino acid sequence of the pfCA enzyme is different from the analogous protozoan and human enzymes. A library of aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides possessing a large diversity of scaffolds were found to be very good inhibitors for the malarial enzyme at moderate-low micromolar and submicromolar inhibitions. The structure of the groups substituting the aromatic-ureido- or aromatic-azomethine fragment of the molecule and the length of the parent sulfonamide were critical parameters for the inhibitory properties of the sulfonamides. One derivative, that is, 4- (3, 4-dichlorophenylureido)thioureido-benzenesulfonamide (compound 10) was the most effective in vitro Plasmodium falciparum CA inhibitor, and was also the most effective antimalarial compound on the in vitro P. falciparum growth inhibition. The compound 10 was also effective in vivo antimalarial agent in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei, an animal model of drug testing for human malaria infection. It is therefore concluded that the sulphonamide inhibitors targeting the parasite CA may have potential for the development of novel therapies against human malaria. PMID:23569766

  15. Characterization of the Copper(II) Binding Sites in Human Carbonic Anhydrase II

    PubMed Central

    Nettles, Whitnee L.; Song, He; Farquhar, Erik R.; Fitzkee, Nicholas C.; Emerson, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Human carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a well-studied, robust, mononuclear Zn-containing metalloprotein that serves as an excellent biological ligand system to study the thermodynamics associated with metal ion coordination chemistry in aqueous solution. The apo-form of human carbonic anhydrase II (CA) binds two equivalents of copper(II) with high affinity. The Cu2+ ions bind independently forming two non-coupled type-II copper centers in CA (CuA and CuB). However, the location and coordination mode of the CuA site in solution is unclear, compared to the CuB site that has been well characterized. Using paramagnetic NMR techniques and X-ray absorption spectroscopy we have identified an N-terminal Cu2+ binding location and collected information on the coordination mode of the CuA site in CA, which is consistent with a four to five coordinate N-terminal Cu2+ binding site reminiscent to a number of N-terminal copper(II) binding sites including the copper(II)-ATCUN and copper(II)-beta-amyloid complexes. Additionally, we report a more detailed analysis of the thermodynamics associated with copper(II) binding to CA. Although we are still unable to fully deconvolute Cu2+ binding data to the high-affinity CuA site, we have derived pH- and buffer-independent values for the thermodynamics parameters K and ΔH associated with Cu2+ binding to the CuB site of CA to be 2 × 109 and −17.4 kcal/mol, respectively. PMID:26010488

  16. Human secreted carbonic anhydrase: cDNA cloning, nucleotide sequence, and hybridization histochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Aldred, P.; Fu, Ping; Barrett, G.; Penschow, J.D.; Wright, R.D.; Coghlan, J.P.; Fernley, R.T. )

    1991-01-01

    Complementary DNA clones coding for the human secreted carbonic anhydrase isozyme (CAVI) have been isolated and their nucleotide sequences determined. These clones identify a 1.45-kb mRNA that is present in high levels in parotid submandibular salivary glands but absent in other tissues such as the sublingual gland, kidney, liver, and prostate gland. Hybridization histochemistry of human salivary glands shows mRNA for CA VI located in the acinar cells of these glands. The cDNA clones encode a protein of 308 amino acids that includes a 17 amino acid leader sequence typical of secreted proteins. The mature protein has 291 amino acids compared to 259 or 260 for the cytoplasmic isozymes, with most of the extra amino acids present as a carboxyl terminal extension. In comparison, sheep CA VI has a 45 amino acid extension. Overall the human CA VI protein has a sequence identity of 35 {percent} with human CA II, while residues involved in the active site of the enzymes have been conserved. The human and sheep secreted carbonic anhydrases have a sequence identity of 72 {percent}. This includes the two cysteine residues that are known to be involved in an intramolecular disulfide bond in the sheep CA VI. The enzyme is known to be glycosylated and three potential N-glycosylation sites (Asn-X-Thr/Ser) have been identified. Two of these are known to be glycosylated in sheep CA VI. Southern analysis of human DNA indicates that there is only one gene coding for CA VI.

  17. Expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Cell-Surface Transmembrane Carbonic Anhydrases in Human Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Sergey; Liao, Shu-Yuan; Ivanova, Alla; Danilkovitch-Miagkova, Alla; Tarasova, Nadezhda; Weirich, Gregor; Merrill, Marsha J.; Proescholdt, Martin A.; Oldfield, Edward H.; Lee, Joshua; Zavada, Jan; Waheed, Abdul; Sly, William; Lerman, Michael I.; Stanbridge, Eric J.

    2001-01-01

    An acidic extracellular pH is a fundamental property of the malignant phenotype. In von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-defective tumors the cell surface transmembrane carbonic anhydrase (CA) CA9 and CA12 genes are overexpressed because of the absence of pVHL. We hypothesized that these enzymes might be involved in maintaining the extracellular acidic pH in tumors, thereby providing a conducive environment for tumor growth and spread. Using Northern blot analysis and immunostaining with specific antibodies we analyzed the expression of CA9 and CA12 genes and their products in a large sample of cancer cell lines, fresh and archival tumor specimens, and normal human tissues. Expression was also analyzed in cultured cells under hypoxic conditions. Expression of CA IX and CA XII in normal adult tissues was detected only in highly specialized cells and for most tissues their expression did not overlap. Analysis of RNA samples isolated from 87 cancer cell lines and 18 tumors revealed high-to-moderate levels of expression of CA9 and CA12 in multiple cancers. Immunohistochemistry revealed high-to-moderate expression of these enzymes in various normal tissues and multiple common epithelial tumor types. The immunostaining was seen predominantly on the cell surface membrane. The expression of both genes was markedly induced under hypoxic conditions in tumors and cultured tumor cells. We conclude that the cell surface trans-membrane carbonic anhydrases CA IX and CA XII are overexpressed in many tumors suggesting that this is a common feature of cancer cells that may be required for tumor progression. These enzymes may contribute to the tumor microenvironment by maintaining extracellular acidic pH and helping cancer cells grow and metastasize. Our studies show an important causal link between hypoxia, extracellular acidification, and induction or enhanced expression of these enzymes in human tumors. PMID:11238039

  18. Tracking solvent and protein movement during CO2 release in carbonic anhydrase II crystals

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chae Un; Song, HyoJin; Avvaru, Balendu Sankara; Gruner, Sol M.; Park, SangYoun; McKenna, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases are mostly zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration/dehydration of CO2/HCO3−. Previously, the X-ray crystal structures of CO2-bound holo (zinc-bound) and apo (zinc-free) human carbonic anhydrase IIs (hCA IIs) were captured at high resolution. Here, we present sequential timeframe structures of holo- [T = 0 s (CO2-bound), 50 s, 3 min, 10 min, 25 min, and 1 h] and apo-hCA IIs [T = 0 s, 50 s, 3 min, and 10 min] during the “slow” release of CO2. Two active site waters, WDW (deep water) and WDW′ (this study), replace the vacated space created on CO2 release, and another water, WI (intermediate water), is seen to translocate to the proton wire position W1. In addition, on the rim of the active site pocket, a water W2′ (this study), in close proximity to residue His64 and W2, gradually exits the active site, whereas His64 concurrently rotates from pointing away (“out”) to pointing toward (“in”) active site rotameric conformation. This study provides for the first time, to our knowledge, structural “snapshots” of hCA II intermediate states during the formation of the His64-mediated proton wire that is induced as CO2 is released. Comparison of the holo- and apo-hCA II structures shows that the solvent network rearrangements require the presence of the zinc ion. PMID:27114542

  19. Kinetics, anion binding and mechanism of Co(II)-substituted bovine muscle carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Ren, X; Sandström, A; Lindskog, S

    1988-04-05

    The binding of N3- to Co(II)-substituted bovine carbonic anhydrase III was measured at various pH values by spectrophotometric titrations. The apparent Ki values were found to increase with pH in the studied range between pH 5.8 and 8.9. The inhibition of CO2 hydration by N-3 was found to be essentially uncompetitive at all investigated pH values (pH 6.3-8.9). The Ki values for the inhibition of kcat are much smaller than those obtained in the spectrophotometric titrations indicating that an enzyme form with a high affinity for N-3, presumably having a metal-bound H2O, accumulates in the steady state at saturating CO2 concentrations. Assuming that the low pH limit of Ki = 9 microM for the inhibition of kcat represents the affinity of N-3 for the Co(II)-OH2 form, a pKa value near 5 can be estimated for Co(II)-bound water from the pH dependence of N-3 binding in the absence of CO2. Measurements of time-resolved absorption spectra during CO2 hydration in the presence of a low N-3 concentration showed the transient appearance of the characteristic spectrum of the enzyme-N-3 adduct clearly demonstrating the accumulation in the steady state of an enzyme form with a high affinity for N-3. In similar experiments without inhibitor the transient formation of a spectral form corresponding to a Co(II)-OH2 species has been demonstrated. This spectral form is rather featureless lacking the absorption maxima at 618 nm and 640 nm characteristic of the Co(II)-OH- species. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that the rate-limiting step in CO2 hydration catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase III is the protolysis of metal-bound water.

  20. Carbonic anhydrase and acid base balance in relation to thermal stress in buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, S. N.; Gangwar, P. C.

    1983-03-01

    The blood samples from fifteen normal lactating buffaloes were taken from December 15th 1978 to 31st August, 1979. Depending upon the climatic conditions, the whole period of study was divided into four seasons. The mean values of carbonic anhydrase (moles CO2/l/sec×10-5) were 3.08±0.26, 4.94±0.44, 5.23±0.35, 6.44±0.32 in pregnant and 4.87±0.27, 4.53±0.41, 4.74±0.45, 6.36±0.40 in non-pregnant animals during winter, spring, hot and dry and hot and humid seasons. Mean values of pO2 (mm Hg) were 31.26±1.41, 31.92±0.61, 35.90±0.59, 33.80 ±0.67 in pregnant and 31.89±0.44, 31.53±0.54, 35.52±0.69, 31.65±0.95 in non-pregnant buffaloes during winter, spring, hot and dry and hot and humid periods, respectively. There were highly significant (P< 0.01) differences between seasons with respect to pO2, pCO2, actual HCO3 and heamoglobin. However, PCV changed significantly (P<0.01) with the physiological status of the animal. Different correlation of biochemical parameters with climatic elements were discussed. Thus, the shifts in the levels of carbonic anhydrase, HCO3 and heamoglobin may prove to be a better tool/index for thermal stress in buffaloes.

  1. Carbonic anhydrase II is found in the placenta of a viviparous, matrotrophic lizard and likely facilitates embryo-maternal CO2 transport.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, James U; Lindsay, Laura A; Murphy, Christopher R; Thompson, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    The evolution of viviparity requires the development of mechanisms that facilitate transport of respiratory gases between mother and developing embryo. Of particular importance is maternal excretion of embryonic carbon dioxide (CO2 ), which increases as the embryo grows in size during development. The carbonic anhydrases are a family of enzymes that convert CO2 to bicarbonate for transport throughout the cardiovascular system and which may also be important for CO2 transport from embryo to mother. We used immunohistochemistry to localize carbonic anhydrase II in the placental tissues of a viviparous and highly placentotrophic lizard, Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii. Carbonic anhydrase II is localized in the uterine component of the paraplacentome, presumably to facilitate transport of embryonic CO2 to the mother. Carbonic anhydrase II is also localized in both the uterine and embryonic components of the placentome, a region heavily involved in placental nutrient transport rather than respiratory gas exchange. In contrast, carbonic anhydrase II is not present in the uterine or embryonic components of the omphaloplacenta, another region responsible for nutrient transport. While carbonic anhydrase II in the paraplacentomal uterus is likely to be responsible for embryo-maternal CO2 transport, the distribution of carbonic anhydrase II throughout the placentome indicates a different function. Instead of transporting embryonic CO2 , placentomal carbonic anhydrase II appears to be responsible for transporting CO2 produced by energetically expensive nutrient transport mechanisms in both the uterus and the embryo, which implies that the mechanisms of nutrient transport in the omphaloplacenta may not be as energetically expensive. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Isolation and characterization of 2-nitroimidazole produced by Streptomyces species as an inhibitor of both carbonic anhydrase and shell formation in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Mari; Ozaki, Noriaki; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Furihata, Keiko; Hayakawa, Yoichi; Sakuda, Shohei; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2002-03-01

    Carbonic anhydrase is thought to be involved in the process of calcium carbonate deposition in calcified tissues of many organisms. Barnacles form hard calcified shells for protection against predation, and represent a class of marine-fouling animals. In order to inhibit barnacle growth by inhibiting shell formation, we searched for carbonic anhydrase inhibitors from microbial secondary metabolites. A simple assay for assessing carbonic-anhydrase-inhibiting activity was developed. Screening of many microorganisms isolated from soil with this assay resulted in a microbial strain that produced a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. This strain was identified as Streptomyces eurocidicus mf294. The inhibitor was isolated through 4 purification steps and identified as 2-nitroimidazole on the basis of spectroscopic data. 2-Nitroimidazole inhibited barnacle carbonic anhydrase dose-dependently and complete inhibition was reached at the concentration of 1 x 10(-5) M. 2-Nitroimidazole did not affect settlement or metamorphosis of barnacle larvae, but inhibited shell formation at concentrations higher than 1 x 10(-4) M. These findings strongly support the idea that carbonic anhydrase is involved in calcification.

  3. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency in 12 families with the autosomal recessive syndrome of osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification.

    PubMed

    Sly, W S; Whyte, M P; Sundaram, V; Tashian, R E; Hewett-Emmett, D; Guibaud, P; Vainsel, M; Baluarte, H J; Gruskin, A; Al-Mosawi, M

    1985-07-18

    Osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification was identified as a recessively inherited syndrome in 1972. In 1983, we reported a deficiency of carbonic anhydrase II, one of the isozymes of carbonic anhydrase, in three sisters with this disorder. We now describe our study of 18 similarly affected patients with this syndrome in 11 unrelated families of different geographic and ethnic origins. Virtual absence of the carbonic anhydrase II peak on high-performance liquid chromatography, of the esterase and carbon dioxide hydratase activities of carbonic anhydrase II, and of immunoprecipitable isozyme II was demonstrated on extracts of erythrocyte hemolysates from all patients studied. Reduced levels of isozyme II were found in obligate heterozygotes. These observations demonstrate the generality of the findings that we reported earlier in one family and provide further evidence that a deficiency of carbonic anhydrase II is the enzymatic basis for the autosomal recessive syndrome of osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification. We also summarize the clinical findings in these families, propose mechanisms by which a deficiency of carbonic anhydrase II could produce this metabolic disorder of bone, kidney, and brain, and discuss the clinical evidence for genetic heterogeneity in patients from different kindreds with this inborn error of metabolism.

  4. Solvent hydrogen isotope effects and anion inhibition of CO2 hydration catalysed by carbonic anhydrase from Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Johansson, I M; Forsman, C

    1994-09-15

    Chloroplast carbonic anhydrase from Pisum sativum has been studied to elucidate the catalytic mechanism and to test if the mechanism proposed for human carbonic anhydrase II is also valid for pea carbonic anhydrase. The catalytic activity was found to depend on the chemical nature of the buffer. Barbital buffer gives the highest turnover number at infinite buffer concentration and the lowest Km value with respect to the buffer, while the kinetic parameters obtained in the imidazole-type buffer, 1-methylimidazole, do not differ from those obtained using the biological-type buffer Mops. The anion inhibition of CO2 hydration was investigated using SCN- at pH 6-9. The binding of the anion was found to be pH dependent with the strongest interaction at low pH. We obtained an uncompetitive inhibition pattern at high pH and noncompetitive inhibition patterns at pH 7 and low pH. The catalytic mechanism was further tested by measurements of the solvent hydrogen isotope effects on the kinetic parameters for CO2 hydration. The observed effects were comparatively small with a kcat value of approximately 2 irrespective of the pH. The effect on kcat/Km and on Km changes when going from high pH to pH 7 and low pH. At high pH, the solvent isotope effect in Km is at least 3, giving a value below 1 for kcat/Km, while at pH 7 and low pH the major effect is found in kcat/Km with values of 2.6 and 2.9. The dependence of the CO2-hydration activity on the buffer concentration is in agreement with a ping-pong mechanism with buffer acting as a second substrate. This is analogous to the behaviour of human carbonic anhydrase II. The inhibition patterns and the observed isotope effects at high pH can also be explained within the framework of the catalytic mechanism for human carbonic anhydrase II, with a rate-determining and buffer-dependent part. The results are consistent with a mechanism involving a proton transfer that contributes to rate limitation. However, the isotope effects found at p

  5. Modulation of the initial mineralization process of SaOS-2 cells by carbonic anhydrase activators and polyphosphate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C; Schlossmacher, Ute; Neufurth, Meik; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-05-01

    Ca-phosphate/hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals constitute the mineral matrix of vertebrate bones, while Ca-carbonate is the predominant mineral of many invertebrates, like mollusks. Recent results suggest that CaCO₃ is also synthesized during early bone formation. We demonstrate that carbonic anhydrase-driven CaCO₃ formation in vitro is activated by organic extracts from the demosponge Suberites domuncula as well as by quinolinic acid, one component isolated from these extracts. Further results revealed that the stimulatory effect of bicarbonate (HCO₃ (-)) ions on mineralization of osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells is strongly enhanced if the cells are exposed to inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), a linear polymer of phosphate linked by energy-rich phosphodiester bonds. The effect of polyP, administered as polyP (Ca²⁺ salt), on HA formation was found to be amplified by addition of the carbonic anhydrase-activating sponge extract or quinolinic acid. Our results support the assumption that CaCO₃ deposits, acting as bio-seeds for Ca-carbonated phosphate formation, are formed as an intermediate during HA mineralization and that the carbonic anhydrase-mediated formation of those deposits is under a positive-negative feedback control by bone alkaline phosphatase-dependent polyP metabolism, offering new targets for therapy of bone diseases/defects.

  6. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors modify intracellular pH transients and contractions of rat middle cerebral arteries during CO2/HCO3(-) fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jacob K; Boedtkjer, Ebbe

    2017-01-01

    The CO2/HCO3(-) buffer minimizes pH changes in response to acid-base loads, HCO3(-) provides substrate for Na(+),HCO3(-)-cotransporters and Cl(-)/HCO3(-)-exchangers, and H(+) and HCO3(-) modify vasomotor responses during acid-base disturbances. We show here that rat middle cerebral arteries express cytosolic, mitochondrial, extracellular, and secreted carbonic anhydrase isoforms that catalyze equilibration of the CO2/HCO3(-) buffer. Switching from CO2/HCO3(-)-free to CO2/HCO3(-)-containing extracellular solution results in initial intracellular acidification due to hydration of CO2 followed by gradual alkalinization due to cellular HCO3(-) uptake. Carbonic anhydrase inhibition decelerates the initial acidification and attenuates the associated transient vasoconstriction without affecting intracellular pH or artery tone at steady-state. Na(+),HCO3(-)-cotransport and Na(+)/H(+)-exchange activity after NH4(+)-prepulse-induced intracellular acidification are unaffected by carbonic anhydrase inhibition. Extracellular surface pH transients induced by transmembrane NH3 flux are evident under CO2/HCO3(-)-free conditions but absent when the buffer capacity and apparent H(+) mobility increase in the presence of CO2/HCO3(-) even after the inhibition of carbonic anhydrases. We conclude that (a) intracellular carbonic anhydrase activity accentuates pH transients and vasoconstriction in response to acute elevations of pCO2, (b) CO2/HCO3(-) minimizes extracellular surface pH transients without requiring carbonic anhydrase activity, and

  7. Immobilization of carbonic anhydrase enzyme purified from Bacillus subtilis VSG-4 and its application as CO(2) sequesterer.

    PubMed

    Oviya, M; Giri, Sib Sankar; Sukumaran, V; Natarajan, P

    2012-01-01

    The purification, immobilization, and characterization of carbonic anhydrase (CA) secreted by Bacillus subtilis VSG-4 isolated from tropical soil have been investigated in this work. Carbonic anhydrase was purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephadex-G-75 column chromatography, and DEAE-cellulose chromatography, achieving a 24.6-fold purification. The apparent molecular mass of purified CA obtained by SDS-PAGE was found to be 37 kD. The purified CA was entrapped within a chitosan-alginate polyelectrolyte complex (C-A PEC) hydrogel for potential use as an immobilized enzyme. The optimum pH and temperature for both free and immobilized enzymes were 8.2 and 37°C, respectively. The immobilized enzyme had a much higher storage stability than the free enzyme. Certain metal ions, namely, Co(2+), Cu(2+), and Fe(3+), increased the enzyme activity, whereas CA activity was inhibited by Pb(2+), Hg(2+), ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB), and acetazolamide. Free and immobilized CAs were tested further for the targeted application of the carbonation reaction to convert CO(2) to CaCO(3). The maximum CO(2) sequestration potential was achieved with immobilized CA (480 mg CaCO(3)/mg protein). These properties suggest that immobilized VSG-4 carbonic anhydrase has the potential to be used for biomimetic CO(2) sequestration.

  8. The role of carbonic anhydrase in C4 photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Studer, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Current pressures on the global food supply have accelerated the urgency for a second green revolution using novel and sustainable approaches to increase crop yield and efficiency. This proposal outlines experiments to address fundamental questions regarding the biology of C4 photosynthesis, the method of carbon fixation utilized by the most productive food, feed and bioenergy crops. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) has been implicated in multiple cellular functions including nitrogen metabolism, water use efficiency, and photosynthesis. CA catalyzes the first dedicated step in C4 photosynthesis, the hydration of CO2 into bicarbonate, and is potentially rate limiting in C4 grasses. Using insertional mutagenesis, we have generated CA mutants in maize, and propose the characterization of these mutants using phenotypic, physiological, and transcriptomic profiling to assay the plant’s response to altered CA activity. In addition, florescent protein tagging experiments will be employed to study the subcellular localization of CA paralogs, providing critical data for modeling carbon fixation in C4 plants. Finally, I propose parallel experiments in Setaria viridis to explore its relevance as model C4 grass. Using a multifaceted approach, this proposal addresses important questions in basic biology, as well as the need for translation research in response to looming global food challenges.

  9. Expression of carbonic anhydrase 9 at the invasion front of gastric cancers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J; Röcken, C; Hoffmann, J; Krüger, S; Lendeckel, U; Rocco, A; Pastorekova, S; Malfertheiner, P; Ebert, M P A

    2005-01-01

    Background: Carbonic anhydrase IX (MN/Ca9) catalyses the reversible metabolism of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid and has also been linked to malignant transformation and hypoxia in various cancers. Aims: To assess the expression and biological role of Ca9 in gastric cancer. Methods: Using gastric cancer cell lines and tissues, we studied expression of Ca9 by western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction. Biological changes after Ca9 transfection and after treatment with 5′-azadeoxycytidine were also analysed in cancer cell lines. Results: Non-cancerous tissues strongly expressed Ca9 with membranous localisation. In contrast, Ca9 expression was frequently lost in gastric cancers (p<0.001). However, gastric cancers that retained Ca9 expression in cancer cells exhibited a shorter postoperative survival (p = 0.028). In vitro analysis revealed that loss of Ca9 expression in gastric cancer cell lines was restored after treatment with 5′-azadeoxycytidine and was associated with increased invasion (p<0.01). Moreover, AGS cells transfected with Ca9 exhibited significantly increased cell proliferation (p<0.05). Conclusions: A subgroup of gastric cancers retain Ca9 expression in cancer cells at the invasion front. While loss of Ca9 expression is regulated in part by methylation, re-expression of Ca9 is associated with increased invasion, supporting the hypothesis that increased Ca9 expression may contribute to invasion and thus advanced disease and tumour progression in a subset of gastric cancers. PMID:15951534

  10. The filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora can survive in ambient air without carbonic anhydrases.

    PubMed

    Lehneck, Ronny; Elleuche, Skander; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2014-06-01

    The rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate (hydrogen carbonate) is catalysed by metalloenzymes termed carbonic anhydrases (CAs). CAs have been identified in all three domains of life and can be divided into five evolutionarily unrelated classes (α, β, γ, δ and ζ) that do not share significant sequence similarities. The function of the mammalian, prokaryotic and plant α-CAs has been intensively studied but the function of CAs in filamentous ascomycetes is mostly unknown. The filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora codes for four CAs, three of the β-class and one of the α-class. Here, we present a functional analysis of CAS4, the S. macrospora α-class CA. The CAS4 protein was post-translationally glycosylated and secreted. The knockout strain Δcas4 had a significantly reduced rate of ascospore germination. To determine the cas genes required for S. macrospora growth under ambient air conditions, we constructed double and triple mutations of the four cas genes in all possible combinations and a quadruple mutant. Vegetative growth rate of the quadruple mutant lacking all cas genes was drastically reduced compared to the wild type and invaded the agar under normal air conditions. Likewise the fruiting bodies were embedded in the agar and completely devoid of mature ascospores. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Renal carbonic anhydrases are involved in the reabsorption of endogenous nitrite.

    PubMed

    Chobanyan-Jürgens, Kristine; Schwarz, Alexandra; Böhmer, Anke; Beckmann, Bibiana; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias; Michaelsen, Jan T; Stichtenoth, Dirk O; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2012-02-15

    Nitrite (ONO(-)) exerts nitric oxide (NO)-related biological actions and its concentration in the circulation may be of particular importance. Nitrite is excreted in the urine. Hence, the kidney may play an important role in nitrite/NO homeostasis in the vasculature. We investigated a possible involvement of renal carbonic anhydrases (CAs) in endogenous nitrite reabsorption in the proximal tubule. The potent CA inhibitor acetazolamide was administered orally to six healthy volunteers (5 mg/kg) and nitrite was measured in spot urine samples before and after administration. Acetazolamide increased abruptly nitrite excretion in the urine, strongly suggesting that renal CAs are involved in nitrite reabsorption in healthy humans. Additional in vitro experiments support our hypothesis that nitrite reacts with CO(2), analogous to the reaction of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) with CO(2), to form acid-labile nitrito carbonate [ONOC(O)O(-)]. We assume that this reaction is catalyzed by CAs and that nitrito carbonate represents the nitrite form that is actively transported into the kidney. The significance of nitrite reabsorption in the kidney and the underlying mechanisms, notably a direct involvement of CAs in the reaction between nitrite and CO(2), remain to be elucidated.

  12. Carbonic anhydrases in chick extra-embryonic structures: a role for CA in bicarbonate reabsorption through the chorioallantoic membrane.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, M Gabriella

    2004-06-01

    The villus cavity cells, a specific cell type of the chick chorioallantoic membrane, express both cytosolic carbonic anhydrase in their cytoplasm and HCO3(-)/Cl(-) anion exchangers at their basolateral membranes. By immunohistochemical analysis, we show here that villus cavity cells specifically react with antibodies directed against the membrane-associated form of carbonic anhydrase, CAIV. Staining is restricted to the apical cell membranes, characteristically invaginated toward the shell membrane, as well as to endothelia of blood vessels present in the mesodermal layer. The occurrence of a membrane-associated CA form at the apical pole of villus cavity cells, when definitively confirmed, would be fairly consistent with the role proposed for these cells in bicarbonate reabsorption from the eggshell so to prevent metabolic acidosis in the embryo during development.

  13. Appraisal of casein's inhibitory effects on aggregation accompanying carbonic anhydrase refolding and heat-induced ovalbumin fibrillogenesis.

    PubMed

    Khodarahmi, Reza; Beyrami, Mehdi; Soori, Hosnieh

    2008-09-01

    It is well accepted that whole casein and its purified major components, due to their chaperone-like activity, are able to suppress the thermal and chemical aggregation of several substrate proteins. In this study, we set out to determine whether whole and beta-casein are able to prevent (or attenuate) aggregation accompanying refolding of chemically denatured carbonic anhydrase or to recover lost biological activity after its denaturation. Additionally, we showed attenuated heat-induced fibrillar aggregation of egg white ovalbumin in the presence of these commonly occurring unfolded proteins, as molecular chaperones. Also, the extent, rate and order of aggregation, in the presence and absence of aggregation suppressors, were compared. Although beta-casein did not prevent aggregation as strong as whole casein, both chaperones were efficient not only in suppressing the aggregation extent of denatured carbonic anhydrase, but also in delaying elongation process of amyloid fibril formation with no effect on nucleation phase.

  14. Characterization of nineteen antimony(III) complexes as potent inhibitors of photosystem II, carbonic anhydrase, and glutathione reductase.

    PubMed

    Karacan, Mehmet Sayım; Rodionova, Margarita V; Tunç, Turgay; Venedik, Kübra Begüm; Mamaş, Serhat; Shitov, Alexandr V; Zharmukhamedov, Sergei K; Klimov, Vyacheslav V; Karacan, Nurcan; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2016-12-01

    Nineteen antimony(III) complexes were obtained and examined as possible herbicides. Six of these were synthesized for the first time, and their structures were identified using elemental analyses, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, FTIR, LCMS, magnetic susceptibility, and conductivity measurement techniques. For the nineteen examined antimony(III) complexes their most-stable forms were determined by DFT/B3LYP/LanL2DZ calculation method. These compounds were examined for effects on photosynthetic electron transfer and carbonic anhydrase activity of photosystem II, and glutathione reductase from chloroplast as well were investigated. Our results indicated that all antimony(III) complexes inhibited glutathione reductase activity of chloroplast. A number of these also exhibited good inhibitory efficiency of the photosynthetic and carbonic anhydrase activity of Photosystem II.

  15. Role of Photosynthetic Reactions in the Activity of Carbonic Anhydrase in Synechococcus sp. (UTEX 2380) in the Light 1

    PubMed Central

    Spiller, Hart; Wynns, George Clifford; Tu, Chingkuang

    1988-01-01

    The role of the photosystems in the exchange of 18O between species of inorganic carbon and water was studied in suspensions of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. (UTEX 2380) using membrane-inlet mass spectrometry. This 18O exchange is caused by the hydration-dehydration cycle of CO2 and is catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase. We observed the complex 18O exchange kinetics including dark-light-dark transients in suspensions of whole cells and found these to be identical to the 18O exchange kinetics of physiologically fully active spheroplast preparations. There was no enhancement effect of inorganic nitrogen on inorganic carbon accumulation. Membrane preparations exhibited no uptake of inorganic carbon and very little carbonic anhydrase activity, although these membranes were photosynthetically fully competent. DCMU, the inhibitor of photosystem II, eliminated almost entirely the 18O exchange activity of whole cells in the light. But this effect of DCMU could be reversed by addition of the electron donor couple 3,6-diaminodurene/ascorbate, suggesting the involvement of photosystem I in the events leading to 18O exchange. Iodoacetamide, an inhibitor of CO2 fixation, enhanced the 18O exchange in whole cell suspensions and inhibited neither the uptake of inorganic carbon nor the dehydration of bicarbonate in the light. The proton carrier carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and the inhibitors diethylstilbestrol and N,N′ -dicyclohexyl carbodiimide affecting the membrane potential, totally abolished 18O exchange in the light. From 18 O-labeled inorganic carbon experiments we conclude that one of the roles of photosystem I is to provide the active uptake of inorganic carbon into the cells, where carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the interconversion between CO2 and HCO3− resulting in the 18O exchange from inorganic carbon to water. PMID:16666052

  16. A gene homologous to beta-type carbonic anhydrase is essential for the growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum under atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, S; Ohnishi, J; Hayashi, M; Ikeda, M

    2004-02-01

    Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the interconversion of CO(2) and bicarbonate. We focused on this enzyme in the amino acid-producing organism Corynebacterium glutamicum in order to assess the availability of bicarbonate for carboxylation reactions essential to growth and for those required for L-lysine overproduction. A whole-genome sequence revealed two genes encoding putative beta-type and gamma-type carbonic anhydrases in C. glutamicum. These genes encode polypeptides containing zinc ligands strictly conserved in each type of carbonic anhydrase and were designated bca and gca, respectively. Internal deletion of the chromosomal bca gene resulted in a phenotype showing severely reduced growth under atmospheric conditions (0.04% CO(2)) on both complete and minimal media. The growth defect of the Delta bca strain was restored under elevated CO(2) conditions (5% CO(2)). Introduction of the red alga Porphyridium purpureum carbonic anhydrase gene ( pca) could compensate for the bca deletion, allowing normal growth under an atmospheric level of CO(2). In contrast, the Delta gca strain behaved identically to the wild-type strain with respect to growth, irrespective of the CO(2) conditions. Attempts to increase the dosage of bca, gca, and pca in the defined L-lysine-producing strain C. glutamicum AHD-2 led to no discernable effects on growth and production. Northern blot analysis indicated that the bca transcript in strain AHD-2 and another L-lysine producer, C. glutamicum B-6, was present at a much higher level than in the wild-type strain, particularly during exponential growth phases. These results indicate that: (1) the bca product is essential to achieving normal growth under ordinary atmospheric conditions, and this effect is most likely due to the bca product's ability to maintain favorable intracellular bicarbonate/CO(2) levels, and (2) the expression of bca is induced during exponential growth phases and also in the case of L-lysine overproduction, both of which are

  17. X-ray Crystallographic Studies Reveal That the Incorporation of Spacer Groups in Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Causes Alternate Binding Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher,S.; Govindasamy, L.; Boyle, N.; Agbandje-McKenna, M.; Silverman, D.; Blackburn, G.; McKenna, R.

    2006-01-01

    Human carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are well studied targets for the development of inhibitors for pharmaceutical applications. The crystal structure of human CA II has been determined in complex with two CA inhibitors (CAIs) containing conventional sulfonamide and thiadiazole moieties separated by a -CF{sub 2}- or -CHNH{sub 2}- spacer group. The structures presented here reveal that these spacer groups allow novel binding modes for the thiadiazole moiety compared with conventional CAIs.

  18. Effects of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbonic anhydrase on stomatal conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakir, D.; Stimler, K.; Berry, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    The potential use of COS as tracer of the gross, one-way, CO2 flux into plants is based on its co-diffusion with CO2 into leaves without outflux stimulated research on COS-CO2 interactions during leaf gas exchange. We carried out gas exchange measurements of COS and CO2 in 22 plant species representing deciduous and evergreen trees, grasses, and shrubs, under a range of light intensities and ambient COS concentrations, using mid IR laser spectroscopy. A narrow range in the normalized ratio of the net uptake rates of COS (As) and CO2 (Ac; As/Ac*[CO2]/[COS]) was observed, with a mean value of 1.61±0.26. These results reflect the dominance of stomatal conductance over both COS and CO2 uptake, imposing a relatively constant ratio between the two fluxes (except under low light conditions when CO2, but not COS, metabolism is light limited). A relatively constant ratio under common ambient conditions will facilitate the application of COS as a tracer of gross photosynthesis from leaf to global scales. However, its effect on stomatal conductance may require a special attention. Increasing COS concentrations between 250 and 2800 pmol mol-1 (enveloping atmospheric levels) seems to stimulate stomatal conductance. We examined the stimulation of conductance by COS in a range of species and show that there is a large variation with some species showing almost no response while others are highly responsive (up to doubling stomatal conductance). Using C3 and C4 plants with antisense lines abolishing carbonic anhydrase activity, we show that the activity of this enzyme is essential for both the uptake of COS and the enhancement of stomatal conductance by COS. Since carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the conversion of COS to CO2 and H2S it seems likely that the stomata are responding to H2S produced in the mesophyll. In all natural species examined the uptake of COS and CO2 were highly correlated, and there was no relationship between the sensitivity of stomata and the rate of COS uptake

  19. Adenylate cyclase and carbonic anhydrase in the semicircular canal epithelium of the frog Rana esculenta. An ultrastructural cytochemical localization.

    PubMed

    Oudar, O; Ferrary, E; Feldmann, G

    1990-12-01

    Because the secretion of endolymph has been localized in the ampullar part of the frog semicircular canal, we attempted to determine by cytochemical methods the ultrastructural localization of two enzymes that are assumed to play a role in endolymph secretion: carbonic anhydrase and adenylate cyclase. Functionally, the epithelium of the frog semicircular canal can be schematically divided into three areas: sensory (crista ampullaris), secretory (dark cells), and non-sensory and nonsecretory (transitional and undifferentiated cells) areas. Carbonic anhydrase activity was widely distributed in dark cells. Dark cell labeling disappeared in the presence of acetazolamide. The other cells of the canal did not show any carbonic anhydrase labeling except for the supporting cells of the sensory cells. Adenylate cyclase activity was found on the basolateral and apical membranes of dark cells, and on the apical membrane of sensory cells; weak labeling was also observed in the other epithelial cells. In the apical membrane of the dark cells, adenylate cyclase labeling was dependent on the presence of vasotocin, the frog antidiuretic hormone. The dark cells of the frog semicircular canal thus possess the enzyme equipment needed for the secretion of endolymph and its possible hormonal regulation.

  20. Allosteric reversion of Haemophilus influenzae β-carbonic anhydrase via a proline shift.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Katherine M; Million-Perez, H Rachael; Merkhofer, Richard; Nicholson, Hilary; Rowlett, Roger S

    2015-01-20

    Haemophilus influenzae β-carbonic anhydrase (HICA) has been reverse-engineered in the allosteric site region to resemble the nonallosteric Pisum sativum enzyme in order to identify critical features of allostery and intersusbunit communication. Three variants (W39V/G41A, P48S/A49P, and W39V/G41A/P48S/A49P) were identified, through a comparison with a crystal structure of nonallosteric P. sativum β-carbonic anhydrase (PSCA, PDB 1EKJ ), to potentially revert HICA to a nonallosteric enzyme. The W39V/G41A and P48S/A49P mutations decreased the apparent kcat/Km proton dependence from 4 to 2 and 1, respectively, increasing the overall maximal kcat/Km to 16 ± 2 μM(-1) s(-1) (380% of wild type) and 17 ± 3 μM(-1) s(-1) (405% of wild type). The pKa values of the metal-bound water molecule based on the pH-rate profile kinetics (8.32 ± 0.04 for W39V/G41A and 8.3 ± 0.1 for P48S/A49P) were also slightly higher than that for the wild-type enzyme (7.74 ± 0.04). The P48S/A49P variant has lost all pH-rate cooperativity. The W39V/G41A/P48S/A49P variant's kinetics were unusual and were fit with a log-linear function with a slope 0.9 ± 0.2. The crystal structure of the W39V/G41A variant revealed an active site very similar to the T-state wild-type oligomer with bicarbonate trapped in the escort site. By contrast, the X-ray crystal structure of a proline shift variant (P48S/A49P) reveals that it has adopted an active site conformation nearly identical to that of nonallosteric β-carbonic anhydrase (R-state) for one chain, including a tight association with the dimer-exchanged N-terminal helices; the second chain in the asymmetric unit is associated in a biologically relevant oligomer, but it adopts a T-state conformation that is not capped by dimer-exchanged N-terminal helices. The hybrid R/T nature of HICA P48S/A49P structurally recapitulates the interruption of pH-rate cooperativity observed for this variant. Comparison of the conformations of the R and T chains of P48S/A49P

  1. Catalytic mechanism of α-class carbonic anhydrases: CO2 hydration and proton transfer.

    PubMed

    Boone, Christopher D; Pinard, Melissa; McKenna, Rob; Silverman, David

    2014-01-01

    The carbonic anhydrases (CAs; EC 4.2.1.1) are a family of metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide (CO2) and dehydration of bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) in a two-step ping-pong mechanism: [Formula: see text] CAs are ubiquitous enzymes and are categorized into five distinct classes (α, β, γ, δ and ζ). The α-class is found primarily in vertebrates (and the only class of CA in mammals), β is observed in higher plants and some prokaryotes, γ is present only in archaebacteria whereas the δ and ζ classes have only been observed in diatoms.The focus of this chapter is on α-CAs as the structure-function relationship is best understood for this class, in particular for humans. The reader is referred to other reviews for an overview of the structure and catalytic mechanism of the other CA classes. The overall catalytic site structure and geometry of α-CAs are described in the first section of this chapter followed by the kinetic studies, binding of CO2, and the proton shuttle network.

  2. Characterization of urease and carbonic anhydrase producing bacteria and their role in calcite precipitation.

    PubMed

    Achal, Varenyam; Pan, Xiangliang

    2011-03-01

    Urease and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are key enzymes in the chemical reaction of living organisms and have been found to be associated with calcification in a number of microorganisms and invertebrates. Three bacterial strains designated as AP4, AP6, and AP9 were isolated from highly alkaline soil samples using the enrichment culture technique. On the basis of various physiological tests and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, these three bacteria were identified as Bacillus sp., B. megaterium, and B. simplex. Further, these Bacillus species have been characterized for the production of urease and CA in the process of biocalcification. One of the isolates, AP6 produced 553 U/ml of urease and 5.61 EU/ml CA. All the strains were able to produce significant amount of exopolymeric substances and biofilm. Further, efficacy of these strains was tested for calcite production ability and results were correlated with urease and CA. Isolate AP6 precipitated 2.26 mg calcite/cell dry mass (mg). Our observations strongly suggest that it is not only urease but CA also plays an important role in microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation process. The current work demonstrates that urease and CA producing microbes can be utilized in biocalcification as a sealing agent for filling the gaps or cracks and fissures in constructed facilities and natural formations alike.

  3. Carbonic anhydrase I in a cartilaginous fish, the shortspine spurdog ( Squalus mitsukurii)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo Cheol; Sumi, Kanij Rukshana; Kim, Jung Woo; Choi, Myeong Rak; Min, Byung Hwa; Kho, Kang Hee

    2016-09-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA), a ubiquitous enzyme found in many species, including fishes, is involved in physiological functions such as pH homeostasis, calcification, photosynthesis, and ionic regulation. CA I, a member of the α-CA family, is a cytoplasmic isozyme involved in carbon dioxide transport, ion exchange, and acid-base balance. Approximately half of the extant shark species occur only in deep waters; however, few published studies on sharks include these taxa. As fisheries worldwide enter deeper waters, the provision of biological data for these little-known taxa is critical to their management and conservation. To address this limitation, we aimed to detect CA I in various tissues of the shortspine spurdog ( Squalus mitsukurii) and characterize its physicochemical properties by using sodium dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing, together with immunohistochemistry. CA I was detected on SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis as a specific band at 29 kDa in various tissues of the shortspine spurdog, and as a specific band at pI 6.5 in various tissues of the shortspine spurdog by IEF and western blot analysis. CA I immunoreactivity in various tissues of the shortspine spurdog was detected in intracellular locations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the localization of CA isozymes in various tissues of S. mitsukurii.

  4. Hemocompatibility assessment of carbonic anhydrase modified hollow fiber membranes for artificial lungs.

    PubMed

    Oh, Heung-Il; Ye, Sang-Ho; Johnson, Carl A; Woolley, Joshua R; Federspiel, William J; Wagner, William R

    2010-05-01

    Hollow fiber membrane (HFM)-based artificial lungs can require a large blood-contacting membrane surface area to provide adequate gas exchange. However, such a large surface area presents significant challenges to hemocompatibility. One method to improve carbon dioxide (CO(2)) transfer efficiency might be to immobilize carbonic anhydrase (CA) onto the surface of conventional HFMs. By catalyzing the dehydration of bicarbonate in blood, CA has been shown to facilitate diffusion of CO(2) toward the fiber membranes. This study evaluated the impact of surface modifying a commercially available microporous HFM-based artificial lung on fiber blood biocompatibility. A commercial poly(propylene) Celgard HFM surface was coated with a siloxane, grafted with amine groups, and then attached with CA which has been shown to facilitate diffusion of CO(2) toward the fiber membranes. Results following acute ovine blood contact indicated no significant reduction in platelet deposition or activation with the siloxane coating or the siloxane coating with grafted amines relative to base HFMs. However, HFMs with attached CA showed a significant reduction in both platelet deposition and activation compared with all other fiber types. These findings, along with the improved CO(2) transfer observed in CA modified fibers, suggest that its incorporation into HFM design may potentiate the design of a smaller, more biocompatible HFM-based artificial lung.

  5. How to get into bones: proton pump and carbonic anhydrase in Osedax boneworms

    PubMed Central

    Tresguerres, Martin; Katz, Sigrid; Rouse, Greg W.

    2013-01-01

    Osedax are gutless siboglinid worms that thrive on vertebrate bones lying on the ocean floor, mainly those of whales. The posterior body of female Osedax penetrates into the bone forming extensions known as ‘roots’, which host heterotrophic symbiotic bacteria in bacteriocytes beneath the epidermis. The Osedax root epithelium presumably absorbs bone collagen and/or lipids, which are metabolized by the symbiotic bacteria that in turn serve for Osedax's nutrition. Here, we show that Osedax roots express extremely high amounts of vacuolar-H+-ATPase (VHA), which is located in the apical membrane and in cytoplasmic vesicles of root and ovisac epithelial cells. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), which catalyses the hydration of CO2 into H+ and HCO3−, is also expressed in roots and throughout Osedax body. These results suggest Osedax roots have massive acid-secreting capacity via VHA, fuelled by H+ derived from the CA-catalysed hydration of CO2 produced by aerobic metabolism. We propose the secreted acid dissolves the bone carbonate matrix to then allow the absorption of bone-derived nutrients across the skin. In an exciting example of convergent evolution, this model for acid secretion is remarkably similar to mammalian osteoclast cells. However, while osteoclasts dissolve bone for repairing and remodelling, the Osedax root epithelium secretes acid to dissolve foreign bone to access nutrients. PMID:23760644

  6. Carbonic anhydrase promotes the absorption rate of CO2 in post-combustion processes.

    PubMed

    Vinoba, Mari; Bhagiyalakshmi, Margandan; Grace, Andrews Nirmala; Kim, Dae Hoon; Yoon, Yeoil; Nam, Sung Chan; Baek, Il Hyun; Jeong, Soon Kwan

    2013-05-09

    The rate of carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption by monoethanol amine (MEA), diethanol amine (DEA), N-methyl-2,2'-iminodiethanol (MDEA), and 2-amino-2-methyl 1-propanol (AMP) solutions was found to be enhanced by the addition of bovine carbonic anhydrase (CA), has been investigated using a vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) device. The enthalpy (-ΔHabs) of CO2 absorption and the absorption capacities of aqueous amines were measured in the presence and/or absence of CA enzyme via differential reaction calorimeter (DRC). The reaction temperature (ΔT) under adiabatic conditions was determined based on the DRC analysis. Bicarbonate and carbamate species formation mechanisms were elucidated by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral analysis. The overall CO2 absorption rate (flux) and rate constant (kapp) followed the order MEA > DEA > AMP > MDEA in the absence or presence of CA. Hydration of CO2 by MDEA in the presence of CA directly produced bicarbonate, whereas AMP produced unstable carbamate intermediate, then underwent hydrolytic reaction and converted to bicarbonate. The MDEA > AMP > DEA > MEA reverse ordering of the enhanced CO2 flux and kapp in the presence of CA was due to bicarbonate formation by the tertiary and sterically hindered amines. Thus, CA increased the rate of CO2 absorption by MDEA by a factor of 3 relative to the rate of absorption by MDEA alone. The thermal effects suggested that CA yielded a higher activity at 40 °C.

  7. Modulation of carbonic anhydrase activity in two nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria, Nostoc calcicola and Anabaena sp.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Pranita; Prasanna, Radha; Kashyap, Ajai Kumar

    2005-10-01

    The activity of enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) was investigated in two diazotrophic cyanobacteria, Anabaena sp. (ARM 629) and Nostoc calcicola, in the presence of CO2/NaHCO3 and different inhibitors. The CA activity increased when the cells were pretreated with a high concentration of CO2/NaHCO3 and then transferred to ambient level CO2. Maximum activity of CA was observed after 8 h of incubation in light on transfer of cells from high Ci to ambient level CO2, and was low when incubated in dark. Addition of the photosynthetic inhibitor DCMU brought about a differential reduction in CA activity, depending on the carbon source (NaHCO3/CO2). CA inhibitors--ethoxyzolamide (EZ) and acetazolamide (AZ)--inhibited the enzyme activity in both the genera, but the extent of inhibition was greater in Anabaena sp. than in N. calcicola. Such a variation in extent of inhibition/stimulation of CA activity being different in the two genera reflects differences in their inherent potential and genetic background. The relevance of such cyanobacterial strains as CO2 sinks is also discussed.

  8. New insights into the many functions of carbonic anhydrase in fish gills.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Kathleen M

    2012-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible reactions of carbon dioxide and water: CO(2) + H(2)O ↔ H(+) + HCO(3)(-). It has long been recognized that CA is abundant in the fish gill, with attention focused on the role of CA in catalyzing the hydration of CO(2) to provide H(+) and HCO(3)(-) for the branchial ion transport processes that underlie systemic ionic and acid-base regulation. Recent work has explored the diversity of CA isoforms in the fish gill. By linking these isoforms to different cell types in the gill, and by exploiting the diversity of fish species available for study, this work is increasing our understanding of the many roles that CA plays in the fish gill. In particular, recent work has revealed that fish utilize more than one model of CO(2) excretion, that to understand the role of CA and the gill in ionic regulation and acid-base balance means characterizing the transporter and CA complement of individual cell types, and that CA plays roles in branchial sensory mechanisms. The goal of this brief review is to summarize these new developments, while at the same time highlighting key areas in which further research is needed.

  9. How to get into bones: proton pump and carbonic anhydrase in Osedax boneworms.

    PubMed

    Tresguerres, Martin; Katz, Sigrid; Rouse, Greg W

    2013-06-22

    Osedax are gutless siboglinid worms that thrive on vertebrate bones lying on the ocean floor, mainly those of whales. The posterior body of female Osedax penetrates into the bone forming extensions known as 'roots', which host heterotrophic symbiotic bacteria in bacteriocytes beneath the epidermis. The Osedax root epithelium presumably absorbs bone collagen and/or lipids, which are metabolized by the symbiotic bacteria that in turn serve for Osedax's nutrition. Here, we show that Osedax roots express extremely high amounts of vacuolar-H(+)-ATPase (VHA), which is located in the apical membrane and in cytoplasmic vesicles of root and ovisac epithelial cells. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), which catalyses the hydration of CO2 into H(+) and HCO3(-), is also expressed in roots and throughout Osedax body. These results suggest Osedax roots have massive acid-secreting capacity via VHA, fuelled by H(+) derived from the CA-catalysed hydration of CO2 produced by aerobic metabolism. We propose the secreted acid dissolves the bone carbonate matrix to then allow the absorption of bone-derived nutrients across the skin. In an exciting example of convergent evolution, this model for acid secretion is remarkably similar to mammalian osteoclast cells. However, while osteoclasts dissolve bone for repairing and remodelling, the Osedax root epithelium secretes acid to dissolve foreign bone to access nutrients.

  10. Sulfonamide inhibition studies of the γ-carbonic anhydrase from the Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Vullo, Daniela; De Luca, Viviana; Del Prete, Sonia; Carginale, Vincenzo; Scozzafava, Andrea; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-04-15

    A carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) belonging to the γ-class has been cloned, purified and characterized from the Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. The enzyme showed a good catalytic activity for the physiologic reaction (hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and a proton) with the following kinetic parameters, kcat of 9.5×10(5)s(-1) and kcat/KM of 8.3×10(7)M(-1)s(-1), being the γ-CA with the highest catalytic activity described so far. A range of aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides and one sulfamate were investigated as inhibitors of the new enzyme, denominated here NcoCA. The best NcoCA inhibitors were some sulfonylated sulfanilamide derivatives possessing elongated molecules, aminobenzolamide, acetazolamide, benzolamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide and topiramate, which showed inhibition constants in the range of 40.3-92.3nM. As 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) and γ-CAs are closely associated in carboxysomes of cyanobacteria for enhancing the affinity of RubisCO for CO2 and the efficiency of photosynthesis, investigation of this new enzyme and its affinity for modulators of its activity may bring new insights in these crucial processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. New light on bacterial carbonic anhydrases phylogeny based on the analysis of signal peptide sequences.

    PubMed

    Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

    2016-12-01

    Among protein families, carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes characterized by a common reaction mechanism in all life domains: the carbon dioxide hydration to bicarbonate and protons (CO2+H2O ⇔ HCO3(-)+H(+)). Six genetically distinct CA families are known to date, the α-, β-, γ-, δ-, ζ- and η-CAs. The last CA class was recently discovered analyzing the amino acid sequences of CAs from Plasmodia. Bacteria encode for enzymes belonging to the α-, β-, and γ-CA classes and recently, phylogenetic analysis revealed an interesting relationship regarding the evolution of bacterial CA classes. This result evidenced that the three bacterial CA classes, in spite of the high level of the structural similarity, are evolutionarily distinct, but we noted that the primary structure of some β-CAs identified in the genome of Gram-negative bacteria present a pre-sequence of 18 or more amino acid residues at the N-terminal part. These observations and subsequent phylogenetic data presented here prompted us to propose that the β-CAs found in Gram-negative bacteria with a periplasmic space and characterized by the presence of a signal peptide might have a periplasmic localization and a role similar to that described previously for the α-CAs.

  12. Dithiocarbamates effectively inhibit the β-carbonic anhydrase from the dandruff-producing fungus Malassezia globosa.

    PubMed

    Vullo, Daniela; Del Prete, Sonia; Nocentini, Alessio; Osman, Sameh M; AlOthman, Zeid; Capasso, Clemente; Bozdag, Murat; Carta, Fabrizio; Gratteri, Paola; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2017-02-01

    A series of dithiocarbamates (DTCs) was investigated for the inhibition of the β-class carbonic anhydrase (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) from the fungal parasite Malassezia globosa, MgCA, a validated anti-dandruff drug target. These DTCs incorporate various scaffold, among which those of N,N-dimethylaminoethylenediamine, the aminoalcohols with 3-5 carbon atoms in their molecule, 3-amino-quinuclidine, piperidine, morpholine and piperazine derivatives, as well as phenethylamine and its 4-sulfamoylated derivative. Several DTCs resulted more effective in inhibiting MgCA compared to the standard sulfonamide drug acetazolamide (KI of 74μM), with KIs ranging between 383 and 6235nM. A computational approach, involving a homology modeling of the enzyme and docking inhibitors within its active site, helped us rationalize the results. This study may contribute to better understand the inhibition profile of MgCA, and offer new ideas for the design of modulators of activity which belong to less investigated chemical classes, thus potentially useful to combat dandruff and other fungal infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neutron structure of human carbonic anhydrase II: implications for proton transfer.

    PubMed

    Fisher, S Zoë; Kovalevsky, Andrey Y; Domsic, John F; Mustyakimov, Marat; McKenna, Robert; Silverman, David N; Langan, Paul A

    2010-01-26

    Human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to form bicarbonate and a proton. Despite many high-resolution X-ray crystal structures, mutagenesis, and kinetic data, the structural details of the active site, especially the proton transfer pathway, are unclear. A large HCA II crystal was prepared at pH 9.0 and subjected to vapor H-D exchange to replace labile hydrogens with deuteriums. Neutron diffraction studies were conducted at the Protein Crystallography Station at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The structure to 2.0 A resolution reveals several interesting active site features: (1) the Zn-bound solvent appearing to be predominantly a D(2)O molecule, (2) the orientation and hydrogen bonding pattern of solvent molecules in the active site cavity, (3) the side chain of His64 being unprotonated (neutral) and predominantly in an inward conformation pointing toward the zinc, and (4) the phenolic side chain of Tyr7 appearing to be unprotonated. The implications of these details are discussed, and a proposed mechanism for proton transfer is presented.

  14. Neutron Structure of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II: Implications for Proton Transfer†

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, S. Zoë; Kovalevsky, Andrey Y.; Domsic, John F.; Mustyakimov, Marat; McKenna, Robert; Silverman, David N.; Langan, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to form bicarbonate and a proton. Despite many high-resolution X-ray crystal structures, mutagenesis, and kinetic data, the structural details of the active site, especially the proton transfer pathway, are unclear. A large HCA II crystal was prepared at pH 9.0 and subjected to vapor H–D exchange to replace labile hydrogens with deuteriums. Neutron diffraction studies were conducted at the Protein Crystallography Station at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The structure to 2.0 Å resolution reveals several interesting active site features: (1) the Zn-bound solvent appearing to be predominantly a D2O molecule, (2) the orientation and hydrogen bonding pattern of solvent molecules in the active site cavity, (3) the side chain of His64 being unprotonated (neutral) and predominantly in an inward conformation pointing toward the zinc, and (4) the phenolic side chain of Tyr7 appearing to be unprotonated. The implications of these details are discussed, and a proposed mechanism for proton transfer is presented. PMID:20025241

  15. CO{sub 2} availability, carbonic anhydrase, and the annual dinoflagellate bloom in Lake Kinneret

    SciTech Connect

    Berman-Frank, I; Zohary, T.; Erez, J.

    1994-12-01

    Changes with time in the concentration of inorganic carbon in Lake Kinneret subsurface water were followed throughout two seasonal dinoflagellate blooms. The response of natural populations of the dominant dinoflagellate, Peridinium gatunense, to these changes was recorded by examining fluctuations over time in the activity of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) and in photosynthetic parameters. Our results show distinct fluctuations of both external and cytoplasmic CA activity in P. gatunense throughout the annual bloom. Higher levels of activity were triggered by the decline of total dissolved inorganic C below 1.8 mM and more specifically by low concentrations of dissolved CO{sub 2} (1-10 {mu}M) during the seasonal bloom decline in May-June. Laboratory studies on cultured P. gatunense confirmed our field observations, suggesting that supplemental mechanisms are activated in P. gatunense that enhance inorganic C uptake when CO{sub 2} is limiting for photosynthesis. Eventually, the cellular adaptations of P. gatunense to the declining CO{sub 2} concentrations could not prevent decline of photosynthetic rates contributing to the subsequent decrease in P. gatunense biomass in May-June. In Lake Kinneret, P. gatunense is succeeded by Peridiniopsis spp., the photosynthetic rates and external CA activities of which were much higher under environmental conditions typical of the end of the bloom. 45 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Limestone dissolution induced by fungal mycelia, acidic materials, and carbonic anhydrase from fungi.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhou, Peng-Peng; Jia, Li-Ping; Yu, Long-Jiang; Li, Xue-Li; Zhu, Min

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms influence the dissolution of a number of minerals. Limestone is one of the most abundant rock types in karst areas, and is predominantly calcium carbonate. Two types of experimental systems were designed in this paper, to make comparisons of limestone dissolution rate among the acidic materials and extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) excreted by fungi and the enwrapping effect of fungal mycelia. One was the simulated experimental system containing microorganisms. Another was the simulated experimental system without microorganisms. Results of previous experiment indicated that the acidic materials and CA like enzymatic materials excreted by fungi and the enwrapping effect of fungal mycelia were important factors influencing limestone dissolution. In the three factors mentioned above, the dissolution effect was mycelia enwraping effect>acidic dissolution effect>CA enzymatic effect. The results of the second experiment demonstrated further that the limestone dissolution effect of the acidic materials excreted by fungi was stronger than that of CA excreted by fungi. Nevertheless, CA still played an important role in promoting the dissolution of limestone.

  17. An experimental study on the effect of carbonic anhydrase on the oxygen isotope exchange kinetics and equilibrium in the carbonic acid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchikawa, J.; Zeebe, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Stable oxygen isotopes of marine biogenic carbonates are often depleted in 18O relative to the values expected for thermodynamic equilibrium with ambient seawater. One possibility is that 18O-depletion in carbonates is kinetically controlled. The kinetic isotope effect associated with the hydration of CO2 results in 18O-depleted HCO3-. If the HCO3- is utilized before re-establishing equilibrium with ambient water under rapid calcification, the 18O-depletion will be recorded in carbonates. But one caveat in this kinetic model is the fact that many marine calcifiers posses carbonic anhydrase, a zinc-bearing enzyme that catalyzes the CO2 hydration reaction. It is expected that this enzyme accelerates 18O-equilibration in the carbonic acid system by facilitating direct oxygen isotope exchange between HCO3- and H2O via CO2 hydration. Clearly this argues against the conceptual framework of the kinetic model. Yet the critical variable here is the effectiveness of the carbonic anhydrase, which is likely to depend on its concentration and the carbonate chemistry of the aqueous medium. It is also hitherto unknown whether the presence of carbonic anhydrase alters the equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionations between dissolved carbonate species and water. We performed a series of quantitative inorganic carbonate precipitation experiments to examine the changes in the oxygen isotope equilibration time as a function of carbonic anhydrase concentrations. We conducted experiments at pH 8.3 and 8.9. These pH values are similar to the average surface ocean pH and the elevated pH levels observed within calcification microenvironments of certain corals and planktonic foraminifera. A summary of our new experimental results will be presented.

  18. Optimization of a Novel Peptide Ligand Targeting Human Carbonic Anhydrase IX

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Shoaib; Nissen, Felix; Marr, Annabell; Markert, Annette; Altmann, Annette; Mier, Walter; Debus, Juergen; Haberkorn, Uwe; Askoxylakis, Vasileios

    2012-01-01

    Background Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a hypoxia-regulated transmembrane protein over-expressed in various types of human cancer. Recently, a new peptide with affinity for human carbonic anhydrase IX (CaIX-P1) was identified using the phage display technology. Aim of the present study is to characterize the binding site in the sequence of CaIX-P1, in order to optimize the binding and metabolic properties and use it for targeting purposes. Methodology/Principal Findings Various fragments of CaIX-P1 were synthesized on solid support using Fmoc chemistry. Alanine scanning was performed for identification of the amino acids crucial for target binding. Derivatives with increased binding affinity were radiolabeled and in vitro studies were carried out on the CA IX positive human renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52 and the CA IX negative human pancreatic carcinoma cell line BxPC3. Metabolic stability was investigated in cell culture medium and human serum. Organ distribution and planar scintigraphy studies were performed in Balb/c nu/nu mice carrying subcutaneously transplanted SKRC 52 tumors. The results of our studies clearly identified amino acids that are important for target binding. Among various fragments and derivatives the ligand CaIX-P1-4-10 (NHVPLSPy) was found to possess increased binding potential in SKRC 52 cells, whereas no binding capacity for BxPC3 cells was observed. Binding of radiolabeled CaIX-P1-4-10 on CA IX positive cells could be inhibited by both the unlabeled and the native CaIX-P1 peptide but not by control peptides. Stability experiments indicated the degradation site in the sequence of CaIX-P1-4-10. Biodistribution studies showed a higher in vivo accumulation in the tumor than in most healthy tissues. Conclusions Our data reveal modifications in the sequence of the CA IX affine ligand CaIX-P1 that might be favorable for improvement of target affinity and metabolic stability, which are necessary prior to the use of the ligand in

  19. Fluoroalkyl and alkyl chains have similar hydrophobicities in binding to the "hydrophobic wall" of carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Mecinović, Jasmin; Snyder, Phillip W; Mirica, Katherine A; Bai, Serena; Mack, Eric T; Kwant, Richard L; Moustakas, Demetri T; Héroux, Annie; Whitesides, George M

    2011-09-07

    The hydrophobic effect, the free-energetically favorable association of nonpolar solutes in water, makes a dominant contribution to binding of many systems of ligands and proteins. The objective of this study was to examine the hydrophobic effect in biomolecular recognition using two chemically different but structurally similar hydrophobic groups, aliphatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic fluorocarbons, and to determine whether the hydrophobicity of the two groups could be distinguished by thermodynamic and biostructural analysis. This paper uses isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to examine the thermodynamics of binding of benzenesulfonamides substituted in the para position with alkyl and fluoroalkyl chains (H(2)NSO(2)C(6)H(4)-CONHCH(2)(CX(2))(n)CX(3), n = 0-4, X = H, F) to human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II). Both alkyl and fluoroalkyl substituents contribute favorably to the enthalpy and the entropy of binding; these contributions increase as the length of chain of the hydrophobic substituent increases. Crystallography of the protein-ligand complexes indicates that the benzenesulfonamide groups of all ligands examined bind with similar geometry, that the tail groups associate with the hydrophobic wall of HCA II (which is made up of the side chains of residues Phe131, Val135, Pro202, and Leu204), and that the structure of the protein is indistinguishable for all but one of the complexes (the longest member of the fluoroalkyl series). Analysis of the thermodynamics of binding as a function of structure is compatible with the hypothesis that hydrophobic binding of both alkyl and fluoroalkyl chains to hydrophobic surface of carbonic anhydrase is due primarily to the release of nonoptimally hydrogen-bonded water molecules that hydrate the binding cavity (including the hydrophobic wall) of HCA II and to the release of water molecules that surround the hydrophobic chain of the ligands. This study defines the balance of enthalpic and entropic contributions to the

  20. Physiological and Molecular Biological Characterization of Intracellular Carbonic Anhydrase from the Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum1

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Dan; Hiraoka, Yasutaka; Colman, Brian; Matsuda, Yusuke

    2001-01-01

    A single intracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) was detected in air-grown and, at reduced levels, in high CO2-grown cells of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum (UTEX 642). No external CA activity was detected irrespective of growth CO2 conditions. Ethoxyzolamide (0.4 mm), a CA-specific inhibitor, severely inhibited high-affinity photosynthesis at low concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon, whereas 2 mm acetazolamide had little effect on the affinity for dissolved inorganic carbon, suggesting that internal CA is crucial for the operation of a carbon concentrating mechanism in P. tricornutum. Internal CA was purified 36.7-fold of that of cell homogenates by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and two-step column chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-sephacel and p-aminomethylbenzene sulfone amide agarose. The purified CA was shown, by SDS-PAGE, to comprise an electrophoretically single polypeptide of 28 kD under both reduced and nonreduced conditions. The entire sequence of the cDNA of this CA was obtained by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method and indicated that the cDNA encodes 282 amino acids. Comparison of this putative precursor sequence with the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified CA indicated that it included a possible signal sequence of up to 46 amino acids at the N terminus. The mature CA was found to consist of 236 amino acids and the sequence was homologous to β-type CAs. Even though the zinc-ligand amino acid residues were shown to be completely conserved, the amino acid residues that may constitute a CO2-binding site appeared to be unique among the β-CAs so far reported. PMID:11500545

  1. The role of external carbonic anhydrase in photosynthesis during growth of the marine diatom Chaetoceros muelleri.

    PubMed

    Smith-Harding, Tamsyne Jade; Beardall, John; Mitchell, James Gordon

    2017-08-03

    Carbon dioxide concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) act to improve the supply of CO2 at the active site of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. There is substantial evidence that in some microalgal species CCMs involve an external carbonic anhydrase (CAext ) and that CAext activity is induced by low CO2 concentrations in the growth medium. However, much of this work has been conducted on cells adapted to air-equilibrium concentrations of CO2 , rather than to changing CO2 conditions caused by growing microalgal populations. We investigated the role of CAext in inorganic carbon (Ci ) acquisition and photosynthesis at three sampling points during the growth cycle of the cosmopolitan marine diatom Chaetoceros muelleri. We observed that CAext activity increased with decreasing Ci , particularly CO2 , concentration, supporting the idea that CAext is modulated by external CO2 concentration. Additionally, we found that the contribution of CAext activity to carbon acquisition for photosynthesis varies over time, increasing between the first and second sampling points before decreasing at the last sampling point, where external pH was high. Lastly, decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv /Fm ), chlorophyll, maximum relative electron transport rate, light harvesting efficiency (α) and maximum rates of Ci - saturated photosynthesis (Vmax ) were observed over time. Despite this decrease in photosynthetic capacity an up-regulation of CCM activity, indicated by a decreasing half-saturation constant for CO2 (K0.5 CO2 ), occurred over time. The flexibility of the CCM during the course of growth in C. muelleri may contribute to the reported dominance and persistence of this species in phytoplankton blooms. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  2. Effect of carbonic anhydrase on silicate weathering and carbonate formation at present day CO₂ concentrations compared to primordial values.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Leilei; Lian, Bin; Hao, Jianchao; Liu, Congqiang; Wang, Shijie

    2015-01-13

    It is widely recognized that carbonic anhydrase (CA) participates in silicate weathering and carbonate formation. Nevertheless, it is still not known if the magnitude of the effect produced by CA on surface rock evolution changes or not. In this work, CA gene expression from Bacillus mucilaginosus and the effects of recombination protein on wollastonite dissolution and carbonate formation under different conditions are explored. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to explore the correlation between CA gene expression and sufficiency or deficiency in calcium and CO₂ concentration. The results show that the expression of CA genes is negatively correlated with both CO₂ concentration and ease of obtaining soluble calcium. A pure form of the protein of interest (CA) is obtained by cloning, heterologous expression, and purification. The results from tests of the recombination protein on wollastonite dissolution and carbonate formation at different levels of CO₂ concentration show that the magnitudes of the effects of CA and CO₂ concentration are negatively correlated. These results suggest that the effects of microbial CA in relation to silicate weathering and carbonate formation may have increased importance at the modern atmospheric CO₂ concentration compared to 3 billion years ago.

  3. Effect of carbonic anhydrase on silicate weathering and carbonate formation at present day CO2 concentrations compared to primordial values

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Leilei; Lian, Bin; Hao, Jianchao; Liu, Congqiang; Wang, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    It is widely recognized that carbonic anhydrase (CA) participates in silicate weathering and carbonate formation. Nevertheless, it is still not known if the magnitude of the effect produced by CA on surface rock evolution changes or not. In this work, CA gene expression from Bacillus mucilaginosus and the effects of recombination protein on wollastonite dissolution and carbonate formation under different conditions are explored. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to explore the correlation between CA gene expression and sufficiency or deficiency in calcium and CO2 concentration. The results show that the expression of CA genes is negatively correlated with both CO2 concentration and ease of obtaining soluble calcium. A pure form of the protein of interest (CA) is obtained by cloning, heterologous expression, and purification. The results from tests of the recombination protein on wollastonite dissolution and carbonate formation at different levels of CO2 concentration show that the magnitudes of the effects of CA and CO2 concentration are negatively correlated. These results suggest that the effects of microbial CA in relation to silicate weathering and carbonate formation may have increased importance at the modern atmospheric CO2 concentration compared to 3 billion years ago. PMID:25583135

  4. Effect of carbonic anhydrase on silicate weathering and carbonate formation at present day CO2 concentrations compared to primordial values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Leilei; Lian, Bin; Hao, Jianchao; Liu, Congqiang; Wang, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    It is widely recognized that carbonic anhydrase (CA) participates in silicate weathering and carbonate formation. Nevertheless, it is still not known if the magnitude of the effect produced by CA on surface rock evolution changes or not. In this work, CA gene expression from Bacillus mucilaginosus and the effects of recombination protein on wollastonite dissolution and carbonate formation under different conditions are explored. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to explore the correlation between CA gene expression and sufficiency or deficiency in calcium and CO2 concentration. The results show that the expression of CA genes is negatively correlated with both CO2 concentration and ease of obtaining soluble calcium. A pure form of the protein of interest (CA) is obtained by cloning, heterologous expression, and purification. The results from tests of the recombination protein on wollastonite dissolution and carbonate formation at different levels of CO2 concentration show that the magnitudes of the effects of CA and CO2 concentration are negatively correlated. These results suggest that the effects of microbial CA in relation to silicate weathering and carbonate formation may have increased importance at the modern atmospheric CO2 concentration compared to 3 billion years ago.

  5. Immobilized Carbonic Anhydrase on Hollow Fiber Membranes Accelerates CO(2) Removal from Blood.

    PubMed

    Arazawa, David T; Oh, Heung-Il; Ye, Sang-Ho; Johnson, Carl A; Woolley, Joshua R; Wagner, William R; Federspiel, William J

    2012-06-01

    Current artificial lungs and respiratory assist devices designed for carbon dioxide removal (CO(2)R) are limited in their efficiency due to the relatively small partial pressure difference across gas exchange membranes. To offset this underlying diffusional challenge, bioactive hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) increase the carbon dioxide diffusional gradient through the immobilized enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), which converts bicarbonate to CO(2) directly at the HFM surface. In this study, we tested the impact of CA-immobilization on HFM CO(2) removal efficiency and thromboresistance in blood. Fiber surface modification with radio frequency glow discharge (RFGD) introduced hydroxyl groups, which were activated by 1M CNBr while 1.5M TEA was added drop wise over the activation time course, then incubation with a CA solution covalently linked the enzyme to the surface. The bioactive HFMs were then potted in a model gas exchange device (0.0084 m(2)) and tested in a recirculation loop with a CO(2) inlet of 50mmHg under steady blood flow. Using an esterase activity assay, CNBr chemistry with TEA resulted in 0.99U of enzyme activity, a 3.3 fold increase in immobilized CA activity compared to our previous method. These bioactive HFMs demonstrated 108 ml/min/m(2) CO(2) removal rate, marking a 36% increase compared to unmodified HFMs (p < 0.001). Thromboresistance of CA-modified HFMs was assessed in terms of adherent platelets on surfaces by using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Results indicated HFMs with CA modification had 95% less platelet deposition compared to unmodified HFM (p < 0.01). Overall these findings revealed increased CO(2) removal can be realized through bioactive HFMs, enabling a next generation of more efficient CO(2) removal intravascular and paracorporeal respiratory assist devices.

  6. External carbonic anhydrase in three Caribbean corals: quantification of activity and role in CO2 uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tansik, Anna L.; Fitt, William K.; Hopkinson, Brian M.

    2015-09-01

    Scleractinian corals have complicated inorganic carbon ( C i) transport pathways to support both photosynthesis, by their symbiotic dinoflagellates, and calcification. The first step in C i acquisition, uptake into the coral, is critical as the diffusive boundary layer limits the supply of CO2 to the surface and HCO3 - uptake is energy intensive. An external carbonic anhydrase (eCA) on the oral surface of corals is thought to facilitate CO2 uptake by converting HCO3 - into CO2, helping to overcome the limitation imposed by the boundary layer. However, this enzyme has not yet been identified or detected in corals, nor has its activity been quantified. We have developed a method to quantify eCA activity using a reaction-diffusion model to analyze data on 18O removal from labeled C i. Applying this technique to three species of Caribbean corals ( Orbicella faveolata, Porites astreoides, and Siderastrea radians) showed that all species have eCA and that the potential rates of CO2 generation by eCA greatly exceed photosynthetic rates. This demonstrates that eCA activity is sufficient to support its hypothesized role in CO2 supply. Inhibition of eCA severely reduces net photosynthesis in all species (on average by 46 ± 27 %), implying that CO2 generated by eCA is a major carbon source for photosynthesis. Because of the high permeability of membranes to CO2, CO2 uptake is likely driven by a concentration gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane. The ubiquity of eCA in corals from diverse genera and environments suggests that it is fundamental for photosynthetic CO2 supply.

  7. Asymmetric subcellular mRNA distribution correlates with carbonic anhydrase activity in Acetabularia acetabulum.

    PubMed

    Serikawa, K A; Porterfield, D M; Mandoli, D F

    2001-02-01

    The unicellular green macroalga Acetabularia acetabulum L. Silva is an excellent system for studying regional differentiation within a single cell. In late adults, physiologically mediated extracellular alkalinity varies along the long axis of the alga with extracellular pH more alkaline along the apical and middle regions of the stalk than at and near the rhizoid. Respiration also varies with greater respiration at and near the rhizoid than along the stalk. We hypothesized that the apical and middle regions of the stalk require greater carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity to facilitate inorganic carbon uptake for photosynthesis. Treatment of algae with the CA inhibitors acetazolamide and ethoxyzolamide decreased photosynthetic oxygen evolution along the stalk but not at the rhizoid, indicating that CA facilitates inorganic carbon uptake in the apical portions of the alga. To examine the distribution of enzymatic activity within the alga, individuals were dissected into apical, middle, and basal tissue pools and assayed for both total and external CA activity. CA activity was greatest in the apical portions. We cloned two CA genes (AaCA1 and AaCA2). Northern analysis demonstrated that both genes are expressed throughout much of the life cycle of A. acetabulum. AaCA1 mRNA first appears in early adults. AaCA2 mRNA appears in juveniles. The AaCA1 and AaCA2 mRNAs are distributed asymmetrically in late adults with highest levels of each in the apical portion of the alga. mRNA localization and enzyme activity patterns correlate for AaCA1 and AaCA2, indicating that mRNA localization is one mechanism underlying regional differentiation in A. acetabulum.

  8. Crystal structures of two tetrameric β-carbonic anhydrases from the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Lehneck, Ronny; Neumann, Piotr; Vullo, Daniela; Elleuche, Skander; Supuran, Claudiu T; Ficner, Ralf; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2014-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are metalloenzymes catalyzing the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate (hydrogen carbonate) and protons. CAs have been identified in archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes and can be classified into five groups (α, β, γ, δ, ζ) that are unrelated in sequence and structure. The fungal β-class has only recently attracted attention. In the present study, we investigated the structure and function of the plant-like β-CA proteins CAS1 and CAS2 from the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. We demonstrated that both proteins can substitute for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae β-CA Nce103 and exhibit an in vitro CO2 hydration activity (kcat /Km of CAS1: 1.30 × 10(6) m(-1) ·s(-1) ; CAS2: 1.21 × 10(6 ) m(-1) ·s(-1) ). To further investigate the structural properties of CAS1 and CAS2, we determined their crystal structures to a resolution of 2.7 Å and 1.8 Å, respectively. The oligomeric state of both proteins is tetrameric. With the exception of the active site composition, no further major differences have been found. In both enzymes, the Zn(2) (+) -ion is tetrahedrally coordinated; in CAS1 by Cys45, His101 and Cys104 and a water molecule and in CAS2 by the side chains of four residues (Cys56, His112, Cys115 and Asp58). Both CAs are only weakly inhibited by anions, making them good candidates for industrial applications. CAS1 and CAS2 bind by x-ray crystallography (View interaction) Structural data have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank database under accession numbers 4O1J for CAS1 and 4O1K for CAS2. © 2014 FEBS.

  9. Immobilized Carbonic Anhydrase on Hollow Fiber Membranes Accelerates CO2 Removal from Blood

    PubMed Central

    Arazawa, David T.; Oh, Heung-Il; Ye, Sang-Ho; Johnson, Carl A.; Woolley, Joshua R.; Wagner, William R.; Federspiel, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Current artificial lungs and respiratory assist devices designed for carbon dioxide removal (CO2R) are limited in their efficiency due to the relatively small partial pressure difference across gas exchange membranes. To offset this underlying diffusional challenge, bioactive hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) increase the carbon dioxide diffusional gradient through the immobilized enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), which converts bicarbonate to CO2 directly at the HFM surface. In this study, we tested the impact of CA-immobilization on HFM CO2 removal efficiency and thromboresistance in blood. Fiber surface modification with radio frequency glow discharge (RFGD) introduced hydroxyl groups, which were activated by 1M CNBr while 1.5M TEA was added drop wise over the activation time course, then incubation with a CA solution covalently linked the enzyme to the surface. The bioactive HFMs were then potted in a model gas exchange device (0.0084 m2) and tested in a recirculation loop with a CO2 inlet of 50mmHg under steady blood flow. Using an esterase activity assay, CNBr chemistry with TEA resulted in 0.99U of enzyme activity, a 3.3 fold increase in immobilized CA activity compared to our previous method. These bioactive HFMs demonstrated 108 ml/min/m2 CO2 removal rate, marking a 36% increase compared to unmodified HFMs (p < 0.001). Thromboresistance of CA-modified HFMs was assessed in terms of adherent platelets on surfaces by using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Results indicated HFMs with CA modification had 95% less platelet deposition compared to unmodified HFM (p < 0.01). Overall these findings revealed increased CO2 removal can be realized through bioactive HFMs, enabling a next generation of more efficient CO2 removal intravascular and paracorporeal respiratory assist devices. PMID:22962517

  10. Targeting tumor hypoxia: suppression of breast tumor growth and metastasis by novel carbonic anhydrase IX inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yuanmei; McDonald, Paul C; Oloumi, Arusha; Chia, Stephen; Ostlund, Christina; Ahmadi, Ardalan; Kyle, Alastair; Auf dem Keller, Ulrich; Leung, Samuel; Huntsman, David; Clarke, Blaise; Sutherland, Brent W; Waterhouse, Dawn; Bally, Marcel; Roskelley, Calvin; Overall, Christopher M; Minchinton, Andrew; Pacchiano, Fabio; Carta, Fabrizio; Scozzafava, Andrea; Touisni, Nadia; Winum, Jean-Yves; Supuran, Claudiu T; Dedhar, Shoukat

    2011-05-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a hypoxia and HIF-1-inducible protein that regulates intra- and extracellular pH under hypoxic conditions and promotes tumor cell survival and invasion in hypoxic microenvironments. Interrogation of 3,630 human breast cancers provided definitive evidence of CAIX as an independent poor prognostic biomarker for distant metastases and survival. shRNA-mediated depletion of CAIX expression in 4T1 mouse metastatic breast cancer cells capable of inducing CAIX in hypoxia resulted in regression of orthotopic mammary tumors and inhibition of spontaneous lung metastasis formation. Stable depletion of CAIX in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts also resulted in attenuation of primary tumor growth. CAIX depletion in the 4T1 cells led to caspase-independent cell death and reversal of extracellular acidosis under hypoxic conditions in vitro. Treatment of mice harboring CAIX-positive 4T1 mammary tumors with novel CAIX-specific small molecule inhibitors that mimicked the effects of CAIX depletion in vitro resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis formation in both spontaneous and experimental models of metastasis, without inhibitory effects on CAIX-negative tumors. Similar inhibitory effects on primary tumor growth were observed in mice harboring orthotopic tumors comprised of lung metatstatic MDA-MB-231 LM2-4(Luc+) cells. Our findings show that CAIX is vital for growth and metastasis of hypoxic breast tumors and is a specific, targetable biomarker for breast cancer metastasis.

  11. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of α-carbonic anhydrase from Thiomicrospira crunogena XCL-2.

    PubMed

    Díaz Torres, Natalia; González, Guillermo; Biswas, Shyamasri; Scott, Kathleen M; McKenna, Robert

    2012-09-01

    Thiomicrospira crunogena XCL-2 is a novel sulfur-oxidizing chemolithoautotroph that plays a significant role in the sustainability of deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities. This recently discovered gammaproteobacterium encodes and expresses four carbonic anhydrases (CAs) from three evolutionarily and structurally distinct CA families: an α-CA, two β-CAs and a γ-CA. In order to characterize and elucidate the physiological roles of these CAs, X-ray crystallographic structural studies have been initiated on the α-CA. The α-CA crystallized in space group C2. The crystals diffracted to a maximum resolution of 2.6 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 127.1, b = 102.2, c = 105.0 Å, β = 127.3°, and a calculated Matthews coefficient of 2.04 Å(3) Da(-1) with four identical protein molecules in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. A preliminary solution was determined by molecular replacement with the PHENIX AutoMR wizard, which had an initial TFZ score of 17.9. Refinement of the structure is currently in progress.

  12. SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF NEW PHTHALAZINE SUBSTITUTED β-LACTAM DERIVATIVES AS CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS.

    PubMed

    Berber, Nurcan; Arslan, Mustafa; Bilen, Çiğdem; Sackes, Zübeyde; Gençer, Nahit; Arslan, Oktay

    2015-01-01

    A new series of phthalazine substituted β-lactam derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory effects on the activity of purified human carbonic anhydrase (hCA I and II) were evaluated. 2H-Indazolo[2,1-b]phthala- zine-trione derivative was prepared with 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, dimedone, and phthalhydrazide in the presence of TFA in DMF, and the nitro group was reduced to 13-(4-aminophenyl)-3,3-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro- 2H-indazolo[1,2-b]phthalazine-1,6,11(13H)-trione with SnCl2 · 2H2O. The reduced compound was re- acted with different aromatic aldehydes, and phthalazine substituted imines were synthesized. The imine compounds undergo (2+2) cycloaddition reactions with ketenes to produce 2H-indazolo[2,1-b]phthala-zine-trione substituted β-lactam derivatives. The β-lactam compounds were tested as inhibitors of the CA isoenzyme activity. The results showed that all the synthesized compounds inhibited the CA isoenzyme activity. 1-(4-(3,3-dimethyl- 1,6,1 1-trioxo-2,3,4,6,11,13-hexahydro-1H-indazolo[1,2-b]phthalazin-13- yl)phenyl)-2-oxo-4-p-tolylazetidin-3-yl acetate (IC50 = 6.97 µM for hCA I and 8.48 µM for hCA II) had the most inhibitory effect.

  13. Correction of renal tubular acidosis in carbonic anhydrase II-deficient mice with gene therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Lai, L W; Chan, D M; Erickson, R P; Hsu, S J; Lien, Y H

    1998-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) deficiency in humans is associated with a syndrome of renal tubular acidosis, osteopetrosis, and cerebral calcification. A strain of mice of CAII deficiency due to a point mutation also manifests renal tubular acidosis. We report here that retrograde injection of cationic liposome complexed with a CAII chimeric gene, using a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter/enhancer as an expression cassette to drive human CAII cDNA, into the renal pelvis of CAII-deficient mice results in expression of CAII in the kidney. The levels of both the CAII gene and its corresponding mRNA were highest by day 3 after treatment, diminishing thereafter, but remaining detectable by 1 mo. After gene therapy, CAII-deficient mice restored the ability to acidify urine after oral administration of ammonium chloride. The ability to acidify urine was maintained at 3 wk after gene therapy, and was eventually lost by 6 wk. Immunohistochemistry studies using anti-CAII antibodies showed that CAII was expressed in tubular cells of the outer medulla and corticomedullary junction. The gene therapy was not associated with nephrotoxicity as assessed by blood urea nitrogen levels and renal histology. To our knowledge, this is the first successful gene therapy of a genetic renal disease. Our results demonstrate the potential of gene therapy as a novel treatment for hereditary renal tubular defects. PMID:9525974

  14. Coupling Protein Dynamics with Proton Transport in Human Carbonic Anhydrase II

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The role of protein dynamics in enzyme catalysis is one of the most highly debated topics in enzymology. The main controversy centers around what may be defined as functionally significant conformational fluctuations and how, if at all, these fluctuations couple to enzyme catalyzed events. To shed light on this debate, the conformational dynamics along the transition path surmounting the highest free energy barrier have been herein investigated for the rate limiting proton transport event in human carbonic anhydrase (HCA) II. Special attention has been placed on whether the motion of an excess proton is correlated with fluctuations in the surrounding protein and solvent matrix, which may be rare on the picosecond and subpicosecond time scales of molecular motions. It is found that several active site residues, which do not directly participate in the proton transport event, have a significant impact on the dynamics of the excess proton. These secondary participants are shown to strongly influence the active site environment, resulting in the creation of water clusters that are conducive to fast, moderately slow, or slow proton transport events. The identification and characterization of these secondary participants illuminates the role of protein dynamics in the catalytic efficiency of HCA II. PMID:27063577

  15. Immunocytochemical localization of carbonic anhydrase in the pseudobranch tissue of the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, S. M.; Mazlan, A. G.; Simon, K. D.; Delaunoy, J. P.; Laurent, P.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudobranch function has long interested scientists, but its role has yet to be elucidated. Several studies have suggested that pseudobranchs serve respiratory, osmoregulatory, and sensory functions. This work investigated the immunolocalization of pseudobranch carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the teleost fish species rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to clarify its physiological function. CA was purified from rainbow trout gills O. mykiss and specific antibodies were raised. Immunoblotting between tissue homogenates of pseudobranch and gill CA antibodies showed specific immunostaining with only one band corresponding to CA in the pseudobranch homogenate. Results of immunohistochemical technique revealed that CA was distributed within pseudobranch cells and more precisely in the apical parts (anti-vascular) of cells. The basal (vascular) parts of cells, tubular system, blood capillaries, and pillar cells were not immunostained. Immunocytochemistry confirmed these results and showed that some CA enzyme was cytoplasmic and the remainder was linked to membranous structures. The results also showed that the lacunar tissue layers did not display immunoperoxidase activity. Our results indicated that pseudobranch CA may have a function related to the extracellular medium wherein CA intervenes with the mechanism of stimulation of afferent nerve fibers. PMID:24510712

  16. Targeting carbonic anhydrase IX improves the anti-cancer efficacy of mTOR inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Faes, Seraina; Planche, Anne; Uldry, Emilie; Santoro, Tania; Pythoud, Catherine; Stehle, Jean-Christophe; Horlbeck, Janine; Letovanec, Igor; Riggi, Nicolo; Datta, Dipak; Demartines, Nicolas; Dormond, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) by chemical inhibitors, such as rapamycin, has demonstrated anti-cancer activity in preclinical and clinical trials. Their efficacy is, however, limited and tumors eventually relapse through resistance formation. In this study, using two different cancer mouse models, we identify tumor hypoxia as a novel mechanism of resistance of cancer cells against mTORC1 inhibitors. Indeed, we show that the activity of mTORC1 is mainly restricted to the non-hypoxic tumor compartment, as evidenced by a mutually exclusive staining pattern of the mTORC1 activity marker pS6 and the hypoxia marker pimonidazole. Consequently, whereas rapamycin reduces cancer cell proliferation in non-hypoxic regions, it has no effect in hypoxic areas, suggesting that cancer cells proliferate independently of mTORC1 under hypoxia. Targeting the hypoxic tumor compartment by knockdown of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) using short hairpin RNA or by chemical inhibition of CAIX with acetazolamide potentiates the anti-cancer activity of rapamycin. Taken together, these data emphasize that hypoxia impairs the anti-cancer efficacy of rapalogs. Therapeutic strategies targeting the hypoxic tumor compartment, such as the inhibition of CAIX, potentiate the efficacy of rapamycin and warrant further clinical evaluation. PMID:27153561

  17. A spectroscopic study on the absorption of carbonic anhydrase onto the nanoporous silica nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Khameneh, Hannaneh Pourjabbari; Bolouri, Termeh Ghorbanian; Nemati, Fahimeh; Rezvani, Fatemeh; Attar, Farnoosh; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Falahati, Mojtaba

    2017-06-01

    Herein, KIT-6 nanoporous silica nanoparticles were used as a solid support for immobilization of bovine carbonic anhydrase, isoform II (BCA II). The zeta potential study revealed that KIT-6 and BCA II provided negative (-13.58±1.95mV) and positive (4.23±0.72mV) charge distribution, respectively. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis also showed that the hydrodynamic radius of KIT-6 is less than 100nm. In addition, the structural studies of free and immobilized BCA II against urea-induced denaturation were investigated by circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopy. CD studies showed that the absorbed BCA II, in comparison with the free enzyme, demonstrated higher stability against rising urea concentration. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed lower values of Stern- Volmer constant (KSV) for immobilized BCA II relative to free enzyme, reflecting the relative enzyme stability of BCA II after immobilization. Melting temperature (Tm) measurement of free and immobilized BCA II showed that immobilized enzyme had a more stable structure (Tm=71.9°C) relative to the free counterpart (Tm=64.7°C). In addition, the immobilized BCA II showed pronounced stability against pH and thermal deactivation. This study may provide new and complementary details regarding the design and development of enzymes in industrial applications.

  18. GdnHCl-induced unfolding intermediate in the mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase VA.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Danish; Prakash, Amresh; Haque, Md Anzarul; Islam, Asimul; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz; Ahmad, Faizan

    2016-10-01

    Carbonic anhydrase VA (CAVA) is a mitochondrial enzyme belonging to the α-family of CAs, which is involved in several physiological processes including ureagenesis, lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis and neuronal transmission. Here, we have tried to understand the folding mechanism of CAVA using guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl)-induced denaturation at pH 8.0 and 25°C. The conformational stability was measured from the GdnHCl-induced denaturation study of CAVA monitored by circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence measurements. On increasing the concentration of GdnHCl up to 5.0, a stable intermediate was observed between the concentrations 3.25M to 3.40M of the denaturant. However, CAVA gets completely denatured at 4.0M GdnHCl. The existence of a stable intermediate state was validated by 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (ANS binding) fluorescence and near-UV CD measurements. In silico studies were also performed to analyse the effect of GdnHCl on the structure and stability of CAVA under explicit conditions. Molecular dynamics simulations for 40ns were carried out and a well-defined correlation was established for both in vitro and in silico studies.

  19. Extracellular carbonic anhydrase in the dogfish, Squalus acanthias: a role in CO2 excretion.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, K M; Perry, S F; Bernier, N J; Henry, R P; Wood, C M

    2001-01-01

    In Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), plasma CO(2) reactions have access to plasma carbonic anhydrase (CA) and gill membrane-associated CA. The objectives of this study were to characterise the gill membrane-bound CA and investigate whether extracellular CA contributes significantly to CO(2) excretion in dogfish. A subcellular fraction containing membrane-associated CA activity was isolated from dogfish gills and incubated with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. This treatment caused significant release of CA activity from its membrane association, a result consistent with identification of the dogfish gill membrane-bound CA as a type IV isozyme. Inhibition constants (K(i)) against acetazolamide and benzolamide were 4.2 and 3.5 nmol L(-1), respectively. Use of a low dose (1.3 mg kg(-1) or 13 micromol L(-1)) of benzolamide to selectively inhibit extracellular CA in vivo caused a significant 30%-60% reduction in the arterial-venous total CO(2) concentration difference, a significant increase in Pco(2) and an acidosis, without affecting blood flow or ventilation. No effect of benzolamide on any measure of CO(2) excretion was detected in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). These results indicate that extracellular CA contributes substantially to CO(2) excretion in the dogfish, an elasmobranch, and confirm that CA is not available to plasma CO(2) reactions in rainbow trout, a teleost.

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of the low- to physiological-temperature nondenaturational conformational change of bovine carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Hollowell, Heather N; Younvanich, Saronya S; McNevin, Stacey L; Britt, B Mark

    2007-03-31

    The stability curve - a plot of the Gibbs free energy of unfolding versus temperature - is calculated for bovine erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase in 150 mM sodium phosphate (pH = 7.0) from a combination of reversible differential scanning calorimetry measurements and isothermal guanidine hydrochloride titrations. The enzyme possesses two stable folded conformers with the conformational transition occurring at ~30 degrees C. The methodology yields a stability curve for the complete unfolding of the enzyme below this temperature but only the partial unfolding, to the molten globule state, above it. The transition state thermodynamics for the low- to physiological-temperature conformational change are calculated from slow-scan-rate differential scanning calorimetry measurements where it is found that the free energy barrier for the conversion is 90 kJ/mole and the transition state possesses a substantial unfolding quality. The data therefore suggest that the x-ray structure may differ considerably from the physiological structure and that the two conformers are not readily interconverted.

  1. Immobilization induces carbonic anhydrase III in type II fibers of rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Laurila, A L; Jeffery, S; Savolainen, J; Takala, T E; Carter, N D; Väänänen, H K

    1991-05-01

    The amount and fiber distribution of carbonic anhydrase III (CA III), a major soluble protein in Type I muscle fibers, were studied during cast immobilization of rat hindlimb with the ankle in plantar or dorsiflexion. The concentration of CA III increased two- (p less than 0.05) and three- (p less than 0.01) fold in the shortened and lengthened tibialis anterior muscle during a 3-weeks immobilization period, respectively. After 6 weeks of immobilization the increase was even greater (p less than 0.001). Concomitantly, the number of CA III positive fibers in the lengthened muscle increased so that almost all fibers were positive. In the soleus muscle no significant change in the CA III concentration was seen. On the basis of actomyosin ATPase staining, the transition of Type IIb fibers towards Type IIa occurred in the tibialis anterior muscle, whereas in the soleus muscle a transformation of Type I fibers towards Type IIa fibers occurred. Therefore, the increase in the muscle CA III concentration seems to be associated with a cell transformation of the muscle towards a more oxidative type.

  2. Molecular mechanism of kNBC1-carbonic anhydrase II interaction in proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Pushkin, Alexander; Abuladze, Natalia; Gross, Eitan; Newman, Debra; Tatishchev, Sergei; Lee, Ivan; Fedotoff, Olga; Bondar, Galyna; Azimov, Rustam; Ngyuen, Matt; Kurtz, Ira

    2004-08-15

    We have recently shown that carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) binds in vitro to the C-terminus of the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter kNBC1 (kNBC1-ct). In the present study we determined the molecular mechanisms for the interaction between the two proteins and whether kNBC1 and CAII form a transport metabolon in vivo wherein bicarbonate is transferred from CAII directly to the cotransporter. Various residues in the C-terminus of kNBC1 were mutated and the effect of these mutations on both the magnitude of CAII binding and the function of kNBC1 expressed in mPCT cells was determined. Two clusters of acidic amino acids, L(958)DDV and D(986)NDD in the wild-type kNBC1-ct involved in CAII binding were identified. In both acidic clusters, the first aspartate residue played a more important role in CAII binding than others. A significant correlation between the magnitude of CAII binding and kNBC1-mediated flux was shown. The results indicated that CAII activity enhances flux through the cotransporter when the enzyme is bound to kNBC1. These data are the first direct evidence that a complex of an electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter with CAII functions as a transport metabolon.

  3. A survey of carbonic anhydrase mRNA expression in enamel cells

    PubMed Central

    LACRUZ, Rodrigo S.; HILVO, Mika; KURTZ, Ira; PAINE, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Enamel formation requires rigid control of pH homeostasis during all stages of development to prevent disruptions to crystal growth. The acceleration of the generation of bicarbonate by carbonic anhydrases (CA) has been suggested as one of the pathways used by ameloblasts cells to regulate extracellular pH yet only two isozymes (CA II and CA VI) have been reported to date during enamel formation. The mammalian CA family contains 16 different isoforms of which 13 are enzymatically active. We have conducted a systematic screening by RT-PCR on the expression of all known CA isoforms in mouse enamel organ epithelium (EOE) cells dissected from new born, in secretory ameloblasts derived from 7-day old animals, and in the LS8 ameloblast cell line. Results show that all CA isoforms are expressed by EOE/ameloblast cells in vivo. The most highly expressed are the catalytic isozymes CA II, VI, IX, and XIII, and the acatalytic CA XI isoform. Only minor differences were found in CA expression levels between 1-day EOE cells and 7-day old secretory stage ameloblasts, whereas LS8 cells expressed fewer CA isoforms than both of these. The broad expression of CAs by ameloblasts reported here contributes to our understanding of pH homeostasis during enamel development and demonstrates its complexity. Our results also highlight the critical role that regulation of pH plays during the development of enamel. PMID:20175995

  4. Modified β-casein restores thermal reversibility of human carbonic anhydrase II: the salt bridge mechanism.

    PubMed

    Fallah-Bagheri, Azadeh; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Taghizadeh, Mohammad; Khodarahmi, Reza; Ma'mani, Leila; Bijari, Nooshin; Bohlooli, Mousa; Shafiee, Abbas; Sheibani, Nader; Saboury, Ali Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Modified β-casein (mβ-CN) was investigated as an efficient additive for thermal reversibility of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) at pH 7.75. The mβ-CN was obtained via modification of β-casein (β-CN) acidic residues using Woodward's reagent K. The effects of mβ-CN on the reversibility and stability of HCA II were determined by differential scanning calorimetry, UV-vis, and 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid fluorescence spectroscopic methods. The mβ-CN, as an additive, enhanced thermal reversibility of HCA II by 33%. Together, our results indicated that mβ-CN is very efficient in decreasing thermal aggregation and enhancing the stability of HCA II. Using theoretical studies, we propose that the mechanism for thermal reversibility is mediated through formation of a salt bridge between the Woodward part of mβ-CN and the Zn ion of HCA II. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Influence of pesticide exposure on carbonic anhydrase II from sheep stomach.

    PubMed

    Kılınç, Namık; İşgör, Mehmet Mustafa; Şengül, Bülent; Beydemir, Şükrü

    2015-09-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a widely distributed enzyme and has a crucial role in the cells, tissues and organs of living organisms. It is found that CA-II is one of the most abundant CA isoenzymes in the gastrointestinal system. It plays an important role in the gastric acid secretion in stomach. In this study, we purified CA-II isoenzyme from sheep stomach with a 615.2 purification fold, 78% purification yield and 5562.02 specific activity. Moreover, the in vitro effects of some commonly used pesticides including chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, dichlorvos, glyphosate isopropylamine and lambda cyhalomethrin on the enzyme activity were investigated. Of these compounds, glyphosate isopropylamine and dichlorvos showed an inhibition on CA-II esterase activity. They have IC50 values of 0.155 µM and 2.690 µM and Ki values of 0.329 µM and 3.654 µM, respectively. Both glyphosate isopropylamine and dichlorvos inhibited CA-II isoenzyme in a noncompetitive manner. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Antibodies reacting to carbonic anhydrase isozymes (I and II) and albumin in sera from dogs.

    PubMed

    Nishita, Toshiho; Miyazaki, Rui; Miyazaki, Takae; Ochiai, Hideharu; Orito, Kensuke

    2016-06-01

    IgGs to carbonic anhydrase isozymes (CA-I and CA-II) and albumin were identified in dog serum. IgG titers were determined in the sera of asymptomatic dogs, and in dogs with atopic dermatitis, diarrhea and/or vomiting, diabetes and/or pancreatitis, kidney disease, hepatic disease, and thyroid gland disease, using ELISA. Low titres of IgG-reactive CA-I, CA-II, BSA, and CSA were found in the sera of healthy beagles. Compared with healthy beagles, there was a significant difference in the titers of antibodies against CA-I in asymptomatic dogs, dogs with diabetes and/or pancreatitis, or thyroid gland disease, or hepatic disease. Compared with healthy beagles, there was a significant difference in the antibody titer of anti-CA-II IgG in asymptomatic dogs and in those with hepatic disease. There was a significant difference in the antibody titer of anti-BSA IgG between healthy beagles and dogs with hepatic disease.

  7. Observed surface lysine acetylation of human carbonic anhydrase II expressed in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Brian P; Lomelino, Carrie L; Salguero, Antonieta L; Driscoll, Jenna M; Pinard, Melissa A; McKenna, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Acetylation of surface lysine residues of proteins has been observed in Escherichia coli (E. coli), an organism that has been extensively utilized for recombinant protein expression. This post-translational modification is shown to be important in various processes such as metabolism, stress-response, transcription, and translation. As such, utilization of E. coli expression systems for protein production may yield non-native acetylation events of surface lysine residues. Here we present the crystal structures of wild-type and a variant of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCA II) that have been expressed in E. coli and exhibit surface lysine acetylation and we speculate on the effect this has on the conformational stability of each enzyme. Both structures were determined to 1.6 Å resolution and show clear electron density for lysine acetylation. The lysine acetylation does not distort the structure and the surface lysine acetylation events most likely do not interfere with the biological interpretation. However, there is a reduction in conformational stability in the hCA II variant compared to wild type (∼4°C decrease). This may be due to other lysine acetylation events that have occurred but are not visible in the crystal structure due to intrinsic disorder. Therefore, surface lysine acetylation events may affect overall protein stability and crystallization, and should be considered when using E. coli expression systems. PMID:26266677

  8. Carbonic Anhydrase-8 Regulates Inflammatory Pain by Inhibiting the ITPR1-Cytosolic Free Calcium Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Gerald Z.; Keeler, Benjamin; Grant, Jeff; Bianchi, Laura; Fu, Eugene S.; Zhang, Yan Ping; Erasso, Diana M.; Cui, Jian-Guo; Wiltshire, Tim; Li, Qiongzhen; Hao, Shuanglin; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D.; Candiotti, Keith; Wishnek, Sarah M.; Smith, Shad B.; Maixner, William; Diatchenko, Luda; Martin, Eden R.; Levitt, Roy C.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium dysregulation is causally linked with various forms of neuropathology including seizure disorders, multiple sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s, spinal cerebellar ataxia (SCA) and chronic pain. Carbonic anhydrase-8 (Car8) is an allosteric inhibitor of inositol trisphosphate receptor-1 (ITPR1), which regulates intracellular calcium release fundamental to critical cellular functions including neuronal excitability, neurite outgrowth, neurotransmitter release, mitochondrial energy production and cell fate. In this report we test the hypothesis that Car8 regulation of ITPR1 and cytoplasmic free calcium release is critical to nociception and pain behaviors. We show Car8 null mutant mice (MT) exhibit mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from MT also demonstrate increased steady-state ITPR1 phosphorylation (pITPR1) and cytoplasmic free calcium release. Overexpression of Car8 wildtype protein in MT nociceptors complements Car8 deficiency, down regulates pITPR1 and abolishes thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity. We also show that Car8 nociceptor overexpression alleviates chronic inflammatory pain. Finally, inflammation results in downregulation of DRG Car8 that is associated with increased pITPR1 expression relative to ITPR1, suggesting a possible mechanism of acute hypersensitivity. Our findings indicate Car8 regulates the ITPR1-cytosolic free calcium pathway that is critical to nociception, inflammatory pain and possibly other neuropathological states. Car8 and ITPR1 represent new therapeutic targets for chronic pain. PMID:25734498

  9. Mitochondrial gamma carbonic anhydrases are required for complex I assembly and plant reproductive development.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Steffanie; Braun, Hans-Peter; Peterhansel, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    Complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) in plants contains an extra domain that is made up from proteins homologous to prokaryotic gamma-carbonic anhydrases (γCA). This domain has been suggested to participate in complex I assembly or to support transport of mitochondrial CO2 to the chloroplast. Here, we generated mutants lacking CA1 and CA2 - two out of three CA proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Double mutants were characterized at the developmental and physiological levels. Furthermore, the composition and activity of the mETC were determined, and mutated CA versions were used for complementation assays. Embryo development of double mutants was strongly delayed and seed development stopped before maturation. Mutant plants could only be rescued on sucrose media, showed severe stress symptoms and never produced viable seeds. By contrast, callus cultures were only slightly affected in growth. Complex I was undetectable in the double mutants, but complex II and complex IV were upregulated concomitant with increased oxygen consumption in mitochondrial respiration. Ectopic expression of inactive CA variants was sufficient to complement the mutant phenotype. Data indicate that CA proteins are structurally required for complex I assembly and that reproductive development is dependent on the presence of complex I. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Genetic polymorphisms in the carbonic anhydrase VI gene and dental caries susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Li, Z-Q; Hu, X-P; Zhou, J-Y; Xie, X-D; Zhang, J-M

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the role of 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI gene (rs2274328, rs17032907, rs11576766, rs2274333, rs10864376, rs3765964, and rs6680186) and the possible association between these polymorphisms and dental caries susceptibility in a Northwestern Chinese population. We collected samples from 164 high caries experience and 191 very low caries experience and conducted a case-control study according to the number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth index and genotyped the 7 polymorphisms using a 384-well plate format with the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Individuals carrying the rs17032907 TT genotype were more likely to have an increased risk of dental caries compared with carriers of the C/C genotype in the co-dominant model, with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 2.144 (1.096-4.195). We also found that the haplotype (ACA) (rs2274328, rs17032907 and rs11576766) was associated with a low number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth index with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.635 (0.440-0.918). However, we found no association between dental caries susceptibility and the rs2274328, rs11576766, rs2274333, rs10864376, rs3765964, and rs6680186 polymorphisms and other haplotypes. The rs17032907 genetic variant and the haplotype (ACA) of CA VI may be associated with dental caries susceptibility.

  11. Expression of cancer-related carbonic anhydrases IX and XII in normal skin and skin neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Syrjänen, Leo; Luukkaala, Tiina; Leppilampi, Mari; Kallioinen, Matti; Pastorekova, Silvia; Pastorek, Jaromir; Waheed, Abdul; Sly, William S; Parkkila, Seppo; Karttunen, Tuomo

    2014-09-01

    Purpose of the study was to evaluate the presence of hypoxia-inducible, tumour-associated carbonic anhydrases IX and XII in normal skin and a series of cutaneous tumours. Human tumour samples were taken during surgical operations performed on 245 patients and were immunohistochemically stained. A histological score value was calculated for statistical analyses which were performed using SPSS for Windows, versions 17.0 and 20.0. In normal skin, the highest expression of CA IX was detected in hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and basal parts of epidermis. CA XII was detected in all epithelial components of skin. Both CA IX and CA XII expression levels were significantly different in epidermal, appendigeal, and melanocytic tumour categories. Both CA IX and XII showed the most intense immunostaining in epidermal tumours, whereas virtually all melanocytic tumours were devoid of CA IX and XII immunostaining. In premalignant lesions, CA IX expression significantly increased when the tumours progressed to more severe dysplasia forms. Both CA IX and XII are highly expressed in different epithelial components of skin. They are also highly expressed in epidermal tumours, in which CA IX expression levels also correlate with the dysplasia grade. Interestingly, both isozymes are absent in melanocytic tumours. © 2014 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Carbonic anhydrase in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata: characterization, localization, and role in biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Moya, Aurélie; Tambutté, Sylvie; Bertucci, Anthony; Tambutté, Eric; Lotto, Séverine; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Allemand, Denis; Zoccola, Didier

    2008-09-12

    Carbonic anhydrases (CA) play an important role in biomineralization from invertebrates to vertebrates. Previous experiments have investigated the role of CA in coral calcification, mainly by pharmacological approaches. This study reports the molecular cloning, sequencing, and immunolocalization of a CA isolated from the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata, named STPCA. Results show that STPCA is a secreted form of alpha-CA, which possesses a CA catalytic function, similar to the secreted human CAVI. We localized this enzyme at the calicoblastic ectoderm level, which is responsible for the precipitation of the skeleton. This localization supports the role of STPCA in the calcification process. In symbiotic scleractinian corals, calcification is stimulated by light, a phenomenon called "light-enhanced calcification" (LEC). The mechanism by which symbiont photosynthesis stimulates calcification is still enigmatic. We tested the hypothesis that coral genes are differentially expressed under light and dark conditions. By real-time PCR, we investigated the differential expression of STPCA to determine its role in the LEC phenomenon. Results show that the STPCA gene is expressed 2-fold more during the dark than the light. We suggest that in the dark, up-regulation of the STPCA gene represents a mechanism to cope with night acidosis.

  13. Enzyme renaturation to higher activity driven by the sol-gel transition: Carbonic anhydrase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, Vladimir V.; Avnir, David

    2015-09-01

    We describe a so-far unknown route for renaturing denatured enzymes, namely subjecting the denatured enzyme to an oxide sol-gel transition. The phenomenon was revealed in a detailed study of denatured carbonic anhydrase which was subjected to an alumina sol-gel transition, up to the thermally stabilizing entrapment in the final xerogel. Remarkably, not only that the killed enzyme regained its activity during the sol-gel process, but its activity increased to 180% of the native enzyme. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of enhanced activity following by renaturing (a “Phoenix effect”). Kinetic study which revealed a five-orders of magnitude (!) increase in the Arrhenius prefactor upon entrapment compared to solution. Circular dichroism analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, zeta potential analyses as well as synchronous fluorescence measurements, all of which were used to characterize the phenomenon, are consistent with a proposed mechanism which is based on the specific orienting interactions of the active site of the enzyme with respect to the alumina interface and its pores network.

  14. Coumarin or benzoxazinone based novel carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: synthesis, molecular docking and anticonvulsant studies.

    PubMed

    Karataş, Mert Olgun; Uslu, Harun; Sarı, Suat; Alagöz, Mehmet Abdullah; Karakurt, Arzu; Alıcı, Bülent; Bilen, Cigdem; Yavuz, Emre; Gencer, Nahit; Arslan, Oktay

    2016-10-01

    Among many others, coumarin derivatives are known to show human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) inhibitory activity. Since hCA inhibition is one of the underlying mechanisms that account for the activities of some antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), hCA inhibitors are expected to have anti-seizure properties. There are also several studies reporting compounds with an imidazole and/or benzimidazole moiety which exert these pharmacological properties. In this study, we prepared fifteen novel coumarin-bearing imidazolium and benzimidazolium chloride, nine novel benzoxazinone-bearing imidazolium and benzimidazolium chloride derivatives and evaluated their hCA inhibitory activities and along with fourteen previously synthesized derivatives we scanned their anticonvulsant effects. As all compounds inhibited purified hCA isoforms I and II, some of them also proved protective against Maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and ScMet induced seizures in mice. Molecular docking studies with selected coumarin derivatives have revealed that these compounds bind to the active pocket of the enzyme in a similar fashion to that previously described for coumarin derivatives.

  15. Building reactive copper center(s) in human carbonic anhydrase II

    PubMed Central

    Song, He; Weitz, Andrew C.; Hendrich, Michael P.; Lewis, Edwin A.; Emerson, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    Re-engineering metalloproteins to generate new biologically relevant metal centers is an effective a way to test our understanding of the structural and mechanistic features that steer chemical transformations in biological systems. Here we report thermodynamic data characterizing the formation of two type-2 (T2) copper sites in carbonic anhydrase and experimental evidence showing one of these new copper centers has characteristics similar to a variety of well-characterized copper centers in synthetic models and in enzymatic systems. Human CA II is known to bind two Cu2+ ions; herein, these binding events are explored using modern isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) techniques that have become a proven method to accurately measure metal-binding thermodynamic parameters. The two Cu2+-binding events have different affinities (Ka ∼ 5 × 1012 and 1 × 1010) and both are enthalpically driven processes. Reconstituting these Cu2+ sites under a range of conditions has allowed us to assign the Cu2+-binding event to the three-histidine, native, metal binding site. Our initial efforts to characterize these Cu2+ sites have yielded data that show distinctive (and noncoupled) EPR signals associated with each copper-binding site, and that this reconstituted enzyme can activate hydrogen peroxide to catalyze the oxidation of 2-aminophenol. PMID:23744511

  16. Phosphorylation of carbonic anhydrase IX controls its ability to mediate extracellular acidification in hypoxic tumors.

    PubMed

    Ditte, Peter; Dequiedt, Franck; Svastova, Eliska; Hulikova, Alzbeta; Ohradanova-Repic, Anna; Zatovicova, Miriam; Csaderova, Lucia; Kopacek, Juraj; Supuran, Claudiu T; Pastorekova, Silvia; Pastorek, Jaromir

    2011-12-15

    In the hypoxic regions of a tumor, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is an important transmembrane component of the pH regulatory machinery that participates in bicarbonate transport. Because tumor pH has implications for growth, invasion, and therapy, determining the basis for the contributions of CA IX to the hypoxic tumor microenvironment could lead to new fundamental and practical insights. Here, we report that Thr443 phosphorylation at the intracellular domain of CA IX by protein kinase A (PKA) is critical for its activation in hypoxic cells, with the fullest activity of CA IX also requiring dephosphorylation of Ser448. PKA is activated by cAMP, which is elevated by hypoxia, and we found that attenuating PKA in cells disrupted CA IX-mediated extracellular acidification. Moreover, following hypoxia induction, CA IX colocalized with the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter and other PKA substrates in the leading edge membranes of migrating tumor cells, in support of the concept that bicarbonate metabolism is spatially regulated at cell surface sites with high local ion transport and pH control. Using chimeric CA IX proteins containing heterologous catalytic domains derived from related CA enzymes, we showed that CA IX activity was modulated chiefly by the intracellular domain where Thr443 is located. Our findings indicate that CA IX is a pivotal mediator of the hypoxia-cAMP-PKA axis, which regulates pH in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment.

  17. Inhibition of the β-class carbonic anhydrases from Mycobacterium tuberculosis with carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Maresca, Alfonso; Vullo, Daniela; Scozzafava, Andrea; Manole, Gheorghe; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2013-04-01

    The growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is strongly inhibited by weak acids although the mechanism by which these compounds act is not completely understood. A series of substituted benzoic acids, nipecotic acid, ortho- and para-coumaric acid, caffeic acid and ferulic acid were investigated as inhibitors of three β-class carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) from this pathogen, mtCA 1 (Rv1284), mtCA 2 (Rv3588c) and mtCA 3 (Rv3273). All three enzymes were inhibited with efficacies between the submicromolar to the micromolar one, depending on the scaffold present in the carboxylic acid. mtCA 3 was the isoform mostly inhibited by these compounds (K(I)s in the range of 0.11-0.97 µM); followed by mtCA 2 (K(I)s in the range of 0.59-8.10 µM), whereas against mtCA 1, these carboxylic acids showed inhibition constants in the range of 2.25-7.13 µM. This class of relatively underexplored β-CA inhibitors warrant further in vivo studies, as they may have the potential for developing antimycobacterial agents with a diverse mechanism of action compared to the clinically used drugs for which many strains exhibit multi-drug or extensive multi-drug resistance.

  18. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase II by steroidal and non-steroidal sulphamates.

    PubMed

    Ho, Y T; Purohit, A; Vicker, N; Newman, S P; Robinson, J J; Leese, M P; Ganeshapillai, D; Woo, L W L; Potter, B V L; Reed, M J

    2003-06-13

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are expressed by many solid tumours where they may act to confer a growth advantage on malignant tissues. In this study we have examined the ability of a series of steroidal and non-steroidal sulphamates (originally developed as steroid sulphatase inhibitors) and related compounds to inhibit human CAII (hCAII) activity in vitro. Using a 96-well plate assay, oestrone-3-O-sulphamate (EMATE) and two coumarin-based sulphamate drugs (667 COUMATE and STX 118) were found to have IC(50) values of 25-59 nM for the inhibition of hCAII activity. These compounds therefore have a similar CAII inhibitory potency to that of acetazolamide (IC(50)=25 nM), a known hCAII inhibitor. Docking studies have been performed with selected compounds to the crystal structure of hCAII and excellent correlation of scores with biological activity was observed. This agrees with our recent observations when we were the first to report the inhibition of hCAII by STS inhibitors. These studies and initial results with docking to the crystal structure of the extracellular domain of hCAXII indicate that the STS sulphamate ester inhibitors should also be interesting candidates to pursue as inhibitors of CA isozymes that are over-expressed in human tumours.

  19. Participation of Two Carbonic Anhydrases of the Alpha Family in Photosynthetic Reactions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhurikova, E M; Ignatova, L K; Rudenko, N N; Mudrik, V A; Vetoshkina, D V; Ivanov, B N

    2016-10-01

    The expression of genes of two carbonic anhydrases (CA) belonging to the α-family, α-CA2 and α-CA4 (according to the nomenclature in N. Fabre et al. (2007) Plant Cell Environ., 30, 617-629), was studied in arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana, var. Columbia) leaves. The expression of the At2g28210 gene coding α-CA2 decreased under increase in plant illumination, while the expression of the At4g20990 gene coding α-CA4 increased. Under conditions close to optimal for photosynthesis, in plants with gene At2g28210 knockout, the effective quantum yield of photosystem 2 and the light-induced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in leaves were lower than in wild type plants, while the coefficient of non-photochemical quenching of leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence and the rate of CO2 assimilation in leaves were higher. In plants with At4g20990 gene knockout, the same characteristics changed in opposite ways relative to wild type. Possible mechanisms of the participation of α-CA2 and α-CA4 in photosynthetic reactions are discussed, taking into account that protons can be either consumed or released in the reactions they catalyze.

  20. Increased water flux induced by an aquaporin-1/carbonic anhydrase II interaction

    PubMed Central

    Vilas, Gonzalo; Krishnan, Devishree; Loganathan, Sampath Kumar; Malhotra, Darpan; Liu, Lei; Beggs, Megan Rachele; Gena, Patrizia; Calamita, Giuseppe; Jung, Martin; Zimmermann, Richard; Tamma, Grazia; Casey, Joseph Roman; Alexander, Robert Todd

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) enables greatly enhanced water flux across plasma membranes. The cytosolic carboxy terminus of AQP1 has two acidic motifs homologous to known carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) binding sequences. CAII colocalizes with AQP1 in the renal proximal tubule. Expression of AQP1 with CAII in Xenopus oocytes or mammalian cells increased water flux relative to AQP1 expression alone. This required the amino-terminal sequence of CAII, a region that binds other transport proteins. Expression of catalytically inactive CAII failed to increase water flux through AQP1. Proximity ligation assays revealed close association of CAII and AQP1, an effect requiring the second acidic cluster of AQP1. This motif was also necessary for CAII to increase AQP1-mediated water flux. Red blood cell ghosts resealed with CAII demonstrated increased osmotic water permeability compared with ghosts resealed with albumin. Water flux across renal cortical membrane vesicles, measured by stopped-flow light scattering, was reduced in CAII-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. These data are consistent with CAII increasing water conductance through AQP1 by a physical interaction between the two proteins. PMID:25609088

  1. Nuclear NonO/p54(nrb) protein is a nonclassical carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Karhumaa, P; Parkkila, S; Waheed, A; Parkkila, A K; Kaunisto, K; Tucker, P W; Huang, C J; Sly, W S; Rajaniemi, H

    2000-05-26

    The growing carbonic anhydrase (CA) gene family includes 11 enzymatically active isozymes in mammals. Each of them has a characteristic cellular and subcellular distribution pattern. In this report, we demonstrate for the first time a nuclear protein with CA activity. A polypeptide recognized by CA II antibodies was purified from several rat tissues using CA inhibitor affinity chromatography. This polypeptide of apparent 66 kDa mass was characterized using amino acid sequencing and CA activity measurements. It appeared to be identical to nonO/p54(nrb), a previously cloned and characterized RNA and DNA binding nuclear factor. Recombinant nonO generated in baculovirus bound to the CA inhibitor affinity chromatography matrix and revealed detectable CA activity (25 units/mg). Hansson's histochemical staining of rat lymph nodes followed by light and electron microscopy showed nuclear CA activity in lymphocytes, suggesting that the nuclear nonO protein is catalytically active in vivo. These results demonstrate that a previously known transcription factor is a novel, nonclassical CA. Through its CA activity, the nonO may function in the maintenance of pH homeostasis in the nucleus.

  2. A small-molecule drug conjugate for the treatment of carbonic anhydrase IX expressing tumors.

    PubMed

    Krall, Nikolaus; Pretto, Francesca; Decurtins, Willy; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Supuran, Claudiu T; Neri, Dario

    2014-04-14

    Antibody-drug conjugates are a very promising class of new anticancer agents, but the use of small-molecule ligands for the targeted delivery of cytotoxic drugs into solid tumors is less well established. Here, we describe the first small-molecule drug conjugates for the treatment of carbonic anhydrase IX expressing solid tumors. Using ligand-dye conjugates we demonstrate that such molecules can preferentially accumulate inside antigen-positive lesions, have fast targeting kinetics and good tumor-penetrating properties, and are easily accessible by total synthesis. A disulfide-linked drug conjugate with the maytansinoid DM1 as the cytotoxic payload and a derivative of acetazolamide as the targeting ligand exhibited a potent antitumor effect in SKRC52 renal cell carcinoma in vivo. It was furthermore superior to sunitinib and sorafenib, both small-molecule standard-of-care drugs for the treatment of kidney cancer. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Enhancement of thermal reversibility and stability of human carbonic anhydrase II by mesoporous nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Khatibi, Ali; Ma'mani, Leila; Khodarahmi, Reza; Shafiee, Abbas; Maghami, Parvaneh; Ahmad, Faizan; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2015-04-01

    Aminopropyl functionalized PEGylated mesoporous silica nanoparticles [H2N-Pr@PEGylated SBA-15] were synthesized and evaluated as a promising biocompatible additive to study the activity and thermal reversibility and stability of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II). For this purpose, the additive was prepared by covalent amino propyl functionalization of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) bearing PEG moiety as linker. The MSNs was fully characterized using different techniques including transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption measurements, thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. The average particle size of [H2N-Pr@PEGylated SBA-15] was about 80 nm and showed high loading capacity for HCA II at pH 7.75 as a target protein. The efficiency of [H2N-Pr@PEGylated SBA-15] in improving reversibility of HCA II was investigated by various techniques including UV-vis, 1,8-Anilinonaphtalene Sulfonate (ANS) fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), and differential scanning calorimetry. Our results showed that [H2N-Pr@PEGylated SBA-15] can increase the protein thermal reversibility and stability. Herein, kinetic studies were applied to confirm the ability of [H2N-Pr@PEGylated SBA-15] in increasing the activity of HCA II at high temperatures. Together our results present the [H2N-Pr@PEGylated SBA-15] as a water-dispersible and efficient additive for improving the activity, and thermal reversibility and stability of enzyme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Enzyme renaturation to higher activity driven by the sol-gel transition: Carbonic anhydrase

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, Vladimir V.; Avnir, David

    2015-01-01

    We describe a so-far unknown route for renaturing denatured enzymes, namely subjecting the denatured enzyme to an oxide sol-gel transition. The phenomenon was revealed in a detailed study of denatured carbonic anhydrase which was subjected to an alumina sol-gel transition, up to the thermally stabilizing entrapment in the final xerogel. Remarkably, not only that the killed enzyme regained its activity during the sol-gel process, but its activity increased to 180% of the native enzyme. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of enhanced activity following by renaturing (a “Phoenix effect”). Kinetic study which revealed a five-orders of magnitude (!) increase in the Arrhenius prefactor upon entrapment compared to solution. Circular dichroism analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, zeta potential analyses as well as synchronous fluorescence measurements, all of which were used to characterize the phenomenon, are consistent with a proposed mechanism which is based on the specific orienting interactions of the active site of the enzyme with respect to the alumina interface and its pores network. PMID:26394694

  5. Carbonic anhydrase-encoded dynamic constitutional libraries: toward the discovery of isozyme-specific inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Gihane; Petit, Eddy; Vullo, Daniela; Winum, Jean-Yves; Supuran, Claudiu T; Barboiu, Mihail

    2009-08-13

    A constitutional dynamic library (CDL) was generated under thermodynamic control by using the amino-carbonyl/imine interconversion as reversible chemistry, combined with noncovalent bonding within the active site of the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1). Considering the pharmacological importance to find isoform-selective CA inhibitors (CAIs), two of the 15 human (h) isoform, i.e., hCAI and hCA II, have been subjected to a parallel screening of the same CDL. The use of parallel constitutional screening of CDL chemistry for the discovery of enzyme inhibitors is straightforward and it might provide initial insights toward the generation of efficient classes of selective, high affinity inhibitors. We demonstrate here that the high selectivity and specificity of inhibiting the hCA I and hCA II isozymes with some of the detected hits may be used to describe a complex constitutional behavior through component selection from the dynamic library, driven by the selective binding to the specific isoform active site. These results also point to the possibility of modulating the drug discovery methods by constitutional recomposition induced by a specific enzymatic target.

  6. Horizontal transfer of β-carbonic anhydrase genes from prokaryotes to protozoans, insects, and nematodes.

    PubMed

    Zolfaghari Emameh, Reza; Barker, Harlan R; Tolvanen, Martti E E; Parkkila, Seppo; Hytönen, Vesa P

    2016-03-16

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a movement of genetic information occurring outside of normal mating activities. It is especially common between prokaryotic endosymbionts and their protozoan, insect, and nematode hosts. Although beta carbonic anhydrase (β-CA) plays a crucial role in metabolic functions of many living organisms, the origin of β-CA genes in eukaryotic species remains unclear. This study was conducted using phylogenetics, prediction of subcellular localization, and identification of β-CA, transposase, integrase, and resolvase genes on the MGEs of bacteria. We also structurally analyzed β-CAs from protozoans, insects, and nematodes and their putative prokaryotic common ancestors, by homology modelling. Our investigations of a number of target genomes revealed that genes coding for transposase, integrase, resolvase, and conjugation complex proteins have been integrated with β-CA gene sequences on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) which have facilitated the mobility of β-CA genes from bacteria to protozoan, insect, and nematode species. The prokaryotic origin of protozoan, insect, and nematode β-CA enzymes is supported by phylogenetic analyses, prediction of subcellular localization, and homology modelling. MGEs form a complete set of enzymatic tools, which are relevant to HGT of β-CA gene sequences from prokaryotes to protozoans, insects, and nematodes.

  7. Effect of sulfonamides as carbonic anhydrase VA and VB inhibitors on mitochondrial metabolic energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Arechederra, Robert L; Waheed, Abdul; Sly, William S; Supuran, Claudiu T; Minteer, Shelley D

    2013-03-15

    Obesity is quickly becoming an increasing problem in the developed world. One of the major fundamental causes of obesity and diabetes is mitochondria dysfunction due to faulty metabolic pathways which alter the metabolic substrate flux resulting in the development of these diseases. This paper examines the role of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes in the metabolism of pyruvate, acetate, and succinate when specific isozyme inhibitors are present. Using a sensitive electrochemical approach of wired mitochondria to analytically measure metabolic energy conversion, we determine the resulting metabolic difference after addition of an inhibitory compound. We found that certain sulfonamide analogues displayed broad spectrum inhibition of metabolism, where others only had significant effect on some metabolic pathways. Pyruvate metabolism always displayed the most dramatically affected metabolism by the sulfonamides followed by fatty acid metabolism, and then finally succinate metabolism. This allows for the possibility of using designed sulfonamide analogues to target specific mitochondrial CA isozymes in order to subtly shift metabolism and glucogenesis flux to treat obesity and diabetes.

  8. SWATH-based proteomics identified carbonic anhydrase 2 as a potential diagnosis biomarker for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yanzhang; Mok, Tin Seak; Lin, Xiuxian; Zhang, Wanling; Cui, Yizhi; Guo, Jiahui; Chen, Xing; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Tong

    2017-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a serious threat to public health, and the biomarker discovery is of urgent needs. The data-independent mode (DIA) based sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH) mass spectrometry (MS) has been proved to be precise in protein quantitation and efficient for cancer biomarker researches. In this study, we performed the first SWATH-MS analysis comparing the NPC and normal tissues. Spike-in stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (super-SILAC) MS was used as a shotgun reference. We identified and quantified 1414 proteins across all SWATH-MS analyses. We found that SWATH-MS had a unique feature to preferentially detect proteins with smaller molecular weights than either super-SILAC MS or human proteome background. With SWATH-MS, 29 significant differentially express proteins (DEPs) were identified. Among them, carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2) was selected for further validation per novelty, MS quality and other supporting rationale. With the tissue microarray analysis, we found that CA2 had an AUC of 0.94 in differentiating NPC from normal tissue samples. In conclusion, SWATH-MS has unique features in proteome analysis, and it leads to the identification of CA2 as a potentially new diagnostic biomarker for NPC. PMID:28117408

  9. Protonography, a technique applicable for the analysis of η-carbonic anhydrase activity.

    PubMed

    Del Prete, Sonia; De Luca, Viviana; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

    2015-12-01

    Protonography, a sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) technique derived from zymography was recently reported by our group to be an effective, cheap and reproducible technique for evidencing catalytically active α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms, such as the bovine red blood cell isoform bCA or the bacterial enzyme from Vibrio cholerae, VchCA. CA activity was also observed on the protonogram of a cellular extract of Escherichia coli, evidencing the presence of one or more β-class such enzymes. Here we show that protonography can also be applied to the recently discovered η-CA family using the Plasmodium falciparum enzyme PfCA as an example. The protonogram of PfCA clearly showed catalytically active η-CA with a specific band at 22.0 kDa, which was quite distinct from the band of the red blood cell bovine enzyme bCA, which was observed at 28.8 kDa. The different migration pattern of α- and η-CAs might be a useful tool to detect Plasmodium falciparum in infected human red blood cells by an easy, routine inexpensive technique.

  10. Synthesis and carbonic anhydrase inhibitory properties of sulfamides structurally related to dopamine.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Kadir; Nar, Meryem; Tanc, Muhammet; Vullo, Daniela; Gülçin, Ilhami; Göksu, Süleyman; Tümer, Ferhan; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2013-06-01

    A series of novel sulfamides incorporating the dopamine scaffold were synthesized. Reaction of amines and tert-butyl-alcohol/benzyl alcohol in the presence of chlorosulfonyl isocyanate (CSI) afforded sulfamoyl carbamates, which were converted to the title compounds by treatment with trifluoroacetic acid or by palladium-catalyzed hydrogenolysis. Inhibition of six α-carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1), that is, CA I, CA II, CA VA, CA IX, CA XII and CA XIV, and two β-CAs from Candida glabrata (CgCA) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Rv3588) with these sulfamides was investigated. All CA isozymes were inhibited in the low micromolar to nanomolar range by the dopamine sulfamide analogues. K(i)s were in the range of 0.061-1.822 μM for CA I, 1.47-2.94 nM for CA II, 2.25-3.34 μM for CA VA, 0.041-0.37 μM for CA IX, 0.021-1.52 μM for CA XII, 0.007-0.219 μM for CA XIV, 0.35-5.31 μM for CgCA and 0.465-4.29 μM for Rv3588. The synthesized sulfamides may lead to inhibitors targeting medicinally relevant CA isoforms with potential applications as antiepileptic, antiobesity antitumor agents or anti-infective.

  11. Probing Molecular Interactions between Human Carbonic Anhydrases (hCAs) and a Novel Class of Benzenesulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Elvira; Buemi, Maria Rosa; Di Fiore, Anna; De Luca, Laura; Ferro, Stefania; Angeli, Andrea; Cirilli, Roberto; Sadutto, Daniele; Alterio, Vincenzo; Monti, Simona Maria; Supuran, Claudiu T; De Simone, Giuseppina; Gitto, Rosaria

    2017-05-25

    On the basis of X-ray crystallographic studies of the complex of hCA II with 4-(3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinoline-2-carbonyl)benzenesulfonamide (3) (PDB code 4Z1J ), a novel series of 4-(1-aryl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2-carbonyl)benzenesulfonamides (23-33) was designed. Specifically, our idea was to improve the selectivity toward druggable isoforms through the introduction of additional hydrophobic/hydrophilic functionalities. Among the synthesized and tested compounds, the (R,S)-4-(6,7-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-1H-2-carbonyl)benzenesulfonamide (30) exhibited a remarkable inhibition for the brain-expressed hCA VII (Ki = 0.20 nM) and selectivity over wider distributed hCA I and hCA II isoforms. By enantioselective HPLC, we solved the racemic mixture and ascertained that the two enantiomers (30a and 30b) are equiactive inhibitors for hCA VII. Crystallographic and docking studies revealed the main interactions of these inhibitors into the carbonic anhydrase (CA) catalytic site, thus highlighting the relevant role of nonpolar contacts for this class of hCA inhibitors.

  12. Spectroscopic and MD simulation studies on unfolding processes of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase VA induced by urea.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Danish; Prakash, Amresh; Haque, Md Anzarul; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2016-09-01

    Carbonic anhydrase VA (CAVA) is primarily expressed in the mitochondria and involved in numerous physiological processes including lipogenesis, insulin secretion from pancreatic cells, ureagenesis, gluconeogenesis and neuronal transmission. To understand the biophysical properties of CAVA, we carried out a reversible urea-induced isothermal denaturation at pH 7.0 and 25°C. Spectroscopic probes, [θ]222 (mean residue ellipticity at 222 nm), F344 (Trp-fluorescence emission intensity at 344 nm) and Δε280 (difference absorption at 280 nm) were used to monitor the effect of urea on the structure and stability of CAVA. The urea-induced reversible denaturation curves were used to estimate [Formula: see text], Gibbs free energy in the absence of urea; Cm, the mid-point of the denaturation curve, i.e. molar urea concentration ([urea]) at which ΔGD = 0; and m, the slope (=∂ΔGD/∂[urea]). Coincidence of normalized transition curves of all optical properties suggests that unfolding/refolding of CAVA is a two-state process. We further performed 40 ns molecular dynamics simulation of CAVA to see the dynamics at different urea concentrations. An excellent agreement was observed between in silico and in vitro studies.

  13. Characterization of folding intermediates during urea-induced denaturation of human carbonic anhydrase II.

    PubMed

    Wahiduzzaman; Dar, Mohammad Aasif; Haque, Md Anzarul; Idrees, Danish; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan

    2017-02-01

    Knowledge of folding/unfolding pathway is fundamental basis to study protein structure and stability. Human carbonic anhydrase II (HCAII) is a ∼29kDa, β-sheet dominated monomeric protein of 259 amino acid residues. In the present study, the urea-induced denaturation of HCAII was carried out which was a tri-phasic process, i.e., N (native) ↔ XI ↔ XII ↔ D (denatured) with stable intermediates XI and XII populated around 2 and 4M urea, respectively. The far-UV CD was used to characterize the intermediate states (XI and XII) for secondary structural content, near-UV CD for tertiary structure, dynamic light scattering for hydrodynamic radius and ANS fluorescence spectroscopy for the presence of exposed hydrophobic patches. Based on these experiments, we concluded that urea-induced XI state has characteristics of molten globule state while XII state bears characteristics features of pre-molten globule state. Characterization of the intermediates on the folding pathway will contribute to a deeper understanding of the structure-function relationship of HCAII. Furthermore, this system may provide an excellent model to study urea stress and the strategies adopted by the organisms to combat such a stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A systematic quantification of carbonic anhydrase transcripts in the mouse digestive system.

    PubMed

    Pan, Pei-wen; Rodriguez, Alejandra; Parkkila, Seppo

    2007-03-16

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are physiologically important enzymes which participate in many gastrointestinal processes such as acid and bicarbonate secretion and metabolic pathways including gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis. The genomic data suggests that there are thirteen enzymatically active members of the mammalian CA isozyme family. In the present study, we systematically examined the mRNA expression levels of all known CA isozymes by quantitative real-time PCR in eight tissues of the digestive system of male and female mice. The CAs expressed in all tissues were Car5b, Car7, and Car15, among which Car5b showed moderate and Car7 and Car15 extremely low expression levels. Car3, Car12, Car13, and Car14 were detected in seven out of eight tissues and Car2 and Car4 were expressed in six tissues. Importantly, Car1, Car3, and Car13 showed very high expression levels in certain tissues as compared to the other CAs, suggesting that these low activity isozymes may also participate in physiological processes other than CA catalysis and high expression levels are required to fulfil their functions in the body. A comprehensive mRNA expression profile of the 13 enzymatically active CAs in the murine gastrointestinal tract was produced in the present study. It contributes to a deeper understanding of the distribution of CA isozymes and their potential roles in the mouse digestive system.

  15. Erythroid expression and DNAaseI-hypersensitive sites of the carbonic anhydrase 1 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Sowden, J; Edwards, M; Morrison, K; Butterworth, P H; Edwards, Y H

    1992-01-01

    The carbonic anhydrase 1 gene is expressed in adult human and mouse erythroid cells and colon epithelia from two distinct promoters. We have explored the erythroid promoter for cis-acting sequences involved in transcription using DNAaseI as a probe. Two DNAaseI-hypersensitive sites (DHS-1 and DHS-2) have been identified in the distal erythroid promoter in CA1-expressing erythroleukaemic cells. These sites are present at low levels in K562 cells, which have a foetal/embryonic phenotype and do not express CA1. DHS-1 and DHS-2 are not present in non-erythroid cells, including colon cells, which express CA1 from the proximal colon promoter. DHS-1 and DHS-2 were also generated in an heterologous CA1 gene containing 5 kb of erythroid promoter sequence after transfection into erythroid cells, including K562 cells. These transfection studies showed that both this fragment, and an abbreviated 817 bp promoter fragment which contains only DHS-1, were sufficient to confer erythroid-specific expression to a reporter gene. These promoters were active in cell lines expressing CA1 and in K562 cells. This latter observation implies that a developmental repressor factor is both present in K562 cells and binds to a cis-acting sequence that is absent from the sequence 5 kb upstream of the erythroid transcription start site. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1463458

  16. Synthesis and carbonic anhydrase inhibition of a series of SLC-0111 analogs.

    PubMed

    Carta, Fabrizio; Vullo, Daniela; Osman, Sameh M; AlOthman, Zeid; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2017-05-01

    SLC-0111 is a sulfonamide carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitor (CAI) in Phase I/II clinical trials for the treatment of advanced hypoxic tumors complicated with metastases. Its antitumor effects are due to inhibition of the enzymatic activity of CA IX, an isoform predominantly found in tumors/metastases, but it also reduces the cancer stem cells population. Here we report the synthesis of analogs of SLC-0111, both of the sulfanilamide and metanilamide series, which possess diverse substitution patterns at the terminal ureido-phenyl moiety, thus including one or more halogens, trifluoromethyl, perchloro-/perfluorophenyl groups instead of the 4-fluorophenyl present in SLC-0111. Most of the sulfanilamide ureido derivatives were highly effective inhibitors of the tumor associated isoform and some showed selective CA IX/XII inhibitory profiles. Most of the sulfanilamide ureido derivatives were highly effective and in some cases selective CA IX/XII inhibitors, whereas the metanilamide ureido derivatives were less effective as transmembrane CA isoforms inhibitors. Structure activity relationship for this class of sulfonamides is discussed in detail.

  17. Interaction of anions with a newly characterized alpha carbonic anhydrase from Halomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Furkan; Şentürk, Murat; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-12-01

    The inhibition and characterization of the α-class carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) from the Halomonas sp. are reported for the first time. The enzyme was purified 91-fold with a yield of 39%, and a specific activity of 600 U/mg proteins was obtained. It has an optimum pH at 7.5, an optimum ionic strength at 20 mM and an optimum temperature at 20 °C. The following anions, SCN(-), Br(-), Cl(-), I(-), [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] showed inhibitory effects on the hydratase activity of the enzyme. Sulfate, sulfide, azide, nitrate, nitrite and iodide exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity, in the micromolar range (KI-s of 5.5-15.5 µM). SCN(-), Br(-), Cl(-), [Formula: see text] were moderate inhibitors, whereas other anions showed only weak activities. Our findings indicate that these anions inhibit the Halomonas sp. CA (HmCA) enzyme in a similar manner to other α-CAs from mammals investigated earlier, but the susceptibility to various anions differs significantly between the Halomonas sp. and other organism CAs.

  18. Carbonic anhydrase IX correlates with survival and is a potential therapeutic target for neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ameis, Helen M; Drenckhan, Astrid; Freytag, Morton; Izbicki, Jakob R; Supuran, Claudiu T; Reinshagen, Konrad; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Gros, Stephanie J

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is involved in pathological processes including tumorgenicity, metastases and poor survival in solid tumors. Twenty-two neuroblastoma samples of patients who were surgically treated at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf were evaluated immunohistochemically for expression of CAIX. Results were correlated with clinical parameters and outcome. Neuroblastoma Kelly and SH-EP-Tet-21/N cells were examined for CAIX expression and inhibited with specific inhibitors, FC5-207A and FC8-325A. 32% of neuroblastoma tumors expressed CAIX. This was significantly associated with poorer survival. Kelly and SH-EP-Tet-21/N cells showed a major increase of CAIX RNA under hypoxic conditions. Proliferation of Kelly cells was significantly decreased by CAIX inhibitors, FC5-207A and FC8-325A, while proliferation of SH-EP-Tet-21/N cells was only significantly affected by FC8-325A. CAIX is a potent biomarker that predicts survival in neuroblastoma patients. CAIX-targeted therapy in neuroblastoma cell lines is highly effective and strengthens the potential of CAIX as a clinical therapeutic target in a selected patient collective.

  19. Burkholderia pseudomallei γ-carbonic anhydrase is strongly activated by amino acids and amines.

    PubMed

    Vullo, Daniela; Del Prete, Sonia; Osman, Sameh M; AlOthman, Zeid; Capasso, Clemente; Donald, William A; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2017-01-01

    Activation of the γ-class carbonic anhydrase (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) from the pathogenic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei (BpsγCA) with a series of natural and non-natural amino acids and aromatic/heterocyclic amines has been investigated. The best BpsγCA activators were d-His, l-DOPA, d-Trp, 4-amino-l-Phe, dopamine, 2-(2-aminoethyl)pyridine, 2-aminoethyl-piparazine/morpholine and l-adrenaline, which showed activation constants ranging between 9 and 86nM. The least effective activators were l-His, l-Phe and 2-pyridyl-methylamine, with KAs in the range of 1.73-24.7μM. As little is known about the role of γ-CAs in the lifecycle and virulence of this saprophytic bacterium, this study may shed some light on such phenomena. This is the first CA activation study of a γ-CA from a pathogenic bacterium, the only other such study being on the enzyme discovered in the archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila, Cam. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The inhibitory effects of phenolic Mannich bases on carbonic anhydrase I and II isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Yamali, Cem; Tugrak, Mehtap; Gul, Halise Inci; Tanc, Muhammet; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-12-01

    Phenolic mono Mannich bases [2-[4-hydroxy-3-(aminomethyl)benzylidene]-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one (8-15)] and bis Mannich bases [2-[4-hydroxy-3,5-bis(aminomethyl)benzylidene]-2, 3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one (2-7)] were synthesized starting from 2-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-2, 3-dihydro-inden-1-one (1). This study was designed in order to investigate the carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitory properties of a library of compounds incorporating the phenol functional group. All prepared compounds showed a low inhibition percentages on both human (h) isoforms hCA I and hCA II compared to the reference sulfonamide acetazolamide. Mannich bases 2-15 had lower inhibition percentages than the compound 1 on hCA I and hCA II, except compound 14, which is a Mannich base derivative of dipropylamine, which had a similar inhibitory power as compound 1 on hCA II. All compounds synthesized 1-15 were 1.3-1.9 times more effective on hCA II comparing with the effectivenes of the compounds on hCA I.

  1. Structure-Activity Relationships of Benzenesulfonamide-Based Inhibitors towards Carbonic Anhydrase Isoform Specificity.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Avni; Mahon, Brian P; Cruzeiro, Vinicius Wilian D; Cornelio, Benedetta; Laronze-Cochard, Marie; Ceruso, Mariangela; Sapi, Janos; Rance, Graham A; Khlobystov, Andrei N; Fontana, Antonella; Roitberg, Adrian; Supuran, Claudiu T; McKenna, Robert

    2017-01-17

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are implicated in a wide range of diseases, including the upregulation of isoforms CA IX and XII in many aggressive cancers. However, effective inhibition of disease-implicated CAs should minimally affect the ubiquitously expressed isoforms, including CA I and II, to improve directed distribution of the inhibitors to the cancer-associated isoforms and reduce side effects. Four benzenesulfonamide-based inhibitors were synthesized by using the tail approach and displayed nanomolar affinities for several CA isoforms. The crystal structures of the inhibitors bound to a CA IX mimic and CA II are presented. Further in silico modeling was performed with the inhibitors docked into CA I and XII to identify residues that contributed to or hindered their binding interactions. These structural studies demonstrated that active-site residues lining the hydrophobic pocket, especially positions 92 and 131, dictate the positional binding and affinity of inhibitors, whereas the tail groups modulate CA isoform specificity. Geometry optimizations were performed on each ligand in the crystal structures and showed that the energetic penalties of the inhibitor conformations were negligible compared to the gains from active-site interactions. These studies further our understanding of obtaining isoform specificity when designing small molecule CA inhibitors. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Indazole, Pyrazole, and Oxazole Derivatives Targeting Nitric Oxide Synthases and Carbonic Anhydrases.

    PubMed

    Maccallini, Cristina; Di Matteo, Mauro; Vullo, Daniela; Ammazzalorso, Alessandra; Carradori, Simone; De Filippis, Barbara; Fantacuzzi, Marialuigia; Giampietro, Letizia; Pandolfi, Assunta; Supuran, Claudiu T; Amoroso, Rosa

    2016-08-19

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an essential endogenous mediator with a physiological role in the central nervous system as neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. A growing number of studies have demonstrated that abnormal nitrergic signaling is a crucial event in the development of neurodegeneration. In particular, the uncontrolled production of NO by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is observed in several neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, it is well recognized that specific isoforms of human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) physiologically modulate crucial pathways of signal processing and that low expression of CA affects cognition, leading to mental retardation, Alzheimer's disease, and aging-related cognitive impairments. In light of this, dual agents that are able to target both NOS (inhibition) and CA (activation) could be useful drug candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, aging, and other neurodegenerative diseases. In the present work, we show the design, synthesis, and in vitro biological evaluation of new nitrogen-based heterocyclic compounds. Among the tested molecules, 2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1H-indazol-5-yl)propanamide hydrochloride (10 b) was revealed to be a potent dual agent, able to act as a selective nNOS inhibitor and activator of the hCA I isoform. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Carbonic anhydrases from Trypanosoma and Leishmania as anti-protozoan drug targets.

    PubMed

    Vermelho, Alane B; Capaci, Giseli R; Rodrigues, Igor A; Cardoso, Verônica S; Mazotto, Ana Maria; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2017-03-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. are protozoa of the Trypanosomatidae family, being the etiological agents of two widespread parasitic diseases, Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, respectively. Both parasites are the focus of worldwide research with the aim to find effective and less toxic drugs than the few ones available so far, and for controlling the spread of the diseases. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) belonging to the α- and β-class were recently identified in these protozoans and several studies suggested that they could be new targets for drug development. Sulfonamide, thiol and hydroxamate inhibitors effectively inhibited the α-CA from T. cruzi (TcCA) and the β-CA from L. donovani chagasi (LdccCA) in vitro, and some of them also showed in vivo efficacy in inhibiting the growth of the parasites in animal models of Chagas disease and leishmaniasis. As few therapeutic options are presently available for these orphan diseases, protozoan CA inhibition may represent a novel strategy to address this stringent health problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Evolutionary History of Daphniid α-Carbonic Anhydrase within Animalia

    PubMed Central

    Culver, Billy W.; Morton, Philip K.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that drive acid-base regulation in organisms is important, especially for organisms in aquatic habitats that experience rapidly fluctuating pH conditions. Previous studies have shown that carbonic anhydrases (CAs), a family of zinc metalloenzymes, are responsible for acid-base regulation in many organisms. Through the use of phylogenetic tools, this present study attempts to elucidate the evolutionary history of the α-CA superfamily, with particular interest in the emerging model aquatic organism Daphnia pulex. We provide one of the most extensive phylogenies of the evolution of α-CAs, with the inclusion of 261 amino acid sequences across taxa ranging from Cnidarians to Homo sapiens. While the phylogeny supports most of our previous understanding on the relationship of how α-CAs have evolved, we find that, contrary to expectations, amino acid conservation with bacterial α-CAs supports the supposition that extracellular α-CAs are the ancestral state of animal α-CAs. Furthermore, we show that two cytosolic and one GPI-anchored α-CA in Daphnia genus have homologs in sister taxa that are possible candidate genes to study for acid-base regulation. In addition, we provide further support for previous findings of a high rate of gene duplication within Daphnia genus, as compared with other organisms. PMID:25893130

  5. Comparison of amino and epoxy functionalized SBA-15 used for carbonic anhydrase immobilization.

    PubMed

    Fei, Xiaoyao; Chen, Shaoyun; Liu, Dai; Huang, Chunjie; Zhang, Yongchun

    2016-09-01

    Two functionalized SBA-15 [amine-functionalized SBA-15 (AFS) and epoxy-functionalized SBA-15 (GFS)] with different types of functional groups were synthesized by a hydrothermal process and post functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and 3-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS), respectively. They were used for the immobilization of carbonic anhydrase (CA). The physicochemical properties of the functionalized SBA-15 were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption, (13)C, (29)Si solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Before and after CA was immobilized on AFS and GFS, the effects of temperature and pH value on the enzyme activity, storage stability, and reusability were investigated using para-nitrophenyl acetate (p-NPA) assay. CA/GFS showed a better performance with respect to storage stability and reusability than CA/AFS. Moreover, the amount of CaCO3 precipitated over CA/AFS was less than that precipitated over CA/GFS, which was almost equal to that precipitated over the free CA. The results indicate that the epoxy group is a more suitable functional group for covalent bonding with CA than the amino group, and GFS is a promising support for CA immobilization. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Purification, enzymatic activity and inhibitor discovery for recombinant human carbonic anhydrase XIV.

    PubMed

    Juozapaitienė, Vaida; Bartkutė, Brigita; Michailovienė, Vilma; Zakšauskas, Audrius; Baranauskienė, Lina; Satkūnė, Sandra; Matulis, Daumantas

    2016-12-20

    Human carbonic anhydrase XIV (CA XIV), a transmembrane protein, highly expressed in the central nervous system, is difficult to recombinantly express and purify in large scale for the measurements of inhibitor binding and drug design. CA XIV belongs to the family of twelve catalytically active CA isoforms in the human body. Disorders in the expression of CA XIV cause serious diseases and CA XIV has been described as a possible drug target for the treatment of epilepsy, some retinopathies, and skin tumors. In this study, the effect of different promoters, E. coli strains, and the length of recombinant CA XIV protein construct were analyzed for the production CA XIV in large scale by using affinity purification. Active site titration by inhibitors and the isothermal titration calorimery revealed over 96% purity of the protein. Enzymatic activity of the purified CA XIV was determined by following the CO2 hydration using the stopped-flow technique. Several inhibitors were discovered that exhibited selectivity towards CA XIV over other CA isoforms and could be developed as drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Carbonic anhydrase XII is a new therapeutic target to overcome chemoresistance in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Andrea; Frei, Andreas P.; Ghigo, Dario; Wollscheid, Bernd; Riganti, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells is a challenging phenomenon often associated with P-glycoprotein (Pgp) surface expression. Finding new ways to bypass Pgp-mediated MDR still remains a daunting challenge towards the successful treatment of malignant neoplasms such as colorectal cancer. We applied the Cell Surface Capture technology to chemosensitive and chemoresistant human colon cancer to explore the cell surface proteome of Pgp-expressing cells in a discovery-driven fashion. Comparative quantitative analysis of identified cell surface glycoproteins revealed carbonic anhydrase type XII (CAXII) to be up-regulated on the surface of chemoresistant cells, similarly to Pgp. In cellular models showing an acquired MDR phenotype due to the selective pressure of chemotherapy, the progressive increase of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha was paralleled by the simultaneous up-regulation of Pgp and CAXII. CAXII and Pgp physically interacted at the cell surface. CAXII silencing or pharmacological inhibition with acetazolamide decreased the ATPase activity of Pgp by altering the optimal pH at which Pgp operated and promoted chemosensitization to Pgp substrates in MDR cells. We propose CAXII as a new secondary marker of the MDR phenotype that influences Pgp activity directly and can be used as a pharmacological target for MDR research and potential treatment. PMID:25686827

  8. Screening of a novel peptide targeting the proteoglycan-like region of human carbonic anhydrase IX.

    PubMed

    Rana, Shoaib; Nissen, Felix; Lindner, Thomas; Altmann, Annette; Mier, Walter; Debus, Juergen; Haberkorn, Uwe; Askoxylakis, Vasileios

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular domain of human carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is extended by a proteoglycan-like region (PGLR). The aim of the present study was the development of novel molecules with specificity for PGLR, which may be used for tumor targeting and imaging. PGLR was chemically synthesized, and phage display biopanning was performed. The identified ligand PGLR-P1 was labeled with 125I and characterized for target binding and metabolic stability. In vitro characterization included kinetic, competition, and internalization studies on CA IX-positive renal cell carcinoma SKRC 52 cells. The CA IX-negative cell lines HEK293 wt and BxPC3 were used as negative controls. In vitro binding experiments revealed an increasing affinity of 125I-PGLR-P1 to SKRC 52 cells but not to negative control HEK293 wt and BxPC3 cells. Internalization studies indicated an exclusive cell membrane binding. Biodistribution analysis demonstrated a higher accumulation in SKRC 52 tumors than in most normal tissues after perfusion. In vivo blocking led to a significant decrease in tumor uptake. Our findings indicate that PGLR-P1 is a promising lead structure for the development of new peptide-based ligands targeting the PGLR of CA IX and reveal challenges that need to be considered for peptide-related molecular imaging.

  9. Metal coordination geometry of ternary complex between cobalt-bovine carbonic anhydrase and multidentate ligands.

    PubMed

    Hirose, J; Kidani, Y

    1980-03-26

    Interaction of cobalt(II) bovine carbonic anhydrase with 3- and 4-pyridinecarboxylates, 2-pyridinecarboxylate, and 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate has been investigated by the spectrophotometric method. The apparent formation constant of the ternary complex (ligand : cobalt ion : apoenzyme = 1 : 1 : 1) was determined from spectral data. The spectroscopic data of the ternary complex indicate that the 3- or 4-pyridinecarboxylate adduct has a five-coordination geometry through three donor atoms of the protein part of the enzyme, the carboxyl group of 3- or 4-pyridinecarboxylate, and a water molecule. 3- or 4-Pyridinecarboxylate behaves as a monodentate ligand. The spectrum of the ternary complex of 2-pyridinecarboxylate was very different from that of 3- or 4-pyridinecarboxylate. The spectra data indicate that 2-pyridinecarboxylate adduct has a five-coordination geometry and that it behaves as a bidentate ligand. The ternary complex of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate was so unstable that the spectrum of the ternary complex was determined by the indirect method. The spectrum of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate adduct shows lower molar absorption than that of 2-pyridinecarboxylate adduct. This result indicates that 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylate behaves possibly as a tridentate ligand.

  10. Isatin-pyrazole benzenesulfonamide hybrids potently inhibit tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase isoforms IX and XII.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hany S; Abou-Seri, Sahar M; Tanc, Muhammet; Elaasser, Mahmoud M; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-10-20

    New series of benzenesulfonamide derivatives incorporating pyrazole and isatin moieties were prepared using celecoxib as lead molecule. Biological evaluation of the target compounds was performed against the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) and more precisely against the human isoforms hCA I, II (cytosolic), IX and XII (transmembrane, tumor-associated enzymes). Most of the tested compounds efficiently inhibited hCA I, II and IX, with KIs of 2.5-102 nM, being more effective than the reference drug acetazolamide. Compounds 11e, 11f, 16e and 16f were found to inhibit hCA XII with Ki of 3.7, 6.5, 5.4 and 7.2 nM, respectively. Compounds 11e and 16e, with 5-NO2 substitution on the isatin ring, were found to be selective inhibitors of hCA IX and hCA XII. Docking studies revealed that the NO2 group of both compounds participate in interactions with Asp132 within the hCA IX active site, and with residues Lys67 and Asp130 in hCA XII, respectively.

  11. Evidence that an internal carbonic anhydrase is present in 5% CO/sub 2/-grown and air-grown Chlamydomonas. [Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Moroney, J.V.; Togasaki, R.K.; Husic, H.D.; Tolbert, N.E.

    1987-07-01

    Inorganic carbon (C/sub i/) uptake was measured in wild-type cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in cia-3, a mutant strain of C. reinhardtii that cannot grow with air levels of CO/sub 2/. Both air-grown cells, that have a CO/sub 2/ concentrating system, and 5% CO/sub 2/-grown cells that do not have this system, were used. When the external pH was 5.1 or 7.3, air-grown, wild-type cells accumulated inorganic carbon (C/sub i/) and this accumulation was enhanced when the permeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, ethoxyzolamide, was added. When the external pH was 5.1, 5% CO/sub 2/-grown cells also accumulated some C/sub i/, although not as much as air-grown cells and this accumulation was stimulated by the addition of ethoxyzolamide. At the same time, ethoxyzolamide inhibited CO/sub 2/ fixation by high CO/sub 2/-grown, wild-type cells at both pH 5.1 and 7.3. These observations imply that 5% CO/sub 2/-grown, wild-type cells, have a physiologically important internal carbonic anhydrase, although the major carbonic anhydrase located in the periplasmic space is only present in air-grown cells. Inorganic carbon uptake by cia-3 cells supported this conclusion. This mutant strain, which is thought to lack an internal carbonic anhydrase, was unaffected by ethoxyzolamide at pH 5.1. Other physiological characteristics of cia-3 resemble those of wild-type cells that have been treated with ethoxyzolamide. It is concluded that an internal carbonic anhydrase is under different regulatory control than the periplasmic carbonic anhydrase.

  12. Intrinsic thermodynamics of high affinity inhibitor binding to recombinant human carbonic anhydrase IV.

    PubMed

    Mickevičiūtė, Aurelija; Timm, David D; Gedgaudas, Marius; Linkuvienė, Vaida; Chen, Zhiwei; Waheed, Abdul; Michailovienė, Vilma; Zubrienė, Asta; Smirnov, Alexey; Čapkauskaitė, Edita; Baranauskienė, Lina; Jachno, Jelena; Revuckienė, Jurgita; Manakova, Elena; Gražulis, Saulius; Matulienė, Jurgita; Di Cera, Enrico; Sly, William S; Matulis, Daumantas

    2017-10-03

    Membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoform IV participates in carbon metabolism and pH homeostasis and is implicated in the development of eye diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and glaucoma. A series of substituted benzenesulfonamides were designed and their binding affinity to CA IV was determined by fluorescent thermal shift assay and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Compound [(4-chloro-2-phenylsulfanyl-5-sulfamoyl-benzoyl)amino]propyl acetate (19) bound CA IV with the K d of 1.0 nM and exhibited significant selectivity over the remaining 11 human CA isoforms. The compound could be developed as a drug targeting CA IV. Various forms of recombinant CA IV were produced in Escherichia coli and mammalian cell cultures. Comparison of their temperature stability in various buffers and salt solutions demonstrated that CA IV is most stable at slightly alkaline conditions and at elevated sodium sulfate concentrations. High-resolution X-ray crystallographic structures of ortho-Cl and meta-thiazole-substituted benzene sulfonamide in complex with CA IV revealed the position of and interactions between the ligand and the protein. Sulfonamide inhibitor binding to CA IV is linked to several reactions-the deprotonation of the sulfonamide amino group, the protonation of CA-Zn(II)-bound hydroxide at the active site of CA IV, and the compensating reactions of the buffer. The dissection of binding-linked reactions yielded the intrinsic thermodynamic parameters, characterizing the interaction between CA IV and the sulfonamides in the binding-able protonation forms, including Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy, that could be used for the characterization of binding to any CA in the process of drug design.

  13. Characterization of an Alpha Type Carbonic Anhydrase from Paracentrotus lividus Sea Urchin Embryos.

    PubMed

    Karakostis, Konstantinos; Costa, Caterina; Zito, Francesca; Brümmer, Franz; Matranga, Valeria

    2016-06-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CA) are zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate. In the sea urchin, CA has a role in the formation of the calcitic skeleton during embryo development. Here, we report a newly identified mRNA sequence from embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, referred to as Pl-can. The complete coding sequence was identified with the aid of both EST databases and experimental procedures. Pl-CAN is a 447 aa-long protein, with an estimated molecular mass of 48.5 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.83. The in silico study of functional domains showed, in addition to the alpha type CA-specific domain, the presence of an unexpected glycine-rich region at the N-terminal of the molecule. This is not found in any other species described so far, but probably it is restricted to the sea urchins. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that Pl-CAN is evolutionarily closer to human among chordates than to other species. The putative role(s) of the identified domains is discussed. The Pl-can temporal and spatial expression profiles, analyzed throughout embryo development by comparative qPCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WMISH), showed that Pl-can mRNA is specifically expressed in the primary mesenchyme cells (PMC) of the embryo and levels increase along with the growth of the embryonic skeleton, reaching a peak at the pluteus stage. A recombinant fusion protein was produced in E. coli and used to raise specific antibodies in mice recognized the endogenous Pl-CAN by Western blot in embryo extracts from gastrula and pluteus.

  14. Evaluation of enhanced thermostability and operational stability of carbonic anhydrase from Micrococcus species.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Abhishek; Shrivastava, Ankita; Sharma, Anjana

    2013-06-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) was purified from Micrococcus lylae and Micrococcus luteus with 49.90 and 53.8 % yield, respectively, isolated from calcium carbonate kilns. CA from M. lylae retained 80 % stability in the pH and temperature range of 6.0-8.0 and 35-45 °C, respectively. However, CA from M. luteus was stable in the pH and temperature range of 7.5-10.0 and 35-55 °C, respectively. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) raised the transition temperature of M. lylae and M. luteus CA up to 67.5 and 74.0 °C, while the operational stability (T(1/20) of CA at 55 °C was calculated to be 7.7 and 12.0 h, respectively. CA from both the strains was found to be monomeric in nature with subunit molecular weight and molecular mass of 29 kDa. Ethoxozolamide was identified as the most potent inhibitor based on both IC(50) values and inhibitory constant measurement (K(i)). The K(m) and V(max) for M. lylae CA (2.31 mM; 769.23 μmol/mg/min) and M. luteus CA (2.0 mM; 1,000 μmol/mg/min) were calculated from Lineweaver-Burk plots in terms of esterase activity. Enhanced thermostability of CLEAs alleviates its role in operational stability for application at an on-site scrubber. The characteristic profile of purified CA from Micrococcus spp. advocates its effective application in biomimetic CO(2) sequestration.

  15. Production and covalent immobilisation of the recombinant bacterial carbonic anhydrase (SspCA) onto magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Perfetto, Rosa; Del Prete, Sonia; Vullo, Daniela; Sansone, Giovanni; Barone, Carmela M A; Rossi, Mosè; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

    2017-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs; EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes with a pivotal potential role in the biomimetic CO2 capture process (CCP) because these biocatalysts catalyse the simple but physiologically crucial reaction of carbon dioxide hydration to bicarbonate and protons in all life kingdoms. The CAs are among the fastest known enzymes, with kcat values of up to 10(6) s(-1) for some members of the superfamily, providing thus advantages when compared with other CCP methods, as they are specific for CO2. Thermostable CAs might be used in CCP technology because of their ability to perform catalysis in operatively hard conditions, typical of the industrial processes. Moreover, the improvement of the enzyme stability and its reuse are important for lowering the costs. These aspects can be overcome by immobilising the enzyme on a specific support. We report in this article that the recombinant thermostable SspCA (α-CA) from the thermophilic bacterium Sulfurihydrogenibium yellowstonense can been heterologously produced by a high-density fermentation of Escherichia coli cultures, and covalently immobilised onto the surface of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNP) via carbodiimide activation reactions. Our results demonstrate that using a benchtop bioprocess station and strategies for optimising the bacterial growth, it is possible to produce at low cost a large amount SspCA. Furthermore, the enzyme stability and storage greatly increased through the immobilisation, as SspCA bound to MNP could be recovered from the reaction mixture by simply using a magnet or an electromagnetic field, due to the strong ferromagnetic properties of Fe3O4.

  16. Inhibition of Bacterial Carbonic Anhydrases as a Novel Approach to Escape Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2017-01-01

    Clinically used antibiotics act through one of these four mechanisms: cell wall biosynthesis inhibition, inhibition of protein biosynthesis, interference with DNA and RNA synthesis and the folate pathway. The metalloenzymes carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) widespread in microorganisms and present as three genetically distinct families may be considered for the design of antiinfective agents with a different mechanism of action compared to the clinically used antibiotics. CAs are crucial for the life cycle of the pathogen, interfering with pH regulation and biosynthetic processes in which CO2 or bicarbonate are substrates. CA inhibition was shown to lead to debilitation or growth defects of several pathogenic bacteria. CAs catalyzes the interconversion between carbon dioxide to bicarbonate, leading to the formation of protons, and thus affecting pH homeostasis. Several classes of CA inhibitors (CAIs) are known to date, among which the metal complexing anions, the unsubstituted sulfonamides, the dithiocarbamates, etc., which bind to the Zn(II) ion of the enzyme either by substituting the non-protein zinc ligand or add to the metal coordination sphere. Effective inhibitors for many bacterial CAs belonging to the α-, β-, and γ-CA classes were detected, some of which inhibited bacterial growth in vivo. Few of the inhibitors investigated so far were also selective for the bacterial over the human CA isoforms, which may pose problems for their wide clinical applications. Structure-based drug design campaigns might lead to the achievement of the desired selectivity/ potency for preferentially inhibiting bacterial but not the host CAs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Histochemical localisation of carbonic anhydrase in the inner ear of developing cichlid fish, Oreochromis mossambicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beier, M.; Hilbig, R.; Anken, R.

    2008-12-01

    Inner ear otolith growth in terms of mineralisation mainly depends on the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CAH). CAH is located in specialised, mitochondria-rich macular cells (ionocytes), which are involved in the endolymphatic ion exchange, and the enzyme is responsible for the provision of the pH-value necessary for otolithic calcium carbonate deposition. In the present study, for the first time the localisation of histochemically demonstrated CAH was analysed during the early larval development of a teleost, the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. CAH-reactivity was observed already in stage 7 animals (onset of otocyst development; staging follows Anken et al. [Anken, R., Kappel, T., Slenzka, K., Rahmann, H. The early morphogenetic development of the cichlid fish, Oreochromis mossambicus (Perciformes, Teleostei). Zool. Anz. 231, 1-10, 1993]). Neuroblasts (from which sensory and supporting cells are derived) proved to be CAH-positive. Already at stage 12 (hatch), CAH-positive regions could be attributed to ionocyte containing regions both in the so-called meshwork and patches area of the macula (i.e., clearly before ionocytes can be identified on ultrastructural level or by employing immunocytochemistry). In contrast to the circumstances observed in mammalian species, sensory hair cells stained negative for CAH in the cichlid. With the onset of stage 16 (finray primordia in dorsal fin, yolk-sac being increasingly absorbed), CAH-reactivity was observed in the vestibular nerve. This indicates the onset of myelinisation and thus commencement of operation. The localisation of CAH in the inner ear of fish (especially the differences in comparison to mammals) is discussed on the basis of its role in otolith calcification. Since the vestibular system is a detector of acceleration and thus gravity, also aspects regarding effects of altered gravity on CAH and hence on the mineralisation of otoliths in an adaptive process are addressed.

  18. Effect of pH on structure, function, and stability of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase VA.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Danish; Shahbaaz, Mohd; Bisetty, Krishna; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2017-02-01

    Mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase VA (CAVA) catalyzes the hydration of carbon dioxide to produce proton and bicarbonate which is primarily expressed in the mitochondrial matrix of liver, and involved in numerous physiological processes including lipogenesis, insulin secretion from pancreatic cells, ureagenesis, gluconeogenesis, and neuronal transmission. To understand the effect of pH on the structure, function, and stability of CAVA, we employed spectroscopic techniques such as circular dichroism, fluorescence, and absorbance measurements in wide range of pH (from pH 2.0 to pH 11.5). CAVA showed an aggregation at acidic pH range from pH 2.0 to pH 5.0. However, it remains stable and maintains its secondary structure in the pH range, pH 7.0-pH 11.5. Furthermore, this enzyme has an appreciable activity at more than pH 7.0 (7.0 < pH ≤ 11.5) with maximum activity at pH 9.0. The maximal values of kcat and kcat/Km at pH 9.0 are 3.7 × 10(6) s(-1) and 5.5 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. However, this enzyme loses its activity in the acidic pH range. We further performed 20-ns molecular dynamics simulation of CAVA to see the dynamics at different pH values. An excellent agreement was observed between in silico and in vitro studies. This study provides an insight into the activity of CAVA in the pH range of subcellular environment.

  19. Suitability of the alkalistable carbonic anhydrase from a polyextremophilic bacterium Aeribacillus pallidus TSHB1 in biomimetic carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Bose, Himadri; Satyanarayana, T

    2016-10-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) was produced from the polyextremophilic (halotolerant, moderately thermophilic and alkaliphilic) bacterium Aeribacillus pallidus TSHB1 isolated from water and sediment samples of Choti Anhoni hot spring of Pipariya, Madhya Pradesh (India), is being reported to be suitable for carbon sequestration. Growth and CA production were inhibited at higher CO2 concentration (5-10 %). Under optimized culture variables (tryptone 0.8 %, yeast extract 0.08 %, glucose 1 %, micronutrient solution 1 %, inoculums size 1.10 %, agitation 200 at pH 8, and temperature 55 °C), 3.7-fold higher CA production was attained than that under unoptimized conditions. The zymogram analysis of the partially purified CA revealed an activity band corresponding to 32 kDa. The enzyme is stable in the pH range between 8.0 and 11.0 with T 1/2 of 40, 15, and 8 min at 60, 70, and 80 °C, respectively. The CA of A. pallidus displayed a marked enhancement in the rate of CaCO3 precipitation from aqueous CO2. The CA-aided formation of CaCO3 was 42.5 mg mg(-1) protein. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of rhomboid calcite crystals. This is the first report on the production and applicability of CA from the polyextremophilic A. pallidus in carbon sequestration.

  20. Expression of Human Carbonic Anhydrase in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942 Creates a High CO2-Requiring Phenotype 1

    PubMed Central

    Price, G. D.; Badger, M. R.

    1989-01-01

    Active human carbonic anhydrase II (HCAII) protein was expressed in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942 by means of transformation with the bidirectional expression vector, pCA. This expression was driven by the bacterial Tac promoter and was regulated by the IacIQ repressor protein, which was expressed from the same plasmid. Expression levels reached values of around 0.3% of total cell protein and this protein appeared to be entirely soluble in nature and located within the cytosol of the cell. The expression of this protein has dramatic effects on the photosynthetic physiology of the cell. Induction of expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity in both high dissolved inorganic carbon (Ci) and low Ci grown cells leads the creation of a high Ci requiring phenotype causing: (a) a dramatic increase in the K0.5 (Ci) for photosynthesis, (b) a loss of the ability to accumulate internal Ci, and (c) a decrease in the lag between the initial Ci accumulation following illumination and the efflux of CO2 from the cells. In addition, the effects of the expressed CA can largely be reversed by the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor ethoxyzolamide. As a result of the above findings, it is concluded that the CO2 concentrating mechanism in Synechococcus PCC7942 is largely dependent on (a) the absence of CA activity from the cytosol, and (b) the specific localization of CA activity in the carboxysome. A theoretical model of photosynthesis and Ci accumulation is developed in which the carboxysome plays a central role as both the site of CO2 generation from HCO3− and a resistance barrier to CO2 efflux from the cell. There is good qualitative agreement between this model and the measured physiological effects of expressed cytosolic CA in Synechococcus cells. Images Figure 7 PMID:16667062

  1. Beta-carbonic anhydrases play a role in fruiting body development and ascospore germination in the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Elleuche, Skander; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is among the most important gases for all organisms. Its reversible interconversion to bicarbonate (HCO(3) (-)) reaches equilibrium spontaneously, but slowly, and can be accelerated by a ubiquitous group of enzymes called carbonic anhydrases (CAs). These enzymes are grouped by their distinct structural features into alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta- and zeta-classes. While physiological functions of mammalian, prokaryotic, plant and algal CAs have been extensively studied over the past years, the role of beta-CAs in yeasts and the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans has been elucidated only recently, and the function of CAs in multicellular filamentous ascomycetes is mostly unknown. To assess the role of CAs in the development of filamentous ascomycetes, the function of three genes, cas1, cas2 and cas3 (carbonic anhydrase of Sordaria) encoding beta-class carbonic anhydrases was characterized in the filamentous ascomycetous fungus Sordaria macrospora. Fluorescence microscopy was used to determine the localization of GFP- and DsRED-tagged CAs. While CAS1 and CAS3 are cytoplasmic enzymes, CAS2 is localized to the mitochondria. To assess the function of the three isoenzymes, we generated knock-out strains for all three cas genes (Deltacas1, Deltacas2, and Deltacas3) as well as all combinations of double mutants. No effect on vegetative growth, fruiting-body and ascospore development was seen in the single mutant strains lacking cas1 or cas3, while single mutant Deltacas2 was affected in vegetative growth, fruiting-body development and ascospore germination, and the double mutant strain Deltacas1/2 was completely sterile. Defects caused by the lack of cas2 could be partially complemented by elevated CO(2) levels or overexpression of cas1, cas3, or a non-mitochondrial cas2 variant. The results suggest that CAs are required for sexual reproduction in filamentous ascomycetes and that the multiplicity of isoforms results in redundancy of specific and

  2. Enzyme-accelerated and structure-guided crystallization of calcium carbonate: role of the carbonic anhydrase in the homologous system.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Schlossmacher, Ute; Schröder, Heinz C; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Glasser, Gunnar; Korzhev, Michael; Neufurth, Meik; Wang, Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    The calcareous spicules from sponges, e.g. from Sycon raphanus, are composed of almost pure calcium carbonate. In order to elucidate the formation of those structural skeletal elements, the function of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), isolated from this species, during the in vitro calcium carbonate-based spicule formation, was investigated. It is shown that the recombinant sponge CA substantially accelerates calcium carbonate formation in the in vitro diffusion assay. A stoichiometric calculation revealed that the turnover rate of the sponge CA during the calcification process amounts to 25 CO2s(-1) × molecule CA(-1). During this enzymatically driven process, initially pat-like particles are formed that are subsequently transformed to rhomboid/rhombohedroid crystals with a dimension of ~50 μm. The CA-catalyzed particles are smaller than those which are formed in the absence of the enzyme. The Martens hardness of the particles formed is ~4 GPa, a value which had been determined for other biogenic calcites. This conclusion is corroborated by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, which revealed that the particles synthesized are composed predominantly of the elements calcium, oxygen and carbon. Surprising was the finding, obtained by light and scanning electron microscopy, that the newly formed calcitic crystals associate with the calcareous spicules from S. raphanus in a highly ordered manner; the calcitic crystals almost perfectly arrange in an array orientation along the two opposing planes of the spicules, leaving the other two plane arrays uncovered. It is concluded that the CA is a key enzyme controlling the calcium carbonate biomineralization process, which directs the newly formed particles to existing calcareous spicular structures. It is expected that with the given tools new bioinspired materials can be fabricated. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Update and critical appraisal of combined timolol and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and the effect on ocular blood flow in glaucoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Adam M; Harris, Alon; Siesky, Brent; Rusia, Deepam; Williamson, Kathleen M; Shoshani, Yochai

    2010-01-01

    Topical hypotensive therapy with both timolol and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors has been shown to be efficacious at reducing intraocular pressure. Many prospective studies have also suggested that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors augment ocular blood flow and vascular regulation independent of their hypotensive effects. Although consistent in their findings, these studies must be cautiously interpreted due to the limitations of study design and specific blood flow imaging modalities. The purpose of this review is to appraise and critically evaluate the current body of literature investigating the effects of combined treatment with topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and timolol in patients with glaucoma with respect to ocular blood flow, visual function, and optic nerve head structure. PMID:20463789

  4. Anion complexes of Cu(II) and Co(II) bovine carbonic anhydrase as models for the copper site of blue copper proteins.

    PubMed

    Morpurgo, L; Finazzi Agrò, A; Rotilio, G; Mondovì, B

    1976-05-01

    1. The presence of two intense transitions in the optical absorption spectrum of the sulfide and 2-mercaptoethanol complexes of Cu(II) and Co(II)-substituted bovine carbonic anhydrase suggest that charge-transfer interactions between sulfur and an acceptor group of the protein play an important role in the stabilization of these complexes. 2. The spectra of Co(II) bovine carbonic anhydrase sulfides are very similar to the spectrum of Co(II) stellacyanin whilst the spectra of the corresponding Cu(II) enzymes are considerably different. A possible explanation is that Cu(II) is pentacoordinate in native stellacyanin unlike Cu(II) bovine carbonic anhydrase sulfides and Co(II) enzymes. Tetrahedral Co(II) stellacyanin is proposed as a model of the reduced copper site.

  5. Regulation of Carbonic Anhydrase Expression by Zinc, Cobalt, and Carbon Dioxide in the Marine Diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii1

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Todd W.; Morel, François M.M.

    2000-01-01

    TWCA1 is the major Zn-requiring isoform of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. We have examined the roles that trace metals and CO2 play in the regulation of TWCA1 expression over ranges of concentrations that bracket those encountered in the marine environment. Both steady-state levels of TWCA1 and the kinetics of induction were measured by western analysis. TWCA1 levels correlated well with cellular CA activity levels. TWCA1 was induced at a low CO2 concentration but the level of induction, as determined by western analysis, was dependent on the availability of Zn. Co effectively substituted for Zn in regulating TWCA1 expression and promoting TWCA1 activity. Upon shift from low to high CO2, the concentration of TWCA1 decreased. The expression of TWCA1 is diel cycle regulated, and cellular TWCA1 decreased during the dark phase. These results provide the basis for studying the expression of CA in field populations and, taken together with previous radiolabeling studies, provide strong evidence of in vivo metal substitution of Co for Zn in a CA. Our data also support the conclusion that TWCA1 plays a central role in carbon acquisition in T. weissflogii. PMID:10806251

  6. In vitro evaluation of ESE-15-ol, an estradiol analogue with nanomolar antimitotic and carbonic anhydrase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Stander, Barend Andre; Joubert, Fourie; Tu, Chingkuang; Sippel, Katherine H; McKenna, Robert; Joubert, Annie Margaretha

    2012-01-01

    Antimitotic compounds are still one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic anticancer drugs in the clinic today. Given their effectiveness against cancer it is beneficial to continue enhancing these drugs. One way is to improve the bioavailability and efficacy by synthesizing derivatives that reversibly bind to carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) in red blood cells followed by a slow release into the blood circulation system. In the present study we describe the in vitro biological activity of a reduced derivative of 2-ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estradiol (2EE), 2-ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estra-1,3,5(10),15-tetraen-17-ol (ESE-15-ol). ESE-15-ol is capable of inhibiting carbonic anhydrase activity in the nanomolar range and is selective towards a mimic of carbonic anhydrase IX when compared to the CAII isoform. Docking studies using Autodock Vina suggest that the dehydration of the D-ring plays a role towards the selectivity of ESE-15-ol to CAIX and that the binding mode of ESE-15-ol is substantially different when compared to 2EE. ESE-15-ol is able to reduce cell growth to 50% after 48 h at 50-75 nM in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-12A cells. The compound is the least potent against the non-tumorigenic MCF-12A cells. In vitro mechanistic studies demonstrate that the newly synthesized compound induces mitochondrial membrane depolarization, abrogates the phosphorylation status of Bcl-2 and affects gene expression of genes associated with cell death and mitosis.

  7. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency: Single-base deletion in exon 7 is the predominant mutation in Caribbean Hispanic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.Y.; Ernst, A.R.; Sly, W.S. ); Venta, P.J. ); Skaggs, L.A.; Tashian, R.E. )

    1994-04-01

    To date, three different structural gene mutations have been identified in patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification). These include a missense mutation (H107Y) in two families, a splice junction mutation in intron 5 in one of these families, and a splice junction mutation in intron 2 for which many Arabic patients are homozygous. The authors report here a novel mutation for which carbonic anhydrase II-deficient patients from seven unrelated Hispanic families were found to be homozygous. The proband was a 2 1/2-year-old Hispanic girl of Puerto Rican ancestry who was unique clinically, in that she had no evidence of renal tubular acidosis, even though she did have osteopetrosis, developmental delay, and cerebral calcification. She proved to be homozygous for a single-base deletion in the coding region of exon 7 that produces a frameshift that changes the next 12 amino acids before leading to chain termination and that also introduces a new MaeIII restriction site. The 27-kD truncated enzyme produced when the mutant cDNA was expressed in COS cells was enzymatically inactive, present mainly in insoluble aggregates, and detectable immunologically at only 5% the level of the 29-kD normal carbonic anhydrase II expressed from the wild-type cDNA. Metabolic labeling revealed that this 27-kD mutant protein has an accelerated rate of degradation. Six subsequent Hispanic patients of Caribbean ancestry, all of whom had osteopetrosis and renal tubular acidosis but who varied widely in clinical severity, were found to be homozygous for the same mutation. These findings identify a novel mutation common to Hispanic patients from the Caribbean islands and provide a ready means for PCR-based diagnosis of the [open quotes]Hispanic mutation.[close quotes] The basis for their phenotypic variability is not yet clear. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. In Vitro Evaluation of ESE-15-ol, an Estradiol Analogue with Nanomolar Antimitotic and Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Stander, Barend Andre; Joubert, Fourie; Tu, Chingkuang; Sippel, Katherine H.; McKenna, Robert; Joubert, Annie Margaretha

    2012-01-01

    Antimitotic compounds are still one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic anticancer drugs in the clinic today. Given their effectiveness against cancer it is beneficial to continue enhancing these drugs. One way is to improve the bioavailability and efficacy by synthesizing derivatives that reversibly bind to carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) in red blood cells followed by a slow release into the blood circulation system. In the present study we describe the in vitro biological activity of a reduced derivative of 2-ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estradiol (2EE), 2-ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estra-1,3,5(10),15-tetraen-17-ol (ESE-15-ol). ESE-15-ol is capable of inhibiting carbonic anhydrase activity in the nanomolar range and is selective towards a mimic of carbonic anhydrase IX when compared to the CAII isoform. Docking studies using Autodock Vina suggest that the dehydration of the D-ring plays a role towards the selectivity of ESE-15-ol to CAIX and that the binding mode of ESE-15-ol is substantially different when compared to 2EE. ESE-15-ol is able to reduce cell growth to 50% after 48 h at 50–75 nM in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-12A cells. The compound is the least potent against the non-tumorigenic MCF-12A cells. In vitro mechanistic studies demonstrate that the newly synthesized compound induces mitochondrial membrane depolarization, abrogates the phosphorylation status of Bcl-2 and affects gene expression of genes associated with cell death and mitosis. PMID:23300615

  9. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency: single-base deletion in exon 7 is the predominant mutation in Caribbean Hispanic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, P. Y.; Ernst, A. R.; Sly, W. S.; Venta, P. J.; Skaggs, L. A.; Tashian, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    To date, three different structural gene mutations have been identified in patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification). These include a missense mutation (H107Y) in two families, a splice junction mutation in intron 5 in one of these families, and a splice junction mutation in intron 2 for which many Arabic patients are homozygous. We report here a novel mutation for which carbonic anhydrase II-deficient patients from seven unrelated Hispanic families were found to be homozygous. The proband was a 2 1/2-year-old Hispanic girl of Puerto Rican ancestry who was unique clinically, in that she had no evidence of renal tubular acidosis, even though she did have osteopetrosis, developmental delay, and cerebral calcification. She proved to be homozygous for a single-base deletion in the coding region of exon 7 that produces a frameshift that changes the next 12 amino acids before leading to chain termination and that also introduces a new MaeIII restriction site. The 27-kD truncated enzyme produced when the mutant cDNA was expressed in COS cells was enzymatically inactive, present mainly in insoluble aggregates, and detectable immunologically at only 5% the level of the 29-kD normal carbonic anhydrase II expressed from the wild-type cDNA. Metabolic labeling revealed that this 27-kD mutant protein has an accelerated rate of degradation. Six subsequent Hispanic patients of Caribbean ancestry, all of whom had osteopetrosis and renal tubular acidosis but who varied widely in clinical severity, were found to be homozygous for the same mutation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8128957

  10. Crucial role of carbonic anhydrase IX in tumorigenicity of xenotransplanted adult T-cell leukemia-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Nasu, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Takanashi, Tomoka; Tamai, Keiichi; Sato, Ikuro; Ine, Shoji; Sasaki, Osamu; Satoh, Kennichi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Fukushima, Takuya; Harigae, Hideo; Sugamura, Kazuo

    2017-03-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) is a membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase that regulates cellular pH, is upregulated in various solid tumors, and is considered to be a therapeutic target. Here, we describe the essential role of CA9 in the tumorigenicity of cells derived from human adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). We previously established the highly tumorigenic ST1-N6 subline from the ATL-derived ST1 cell line by serial xenotransplantation in NOG mice. In the present study, we first show that CA9 expression is strongly enhanced in ST1-N6 cells. We then sorted ST1 cells by high or low CA9 expression and established ST1-CA9(high) and ST1-CA9(low) sublines. ST1-CA9(high) cells, like ST1-N6 cells, were more strongly tumorigenic than ST1-CA9(low) or parental ST1 cells when injected into NOG mice. Knockdown of CA9 with shRNAs suppressed the ability of ST1-CA9(high) cells to initiate tumors, and the tumorigenicity of ST1 cells was significantly enhanced by introducing wild-type CA9 or a CA9 mutant with deletion of an intracytoplasmic domain. However, a CA9 with point mutations in the catalytic site did not increase the tumorigenicity of ST1 cells. Furthermore, we detected a small population of CA9(+) CD25(+) cells in lymph nodes of ATL patients. These findings suggest that CA9, and particularly its carbonic anhydrase activity, promotes the tumorigenicity of ATL-derived cells and may be involved in malignant development of lymphoma-type ATL. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  11. Cyclodextrin solubilization of carbonic anhydrase inhibitor drugs: formulation of dorzolamide eye drop microparticle suspension.

    PubMed

    Jansook, Phatsawee; Stefánsson, Einar; Thorsteinsdóttir, Margrét; Sigurdsson, Baldur B; Kristjánsdóttir, Sigrún S; Bas, Jon Fernández; Sigurdsson, Hakon H; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2010-10-01

    Topically applied carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) are commonly used to treat glaucoma. However, their short duration of action requiring multiple daily dosing can hamper patient compliance. The aim of this study was to develop novel aqueous CAI eye drop formulation containing self-assembled drug/cyclodextrin (D/CD) microparticles that enhance and prolong drug delivery to the eye. Phase-solubility of each drug tested (i.e. methazolamide, brinzolamide and dorzolamide HCl) was determined in either pure water or an aqueous eye drop medium. The pH was adjusted to maximize the fraction of unionized drug. Dorzolamide had the highest affinity for γ-cyclodextrin (γCD) and, thus, was selected for further investigation. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was the most effective polymer tested for stabilization of the dorzolamide/γCD complexes and gave the highest mucoadhesion at 0.5% w/v concentration. Thus, the dorzolamide eye drop vehicle containing γCD (18% w/v) and HPMC (0.5% w/v) was developed. The physicochemical properties of this formulation complied with the specifications of the eye drop suspension monograph of the European Pharmacopoeia. The in vivo testing of the formulation showed that the drug was delivered to the aqueous humor in rabbits for at least 24h with the maximum drug concentration at 4h. Furthermore, this formulation delivered the drug to the posterior segment of the eye after topical administration. These results indicate that this CAI eye drop formulation has the potential of being developed into a once-a-day product. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prognostic value of serum carbonic anhydrase IX in testicular germ cell tumor patients

    PubMed Central

    Kalavska, Katarina; Chovanec, Michal; Zatovicova, Miriam; Takacova, Martina; Gronesova, Paulina; Svetlovska, Daniela; Baratova, Magdalena; Miskovska, Vera; Obertova, Jana; Palacka, Patrik; Rajec, Jan; Sycova-Mila, Zuzana; Cierna, Zuzana; Kajo, Karol; Spanik, Stanislav; Babal, Pavel; Mardiak, Jozef; Pastorekova, Silvia; Mego, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are one of the most chemosensitive solid tumors, a small proportion of patients fail to be cured following cisplatin-based first line chemotherapy. Upregulation of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) in various solid tumors is associated with poor outcome. The current prospective study investigated the prognostic value of serum CA IX level in TGCTs. In total, 83 patients (16 non-metastatic following orchiectomy with no evidence of disease, 57 metastatic chemotherapy-naïve and 10 metastatic relapsed chemotherapy-pretreated) starting adjuvant and/or new line of chemotherapy and 35 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Serum CA IX values were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and intratumoral CA IX was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Metastatic chemotherapy-naïve patients had significantly higher mean CA IX serum levels than healthy controls (490.6 vs. 249.6 pg/ml, P=0.005), while there was no difference in serum CA IX levels in non-metastatic or relapsed TGCT patients compared with healthy controls. There was no significant difference in the mean serum CA IX levels between different groups of patients and between the first and second cycle of chemotherapy, nor association with patients/tumor characteristics. Serum CA IX was not prognostic for progression-free survival [hazard ratio (HR)=0.81, P=0.730] or overall survival (HR=0.64, P=0.480). However, there was a significant association between intratumoral CA IX expression and serum CA IX concentration (rho=0.51, P=0.040). These results suggest that serum CA IX level correlates with tumor CA IX expression in TGCT patients, but fails to exhibit either a prognostic value or an association with patients/tumor characteristics. PMID:27698832

  13. Effects of carbonic anhydrase inhibition on ventilation-perfusion matching in the dog lung.

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, E R; Robertson, H T; Hlastala, M P

    1993-01-01

    Lung carbonic anhydrase (CA) permits rapid pH responses when changes in regional ventilation or perfusion alter airway and alveolar PCO2. These pH changes affect airway and vascular resistances and lung compliance to optimize the balance of regional ventilation (VA) and perfusion (Q) in the lung. To test the hypothesis that these or other CA-dependent mechanisms contribute to VA/Q matching, we administered acetazolamide (25 mg/kg intravenously) to six anesthetized and paralyzed dogs and measured VA/Q relationships before and after CA inhibition by the multiple inert gas elimination technique. Four other groups of dogs were studied to control for possible confounding effects of time under anesthesia and nonselective CA inhibition by acetazolamide: (a) saline placebo as a control for duration of anesthesia, (b) 4% CO2 inhalation to mimic systemic CO2 retention, (c) 1 mg/kg benzolamide (a selective renal CA inhibitor) or 0.5 meq/kg HCl to mimic systemic metabolic acidosis, and (d) 500 mg/kg 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (an inhibitor of red cell band 3 protein) to mimic the respiratory acidosis arising from an intracapillary block to rapid mobilization of plasma HCO3- in CO2 exchange. Acetazolamide increased VA/Q mismatch and reduced arterial PO2 measured at equilibrium but these did not occur in the control group. There was no deterioration in VA/Q matching when systemic respiratory acidosis produced either by CO2 inhalation or 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate or metabolic acidosis (benzolamide or HCl) were imposed to mimic the effects of acetazolamide apart from its inhibition of lung CA. These results support the concept that lung CA subserves VA/Q matching in the normal lung. Images PMID:8349809

  14. Identification of a New Chloroplast Carbonic Anhydrase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Mautusi; Lato, Scott M.; Ynalvez, Ruby A.; Xiao, Ying; Moroney, James V.

    2004-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CA) are zinc-containing metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of CO2. The three evolutionarily unrelated families of CAs are designated α-, β-, and γ-CA. Aquatic photosynthetic organisms have evolved different forms of CO2 concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) to aid Rubisco in capturing CO2 from the surrounding environment. One aspect of all CCMs is the critical roles played by various specially localized extracellular and intracellular CAs. Five CAs have previously been identified in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a green alga with a well-studied CCM. Here we identify a sixth gene encoding a β-type CA. This new β-CA, designated Cah6, is distinct from the two mitochondrial β-CAs in C. reinhardtii. Nucleotide sequence data show that the Cah6 cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 264 amino acids with a leader sequence likely targeting the protein to the chloroplast stroma. We have fused the Cah6 open reading frame to the coding sequence of maltose-binding protein in a pMal expression vector. The purified recombinant fusion protein is active and was used to partially characterize the Cah6 protein. The purified recombinant fusion protein was cleaved with protease Factor Xa to separate Cah6 from the maltose-binding protein and the purified Cah6 protein was used to raise an antibody. Western blots, immunolocalization studies, and northern blots collectively indicated that Cah6 is constitutively expressed in the stroma of chloroplasts. A possible role for Cah6 in the CCM of C. reinhardtii is proposed. PMID:15122009

  15. Branchial membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase activity maintains CO2 excretion in severely anemic dogfish.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, K M; Perry, S F

    2004-06-01

    Plasma CO(2) reactions in Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) have access to plasma and gill membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase (CA). Acute severe experimental anemia and selective CA inhibitors were used to investigate the role of extracellular CA in CO(2) excretion. Anemia was induced by blood withdrawal coupled to volume replacement with saline. Lowering hematocrit from 14.2 +/- 0.4% (mean +/- SE; N = 31) to 5.2 +/- 0.1% (N = 31) had no significant impact on arterial or venous CO(2) tensions (Pa(CO(2)) and Pv(CO(2)), respectively) over the subsequent 2 h. PCO(2) was maintained despite the reduction in red cell number and a significant 32% increase in cardiac output (V(b)), both of which have been found to cause Pa(CO(2)) increases in teleost fish. By contrast, treatment of anemic dogfish with the CA inhibitors benzolamide (1.3 mg/kg) or F3500 (50 mg/kg), to selectively inhibit extracellular CA, elicited rapid and significant increases in Pa(CO(2)) of 0.68 +/- 0.17 Torr (N = 6) and 0.53 +/- 0.11 Torr (N = 7), respectively, by 30 min after treatment. These findings provide a functional context in which extracellular CA in dogfish contributes substantially to CO(2) excretion. Additionally, the apparent lack of effect of V(b) changes on PCO(2) suggests that, in contrast to teleost fish, CO(2) excretion in dogfish does not behave as a diffusion-limited system.

  16. Type IV carbonic anhydrase is present in the gills of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    PubMed

    Gilmour, K M; Bayaa, M; Kenney, L; McNeill, B; Perry, S F

    2007-01-01

    Physiological and biochemical studies have provided indirect evidence for a membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoform, similar to mammalian type IV CA, in the gills of dogfish (Squalus acanthias). This CA isoform is linked to the plasma membrane of gill epithelial cells by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor and oriented toward the plasma, such that it can catalyze the dehydration of plasma HCO(3)(-) ions. The present study directly tested the hypothesis that CA IV is present in dogfish gills in a location amenable to catalyzing plasma HCO(3)(-) dehydration. Homology cloning techniques were used to assemble a 1,127 base pair cDNA that coded for a deduced protein of 306 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that this protein was a type IV CA. For purposes of comparison, a second cDNA (1,107 base pairs) was cloned from dogfish blood; it encoded a deduced protein of 260 amino acids that was identified as a cytosolic CA through phylogenetic analysis. Using real-time PCR and in situ hybridization, mRNA expression for the dogfish type IV CA was detected in gill tissue and specifically localized to pillar cells and branchial epithelial cells that flanked the pillar cells. Immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal antibody raised against rainbow trout type IV CA revealed a similar pattern of CA IV immunoreactivity and demonstrated a limited degree of colocalization with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase immunoreactivity. The presence and localization of a type IV CA isoform in the gills of dogfish is consistent with the hypothesis that branchial membrane-bound CA with an extracellular orientation contributes to CO(2) excretion in dogfish by catalyzing the dehydration of plasma HCO(3)(-) ions.

  17. The ctnG gene encodes carbonic anhydrase involved in mycotoxin citrinin biosynthesis from Monascus aurantiacus.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Ping; Tang, Xiao; Wu, Wei; Xu, Yang; Huang, Zhi-Bing; He, Qing-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Citrinin, a fungal secondary metabolite of polyketide origin, is moderately nephrotoxic to vertebrates, including humans. Citrinin is synthesised by condensation of acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA. Six genes involved in the citrinin biosynthesis, including pksCT, ctnA and ctnB, have been cloned in Monascus purpureus. The pksCT gene encodes a polyketide synthase; ctnA is a regulatory factor; and ctnB encodes an oxidoreductase. When the three genes were respectively disrupted, the disruption strains drastically decreased citrinin production or barely produced citrinin. Ten new genes have been discovered in Monascus aurantiacus besides the above six genes. One of these gene displayed the highest similarity to the β-carbonic anhydrase gene from Aspergillus oryzae (74% similarity) and was designated ctnG. To learn more about the citrinin biosynthetic pathway, a ctnG-replacement vector was constructed to disrupt ctnG with the hygromycin resistance gene as the selection marker, then transformed into M. aurantiacus Li AS3.4384 by a protoplast-PEG method. The citrinin content of three disruptants was reduced to about 50%, meanwhile pigment production decreased by 23%, respectively, over those of the wild-type strains. ctnG was deduced to be involved in the formation of malonyl-CoA as a common precursor of red pigments and citrinin. Therefore, the disruption of the ctnG gene decreased citrinin and pigment production. M. aurantiacus Li AS3.4384 can produce higher concentrations of citrinin than other strains such as M. purpureus and M. ruber. Establishing the function of citrinin biosynthetic genes in M. aurantiacus is helpful in understanding the citrinin synthetic pathway and adopting some strategies to control contamination.

  18. Carbonic anhydrase activity in Arabidopsis thaliana thylakoid membrane and fragments enriched with PSI or PSII.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Lyudmila K; Rudenko, Natalia N; Mudrik, Vilen A; Fedorchuk, Tat'yana P; Ivanov, Boris N

    2011-12-01

    The procedure of isolating the thylakoids and the thylakoid membrane fragments enriched with either photosystem I or photosystem II (PSI- and PSII-membranes) from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves was developed. It differed from the one used with pea and spinach in durations of detergent treatment and centrifugation, and in concentrations of detergent and Mg(2+) in the media. Both the thylakoid and the fragments preserved carbonic anhydrase (CA) activities. Using nondenaturing electrophoresis followed by detection of CA activity in the gel stained with bromo thymol blue, one low molecular mass carrier of CA activity was found in the PSI-membranes, and two carriers, a low molecular mass one and a high molecular mass one, were found in the PSII-membranes. The proteins in the PSII-membranes differed in their sensitivity to acetazolamide (AA), a specific CA inhibitor. AA at 5 × 10(-7) M inhibited the CA activity of the high molecular mass protein but stimulated the activity of the low molecular mass carrier in the PSII-membranes. At the same concentration, AA moderately inhibited, by 30%, the CA activity of PSI-membranes. CA activity of the PSII-membranes was almost completely suppressed by the lipophilic CA inhibitor, ethoxyzolamide at 10(-9) M, whereas CA activity of the PSI-membranes was inhibited by this inhibitor even at 5 × 10(-7) M just the same as for AA. The observed distribution of CA activity in the thylakoid membranes from A. thaliana was close to the one found in the membranes of pea, evidencing the general pattern of CA activity in the thylakoid membranes of C3-plants.

  19. Prognostic value of serum carbonic anhydrase IX in testicular germ cell tumor patients.

    PubMed

    Kalavska, Katarina; Chovanec, Michal; Zatovicova, Miriam; Takacova, Martina; Gronesova, Paulina; Svetlovska, Daniela; Baratova, Magdalena; Miskovska, Vera; Obertova, Jana; Palacka, Patrik; Rajec, Jan; Sycova-Mila, Zuzana; Cierna, Zuzana; Kajo, Karol; Spanik, Stanislav; Babal, Pavel; Mardiak, Jozef; Pastorekova, Silvia; Mego, Michal

    2016-10-01

    Despite the fact that testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are one of the most chemosensitive solid tumors, a small proportion of patients fail to be cured following cisplatin-based first line chemotherapy. Upregulation of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) in various solid tumors is associated with poor outcome. The current prospective study investigated the prognostic value of serum CA IX level in TGCTs. In total, 83 patients (16 non-metastatic following orchiectomy with no evidence of disease, 57 metastatic chemotherapy-naïve and 10 metastatic relapsed chemotherapy-pretreated) starting adjuvant and/or new line of chemotherapy and 35 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Serum CA IX values were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and intratumoral CA IX was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Metastatic chemotherapy-naïve patients had significantly higher mean CA IX serum levels than healthy controls (490.6 vs. 249.6 pg/ml, P=0.005), while there was no difference in serum CA IX levels in non-metastatic or relapsed TGCT patients compared with healthy controls. There was no significant difference in the mean serum CA IX levels between different groups of patients and between the first and second cycle of chemotherapy, nor association with patients/tumor characteristics. Serum CA IX was not prognostic for progression-free survival [hazard ratio (HR)=0.81, P=0.730] or overall survival (HR=0.64, P=0.480). However, there was a significant association between intratumoral CA IX expression and serum CA IX concentration (rho=0.51, P=0.040). These results suggest that serum CA IX level correlates with tumor CA IX expression in TGCT patients, but fails to exhibit either a prognostic value or an association with patients/tumor characteristics.

  20. Structural basis of the oxidative activation of the carboxysomal [gamma]-carbonic anhydrase, CcmM

    SciTech Connect

    Peña, Kerry L.; Castel, Stephane E.; de Araujo, Charlotte; Espie, George S.; Kimber, Matthew S.

    2010-04-26

    Cyanobacterial RuBisCO is sequestered in large, icosahedral, protein-bounded microcompartments called carboxysomes. Bicarbonate is pumped into the cytosol, diffuses into the carboxysome through small pores in its shell, and is then converted to CO{sub 2} by carbonic anhydrase (CA) prior to fixation. Paradoxically, many {beta}-cyanobacteria, including Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1, lack the conventional carboxysomal {beta}-CA, ccaA. The N-terminal domain of the carboxysomal protein CcmM is homologous to {gamma}-CA from Methanosarcina thermophila (Cam) but recombinant CcmM derived from ccaA-containing cyanobacteria show no CA activity. We demonstrate here that either full length CcmM from T. elongatus, or a construct truncated after 209 residues (CcmM209), is active as a CA - the first catalytically active bacterial {gamma}-CA reported. The 2.0 {angstrom} structure of CcmM209 reveals a trimeric, left-handed {beta}-helix structure that closely resembles Cam, except that residues 198-207 form a third {alpha}-helix stabilized by an essential Cys194-Cys200 disulfide bond. Deleting residues 194-209 (CcmM193) results in an inactive protein whose 1.1 {angstrom} structure shows disordering of the N- and C-termini, and reorganization of the trimeric interface and active site. Under reducing conditions, CcmM209 is similarly partially disordered and inactive as a CA. CcmM protein in fresh E. coli cell extracts is inactive, implying that the cellular reducing machinery can reduce and inactivate CcmM, while diamide, a thiol oxidizing agent, activates the enzyme. Thus, like membrane-bound eukaryotic cellular compartments, the {beta}-carboxysome appears to be able to maintain an oxidizing interior by precluding the entry of thioredoxin and other endogenous reducing agents.

  1. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors reduce cardiac dysfunction after sustained coronary artery ligation in rats.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Lorena A; Pinilla, Oscar A; Díaz, Romina G; Sepúlveda, Diana E; Swenson, Erik R; Pérez, Néstor G; Álvarez, Bernardo V

    Two potent carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors with widely differing membrane permeability, poorly diffusible benzolamide (BZ), and highly diffusible ethoxzolamide (ETZ) were assessed to determine whether they can reduce cardiac dysfunction in rats subjected to coronary artery ligation (CAL)-induced myocardial infarction. Rats with evidence of heart failure (HF) at 32 weeks following a permanent left anterior coronary artery occlusion were treated with placebo, BZ, or ETZ (4 mg kgday(-1)) for 4 weeks at which time left ventricular function and structure were evaluated. Lung weight/body weight (LW/BW) ratio increased in CAL rats by 17±1% vs. control, suggesting pulmonary edema. There was a trend for BZ and ETZ to ameliorate the increase in LW/BW by almost 50% (9±5% and 9±8%, respectively, versus CAL) (P=.16, NS). Echocardiographic assessment showed decreased left ventricular midwall shortening in HF rats, 21±1% vs. control 32±1%, which was improved by BZ to 29±1% and ETZ to 27±1%, and reduced endocardial shortening in HF rats 38±3% vs. control 62±1%, partially restored by BZ and ETZ to ~50%. Expression of the hypoxia-inducible membrane-associated CAIX isoform increased by ~60% in HF rat hearts, and this effect was blocked by ETZ. We conclude that CAL-induced myocardial interstitial fibrosis and associated decline in left ventricular function were diminished with BZ or ETZ treatment. The reductions in cardiac remodeling in HF with both ETZ and BZ CA inhibitors suggest that inhibition of a membrane-bound CA appears to be the critical site for this protection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Heterologous gene expression driven by carbonic anhydrase gene promoter in Dunaliella salina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurong, Chai; Yumin, Lu; Tianyun, Wang; Weihong, Hou; Lexun, Xue

    2006-12-01

    Dunaliella salina, a halotolerant unicellular green alga without a rigid cell wall, can live in salinities ranging from 0.05 to 5 mol/L NaCl. These features of D. salina make it an ideal host for the production of antibodies, oral vaccine, and commercially valuable polypeptides. To produce high level of heterologous proteins from D. salina, highly efficient promoters are required to drive expression of target genes under controlled condition. In the present study, we cloned a 5' franking region of 1.4 kb from the carbonic anhydrase ( CAH) gene of D. salina by genomic walking and PCR. The fragment was ligated to the pMD18-T vector and characterized. Sequence analysis indicated that this region contained conserved motifs, including a TATA- like box and CAAT-box. Tandem (GT)n repeats that had a potential role of transcriptional control, were also found in this region. The transcription start site (TSS) of the CAH gene was determined by 5' RACE and nested PCR method. Transformation assays showed that the 1.4 kb fragment was able to drive expression of the selectable bar (bialaphos resistance) gene when the fusion was transformed into D. salina by biolistics. Northern blotting hybridizations showed that the bar transcript was most abundant in cells grown in 2 mol/L NaCl, and less abundant in 0.5 mol/L NaCl, indicating that expression of the bar gene was induced at high salinity. These results suggest the potential use of the CAH gene promoter to induce the expression of heterologous genes in D. salina under varied salt condition.

  3. Activation of Carbonic Anhydrase IX by Alternatively Spliced Tissue Factor Under Late-Stage Tumor Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ramchandani, Divya; Unruh, Dusten; Lewis, Clayton S.; Bogdanov, Vladimir Y.; Weber, Georg F.

    2016-01-01

    Molecules of the coagulation pathway predispose patients to cancer-associated thrombosis and also trigger intracellular signaling pathways that promote cancer progression. The primary transcript of Tissue Factor, the main physiologic trigger of blood clotting, can undergo alternative splicing yielding a secreted variant, termed asTF (alternatively spliced Tissue Factor). asTF is not required for normal hemostasis, but its expression levels positively correlate with advanced tumor stages in several cancers, including pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The asTF-over-expressing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell line Pt45.P1/asTF+ and its parent cell line Pt45.P1 were tested for growth and mobility under normoxic conditions that model early stage tumors, and in the hypoxic environment of late-stage cancers. asTF over-expression in Pt45.P1 cells conveys increased proliferative ability. According to cell cycle analysis, the major fraction of Pt45.P1/asTF+ cells reside in the dividing G2/M phase of the cell cycle, whereas the parental Pt45.P1 cells are mostly confined to the quiescent G0/G1 phase. asTF over-expression is also associated with significantly higher mobility in cells plated under either normoxia or hypoxia. A hypoxic environment leads to upregulation of Carbonic Anhydrase IX (CAIX), which is more pronounced in Pt45.P1/asTF+ cells. Inhibition of CAIX by the compound U-104 significantly decreases cell growth and mobility of Pt45.P1/asTF+ cells in hypoxia, but not in normoxia. U-104 also reduces the growth of Pt45.P1/asTF+ orthotopic tumors in nude mice. CAIX is a novel downstream mediator of asTF in pancreatic cancer, particularly under hypoxic conditions that model late-stage tumor micro-environment. PMID:27721473

  4. Characterization of carbonic anhydrase XIII in the erythrocytes of the Burmese python, Python molurus bivittatus.

    PubMed

    Esbaugh, A J; Secor, S M; Grosell, M

    2015-09-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is one of the most abundant proteins found in vertebrate erythrocytes with the majority of species expressing a low activity CA I and high activity CA II. However, several phylogenetic gaps remain in our understanding of the expansion of cytoplasmic CA in vertebrate erythrocytes. In particular, very little is known about isoforms from reptiles. The current study sought to characterize the erythrocyte isoforms from two squamate species, Python molurus and Nerodia rhombifer, which was combined with information from recent genome projects to address this important phylogenetic gap. Obtained sequences grouped closely with CA XIII in phylogenetic analyses. CA II mRNA transcripts were also found in erythrocytes, but found at less than half the levels of CA XIII. Structural analysis suggested similar biochemical activity as the respective mammalian isoforms, with CA XIII being a low activity isoform. Biochemical characterization verified that the majority of CA activity in the erythrocytes was due to a high activity CA II-like isoform; however, titration with copper supported the presence of two CA pools. The CA II-like pool accounted for 90 % of the total activity. To assess potential disparate roles of these isoforms a feeding stress was used to up-regulate CO2 excretion pathways. Significant up-regulation of CA II and the anion exchanger was observed; CA XIII was strongly down-regulated. While these results do not provide insight into the role of CA XIII in the erythrocytes, they do suggest that the presence of two isoforms is not simply a case of physiological redundancy.

  5. Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of the tumor-associated human carbonic anhydrase IX.

    PubMed

    Alterio, Vincenzo; Hilvo, Mika; Di Fiore, Anna; Supuran, Claudiu T; Pan, Peiwen; Parkkila, Seppo; Scaloni, Andrea; Pastorek, Jaromir; Pastorekova, Silvia; Pedone, Carlo; Scozzafava, Andrea; Monti, Simona Maria; De Simone, Giuseppina

    2009-09-22

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX is a plasma membrane-associated member of the alpha-CA enzyme family, which is involved in solid tumor acidification. It is a marker of tumor hypoxia and a prognostic factor in several human cancers. An aberrant increase in CA IX expression in chronic hypoxia and during development of various carcinomas contributes to tumorigenesis through at least two mechanisms: pH regulation and cell adhesion control. Here we report the X-ray structure of the catalytic domain of CA IX in complex with a classical, clinically used sulfonamide inhibitor, acetazolamide. The structure reveals a typical alpha-CA fold, which significantly differs from the other CA isozymes when the protein quaternary structure is considered. Thus, two catalytic domains of CA IX associate to form a dimer, which is stabilized by the formation of an intermolecular disulfide bond. The active site clefts and the PG domains are located on one face of the dimer, while the C-termini are located on the opposite face to facilitate protein anchoring to the cell membrane. A correlation between the three-dimensional structure and the physiological role of the enzyme is here suggested, based on the measurement of the pH profile of the catalytic activity for the physiological reaction, CO(2) hydration to bicarbonate and protons. On the basis of the structural differences observed between CA IX and the other membrane-associated alpha-CAs, further prospects for the rational drug design of isozyme-specific CA inhibitors are proposed, given that inhibition of this enzyme shows antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Carbonic anhydrase XII in valve interstitial cells promotes the regression of calcific aortic valve stenosis.

    PubMed

    Bouchareb, Rihab; Côté, Nancy; Marie-Chloé-Boulanger; Le Quang, Khai; El Husseini, Diala; Asselin, Jérémie; Hadji, Fayez; Lachance, Dominic; Shayhidin, Elnur Elyar; Mahmut, Ablajan; Pibarot, Philippe; Bossé, Yohan; Messaddeq, Younes; Boudreau, Denis; Marette, André; Mathieu, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is the most common heart valve disease. In the present work we sought to determine the reversibility of mineralization in the aortic valve. By using in vitro analyses we found that valve interstitial cells (VICs) have the ability to resorb minerals. We documented that agonist of P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2R) promoted the expression of carbonic anhydrase XII (CAXII) at the cell membrane of VICs, whereby minerals are resorbed. P2Y2R-mediated mineral resorption was corroborated by using mouse VICs isolated from wild type and P2Y2R(-/-) mice. Measurements of extracellular pH (pHe) by using core-shell nanosensors revealed that P2Y2R-mediated CAXII export to the cell membrane led to an acidification of extracellular space, whereby minerals are resorbed. In vivo, we next treated LDLR(-/-)/ApoB(100/100)/IGF2 mice, which had developed CAVS under a high-fat/high-sucrose diet for 8 months, with 2-thioUTP (a P2Y2R agonist) or saline for the next 2 months. The administration of 2-thioUTP (2mg/kg/day i.p.) reduced the mineral volume in the aortic valve measured with serial microCT analyses, which improved hemodynamics and reduced left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Examination of leaflets at necropsy confirmed a lower level of mineralization and fibrosis along with higher levels of CAXII in mice under 2-thioUTP. In another series of experiment, the administration of acetazolamide (a CA inhibitor) prevented the acidification of leaflets and the regression of CAVS induced by 2-thioUTP in LDLR(-/-)/ApoB(100/100)/IGF2 mice. P2Y2R-mediated expression of CAXII by VICs acidifies the extracellular space and promotes the regression of CAVS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Diuretics with carbonic anhydrase inhibitory action: a patent and literature review (2005 - 2013).

    PubMed

    Carta, Fabrizio; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2013-01-01

    The benzothiadiazines and high ceiling diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide, hydroflumethiazide, quinethazone, metolazone, chlorthalidone, indapamide, furosemide and bumetanide) contain primary sulfamoyl moieties acting as zinc-binding groups in the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1). These drugs are widely used clinically and were recently shown to weakly inhibit isoforms CA I and II, but to possess stronger activity against isoforms involved in other important pathologies, for example, obesity, cancer, epilepsy and hypertension. The class of clinically used diuretics, with CA inhibitory properties, is the main topic of the review. A patent literature review covering the period from 2005 to 2013 is presented. This section presents an overview of the patent literature in the sulfonamide diuretic field. Most of the patents deal with the combination of diuretic sulfonamide CA inhibitors with other agents useful in the management of cardiovascular diseases and obesity. Such combinations exert a better therapeutic activity compared to similar diuretics that do not inhibit CAs, raising the question of the polypharmacological and drug repositioning effects of these old drugs. These effects seem to be due to the potent inhibition of such drugs against CA isoforms present in kidneys and blood vessels, which explain both the blood pressure lowering effects as well as organ-protective activity of the drugs. An explanation of these data is provided by the fact that inhibition of the renal CAs leads to a large increase of the nitrite excretion in urine, suggesting that renal CAs are involved in nitrite reabsorption in humans. Important lessons for the drug design of sulfonamide CA inhibitors (CAIs) can be drawn from these data.

  8. Permeability changes induced by 130 GHz pulsed radiation on cationic liposomes loaded with carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Ramundo-Orlando, Alfonsina; Gallerano, Gian Piero; Stano, Pasquale; Doria, Andrea; Giovenale, Emilio; Messina, Giovanni; Cappelli, Mauro; D'Arienzo, Marco; Spassovsky, Ivan

    2007-12-01

    The effects of pulsed 130 GHz radiations on lipid membrane permeability were investigated by using cationic liposomes containing dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), cholesterol, and stearylamine. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) was loaded inside the liposomes and the substrate p-nitrophenyl acetate (p-NPA) added in the bulk aqueous phase. Upon permeation across the lipid bilayer, the trapped CA catalyzes the conversion of the p-NPA molecules into products. Because the self-diffusion rate of p-NPA across intact liposomes is very low the CA reaction rate, expressed as Delta A/min, is used to track membrane permeability changes. The effect of 130 GHz radiation pulse-modulated at low frequencies of 5, 7, or 10 Hz, and at time-averaged incident intensity (I(AV)) up to 17 mW/cm(2) was studied at room temperature (22 degrees C), below the phase transition temperature of DPPC liposomes. At all the tested values of I(AV) a significant enhancement of the enzyme reaction rate in CA-loaded liposomes occurred when the pulse repetition rate was 7 Hz. Typically, an increase from Delta A/min = 0.0026 +/- 0.0010 (n = 11) to Delta A/min = 0.0045 +/- 0.0013 (n = 12) (P < 0.0005) resulted at I(AV) = 7.7 mW/cm(2). The effect of 130 GHz pulse-modulated at 7 Hz was also observed on cationic liposomes formed with palmitoyloleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC), at room temperature (22 degrees C), above the phase transition temperature of POPC liposomes. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Affibody Molecules for Radionuclide Imaging of in Vivo Expression of Carbonic Anhydrase IX.

    PubMed

    Garousi, Javad; Honarvar, Hadis; Andersson, Ken G; Mitran, Bogdan; Orlova, Anna; Buijs, Jos; Löfblom, John; Frejd, Fredrik Y; Tolmachev, Vladimir

    2016-11-07

    Overexpression of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is documented for chronically hypoxic malignant tumors as well as for normoxic renal cell carcinoma. Radionuclide molecular imaging of CAIX would be useful for detection of hypoxic areas in malignant tumors, for patients' stratification for CAIX-targeted therapies, and for discrimination of primary malignant and benign renal tumors. Earlier, we have reported feasibility of in vivo radionuclide based imaging of CAIX expressing tumors using Affibody molecules, small affinity proteins based on a nonimmunoglobulin scaffold. In this study, we compared imaging properties of several anti-CAIX Affibody molecules having identical scaffold parts and competing for the same epitope on CAIX, but having different binding paratopes. Four variants were labeled using residualizing (99m)Tc and nonresidualizing (125)I labels. All radiolabeled variants demonstrated high-affinity detection of CAIX-expressing cell line SK-RC-52 in vitro and specific accumulation in SK-RC-52 xenografts in vivo. (125)I-labeled conjugates demonstrated much lower radioactivity uptake in kidneys but higher radioactivity concentration in blood compared with (99m)Tc-labeled counterparts. Although all variants cleared rapidly from blood and nonspecific compartments, there was noticeable difference in their biodistribution. The best variant for imaging of expression of CAIX in disseminated cancer was (99m)Tc-(HE)3-ZCAIX:2 providing tumor uptake of 16.3 ± 0.9% ID/g and tumor-to-blood ratio of 44 ± 7 at 4 h after injection. For primary renal cell carcinoma, the most promising imaging candidate was (125)I-ZCAIX:4 providing tumor-kidney ratio of 2.1 ± 0.5. In conclusion, several clones of scaffold proteins should be evaluated to select the best variant for development of an imaging probe with optimal sensitivity for the intended application.

  10. Chemical Rescue of Enzymes: Proton Transfer in Mutants of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II

    PubMed Central

    Maupin, C. Mark; Castillo, Norberto; Taraphder, Srabani; Tu, Chingkuang; McKenna, Robert; Silverman, David N.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    In human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) the mutation of position 64 from histidine to alanine (H64A) disrupts the rate limiting proton transfer (PT) event, resulting in a reduction of the catalytic activity of the enzyme as compared to the wild-type. Potential of mean force (PMF) calculations utilizing the multistate empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) methodology for H64A HCA II give a PT free energy barrier significantly higher than that found in the wild-type enzyme. This high barrier, determined in the absence of exogenous buffer and assuming no additional ionizable residues in the PT pathway, indicates the likelihood of alternate enzyme pathways that utilize either ionizable enzyme residues (self-rescue) and/or exogenous buffers (chemical rescue). It has been shown experimentally that the catalytic activity of H64A HCA II can be chemically rescued to near wild type levels by the addition of the exogenous buffer 4-methylimidazole (4MI). Crystallographic studies have identified two 4MI binding sites, yet site specific mutations intended to disrupt 4MI binding have demonstrated these sites to be non-productive. In the present work MS-EVB simulations show that binding of 4MI near Thr199 in the H64A HCA II mutant, a binding site determined by NMR spectroscopy, results in a viable chemical rescue pathway. Additional viable rescue pathways are also identified where 4MI acts as a proton transport intermediary from the active site to ionizable residues on the rim of the active site, revealing a probable mode of action for the chemical rescue pathway PMID:21452838

  11. Elucidation of the Proton Transport Mechanism in Human Carbonic Anhydrase II

    PubMed Central

    Maupin, C. Mark; McKenna, Robert; Silverman, David N.

    2009-01-01

    Human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) is one of the fastest known enzymes, which utilizes a rate-limiting proton transport (PT) step in its enzymatic reaction. To evaluate the PT event at an atomistic level, the multistate empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) method has been utilized in this work. It is observed that the PT event in HCA II exploits a transient active site water cluster to transport the excess proton between the catalytic zinc-bound water/hydroxide and the proton shuttling residue, His64. This PT event is found to be dependent on the enzyme's ability to form and stabilize the active site water cluster in addition to its ability to orient His64 in a favorable conformation. Evaluation of the PT free energy barrier for different orientations of His64 reveals this residue's vital role as a proton transporter and elucidates its direct effect on the barrier to PT through the active site water. It is suggested that the rate-limiting step oscillates between the active site water PT event to His64 and the de/protonation of His64 depending on the exogenous buffer concentration and the orientation of His64. In the absence of a PT acceptor/donor at position 64, it is found that the excess proton will utilize one of three distinct paths to enter/leave the active site. This latter result not only allows for an increased understanding of how enzymes capitalize on the protein/solvent interface to guide excess protons to/from areas of interest, it also provides valuable insight into the chemical rescue experiments on HCA II mutants. PMID:19438233

  12. Normal Fertility Requires the Expression of Carbonic Anhydrases II and IV in Sperm*

    PubMed Central

    Wandernoth, Petra M; Mannowetz, Nadja; Szczyrba, Jaroslaw; Grannemann, Laura; Wolf, Anne; Becker, Holger M.; Sly, William S.; Wennemuth, Gunther

    2015-01-01

    HCO3− is a key factor in the regulation of sperm motility. High concentrations of HCO3− in the female genital tract induce an increase in sperm beat frequency, which speeds progress of the sperm through the female reproductive tract. Carbonic anhydrases (CA), which catalyze the reversible hydration of CO2 to HCO3−, represent potential candidates in the regulation of the HCO3− homeostasis in sperm and the composition of the male and female genital tract fluids. We show that two CA isoforms, CAII and CAIV, are distributed along the epididymal epithelium and appear with the onset of puberty. Expression analyses reveal an up-regulation of CAII and CAIV in the different epididymal sections of the knockout lines. In sperm, we find that CAII is located in the principal piece, whereas CAIV is present in the plasma membrane of the entire sperm tail. CAII and CAIV single knockout animals display an imbalanced HCO3− homeostasis, resulting in substantially reduced sperm motility, swimming speed, and HCO3−-enhanced beat frequency. The CA activity remaining in the sperm of CAII- and CAIV-null mutants is 35% and 68% of that found in WT mice. Sperm of the double knockout mutant mice show responses to stimulus by HCO3− or CO2 that were delayed in onset and reduced in magnitude. In comparison with sperm from CAII and CAIV double knockout animals, pharmacological loss of CAIV in sperm from CAII knockout animals, show an even lower response to HCO3−. These results suggest that CAII and CAIV are required for optimal fertilization. PMID:26487715

  13. Isoaspartate, Carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1, and Carbonic anhydrase-III as biomarkers of liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Wayne G.; Vigneswara, Vasanthy; Newlaczyl, Anna; Wayne, Declan; Ahmed, Bilal; Saddington, Stephen; Brewer, Charlotte; Raut, Nikhilesh; Gerdes, Henry K.; Erdozain, Amaia M.; Tooth, David; Bolt, Edward L.; Osna, Natalie A.; Tuma, Dean J.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.

    2015-01-01

    We had previously shown that alcohol consumption can induce cellular isoaspartate protein damage via an impairment of the activity of protein isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT), an enzyme that triggers repair of isoaspartate protein damage. To further investigate the mechanism of isoaspartate accumulation, hepatocytes cultured from control or 4-week ethanol-fed rats were incubated in vitro with tubercidin or adenosine. Both these agents, known to elevate intracellular S-adenosylhomocysteine levels, increased cellular isoaspartate damage over that recorded following ethanol consumption in vivo. Increased isoaspartate damage was attenuated by treatment with betaine. To characterize isoaspartate-damaged proteins that accumulate after ethanol administration, rat liver cytosolic proteins were methylated using exogenous PIMT and 3H-S-adenosylmethionine and proteins resolved by gel electrophoresis. Three major protein bands of ~75-80 kDa, ~95-100 kDa, and ~155-160 kDa were identified by autoradiography. Column chromatography used to enrich isoaspartate-damaged proteins indicated that damaged proteins from ethanol-fed rats were similar to those that accrued in the livers of PIMT knockout (KO) mice. Carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1 (CPS-1) was partially purified and identified as the ~160 kDa protein target of PIMT in ethanol-fed rats and in PIMT KO mice. Analysis of the liver proteome of 4-week ethanol-fed rats and PIMT KO mice demonstrated elevated cytosolic CPS-1 and betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase-1 when compared to their respective controls, and a significant reduction of carbonic anhydrase-III (CA-III) evident only in ethanol-fed rats. Ethanol feeding of rats for 8 weeks resulted in a larger (~2.3-fold) increase in CPS-1 levels compared to 4-week ethanol feeding indicating that CPS-1 accumulation correlated with the duration of ethanol consumption. Collectively, our results suggest that elevated isoaspartate and CPS-1, and reduced CA-III levels could serve as

  14. Regional expression and androgen regulation of carbonic anhydrase IV and II in the adult rat epididymis.

    PubMed

    Kaunisto, K; Fleming, R E; Kneer, J; Sly, W S; Rajaniemi, H

    1999-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is implicated in the acidification of epididymal fluid and thereby in the regulation of sperm maturation and motility. Among the CA isoenzymes, CA IV and II have been shown to be present in the rat epididymal duct epithelium. In the present study, we examined the expression and androgen regulation of CA IV and II mRNAs along the epididymal duct. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of CA II mRNA in all regions of the epididymis with the strongest signal in the corpus region, while CA IV mRNA was expressed predominantly in the corpus epididymidis. Three days after bilateral castration, CA IV and II mRNAs were decreased by 80-90% in the corpus epididymidis. Testosterone (T) replacement maintained the expression of CA mRNAs at 50-60% of the control levels, indicating that circulating androgens alone are not sufficient to recover the CA expression in the corpus region. However, unilateral castration did not affect the mRNA levels of CA IV and II, suggesting that factors in testicular fluid do not play a major role in the regulation of CA expression in the corpus epididymidis. Immunoblot analysis showed that CA IV protein levels decreased 3 days after castration, while T administration maintained the protein expression virtually at the precastration levels. These data demonstrate that mRNAs for CA IV and II are predominantly expressed in the corpus region of the rat epididymis and can be regulated by androgens in that region. The present data suggest that the regulation of CA expression in the corpus epididymidis by androgens contributes to the known androgen effects on epididymal acidification.

  15. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Induce Developmental Toxicity During Zebrafish Embryogenesis, Especially in the Inner Ear.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hiroko; Fujiwara, Shoko; Miyagi, Hisako; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Ohta, Toshihiro; Tsuzuki, Mikio

    2017-07-10

    In vertebrates, carbonic anhydrases (CAs) play important roles in ion transport and pH regulation in many organs, including the eyes, kidneys, central nervous system, and inner ear. In aquatic organisms, the enzyme is inhibited by various chemicals present in the environment, such as heavy metals, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals. In this study, the effects of CA inhibitors, i.e., sulfonamides [ethoxyzolamide (EZA), acetazolamide (AZA), and dorzolamide (DZA)], on zebrafish embryogenesis were investigated. In embryos treated with the sulfonamides, abnormal development, such as smaller otoliths, an enlarged heart, an irregular pectoral fin, and aberrant swimming behavior, was observed. Especially, the development of otoliths and locomotor activity was severely affected by all the sulfonamides, and EZA was a consistently stronger inhibitor than AZA or DZA. In the embryos treated with EZA, inner ear hair cells containing several CA isoforms, which provide HCO3(-) to the endolymph for otolith calcification and maintain an appropriate pH there, were affected. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining indicated that the hair cell damage in the inner ear and pectral fin is due to apoptosis. Moreover, RNA measurement demonstrated that altered gene expression of cell cycle arrest- and apoptosis-related proteins p53, p21, p27, and Bcl-2 occurred even at 0.08 ppm with which normal development was observed. This finding suggests that a low concentration of EZA may affect embryogenesis via the apoptosis pathway. Thus, our findings demonstrated the importance of potential risk assessment of CA inhibition, especially regarding the formation of otoliths as a one of the most sensitive organs in embryogenesis.

  16. Association of carbonic anhydrase with a Calvin cycle enzyme complex in Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Jebanathirajah, J A; Coleman, J R

    1998-02-01

    Chloroplast-localized carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1), an enzyme which catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO2, appears to be associated with other enzymes of the Calvin cycle in a large multienzyme complex. Gel-filtration fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) of soluble proteins obtained by osmotic lysis of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Carlson) chloroplasts results in the co-elution of a protein complex of greater than 600 kDa which includes CA, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), phosphoribulokinase (PRK), and ribose-5-phosphate isomerase. Anion-exchange FPLC of chloroplast extracts indicates that there is an association of CA with other proteins that modifies its elution profile in a NaCl gradient, and that Rubisco co-elutes with the fractions containing CA. Following a protocol described by Süss et al. (1993, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 5514-5518), limited protease treatment of chloroplast extracts was used to show that the association of PRK with other chloroplast proteins appears to protect a number of lysine and arginine residues which may be involved in specific protein-protein interactions. A similar treatment of CA indicates some protection of these residues when CA is associated with other chloroplast polypeptides but the level of protection is not as profound as that exhibited by PRK. In concert with previously published immunolocalization studies, these data indicate that CA may be associated with Rubisco at the stromal periphery of a Calvin cycle enzyme complex in which PRK is more centrally located and associated with thylakoid membranes.

  17. Comparison of Solution and Crystal Properties of Co(II)-Substituted Human Carbonic Anhydrase II

    PubMed Central

    Avvaru, Balendu Sankara; Arenas, Daniel J.; Tu, Chingkuang; Tanner, D. B.; McKenna, Robert; Silverman, David N.

    2010-01-01

    The visible absorption of crystals of Co(II)-substituted human carbonic anhydrase II (Co(II)-HCA II) were measured over a pH range of 6.0 to 11.0 giving an estimate of pKa 8.4 for the ionization of the metal-bound water in the crystal. This is higher by about 1.2 pKa units than the pKa near 7.2 for Co(II)-CA II in solution. This effect is attributed to a nonspecific ionic strength effect of 1.4 M citrate in the precipitant solution used in the crystal growth. A pKa of 8.3 for the aqueous ligand of the cobalt was measured for Co(II)-HCA II in solution containing 0.8 M citrate. Citrate is not an inhibitor of the catalytic activity of Co(II)-HCA II and was not observed in crystal structures. The X-ray structures at 1.5–1.6Å resolution of Co(II)-HCA II were determined for crystals prepared at pH 6.0, 8.5 and 11.0 and revealed no conformational changes of amino-acid side chains as a result of the use of citrate. However, the studies of Co(II)-HCA II did reveal a change in metal coordination from tetrahedral at pH 11 to a coordination consistent with a mixed population of both tetrahedral and penta-coordinate at pH 8.5 to an octahedral geometry characteristic of the oxidized enzyme Co(III)-HCA II at pH 6.0. PMID:20637176

  18. Isoaspartate, carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1, and carbonic anhydrase-III as biomarkers of liver injury.

    PubMed

    Carter, Wayne G; Vigneswara, Vasanthy; Newlaczyl, Anna; Wayne, Declan; Ahmed, Bilal; Saddington, Stephen; Brewer, Charlotte; Raut, Nikhilesh; Gerdes, Henry K; Erdozain, Amaia M; Tooth, David; Bolt, Edward L; Osna, Natalie A; Tuma, Dean J; Kharbanda, Kusum K

    2015-03-13

    We had previously shown that alcohol consumption can induce cellular isoaspartate protein damage via an impairment of the activity of protein isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT), an enzyme that triggers repair of isoaspartate protein damage. To further investigate the mechanism of isoaspartate accumulation, hepatocytes cultured from control or 4-week ethanol-fed rats were incubated in vitro with tubercidin or adenosine. Both these agents, known to elevate intracellular S-adenosylhomocysteine levels, increased cellular isoaspartate damage over that recorded following ethanol consumption in vivo. Increased isoaspartate damage was attenuated by treatment with betaine. To characterize isoaspartate-damaged proteins that accumulate after ethanol administration, rat liver cytosolic proteins were methylated using exogenous PIMT and (3)H-S-adenosylmethionine and proteins resolved by gel electrophoresis. Three major protein bands of ∼ 75-80 kDa, ∼ 95-100 kDa, and ∼ 155-160 kDa were identified by autoradiography. Column chromatography used to enrich isoaspartate-damaged proteins indicated that damaged proteins from ethanol-fed rats were similar to those that accrued in the livers of PIMT knockout (KO) mice. Carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1 (CPS-1) was partially purified and identified as the ∼ 160 kDa protein target of PIMT in ethanol-fed rats and in PIMT KO mice. Analysis of the liver proteome of 4-week ethanol-fed rats and PIMT KO mice demonstrated elevated cytosolic CPS-1 and betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase-1 when compared to their respective controls, and a significant reduction of carbonic anhydrase-III (CA-III) evident only in ethanol-fed rats. Ethanol feeding of rats for 8 weeks resulted in a larger (∼ 2.3-fold) increase in CPS-1 levels compared to 4-week ethanol feeding indicating that CPS-1 accumulation correlated with the duration of ethanol consumption. Collectively, our results suggest that elevated isoaspartate and CPS-1, and reduced CA

  19. Functional characterization of neuroendocrine regulation of branchial carbonic anhydrase induction in the euryhaline crab Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Reed T; Henry, Raymond P

    2014-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) plays an essential role as a provider of counterions for Na(+)/H(+) and Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange in branchial ionic uptake processes in euryhaline crustaceans. CA activity and gene expression are low in crabs acclimated to full-strength seawater, with transfer to low salinity resulting in large-scale inductions of mRNA and subsequent enzyme activity in the posterior ion-regulating gills (e.g., G7). In the green crab Carcinus maenas, CA has been shown to be under inhibitory neuroendocrine control by a putative hormone in the x-organ-sinus gland complex (XOSG), located in the eyestalk. This study characterizes the neuroendocrine regulation of CA induction in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, a commonly used experimental organism for crustacean osmoregulation. In crabs acclimated to full-strength seawater, eyestalk ligation (ESL) triggered a 1.8- and 100-fold increase in CA activity and mRNA, respectively. Re-injection with eyestalk homogenates abolished increases in CA activity and fractionally reduced CA gene expression. ESL also enhanced CA induction by 33% after 96 h in crabs transferred to 15 ppt salinity. Injection of eyestalk homogenates into intact crabs transferred from 35 to 15 ppt diminished by 43% the CA induction stimulated by low salinity. These results point to the presence of a repressor hormone in the eyestalk. Separate injections of medullary tissue (MT) and sinus gland (SG), two components of the eyestalk, reduced salinity-stimulated CA activity by 22% and 49%, suggesting that the putative repressor is localized to the SG. Crabs injected with SG extract harvested from crabs acclimated to 5 ppt showed no decrease in CA activity, demonstrating that the hormone is down-regulated at low salinity. Our results show the presence in the XOSG of an inhibitory compound that regulates salinity-stimulated CA induction. © 2014 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  20. Expression Patterns and Subcellular Localization of Carbonic Anhydrases Are Developmentally Regulated during Tooth Formation

    PubMed Central

    Reibring, Claes-Göran; El Shahawy, Maha; Hallberg, Kristina; Kannius-Janson, Marie; Nilsson, Jeanette; Parkkila, Seppo; Sly, William S.; Waheed, Abdul; Linde, Anders; Gritli-Linde, Amel

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) play fundamental roles in several physiological events, and emerging evidence points at their involvement in an array of disorders, including cancer. The expression of CAs in the different cells of teeth is unknown, let alone their expression patterns during odontogenesis. As a first step towards understanding the role of CAs during odontogenesis, we used immunohistochemistry, histochemistry and in situ hybridization to reveal hitherto unknown dynamic distribution patterns of eight CAs in mice. The most salient findings include expression of CAII/Car2 not only in maturation-stage ameloblasts (MA) but also in the papillary layer, dental papilla mesenchyme, odontoblasts and the epithelial rests of Malassez. We uncovered that the latter form lace-like networks around incisors; hitherto these have been known to occur only in molars. All CAs studied were produced by MA, however CAIV, CAIX and CARPXI proteins were distinctly enriched in the ruffled membrane of the ruffled MA but exhibited a homogeneous distribution in smooth-ended MA. While CAIV, CAVI/Car6, CAIX, CARPXI and CAXIV were produced by all odontoblasts, CAIII distribution displayed a striking asymmetry, in that it was virtually confined to odontoblasts in the root of molars and root analog of incisors. Remarkably, from initiation until near completion of odontogenesis and in several other tissues, CAXIII localized mainly in intracellular punctae/vesicles that we show to overlap with LAMP-1- and LAMP-2-positive vesicles, suggesting that CAXIII localizes within lysosomes. We showed that expression of CAs in developing teeth is not confined to cells involved in biomineralization, pointing at their participation in other biological events. Finally, we uncovered novel sites of CA expression, including the developing brain and eye, the olfactory epithelium, melanoblasts, tongue, notochord, nucleus pulposus and sebaceous glands. Our study provides important information for future single or

  1. Expression patterns and subcellular localization of carbonic anhydrases are developmentally regulated during tooth formation.

    PubMed

    Reibring, Claes-Göran; El Shahawy, Maha; Hallberg, Kristina; Kannius-Janson, Marie; Nilsson, Jeanette; Parkkila, Seppo; Sly, William S; Waheed, Abdul; Linde, Anders; Gritli-Linde, Amel

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) play fundamental roles in several physiological events, and emerging evidence points at their involvement in an array of disorders, including cancer. The expression of CAs in the different cells of teeth is unknown, let alone their expression patterns during odontogenesis. As a first step towards understanding the role of CAs during odontogenesis, we used immunohistochemistry, histochemistry and in situ hybridization to reveal hitherto unknown dynamic distribution patterns of eight CAs in mice. The most salient findings include expression of CAII/Car2 not only in maturation-stage ameloblasts (MA) but also in the papillary layer, dental papilla mesenchyme, odontoblasts and the epithelial rests of Malassez. We uncovered that the latter form lace-like networks around incisors; hitherto these have been known to occur only in molars. All CAs studied were produced by MA, however CAIV, CAIX and CARPXI proteins were distinctly enriched in the ruffled membrane of the ruffled MA but exhibited a homogeneous distribution in smooth-ended MA. While CAIV, CAVI/Car6, CAIX, CARPXI and CAXIV were produced by all odontoblasts, CAIII distribution displayed a striking asymmetry, in that it was virtually confined to odontoblasts in the root of molars and root analog of incisors. Remarkably, from initiation until near completion of odontogenesis and in several other tissues, CAXIII localized mainly in intracellular punctae/vesicles that we show to overlap with LAMP-1- and LAMP-2-positive vesicles, suggesting that CAXIII localizes within lysosomes. We showed that expression of CAs in developing teeth is not confined to cells involved in biomineralization, pointing at their participation in other biological events. Finally, we uncovered novel sites of CA expression, including the developing brain and eye, the olfactory epithelium, melanoblasts, tongue, notochord, nucleus pulposus and sebaceous glands. Our study provides important information for future single or

  2. Probing the energetics of dissociation of carbonic anhydrase-ligand complexes in the gas phase.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, J; Wu, Q; Carbeck, J; Lei, Q P; Smith, R D; Whitesides, G M

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the use of electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR-MS) to study the relative stabilities of noncovalent complexes of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII, EC 4.2.1.1) and benzenesulfonamide inhibitors in the gas phase. Sustained off-resonance irradiation collision-induced dissociation (SORI-CID) was used to determine the energetics of dissociation of these CAII-sulfonamide complexes in the gas phase. When two molecules of a benzenesulfonamide (1) were bound simultaneously to one molecule of CAII, one of them was found to exhibit significantly weaker binding (DeltaE50 = 0.4 V, where E50 is defined as the amplitude of sustained off-resonance irradiation when 50% of the protein-ligand complexes are dissociated). In solution, the benzenesulfonamide group coordinates as an anion to a Zn(II) ion bound at the active site of the enzyme. The gas phase stability of the complex with the weakly bound inhibitor was the same as that of the inhibitor complexed with apoCAII (i.e., CAII with the Zn(II) ion removed from the binding site). These results indicate that specific interactions between the sulfonamide group on the inhibitor and the Zn(II) ion on CAII were preserved in the gas phase. Experiments also showed a higher gas phase stability for the complex of para-NO2-benzenesulfonamide-CAII than that for ortho-NO2-benzenesulfonamide-CAII complex. This result further suggests that steric interactions of the inhibitors with the binding pocket of CAII parallel those in solution. Overall, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that CAII retains, at least partially, the structure of its binding pocket in the gas phase on the time scale (seconds to minutes) of the ESI-FTICR measurements. PMID:10354450

  3. Carbonic anhydrase enzymes II, VII, IX and XII in colorectal carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Viikilä, Pia; Kivelä, Antti J; Mustonen, Harri; Koskensalo, Selja; Waheed, Abdul; Sly, William S; Pastorek, Jaromir; Pastorekova, Silvia; Parkkila, Seppo; Haglund, Caj

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate expression of four alpha-carbonic anhydrases (CAs) in colorectal carcinomas (CRC) and compare the results with patients’ survival. METHODS Colorectal carcinoma samples from 539 CRC patients and control tissues were arranged as tissue microarrays and analyzed with antibodies against CA II, CA VII, CA IX, and CA XII. Intensity and extent of staining were both scored from 0 to 3 in each sample. These enzyme expression levels were then correlated to patients’ survival and clinicopathological parameters, which were tumor differentiation grade and stage, site of tumor, patients’ age, and gender. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression hazard ratio model were used to analyze survival data. RESULTS CA II and CA XII staining intensities correlated with patients’ survival in that higher expression indicated poorer prognosis. In Cox regression analysis one unit increase in the CA II intensity increased the hazard ratio to 1.19 fold (CI: 1.04-1.37, P = 0.009). A significant correlation was also found when comparing CA XII staining intensity with survival of CRC patients (HR = 1.18, 95%CI: 1.01-1.38, P = 0.036). The extent of CA XII immunostaining did not correlate to the patients’ survival (P = 0.242, Kaplan-Meier analysis). A significant interaction between age group and extent of the CA II staining was found. Increased extent of CA II had a significant hazard ratio among patients 65 years and older (1.42, 95%CI: 1.16-1.73, P = 0.0006). No correlations were found between CA VII (intensity P = 0.566, extent P = 0.495, Kaplan-Meier analysis), or CA IX (intensity P = 0.879, extent P = 0.315, Kaplan-Meier analysis) immunostaining results and survival, or the other parameters. CONCLUSION The present findings indicate that CA II and CA XII could be useful in predicting survival in CRC. PMID:27688658

  4. Inhibition of β-carbonic anhydrases from Brucella suis with C-cinnamoyl glycosides incorporating the phenol moiety.

    PubMed

    Riafrecha, Leonardo E; Vullo, Daniela; Ouahrani-Bettache, Safia; Köhler, Stephan; Dumy, Pascal; Winum, Jean-Yves; Supuran, Claudiu T; Colinas, Pedro A

    2015-12-01

    A small series of C-glycosides containing the phenol moiety was tested for the inhibition of the β-class carbonic anhydrases (βCAs, EC 4.2.1.1) from Brucella suis. Many compounds showed activities in the micromolar or submicromolar range and excellent selectivity for pathogen CAs over human isozymes. Glycosides incorporating the 3-hydroxyphenyl moiety showed the best inhibition profile, and therefore this functionality represents lead for the development of novel anti-infectives with a new mechanism of action.

  5. Evaluation of selenide, diselenide and selenoheterocycle derivatives as carbonic anhydrase I, II, IV, VII and IX inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Angeli, Andrea; Tanini, Damiano; Viglianisi, Caterina; Panzella, Lucia; Capperucci, Antonella; Menichetti, Stefano; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2017-04-15

    A series of selenides, diselenides and organoselenoheterocycles were evaluated as carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors against the human (h) isoforms hCA I, II, IV, VII and IX, involved in a variety of diseases among which glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa, epilepsy, arthritis and tumors etc. These investigated compounds showed inhibitory action against these isoforms and some of them were selective for inhibiting the cytosolic over the membrane-bound isoforms, thus making them interesting leads for the development of isoform-selective inhibitors.

  6. Molecular analysis of G+C-rich upstream sequences regulating transcription of the human carbonic anhydrase II gene.

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, L H; Venta, P J; Tashian, R E

    1987-01-01

    The upstream promoter sequences of the human carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) gene have been studied by 5' deletion analysis. Promoter activity was assayed by transfection and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay in both human HeLa cells and murine L cells. This investigation showed that the CA II promoter is comparable in activity to that of the simian virus 40 early-region promoter and enhancer and that the CA II upstream sequences exert a different pattern of control in the two cell lines. Images PMID:2830500

  7. Monothiocarbamates Strongly Inhibit Carbonic Anhydrases in Vitro and Possess Intraocular Pressure Lowering Activity in an Animal Model of Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Vullo, Daniela; Durante, Mariaconcetta; Di Leva, Francesco Saverio; Cosconati, Sandro; Masini, Emanuela; Scozzafava, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Supuran, Claudiu T; Carta, Fabrizio

    2016-06-23

    A series of monothiocarbamates (MTCs) were prepared from primary/secondary amines and COS as potential carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors, using the dithiocarbamates, the xanthates, and the trithiocarbonates as lead compounds. The MTCs effectively inhibited the pharmacologically relevant human (h) hCAs isoforms I, II, IX, and XII in vitro and showed KIs spanning between the low and medium nanomolar range. By means of a computational study, the MTC moiety binding mode on the CAs was explained. Furthermore, a selection of MTCs were evaluated in a normotensive glaucoma rabbit model for their intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effects and showed interesting activity.

  8. Inhibitory effects of benzimidazole containing new phenolic Mannich bases on human carbonic anhydrase isoforms hCA I and II.

    PubMed

    Gul, Halise Inci; Yazici, Zehra; Tanc, Muhammet; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-12-01

    New phenolic mono and bis Mannich bases incorporating benzimidazole, such as 2-(aminomethyl)-4-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)phenol and 2,6-bis(aminomethyl)-4-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)phenol were synthesized starting from 4-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)phenol. Amines used for the synthesis included dimethylamine, pyrrolidine, piperidine, N-methylpiperazine and morpholine. The CA inhibitory properties of these compounds were tested on the human carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms hCA I and hCA II. These new compounds, as many phenols show moderate CA inhibitory properties.

  9. Characterization of a mutant lacking carboxysomal carbonic anhydrase from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803.

    PubMed

    So, Anthony K C; John-McKay, Meryl; Espie, George S

    2002-01-01

    A fully-segregated mutant (ccaA::kanR) defective in the ccaA gene, encoding a carboxysome-associated beta-carbonic anhydrase (CA), was generated in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 by insertional mutagenesis. Immunoblot analysis indicated that the CcaA polypeptide was absent from the carboxysome-enriched fraction obtained from ccaA::kanR, but was present in wild-type (WT) cells. The carboxysome-enriched fraction isolated from WT cells catalyzed 18O exchange between 13C18O2 and H2O, indicative of CA activity, while ccaA::kanR carboxysomes did not. Transmission and immunogold electron microscopy revealed that carboxysomes of WT and ccaA::kanR were of similar size, shape and cellular distribution, and contained most of the cellular complement of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). The ccaA::kanR cells were substantially smaller than WT and were unable to grow autotrophically at air levels of CO2. However, cell division occurred at near-WT rates when ccaA::kanR was supplied with 5% CO2 (v/v) in air. The apparent photosynthetic affinity of the mutant for inorganic carbon (Ci) was 500-fold lower than that of WT cells although intracellular Ci accumulation was comparable to WT measurements. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the CA-like activity associated with the active CO2 transport system was retained by ccaA::kanR cells and was inhibited by H2S, indicating that CO2 transport was distinct from the CcaA-mediated dehydration of intracellular HCO3-. The data suggest that the ccaA mutant was unable to efficiently utilize the internal Ci pool for carbon fixation and that the high-CO2-requiring phenotype of ccaA::kanR was due primarily to an inability to generate enough CO2 in the carboxysomes to sustain normal rates of photosynthesis.

  10. The effects of exogenous extracellular carbonic anhydrase on CO2 excretion in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): role of plasma buffering capacity.

    PubMed

    Desforges, P R; Gilmour, K M; Perry, S F

    2001-08-01

    The buffering capacity (beta) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) plasma was manipulated prior to intravascular injection of bovine carbonic anhydrase to test the idea that proton (H+) availability limits the catalysed dehydration of HCO3- within the extracellular compartment. An extracorporeal blood shunt was employed to continuously monitor blood gases in vivo in fish exhibiting normal plasma beta (-3.9+/-0.3 mmol 1(-1) pH unit(-1)), and in fish with experimentally (using N-[2-hydroxyethyl]piperazine-N'-[2-ethanesulfonic acid]) elevated plasma beta (-12.1+/-1.1 mmol 1(-1) pH unit(-1)). An injection of 5 mg kg(-1) carbonic anhydrase equally reduced (after 90 min) the arterial partial pressure of CO2 in trout with regular (-0.23+/-0.05 Torr) or high (-0.20+/-0.05 Torr) plasma beta; saline injection was without effect. Because ventilation and venous blood gases were unaffected by carbonic anhydrase, the effect of extracellular carbonic anhydrase in lowering arterial partial pressure of CO2 was likely caused solely by a specific enhancement of CO2 excretion owing to acceleration of HCO3- dehydration within the plasma. The lowering of arterial partial pressure of CO2 in trout after injection of exogenous carbonic anhydrase provides the first in vivo evidence that the accessibility of plasma HCO3- to red blood cell carbonic anhydrase constrains CO2 excretion under resting conditions. Because the velocity of red blood cell Cl-/HCO3- exchange governs HCO3- accessibility to red blood cell carbonic anhydrase, the present study also provides evidence that CO2 excretion at rest is limited by the relatively slow rate of Cl-/HCO3- exchange. The effect of carbonic anhydrase in lowering arterial partial pressure of CO2 was unrelated to plasma buffering capacity. While these data could suggest that H+ availability does not limit extracellular HCO3- dehydration in vivo at resting rates of CO2 excretion, it is more likely that the degree to which plasma beta was elevated in the

  11. Carbonic anhydrase generates CO2 and H+ that drive spider silk formation via opposite effects on the terminal domains.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Marlene; Chen, Gefei; Otikovs, Martins; Landreh, Michael; Nordling, Kerstin; Kronqvist, Nina; Westermark, Per; Jörnvall, Hans; Knight, Stefan; Ridderstråle, Yvonne; Holm, Lena; Meng, Qing; Jaudzems, Kristaps; Chesler, Mitchell; Johansson, Jan; Rising, Anna

    2014-08-01

    Spider silk fibers are produced from soluble proteins (spidroins) under ambient conditions in a complex but poorly understood process. Spidroins are highly repetitive in sequence but capped by nonrepetitive N- and C-terminal domains (NT and CT) that are suggested to regulate fiber conversion in similar manners. By using ion selective microelectrodes we found that the pH gradient in the silk gland is much broader than previously known. Surprisingly, the terminal domains respond in opposite ways when pH is decreased from 7 to 5: Urea denaturation and temperature stability assays show that NT dimers get significantly stabilized and then lock the spidroins into multimers, whereas CT on the other hand is destabilized and unfolds into ThT-positive β-sheet amyloid fibrils, which can trigger fiber formation. There is a high carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2) in distal parts of the gland, and a CO2 analogue interacts with buried regions in CT as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Activity staining of histological sections and inhibition experiments reveal that the pH gradient is created by carbonic anhydrase. Carbonic anhydrase activity emerges in the same region of the gland as the opposite effects on NT and CT stability occur. These synchronous events suggest a novel CO2 and proton-dependent lock and trigger mechanism of spider silk formation.

  12. Induction of carbonic anhydrase in SaOS-2 cells, exposed to bicarbonate and consequences for calcium phosphate crystal formation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Schlossmacher, Ute; Grebenjuk, Vlad A; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Wang, Xiaohong

    2013-11-01

    Ca-phosphate/hydroxyapatite crystals constitute the mineralic matrix of vertebrate bones, while Ca-carbonate dominates the inorganic matrix of otoliths. In addition, Ca-carbonate has been identified in lower percentage in apatite crystals. By using the human osteogenic SaOS-2 cells it could be shown that after exposure of the cells to Ca-bicarbonate in vitro, at concentrations between 1 and 10 mm, a significant increase of Ca-deposit formation results. The crystallite nodules formed on the surfaces of SaOS-2 cells become denser and larger in the presence of bicarbonate if simultaneously added together with the mineralization activation cocktail (β-glycerophosphate/ascorbic acid/dexamethasone). In parallel, with the increase of Ca-deposit formation, the expression of the carbonic anhydrase-II (CA-II) gene becomes upregulated. This effect, measured on transcriptional level is also substantiated by immunohistological studies. The stimulatory effect of bicarbonate on Ca-deposit formation is prevented if the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide is added to the cultures. Mapping the surface of the Ca-deposit producing SaOS-2 cells by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis revealed an accumulation of the signals for the element carbon and, as expected, also for phosphorus. Finally, it is shown that ortho-phosphate and hydrolysis products of polyphosphate inhibit CA-II activity, suggesting a feedback regulatory system between the CA-driven Ca-carbonate deposition and a subsequent inactivation of this process by ortho-phosphate. Based on the presented data we suggest that Ca-carbonate deposits act as bioseeds for a downstream Ca-phosphate deposition process. We propose that activators for CA, especially for CA-II, might be beneficial for the treatment of bone deficiency diseases. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Linking Carbonic Anhydrase Abundance and Diversity in Soils to Ecological Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, E.; Meredith, L. K.; Welander, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is an ancient enzyme widespread among bacteria, archaea, and eukarya that catalyzes the following reaction: CO2 + H2O ⇌ HCO3- + H+. Its functions are critical for key cellular processes such as concentrating CO2 for autotrophic growth, pH regulation, and pathogen survival in hosts. Currently, there are six known CA classes (α, β, γ, δ, η, ζ) arising from several distinct evolutionary lineages. CA are widespread in sequenced genomes, with many organisms containing multiple classes of CA or multiple CA of the same class. Soils host rich microbial communities with diverse and important ecological functions, but the diversity and abundance of CA in soils has not been explored. CA appears to play an important, but poorly understood, role in some biogeochemical cycles such as those of CO2 and its oxygen isotope composition and also carbonyl sulfide (COS), which are potential tracers in predictive carbon cycle models. Recognizing the prevalence and functional significance of CA in soils, we used a combined bioinformatics and molecular biology approach to address fundamental questions regarding the abundance, diversity, and function of CA in soils. To characterize the abundance and diversity of the different CA classes in soils, we analyzed existing soil metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data from the DOE Joint Genome Institute databases. Out of the six classes of CA, we only found the α, β, and γ classes to be present in soils, with the β class being the most abundant. We also looked at genomes of sequenced soil microorganisms to learn what combination of CA classes they contain, from which we can begin to predict the physiological role of CA. To characterize the functional roles of the different CA classes in soils, we collected soil samples from a variety of biomes with diverse chemical and physical properties and quantified the rate of two CA-mediated processes: soil uptake of COS and acceleration of the oxygen isotope exchange

  14. External pH influences the transcriptional profile of the carbonic anhydrase, CAH-4b in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Hall, Rebecca A; Vullo, Daniela; Innocenti, Alessio; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T; Klappa, Peter; Mühlschlegel, Fritz A

    2008-10-01

    Insight into how organisms adapt to environmental stimuli has become increasingly important in recent years for identifying key virulence factors in many species. The life cycle of many pathogenic nematode species forces the organism to experience environments which would otherwise be considered stressful. One of the conditions often encountered by nematodes is a change in environmental pH. Living in a soil environment Caenorhabditis elegans will naturally encounter fluctuations in external pH. Therefore, C. elegans has the potential to provide an insight into how pathogenic nematodes survive and proliferate in these environments. We found that C. elegans can maintain over 90% survival in pH conditions ranging from pH 3 to 10. This was unrelated to the non-specific protection provided by the cuticle. Global transcriptional analysis identified many genes, which were differentially regulated by pH. The gene cah-4 encodes two putative alpha carbonic anhydrases (CAH-4a and CAH-4b), one of which was five-fold up regulated in an alkaline environment (CAH-4b). Stopped-flow analysis of CAH-4b using 35 different carbonic anhydrase inhibitors identified complex benzenesulfonamide compounds as the most potent inhibitors (K(i) 35-89nM).

  15. The Dependence of the Oxygen-Concentrating Mechanism of the Teleost Eye (Salmo gairdneri) on the Enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase

    PubMed Central

    Fairbanks, Michael B.; Hoffert, J. Russell; Fromm, Paul O.

    1969-01-01

    Microoxygen polarographic electrodes were constructed and used to measure oxygen tension (POO2) in the eyes of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). The values obtained are compared with arterial blood and environmental water POO2 and indicate that there is an oxygen-concentrating mechanism in the eye supplying oxygen to the avascular retina. Anatomically similar retes suggest that the mechanism is similar to the one which exists in the swim bladder. Elimination of the arterial blood supply to the choroidal gland rete mirabile of the eye (through pseudobranchectomy) and the consequent lowering of ocular oxygen tensions implicate the choroidal gland as one of the major components of the oxygen-concentrating mechanism. After pseudobranchectomy the presence of ocular POO2 above that of arterial blood is indicative of a secondary structure in the eye capable of concentrating oxygen. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase, using acetazolamide, is shown to result in complete suppression of the oxygen-concentrating mechanism. A hypothesis is advanced for the participation of retinal-choroidal and erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase in the oxygen-concentrating mechanism. PMID:4978732

  16. Design, synthesis and evaluation of N-substituted saccharin derivatives as selective inhibitors of tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase XII.

    PubMed

    D'Ascenzio, Melissa; Carradori, Simone; De Monte, Celeste; Secci, Daniela; Ceruso, Mariangela; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2014-03-15

    A series of N-alkylated saccharin derivatives were synthesized and tested for the inhibition of four different isoforms of human carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4. 2.1.1): the transmembrane tumor-associated CA IX and XII, and the cytosolic CA I and II. Most of the reported derivatives inhibited CA XII in the nanomolar/low micromolar range, hCA IX with KIs ranging between 11 and 390 nM, whereas they were inactive against both CA I (KIs >50 μM) and II (K(I)s ranging between 39.1 nM and 50 μM). Since CA I and II are off-targets of antitumor carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs), the obtained results represent an encouraging achievement for the development of new anticancer candidates without the common side effects of non-selective CAIs. Moreover, the lack of an explicit zinc binding function on these inhibitors opens the way towards the exploration of novel mechanisms of inhibition that could explain the high selectivity of these compounds for the inhibition of the transmembrane, tumor-associated isoforms over the cytosolic ones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of carbonic anhydrase in bone resorption induced by 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, G. E.; Kenny, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    The calvaria of 5-to-6-day-old mice treated with 1 x 10 to the -8th M of 1,25(OH)2D3 in vitro for 48 hours are examined in order to study the function of carbonic anhydrase in bone resorption. Calcium concentrations in the culture were measured to assess bone resorption. It is observed that 1,25(OH)2D3 effectively stimulates bone resorption in vitro and the resorption is dose-dependent. The effects of azetazolamide on 1,25(OH)2D3-induced bone resorption are investigated. The data reveal that 1,25(OH)2D3-induced calcium release is associated with an increase in the carbonic anhydrase activity of bone, and bone alkaline phosphatase activity is decreased and acid phosphatase activity is increased in response to 1,25(OH)2D3. A two-fold mechanism for 1,25(OH)2D3-induced bone resorption is proposed; the first mechanism is an indirect activation of osteoclasts and the second involves an interaction between hormone and osteoclast precursors.

  18. Investigation of the inhibitory properties of some phenolic standards and bee products against human carbonic anhydrase I and II.

    PubMed

    Aygul, Imdat; Yaylaci Karahalil, Fatma; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols are important secondary products of plants with the potential to inhibit carbonic anhydrases. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition effects of various phenolic standards, honey, propolis, and pollen species on human carbonic anhydrase I and II. The inhibition values (IC50) of the phenolics (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, quercetin, catechin, tannic acid, and chrysin) ranged from 0.009 to 0.32 μg/mL, tannic acid emerging as the best inhibitor. The inhibition values of three different types of honey, heather, rhododendron, and chestnut ranged between 2.32 and 25.10 μg/mL, the chestnut honeys exhibiting the best inhibition. The ethanolic extracts of pollen and propolis exhibited good inhibitory properties, with IC50 values between 0.486 and 3.320 μg/mL. In order to evaluate the phenolic composition of bee products, phenolic profiles and total phenolic contents (TFC) were also measured. The inhibition ranking among the natural products studied was phenolic standards > propolis > pollen > honeys, and inhibition was related to TFC.

  19. Size and surface chemistry of nanoparticles lead to a variant behavior in the unfolding dynamics of human carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Irem; Lundqvist, Martin; Cabaleiro-Lago, Celia

    2015-11-07

    The adsorption induced conformational changes of human carbonic anhydrase I (HCAi) and pseudo wild type human carbonic anhydrase II truncated at the 17th residue at the N-terminus (trHCAii) were studied in presence of nanoparticles of different sizes and polarities. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies showed that the binding to apolar surfaces is affected by the nanoparticle size in combination with the inherent protein stability. 8-Anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) fluorescence revealed that HCAs adsorb to both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, however the dynamics of the unfolding at the nanoparticle surfaces drastically vary with the polarity. The size of the nanoparticles has opposite effects depending on the polarity of the nanoparticle surface. The apolar nanoparticles induce seconds timescale structural rearrangements whereas polar nanoparticles induce hours timescale structural rearrangements on the same charged HCA variant. Here, a simple model is proposed where the difference in the timescales of adsorption is correlated with the energy barriers for initial docking and structural rearrangements which are firmly regulated by the surface polarity. Near-UV circular dichorism (CD) further supports that both protein variants undergo structural rearrangements at the nanoparticle surfaces regardless of being "hard" or "soft". However, the conformational changes induced by the apolar surfaces differ for each HCA isoform and diverge from the previously reported effect of silica nanoparticles.

  20. The structural comparison between membrane-associated human carbonic anhydrases provides insights into drug design of selective inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Alterio, Vincenzo; Pan, Peiwen; Parkkila, Seppo; Buonanno, Martina; Supuran, Claudiu T; Monti, Simona M; De Simone, Giuseppina

    2014-07-01

    Carbonic anhydrase isoform XIV (CA XIV) is the last member of the human (h) CA family discovered so far, being localized in brain, kidneys, colon, small intestine, urinary bladder, liver, and spinal cord. It has recently been described as a possible drug target for treatment of epilepsy, some retinopathies as well as some skin tumors. Human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) XIV is a membrane-associated protein consisting of an N-terminal extracellular domain, a putative transmembrane region, and a small cytoplasmic tail. In this article, we report the expression, purification, and the crystallographic structure of the entire extracellular domain of this enzyme. The analysis of the structure revealed the typical α-CA fold, in which a 10-stranded β-sheet forms the core of the molecule, while the comparison with all the other membrane associated isoforms (hCAs IV, IX, and XII) allowed to identify the diverse oligomeric arrangement and the sequence and structural differences observed in the region 127-136 as the main factors to consider in the design of selective inhibitors for each one of the membrane associated α-CAs.

  1. Structural elucidation of the hormonal inhibition mechanism of the bile acid cholate on human carbonic anhydrase II

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, Christopher D.; Tu, Chingkuang; McKenna, Robert

    2014-06-01

    The structure of human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with cholate has been determined to 1.54 Å resolution. Elucidation of the novel inhibition mechanism of cholate will aid in the development of a nonsulfur-containing, isoform-specific therapeutic agent. The carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a family of mostly zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration/dehydration of CO{sub 2} into bicarbonate and a proton. Human isoform CA II (HCA II) is abundant in the surface epithelial cells of the gastric mucosa, where it serves an important role in cytoprotection through bicarbonate secretion. Physiological inhibition of HCA II via the bile acids contributes to mucosal injury in ulcerogenic conditions. This study details the weak biophysical interactions associated with the binding of a primary bile acid, cholate, to HCA II. The X-ray crystallographic structure determined to 1.54 Å resolution revealed that cholate does not make any direct hydrogen-bond interactions with HCA II, but instead reconfigures the well ordered water network within the active site to promote indirect binding to the enzyme. Structural knowledge of the binding interactions of this nonsulfur-containing inhibitor with HCA II could provide the template design for high-affinity, isoform-specific therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases/pathological states, including cancer, glaucoma, epilepsy and osteoporosis.

  2. Effects of cryoprotectants on the structure and thermostability of the human carbonic anhydrase II–acetazolamide complex

    SciTech Connect

    Aggarwal, Mayank; Boone, Christopher D.; Kondeti, Bhargav; Tu, Chingkuang; Silverman, David N.; McKenna, Robert

    2013-05-01

    Here, a case study of the effects of cryoprotectants on the kinetics of carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) and its inhibition by the clinically used inhibitor acetazolamide (AZM) is presented. Protein X-ray crystallography has seen a progressive shift from data collection at cool/room temperature (277–298 K) to data collection at cryotemperature (100 K) because of its ease of crystal preparation and the lessening of the detrimental effects of radiation-induced crystal damage, with 20–25%(v/v) glycerol (GOL) being the preferred choice of cryoprotectant. Here, a case study of the effects of cryoprotectants on the kinetics of carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) and its inhibition by the clinically used inhibitor acetazolamide (AZM) is presented. Comparative studies of crystal structure, kinetics, inhibition and thermostability were performed on CA II and its complex with AZM in the presence of either GOL or sucrose. These results suggest that even though the cryoprotectant GOL was previously shown to be directly bound in the active site and to interact with AZM, it affects neither the thermostability of CA II nor the binding of AZM in the crystal structure or in solution. However, addition of GOL does affect the kinetics of CA II, presumably as it displaces the water proton-transfer network in the active site.

  3. Evaluation of the therapeutic potential of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in two animal models of dystrophin deficient muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Giacomotto, Jean; Pertl, Cordula; Borrel, Caroline; Walter, Maggie C; Bulst, Stefanie; Johnsen, Bob; Baillie, David L; Lochmüller, Hanns; Thirion, Christian; Ségalat, Laurent

    2009-11-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is an inherited muscle degeneration disease for which there is still no efficient treatment. However, compounds active on the disease may already exist among approved drugs but are difficult to identify in the absence of cellular models. We used the Caenorhabditis elegans animal model to screen a collection of 1000 already approved compounds. Two of the most active hits obtained were methazolamide and dichlorphenamide, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors widely used in human therapy. In C. elegans, these drugs were shown to interact with CAH-4, a putative carbonic anhydrase. The therapeutic efficacy of these compounds was further validated in long-term experiments on mdx mice, the mouse model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Mice were treated for 120 days with food containing methazolamide or dichlorphenamide at two doses each. Musculus tibialis anterior and diaphragm muscles were histologically analyzed and isometric muscle force was measured in M. extensor digitorum longus. Both substances increased the tetanic muscle force in the treated M. extensor digitorum longus muscle group, dichlorphenamide increased the force significantly by 30%, but both drugs failed to increase resistance of muscle fibres to eccentric contractions. Histological analysis revealed a reduction of centrally nucleated fibers in M. tibialis anterior and diaphragm in the treated groups. These studies further demonstrated that a C. elegans-based screen coupled with a mouse model validation strategy can lead to the identification of potential pharmacological agents for rare diseases.

  4. New aromatic/heteroaromatic propanesulfonylhydrazone compounds: Synthesis, physical properties and inhibition studies against carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özmen Özdemir, Ümmühan; Altuntaş, Ayşegül; Gündüzalp, Ayla Balaban; Arslan, Fatma; Hamurcu, Fatma

    2014-07-01

    Some new aromatic/heteroaromatic propanesulfonylhydrazone derivatives (1-8) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, LC/MS techniques. The geometry optimizations and spectral calculations were performed by using DFT/B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) basis set in Gaussian 09 program. The inhibition activities of the synthesized compounds on carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) isoenzyme have been investigated by comparing IC50 values. Acetazolamide (5-acetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide) AAZ, a clinically used in CAII inhibition has also been investigated as standard inhibitor. The best aromatic/heteroaromatic propanesulfonylhydrazone inhibitors of this isoform were o-aminobenzaldehydepropanesulfonylhydrazone (1) and thiophenecarboxyaldehyde propanesulfonylhydrazone (5) having the same IC50 (0.55 mM) value. The molecular descriptors for propanesulfonylhydrazones were obtained to develop structure activity relationship (SAR) model between experimental IC50 values and the molecular descriptors calculated by PM3-based SAR models in Hyperchem 8, respectively. The obtained models confirm the good carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) inhibition activity of the propanesulfonylhydrazone derivatives. The selected descriptors are sensitive both to the imine (CHdbnd N) and NH2 groups that are responsible from higher activities of (1) and (5) in their series.

  5. Evaluation of impacted Brazilian estuaries using the native oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae: Branchial carbonic anhydrase as a biomarker.

    PubMed

    Azevedo-Linhares, Maristela; Freire, Carolina A

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the use of branchial carbonic anhydrase activity in a sessile filter feeding species, the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae, as a biomarker. The oysters were collected in three human impacted Brazilian estuaries, following a crescent latitudinal gradient: in Pernambuco state (Itamaracá), in Espírito Santo state (Piraquê), and in Paraná state (Paranaguá), in August/2003 (Winter in the southern hemisphere) and February/2004 (Summer). Three sites were chosen in each estuary for oyster sampling: Reference (R), Contaminated 1 (C1, close to industrial/harbor contamination), and Contaminated 2 (C2, near to sewage discharges). Comparing to values in oysters sampled in reference sites, there was apparent inhibition in carbonic anhydrase activity (CAA) in gills of oysters from C1 of Itamaracá and from C2 of Piraquê, both cases in Summer. On the other hand, increased CAA was noted in C2 oysters of Itamaracá in winter, and of Paranaguá, in both seasons. Branchial CAA in C. rhizophorae was thus very responsive to coastal contamination. Data are consistent with its usefulness as a supporting biomarker for inexpensive and rapid analysis in the assessment of estuaries using a sessile osmoconformer species, but preferably allied to other biomarkers and with knowledge on the suite of contaminants present. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Purification of swine carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme III and measurement of its levels in tissues and plasma.

    PubMed

    Nishita, T; Harada, T; Sakanoue, H; Arai, S; Itoh, S; Orito, K; Arishima, K

    2014-02-01

    The changes in the levels of carbonic anhydrase isozyme III (CA-III) in swine plasma and urine have not been previously determined or reported. CA-III is relatively specific to skeletal muscles, and should therefore be a useful diagnostic marker for muscle diseases. We isolated CA-III from swine muscle tissues and determined CA-III levels in the plasma and urine from both healthy and diseased pigs. The levels of CA-III in the tissues of female swine (age, 3 months) and plasma of young swine (age, 1-5 months) and adult female pigs (age, 2-3 years) were determined using the ELISA system for swine CA-III. The mean (± SD) levels of CA-III in the skeletal muscles were 3.8 ± 3.2 mg/g (wet tissue), and in the plasma, 230 ± 193 ng/ml at 1 month, 189 ± 208 ng/ml at 2 months, 141 ± 148 ng/ml at 3 months, 78 ± 142 ng/ml at 4 months and 53 ± 99 ng/ml at 5 months. The mean level of CA-III in the plasma samples from 2- to 3-year-old pigs was 18 ± 60 ng/ml. CA-III in the plasma samples was found to decrease from 1 month until 3 years of age (p < 0.01). We performed far-western blotting to clarify the cause of the observed decrease in CA-III in plasma. Our results demonstrated that CA-III is bound to the transferrin and albumin. In addition, we determined that the levels of CA-III in plasma and urine samples were higher in diseased swine compared with the healthy pigs.

  7. Evaluating the role of carbonic anhydrases in the transport of HCO3−-related species

    PubMed Central

    Boron, Walter F.

    2015-01-01

    The soluble enzyme carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) plays an important role in CO2 influx and efflux by red blood cells (RBCs), a process initiated by changes in the extracellular [CO2] (CO2-initiated CO2 transport). Evidence suggests that CAII may be part of a macromolecular complex at the inner surface of the RBC membrane. Some have suggested CAII specifically binds to a motif on the cytoplasmic C terminus (Ct) of the Cl–HCO3 exchanger AE1 and some other members of the SLC4 family of HCO3− transporters, a transport metabolon. Moreover, others have suggested that this bound CAII enhances the transport of HCO3−-related species—HCO3−, CO3=, or CO3= ion pairs—when the process is initiated by altering the activity of the transporter (HCO3−-initiated HCO3− transport). In this review, I assess the theoretical roles of CAs in the transport of CO2 and HCO3−-related species, concluding that although the effect of bound CAII on CO2-initiated CO2 transport is expected to be substantial, the effect of bound CAs on HCO3−-initiated HCO3− transport is expected to be modest at best. I also assess the experimental evidence for CAII binding to AE1 and other transporters, and the effects of this binding on HCO3−-initiated HCO3− transport. The early conclusion that CAII binds to the Ct of AE1 appears to be the result of unpredictable effects of GST in the GST fusion proteins used in the studies. The early conclusion that bound CAII speeds HCO3−-initiated HCO3− transport appears to be the result of CAII accelerating the pH changes used as a read-out of transport. Thus, it appears that CAII does not bind directly to AE1 or other SLC4 proteins, and that bound CAII does not substantially accelerate HCO3−-initiated HCO3− transport. PMID:19879980

  8. Inhibition of bacterial carbonic anhydrases and zinc proteases: from orphan targets to innovative new antibiotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Supuran, C T

    2012-01-01

    Zinc-containing enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrases (CAs) and metalloproteases (MPs) play critical functions in bacteria, being involved in various steps of their life cycle, which are important for survival, colonization, acquisition of nutrients for growth and proliferation, facilitation of dissemination, invasion and pathogenicity. The development of resistance to many classes of clinically used antibiotics emphasizes the need of new antibacterial drug targets to be explored. There is a wealth of data regarding bacterial CAs and zinc MPs present in many pathogenic species, such as Neisseria spp., Helycobacter pylori Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Brucella spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria spp, Vibrio spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila, Streptomyces spp., Clostridium spp., Enterococcus spp., etc. Some of these enzymes have been cloned, purified and characterized by crystallographic techniques. However, for the moment, few potent and specific inhibitors for bacterial MPs have been reported except for Clostridium histolyticum collagenase, botulinum and tetanus neurotoxin and anthrax lethal factor, which will be reviewed in this article. Bacteria encode α-,β-, and/or γ-CA families, but up to now only the first two classes have been investigated in some detail in different species. The α-CAs from Neisseria spp. and H. pylori as well as the β-class enzymes from E. coli, H. pylori, M. tuberculosis, Brucella spp., S. pneumoniae, S. enterica and H. influenzae have been cloned and characterized. The catalytic/inhibition mechanisms of these CAs are well understood as X-ray crystal structures are available for some of them, but no adducts of these enzymes with inhibitors have been characterized so far. In vitro and in vivo studies with various classes of inhibitors, such as anions, sulfonamides and sulfamates have been reported. Only for Neisseria spp., H. pylori, B. suis and S

  9. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Interaction of isozymes I, II, IV, V, and IX with carboxylates.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Alessio; Vullo, Daniela; Scozzafava, Andrea; Casey, Joseph R; Supuran, Claudiut

    2005-02-01

    A detailed inhibition study of five carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isozymes with carboxylates including aliphatic (formate, acetate), dicarboxylic (oxalate, malonate), hydroxy/keto acids (l-lactate, l-malate, pyruvate), tricarboxylic (citrate), or aromatic (benzoate, tetrafluorobenzoate) representatives, some of which are important intermediates in the Krebs cycle, is presented. The cytosolic isozyme hCA I was strongly activated by acetate, oxalate, pyruvate, l-lactate, and citrate (K(A) around 0.1 microM), whereas formate, malonate, malate, and benzoate were weaker activators (K(A) in the range 0.1-1mM). The cytosolic isozyme hCA II was weakly inhibited by all the investigated anions, with inhibition constants in the range of 0.03-24 mM. The membrane-associated isozyme hCA IV was the most sensitive to inhibition by carboxylates, showing a K(I) of 99 nM for citrate and oxalate, of 2.8 microM for malonate and of 14.5 microM for pyruvate among others. The mitochondrial isozyme hCA V was weakly inhibited by all these carboxylates (K(I)s in the range of 1.67-25.9 mM), with the best inhibitor being citrate (K(I) of 1.67 mM), whereas this is the most resistant CA isozyme to pyruvate inhibition (K(I) of 5.5mM), which may be another proof that CA V is the isozyme involved in the transfer of acetyl groups from the mitochondrion to the cytosol for the provision of substrate(s) for de novo lipogenesis. Furthermore, the relative resistance of CA V to inhibition by pyruvate may be an evolutionary adaptation of this mitochondrial isozyme to the presence of high concentrations of this anion within this organelle. The transmembrane, tumor-associated isozyme hCA IX was similar to isozyme II in its slight inhibition by all these anions (K(I) in the range of 1.12-7.42 mM), except acetate, lactate, and benzoate, which showed a K(I)>150 mM. The lactate insensitivity of CA IX also represents an interesting finding, since it is presumed that this isozyme evolved in such a way as to

  10. Splicing variants of carbonic anhydrase IX in bladder cancer and urine sediments.

    PubMed

    Malentacchi, Francesca; Vinci, Serena; Della Melina, Alessandro; Kuncova, Jitka; Villari, Donata; Giannarini, Gianluca; Nesi, Gabriella; Selli, Cesare; Orlando, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    In human cancers, carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) influences cell proliferation and tumor progression, maintaining intracellular and extracellular pH under hypoxic conditions. An alternative CAIX isoform, lacking of exons 8-9 (AS) and independent from the levels of hypoxia, was recently demonstrated in cancer cells. AS-CAIX competes with the full-length (FL) isoform in the regulation of the extracellular pH, mainly in a mild hypoxic status. In the present study, we evaluated mRNA expression of the 2 CAIX isoforms and their clinical relevance in bladder cancers and urine sediments. We measured mRNA expression of FL- and AS-CAIX isoforms in tumor tissues and benign mucosa from 45 patients with bladder transitional cell carcinoma. The expression of the 2 isoforms was also measured in urine sediment of 81 bladder cancer patients and 93 control subjects. Expression of FL-CAIX mRNA was lower than AS-CAIX in benign mucosa (P = 0.006) whereas in paired bladder cancers FL-CAIX mRNA was higher (P = 0.007). Consequently, the percentage of FL-CAIX in bladder cancers [median: 62.6%] was significantly higher than in benign mucosa [15.0%] (P < 0.0001). In the urinary sediments of bladder cancer patients FL-CAIX mRNA was significantly higher in comparison with normal controls (P = 0.003). FL-CAIX percentage appeared dramatically higher in urine sediments of bladder cancer patients [64.5%] in comparison with controls [7.5%] (P < 0.0001). In addition, FL-CAIX% was significantly different in sediments from pTa-pT1 and ≥ pT2 patients [51.5% and 91.7%, respectively] (P = 0.016). Stratification according tumor grade indicated that FL-CAIX% was significantly lower in G1 bladder cancers [33.3%] in comparison with G2-G3 [88.6%] (P = 0.005) The clinical sensitivity for FL-CAIX% in urine sediments was 0.93, with a 0.76 specificity. Using the same cut-off positive predictive value (PPV) was 0.78, whereas negative predictive value (NPV) was 0.93. Our results seem to indicate that in bladder

  11. Carotid body chemoreception: the importance of CO2-HCO3- and carbonic anhydrase. (review).

    PubMed

    Iturriaga, R

    1993-01-01

    The current hypotheses of carotid body (CB) chemoreception regard the glomus cells as the initial site of stimulus transduction. The consensus is that the transduction of chemical stimulus is coupled with the release of transmitter(s) from the glomus cells, which in turn generates action potentials in the afferent nerve terminals. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is present in the glomus cells of the CB. Inhibition of CA activity in the CB in situ reduces the carotid chemosensory responses to CO2 and to O2, suggesting a common mechanism of chemosensing for both stimuli. However, CA inhibitors also block the red blood cell enzyme. Thus, the CO2 hydration reaction does not come to completion within the transit time of the blood from the lung to the CB. A steady-state reaction is not reached until later and so the PCO2 and pH levels in arterial blood samples are not the same as those sensed by the CB. Experiments in vitro using cat CB perfused and superfused with cell-free solutions, which had been pre-equilibrated with respiratory gases, strongly support the proposition that the CA activity in CB cells is essential for the speed and amplitude of the initial response to CO2 and for its subsequent adaptation. The immediate response to hypoxia also is delayed, but the late steady-state was less dependent on CA activity. In the nominal absence of CO2-HCO3- from the perfusate, hypoxic chemoreception persisted and its magnitude is not affected by CA inhibition, except for a delay which may be due to the initial alkaline pH of the glomus cells. Recent experiments performed in isolated glomus cells and in the whole CB show that hypoxia does not modify significantly the intracellular pH. By its simple catalytic function, CA can speed up the approach of the CO2 hydration reaction to equilibrium. However, CA may also contribute in the steady-state to the regulation of pHi by providing a continuous supply of H+ and HCO3-. Furthermore, CA performs a facilitatory role in the physiological

  12. Bioavailability, tissue distribution, and excretion characteristics of the novel carbonic anhydrase inhibitor tolsultazolamide in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin-da; Shi, Yong-ping; Yin, Jing; Pan, Zhi-yuan; Cui, Wen-yu; Zhang, Yan-fang; Wang, Hai

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Tolsultazolamide, a novel carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, is designed for the prophylaxis and treatment of acute mountain sickness. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion characteristics of tolsultazolamide and the sex difference in pharmacokinetics in rats. Methods: For pharmacokinetic study, rats were intravenously injected tolsultazolamide at 1 and 2 mg/kg or orally administered tolsultazolamide at 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg) in a pharmacokinetic study. The concentrations of tolsultazolamide in plasma were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography, with a liquid–liquid extraction. For tissue distribution study, tolsultazolamide (80 mg/kg) was orally administered to overnight fasted rats (six per group and three per sex). Samples were collected from the brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, muscle, kidney, stomach, fat, intestines, pancreas and sexual gland. For excretion study, tolsultazolamide (40 mg/kg) was orally administered to 6 rats (three per sex). The urine, feces, and bile samples were collected at 24, 48, and 72 h. Results: After its intravenous administration, tolsultazolamide was rapidly eliminated from the plasma, with T1/2 of about 60–90 min. The AUC0–t and the initial concentration (C0) values were proportional to the intravenous doses. After its oral administration, tolsultazolamide showed dose-independent pharmacokinetic characteristics, with Tmax and T1/2 of approximately 2 h and 5–7 h, respectively, and good oral absolute bioavailability of about 60%. Tolsultazolamide was distributed widely in various tissues. The highest tolsultazolamide levels were detected in the stomach, intestine, spleen, lung, and kidney. Total excretion of unchanged tolsultazolamide in the urine, feces, and bile was less than 2%. The Cmax and AUC of tolsultazolamide were significantly higher in female rats than those in male rats. Clearance and volume of distribution were greater in male rats than

  13. Efficacy of exogenous oral zinc in treatment of patients with carbonic anhydrase VI deficiency.

    PubMed

    Henkin, R I; Martin, B M; Agarwal, R P

    1999-12-01

    We previously described a disorder in 18 patients with decreased parotid saliva gustin/carbonic