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Sample records for carcinoma localmente avanzado

  1. Adrenocortical carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... this tumor. Adrenocortical carcinoma can produce the hormones cortisol, aldosterone, estrogen, or testosterone, as well as other ... Symptoms of increased cortisol or other adrenal gland hormones: ... high on the back just below the neck ( buffalo hump ) Flushed, ...

  2. [Thymic carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Ströbel, P; Weis, C-A; Marx, A

    2016-09-01

    Thymic carcinomas (TC) are approximately 10 times less prevalent than thymomas but of high clinical relevance because they are more aggressive, less frequently resectable than thymomas and usually refractory to classical and targeted long-term treatment approaches. Furthermore, in children and adolescents TC are more frequent than thymomas and particularly in this age group, germ cell tumors need to be a differential diagnostic consideration. In diagnostic terms pathologists face two challenges: a), the distinction between thymic carcinomas and thymomas with a similar appearance and b), the distinction between TC and histologically similar metastases and tumor extensions from other primary tumors. Overcoming these diagnostic challenges is the focus of the new WHO classification of thymic epithelial tumors. The objectives of this review are to highlight novel aspects of the WHO classification of thymic carcinomas and to address therapeutically relevant diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:27538748

  3. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive than other types of basal ... to treat them early and with slightly more aggressive techniques. Excision – The basal cell carcinoma is cut ...

  4. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. MTC is very rare. It can occur in children and adults. Unlike other types ...

  5. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Alex C.; Sabolch, Aaron; Raymond, Victoria M.; Kandathil, Asha; Caoili, Elaine M.; Jolly, Shruti; Miller, Barbra S.; Giordano, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy, often with an unfavorable prognosis. Here we summarize the knowledge about diagnosis, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy of ACC. Over recent years, multidisciplinary clinics have formed and the first international treatment trials have been conducted. This review focuses on evidence gained from recent basic science and clinical research and provides perspectives from the experience of a large multidisciplinary clinic dedicated to the care of patients with ACC. PMID:24423978

  6. Oral Rigosertib for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  7. Adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Baudin, Eric

    2015-06-01

    Recent developments in the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) include diagnostic and prognostic risk stratification algorithms, increasing evidence of the impact of historical therapies on overall survival, and emerging targets from integrated epigenomic and genomic analyses. Advances include proper clinical and molecular characterization of all patients with ACC, standardization of proliferative index analyses, referral of these patients to large cancer referral centers at the time of first surgery, and development of new trials in patients with well-characterized ACC. Networking and progress in the molecular characterization of ACC constitute the basis for significant future therapeutic breakthroughs. PMID:26038209

  8. Thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.; Skolnik, E.M.; Baim, H.M.; Becker, S.P.; Katz, A.H.; Mantravadi, R.V.

    1980-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma was studied with regard to mode of presentation, initial findings, treatment and survival. The classic signs, symptoms, physical and scan findings were found to be present in approximately 70% of the patients. Prognosis was found to be dependent on age of presentation more than any other factor. Patients with prior exposure to radiation were found to have more extensive disease and require more extensive surgery but ultimately had the same prognosis for 15-year cure. Treatment for distant metastatic disease by surgery, radioactive iodine and external radiation all resulted in long-term survival in certain cases.

  9. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Buendia, Marie-Annick; Neuveut, Christine

    2015-02-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a widespread human pathogen that causes liver inflammation, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent sequencing technologies have refined our knowledge of the genomic landscape and pathogenesis of HCC, but the mechanisms by which HBV exerts its oncogenic role remain controversial. In a prevailing view, inflammation, liver damage, and regeneration may foster the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic defects leading to cancer onset. However, a more direct and specific contribution of the virus is supported by clinical and biological observations. Among genetically heterogeneous HCCs, HBV-related tumors display high genomic instability, which may be attributed to the ability of HBV to integrate its DNA into the host cell genome, provoking chromosomal alterations and insertional mutagenesis of cancer genes. The viral transactivator HBx may also participate in transformation by deregulating diverse cellular machineries. A better understanding of the complex mechanisms linking HBV to HCC will improve prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:25646384

  10. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or older. Hepatocellular ...

  11. Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Squamous cell carcinoma typically develops in sun-damaged skin in fair-skinned patients. Overview Squamous ... skin cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially in light-skinned individuals with ...

  12. [Hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Colombo, Massimo; Sangiovanni, Angelo

    2016-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer death and the first in patients with compensated cirrhosis. Chronic infection with hepatitis B and C, alcohol, smoking, exposure to aflatoxin and metabolic syndrome, associated with diabetes and obesity are the main etiological factors. Regardless of etiology, patients with cirrhosis stand as the category at higher risk of developing HCC, and indeed are the target of surveillance programs aimed to the early diagnosis of HCC, the only chance to reduce HCC-related mortality. This notwithstanding, International Scientific Societies have issued recommendations for the management of HCC, a significant number of patients are treated outside guidelines, due to several reasons. Among queries still unsolved, the impact of biological characterization of HCC, along with the biological profiling of patients at risk of developing HCC represent main challenges for the future. Treatment personalization and multimodal treatment being further challenges. This chapter summarizes the recommendations for surveillance, diagnosis and treatment of HCC and focus on future directions. PMID:27571469

  13. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Llovet, Josep M; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Pikarsky, Eli; Sangro, Bruno; Schwartz, Myron; Sherman, Morris; Gores, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally and has an incidence of approximately 850,000 new cases per year. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents approximately 90% of all cases of primary liver cancer. The main risk factors for developing HCC are well known and include hepatitis B and C virus infection, alcohol intake and ingestion of the fungal metabolite aflatoxin B1. Additional risk factors such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are also emerging. Advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of HCC have led to identification of critical driver mutations; however, the most prevalent of these are not yet druggable targets. The molecular classification of HCC is not established, and the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging classification is the main clinical algorithm for the stratification of patients according to prognosis and treatment allocation. Surveillance programmes enable the detection of early-stage tumours that are amenable to curative therapies - resection, liver transplantation or local ablation. At more developed stages, only chemoembolization (for intermediate HCC) and sorafenib (for advanced HCC) have shown survival benefits. There are major unmet needs in HCC management that might be addressed through the discovery of new therapies and their combinations for use in the adjuvant setting and for intermediate- and advanced-stage disease. Moreover, biomarkers for therapy stratification, patient-tailored strategies targeting driver mutations and/or activating signalling cascades, and validated measurements of quality of life are needed. Recent failures in the testing of systemic drugs for intermediate and advanced stages have indicated a need to refine trial designs and to define novel approaches. PMID:27158749

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Okuda, K

    2000-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing in many countries as a result of an increase in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection since World War II. The epidemiology of HCC varies with the global region. There have been conflicting observations from different parts of the world concerning the frequency of HCC in patients who in the distant past had post-transfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis. The genetic basis of hepatocarcinogenesis is still poorly understood. In hepatitis B virus (HVB) associated HCC, codon 249 mutation in the p 53 gene seems more related to exposure to aflatoxin B1 than to hepatocarcinogenesis itself. HCC that occurs in children in high HBV endemic regions could be associated with germ-line mutations, but little information is available; not much is known about chemical hepatocarcinogens in the environment other than aflatoxins. The X gene of HBV seems to play an important role in HBV-associated hepatocarcinogenesis. There are preliminary observations on the molecular mechanism of HCV-associated HCC, such as HCV core protein inducing HCC in transgenic mice and the NS3 genome transforming NIH 3T3 cells. Pathological distinction between preneoplastic and very early transformed lesions still depends on classical morphology, and a more genetically oriented differential diagnosis is required. Clinical diagnosis based on modern imaging has improved greatly, but is still unsatisfactory in the differential diagnosis of preneoplastic and early transformed nodules, because the vasculature changes that occur within the nodule are not accurately discerned with the current imaging. Use of sensitive des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (PIVKA II) assay, and lectin affinity chromatography separating HCC specific subspecies of AFP molecules with a more practical biochemical technique will further improve diagnosis. Early diagnosis and transplantation are the best treatment at the moment, but transplantation is not widely available because of the donor shortage. Despite

  15. [Adnexal neoplasms in the context of skin cancer: trichilemmal carcinoma. Apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martínez, Ignacio Jaime; Mantilla-Morales, Alejandra; Cruz-Esquivel, Iván; Gallegos-Hernández, José Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Antecedente: el carcinoma triquilemal es una neoplasia maligna poco frecuente originada en los anexos de la piel. Debido a su escasa prevalencia suele confundirse con otros tumores dérmicos, su presentación clínica no favorece el diagnóstico diferencial y generalmente éste se hace por exclusión. En teoría, su comportamiento es lento, con poca tendencia a enviar metástasis regionales ganglionares y sistémicas. Debido al escaso número de casos no existe consenso en relación con el pronóstico, aunque generalmente se estima bueno. El objetivo de este reporte es mostrar un caso que, contrario a lo informado, es de manifestación agresiva en un paciente sin factores de riesgo para cáncer de piel, con gran infiltración tumoral de los tejidos blandos alrededor del sitio de origen. Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 65 años de edad que acudió con diagnóstico citológico de carcinoma en un tumor facial preparotídeo; al momento del diagnóstico motraba infiltración de la piel de la cara, del pabellón auricular y de la glándula parótida. Se efectuó resección completa de la neoplasia en bloque con isla de piel facial, parotidectomía total y disección radical del cuello; el defecto de partes blandas fue cubierto con un colgajo pediculado. La evolución ha sido satisfactoria; sin embargo, el seguimiento es corto. Se evalúa la experiencia asentada en la bibliografía en relación con el pronóstico y tratamiento de estos pacientes. Conclusión: el carcinoma triquilemal puede tener comportamiento localmente invasor lo que hace difícil determinar el pronóstico, que quizá dependa de la etapa clínica al momento del diagnóstico.

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    The hallmarks of squamous cell carcinoma are the differentiation features of the squamous epithelium: keratinization and intercellular bridges. Large central masses of keratin, individual cell keratinization, and/or keratin pearls may form. Necrosis of tumor cell nests and accumulation of acute inflammatory cells are frequent features of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.

  17. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Todd M; Parekh, Vishwas

    2016-09-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor that shares the same histologic appearance and ETV6 gene (12p13) rearrangement as secretory carcinoma of the breast. Prior to its recognition, MASC cases were commonly labeled acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. Despite distinctive histologic features, MASC may be difficult to distinguish from other salivary gland tumors, in particular zymogen-poor acinic cell carcinoma and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. Although characteristic morphologic and immunohistochemical features form the basis of a diagnosis of MASC, the presence of an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion is confirmatory. Given its recent recognition the true prognostic import of MASC is not yet clearly defined. PMID:27575269

  18. Stages of Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Childhood Treatment for more information.) Having certain genetic conditions increases the risk of adrenocortical carcinoma. Anything ... can be a sign of disease. CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that makes a series of ...

  19. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly occurring cancer in the world and overall incidence is still on the rise. While typically a slow-growing tumor for which metastases is rare, basal cell carcinoma can be locally destructive and disfiguring. Given the vast prevalence of this disease, there is a significant overall burden on patient well-being and quality of life. The current mainstay of basal cell carcinoma treatment involves surgical modalities, such as electrodessication and curettage, excision, cryosurgery, and Mohs micrographic surgery. Such methods are typically reserved for localized basal cell carcinoma and offer high five-year cure rates, but come with the risk of functional impairment, disfigurement, and scarring. Here, the authors review the evidence and indications for nonsurgical treatment modalities in cases where surgery is impractical, contraindicated, or simply not desired by the patient. PMID:27386043

  20. Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Matthew; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Tatishchev, Sergei F.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States. Pathologic examination of biopsy, polypectomy and resection specimens is crucial to appropriate patient managemnt, prognosis assessment and family counseling. Molecular testing plays an increasingly important role in the era of personalized medicine. This review article focuses on the histopathology and molecular pathology of colorectal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, with an emphasis on their clinical relevance. PMID:22943008

  1. Cholescintigraphy in gallbladder carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Colletti, P.M.; Ralls, P.W.; Siegel, M.E.; Halls, J.M.

    1986-04-01

    Findings on cholescintigraphy in gallbladder carcinoma are described in five patients. Four patients presenting with acute cholecystitis had nonvisualization of the gallbladder with normal hepatoenteric transit time. One of these had a large portal mass and two had liver metastasis as additional findings. The fifth patient was jaundiced, and showed absence of bowel activity compatible with total biliary obstruction. Both the clinical and scintigraphic findings in gallbladder carcinoma are difficult to separate from findings in cholelithiasis and cholecystitis.

  2. [Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Martine; Vieira, Thibault; Fallet, Vincent; Hamard, Cécile; Duruisseaux, Michael; Cadranel, Jacques; Wislez, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are a rare group of tumors accounting for about one percent of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In 2015, the World Health Organization classification united under this name all the carcinomas with sarcomatous-like component with spindle cell or giant cell appearance, or associated with a sarcomatous component sometimes heterologous. There are five subtypes: pleomorphic carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma and pulmonary blastoma. Clinical characteristics are not specific from the other subtypes of NSCLC. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway may play a key role. Patients, usually tobacco smokers, are frequently symptomatic. Tumors are voluminous more often peripherical than central, with strong fixation on FDG TEP CT. Distant metastases are frequent with atypical visceral locations. These tumors have poorer prognosis than the other NSCLC subtypes because of great aggressivity, and frequent chemoresistance. Here we present pathological description and a review of literature with molecular features in order to better describe these tumors and perhaps introduce new therapeutics.

  3. [Merkel cell skin carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Krejcí, K; Zadrazil, J; Tichý, T; Horák, P; Ciferská, H; Hodulová, M; Zezulová, M; Zlevorová, M

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare tumour of the skin. It affects predominantly elderly Caucasian males on sun-exposed areas of the skin. Distinctively more frequent and at significantly lower age, its incidence is higher in immunocompromised patients. In these patients we often observe the highly aggressive course of Merkel cell carcinoma and a fatal outcome. The incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma has been rising in recent years and is more dramatic than the increased incidence of cutaneous melanoma. More than one-third of Merkel cell carcinoma patients will die from this cancer, making it twice as lethal as melanoma. The malignant transformation of Merkel cells is currently thought to be related to an infection with Merkel cell polyomavirus. In the early stage the discreet clinical picture may be contrary to extensive microscopic invasion and this seemingly benign appearance can delay diagnosis or increase the risk of insufficient tumour excision. The diagnosis is definitely confirmed by histological evaluation and immunohistochemical tests. A typical feature is the tendency of Merkel cell carcinoma to frequent local recurrence and early metastasizing into regional lymph nodes with subsequent tumour generalization. The mainstay of therapy is radical excision of the tumour and adjuvant radiotherapy targeted at the site of primary incidence and local draining lymph nodes. The efficacy of different chemotherapy protocols in Merkel cell carcinoma is limited and the median survival rate is measured in months. In the future, prophylaxis with vaccination against Merkel cell polyomavirus will hopefully be possible in high-risk patients, as well as therapeutic usage of antisense oligonucleotides or microRNAs, eventually complete Merkel cell carcinoma elimination by affecting the tumour suppressor gene Atonal homolog 1 expression. The staging of the tumour at time of diagnosis is the most important prognostic factor. In this respect, the importance of preventative skin

  4. Chyluria associated with bronchial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Morice, A. H.; Wood, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Chylous pleural effusion, though not chyluria, is a recognized association of carcinoma of the bronchus. A case of chyluria associated with squamous bronchial carcinoma is reported. Chyluria in this patient was successfully treated by dietary modification. PMID:7329888

  5. Nonfunctional parathyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Giessler, G. A.; Beech, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare entity accounting for 0.5% to 5% of parathyroid neoplasia. Most of these malignancies present as functional hormone-producing masses with elevated serum levels of parathormone and calcium. These tumors may also be nonfunctional. Clinical detection of nonfunctioning parathyroid malignancies preoperatively is primarily based on symptoms of an expanding neck mass. This ominous complaint is typically accompanied with an advanced stage of the disease at initial diagnosis. Because there is a paucity of data in the literature regarding nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma, prognosis can not be readily assessed. In both functional and nonfunctional parathyroid carcinoma, early surgery has proven to be the only curative treatment approach whereas both chemotherapy and radiation therapy fail to produce systemic or regional benefit when used alone. Hence, parathyroid cancer should be considered in every patient evaluated for a neck mass regardless of the blood calcium and blood parathormone level. PMID:11491274

  6. Primary pulmonary cavitating carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, M. Ray

    1973-01-01

    A primary lung cancer can produce a cavity in three ways. The first is `cavitary necrosis' due to breakdown of the growth itself. The second is `stenotic abscess' due to infection and breakdown of the lung parenchyma distal to bronchial obstruction caused by the growth. The third type is `spill-over abscess'. In the present series, necrosis and cavitation were observed in 100 cases out of a total of 632 primary bronchial carcinomas seen at the London Chest Hospital from July 1967 to June 1970. There were 91 males and nine females with an average age of 58·45 years. All except one smoked very heavily and had considerable symptoms. The size of the cavities ranged from 1 to 10 cm and their wall thickness from 0·5 to 3 cm. They were single in 92 cases and multiple (up to four) in eight. In 42 cases, the cancerous cavitation was central, in 38 intermediate, and in 20 peripheral. The segments most frequently affected were the apicoposterior segment of the left upper lobe and the superior segment of the left lower lobe. For descriptive purposes, these cavitating carcinomas were also divided into six broad groups on the basis of radiological and pathological correlations. Neoplastic cells in the sputum were found in 64 cases. Bronchoscopy revealed growth in 42 cases and biopsy was positive in 48. The main microscopic feature was vascular invasion of medium-sized muscular arteries and veins found in the vicinity of every cavitating bronchial carcinoma. Invasion along with tumour plugging of the vessels was observed in 75 cases and thrombosis alone in 55 cases. There were 82 squamous-cell carcinomas, 11 undifferentiated carcinomas of large polygonal-cell type, and seven adeno-alveolar cell carcinomas. The single most important and noteworthy feature in the present series was that oat-cell carcinoma hardly ever undergoes necrosis. Out of a total of 95 cases observed, only three showed necrosis, and this was minimal and characteristically devoid of cavitation. In oat

  7. Maxillary sinus carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, F.; Ogura, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Primary site control, anatomical site of failure, survival, and complications of treatment were determined in a retrospective review of primary maxillary sinus carcinoma. Sixty-one patients were treated by radiation followed by surgery and 35 by radiation alone. Primary tumor control was achieved in 69% of patients receiving combined treatment, 14% of patients treated with radiation alone, and 49% of all patients. Local control did not differ with histological type. Virtually all epidermoid and undifferentiated carcinoma recurrences occurred within 2 years, but 27% of adenocarcinomas recurred after 2 years.

  8. [Merkel cell carcinoma (trabecular carcinoma) of the skin].

    PubMed

    Zala, L; Armagni, C; Krebs, A

    1983-04-01

    The Merkel cell carcinoma was first designated some years ago by the descriptive term trabecular carcinoma. Both names refer to a skin tumor occurring in elderly patients. This is another example where ultrastructural differentiating criteria are necessary for a definite diagnosis i.e., identification of so-called neurosecretory-like granules by electron microscopy. We report clinical, histological, ultrastructural, and histogenetic aspects of such a disease in a woman suffering from a metastasizing Merkel cell carcinoma. PMID:6853165

  9. Fallacious Carcinoma- Spindle Cell Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bavle, Radhika M; Govinda, Girish; Venkataramanaiah, Padmalatha Gundappanayakanahalli; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Venugopal, Reshma

    2016-07-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a unique, rare and peculiar biphasic tumour of head and neck which is not frequently observed in the oral cavity. This variant of squamous cell carcinoma although of monophasic epithelial origin, simulates a sarcoma and is an aggressive carcinoma with high frequency of recurrence and metastasis. A correct and timely diagnosis is of paramount importance. Most of the tumours require an Immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel for confirmation or diagnosis. We report a case of spindle cell carcinoma with varied histopathological morphology and clinical presentation in a middle aged female with a brief review of literature. PMID:27630965

  10. Fallacious Carcinoma- Spindle Cell Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M; Govinda, Girish; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Venugopal, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a unique, rare and peculiar biphasic tumour of head and neck which is not frequently observed in the oral cavity. This variant of squamous cell carcinoma although of monophasic epithelial origin, simulates a sarcoma and is an aggressive carcinoma with high frequency of recurrence and metastasis. A correct and timely diagnosis is of paramount importance. Most of the tumours require an Immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel for confirmation or diagnosis. We report a case of spindle cell carcinoma with varied histopathological morphology and clinical presentation in a middle aged female with a brief review of literature.

  11. Fallacious Carcinoma- Spindle Cell Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M; Govinda, Girish; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Venugopal, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a unique, rare and peculiar biphasic tumour of head and neck which is not frequently observed in the oral cavity. This variant of squamous cell carcinoma although of monophasic epithelial origin, simulates a sarcoma and is an aggressive carcinoma with high frequency of recurrence and metastasis. A correct and timely diagnosis is of paramount importance. Most of the tumours require an Immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel for confirmation or diagnosis. We report a case of spindle cell carcinoma with varied histopathological morphology and clinical presentation in a middle aged female with a brief review of literature. PMID:27630965

  12. Independent bilateral primary bronchial carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, M. Ray

    1971-01-01

    Independent bilateral primary bronchial carcinomas are not common. Since Beyreuther's description in 1924, 16 well-documented cases of independent primary bronchial carcinomas of different histology have been described. From 1965 to 1970, eight cases were seen at the London Chest Hospital. In order to make the diagnosis of a second primary bronchial carcinoma, each tumour should be malignant and neither should be a metastasis from the other. To meet this last criterion, the histopathological features of the two tumours must be different. Many cases have been described in the literature as double primary bronchial carcinomas where the second primary had the same histological features as the first. Images PMID:4327711

  13. Primary biliary carcinoma: CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsen, M.K.; Quiroz, F.; Lawson, T.L.; Smith, D.F.; Foley, W.D.; Steward, E.T.

    1984-08-01

    Fifty-three patients with documented primary biliary carcinoma were studied with computed tomography. Twenty-six patients had gallbladder carcinoma and 27 patients had carcinoma of the biliary ductal system. Ninety percent of patients with gallbladder cancer had an intraluminal mass. Local invasion into the liver was common. The majority of patients with biliary ductal carcinoma had dilated bile ducts, while only 50% of patients with gallbladder cancer had biliary ductal dilatation. The most common location of tumor involving the extrahepatic biliary ductal system was the distal common bile duct. This occurred in eight patients out of 27, or 30% of the cases.

  14. Merkel cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koljonen, Virve

    2006-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an unusual primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. MCC is a fatal disease, and patients have a poor chance of survival. Moreover, MCC lacks distinguishing clinical features, and thus by the time the diagnosis is made, the tumour usually have metastasized. MCC mainly affects sun-exposed areas of elderly persons. Half of the tumours are located in the head and neck region. Methods MCC was first described in 1972. Since then, most of the cases reported, have been in small series of patients. Most of the reports concern single cases or epidemiological studies. The present study reviews the world literature on MCC. The purpose of this article is to shed light on this unknown neuroendocrine carcinoma and provide the latest information on prognostic markers and treatment options. Results The epidemiological studies have revealed that large tumour size, male sex, truncal site, nodal/distant disease at presentation, and duration of disease before presentation, are poor prognostic factors. The recommended initial treatment is extensive local excision. Adjuvant radiation therapy has recently been shown to improve survival. Thus far, no chemotherapy protocol have achieved the same objective. Conclusion Although rare, the fatality of this malignancy makes is important to understand the etiology and pathophysiology. During the last few years, the research on MCC has produced prognostic markers, which can be translated into clinical patient care. PMID:16466578

  15. Primary duodenal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Adedeji, O. A.; Trescoli-Serrano, C.; Garcia-Zarco, M.

    1995-01-01

    Eight cases of primary duodenal carcinoma in a district general hospital are presented. The cases highlight the advanced state of the disease at presentation, the difficulty in diagnosis, and its poor prognosis. Duodenal carcinoma occurs in both sexes worldwide with no predisposing factors in the majority of cases. There is an increased risk in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and adenomas of the duodenum. Duodenal carcinoma occurs about 22 years from the diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis in about 2% of patients, forming over 50% of upper gastrointestinal cancers occurring in these patients. Carcinomatous changes occur in 30 to 60% of duodenal villous adenomas and much less in tubulo-villous and tubular adenomas. These categories of patients should be screened and adequately followed up. Aggressive and radical surgery, even in the presence of locally advanced disease and lymph node involvement, gives a better outcome. When curative surgery is not possible, chemotherapy must accompany palliation with or without radiotherapy. Pre-operative chemotherapy may facilitate a curative radical resection. The general five-year survival is 17-33% but some centres have achieved a five-year survival of 40-60% with aggressive management of these patients. PMID:7644397

  16. Urinary bladder carcinoma with divergent differentiation featuring small cell carcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma, and liposarcomatous component.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Mariko; Morikawa, Teppei; Nakagawa, Tohru; Miyakawa, Jimpei; Maeda, Daichi; Homma, Yukio; Fukayama, Masashi

    2016-09-01

    Both small cell carcinoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma of the urinary bladder are highly aggressive tumors, and a concurrence of these tumors is extremely rare. We report a case of urinary bladder cancer with small cell carcinoma as a predominant component, accompanied by sarcomatoid carcinoma and conventional urothelial carcinoma (UC). Although the small cell carcinoma component had resolved on receiving chemoradiotherapy, rapid growth of the residual tumor led to a fatal outcome. A 47-year-old man presented with occasional bladder irritation and had a 2-year history of asymptomatic hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed a huge mass in the urinary bladder, and transurethral resection was performed. Microscopically, small cell carcinoma was detected as the major tumor component. Spindle-shaped sarcomatoid cells were also observed that were intermingled with small cell carcinoma and conventional UC. In addition, a sheet-like growth of the lipoblast-like neoplastic cells was observed focally. Initially, by providing chemoradiotherapy, we achieved a marked tumor regression; however, the tumor rapidly regrew after the completion of chemoradiotherapy, and the patient underwent radical cystectomy. Only conventional UC and sarcomatoid carcinoma were identified in the cystectomy specimen. The patient died of the disease 4 months after cystectomy. Urinary bladder cancer may include a combination of multiple aggressive histologies as in the present case. Because the variation in the tumor components may affect the efficacy of therapy, a correct diagnosis of every tumor component is necessary.

  17. Urinary bladder carcinoma with divergent differentiation featuring small cell carcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma, and liposarcomatous component.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Mariko; Morikawa, Teppei; Nakagawa, Tohru; Miyakawa, Jimpei; Maeda, Daichi; Homma, Yukio; Fukayama, Masashi

    2016-09-01

    Both small cell carcinoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma of the urinary bladder are highly aggressive tumors, and a concurrence of these tumors is extremely rare. We report a case of urinary bladder cancer with small cell carcinoma as a predominant component, accompanied by sarcomatoid carcinoma and conventional urothelial carcinoma (UC). Although the small cell carcinoma component had resolved on receiving chemoradiotherapy, rapid growth of the residual tumor led to a fatal outcome. A 47-year-old man presented with occasional bladder irritation and had a 2-year history of asymptomatic hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed a huge mass in the urinary bladder, and transurethral resection was performed. Microscopically, small cell carcinoma was detected as the major tumor component. Spindle-shaped sarcomatoid cells were also observed that were intermingled with small cell carcinoma and conventional UC. In addition, a sheet-like growth of the lipoblast-like neoplastic cells was observed focally. Initially, by providing chemoradiotherapy, we achieved a marked tumor regression; however, the tumor rapidly regrew after the completion of chemoradiotherapy, and the patient underwent radical cystectomy. Only conventional UC and sarcomatoid carcinoma were identified in the cystectomy specimen. The patient died of the disease 4 months after cystectomy. Urinary bladder cancer may include a combination of multiple aggressive histologies as in the present case. Because the variation in the tumor components may affect the efficacy of therapy, a correct diagnosis of every tumor component is necessary. PMID:27461832

  18. Lobomycosis and squamous cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Lisiane; Rodrigues, Luciana; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto Chirano; Santos, Mônica; Talhari, Sinésio; Talhari, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    The occurence of squamous cell carcinoma on long-lasting ulcers is classic. Malignant transformation may occur on burn scars and chronic ulcers of varying etiology, including infectious agents. Transformation of old lobomycosis lesion scars into squamous cell carcinoma has been rarely reported. Careful and long-term follow-up of such patients is important to avoid carcinomatous transformation. PMID:23739701

  19. Basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common form of skin cancer, predominantly affecting the head and neck, and can be diagnosed clinically in most cases. Metastasis of BCC is rare, but localised tissue invasion and destruction can lead to morbidity. Incidence of BCC increases markedly after the age of 40 years, but incidence in younger people is rising, possibly as a result of increased sun exposure. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions on treatment response/recurrence (within 1 year of therapy) in people with basal cell carcinoma? What are the effects of interventions on long-term recurrence (a minimum of 2 years after treatment) in people with basal cell carcinoma? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to December 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 16 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: cryotherapy/cryosurgery, curettage and cautery/electrodesiccation, fluorouracil, imiquimod 5% cream, photodynamic therapy, and surgery (conventional or Mohs' micrographic surgery). PMID:21718567

  20. Perianal Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bulur, Isil; Boyuk, Emine; Saracoglu, Zeynep Nurhan; Arik, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer. Exposure to ultraviolet light is an important risk factor for BCC development and the disorder therefore develops commonly on body areas that are more exposed to sunlight, such as the face and neck. It is uncommon in the closed area of the body and quite rare in the perianal and genital regions. Herein, we report a 34-year-old patient with perianal BCC who had no additional risk factors. PMID:25848349

  1. Carcinoma Adenomatodes Cervicis Uteri

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Herbert R.

    1926-01-01

    The case is one of carcinoma adenomatodes (adenoma malignum) cervicis uteri, which occurred in a patient, aged 49. Vaginal hysterectomy was performed with the Pacquelin cautery, and the patient remains well after 22 years. Attention is drawn to the rarity of the disease, and the point is emphasized that in true cases of the disease the glandular epithelium is nowhere proliferated, and therefore reliance on microscopic examination alone for the diagnosis may lead to serious error. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:19985105

  2. Immunotherapy of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Märten, Angela

    2008-05-01

    Patients with carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas have especially poor prognosis with a five-year survival rate of <1% and a median survival of 4-6 months. Pancreatic carcinoma is a systemic disease, insensitive to radiotherapy and mostly to chemotherapy. Accordingly, new treatment modalities are worth being investigated. One of the promising approaches is immunotherapy. Several phase I/II trials that have been published show interesting results, whereupon antibody-based strategies seem to fail and unspecific stimulation or vaccination with peptides look encouraging. Furthermore, phase II trials dealing with combination therapies are highly promising. One of them, a combination of chemoradiotherapy plus interferon-alpha is currently tested in a randomized phase III trial. As most of the trials had enrolled only limited numbers of patients and most of the trials were not conducted and/or reported according to the new standards it is difficult to draw final conclusions from the discussed trials. Immuno-monitoring was performed only in 40% of the discussed publications. In all cases immune responses were observed and correlation with the clinical outcome is discussed. Immunotherapy of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and especially combination therapies including immunotherapy is an up-and-coming approach and needs to be investigated in well conducted phase III randomized controlled trials accompanied by appropriate immuno-monitoring.

  3. Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Iezzi, G; Rubini, C; Fioroni, M; Piattelli, A

    2002-02-01

    Clear cell tumours, in the head and neck region, are usually derived from salivary or odontogenic tissues, or may be metastatic. A few clear cells may be present in odontogenic cysts, while, odontogenic neoplasms composed predominantly of clear cells are quite rare. They include calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumours (CEOT), ameloblastoma and odontogenic carcinoma. Clear cell odontogenic tumour (CCOT) has been classified in the last WHO classification as a benign tumour, but it is now recognized as a more sinister lesion and current opinion is that CCOT should be designated as a carcinoma. These tumours are characterized by aggressive growth, recurrences, and metastatic disease. A recent review of the literature has yielded 30 cases of tumours with similar characteristics. These tumours have a peak incidence in the 5th-7th decades, with a female predilection. The anterior portions of the jaws, especially the mandible, are most frequently affected. The aggressive potential of these neoplasms is well documented by the extensive invasion of adjacent tissues, multiple recurrences and regional or distant metastases.

  4. Etiopathogenesis of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Makazlieva, Tanja; Vaskova, Olivija; Majstorov, Venjamin

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Thyroid malignomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasm consisting of most frequent differentiated encountered carcinomas, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma, then medullary thyroid carcinoma originating from neuroendocrine calcitonin-producing C-cells and rare forms of thyroid lymphomas arising from intrathyroidal lymphatic tissue, thyroid sarcomas and poorly differentiated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. There are increasing numbers of epidemiological studies and publications that have suggested increased incidence rate of thyroid carcinomas. We have read, analysed and compare available reviews and original articles investigating different etiological factors in the development of thyroid carcinomas through Google Scholar and PubMed Database. DISCUSSION: Aetiology involved in the development of thyroid carcinomas is multifactorial and includes external influences, as well as constitutional predispositions and genetic etiological factors. The actual effect of environmental and constitutional factors is on promoting genetic and epigenetic alterations which result in cell proliferation and oncogenesis. Until now are identified numerous genetic alterations, assumed to have an important role in oncogenesis, with MAPK and PI3K-AKT as crucial signalling networks regulating growth, proliferation, differentiation and cell survival/apoptosis. CONCLUSION: This new molecular insight could have a crucial impact on diagnosis and also on improving and selecting an appropriate treatment to the patients with thyroid malignancies. PMID:27703585

  5. [DNA methylation in thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Song, Xianyun; Shang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yutuo

    2015-03-01

    Cancer has become clear that not merely gene variations but also epigenetic modifications may contribute to it. Epigenetic changes refer to stable alterations in gene expression with unrelated to changes in the underlying genetic sequence,resulting in heritable. DNA methylation is one of the common epigenetic changes. It control the gene expression through changing DNA conformation and stability, chromatin structer, DNA-protein interaction. The reversal of dysregulated DNA methylation has emerged as a potential strategy for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma. The artical will provide an overview of how DNA methylation contribute to thyroid carcinoma dissemination,invasion and metastasis and we will summarize the latest epigenetic therapies for thyroid carcinoma.

  6. Correlative imaging in gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Willekens, I; Goethals, L R; Brussaard, C; Verdries, D; de Mey, J

    2014-01-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma is a relatively rare malignant epithelial neoplasm, arising from gallbladder mucosa. It is the fifth most common gastrointestinal malignancy and the most common biliary tract cancer. Early diagnosis remains difficult, because clinical symptoms are sparse and non-specific, often resulting in advanced stage disease at the time of diagnosis. The most common feature of gallbladder carcinoma on different imaging modalities is focal wall thickening, associated with a large eccentric tumor mass. In this case we report the imaging characteristics of gallbladder carcinoma on ultrasound, MDCT and 18F-FDG PET/CT.

  7. Myoepithelial carcinoma with contralateral invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sun Young; Bae, Young Kyung; Cho, Jihyong; Kang, Sun Hee

    2011-09-01

    Adenomyoepithelioma (AME) is a rare benign tumor composed of myoepithelial cells (MECs) which are located beneath the epithelial cells of exocrine glands, especially in breast and salivary glands. These tumor cells show biphasic proliferation of epithelial and MECs. Malignant AME is characterized by distant metastasis, local recurrence, cytologic atypia, high mitotic activity and infiltrating tumor margins. A 51-year-old woman presented with an 8 months growth in the left breast. She underwent core-needle biopsy and consecutively mammotome assisted biopsy at a local clinic. After resection, she complained about re-growing remnant lesion and a newly developed solid mass in the right breast. Finally, the remnant mass in the left breast was diagnosed with myoepithelial carcinoma. Concurrently, contralateral breast mass was diagnosed with invasive micropapillary carcinoma. Herein we report an unusual case of synchronous myoepithelial carcinoma and invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast with a review of literatures.

  8. Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered to be one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and the most common one in Africa and Asia. Over the last decade, a rising incidence of up to 10-15/100,000 per population has been seen in the Western world, with an estimate of 250,000 deaths and more than a million worldwide per year. By the year 2010, the World Health Organization expects that HCC will be the leading cause of cancer mortality surpassing lung cancer. This increasing incidence is most likely related to an increasing prevalence of chronic hepatitis C (HC) and B (HB) virus infections and other diseases inducing chronic inflammation (Befeler and Di Bisceglie 2002; Llovet et al. 2003).

  9. Diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.

    2005-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is responsible for a large proportion of cancer deaths worldwide. HCC is frequently diagnosed after the development of clinical deterioration at which time survival is measured in months. Long-term survival requires detection of small tumors, often present in asymptomatic individuals, which may be more amenable to invasive therapeutic options. Surveillance of high-risk individuals for HCC is commonly performed using the serum marker alfa-fetoprotein (AFP) often in combination with ultrasonography. Various other serologic markers are currently being tested to help improve surveillance accuracy. Diagnosis of HCC often requires more sophisticated imaging modalities such as CT scan and MRI, which have multiphasic contrast enhancement capabilities. Serum AFP used alone can be helpful if levels are markedly elevated, which occurs in fewer than half of cases at time of diagnosis. Confirmation by liver biopsy can be performed under circumstances when the diagnosis of HCC remains unclear. PMID:18333158

  10. Prevention of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schütte, Kerstin; Balbisi, Fathi; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has significantly changed throughout the past decade and will continue to do so in the future as a consequence of effective primary prevention and treatment of virus-related liver diseases. However, other risk factors for HCC are constantly on the rise, including alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The knowledge on these and further risk factors associated with an increased risk of HCC provide the opportunity and chance for the development and implementation of successful preventive strategies to decrease the worldwide burden of HCC. This mini-review gives a short overview on current strategies in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of HCC. PMID:27722155

  11. Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vilar-González, S; Bradley, K; Rico-Pérez, J; Vogiatzis, P; Golka, D; Nigam, A; Sivaramalingam, M; Kazmi, S

    2015-11-01

    Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma (MC) or malignant myoepithelioma is a rare entity. MC usually presents as a slow-growing painless mass arising in the parotid gland, but may involve other salivary glands. This tumour may be particularly locally aggressive, but its clinical and biological features are not yet fully understood. MC may arise from pre-existing benign lesions, such as pleomorphic adenomas or benign myoepitheliomas, or may arise de novo. It usually affects patients over 50 years old, with no gender preference. Because it is often asymptomatic, the presentation and diagnosis can be delayed by months, even years. The current WHO classification considers MC to be an intermediate- to high-grade malignancy. Other published data suggest it is likely to be a high-grade neoplasm, consistent with its aggressive behaviour. Its epidemiology, histopathological features, immunohistochemical profile, clinical behaviour and optimal management are not well understood. Following review of the current literature we aim to address these.

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Adrenocortical Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Childhood Treatment for more information.) Having certain genetic conditions increases the risk of adrenocortical carcinoma. Anything ... can be a sign of disease. CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that makes a series of ...

  13. Stages of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  14. Onychocytic carcinoma: a new entity.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Christophe; Langbein, Lutz; Ambrossetti, Damien; Erfan, Nouran; Schweizer, Jürgen; Michiels, Jean-François

    2013-08-01

    We have recently described a new nail tumor known as onychocytic matricoma. Herein, we describe its malignant counterpart. Clinically, the tumor simulates onychomatricoma (OM). Histologically, this in situ malignant epithelial tumor exhibits a distinct picture of onychocytic differentiation with signs of both nail matrical differentiation and nail plate differentiation. We have proposed the name onychocytic carcinoma for this singular adnexal neoplasm. Given the peculiar thickening of the nail plate observed in OM, onychocytic matricoma, and onychocytic carcinoma, the clinical individualization of a new type of nail band pattern could be proposed. It presents as an acquired localized (monodactylous) longitudinal pachyonychia. Such longitudinal pachyonychia allow the recognition of the matrical nail tumor, which has a limited etiological spectrum. Xantholeucopachyonychia suggests mainly OM and rarely onychocytic carcinoma. Pachymelanonychia suggests onychocytic matricoma and rarely pigmented OM or onychocytic carcinoma. PMID:23518638

  15. Cutaneous metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lazaro, M; Serrano, M L; Allende, I; Ratón, J A; Acebo, E; Diaz-Perez, J L

    2009-12-01

    Cutaneous metastases are an unusual finding that may present as the first sign of an internal neoplasia. A case of cutaneous metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma, which may often involve other organs but very rarely metastases to the skin, is reported.

  16. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... radiation. Exposure to radiation can lead to skin cancers. ... DG, Farndon PA. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. 2002 Jun 20 ... al. eds. Cancer of the Skin. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  17. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Esmati, Ebrahim; Babaei, Mohammad; Matini, Amirhassan; Ashtiani, Monir Sadat Mirai; Hamed, Ehsan Akbari; Nosrati, Hassan; Razi, Farideh; Ganjalikhani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma usually originates from lung. Few data exist in the literature regarding neuroendocrine carcinoma of the tongue. Patient data including history, surgical procedure, histology, and radiology investigations were collected and summarized. A 40-year-old woman was referred after partial glossectomy. Squamous mucosa with neoplasm and cells with round nuclei and light cytoplasm was reported in the tongue biopsy. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was positive for cytokeratin, neuron specific enolase, synaptophysin and chromogranin and negative for leukocyte common antigen. This case showed a high proliferative activity (Ki-67 labeling index were 60%). These IHC findings were in favor of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. After surgery, she received chemotherapy and chemoradiation. The diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors in the present case is based on immunohistochemical markers and cellular shapes. Postoperative chemoradiotherapy is a critical element of therapy for head and neck high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas, our patient received this treatment after surgery. PMID:26458666

  18. [Bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Bregante, J I; Rituerto, B; Font de Mora, F; Alonso, F; Andreu, M J; Figuerola, J; Mulet, J F

    1998-07-01

    We submit the case of a child afflicted with a mucoepidermoid bronchial tumor. The patient is a boy, aged seven, who after undergoing antibiotic treatment for six weeks because of a fever and atelectasia-condensation in the right lower lobe showed no signs of clinical improvement and was sent to our department to undergo further study and treatment. A bronchoscopy performed shows a polypoid mass that partially blocks the main bronchial tube a few milimiters under the access to the right upper lobe. A biopsy is carried out and the anatomopathological test shows there is a low degree epidermoid carcinoma. We decide to perform a lobectomy which for the tumor location and the lung condition has to be medium and lower right. We proceed to remove the adenopaty of hilium not affected by the tumor. The postoperative period develops without incidents. A check-up bronchoscopy performed three months later shows two polypoid masses in the right bronchial tube which, once a biopsy is performed, proved to be granulation tissue. Twelve months after undergoing surgery, the patient's condition is good, there is no evidence of tumor relapse and the breathing capacity is adequate, though there is an obstructive restrictive pattern in the espirometry. Even taking into consideration that lung tumors are extremely unusual, the epidermoid carcinoma is the one which most frequently occurs. The tumor's low malignancy is a sign that points to a good prognosis. Performing conservative surgery by means of bronchoplasty should be taken into account so as to keep the sequelae on the lung condition to a minimum, even though in this case the tumor location made it impossible. PMID:12602035

  19. Cholangiographic evaluation of bile duct carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, D.A.; MacCarty, R.L.; Gaffey, T.A.

    1983-12-01

    Cholangiograms and clinical histories of 82 patients with biopsy-proved bile duct carcinoma were reviewed. The carcinomas were classified according to morphologic findings and clinical outcome. Ulcerative colitis and antecedent inflammatory disease of the biliary tree, particularly primary sclerosing cholangitis, seem to predispose to the development of bile duct carcinoma. Focal stenotic lesions were the most common morphologic type (62/82). Polypoid carcinomas and diffuse sclerosing carcinomas were less common and of about equal frequency. Prognosis was best for patients with polypoid carcinomas and worst for those with diffuse sclerosing carcinomas. In 69 cases (84%), the tumors involved the intrahepatic or proximal extrahepatic ducts, makin curative resection difficult or impossible. Patients with carcinomas limited to the more distal extrahepatic bile ducts had a longer average survival and a higher probability of surgical cure. Proper management of patients with bile duct carcinoma requires a complete and accurate cholangiographic evaluation of the morphology, location, and extent of the disease.

  20. Microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ünal, Emre; İdilman, İlkay Sedakat; Akata, Deniz; Özmen, Mustafa Nasuh; Karçaaltıncaba, Muşturay

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular invasion is a crucial histopathologic prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. We reviewed the literature and aimed to draw attention to clinicopathologic and imaging findings that may predict the presence of microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma. Imaging findings suggesting microvascular invasion are disruption of capsule, irregular tumor margin, peritumoral enhancement, multifocal tumor, increased tumor size, and increased glucose metabolism on positron emission tomography-computed tomography. In the presence of typical findings, microvascular invasion may be predicted. PMID:26782155

  1. Gene therapy and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J; Alusi, G; Wang, Y

    2012-06-01

    In 2003, a non-replicating adenoviral gene therapy product received the world`s first government licence for the treatment of head and neck cancer. Two years later approval was granted to a replication-selective adenovirus for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in combination with chemotherapy. This review introduces the reader to gene therapy as an emerging treatment modality, and outlines its application to the management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by examining recent pre-clinical and clinical research.

  2. Multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Velasquez, G.; Glass, T.A.; D'Souza, V.J.; Formanek, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Renal oncocytoma, although rare, is being diagnosed more frequently, and criteria to differentiate it from other tumors have been described. Multiple oncocytomas have been reported, but an association between multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma in the same kidney has not been described. The authors report a case with two oncocytomas and a renal carcinoma in the right kidney as well as a right adrenal adenoma.

  3. [Adenosquamous carcinoma of the palate].

    PubMed

    Mancusi, G; Susani, M; Kornfehl, J; Girsch, W; Kautzky, M

    2002-08-01

    A rare case of adenosquamous carcinoma in a 74 year-old man is reported. Presenting as a nodule on the soft palate, diagnosis was prolonged because of the benign macroscopic aspect. CT-scan and MR-tomography showed an encapsulated lesion but biopsy and histologic examination revealed the typical features of adenosquamous carcinoma. The tumour consisted of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in close proximity to minor salivary glands of which the tumour seemed to have its origin. This entity, although rare in the head and neck region has been documented to be very aggressive with early regional and hematogenic metastasis. Therefore it has to be distinguished from other tumours, especially from mucoepidermoid carcinomas of the salivary glands, which have a better prognosis. Adenosquamous carcinoma is considered to have poor radiosensitivity and chemotherapeutic approaches have also not been successful in the literature. In our case radical surgical therapy was performed by excision of the whole soft palate and bilateral neck dissection. This resulted in total removal of the tumour but revealed bilateral lymph node metastases. Vital functions were saved by reconstruction of the palate with a free vascularized tensor-fasciae-latae-perforator-flap. For the first time in a case of adenosquamous carcinoma carcinoembryonic antigen in serum was monitored. A pretherapeutical 29-fold elevation resulted in a marked decrease after surgery, but supranormal values indicated remaining tumour burden which was found in metastases in the lung. Because of the limitations in therapy, early histologic diagnosis is most important in this highly malignant tumour.

  4. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Worley, N K; Daroca, P J

    1997-06-01

    Undifferentiated carcinoma of the minor salivary glands has been rarely reported in the world literature. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma, which is a variant of undifferentiated carcinoma, is distinguished from small cell and large cell undifferentiated carcinoma by its association with benign lymphoepithelial lesions. We report a case of a lymphoepithelial carcinoma developing in a minor salivary gland of the oral cavity in a 69-year-old woman. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a lymphoepithelial carcinoma arising from a minor salivary gland.

  5. Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma Presenting with Two Different Patterns of Cutaneous Metastases: Carcinoma Telangiectaticum and Carcinoma Erysipeloides

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoobi, Reza; Talaizade, Abdolhasan; Lal, Karan; Ranjbari, Nastaran; Sohrabiaan, Nasibe

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous metastases can have many different clinical presentations. They are seen in patients with advanced malignant disease; however, they can be the initial manifestation of undetected malignancies. Inflammatory breast carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer that has a nonspecific appearance mimicking many benign conditions including mastitis, breast abscesses, and/or dermatitis. The authors report the case of a 40-year-old woman with inflammatory breast carcinoma presenting with violaceous papulovesicular lesions resembling lymphangioma circumscriptum and erythematous patches resembling erysipelas. These lesions represent two different types of cutaneous metastases, both of which were the initial signs of inflammatory breast carcinoma in the patient described herein. Skin biopsy of lesions confirmed invasive breast cancer and further prompted a work up for inflammatory breast carcinoma. This case demonstrates the importance of follow-up for all breast lesions, even those considered to be of benign nature, for they can be presenting signs of metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26345728

  6. Treatment Options for Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of thymoma and thymic carcinoma include a cough and chest pain. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma may ... if you have any of the following: A cough that doesn't go away. Chest pain. Trouble ...

  7. Stages of Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of thymoma and thymic carcinoma include a cough and chest pain. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma may ... if you have any of the following: A cough that doesn't go away. Chest pain. Trouble ...

  8. General Information about Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Merkel Cell Carcinoma Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  9. General Information about Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Thymic Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  10. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  11. Hepatocellular carcinoma in India.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Gouri Shankar; Babu, K Govind; Malhotra, Hemant; Ranade, Anantbhushan A; Murshed, Shaiqua; Datta, Debasis

    2013-12-01

    Cancers of the liver are one of the commonest cancers that occur in the world, the commonest of which is the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is considered to be the 5th commonest cancer in the world. In the areas that are endemic for hepatitis B and C, it is extremely common. Unfortunately, India which is an endemic zone for hepatitis B, there has been no comprehensive analyzed data for HCC. Incidence of HCC in India occurs at two peaks, one at a young age between 40 to 55 years and another above 60 years. Eighty per cent of all HCCs occurring in India occur with cirrhosis of liver in the background and 60% of all these cases are hepatitis B positive carriers. Symptoms are reflective of late presentation with advanced disease. Surgery, the only curative modulus available, unfortunately is not possible in 95% of HCC patients. Majority of the patients are treated with palliative and supportive care and life spans are limited. Sorafenib is used in a small section of patients. Characterization of HCC with molecular sub-typing is the need of the hour.

  12. Epidemiology of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Falk, R T; Pickle, L W; Fontham, E T; Greenberg, S D; Jacobs, H L; Correa, P; Fraumeni, J F

    1992-01-01

    Descriptive features of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) are presented using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program population-based incidence data from 1973 through 1987, along with risk factors from histologically confirmed cases of BAC identified in a hospital-based case-control study conducted in Louisiana between 1979 and 1982. Compared to the rising incidence of lung cancer overall, BAC rates have remained relatively constant, accounting for less than 3% of all lung cancer. BAC incidence rates were higher in males, yet it explained proportionately more of the total lung cancer incidence in females. In the case-control study, 21 of the 33 cases originally ascertained from hospital pathology records were histologically confirmed as BAC. Most cases smoked cigarettes, with a 4-fold risk for ever smoking. Risks tended to increase with smoking intensity (reaching 10-fold for more than 1.5 packs/day) and duration (reaching 5-fold for more than 45 years of smoking). Following 10 or more years of employment, there was a 4-fold risk associated with motor freight occupations, along with nonsignificant excesses among construction workers, petroleum manufacturers, and sugar cane farmers. Cases were more likely than controls to have had emphysema or to have had a close family member with lung cancer. Although based on small numbers, this study suggests that BAC shares many of the epidemiological characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma.

  13. [External radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Girard, N; Mornex, F

    2011-02-01

    For a long time radiotherapy has been excluded from the therapeutic strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma, given its significant toxicity on the non-tumoral liver parenchyma. Conformal radiation is a recent advance in the field of radiotherapy, allowing dose escalation and combination with other therapeutic options for hepatocellular carcinoma, including trans-arterial chemo-embolization. Conformal radiotherapy is associated with interesting features, especially in cirrhotic patients: wide availability, non-invasiveness, possibility to target multiple localizations anywhere within the liver parenchyma, and favorable tolerance profile even in patients with cirrhosis and/or in a poor medical condition. Recently, radiation delivery has been optimized through several technical developments: respiratory gating and intensity-modulated radiotherapy, which allow a better focalization of the ballistics, stereotactic techniques and proton-beam radiotherapy, whose availability is currently limited in Europe. Given the high response rates of hepatocellular carcinoma to radiation, conformal radiotherapy may be regarded as a curative-intent treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma, similar to surgery and per-cutaneous techniques. Yet the impact of radiotherapy has to be evaluated in randomized trials to better integrate in the complex therapeutic algorithm of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  14. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 in Treating Patients With Progressive, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cyst Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-14

    Recurrent Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

  15. Transitional cell bladder carcinoma with presentation mimicking ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Erickson, D R; Dabbs, D J; Olt, G J

    1996-05-01

    In the case described here, the patient's initial presentation suggested ovarian carcinoma. She had recurrent ascites, a pelvic mass, elevated CA-125, and extensive peritoneal carcinomatosis with transitional cell histology. The presence of hematuria prompted a cystoscopy, which revealed the true site of origin to be the urinary bladder rather than ovaries. This presentation is extremely rare for bladder cancer. Since transitional cell tumors from the bladder have a much worse prognosis than those of ovarian origin, it is important to identify the primary site correctly. Therefore, cystoscopy is essential for patients with hematuria, and should be considered in cases of apparent primary peritoneal carcinoma with transitional cell histology.

  16. Treatment of thyroid follicular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Antonio; Rodríguez, José M; Parrilla, Pascual

    2015-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma includes 2 different tumor types, papillary (PC) and follicular carcinoma (FC), and although similar, their prognosis is different. FC is uncommon, and this has led to it often being analyzed together with PC, and therefore the true reality of this tumor is difficult to know. As a result, the diagnostic and therapeutic management and the prognostic factors in differentiated carcinoma are more predictive of PC than FC. In this review we analyze the current state of many of the therapeutic aspects of this pathology. The best surgical technique and the usefulness of associated lymphadenectomy is also analyzed. Regarding post-surgical ablation with 131I, the indications, doses and usefulness are discussed. For the remaining therapies we analyze the few indications for radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and of new drugs such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  17. Genetic heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Unsal, H.; Isselbacher, K.J. ); Yakicier, C.; Marcais, C.; Ozturk, M. ); Kew, M. ); Volkmann, M. ); Zentgraf, H. )

    1994-01-18

    The authors studied 80 hepatocellular carcinomas from three continents for p53 gene (TP53) mutations and hepatitis B virus (HBV) sequences. p53 mutations were frequent in tumors from Mozambique but not in tumors from South Africa, China, and Germany. Independent of geographic origin, most tumors were positive for HBV sequences. X gene coding sequences of HBV were detected in 78% of tumors, whereas viral sequences in the surface antigen- and core antigen-encoding regions were present in less than 35% of tumors. These observations indicate that hepatocellular carcinomas are genetically heterogeneous. Mozambican-types of hepatocellular carcinomas are characterized by a high incidence of p53 mutations related to aflatoxins. In other tumors, the rarity of p53 mutations combined with the frequent presence of viral X gene coding sequences suggests a possible interference of HBV with the wild-type p53 function.

  18. Radioimmune localization of occult carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Duda, R.B.; Zimmer, A.M.; Rosen, S.T.; Gilyon, K.A.; Webber, D.; Spies, S.; Spies, W.; Merchant, B. )

    1990-07-01

    Patients with a rising serum carcinoembryonic antigen level and no clinical or roentgenographic evidence of recurrent or metastatic cancer present a treatment dilemma. Eleven such patients, 10 with a previously treated colorectal carcinoma and 1 with a previously treated breast carcinoma, received an injection of the anticarcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody ZCE-025 labeled with the radioisotope indium 111. Nuclear scintigraphy was performed on days 3 and 5 through 7 to detect potential sites of tumor recurrence. The monoclonal antibody scan accurately predicted the presence or absence of occult malignancy in 7 (64%) patients. Second-look laparotomy confirmed the monoclonal antibody scan results in the patients with colorectal cancer, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed metastatic breast cancer. This study demonstrates that In-ZCE-025 can localize occult carcinoma and may assist the surgeon in facilitating the operative exploration. In-ZCE-025 assisted in the initiation of adjuvant therapy for the patient with breast cancer.

  19. Current management of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Lillemoe, K D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The author seeks to provide an update on the current management of pancreatic carcinoma, including diagnosis and staging, surgical resection and adjuvant therapy for curative intent, and palliation. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: During the 1960s and 1970s, the operative mortality and long-term survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic carcinoma was so poor that some authors advocated abandoning the procedure. Several recent series have reported a marked improvement in perioperative results with 5-year survival in excess of 20%. Significant advances also have been made in areas of preoperative evaluation and palliation for advanced disease. CONCLUSION: Although carcinoma of the pancreas remains a disease with a poor prognosis, advances in the last decade have led to improvements in the overall management of this disease. Resection for curative intent currently should be accomplished with minimal perioperative mortality. Surgical palliation also may provide the optimal management of selected patients. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 7. PMID:7531966

  20. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the liver.

    PubMed

    Katsuda, S; Nakanishi, I; Kajikawa, K; Takabatake, S

    1984-01-01

    An autopsy case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the liver associated with congenital cysts in a 78-year-old man was reported. The liver weighed 1,900 g, and there was a massive tumor of 11 X 10 X 6.5 cm in the left lobe with multiple sero-mucinous cysts. Histologically, the tumor cells consisted of four types of cells: mucus-secreting cells, squamous cells, intermediate cells, and oxyphilic cells. The variety of tumor cells quite resembled that of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary gland. The sero-mucinous cysts were lined with a single layer of cuboidal or columnar cells and were not communicated with the biliary ducts. Part of the cysts with benign lining cells was in continuity with tumor cells of the intermediate type. Discussion was made on the histogenesis of hepatic mucoepidermoid carcinoma in particular emphasis on the association of the congenital cysts.

  1. Parathyroid carcinoma in tertiary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Seup; Ryu, Han Suk; Kang, Kyung Ho; Park, Sung Jun

    2016-10-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare disease of unknown etiology. This study presents a case of parathyroid carcinoma in a patient with tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Despite a successful kidney transplantation, the intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level of the patient was elevated consistently and could not be controlled by medical therapy. Due to the development of tertiary hyperparathyroidism with bone pain and osteoporosis, subtotal parathyroidectomy was performed 4 months after the kidney transplantation. Histological evaluation revealed that one of four parathyroid lesions was a parathyroid carcinoma, while the others were diffuse hyperplasia. Postoperative laboratory studies indicated a decreased level of iPTH. A positron emission tomography-computed tomography performed 6 months after the operation revealed no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis. PMID:27664600

  2. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Merican, I

    1996-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the commonest cancers in Asian males. In Malaysia, it is one of the ten most common cancers amongst the male population. Most of our patients with HCC present to us rather late and almost all die within 4 months of diagnosis. HCC occurs more commonly in patients with cirrhosis associated with hepatitis B and C infections. Screening for HCC can lead to early detection of small tumours (< 5 cm) that are more amenable to surgical resection, resulting in improved survival rates. The average 5-year survival rate for those who have undergone surgical resection is 68% (range, 22-73%). Better results are obtained with the smaller tumours (< 2 cm in diameter). Patients with chronic hepatitis B and C infection especially those who are > 45 years of age, who have concomitant cirrhosis or have a family history of HCC should be examined every 3-6 months with periodic serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) measurements and abdominal ultrasound examinations. Abdominal ultrasound is useful in the detection of small tumours. While mass screening for HCC is not cost-effective in countries of low incidence of HCC, screening of high risk groups may be justified in countries with a high endemicity of HBV infection. Screening for HCC in Japan, Taiwan and China appears to yield better results than those in the West. Nonetheless, primary prevention with mass hepatitis B vaccination and blood donor screening for anti-HCV is expected to make a much greater impact in the control of HCC in the years to come.

  3. [Medullary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Niccoli-Sire, P; Conte-Devolx, B

    2007-10-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is developed from thyroid C cells that secrete calcitonin (CT). MTC represents 5-10% of thyroid cancers with a 1-2% incidence in nodular thyroid diseases. Diagnosis is usually made by a solitary nodule often associated to nodal metastasis and confirmed by a high basal CT level which represents its biological marker. MTC may present as a sporadic form and in about 30% of case as a familial form as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, an hereditary dominant inherited disease related to germline mutation of the proto-oncogene RET. Both biological (CT) and genetic (RET) markers allows the optimal diagnosis and treatment of MTC; the former allows screening and early diagnosis of MTC by routinely CT measurements in nodular thyroid diseases that make the adequate and complete surgery required to be performed. The former leads to diagnose familial MTC and to identify at risk subjects in whom early or prophylactic surgery may be performed. Treatment of MTC is based on the complete surgical resection: total thyroidectomy associated to central and laterocervical nodal dissection. For locally advanced or metastatic MTC, complete cervical surgery is required and needs to be associated to other systemic treatments: as chemotherapy is not very efficient, radioimmunotherapy and RET target gene therapy (mainly tyrosine kinase inhibitors) appears as possible valuable therapeutic options for the future. Prognosis of MTC is mainly related to both the stage of the disease and the extend of the initial surgery. Ten-year survival is about 80% when the patients are not surgically cured and reaches 95% when the biological marker CT is normalized after surgery. PMID:17572372

  4. Hepatocellular carcinoma: a review

    PubMed Central

    Balogh, Julius; Victor, David; Asham, Emad H; Burroughs, Sherilyn Gordon; Boktour, Maha; Saharia, Ashish; Li, Xian; Ghobrial, R Mark; Monsour, Howard P

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In the United States, HCC is the ninth leading cause of cancer deaths. Despite advances in prevention techniques, screening, and new technologies in both diagnosis and treatment, incidence and mortality continue to rise. Cirrhosis remains the most important risk factor for the development of HCC regardless of etiology. Hepatitis B and C are independent risk factors for the development of cirrhosis. Alcohol consumption remains an important additional risk factor in the United States as alcohol abuse is five times higher than hepatitis C. Diagnosis is confirmed without pathologic confirmation. Screening includes both radiologic tests, such as ultrasound, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, and serological markers such as α-fetoprotein at 6-month intervals. Multiple treatment modalities exist; however, only orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) or surgical resection is curative. OLT is available for patients who meet or are downstaged into the Milan or University of San Francisco criteria. Additional treatment modalities include transarterial chemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, percutaneous ethanol injection, cryoablation, radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy, and molecularly targeted therapies. Selection of a treatment modality is based on tumor size, location, extrahepatic spread, and underlying liver function. HCC is an aggressive cancer that occurs in the setting of cirrhosis and commonly presents in advanced stages. HCC can be prevented if there are appropriate measures taken, including hepatitis B virus vaccination, universal screening of blood products, use of safe injection practices, treatment and education of alcoholics and intravenous drug users, and initiation of antiviral therapy. Continued improvement in both surgical and nonsurgical approaches has demonstrated

  5. Merkel cell carcinoma and chronic arsenicism.

    PubMed

    Lien, H C; Tsai, T F; Lee, Y Y; Hsiao, C H

    1999-10-01

    Arsenic is a well-documented human carcinogen. Bowen's disease, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma are the most common skin cancers found in patients exposed to arsenic over the long term. Merkel cell carcinoma has been documented in Taiwanese patients who resided in an endemic area of black foot disease, another condition found in patients with chronic arsenicism. We collected all cases of Merkel cell carcinoma diagnosed at two medical centers in Taiwan (N = 11) to find a possible association between chronic arsenicism and Merkel cell carcinoma. In our study 6 of the 11 patients were residents of the endemic areas for chronic arsenicism.

  6. Thyroid carcinoma, version 2.2014.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, R Michael; Haddad, Robert I; Ball, Douglas W; Byrd, David; Dickson, Paxton; Duh, Quan-Yang; Ehya, Hormoz; Haymart, Megan; Hoh, Carl; Hunt, Jason P; Iagaru, Andrei; Kandeel, Fouad; Kopp, Peter; Lamonica, Dominick M; Lydiatt, William M; McCaffrey, Judith; Moley, Jeffrey F; Parks, Lee; Raeburn, Christopher D; Ridge, John A; Ringel, Matthew D; Scheri, Randall P; Shah, Jatin P; Sherman, Steven I; Sturgeon, Cord; Waguespack, Steven G; Wang, Thomas N; Wirth, Lori J; Hoffmann, Karin G; Hughes, Miranda

    2014-12-01

    These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on some of the major updates to the 2014 NCCN Guidelines for Thyroid Carcinoma. Kinase inhibitor therapy may be used to treat thyroid carcinoma that is symptomatic and/or progressive and not amenable to treatment with radioactive iodine. Sorafenib may be considered for select patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma, whereas vandetanib or cabozantinib may be recommended for select patients with metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma. Other kinase inhibitors may be considered for select patients with either type of thyroid carcinoma. A new section on "Principles of Kinase Inhibitor Therapy in Advanced Thyroid Cancer" was added to the NCCN Guidelines to assist with using these novel targeted agents.

  7. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bo Mi; Park, Sung Hee; Kim, Soo Jin; Seo, Jae Seung; Kim, Yang Soo; Shim, Hyung Jin; Lee, Jong Beum

    2014-09-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma is uncommon in children and constitutes 0.5% to 3% of all pediatric malignancies. Few studies have reported imaging findings of childhood papillary thyroid carcinomas. We report 3 cases of papillary thyroid carcinomas in children. Among the 3 patients, the youngest was a 7-year-old girl. In the current report, we describe 2 cases of classic papillary thyroid carcinoma and 1 case of pediatric diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The ultrasonographic features and diagnostic procedures in these pediatric patients are similar to those in adults.

  8. [Lactobacilli and colon carcinoma--A review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shumei; Zhang, Lanwei; Shan, Yujuan

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological studies showed that incidence of colon carcinoma is increased in the world. There are many difficulties to inhibit colon carcinoma because the causes of inducing colon carcinoma were various and interactive each other. Previous evidence supported the balance of the colonic microflora was critical in inhibiting colon carcinoma and the protection by colonic microflora could be improved by ingesting lactobacilli. Therefore, the biological functions and anticancer effects of lactobacilli attract attention of researchers. In this review we discussed the causes of colon carcinoma; the anticancer mechanisms of lactobacilli on the basis of our own studies. Eventually, we summarized the effects of anticancer of different components and metabolic products extracted from lactobacilli.

  9. Tubulocystic carcinoma of kidney associated with papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Mahesh; Shet, Tanuja; Bakshi, Ganesh; Desai, Sangeeta

    2011-01-01

    Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TCRCC) is a rare variant of renal cell carcinoma, which has distinct histology but there is some controversy about its association with papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) and cell of origin in literature. We report an 18-year-old girl with the rare TCRCC of kidney associated with PRCC with metastases to the para-aortic nodes. The patient presented with hematuria and a right renal mass with enlarged regional nodes for which a radical nephrectomy with retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was done. On gross examination, a solid cystic lesion involving the lower pole and middle pole of the kidney measuring 12x9x9 cm was seen along with an additional cystic lesion in upper pole of kidney. Microscopically the main tumor showed the typical histology of a tubulocystic carcinoma with multiple cysts filled with secretions lined by variably flattened epithelium with hobnailing of cells. The mass in the upper pole was a high-grade PRCC and the nodal metastases had morphology similar to this component. To conclude, at least a small but definite subset of TCRCC is associated with PRCC, and cases associated with PRCC do seem to have a higher propensity for nodal metastasis as in the case we report.

  10. Xenotransplanted human prostate carcinoma (DU145) cells develop into carcinomas and cribriform carcinomas: ultrastructural aspects.

    PubMed

    Gilloteaux, Jacques; Jamison, James M; Neal, Deborah R; Summers, Jack L; Taper, Henryk S

    2012-10-01

    Androgen-independent, human prostate carcinoma cells (DU145) develop into solid, carcinomatous xenotransplants on the diaphragm of nu/nu mice. Tumors encompass at least two poorly differentiated cell types: a rapidly dividing, eosinophilic cell comprises the main cell population and a few, but large basophilic cells able to invade the peritoneal stroma, the muscular tissue, lymph vessels. Poor cell contacts, intracytoplasmic lumina, and signet cells are noted. Lysosomal activities are reflected by entoses and programmed cell deaths forming cribriform carcinomas. In large tumors, degraded cells may align with others to facilitate formation of blood supply routes. Malignant cells would spread via ascites and through lymphatics.

  11. Mitochondriome and Cholangiocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bahitham, Wesam; Liao, Xiaoping; Peng, Fred; Bamforth, Fiona; Chan, Alicia; Mason, Andrew; Stone, Bradley; Stothard, Paul; Sergi, Consolato

    2014-01-01

    Cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCA) of the liver was the target of more interest, recently, due mainly to its increased incidence and possible association to new environmental factors. Somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been found in several cancers. Some of these malignancies contain changes of mtDNA, which are not or, very rarely, found in the mtDNA databases. In terms of evolutionary genetics and oncology, these data are extremely interesting and may be considered a sign of poor fitness, which may conduct in some way to different cellular processes, including carcinogenesis. MitoChip analysis is a strong tool for investigations in experimental oncology and was carried out on three CCA cell lines (HuCCT1, Huh-28 and OZ) with different outcome in human and a Papova-immortalized normal hepatocyte cell line (THLE-3). Real time quantitative PCR, western blot analysis, transmission electron microscopy, confocal laser microscopy, and metabolic assays including L-Lactate and NAD+/NADH assays were meticulously used to identify mtDNA copy number, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) content, ultrastructural morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and differential composition of metabolites, respectively. Among 102 mtDNA changes observed in the CCA cell lines, 28 were non-synonymous coding region alterations resulting in an amino acid change. Thirty-eight were synonymous and 30 involved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) regions. We found three new heteroplasmic mutations in two CCA cell lines (HuCCT1 and Huh-28). Interestingly, mtDNA copy number was decreased in all three CCA cell lines, while complexes I and III were decreased with depolarization of mitochondria. L-Lactate and NAD+/NADH assays were increased in all three CCA cell lines. MtDNA alterations seem to be a common event in CCA. This is the first study using MitoChip analysis with comprehensive metabolic studies in CCA cell lines potentially creating a platform for future

  12. Spontaneous regression of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Ayres, R C; Robertson, D A; Dewbury, K C; Millward-Sadler, G H; Smith, C L

    1990-01-01

    A 63 year old white woman presented with abdominal discomfort, anorexia, and weight loss. Investigations showed hepatocellular carcinoma with pulmonary metastases. The primary and secondary tumours resolved without specific treatment. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2165992

  13. Transrectal Ultrasound of Prostatic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Daniel J.; Cooperberg, Peter L.; Goldenberg, S. Larry; Toi, Ants

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the indications for transrectal ultrasound; to briefly describe the sonographic technique; to describe the sonographic findings of prostatic carcinoma; to review the indications for transrectal sonographic-guided biopsy; and to discuss the controversles of routine screening and staging. ImagesFigures 1-3 PMID:21229044

  14. Genomic homogeneity in fibrolamellar carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Sirivatanauksorn, Y; Sirivatanauksorn, V; Lemoine, N; Williamson, R; Davidson, B

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Fibrolamellar carcinoma (FLC) is a variant of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with distinctive clinical and histological features. To date there have been few studies on the genotypic aspects of FLC and no previous attempts have been made to use the arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) technique to detect genetic alterations in this disease.
AIM—The aim of this study was to assess the degree of genomic heterogeneity of FLC using the AP-PCR technique.
METHODS—A total of 50 tissue samples of primary and metastatic FLCs from seven patients were microdissected. AP-PCR amplification of each genomic DNA sample was carried out using two arbitrary primers.
RESULTS—DNA fingerprints of the primary FLCs and all their metastatic lesions (both synchronous and metachronous disease) were identical in an individual patient. The fingerprints were different between tumours of different patients. No evidence of intratumour heterogeneity was observed.
CONCLUSIONS—Such genomic homogeneity in FLCs may explain their indolent growth. The absence of clonal evolution, which is present in other tumours (particularly HCCs), may explain the distinct behaviour in this tumour. The tumorigenic pathway and degree of somatic genomic changes in this disease may be less complex than in HCC.


Keywords: fibrolamellar carcinoma; hepatocellular carcinoma; DNA fingerprint; arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction; laser capture microdissection PMID:11413114

  15. Radiotherapy T1 glottic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zablow, A.I.; Erba, P.S.; Sanfillippo, L.J.

    1989-11-01

    From 1970 to 1985, curative radiotherapy was administered to 63 patients with stage I carcinoma of the true vocal cords. Precision radiotherapeutic technique yields cure rates comparable to surgical results. Good voice quality was preserved in a high percentage of patients.

  16. Mandible metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Niedzielska, Iwona; Langowska-Adamczyk, Helena; Pajak, Jacek; Kajor, Maciej; Niedzielski, Zbigniew; Gołka, Dariusz

    2004-01-01

    Metastases to oral cavity are very uncommon. We present a case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis to the jaw. The x-ray examination and clinical picture of the lesion were not characteristic. The gingival metastasis may mimic other benign and malignant conditions which affect jaw and therefore the histopathological examination is necessary to make an ultimate diagnosis.

  17. Insular carcinoma: a distinct de novo entity among follicular carcinomas of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Pilotti, S; Collini, P; Mariani, L; Placucci, M; Bongarzone, I; Vigneri, P; Cipriani, S; Falcetta, F; Miceli, R; Pierotti, M A; Rilke, F

    1997-12-01

    We reclassified 720 nonmedullary invasive thyroid carcinomas diagnosed and treated between 1975 and 1993. Twenty-seven cases met the criteria of insular carcinoma and 29 cases those of widely invasive follicular carcinoma. Comparison of these histotypes with respect to pathologic stage and overall, relative, and visceral metastasis-free survival showed a significant association between histotype and pT and pN categories. In particular, pT4 (p < 0.001) and pN1 (p < 0.001) categories were more frequent in the insular carcinoma histotype. By contrast, no significant differences in overall, relative, or visceral metastasis-free survival were observed between insular carcinoma and widely invasive follicular carcinoma. Molecular analysis by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism demonstrated RAS gene family point mutations in five of eight cases analyzed in each of the two histotypes, with a high proportion of CAA-->AAA transversion at codon 61 of the N-RAS gene in insular carcinoma. These findings suggest that insular carcinoma represents a de novo entity distinct from widely invasive follicular carcinoma, that widely invasive follicular carcinoma has biologic characteristics more consistent with poorly differentiated than well-differentiated carcinomas, and that both insular carcinoma and widely invasive follicular carcinoma share similar molecular alterations.

  18. Synchronous invasive ductal carcinoma in encapsulated papillary ductal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Regan, J.P.; Casaubon, J.T.; Genelus-Dominique, E.

    2016-01-01

    Encapsulated papillary ductal carcinoma (EPC) of the breast is a rare form of cancer with defining histopathology of encapsulation. These lesions are typically indolent but may rarely have concomitant, synchronous invasive lesions. This report details a 56-year-old black female who presented with a palpable left breast mass. Adenosis with focal fibrous and ductal hyperplasia characteristics were found on core needle biopsy. Excisional biopsy showed EPC with invasive components. A simple mastectomy was performed and a second lesion was identified as invasive ductal carcinoma. EPC typically has good prognosis and a low incidence of invasion. The risk increases in the presence of a second, synchronous lesion as in our case. Management is typically performed with breast conserving methods; however, missing a second lesion is possible. This report provides an overview of the literature and discussion of the role of MRI in preoperative workup. PMID:27562577

  19. Renal cell carcinoma: Evolving and emerging subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Crumley, Suzanne M; Divatia, Mukul; Truong, Luan; Shen, Steven; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rapidly expanding. For those who diagnose and treat RCC, it is important to understand the new developments. In recent years, many new renal tumors have been described and defined, and our understanding of the biology and clinical correlates of these tumors is changing. Evolving concepts in Xp11 translocation carcinoma, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, multilocular cystic clear cell RCC, and carcinoma associated with neuroblastoma are addressed within this review. Tubulocystic carcinoma, thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of kidney, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, and clear cell papillary RCC are also described. Finally, candidate entities, including RCC with t(6;11) translocation, hybrid oncocytoma/chromophobe RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome, and renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor are reviewed. Knowledge of these new entities is important for diagnosis, treatment and subsequent prognosis. This review provides a targeted summary of new developments in RCC. PMID:24364021

  20. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  1. Clear cell carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, C; Carlile, A

    1985-01-01

    Six tumours of the lung initially classified as clear cell carcinoma, were studied. Examination of further material by light and electron microscopy showed adenocarcinomatous differentiation in three cases and squamous differentiation in two. One case showed the features of a large cell anaplastic carcinoma. The clear appearance of the cytoplasm in paraffin sections was due to accumulations of glycogen that were partially removed during processing. It is concluded that clear cell carcinoma is not a single and separate entity. Images PMID:4031101

  2. Small cell carcinoma of epididymis: multimodal therapy.

    PubMed

    Lima, Guilherme C; Varkarakis, Ioannis M; Allaf, Mohamad E; Fine, Samson W; Kavoussi, Louis R

    2005-08-01

    Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma is an infrequent tumor that can occur in various organs. Although a few sporadic reports about extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma have been published, much remains to be uncovered about the clinical features, optimal treatment, and natural history. We present a case of small cell carcinoma of the epididymis with retroperitoneal recurrence, an exceedingly rare tumor with behavior and treatment not well characterized. Multimodal therapy with chemotherapy and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was necessary to manage this aggressive disease.

  3. [Tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Tateishi, Ryosuke; Enooku, Kenichiro; Shiina, Shuichiro; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2012-05-01

    Three tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are available in Japan: alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonists-II (PIVKA-II), and Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3). Although AFP has drawbacks in its specificity, it is widely utilized in treatment evaluation and prognosis prediction. PIVKA-II is a unique marker that does not correlate with AFP value and can predict microvascular invasion. AFP-L3 is a highly specific marker and strong predictor of poor prognosis. These three markers are indispensable in every aspect of clinical practice of hepatocellular carcinoma including surveillance, diagnosis, treatment evaluation, and prognosis prediction.

  4. Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Rainey, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The human adrenal cortex secretes mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens. These steroids are produced from unique cell types located within the three distinct zones of the adrenal cortex. Disruption of adrenal steroid production results in a variety of diseases that can lead to hypertension, metabolic syndrome, infertility and androgen excess. The adrenal cortex is also a common site for the development of adenomas, and rarely the site for the development of carcinomas. The adenomas can lead to diseases associated with adrenal steroid excess, while the carcinomas are particularly aggressive and have a poor prognosis. In vitro cell culture models provide an important tool to examine molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling both the normal and pathologic function of the adrenal cortex. Herein we discuss the human adrenocortical cell lines and their use as model systems for adrenal studies. PMID:21924324

  5. Allelic loss in colorectal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, S.E.; Fearon, E.R.; Tersmette, K.W.F.; Enterline, J.P.; Vogelstein, B.; Hamilton, S.R. ); Leppert, M.; Nakamura, Yusuke; White, R. )

    1989-06-02

    Clinical and pathological associations with molecular genetic alterations were studied in colorectal carcinomas from 83 patients. Fractional allelic loss, a measure of allelic deletions throughout the genome, and allelic deletions of specific chromosomal arms (the short arm of 17 and long arm of 18) each provided independent prognostic information by multivariate analysis when considered individually with Dukes' classification. Distant metastasis was significantly associated with high fractional allelic loss and with deletions of 17p and 18q. Mutations of ras proto-oncogenes and deletions of 5q had no prognostic importance. Statistically significant associations were also found between allelic losses and a family history of cancer, left-sided tumor location, and absence of extracellular tumor mucin. Allelic deletion analysis thus identified subsets of colorectal carcinoma with increased predilection for distant metastasis and cancer-related death. Further studies may define a subset of genetic alterations that can be used clinically to help assess prognosis.

  6. Gastric Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rustagi, Tarun; Alekshun, Todd J.

    2010-01-01

    Case: A 63-year-old male presented with unintentional weight loss of 20 pounds over a 4-month duration. He reported loss of appetite, intermittent post-prandial nausea, bloating and early satiety. He also complained of dyspepsia and had been treated for reflux during the previous 2 years. He denied vomiting, dysphagia, odynophagia, abdominal pain, melena, hematochezia, or alterations in bowel habits. Additionally, he denied fevers, night sweats, cough, or dyspnea. He quit smoking 25 years ago, and denied alcohol use. His past medical history was significant for basal cell carcinoma treated with local curative therapy and he was without recurrence on surveillance. Pertinent family history included a paternal uncle with lung cancer at the age of 74. Physical examination was unremarkable except for occult heme-positive stools. Laboratory evaluation revealed elevated liver enzymes (ALT-112, AST-81, AlkPhos-364). CT scan of the chest, abdomen and pelvis showed diffuse heterogeneous liver with extensive nodularity, raising the concern for metastases. Serum tumor-markers: PSA, CEA, CA 19-9, and AFP were all within normal limits. Screening colonoscopy was normal, but esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a malignant-appearing ulcerative lesion involving the gastro-esophageal junction and gastric cardia. Pathology confirmed an invasive gastric large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of a hepatic lesion revealed malignant cells with cytologic features consistent with large-cell type carcinoma and positive immunostaining for synaptophysin favoring neuroendocrine differentiation. A PET-CT demonstrated intense diffuse FDG uptake of the liver, suggesting diffuse hepatic parenchymal infiltration by tumor. There were multiple foci of intense osseous FDG uptake with corresponding osteolytic lesions seen on CT scan. The remaining intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic structures were unremarkable. The patient will receive palliative systemic therapy

  7. Carcinoma in accessory axillary breast.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Seema; Mishra, Shashi Prakash; Kumar, Satendra; Khanna, Ajay Kumar

    2015-08-10

    We present a rare case of carcinoma developing in an accessory breast. The patient presented with a progressive lump in her right axilla for 1 year. On examination, there was a well-developed nipple areola complex in the right axilla overlying a hard, fixed 5 × 3 cm lump. On investigation, core biopsy revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma of the breast. Mammography also revealed features of a malignant lesion with skin and muscle infiltration. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered followed by modified radical mastectomy after three cycles. Immunohistochemistry study showed positive status of oestrogen and progesterone receptors, and negative HER-2 neu. Three more cycles of chemotherapy along with 50 Gy radiotherapy were given in an adjuvant setting followed by hormone therapy.

  8. Cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gaitan-Gaona, Francisco; Said, Mirra C; Valdes-Rodriguez, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman presented with a 3 cm black, ulcerated nodule located on the skin of the upper abdomen, just below the breast. The lesion was painful to the touch, but the patient reported no other associated symptoms and was otherwise healthy. A 4-mm punch biopsy of the affected skin was obtained and the histological diagnosis was cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma. PMID:27136637

  9. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of trachea.

    PubMed

    Vigg, Ajit; Mantri, Sumant; Vigg, Avanti; Vigg, Arul

    2004-01-01

    A 20-year-old male, presented with cough, haemoptysis, breathlessness and wheezing for the past one month. Contrast enhanced computerised tomographic (CECT), scan of chest and fibreoptic bronchoscopy revealed an endotracheal mass that on histopathological examination showed adenoid cystic carcinoma of trachea. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of chest confirmed involvement of adjacent prevertebral, para-oesophageal and subcarinal lymph nodes rendering the tumour inoperable. PMID:15515830

  10. Renal cell carcinoma in childhood.

    PubMed

    Kabala, J E; Shield, J; Duncan, A

    1992-01-01

    The imaging features of renal cell carcinoma in 4 young patients (age 7 to 14 years) are described. A high proportion (75%) showed calcification on plain radiographs or computed tomography (CT). Both patients who underwent CT showed well defined high density tumours which were also echogenic on ultrasound examination. These findings are significantly different to those most commonly seen on studies of the tumour in adults.

  11. Anaplastic giant cell thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wallin, G; Lundell, G; Tennvall, J

    2004-01-01

    Anaplastic (giant cell) thyroid carcinoma (ATC), is one of the most aggressive malignancies in humans with a median survival time after diagnosis of 3-6 months. Death from ATC was earlier seen because of local growth and suffocation. ATC is uncommon, accounting for less than 5 % of all thyroid carcinomas. The diagnosis can be established by means of multiple fine needle aspiration biopsies, which are neither harmful nor troublesome for the patient. The cytological diagnosis of this high-grade malignant tumour is usually not difficult for a well trained cytologist. The intention to treat patients with ATC is cure, although only few of them survive. The majority of the patients are older than 60 years and treatment must be influenced by their high age. We have by using a combined modality regimen succeeded in achieving local control in most patients. Every effort should be made to control the primary tumour and thereby improve the quality of remaining life and it is important for patients, relatives and the personnel to know that cure is not impossible. Different treatment combinations have been used since 30 years including radiotherapy, cytostatic drugs and surgery, when feasible. In our latest combined regimen, 22 patients were treated with hyper fractionated radiotherapy 1.6Gy x 2 to a total target dose of 46 Gy given preoperatively, 20 mg doxorubicin was administered intravenously once weekly and surgery was carried out 2-3 weeks after the radiotherapy. 17 of these 22 patients were operated upon and none of these 17 patients got a local recurrence. In the future we are awaiting the development of new therapeutic approaches to this aggressive type of carcinoma. Inhibitors of angiogenesis might be useful. Combretastatin has displayed cytotoxicity against ATC cell lines and has had a positive effect on ATC in a patient. Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) genetherapy is also being currently considered for dedifferentiated thyroid carcinomas with the ultimate aim of

  12. Human papillomavirus in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Loke, S L; Ma, L; Wong, M; Srivastava, G; Lo, I; Bird, C C

    1990-01-01

    Thirty seven cases of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma were studied by applying DNA slot blot analysis and in situ hybridisation using type specific probes for HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18. Cases of condyloma accuminata, cervical carcinoma, and laryngeal papilloma were used as controls. Blocks including areas of invasive carcinoma, intraepithelial neoplasia, and normal epithelium were studied in each case. No HPV genome was detectable in any of the oesophageal cases. It is concluded that these types of HPV do not have an association with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Images PMID:2175754

  13. Small cell carcinoma of the bladder

    PubMed Central

    Calado, Bruno Nagel; Maron, Paulo Eduardo Goulart; Vedovato, Bruno César; Barrese, Tomas Zecchini; Fernandes, Roni de Carvalho; Perez, Marjo Deninson Cardenuto

    2015-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is an extremely aggressive and rare tumor. Even though small cell carcinoma most commonly arises from the lungs there are several reports of small cell carcinoma in extrapulmonary sites. Due to its low frequency there is no well-established management for this disease. We report the case of a 61 year-old man with small cell carcinoma of the bladder who underwent radical cystectomy following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We also reviewed the literature for the optimal treatment strategy. PMID:25517085

  14. Neural invasion in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Mori, M; Adachi, Y; Kamakura, T; Ikeda, Y; Maehara, Y; Sugimachi, K

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To determine whether neural invasion in advanced gastric cancer is of clinicopathological significance. METHODS--The study population comprised 121 cases of primary advanced gastric carcinoma. Two paraffin wax embedded blocks taken from the central tissue slice in each primary tumour were used. For definitive recognition of neural invasion, immunostaining for S-100 protein was applied to one slide; the other slide was stained with haematoxylin and eosin. RESULTS--Neural invasion was recognised in 34 of 121 (28%) primary gastric carcinomas. There were significant differences in tumour size, depth of tumour invasion, stage, and curability between patients with and without neural invasion. The five year survival rates of patients with and without neural invasion were 10 and 50%, respectively. Multivariate analysis, however, demonstrated that neural invasion was not an independent prognostic factor. CONCLUSIONS--Neural invasion could be an additional useful factor for providing information about the malignant potential of gastric carcinoma. This may be analogous to vessel permeation which is thought to be important, but is not an independent prognostic factor. Images PMID:7745113

  15. [Current management of hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, I; Féray, C

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the major complication of chronic liver diseases and particularly of cirrhosis whatever its etiology. Once encountered mainly in the endemic countries of hepatitis B and C, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (6/100,000) is parallel to the global development of diabetes, overweight and alcohol consumption. Little progress has been made for this cancer, whose mortality is 100 % at 10 years. Liver transplantation is the only truly curative treatment (survival more than 50 % at 10 years) since it allows the eradication of hepatocellular carcinoma and its essential cause, cirrhotic liver. This is the only possible therapy when liver function is impaired. It has little impact since in the richest countries, less than 10 % of cases can be transplanted. Surgical resection and percutaneous destruction methods (uni- and multipolar radiofrequency, microwave, cryotherapy, electroporation) are the preferred treatments (survival less than 50 % at 5 years) but are only applicable for moderate tumour masses and in the absence of adjuvant therapy, are effective only in the medium term. Most patients received chemoembolization through hepatic artery, whose action is modest. Radiotherapy is widely used in Asia but almost non-existent in Western countries in this indication. Sorafenib is the only effective drug but its impact is modest. Therapies combining two modalities (embolization and radiotherapy; embolization and radiofrequency) seem promising and deserve wider testing. Screening and monitoring of cirrhosis is probably the major measure for potentially curative therapies. PMID:26337474

  16. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, and mimickers: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Todd M; Kovalovsky, Andra O; Velosa, Claudia; Shi, Qiuying; Dai, Qian; Owen, Randall P; Bell, Walter C; Wei, Shi; Althof, Pamela A; Sanmann, Jennifer N; Sweeny, Larissa; Carroll, William R; Siegal, Gene P; Bullock, Martin J; Brandwein-Gensler, Margaret

    2015-08-01

    Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently recognized low-grade salivary carcinoma characterized by a specific ETV6 rearrangement. We describe 14 new MASCs and examine their immunophenotypic and genetic profiles in the context of look-alikes, namely, low-and high-grade salivary duct carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. ETV6 rearrangement, and robust expression of mammaglobin and S100, were demonstrated in 11/11, 14/14, and 12/14 MASCs, respectively. All low-grade salivary duct carcinomas coexpressed S100/mammaglobin (6/6); none harbored ETV6 rearrangements (0/5). Given that S100/mammaglobin coexpression and absence of zymogen granules are features of both MASC and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, these two are best distinguished histologically. The former is predominantly an extraductal neoplasm with bubbly pink cytoplasm, whereas the latter is a distinct intraductal micropapillary and cribriform process. Querying ETV6 gene status may be necessary for difficult cases. No acinic cell carcinoma expressed mammaglobin (0/13) or harbored an ETV6 rearrangement (0/7); only 1/13 acinic cell carcinomas weakly expressed S100. DOG1 expression was limited or absent among all tumor types, except acinic cell carcinoma which expressed DOG1 diffusely in a canalicular pattern. Therefore, histology and immunohistochemistry (mammaglobin, S100, DOG1) suffices in distinguishing acinic cell carcinoma from both MASC and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. HER2 (ERBB2) amplification was detected in only 1/10 acinic cell carcinomas, but none of the MASCs or low-grade salivary duct carcinomas tested. High-grade salivary duct carcinomas frequently expressed mammaglobin (11/18) and harbored HER2 amplifications (13/15); none harbored ETV6 rearrangements (0/12). High-grade salivary duct carcinomas can easily be distinguished from these other entities by histology and HER2 amplification.

  17. Immunohistochemical characterization of urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rajcani, J; Kajo, K; Adamkov, M; Moravekova, E; Lauko, L; Felcanova, D; Bencat, M

    2013-01-01

    From the archive of BB Biocyt company, 32 urinary bladder carcinomas (urothelium carcinomas, UC) and 7 cases of chronic cystitis were selected and examined in semiserial sections for the following antigens: 1) cell proliferation marker Ki-67 (expressed in the nuclei), 2) cell cycle regulator p16/INK4a polypeptide (expressed in the cytoplasm and nuclei), 3) urothelium marker p63 (expressed in the nuclei), 4) cytokeratin 7 (CK7). 5) cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and 6) high molecular weight cytokeratin (HMWCK). Invasive urothelium carcinomas showing a high grade dysplasia (invasive HG UC) comprised over the half (20 out of 32) of the investigated tumours. Microinvasion to lamina propria (seen in three HG papillary carcinomas) was regarded as an early infiltration even when the position of muscular layer could not be determined. Classical invasion across the urinary bladder wall and/or to surrounding tissues was found in 17 cases of low-differentiated HG UCs. The rest (9 out of 32 neoplasms) were either non-invasive papillary carcinomas of high (non-invasive HG UC, 5 cases) or low malignant potential (noninvasive LG UC, 4 cases). Finally, 3 cases were papillary urothelium neoplasms of low malignant potential (PUNLMP). HMWCK was present in all invasive tumours, whereas the frequency of other urothelium markers ranged from 65 to 88 %. Nevertheless, at least two markers were expressed in each invasive tumour. Staining for Ki-67 antigen was positive in over 50 % of the nuclei of HG UCs, while in the LG UCs, the frequency of positive Ki-67 staining did not exceed 25 %. In PUNLMP, the positive rate of Ki-67 stained dysplastic cells was below 10 %. The staining for p16 antigen did not correlate with the degree of dysplasia within urothelium tumours. For routine diagnostic, we recommend to combine the Ki-67 staining with detection of HMWCK. In cases of chronic cystitis, which developed urothelial hyperplasia and/or squamous metaplasia, the presence of p63 antigen was a relevant

  18. Cisplatin, Radiation Therapy, and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-02

    Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  19. Mixed primary squamous cell carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dong, Su; Song, Xue-Song; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare, and mixed squamous cell and follicular carcinoma is even rarer still, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The simultaneous presentation of three primary cancers of the thyroid has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old female patient presented with complaints of pain and a 2-month history of progressively increased swelling in the anterior region of the neck. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of both lobes indicated the possibility of the presence of a follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy with left-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine was administered. Radioiodine and radiotherapy also were recommended, but the patient did not complete treatment as scheduled. The patient remained alive more than 9 months after operation. The present case report provides an example of the coexistence of multiple distinct malignancies in the thyroid.

  20. NUT midline carcinomas in the thymic region.

    PubMed

    Gökmen-Polar, Yesim; Cano, Oscar D; Kesler, Kenneth A; Loehrer, Patrick J; Badve, Sunil

    2014-12-01

    NUT midline carcinomas (NMCs) are rare tumors described predominantly in the pediatric age group. We recently reported two cases of these tumors occurring in the thymic region. In order to establish the true incidence of these tumors, we examined a large series of thymic carcinomas for morphological features of NUT tumor and further assessed the expression of NUTM1 (also known as NUT) protein by immunohistochemistry. The histological review of slides from 110 cases of thymic carcinoma was undertaken to identify carcinomas with mixed undifferentiated and squamous features that are typically associated with NUT carcinomas. The presenting symptoms, morphological spectrum of tumors and outcome data of patients with these histologies are presented. Immunohistochemistry for NUTM1 was performed on 35 cases of thymic carcinoma with available blocks (3 with these histological features and 32 without these features) to exclude the possibility of midline carcinoma. Tumors from 10 patients had features of mixed small cell undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma (M:F, 1.5:1; age range, 22-79). These patients predominantly presented with advanced disease and had respiratory-related symptoms or chest pain; four had paraneoplastic syndromes. The squamous component in all cases was well differentiated with little or no atypia. The undifferentiated component varied in cell size and lacked characteristic features of small cell carcinoma. All but one patients developed metastases or died within 3 years of diagnosis. NUTM1 expression was seen in two of three tumors with these histological features and in none of the 32 cases without. Mixed small cell undifferentiated carcinomas share histological and immunohistochemical similarity with NMCs and have aggressive clinical course. These tumors are not uncommon and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of carcinomas in the thymic region as novel therapies might be available.

  1. The diagnostic utility of the minimal carcinoma triple stain in breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Ross, Dara S; Liu, Yi-Fang; Pipa, Jennifer; Shin, Sandra J

    2013-01-01

    Pathologists are expected to accurately diagnose increasingly smaller breast carcinomas. Correct classification (ie, lobular vs ductal or in situ vs invasive) directly affects subsequent management, especially when the focus is near a surgical margin or present in a needle core biopsy and is further challenging if the lesion is morphologically ambiguous. We assessed the diagnostic utility of a multiplex, trichromogen immunostain of 3 commonly employed antibodies (CK7, p63, and E-cadherin) developed in our laboratory to evaluate these small lesions. Of the 147 specimens containing minimal (defined as ≤3 mm in size) invasive carcinoma, 81 also contained in situ carcinoma. In each case, the Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain was prepared with a parallel H&E-stained slide. Observations of staining characteristics in the focus of interest were recorded. The Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain was diagnostically useful in all but 1 case. In a case of invasive lobular carcinoma in an excisional biopsy, the Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain stained only the surrounding breast tissue (appropriately) and not the focus of interest. Also, a subset of 29 of 81 excisional biopsies had minimal invasive carcinoma located 2 mm or less from the inked surgical margin, in which in all cases the Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain was fully interpretable despite morphologic distortion due to concomitant cautery artifact and tissue disruption in some cases. The Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain offers an accurate and tissue-conserving method to diagnose small, morphologically problematic foci of breast carcinoma while ideally leaving more tissue for additional adjunctive studies.

  2. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado Filho, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Background Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Objectives Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Methods Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). Results The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. Conclusion The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment.

  3. Monitoring the progression from intraductal carcinoma to invasive ductal carcinoma based on multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan; Fu, Fangmeng; Lian, Yuane; Nie, Yuting; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Jianxin

    2015-09-01

    Intraductal carcinoma is a precancerous lesion of the breast and the immediate precursor of invasive ductal carcinoma. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was used to monitor the progression from intraductal carcinoma to invasive ductal carcinoma, which can improve early detection of precursor lesions and halt progression to invasive neoplastic disease. It was found that MPM has the capability to reveal the qualitative changes in features of cells, structure of basement membranes, and architecture of collagens during the development from intraductal carcinoma to invasive ductal carcinoma, as well as the quantitative alterations in nuclear area, circle length of basement membrane, and collagen density. Combined with intra-fiberoptic ductoscopy or transdermal biopsy needle, MPM has the potential to provide immediate histological diagnosis of tumor progression in the field of breast carcinoma.

  4. Chemotherapy With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-04

    Recurrent Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Neck With Occult Primary; Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic in the Neck With Occult Primary; Stage IV Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVB Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVC Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Tongue Carcinoma; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma to Neck With Occult Primary

  5. Current Aspects on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Markopoulos, Anastasios K

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial neoplasm affecting the oral cavity. This article overviews the essential points of oral squamous cell carcinoma, highlighting its risk and genomic factors, the potential malignant disorders and the therapeutic approaches. It also emphasizes the importance of the early diagnosis. PMID:22930665

  6. Epidermoid carcinoma arising in Warthin's tumor.

    PubMed

    Bolat, Filiz; Kayaselcuk, Fazilet; Erkan, Alper Nabi; Cagici, Can Alper; Bal, Nebil; Tuncer, Ilhan

    2004-01-01

    Warthin's tumor is a well-defined salivary gland neoplasm consisting of benign epithelial and lymphoid components. However, malignant transformation is extremely rare and the differential diagnosis of metastasis from an epidermoid carcinoma in Warthin's tumor is important. We present a case with epidermoid carcinoma arising in Warthin's tumor of parotid gland in a 48-year-old woman, and differential diagnosis is discussed.

  7. [Suprarenal carcinoma of an unusual size].

    PubMed

    Céspedes Mas, S; López de la Torre Casares, M; Gómez Morales, M; Medina Cano, M T; Vílchez Joya, R

    1993-06-01

    Suprarenal carcinoma is an unusual entity, rarely surpassing 4,000 gr. In general, tumors of such big size are not functional. We present a case of a 31-years-old woman with a suprarenal carcinoma weighting 5,200 gr, in which hormonal production was clinically and biochemically demonstrated.

  8. [Lactobacilli and colon carcinoma--A review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shumei; Zhang, Lanwei; Shan, Yujuan

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological studies showed that incidence of colon carcinoma is increased in the world. There are many difficulties to inhibit colon carcinoma because the causes of inducing colon carcinoma were various and interactive each other. Previous evidence supported the balance of the colonic microflora was critical in inhibiting colon carcinoma and the protection by colonic microflora could be improved by ingesting lactobacilli. Therefore, the biological functions and anticancer effects of lactobacilli attract attention of researchers. In this review we discussed the causes of colon carcinoma; the anticancer mechanisms of lactobacilli on the basis of our own studies. Eventually, we summarized the effects of anticancer of different components and metabolic products extracted from lactobacilli. PMID:26562990

  9. Fascin expression in colorectal carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Ozerhan, Ismail Hakki; Ersoz, Nail; Onguru, Onder; Ozturk, Mustafa; Kurt, Bulent; Cetiner, Sadettin

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to investigate the significance of fascin expression in colorectal carcinoma. METHODS This is a retrospective study of 167 consecutive, well-documented cases of primary colorectal adenocarcinoma for which archival material of surgical specimens from primary tumor resections were available. We chose a representative tissue sample block and examined fascin expression by immunohistochemistry using a primary antibody against “fascin”. We calculated the “immunohistochemical score (IHS)” of fascin for each case, which was calculated from the multiplication of scores for the percentage of stained cells and the staining intensity. RESULTS Fascin immunoreactivity was observed in 59 (35.3%) of all cases with strong reactivity in 24 (14.4%), moderate reactivity in 25 (14.9%) and weak reactivity in 10 (6.0%) cases. Strong/moderate immunoreactivities were mostly observed in invasive fronts of the tumors or in both invasive and other areas. Fascin immunoreactivity scores were significantly higher in tumors with lymph node metastasis (p:0.002) and advanced stage presentation (p:0.007). There was no relation between fascin expression and age, gender, depth of invasion, distant metastasis or histological grade (p>0.05). There was a higher and statistically significant correlation between fascin immunoreactivity in the invasive borders of tumors and lymph node metastasis (r:0.747, p:0.005). In stage III/IV tumors, two-year survival was 92.2% in tumors without fascin immunoreactivity, and only 60.0% in tumors with a fascin IHS>10 (p:0.003). CONCLUSION These findings suggest that fascin is heterogeneously expressed in approximately one third of colorectal carcinomas with a significant association with lymph node metastasis, tumor stage and location. Moreover, these results indicate that fascin may have a role in the lymph node metastasis of colorectal carcinomas. PMID:20186299

  10. Transhemangioma Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Pua, Uei

    2012-12-15

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-established treatment modality in the treatment of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [1]. Safe trajectory of the RFA probe is crucial in decreasing collateral tissue damage and unwarranted probe transgression. As a percutaneous technique, however, the trajectory of the needle is sometimes constrained by the available imaging plane. The presence of a hemangioma beside an HCC is uncommon but poses the question of safety related to probe transgression. We hereby describe a case of transhemangioma ablation of a dome HCC.

  11. Oncogenic viruses and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ben Ari, Ziv; Weitzman, Ella; Safran, Michal

    2015-05-01

    About 80% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections especially in the setting of established cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis, making HCC prevention a major goal of antiviral therapy. HCC tumors are highly complex and heterogeneous resulting from the aberrant function of multiple molecular pathways. The roles of HCV or HBV in promoting HCC development are still either directly or indirectly are still speculative, but the evidence for both effects is compelling. In patients with chronic hepatitis viral infection, cirrhosis is not a prerequisite for tumorigenesis.

  12. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed

    Karthiga, Kannan S; Sivapatha Sundharam, B; Manikandan, R

    2006-01-01

    Binkley and Johnson first reported this syndrome in 1951. But it was in 1960, Gorlin-Goltz established the association of basal cell epithelioma, jaw cyst and bifid ribs, a combination which is now frequently known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome as well as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS). NBCCS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and variable expressivity. NBCCS is characterized by variety of cutaneous, dental, osseous, opthalmic, neurologic and sexual abnormalities. One such case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is reported here with good illustrations.

  13. Localized blanching erythema in a patient with vulvar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hau, Jennifer; Diaz, Lucia; Paravar, Taraneh; Chon, Susan

    2012-05-01

    Mammary-like carcinoma arising in the vulva is a rare type of vulvar malignancy. Cutaneous metastasis of vulvar carcinoma is uncommon and the majority of cases have been reported in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. We describe a 69-year-old woman with mammary-like carcinoma of the vulva with cutaneous metastasis presenting as asymptomatic localized blanching erythema.

  14. GATA-3 and FOXA1 expression is useful to differentiate breast carcinoma from other carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Davis, Drew G; Siddiqui, Momin T; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Stevens, Keith; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Cohen, Cynthia; Li, Xiaoxian Bill

    2016-01-01

    GATA-3, a member of the GATA family of zinc-finger DNA binding proteins, and FOXA1, a member of the forkhead transcription factor family, are both associated with estrogen receptor expression. Both GATA-3 and FOXA1 are useful markers for breast carcinoma, but their expression in the different breast cancer subtypes and other neoplasms has not been thoroughly evaluated. We examined the expression of GATA-3 and FOXA1 in estrogen receptor-positive, Her2/neu-positive, and triple-negative breast carcinomas as well as in 10 other common carcinomas, including hepatocellular, colonic, pancreatic, gastric, endometrial (endometrioid), lung, prostatic, renal cell, urothelial, and ovarian serous carcinomas. Primary and metastatic melanomas and mesotheliomas were also evaluated. GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining of estrogen receptor-positive breast carcinomas was seen in 96.6% and 96.2%, respectively. In triple-negative breast carcinomas, GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining was seen in 21.6% and 15.9%, respectively. Among the other tumors, GATA-3 staining was only seen in urothelial carcinoma (70.9%) and FOXA1 staining was only seen in prostatic (87.5%), urothelial (5.1%) carcinomas, and mesotheliomas (40.0%). In conclusion, GATA-3 and FOXA1 are excellent breast carcinoma markers; however, their utility is limited in the triple-negative subtype. The utility of FOXA1 in diagnosing prostatic carcinoma and mesothelioma warrants further investigation.

  15. Comprehensive Cytomorphologic Analysis of Pulmonary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: Comparison to Small Cell Carcinoma and Non-pulmonary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seokhwi; Chu, Jinah; Kim, Hojoong; Han, Joungho

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cytologic diagnosis of pulmonary adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is frequently challenging and differential diagnosis with small cell carcinoma is often difficult. Methods: Eleven cytologically diagnosed cases of pulmonary AdCC were collected and reviewed according to fifteen cytomorphologic characteristics: small cell size, cellular uniformity, coarse chromatin, hyperchromasia, distinct nucleolus, frequent nuclear molding, granular cytoplasm, organoid cluster, sheet formation, irregular border of cluster, hyaline globule, hyaline basement membrane material, individual cell necrosis or apoptotic body, and necrotic background. Twenty cases of small cell carcinoma and fifteen cases of non-pulmonary AdCC were also reviewed for the comparison. Results: Statistically significant differences were identified between pulmonary AdCC and small cell carcinoma in fourteen of the fifteen cytomorphologic criteria (differences in sheet formation were not statistically significant). Cellular uniformity, distinct nucleolus, granular cytoplasm, distinct cell border, organoid cluster, hyaline globule, and hyaline basement membrane material were characteristic features of AdCC. Frequent nuclear molding, individual cell necrosis, and necrotic background were almost exclusively identified in small cell carcinoma. Although coarse chromatin and irregular cluster border were observed in both, they favored the diagnosis of small cell carcinoma. Hyaline globules were more frequently seen in non-pulmonary AdCC cases. Conclusions: Using the fifteen cytomorphologic criteria described by this study, pulmonary AdCC could be successfully distinguished from small cell carcinoma. Such a comprehensive approach to an individual case is recommended for the cytologic diagnosis of pulmonary AdCC. PMID:26477588

  16. Reevaluation and reclassification of resected lung carcinomas originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma using immunohistochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Nitadori, Jun-ichi; Rekhtman, Natasha; Jones, David R; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Travis, William D

    2015-09-01

    Currently, non-small cell lung carcinomas are primarily classified by light microscopy. However, recent studies have shown that poorly differentiated tumors are more accurately classified by immunohistochemistry. In this study, we investigated the use of immunohistochemical analysis in reclassifying lung carcinomas that were originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. Tumor slides and blocks were available for histologic evaluation, and tissue microarrays were constructed from 480 patients with resected lung carcinomas originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma between 1999 and 2009. Immunohistochemical analyses for p40, p63, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1; clones SPT24 and 8G7G3/1), napsin A, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and CD56 were performed. Staining intensity (weak, moderate, or strong) and distribution (focal or diffuse) were also recorded. Of all, 449 (93.5%) patients were confirmed as having squamous cell carcinomas; the cases were mostly diffusely positive for p40 and negative for TTF-1 (8G7G3/1). Twenty cases (4.2%) were reclassified as adenocarcinoma, as they were positive for TTF-1 (8G7G3/1 or SPT24) with either no or focal p40 expression, and all of them were poorly differentiated with squamoid morphology. In addition, 1 case was reclassified as adenosquamous carcinoma, 4 cases as large cell carcinoma, 4 cases as large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and 2 cases as small cell carcinoma. In poorly differentiated non-small cell lung carcinomas, an accurate distinction between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cannot be reliably determined by morphology alone and requires immunohistochemical analysis, even in resected specimens. Our findings suggest that TTF-1 8G7G3/1 may be better suited as the primary antibody in differentiating adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma.

  17. Planes para atender un cáncer avanzado

    Cancer.gov

    Una planificación cuidadosa reducirá el peso que su familia enfrentará más adelante. La planificación puede incluir asuntos económicos y legales, pero puede ser también búsqueda de significado y de celebración de su vida.

  18. Primary esophageal small cell carcinoma with concomitant invasive squamous cell carcinoma or carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Junya; Ohshima, Koichi; Ikeda, Seiyou; Iwashita, Akinori; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2003-11-01

    Esophageal small cell carcinoma (SmCC) is a rarer, more highly aggressive, and more rapidly growing neoplasm than esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC). SmCC and SqCC also differ in terms of chemotherapy of choice, response to therapy, and prognosis. Accordingly, it is important to differentiate the 2 carcinomas. We studied the histology and immunohistochemical profiles of 6 cases of esophageal SmCC to elucidate the correct diagnosis of this tumor. We performed immunohistochemical analysis antibodies against cytokeratins (CKAE1/AE3, CKCAM5.2, CK34betaE12, CK7, CK8, CK10/13, and CK19), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM; CD56), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), chromogranin-A, S-100 protein, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), E-cadherin, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), and p53. In 3 of the 6 SmCCs, heterogeneous components of in situ or invasive SqCC were observed. SqCC was found in the mucosa adjacent to the main SmCC, and the boundary between SmCC and SqCC was distinct, with no transitional features. Staining for NCAM, NSE, and chromogranin-A was positive in SmCCs, but negative in SqCCs. Both SmCCs and SqCCs were positive for CKAE1/AE3, CKCAM5.2, CK8, and EMA, but only SqCCs were positive for CK34betaE12 and CK19. Moreover, SmCCs containing SqCC components were positive for CEA and E-cadherin, whereas SmCCs without SqCC were negative. Our study suggests that NCAM and NSE are useful markers in diagnosing esophageal SmCC, and CK34betaE12 and CK19 are useful for differentiating SqCC components from SmCC.

  19. Neoadjuvant Intravesical Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Bladder Carcinoma Who Are Undergoing Cystectomy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-22

    Bladder Adenocarcinoma; Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Stage I Bladder Cancer; Stage II Bladder Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer

  20. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-30

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  1. Intracellular signaling and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Iakova, Polina; Timchenko, Lubov; Timchenko, Nikolai A

    2011-02-01

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer related death in the world. The recent development of new techniques for the investigations of global change in the gene expression, signaling pathways and wide genome binding has provided novel information for the mechanisms underlying liver cancer progression. Although these studies identified gene expression signatures in hepatocellular carcinoma, the early steps of the development of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) are not well understood. The development of HCC is a multistep process which includes the progressive alterations of gene expression leading to the increased proliferation and to liver cancer. This review summarizes recent progress in the identification of the key steps of the development of HCC with the focus on early events of carcinogenesis and on the role of translational and epigenetic alterations in the development of HCC. Quiescent stage of the liver is supported by several tumor suppressor proteins including p53, Rb and C/EBPα. Studies with chemical models of liver carcinogenesis and with human HCC have shown that the elevation of gankyrin is responsible for the elimination of these three proteins at early steps of carcinogenesis. Later stages of progression of the liver cancer are associated with alterations in many signaling pathways including translation which leads to epigenetic silencing/activation of many genes. Particularly, recent reports suggest a critical role of histone deacetylase 1, HDAC1, in the development of HCC through the interactions with transcription factors such as C/EBP family proteins. PMID:20850540

  2. HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reusser, Nicole M.; Downing, Christopher; Guidry, Jacqueline; Tyring, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies severely affects the immunosuppressed population, particularly HIV-positive patients and organ-transplant recipients. There is growing incidence of HPV-associated anogenital malignancies as well as a decrease in the average age of affected patients, likely related to the rising number of high-risk individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of HPV-related malignancy. Current treatment options for HPV infection and subsequent disease manifestations include imiquimod, retinoids, intralesional bleomycin, and cidofovir; however, primary prevention with HPV vaccination remains the most effective strategy. This review will discuss anogenital lesions in immunocompromised patients, cutaneous warts at nongenital sites, the association of HPV with skin cancer in immunocompromised patients, warts and carcinomas in organ-transplant patients, HIV-positive patients with HPV infections, and the management of cutaneous disease in the immunocompromised patient. PMID:26239127

  3. Treatment for metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bensouda, Y; Kaikani, W; Ahbeddou, N; Rahhali, R; Jabri, M; Mrabti, H; Boussen, H; Errihani, H

    2011-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a specific entity different from head and neck carcinoma. Incidence is higher in South-East Asia and North Africa. Prognosis, especially for locally advanced stages (IIB - IVB) and metastasis, remains poor: more than third of cases will present local and/or metastatic recurrence. Overall 5-year survival for all NPC stages ranges from 50% to 70%. The role of chemotherapy in metastasis is well established, and remains an important palliative treatment, although no randomized trial has been reported comparing the different chemotherapy regimens. As 1(st)-line treatment, platin-based regimens seems optimal; in 2(nd) line and after progression under platins, there is no consensus: monotherapy with drugs such as gemcitabine, capecitabine or taxanes has been the most widely tested, with acceptable results. Future trials should integrate targeted therapy, in the light of overexpression of EGFR1 and C-kit in NPC. The present study presents a review of the literature concerning the various studies of metastatic NPC. PMID:21177151

  4. Enrichment of a squamous carcinoma vaccine.

    PubMed

    O-Sullivan, InSug; Chopra, Amla; Cohen, Edward P

    2007-03-01

    We describe a new vaccination strategy for squamous cell carcinoma. In a mouse model, the vaccine is prepared by transfer of unfractionated DNA-fragments (25 kb) from KLN205 cells, a squamous carcinoma cell line (DBA/2 mouse origin [H-2(d)]) into LM cells, a highly immunogenic mouse fibroblast cell line that expresses allogeneic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-determinants (H-2(k)). The number of vaccine cells can then be expanded for multiple immunizations, as desired. As only a small proportion of the transfected cell population was expected to have incorporated DNA segments that included genes specifying antigens associated with the squamous carcinoma cells, we devised a novel strategy to enrich the vaccine for cells that induced immunity to the squamous carcinoma cells. Twenty-five percent of tumor-bearing mice treated by immunization with the vaccine appeared to have rejected the squamous carcinoma cells; they survived indefinitely (more than 70 days). The therapeutic benefits of the enriched vaccine could be further enhanced by treating the tumor-bearing mice with paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent, followed by immunization with the enriched vaccine. Under these circumstances, 75% of mice with squamous carcinoma appeared to have rejected the squamous carcinoma cells. Toxic effects including the development of autoimmune disease were not detected in tumor-bearing mice receiving the combined therapy.

  5. Gene Expression Patterns in Ovarian Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Schaner, Marci E.; Ross, Douglas T.; Ciaravino, Giuseppe; Sørlie, Therese; Troyanskaya, Olga; Diehn, Maximilian; Wang, Yan C.; Duran, George E.; Sikic, Thomas L.; Caldeira, Sandra; Skomedal, Hanne; Tu, I-Ping; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Johnson, Steven W.; O'Dwyer, Peter J.; Fero, Michael J.; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Robert; van de Rijn, Matt; Teng, Nelson N.; Longacre, Teri A.; Botstein, David; Brown, Patrick O.; Sikic, Branimir I.

    2003-01-01

    We used DNA microarrays to characterize the global gene expression patterns in surface epithelial cancers of the ovary. We identified groups of genes that distinguished the clear cell subtype from other ovarian carcinomas, grade I and II from grade III serous papillary carcinomas, and ovarian from breast carcinomas. Six clear cell carcinomas were distinguished from 36 other ovarian carcinomas (predominantly serous papillary) based on their gene expression patterns. The differences may yield insights into the worse prognosis and therapeutic resistance associated with clear cell carcinomas. A comparison of the gene expression patterns in the ovarian cancers to published data of gene expression in breast cancers revealed a large number of differentially expressed genes. We identified a group of 62 genes that correctly classified all 125 breast and ovarian cancer specimens. Among the best discriminators more highly expressed in the ovarian carcinomas were PAX8 (paired box gene 8), mesothelin, and ephrin-B1 (EFNB1). Although estrogen receptor was expressed in both the ovarian and breast cancers, genes that are coregulated with the estrogen receptor in breast cancers, including GATA-3, LIV-1, and X-box binding protein 1, did not show a similar pattern of coexpression in the ovarian cancers. PMID:12960427

  6. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the head and face.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is an important risk factor for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin. These cancers most commonly affect persons with fair skin and blue eyes who sunburn rather than suntan. However, each of these cancers appears to be associated with a different pattern of UV exposure and to be mediated by different intracellular molecular pathways.Some melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants play a direct role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma apart from their role in determining a cancer-prone pigmentory phenotype (fair skin, red hair, blue eyes) through their interactions with other genes regulating immuno-inflammatory responses, DNA repair or apoptosis.In this short review we focus on the aetiological role of UV in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin, and on some associated biopathological events. PMID:26850723

  7. miR-215 overexpression distinguishes ampullary carcinomas from pancreatic carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong Ho; Park, Sang Jae; Kim, Hark Kyun

    2015-06-01

    Distinguishing ampullary carcinoma from pancreatic carcinoma is important because of their different prognoses. microRNAs are differentially expressed according to the tissue of origin. However, there is rare research on the differential diagnosis between the two types of cancers by microRNA in periampullary cancers. The present study was undertaken to compare microRNA profiles between ampullary and pancreatic carcinomas using microarrays. miR-215 was most significantly overexpressed in ampullary carcinomas; whereas the expressions of miR-134 and miR-214 were significantly lower in ampullary carcinomas than in pancreatic carcinomas. When these discriminatory microRNAs were applied to liver metastases, they were correctly predicted for the tissue of origin. Although this study is limited by small sample size, striking difference in microRNA expression and concordant expression of discriminating microRNAs in primary tumors and metastases suggest that these novel discriminatory microRNAs warrant future validation.

  8. Prevalence of Glomerulopathies in Canine Mammary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of paraneoplastic glomerulopathy, especially associated with carcinoma, are a matter of debate and the causal link between cancer and glomerular diseases remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate renal biopsies of selected bitches with spontaneous mammary gland carcinoma. We hypothesized that dogs with mammary carcinomas would show histologic evidence of glomerular pathology. A prospective study was performed in dogs with naturally occurring mammary carcinoma that were undergoing tumor resection and ovariohysterectomy. We evaluated renal biopsies of 32 bitches with spontaneous mammary gland carcinoma and 11 control dogs without mammary gland neoplasia. Samples were obtained from the left kidney and the biopsy material was divided for light microscopy (LM), immunofluorescence (IF) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Light microscopy abnormalities were identified in 78.1% of dogs with mammary carcinoma (n = 25) and in none of the dogs in the control group. Focal glomerular mesangial matrix expansion was the most common alteration (n = 15, 60.0%), but mesangial cell proliferation (n = 9, 36.0%) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (n = 9, 36.0%), synechiae (n = 7, 28.0%), and globally sclerotic glomeruli (n = 6, 24.0%) were also frequent in dogs with malignancy. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed strong IgM staining was demonstrated in 64.3% (n = 18) of carcinoma dogs. Transmission electron microscopy from dogs with carcinoma revealed slight changes, the most frequent of which was faint sub-endothelial and mesangial deposits of electron-dense material (78%). Mesangial cell interpositioning and segmental effacement of podocyte foot processes were identified in some specimens (45%). Changes in the glomerulus and proteinuria are common in dogs with naturally occurring mammary carcinoma and this condition appears to provide an excellent large animal model for cancer-associated glomerulopathy in humans. PMID:27764139

  9. Diagnosing Lung Carcinomas with Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Lida P.; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Lanuti, Michael; Miller, Alyssa J.; Mark, Eugene J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Lung carcinoma diagnosis on tissue biopsy can be challenging because of insufficient tumor and lack of architectural information. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution imaging modality that visualizes tissue microarchitecture in volumes orders of magnitude larger than biopsy. It has been proposed that OCT could potentially replace tissue biopsy. Objectives: We aim to determine whether OCT could replace histology in diagnosing lung carcinomas. We develop and validate OCT interpretation criteria for common primary lung carcinomas: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and poorly differentiated carcinoma. Methods: A total of 82 ex vivo tumor samples were included in a blinded assessment with 3 independent readers. Readers were trained on the OCT criteria, and applied these criteria to diagnose adenocarcinoma, SCC, or poorly differentiated carcinoma in an OCT validation dataset. After a 7-month period, the readers repeated the training and validation dataset interpretation. An independent pathologist reviewed corresponding histology. Measurements and Main Results: The average accuracy achieved by the readers was 82.6% (range, 73.7–94.7%). The sensitivity and specificity for adenocarcinoma were 80.3% (65.7–91.4%) and 88.6% (80.5–97.6%), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for SCC were 83.3% (70.0–100.0%) and 87.0% (75.0–96.5%), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for poorly differentiated carcinoma were 85.7% (81.0–95.2%) and 97.6% (92.9–100.0%), respectively. Conclusions: Although these results are encouraging, they indicate that OCT cannot replace histology in the diagnosis of lung carcinomas. However, OCT has potential to aid in diagnosing lung carcinomas as a complement to tissue biopsy, particularly when insufficient tissue is available for pathology assessment. PMID:25562183

  10. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: Brazilian survey

    PubMed Central

    Cotrim, Helma P.; Oliveira, Claudia P.; Coelho, Henrique Sérgio M.; Alvares-da-Silva, Mario R.; Nabuco, Leticia; Parise, Edison Roberto; Ivantes, Claúdia; Martinelli, Ana LC; Galizzi-Filho, João; Carrilho, Flair J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The majority of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma have been reported in individuals with cirrhosis due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcoholism, but recently, the prevalence has become increasingly related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis around the world. The study aimed to evaluate the clinical and histophatological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in Brazilians' patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis at the present time. METHODS: Members of the Brazilian Society of Hepatology were invited to complete a survey regarding patients with hepatocellular carcinoma related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Patients with a history of alcohol intake (>20 g/day) and other liver diseases were excluded. Hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis was performed by liver biopsy or imaging methods according to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases' 2011 guidelines. RESULTS: The survey included 110 patients with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease from nine hepatology units in six Brazilian states (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul). The mean age was 67±11 years old, and 65.5% were male. Obesity was observed in 52.7% of the cases; diabetes, in 73.6%; dyslipidemia, in 41.0%; arterial hypertension, in 60%; and metabolic syndrome, in 57.2%. Steatohepatitis without fibrosis was observed in 3.8% of cases; steatohepatitis with fibrosis (grades 1-3), in 27%; and cirrhosis, in 61.5%. Histological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was performed in 47.2% of the patients, with hepatocellular carcinoma without cirrhosis accounting for 7.7%. In total, 58 patients with cirrhosis had their diagnosis by ultrasound confirmed by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Of these, 55% had 1 nodule; 17%, 2 nodules; and 28%, ≥3 nodules. CONCLUSIONS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is a relevant risk factor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with and

  11. Carcinoma of gall bladder presenting as dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhaiah, Deepti Akkihebbal; Premkumar, Jennifer Anne; Moses, Viju; Chacko, Geeta

    2011-01-01

    Cancer-related muscle diseases are usually paraneoplastic disorders. Dermatomyositis (DM) is a type of inflammatory myopathy that is strongly associated with a broad range of malignant disorders. The malignancy can occur before, concomitantly or after the onset of myositis. The malignancies most commonly associated with DM are carcinomas of ovary, lung, stomach, colorectal and pancreas, as well as non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. An association of DM with carcinoma of the gall bladder (GB) is extremely rare with only two previously reported cases in the literature. We report a case of carcinoma of GB with DM as the paraneoplastic manifestation. PMID:21655205

  12. Hepatocellular carcinoma: From diagnosis to treatment.

    PubMed

    Grandhi, Miral Sadaria; Kim, Amy K; Ronnekleiv-Kelly, Sean M; Kamel, Ihab R; Ghasebeh, Mounes A; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2016-06-01

    Primary liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer overall and the second most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for up to 90% of all primary hepatic malignancies and represents a major international health problem. While surgical resection and transplantation are the cornerstone of therapy in early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma, locoregional therapy and sorafenib are beneficial in those with more advanced disease or those who are not surgical candidates. At times, the integration of both surgical and locoregional therapy may be necessary. Hence, hepatocellular carcinoma requires a multidisciplinary approach to determine the most appropriate treatment as well as the timing of various treatments for optimal outcomes. PMID:27312032

  13. [Acinar cell carcinoma of submaxillary gland].

    PubMed

    Comeche, C; Calabuig, C; Barona, R

    1997-01-01

    Although acine cell neoplasms have for a long time been regarded as benign tumors, they are presently considered to represent the carcinomas. These rare tumors mainly affect the parotid glands, and only exceptionally involve other salivary glands. Clinically, acic cell carcinoma present as isolated tumors simulating a pleomorphic adenoma. The diagnosis is histopathological, and complete surgical removal of the tumor is the treatment of choice, with cervical lymphatic voiding and/or postoperative radiotherapy in selected cases. A prolonged patient follow-up is required, for the tumor may recur many years after surgery. We report a case of acinic cell carcinoma in submaxillary gland.

  14. Carcinomas ex monomorphic adenoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Luna, M A; Batsakis, J G; Tortoledo, M E; del Junco, G W

    1989-08-01

    A clinicopathological analysis of eight examples of carcinomas arising from salivary gland monomorphic adenomas, carcinomas ex monomorphic adenoma, is presented. These uncommon to rare neoplasms have a predilection for the parotid glands, are diagnosed about a decade later than their benign precursors, and most often arise from the dermal analogue type of monomorphic adenoma. As judged by follow-up periods of two to 16 years, carcinomas ex monomorphic adenoma are locally aggressive neoplasms with the clinical course marred by recurrences but without regional or distant metastases.

  15. Nonconventional papillary thyroid carcinomas with pleomorphic tumor giant cells: a diagnostic pitfall with anaplastic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hommell-Fontaine, Juliette; Borda, Angela; Ragage, Florence; Berger, Nicole; Decaussin-Petrucci, Myriam

    2010-06-01

    The presence of pleomorphic tumor giant cells in thyroid carcinomas of follicular cell origin is always worrisome for the pathologist as they first of all refer to anaplastic carcinoma, one of the most aggressive human malignancies. However, non-anaplastic pleomorphic giant cells are well described in other thyroid diseases, most often benign. In this paper, we describe four cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma displaying pleomorphic tumor giant cells with features that differ from those of anaplastic carcinoma. Pleomorphic giant cells were admixed with the underlying thyroid carcinoma and constituted from 5% to 25% of the tumor. Cytologically, they had an abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm with large and irregular nuclei. Compared to pleomorphic giant cells of anaplastic carcinoma, they reproduced the growth pattern of the underlying carcinoma, had a low mitotic index without necrosis or inflammation, and were reactive with thyroglobulin and thyroid-specific transcription factor-1 and strongly and diffusely positive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3. After 16-84 months of follow-up, patients are relapse-free and still alive. These cases show that pleomorphic tumor giant cells arising in papillary thyroid carcinomas do not always represent dedifferentiation and progression to anaplastic carcinoma. Distinction among these processes is critical as their treatment and prognosis are very different.

  16. Hepatocellular carcinoma: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Lisa P; Deshpande, Vrushak; Pyrsopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rapidly becoming one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide. With a rising rate, it is a prominent source of mortality. Patients with advanced fibrosis, predominantly cirrhosis and hepatitis B are predisposed to developing HCC. Individuals with chronic hepatitis B and C infections are most commonly afflicted. Different therapeutic options, including liver resection, transplantation, systemic and local therapy, must be tailored to each patient. Liver transplantation offers leading results to achieve a cure. The Milan criteria is acknowledged as the model to classify the individuals that meet requirements to undergo transplantation. Mean survival remains suboptimal because of long waiting times and limited donor organ resources. Recent debates involve expansion of these criteria to create options for patients with HCC to increase overall survival. PMID:26609342

  17. Molecular Pathogenesis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Daniel Wai-Hung; Lo, Regina Cheuk-Lam; Chan, Lo-Kong; Ng, Irene Oi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multistep process involving the progressive accumulation of molecular alterations pinpointing different molecular and cellular events. The next-generation sequencing technology is facilitating the global and systematic evaluation of molecular landscapes in HCC. There is emerging evidence supporting the importance of cancer metabolism and tumor microenvironment in providing a favorable and supportive niche to expedite HCC development. Moreover, recent studies have identified distinct surface markers of cancer stem cell (CSC) in HCC, and they also put forward the profound involvement of altered signaling pathways and epigenetic modifications in CSCs, in addition to the concomitant drug resistance and metastasis. Taken together, multiple key genetic and non-genetic factors, as well as liver CSCs, result in the development and progression of HCC. PMID:27781201

  18. [Hepatocellular Carcinoma: therapeutic options 2015].

    PubMed

    Schultheiß, Michael; Bettinger, Dominik; Neeff, Hannes P; Brunner, Thomas B; Thimme, Robert

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a common neoplasm, is rising and the prognosis is poor. Many factors have to be taken into account when deciding on the best mode of therapy, like tumor size and number, liver function, sequelae of portal hypertension or other comorbidities. These factors are reflected in the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification. Resection, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and liver transplantation can be seen as curative therapies for the early and localized HCC. For the intermediate state of the HCC, there are other therapeutic modalities in therapy available: transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT, rarer occasions), off label: stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). At the moment, Sorafenib is the only option in treating advanced stages of HCC. Alternative treatment strategies, like e.g. immunological therapies, are being investigated. PMID:26182255

  19. Cytoreductive surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lau, W Y; Leung, T W; Leung, K L; Ho, S; Leung, N; Chan, M; Lin, J; Li, A K

    1994-06-01

    A prospective study was conducted on 26 patients for cytoreductive surgery of inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma. These patients underwent cytoreduction with liver resection, cryosurgery, microwave tissue coagulation and/or absolute alcohol injection. In-hospital mortality was 7.7%. The symptomatic relief and quality of survival were excellent. The median survival of patients after cytoreduction was 10.0 months and the survival was much better than those of 26 patients matched by sex, age, tumour size, Child-Pugh grading and Karnofsky scores who received systemic chemotherapy during the same period of the study (log rank test, P = 0.0001). There was no statistical difference between the survival curves of those patients who received (19 patients) and those who did not receive (7 patients) additional treatment by chemotherapy or selective internal radiation therapy after cytoreduction. This suggests that the gained survival benefit could have been derived mainly from the cytoreductive surgery rather than the additional treatments.

  20. Hepatocellular carcinoma and industrial epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Braillon, Alain; Dubois, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, the burden of the non viral causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is usually underestimated. Clearly industrial goods, tobacco, alcohol and processed foods are the agents of new epidemics in modern times which far outscore the burden of infectious agents on morbidity and mortality. Smoking, a dose-related contributing factor for HCC, receives too little attention in clinical practice. In France, tobacco, hepatitis B and C virus and alcohol are the main risk factors for HCC mortality (33%, 31% and 26%, respectively). In developing countries, where tobacco consumption is dramatically increasing, this epidemic may soon surpass hepatitis B. Obesity and diabetes are the contributing factors too. The role of industrial processed foods in the increase of the prevalence of obesity and diabetes cannot be ignored. PMID:21734811

  1. Primary carcinoma of renal calyx.

    PubMed

    Williams, Phillip A; Mai, Kien T

    2013-10-01

    Renal calyx carcinoma (RCXC) may mimic collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) or urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the renal pelvis. RCXC is distinguished from CDC and UC of the renal pelvis as having the tumor epicenter in the renal calyx, with limited involvement of the surrounding renal pelvis surface urothelium. In this study, we summarize our experience with this entity. Ten cases of RCXC, including 9 cases with urothelial differentiation (RCXC-UC) and 1 case with salivary gland-type differentiation (RCXC-SC), were identified. Ten consecutive cases of UC were selected for comparison, with extensive renal pelvis involvement and with secondary renal parenchymal invasion. Two cases of collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) were also examined. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on representative tissue blocks for PAX8, PAX2, CK5, CK7, CK20, p63, GATA3, AMACR, RCC, CD10, vimentin, S100, and MSA. The 10 cases of RCXC (M:F=4:6, ages: 62-91 years, mean: 76) presented with renal masses of 3-6cm. Ureteroscopic studies and renal pelvic washings showed atypical/malignant cells in three cases. Seven patients were treated with nephrectomy followed by radiation±chemotherapy, and all cases developed metastases to lymph nodes or liver/lung/bone. In all 7 cases with nephrectomy, there was extensive renal parenchymal involvement with infiltrating borders and diffuse spread along collecting ducts. Six RCXC-UC contained focal squamous differentiation. The RCXC-SC displayed features of adenoid cystic and basaloid features. In situ UC, with or without papillary components, was identified in the calyces in all 7 nephrectomy cases with remaining renal pelvis harboring small tumor burden in 5 cases, and no tumor in another 2 cases. Of the three cases without nephrectomy, no tumor in the renal pelvis could be visualized with endoscopy, however one case was associated with UC of the urinary bladder. Of 10 control UC cases, tumor was limited to the tip of renal papilla in 7 cases, extensive in 3

  2. Tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, YAN-JIE; JU, QIANG; LI, GUAN-CHENG

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. HCC affects approximately one million individuals annually worldwide, with the incidence equal to the mortality rate. In 2008, HCC was listed as the third most lethal cancer. Thus, early diagnosis is crucial for improving the survival rate for patients. α-fetoprotein (AFP) together with iconography and pathology detection are commonly used in the clinical early diagnosis of liver cancer. However, the specificity and sensitivity of AFP used in screening for liver cancer are not satisfactory. Athough the development of molecular biology has led to the identification of new tumor markers, including proteantigens, cytokines, enzymes and isoenzymes, as well as related genes that can be used in the treatment and prognosis of liver cancer, more tumor markers are required for effective early diagnosis of diseases and monitoring of the curative effect. PMID:24649215

  3. Treatment Options by Stage (Adrenocortical Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Childhood Treatment for more information.) Having certain genetic conditions increases the risk of adrenocortical carcinoma. Anything ... can be a sign of disease. CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that makes a series of ...

  4. Paraneoplastic Cough and Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    A case of patient with intractable cough due to renal cell carcinoma is reported. The discussion reviews the literature regarding this unusual paraneoplastic manifestation of renal malignancy. PMID:27445553

  5. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy. PMID:26971503

  6. [Radiotherapy of carcinoma of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Servagi-Vernat, S; Tochet, F

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, and technique of radiotherapy for salivary glands carcinoma are presented, and the contribution of neutrons and carbon ions. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed. PMID:27521038

  7. Treatment Options by Stage (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  9. Paraneoplastic Cough and Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    A case of patient with intractable cough due to renal cell carcinoma is reported. The discussion reviews the literature regarding this unusual paraneoplastic manifestation of renal malignancy. PMID:27445553

  10. [Ionising rays and laryngeal carcinomas (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Martin, G; Glanz, H; Kleinsasser, O

    1979-03-01

    Review of the literature and report of a new care of laryngeal cancer after irradiation of a benign lesion of the neck. These cases obviously become rare since benign lesions are no longer irradiated. Today the risk of inducing a second carcinoma by a successful irradiation of the first tumor becomes more important. A study of 109 patients, irradiated for laryngeal carcinoma and surviving with no evidence of disease for a period of at least 5 years has been performed. 8 of these patients developed a second primary in the previously irradiated area after 7-15 years. These second carcinomas are not rare if one considers that most patients with laryngeal carcinoma are 60-70 years old and therefore the life expectance on an average is low. These facts should be taken into consideration when deciding between surgical or radiation therapy in younger patients with high life expectance.

  11. TCGA analysis of adrenocortical carcinoma - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    In the most comprehensive molecular characterization to date of adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare cancer of the adrenal cortex, researchers extensively analyzed 91 cases for alterations in the tumor genomes.

  12. Sunitinib benefits patients with renal cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Findings from clinical trial patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, a common kidney cancer, show they did not have accelerated tumor growth after treatment with sunitinib, in contrast to some study results in animals.

  13. Precursors and pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lim, D; Oliva, E

    2013-04-01

    The ultimate goal of defining cancer specific precursors is to facilitate early detection and intervention before the development of invasive malignancy. Unlike other malignancies involving the female genital tract such as cervical or endometrial carcinomas, precursor lesions of ovarian carcinomas have not been well characterised, resulting in a failure to develop effective screening programs. Recent clinicopathological and molecular studies have provided new insight into the origin and pathogenesis of ovarian carcinomas. It has been shown that ovarian cancer is comprised of different tumour types differing not only in morphology, but also in pathogenesis, molecular alterations and clinical progression. A dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis has been proposed. Type I tumours which include low grade serous, low grade endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous carcinomas and Brenner tumours, are generally indolent and tend to be genetically stable, although clear cell carcinoma would probably belong to an intermediate category. They demonstrate a step-wise progression from a benign precursor such as a benign to borderline tumour or endometriosis and are characterised by genetic aberrations targeting specific cell signalling pathways. Type II tumours comprise high grade serous, high grade endometrioid, and undifferentiated carcinomas as well as malignant mixed mesodermal tumours. They are clinically aggressive and exhibit high genetic instability with frequent p53 mutations. Mounting evidence suggests that many high grade serous carcinomas originate from the epithelium of the distal fallopian tube, and that serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) represents the putative precursor of these neoplasms. Low grade serous carcinomas arise via transformation of benign and borderline serous tumours, thought to be derived from inclusion cysts originating from the ovarian surface or tubal epithelium. Recently it has been suggested that papillary tubal hyperplasia may be a

  14. Depsipeptide in Unresectable Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-29

    Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  15. Efficacy and Tolerability of ABT-869 Versus Sorafenib in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-09-07

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma Non-resectable; Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrent; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Liver Diseases; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Digestive System Neoplasms; Carcinoma; Liver Neoplasms; Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Adenocarcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial

  16. Ureterocele urothelial carcinoma: managing a rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Astigueta, Juan Carlos; Abad-Licham, Milagros; Silva, Eloy; Alvarez, Víctor; Piccone, Francis; Cruz, Enrique; Redorta, Joan Palou

    2016-01-01

    It is very uncommon for urothelial carcinoma to develop in an ureterocele. It is generally discovered in an imaging study or in connection with haematuria. We found very few reports in the literature. Here, we report on the case of a 71-year-old male who initially presented with haematuria and low back pain and who then underwent transurethral resection for an intraureterocele tumour. Pathology confirmed urothelial carcinoma. PMID:26913072

  17. [Hypopharyngeal carcinoma and red ear drum].

    PubMed

    Bender, B; Widmann, G; Riechelmann, H; Schmutzhard, J

    2011-04-01

    A 46-year-old male patient with an unresectable hypopharyngeal carcinoma was treated with primary radio-chemotherapy. At follow-up, the patient presented with a red ear drum and combined hearing loss. Because of radiotherapy-induced tubal dysfunction, paracentesis was performed. Biopsy of the polypoid middle ear mucosa revealed petrous bone infiltration of hypopharyngeal carcinoma. MRI studies revealed paracarotideal tumor infiltration to the petrous bone and the middle ear arising from a cervical retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis. PMID:20963385

  18. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Paget’s disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget’s disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget’s disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget’s disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget’s disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget’s disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone.

  19. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael; Burt, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Paget's disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget's disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget's disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget's disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget's disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget's disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone.

  20. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma, Version 2.2015

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Robert I.; Lydiatt, William M.; Ball, Douglas W.; Busaidy, Naifa Lamki; Byrd, David; Callender, Glenda; Dickson, Paxton; Duh, Quan-Yang; Ehya, Hormoz; Haymart, Megan; Hoh, Carl; Hunt, Jason P.; Iagaru, Andrei; Kandeel, Fouad; Kopp, Peter; Lamonica, Dominick M.; McCaffrey, Judith C.; Moley, Jeffrey F.; Parks, Lee; Raeburn, Christopher D.; Ridge, John A.; Ringel, Matthew D.; Scheri, Randall P.; Shah, Jatin P.; Smallridge, Robert C.; Sturgeon, Cord; Wang, Thomas N.; Wirth, Lori J.; Hoffmann, Karin G.; Hughes, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    This selection from the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Thyroid Carcinoma focuses on anaplastic carcinoma because substantial changes were made to the systemic therapy recommendations for the 2015 update. Dosages and frequency of administration are now provided, docetaxel/doxorubicin regimens were added, and single-agent cisplatin was deleted because it is not recommended for patients with advanced or metastatic anaplastic thyroid cancer. PMID:26358798

  1. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael; Burt, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Paget's disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget's disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget's disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget's disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget's disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget's disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone. PMID:27660736

  2. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Paget’s disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget’s disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget’s disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget’s disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget’s disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget’s disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone. PMID:27660736

  3. Primary Intraosseous Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Maxilla.

    PubMed

    Nallamilli, S M; Tatapudi, R; Reddy, R S; Ravikanth, M; Rajesh, N

    2015-06-01

    Primary intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma (PIOC) is an infrequent malignancy of the head and neck that exhibits diverse biological behavior. The rareness of the location for a salivary gland tumor and the clinical and radiographic manifestations, suggestive of an odontogenic lesion often pose a diagnostic challenge. We hereby report such a unique case of central mucoepidermoid carcinoma that presented in an ambiguous manner, developing in the maxilla and intruding into the adjacent vital structures, adding a literature review. PMID:26339097

  4. [Clinical characteristics of the thyroid follicular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Hermosillo, Hugo; Tamez-Peréz, Héctor Eloy; Díaz de León-Gonzaléz, Enrique; Gutiérrez-Hermosillo, Violeta; Avila-Sanchéz, Jair

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: se ha identificado carcinoma folicular en 39 % de los pacientes con nódulos tiroideos cuya citología prequirúrgica ha indicado resultados indeterminados. El propósito de esta investigación fue conocer la prevalencia de esta entidad en un hospital de concentración. Métodos: se buscaron los reportes quirúrgicos con diagnóstico de carcinoma folicular. Se registró tamaño del tumor, sexo y edad del paciente, diagnósticos pre y posquirúrgico y patologías asociadas. Resultados: se diagnosticó carcinoma folicular en 35 pacientes: 30 mujeres (85 %) y cinco hombres (15 %). La edad en los hombres fue de 57 ± 6.6 y de 44 ± 16.9 en las mujeres. Los diagnósticos preoperatorios fueron carcinoma folicular en 14 (40 %), cáncer tiroideo en seis (17.1 %), adenoma folicular en cuatro (11.4 %), bocio en tres (8.5 %), nódulo tiroideo en tres (8.5 %); carcinoma papilar, tumor de tiroides, carcinoma poco diferenciado de tiroides, adenocarcinoma folicular bien diferenciado, cáncer medular en un paciente (2.8 %) cada uno. Las patologías asociadas fueron tiroiditis de Hashimoto y carcinoma papilar contralateral, con dos pacientes cada uno (5.6 %). Conclusiones: la edad de los pacientes y la presentación clínica del carcinoma folicular difirieron de las informadas en otras investigaciones.

  5. Pancreatic carcinoma: results with fast neutron therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, R.; Cohen, L.; Hendrickson, F.; Awschalom, M.; Hrejsa, A.F.; Rosenberg, I.

    1981-02-01

    Results of therapy in 31 of 50 patients who were treated for advanced pancreatic carcinoma at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are presented here. To date, six patients are alive and four are free of disease. Since the main reason for failure was lack of control of primary tumor, the tumor dose has been increased by 15%. Based on our results, a nationwide study has been launched to assess the effectiveness of neutrons vs photons in the treatment of locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma.

  6. Intracystic breast carcinoma: case study and review.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Sadaf; Mood, Narges Izadi

    2010-12-01

    Breast carcinoma is the most common cancer in women, the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women, and the leading cause of death from cancer in women between the ages of 40 and 44. While cystic breast disease is the most frequent cause of benign breast masses, intracystic breast cancers are rare. We present a case of a postmenopausal woman with a large cystic breast carcinoma with its interesting radiologic and cytopathologic findings and review the literature.

  7. GATA3 expression in breast carcinoma: utility in triple-negative, sarcomatoid, and metastatic carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Subhawong, Andrea P; Illei, Peter B; Sharma, Rajni; Halushka, Marc K; Vang, Russell; Fetting, John H; Park, Ben Ho; Argani, Pedram

    2013-07-01

    GATA3 plays an integral role in breast luminal cell differentiation and is implicated in breast cancer progression. GATA3 immunohistochemistry is a useful marker of breast cancer; however, its use in specific subtypes is unclear. Here, we evaluate GATA3 expression in 86 invasive ductal carcinomas including triple-negative, Her-2, and luminal subtypes, in addition to 13 metaplastic carcinomas and in 34 fibroepithelial neoplasms. In addition, we report GATA3 expression in matched primary and metastatic breast carcinomas in 30 patients with known estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Her-2 status, including 5 with ER and/or PR loss from primary to metastasis. Tissue microarrays containing 5 to 10 cores per tumor were stained for GATA3, scored as follows: 0 (0-5%), 1+ (6%-25%), 2+ (26%-50%), 3+ (51%-75%), and 4+ (>75%). GATA3 labeling was seen in 67% (66/99) of primary ductal carcinomas including 43% of triple-negative and 54% of metaplastic carcinomas. In contrast, stromal GATA3 labeling was seen in only 1 fibroepithelial neoplasm. GATA3 labeling was seen in 90% (27/30) of primary breast carcinomas in the paired cohort, including 67% of triple-negative carcinomas. GATA3 labeling was overwhelmingly maintained in paired metastases. Notably, GATA3 was maintained in all "luminal loss" metastases, which showed ER and/or PR loss. In conclusion, GATA3 expression is maintained between matched primary and metastatic carcinomas including ER-negative cases. GATA3 can be particularly useful as a marker for metastatic breast carcinoma, especially triple-negative and metaplastic carcinomas, which lack specific markers of mammary origin. Finally, GATA3 labeling may help distinguish metaplastic carcinoma from malignant phyllodes tumors.

  8. Is local resection sufficient for parathyroid carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Basceken, Salim Ilksen; Genc, Volkan; Ersoz, Siyar; Sevim, Yusuf; Celik, Suleyman Utku; Bayram, Ilknur Kepenekci

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare malignant disease of the parathyroid glands that appears in less than 1% of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. In the literature, the generally recommended treatment is en bloc tumor excision with ipsilateral thyroid lobectomy. Based on our 12 years of experience, we discuss the necessity of performing thyroid lobectomy on parathyroid carcinoma patients. RESULTS: Eleven parathyroid carcinoma cases were included in the study. All operations were performed at the Department of Endocrine Surgery at Ankara University Medical School. Seven of the patients were male (63.6%), and the mean patient age was 48.9 ± 14.0 years. Hyperparathyroidism was the most common indication for surgery (n ϝ 10, 90.9%). Local disease was detected in 5 patients (45.5%), invasive disease was detected in 5 patients (45.5%) and metastatic disease was detected in 1 patient (9.1%). The mean follow-up period was 99.6 ± 42.1 months, and the patients' average disease-free survival was 96.0 ± 49.0 months. During the follow-up period, only 1 patient died of metastatic parathyroid carcinoma. CONCLUSION: Parathyroid carcinoma has a slow-growing natural progression, and regional lymph node metastases are uncommon. Although our study comprised few patients, it nevertheless showed that in selected cases, parathyroid carcinoma could be solely treated with parathyroidectomy. PMID:26017790

  9. Carcinoma of the lung in Lancashire coalminers.

    PubMed

    Rooke, G B; Ward, F G; Dempsey, A N; Dowler, J B; Whitaker, C J

    1979-04-01

    The prevalence at death of carcinoma of the lung in miners and ex-miners has been compared in those with and without pneumoconiosis at necropsy. The prevalence of 11.4% in the group as a whole is no greater than that in the male population in North-west England. Carcinoma of the lung was present in 62 (13.1%) of those without pneumoconiosis and in 52 (9.8%) of those with pneumoconiosis. The mean age at death of those with pneumoconiosis was 71.3 years so that they cannot be said to have died before the age at which they would have developed carcinoma. Those with progressive massive fibrosis whose mean age at death was 72 years had the lowest prevalence of carcinoma of the lung at all ages--8.4%. For reasons stated in the text this is inevitably a biased sample. The number of those without pneumoconiosis is probably lower than the true figure because the deaths of miners and ex-miners in whom there is no suspicion of lung disease may not have been reported to the coroner or to the pneumoconiosis medical panel. There appears to be no positive link between carcinoma of the lung and pneumoconiosis. There is a surprisingly high number of smokers and ex-smokers among these miners, and this appears to have more relevance to the prevalence of carcinoma of the lung than does pneumoconiosis.

  10. Oncocytic mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Jahan-Parwar, B; Huberman, R M; Donovan, D T; Schwartz, M R; Ostrowski, M L

    1999-05-01

    Two parotid mucoepidermoid carcinomas with predominant oncocytic features were initially assessed on frozen section. Because of extensive oncocytic change, it was inferred that the lesions were most likely benign. Permanent sections revealed low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma with prominent oncocytic change (in more than 75% of the neoplasms) in both cases. Review of 48 additional consecutive cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands revealed prominent oncocytic change (accounting for 60% of the neoplasm) in one high-grade lesion. Phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin stains revealed strong granular cytoplasmic staining in the oncocytic elements; immunohistochemical stains for antimitochondrial antibodies also showed intense immunoreactivity in these cells. Oncocytic change is not typically a prominent feature of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands, and to our knowledge, only three such cases have been reported previously. Because most salivary gland lesions with oncocytic change are benign, it is important to distinguish mucoepidermoid carcinoma from other entities that may show prominent oncocytic change. We report three additional examples of this rare lesion, two low-grade tumors and one high-grade tumor, and review our experience with oncocytic change in mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands.

  11. Pancreatic mucinous noncystic (colloid) carcinomas and intraductal papillary mucinous carcinomas are usually microsatellite stable.

    PubMed

    Lüttges, Jutta; Beyser, Kurt; Pust, Susanne; Paulus, Anja; Rüschoff, Josef; Klöppel, Günter

    2003-06-01

    Pancreatic mucinous noncystic (colloid) carcinomas (MNCC) differ from the usual ductal adenocarcinomas in their mucin expression profile and share with many extrapancreatic mucinous carcinomas the expression of MUC2. Because mucinous carcinomas are frequently associated with mutations of the DNA mismatch repair genes, causing them to exhibit the so-called mutator phenotype, we decided to investigate whether MNCCs of the pancreas are characterized by microsatellite instability (MSI). Twelve carcinomas with a mucinous phenotype (8 mucinous noncystic carcinomas, 3 intraductal papillary-mucinous carcinomas with an invasive muconodular component, and 1 ductal adenocarcinoma with an extensive mucinous noncystic component) and 11 ductal adenocarcinomas were immunostained with monoclonal antibodies to the mismatch repair gene products hMLH1, hMSH2, and hMSH6. For MSI analysis, DNA was isolated from microdissected tissue, and five primary microsatellites (BAT 25, BAT 26, D5S346, D17S250, and D2S123) were analyzed. MSI was diagnosed in case a novel allele was found, compared with the normal tissue. The criterion for LOH was a 75% signal reduction. All carcinomas tested exhibited nuclear expression of mismatch repair gene products, except for one MNCC that also showed MSI at the molecular level. The data suggest that pancreatic carcinomas with a mucinous phenotype (MUC2+/MUC1-) do not appear to normally exhibit mutations in the mismatch repair genes and therefore differ in their carcinogenesis from those in other organs.

  12. Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Multifocal Synchronous Transformation to Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is a common malignancy to affect the thyroid and is typified by a nonaggressive nature and low rates of mortality. In contrast, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is the most aggressive thyroid malignancy with a mortality rate of nearly 90% and survival typically of only six months after the diagnosis is made. The transformation of papillary thyroid carcinoma to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is well documented in the literature but is uncommon and in most instances is reported as a case report or small series only. Transformation of papillary thyroid carcinoma to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma usually takes place in the thyroid itself or in the adjacent lymph nodes. Only on rare occasions does a transformation occur in a papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasis outside of these locations. In the present case report and subsequent discussion we highlight an unusual case of PTC with transformation to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is shown to involve numerous locations to include near total lung parenchyma obliteration. We also discuss the differential diagnostic challenges when faced with a thyroid malignancy that is negative for thyroglobulin. PMID:27774331

  13. NUT midline carcinomas of the sinonasal tract.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A; Westra, William H

    2012-08-01

    NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a highly lethal tumor defined by translocations involving the NUT gene on chromosome 15q14. NMC involves midline structures including the sinonasal tract, but its overall incidence at this midline site and its full morphologic profile are largely unknown because sinonasal tumors are not routinely tested for the NUT gene translocation. The recent availability of an immunohistochemical probe for the NUT protein now permits a more complete characterization of sinonasal NMCs. The archival files of The Johns Hopkins Hospital Surgical Pathology were searched for all cases of primary sinonasal carcinomas diagnosed from 1995 to 2011. Tissue microarrays were constructed, and NUT immunohistochemical analysis was performed. All NUT-positive cases underwent a more detailed microscopic and immunohistochemical analysis. Among 151 primary sinonasal carcinomas, only 3 (2%) were NUT positive. NUT positivity was detected in 2 of 13 (15%) carcinomas diagnosed as sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma and in 1 of 87 (1%) carcinomas diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. All occurred in men (26, 33, and 48 y of age). The NMCs grew as nests and sheets of cells with a high mitotic rate and extensive necrosis. Two were entirely undifferentiated, and 1 tumor showed abrupt areas of squamous differentiation. Each case had areas of cell spindling, and 2 were heavily infiltrated by neutrophils. Immunohistochemical staining was observed for cytokeratins (3 of 3), epithelial membrane antigen (3 of 3), p63 (2 of 3), CD34 (1 of 3), and synaptophysin (1 of 3). All patients died of the disease (survival time range, 8 to 16 mo; mean, 12 mo) despite combined surgery and chemoradiation. NMC represents a rare form of primary sinonasal carcinoma, but its incidence is significantly increased in those carcinomas that exhibit an undifferentiated component. Indiscriminant analysis for evidence of the NUT translocation is unwarranted. Instead, NUT analysis can be restricted to

  14. [New developments in molecular diagnostics of carcinomas of the salivary glands: "translocation carcinomas"].

    PubMed

    Skálová, Alena; Šteiner, Petr; Vaneček, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the discovery of translocations and the fusion oncogenes that they result in has changed the way diagnoses are made in salivary gland pathology. These genetic aberrations are recurrent; and at the very least serve as powerful diagnostic tools in salivary gland tumors diagnosis and classification. They also show promise as prognostic markers and hopefully as targets of therapy. In this review the 4 carcinomas currently known to harbor translocations will be discussed, namely mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. The discovery and implications of each fusion will be highlighted and how they have helped to reshape the current classification of salivary gland tumors. PMID:27526014

  15. Raf-1 kinase inhibitory protein expression in thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Gou Young; Lim, Sung-Jig; Kim, Youn Wha

    2010-12-01

    Raf-1 kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) has been implicated in several fundamental signal transduction pathways that control cellular growth, differentiation, apoptosis and migration. RKIP is reduced in a variety of human carcinomas, but RKIP expression in thyroid carcinomas has not been analyzed at the protein level. In this study, we examined the immunohistochemical expression of RKIP in various subtypes of thyroid carcinoma. Immunostaining for RKIP was performed on 104 cases of primary thyroid carcinoma (40 papillary, 29 follicular, 11 medullary, 11 poorly differentiated, and 13 anaplastic carcinomas) and 26 cases of nodal metastatic tumor (17 papillary, 4 medullary, and 5 anaplastic carcinomas). Normal thyroid tissue and all cases of follicular, papillary, and medullary carcinomas showed uniform, strong cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for RKIP. With the exception of one case, poorly differentiated carcinomas also revealed strong RKIP expression. In contrast, RKIP expression was completely absent in all anaplastic carcinomas. The transition zone from the differentiated carcinoma component (strong RKIP expression) to the anaplastic carcinoma component (no RKIP expression) demonstrated a completely opposite pattern of RKIP immunoreactivity. This reduction of RKIP expression in anaplastic carcinoma was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Additionally, RKIP expression of nodal metastatic tumors corresponded with that of primary tumors: metastatic papillary and medullary carcinomas showed uniform, strong cytoplasmic RKIP immunoreactivity, in contrast, in metastatic anaplastic carcinomas, RKIP expression was completely absent. RKIP expression is significantly reduced in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma as compared to other subtypes of thyroid carcinoma. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the precise mechanism of RKIP action in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  16. Parvalbumin is constantly expressed in chromophobe renal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Martignoni, G; Pea, M; Chilosi, M; Brunelli, M; Scarpa, A; Colato, C; Tardanico, R; Zamboni, G; Bonetti, F

    2001-08-01

    Chromophobe renal carcinoma is composed of neoplastic cell showing several features similar to those found in the intercalated cells of the collecting ducts. Because the distal nephron expresses calcium-binding proteins playing a role in calcium homeostasis, we reasoned that these proteins could be expressed by chromophobe carcinoma and therefore represent a diagnostic marker. We studied the immunohistochemical expression of different calcium-binding proteins (parvalbumin, calbindin-D28K, and calretinin) in 140 renal tumors, including 75 conventional (clear cell) carcinomas, 32 chromophobe carcinomas, 17 papillary renal cell carcinomas, and 16 oncocytomas. Parvalbumin was strongly positive in all primary chromophobe carcinomas and in one pancreatic metastasis; it was positive in 11 of 16 oncocytomas and absent in conventional (clear cell) and papillary renal cell carcinomas, either primary or metastatic. Calbindin-D28K and calretinin were negative in all tumors, with the exception of two chromophobe carcinomas, four oncocytomas, and two papillary renal cell carcinomas showing inconspicuous calretinin expression. Our data demonstrate that parvalbumin may be a suitable marker for distinguishing primary and metastatic chromophobe carcinoma from conventional (clear cell) and papillary renal cell carcinoma. Moreover, they suggest a relationship between chromophobe renal carcinoma and renal oncocytoma and indicate that chromophobe carcinoma exhibits differentiation toward the collecting-duct phenotype.

  17. Cisplatin and Etoposide or Temozolomide and Capecitabine in Treating Patients With Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Gastrointestinal Tract or Pancreas That Is Metastatic or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-05

    Colorectal Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Esophageal Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Gallbladder Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Gastric Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Pancreatic Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Small Intestinal Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

  18. Familial pancreatic carcinoma in Jews.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Henry T; Deters, Carolyn A; Lynch, Jane F; Brand, Randall E

    2004-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the most fatal of all gastrointestinal cancers, wherein its mortality compares strikingly with its incidence. Unfortunately, 80-90% of PCs are diagnosed in the nonresectable stage. While the lifetime risk of PC in developed countries is approximately 1-3%, it is the fifth most common cause of cancer deaths among both males and females in Western countries. It occurs in excess in Jews. Approximately 5-10% of PC shows familial clustering. Examination of such familial clusters must take into consideration cancers of diverse anatomic sites, such as malignant melanoma in the familial atypical multiple melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome due to the CDKN2A (p16) germline mutation, and combinations of colorectal and endometrial carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, and several other cancers in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), which are due to mismatch repair germline mutations, the most common of which are MSH2 and MLH1 . Other hereditary disorders predisposing to PC include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, due to the STK11 mutation, familial pancreatitis due to the cationic trypsinogen gene, site-specific familial pancreatic cancer which may be due to the 4q32-34 mutation, hereditary breast-ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome that is due to BRCA2 and possibly some families with HBOC that is due to BRCA1 , familial adenomatous polyposis due to the ATP gene, and ataxia telangiectasia due to the ATM germline mutation. This extant heterogeneity mandates that the physician be knowledgeable about these PC-prone syndromes which play such an important role when considering the differential diagnosis of hereditary PC. Unfortunately, there are no PC screening programs with acceptable sensitivity and specificity. However, the gold standard for screening at this time is endoscopic ultrasound. Clearly, there is a great need for the development of novel screening approaches with acceptable sensitivity and specificity. Further research is needed to elucidate those etiologic

  19. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Kew, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the major malignant tumors in the world today. The number of new cases of the tumor increases year by year, and hepatocellular carcinoma almost always runs a fulminant course and carries an especially grave prognosis. It has a low resectability rate and a high recurrence rate after surgical intervention, and responds poorly to anticancer drugs and radiotherapy. Hepatocellular carcinoma does not have a uniform geographical distribution: rather, very high incidences occur in Eastern and Southeastern Asia and in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In these regions and populations, the tumor shows a distinct shift in age distribution toward the younger ages, seen to greatest extent in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In all populations, males are more commonly affected. The most common risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-poor populations with a high incidence of the tumor are chronic hepatitis B virus infection and dietary exposure to the fungal hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1. These two causative agents act either singly or synergistically. Both the viral infection and exposure to the fungus occur from early childhood, and the tumor typically presents at an early age. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-rich countries with a low incidence of the tumor. The infection is acquired in adulthood and hepatocellular carcinoma occurs later than it does with hepatitis B virus-induced tumors. In recent years, obesity and the metabolic syndrome have increased markedly in incidence and importance as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in some resource-rich regions. Chronic alcohol abuse remains an important risk factor for malignant transformation of hepatocytes, frequently in association with alcohol-induced cirrhosis. Excessive iron accumulation in hereditary hemochromatosis and dietary iron overload in the Black African population and membranous obstruction of the inferior cava

  20. Uroplakin II Expression in Breast Carcinomas Showing Apocrine Differentiation: Putting Some Emphasis on Invasive Pleomorphic Lobular Carcinoma as a Potential Mimic of Urothelial Carcinoma at Metastatic Sites

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Shogo; Koda, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Uroplakin II antibody is exclusively specific for urothelial carcinoma. Nonurothelial carcinoma has not been reported to be immunoreactive for uroplakin II. In the present study, we hypothesized that breast carcinoma showing apocrine differentiation, such as invasive pleomorphic lobular carcinoma (IPLC) and apocrine carcinoma (AC), stains positive for uroplakin II. We identified 6 cases of IPLC between 2000 and 2014 by searching a computerized pathological database. We randomly selected 10 cases of each classic invasive lobular carcinoma (cILC) and AC and five cases of apocrine metaplasia (AM) that coexisted in a surgically resected breast carcinoma specimen. Immunohistochemistry was performed for uroplakin II, GATA3, CK7, CK20, and other representative markers positive for urothelial carcinoma. All cases of IPLC, AC, and AM, except those of cILC, showed immunoreactivity for uroplakin II. Poorly differentiated urothelial carcinoma sometimes shows similar morphology to IPLC with the following immunophenotype: CK7+, CK20−, GATA3+, and uroplakin II+. In the present study, this immunophenotype was observed in all the cases of IPLC and AC. Therefore, when studying metastatic, poorly differentiated carcinoma showing the aforementioned immunophenotype, we should consider the possibility of it being IPLC in addition to metastatic urothelial carcinoma.

  1. Hsp90 Inhibitor AT13387 in Treating Patients With Locoregionally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Receiving Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-05

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  2. Localized peribronchial thickening: a CT sign of occult bronchogenic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, W.L. Jr.; Roberts, L. Jr.; McLendon, R.E.; Hill, R.C.

    1985-05-01

    The authors present a case with repeated positive sputum cytologies in which CT proved complementary to nonlocalizing endoscopies by identifying bronchogenic carcinoma as focal specimen provided precise pathologic correlation of the CT findings with a small squamous cell carcinoma.

  3. Diagnostic utility of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta immunoreactivity in endometrial carcinomas: lack of specificity for endometrial clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fadare, Oluwole; Liang, Sharon X

    2012-12-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta (HNF1β) has recently emerged as a relatively sensitive and specific marker for ovarian clear cell carcinoma. The purpose of this study is to assess the diagnostic utility of this marker for endometrial clear cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 75 endometrial tissues using a goat polyclonal antibody raised against a peptide mapping at the C-terminus of human HNF1β protein. The 75 cases included 15 clear cell carcinomas, 20 endometrioid carcinomas, 15 endometrial serous carcinomas/uterine papillary serous carcinomas, 20 cases of normal endometrium, 2 cases of clear cell metaplasia, and 3 cases of Arias Stella reaction. Staining interpretations were based on a semiquantitative scoring system, a 0 to 12+ continuous numerical scale that was derived by multiplying the extent of staining (0 to 4+ scale) by the intensity of staining (0 to 3+ scale) for each case. HNF1β expression was found to be present in a wide spectrum of tissues. Twenty-seven (54%) of the 50 carcinomas displayed at least focal nuclear HNF1β expression, including 11 (73%) of 15, 9 (60%) of 15, and 7 (35%) of 20 clear cell, serous, and endometrioid carcinomas, respectively. The average nuclear staining scores for clear cell carcinomas, endometrioid carcinomas, and serous carcinomas were 5.2, 1.4, and 4.1, respectively. Clear cell carcinomas and endometrioid carcinomas displayed statistically significant differences regarding their nuclear staining scores (P = 0.0027), but clear cell carcinomas and endometrial serous carcinomas did not (P = 0.45). The calculated sensitivity of any nuclear HNF1β expression in classifying a carcinoma as being of the clear cell histotype was 73%, whereas the specificity was 54%. Nineteen of 20 normal endometrium samples displayed at least focal nuclear expression of HNF1β, and this expression was often diffuse. The 5 cases of benign histologic mimics of clear cell carcinomas (Arias Stella reaction and clear

  4. Mucinous carcinoma of the breast is genomically distinct from invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type.

    PubMed

    Lacroix-Triki, Magali; Suarez, Paula H; MacKay, Alan; Lambros, Maryou B; Natrajan, Rachael; Savage, Kay; Geyer, Felipe C; Weigelt, Britta; Ashworth, Alan; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2010-11-01

    Mucinous carcinomas are a rare entity accounting for up to 2% of all breast cancers, which have been shown to display a gene expression profile distinct from that of invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type (IDC-NSTs). Here, we have defined the genomic aberrations that are characteristic of this special type of breast cancer and have investigated whether mucinous carcinomas might constitute a genomic entity distinct from IDC-NSTs. Thirty-five pure and 11 mixed mucinous breast carcinomas were assessed by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, HER2, Ki67, cyclin D1, cortactin, Bcl-2, p53, E-cadherin, basal markers, neuroendocrine markers, and WT1. Fifteen pure mucinous carcinomas and 30 grade- and ER-matched IDC-NSTs were microdissected and subjected to high-resolution microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). In addition, the distinct components of seven mixed mucinous carcinomas were microdissected separately and subjected to aCGH. Pure mucinous carcinomas consistently expressed ER (100%), lacked HER2 expression (97.1%), and showed a relatively low level of genetic instability. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that pure mucinous carcinomas were homogeneous and preferentially clustered together, separately from IDC-NSTs. They less frequently harboured gains of 1q and 16p and losses of 16q and 22q than grade- and ER-matched IDC-NSTs, and no pure mucinous carcinoma displayed concurrent 1q gain and 16q loss, a hallmark genetic feature of low-grade IDC-NSTs. Finally, both components of all but one mixed mucinous carcinoma displayed similar patterns of genetic aberrations and preferentially clustered together with pure mucinous carcinomas on unsupervised clustering analysis. Our results demonstrate that mucinous carcinomas are more homogeneous between themselves at the genetic level than IDC-NSTs. Both components of mixed mucinous tumours are remarkably similar at the

  5. Challenges of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Colagrande, Stefano; Inghilesi, Andrea L; Aburas, Sami; Taliani, Gian G; Nardi, Cosimo; Marra, Fabio

    2016-09-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignancy, resulting as the third cause of death by cancer each year. The management of patients with HCC is complex, as both the tumour stage and any underlying liver disease must be considered conjointly. Although surveillance by imaging, clinical and biochemical parameters is routinely performed, a lot of patients suffering from cirrhosis have an advanced stage HCC at the first diagnosis. Advanced stage HCC includes heterogeneous groups of patients with different clinical condition and radiological features and sorafenib is the only approved treatment according to Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer. Since the introduction of sorafenib in clinical practice, several phase III clinical trials have failed to demonstrate any superiority over sorafenib in the frontline setting. Loco-regional therapies have also been tested as first line treatment, but their role in advanced HCC is still matter of debate. No single agent or combination therapies have been shown to impact outcomes after sorafenib failure. Therefore this review will focus on the range of experimental therapeutics for patients with advanced HCC and highlights the successes and failures of these treatments as well as areas for future development. Specifics such as dose limiting toxicity and safety profile in patients with liver dysfunction related to the underlying chronic liver disease should be considered when developing therapies in HCC. Finally, robust validated and reproducible surrogate end-points as well as predictive biomarkers should be defined in future randomized trials. PMID:27678348

  6. Challenges of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Colagrande, Stefano; Inghilesi, Andrea L; Aburas, Sami; Taliani, Gian G; Nardi, Cosimo; Marra, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignancy, resulting as the third cause of death by cancer each year. The management of patients with HCC is complex, as both the tumour stage and any underlying liver disease must be considered conjointly. Although surveillance by imaging, clinical and biochemical parameters is routinely performed, a lot of patients suffering from cirrhosis have an advanced stage HCC at the first diagnosis. Advanced stage HCC includes heterogeneous groups of patients with different clinical condition and radiological features and sorafenib is the only approved treatment according to Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer. Since the introduction of sorafenib in clinical practice, several phase III clinical trials have failed to demonstrate any superiority over sorafenib in the frontline setting. Loco-regional therapies have also been tested as first line treatment, but their role in advanced HCC is still matter of debate. No single agent or combination therapies have been shown to impact outcomes after sorafenib failure. Therefore this review will focus on the range of experimental therapeutics for patients with advanced HCC and highlights the successes and failures of these treatments as well as areas for future development. Specifics such as dose limiting toxicity and safety profile in patients with liver dysfunction related to the underlying chronic liver disease should be considered when developing therapies in HCC. Finally, robust validated and reproducible surrogate end-points as well as predictive biomarkers should be defined in future randomized trials.

  7. Targeted therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bronte, F; Bronte, G; Cusenza, S; Fiorentino, E; Rolfo, C; Cicero, G; Bronte, E; Di Marco, V; Firenze, A; Angarano, G; Fontana, T; Russo, A

    2014-01-01

    The onset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is related to the development of non-neoplastic liver disease, such as viral infections and cirrhosis. Even though patients with chronic liver diseases undergo clinical surveillance for early diagnosis of HCC, this cancer is often diagnosed in advanced stage. In this case locoregional treatment is not possible and systemic therapies are the best way to control it. Until now sorafenib, a Raf and multi-kinase inhibitor has been the best, choice to treat HCC systemically. It showed a survival benefit in multicenter phase III trials. However the proper patient setting to treat is not well defined, since the results in Child-Pugh B patients are conflicting. To date various new target drugs are under developed and other biological treatments normally indicated in other malignancies are under investigation also for HCC. These strategies aim to target the different biological pathways implicated in HCC development and progression. The target drugs studied in HCC include anti-VEGF and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors. The most important challenge is represented by the best integration of these drugs with standard treatments to achieve improvement in overall survival and quality of life.

  8. Challenges of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Colagrande, Stefano; Inghilesi, Andrea L; Aburas, Sami; Taliani, Gian G; Nardi, Cosimo; Marra, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignancy, resulting as the third cause of death by cancer each year. The management of patients with HCC is complex, as both the tumour stage and any underlying liver disease must be considered conjointly. Although surveillance by imaging, clinical and biochemical parameters is routinely performed, a lot of patients suffering from cirrhosis have an advanced stage HCC at the first diagnosis. Advanced stage HCC includes heterogeneous groups of patients with different clinical condition and radiological features and sorafenib is the only approved treatment according to Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer. Since the introduction of sorafenib in clinical practice, several phase III clinical trials have failed to demonstrate any superiority over sorafenib in the frontline setting. Loco-regional therapies have also been tested as first line treatment, but their role in advanced HCC is still matter of debate. No single agent or combination therapies have been shown to impact outcomes after sorafenib failure. Therefore this review will focus on the range of experimental therapeutics for patients with advanced HCC and highlights the successes and failures of these treatments as well as areas for future development. Specifics such as dose limiting toxicity and safety profile in patients with liver dysfunction related to the underlying chronic liver disease should be considered when developing therapies in HCC. Finally, robust validated and reproducible surrogate end-points as well as predictive biomarkers should be defined in future randomized trials. PMID:27678348

  9. Environmental Exposures and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C virus is a well-established risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it is now clear that certain occupational, environmental, and lifestyle factors also play a role in cancer development. Among these factors are smoking, alcohol consumption, workplace exposure to vinyl chloride, and exposure to polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons and aflatoxins. There is also evidence that several other chemical and infectious agents have a role in inducing HCC in humans. Epidemiologic studies and the use of biomarkers have provided essential data to demonstrate the importance of some of these factors in human risk, while animal studies have suggested that other chemicals may also play a role. Although immunization against hepatitis B virus infection remains the primary method of preventing HCC in regions of the world where this virus is a primary etiologic agent, there is currently no vaccine for hepatitis C virus. Thus, limiting exposure to other known risk factors remains an important mechanism in preventing HCC. PMID:26357611

  10. Everolimus in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y

    2010-08-01

    Everolimus (also known as RAD-001; Afinitor®) is an orally active inhibitor of the intracellular protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency recently approved everolimus for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) on the basis of the results of a randomized phase III clinical trial. In the trial, 10 mg daily everolimus was effective and well tolerated by patients with advanced RCC, whose disease had progressed while under the treatment with sunitinib and/or sorafenib. Everolimus treatment led to 36% of 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate and 31% of 3-month PFS rate. Most of the adverse events were mild to moderate (grade 1-2) in severity. The most frequent grade 3-4 adverse events were stomatitis, fatigue, pneumonitis and infections. Clinical trials on everolimus in combination with sunitinib, sorafenib, imatinib and vatalanib for the treatment of RCC are ongoing. PMID:20830316

  11. Fibrosing mediastinitis mimicking bronchogenic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bayiz, Hulya; Mutluay, Neslihan; Koyuncu, Adem; Demirag, Funda; Dagli, Gulfidan; Berktas, Bahadir; Berkoglu, Mine

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosing mediastinitis is a rare but benign disorder characterized by an excessive fibrotic reaction in the mediastinum which can result in compromise of airways, great vessels, and other mediastinal structures. In this paper we presented a patient with fibrosing mediastinitis mimicking bronchogenic carcinoma. The patient was a 32-year-old diabetic male admitting with cough and hemoptysis. There was a right hilar mass and multiple mediastinal conglomerated lymph nodes on chest computed tomography. Positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) scan demonstrated increased fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake at the right hilar mass lesion and mediastinal lymph nodes. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy showed mucosal distortion of right upper lobe. Pathologic examination of the mucosal biopsy revealed inflammation. Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle and cervical mediastinoscopic lymph node biopsies were undiagnostic. Diagnostic thoracotomy confirmed the diagnosis fibrosing mediastinitis. Administration of six months of systemic corticosteroid and antituberculous therapy was not beneficial. In conclusion, despite being a rare clinical entity, fibrosing mediastinitis should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal mass lesions of unknown etiology. The diagnosis is exceptionally difficult in the presence of atypical radiological findings. The treatment is particularly challenging without any proven effective therapy. PMID:23372962

  12. Multidisciplinary Management of Laryngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, William M. Mancuso, Anthony A.; Hinerman, Russell W.; Malyapa, Robert S.; Werning, John W.; Amdur, Robert J.; Villaret, Douglas B.

    2007-10-01

    The management of head and neck cancer has evolved into a multidisciplinary approach in which patients are evaluated before treatment and decisions depend on prospective multi-institutional trials, as well as retrospective outcome studies. The choice of one or more modalities to use in a given case varies with the tumor site and extent, as exemplified in the treatment of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. The goals of treatment include cure, laryngeal voice preservation, voice quality, optimal swallowing, and minimal xerostomia. Treatment options include transoral laser excision, radiotherapy (both definitive and postoperative), open partial laryngectomy, total laryngectomy, and neck dissection. The likelihood of local control and preservation of laryngeal function is related to tumor volume. Patients who have a relatively high risk of local recurrence undergo follow-up computed tomography scans every 3-4 months for the first 2 years after radiotherapy. Patients with suspicious findings on computed tomography might benefit from fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to differentiate post-radiotherapy changes from tumor.

  13. Localization of metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma with Ga-67

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, F.T.; Anderson, J.H.; Jelinek, J.; Anderson, D.W. )

    1991-02-01

    Data are limited on the localization of Ga-67 in primary or metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma. We report the localization of Ga-67 to pathologically confirmed adrenal cortical carcinoma metastatic to the lung. A review of the literature revealed four patients have previously been reported to have metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma detected on Ga-67 scan. Gallium imaging may be useful in the evaluation of patients with adrenal cortical carcinoma. SPECT imaging should further improve lesion resolution and localization.

  14. Synchronous Renal Cell Carcinoma and Gastrointestinal Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Dafashy, Tamer J.; Ghaffary, Cameron K.; Keyes, Kyle T.; Sonstein, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    While renal cell carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm of the kidney, its simultaneous diagnosis with a gastrointestinal malignancy is a rare, but well reported phenomenon. This discussion focuses on three independent cases in which each patient was diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma and a unique synchronous gastrointestinal malignancy. Case 1 explores the diagnosis and surgical intervention of a 66-year-old male patient synchronously diagnosed with clear cell renal cell carcinoma and a carcinoid tumor of the small bowel. Case 2 describes the diagnosis and surgical intervention of a 61-year-old male found to have clear cell renal cell carcinoma and a mucinous appendiceal neoplasm. Lastly, Case 3 focuses on the interventions and management of a 36-year-old female diagnosed with synchronous clear cell renal carcinoma and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. This case series examines each distinct patient's presentation, discusses the diagnosis, and compares and contrasts the findings while discussing the literature on this topic. PMID:26904353

  15. Palliation of Dysphagia in Carcinoma Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnaiah, Vishnu Prasad Nelamangala; Malage, Somanath; Sreenath, G S; Kotlapati, Sudhakar; Cyriac, Sunu

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma has a special place in gastrointestinal carcinomas because it contains two main types, namely, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Carcinoma esophagus patients require some form of palliation because of locally advanced stage or distant metastasis, where it cannot be subjected to curable treatment with surgery and chemoradiation. Many modalities of palliation of dysphagia are available, but the procedure with least morbidity, mortality, and long-term palliation of dysphagia needs to be chosen for the patient. This study aims to discuss the recent trends in palliation of dysphagia with promising results and the most suitable therapy for palliation of dysphagia in a given patient. A total of 64 articles that were published between years 2005 and 2015 on various modes of palliation of dysphagia in carcinoma esophagus were studied, which were mainly randomized and prospective studies. Through this study, we conclude that stents are the first choice of therapy for palliation, which is safe and cost-effective, and they can be combined with either radiotherapy or chemotherapy for long-term palliation of dysphagia with good quality of life. Radiotherapy can be used as a second-line treatment modality. PMID:27279758

  16. Factors predictive of survival in ampullary carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Howe, J R; Klimstra, D S; Moccia, R D; Conlon, K C; Brennan, M F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the recent Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience with adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater and to identify clinicopathologic factors that have an impact on patient survival. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The prognosis for patients with tumors of the ampulla of Vater is improved relative to other periampullary neoplasms. Identification of independent prognostic factors in ampullary tumors has been limited by small numbers of tumors and a lack of pathologic review. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively for patients presenting with periampullary carcinomas to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between October 15, 1983 and June 30, 1995. The correlation between clinicopathologic variables and survival of ampullary carcinoma was tested by the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards regression. Survival of patients with periampullary adenocarcinomas was compared by the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: In 123 patients presenting with ampullary carcinoma, 101 tumors (82.1%) were resected. Factors significantly correlated with improved survival were resection (p < 0.01), and in resected tumors, negative nodes (p = 0.04) and margins (p = 0.02) independently predicted for improved survival. In periampullary tumors, the highest rates of resection and overall survival (median, 43.6 months) were found in ampullary carcinomas. CONCLUSIONS: Factors predictive of improved survival in ampullary carcinoma include resection, negative margins, and negative nodes. Improved overall survival in ampullary relative to periampullary adenocarcinoma is due in part to a significantly higher rate of resection. Images Figure 1. PMID:9671071

  17. The Emerging Molecular Landscape of Urothelial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Solomon, James P; Hansel, Donna E

    2016-09-01

    Although there have been many recent discoveries in the molecular alterations associated with urothelial carcinoma, current understanding of this disease lags behind many other malignancies. Historically, a two-pathway model had been applied to distinguish low- and high-grade urothelial carcinoma, although significant overlap and increasing complexity of molecular alterations has been recently described. In many cases, mutations in HRAS and FGFR3 that affect the MAPK and PI3K pathways seem to be associated with noninvasive low-grade papillary tumors, whereas mutations in TP53 and RB that affect the G1-S transition of the cell cycle are associated with high-grade in situ and invasive carcinoma. However, recent large-scale analyses have identified overlap in these pathways relative to morphology, and in addition, many other variants in a wide variety of oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes have been identified. New technologies including next-generation sequencing have enabled more detailed analysis of urothelial carcinoma, and several groups have proposed molecular classification systems based on these data, although consensus is elusive. This article reviews the current understanding of alterations affecting oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes associated with urothelial carcinoma, and their application in the context of morphology and classification schema. PMID:27523968

  18. A hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreatic head.

    PubMed

    Stamatova, D; Theilmann, L; Spiegelberg, C

    2016-12-01

    Hepatoid carcinoma (HC) is an extremely rare form of neoplasm. Its cellular structure resembles that of a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To date, only 26 cases of hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas have been reported in the literature. We report the diagnosis of a hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreatic head in a 78-year-old male patient. The tumor was detected incidentally during routine abdominal ultrasound scanning. Laboratory tests did not show any abnormalities except for a monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. After CT, MRI, and laparoscopic biopsy that failed to obtain the diagnosis, the patient underwent a Whipple procedure. The final pathology report described a hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreatic head (pathological T3, N0 (0/10), L0, V0, R0, M0). After the patient recovered, no further therapy was recommended by the tumor board and he was discharged. Regular follow-up was suggested; however, the patient suddenly died of acute coronary artery disease 2 months after surgery. PMID:27488314

  19. The molecular genetics of cervical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lazo, P A

    1999-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma there are three major components, two of them related to the role of human papillomaviruses (HPV). First, the effect of viral E6 and E7 proteins. Second, the integration of viral DNA in chromosomal regions associated with well known tumour phenotypes. Some of these viral integrations occur recurrently at specific chromosomal locations, such as 8q24 and 12q15, both harbouring HPV18 and HPV16. And third, there are other recurrent genetic alterations not linked to HPV. Recurrent losses of heterozygosity (LOH) have been detected in chromosome regions 3p14–22, 4p16, 5p15, 6p21–22, 11q23, 17p13.3 without effect on p53, 18q12–22 and 19q13, all of them suggesting the alteration of putative tumour suppressor genes not yet identified. Recurrent amplification has been mapped to 3q+ arm, with the common region in 3q24–28 in 90% of invasive carcinomas. The mutator phenotype, microsatellite instability, plays a minor role and is detected in only 7% of cervical carcinomas. The development of cervical carcinoma requires the sequential occurrence and selection of several genetic alterations. The identification of the specific genes involved, and their correlation with specific tumour properties and stages could improve the understanding and perhaps the management of cervical carcinoma. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10471054

  20. Palliation of Dysphagia in Carcinoma Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnaiah, Vishnu Prasad Nelamangala; Malage, Somanath; Sreenath, G.S.; Kotlapati, Sudhakar; Cyriac, Sunu

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma has a special place in gastrointestinal carcinomas because it contains two main types, namely, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Carcinoma esophagus patients require some form of palliation because of locally advanced stage or distant metastasis, where it cannot be subjected to curable treatment with surgery and chemoradiation. Many modalities of palliation of dysphagia are available, but the procedure with least morbidity, mortality, and long-term palliation of dysphagia needs to be chosen for the patient. This study aims to discuss the recent trends in palliation of dysphagia with promising results and the most suitable therapy for palliation of dysphagia in a given patient. A total of 64 articles that were published between years 2005 and 2015 on various modes of palliation of dysphagia in carcinoma esophagus were studied, which were mainly randomized and prospective studies. Through this study, we conclude that stents are the first choice of therapy for palliation, which is safe and cost-effective, and they can be combined with either radiotherapy or chemotherapy for long-term palliation of dysphagia with good quality of life. Radiotherapy can be used as a second-line treatment modality. PMID:27279758

  1. Odontogenic carcinoma with dentinoid: a new odontogenic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Neville, Brad W; Tatemoto, Yukihiro; Ogawa, Ikuko; Takata, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Dentinoid is an integral part of some odontogenic tumors. This article describes the clinico-pathological features of three cases of odontogenic carcinomas with dentinoid (OCD). A comparison of these with previously reported cases of dentinoid-producing epithelial odontogenic tumors allowed us to identify another six cases that may be considered as examples of OCD. Six cases occurred in the mandible and three in the maxilla, all developing behind the canines. There was no sex predilection (five men and four women; age range 14-61 years, mean 38.1). Pain or discomfort was mentioned in five cases, four of which showed tooth resorption. All cases appeared initially as well-defined radiolucencies, five of which showed variable amounts of calcified material. Recurrences were recorded in three instances, but no evidence of metastasis has been found. Seven cases were composed predominantly or entirely of clear cells, usually with minimal cellular atypia and variable mitotic activity; however, in all cases there was evidence of tumor infiltration into adjacent tissues, including the presence of perineural invasion in two tumors. Those cases in which no reference was made to the presence of clear cells exhibited evident mitotic activity and cellular pleomorphism. The epithelium in OCD does not produce buds or enamel organ-like structures such as those found in ameloblastic fibro-dentinoma and this tumor does not contain a mesenchyme-like connective tissue resembling dental papilla as observed in several mixed odontogenic tumors. Based on the existing data and the present series of cases, OCD appears to represent a distinct entity. PMID:25409850

  2. Clinicopathological significance of gastric poorly differentiated medullary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Hideaki; Yoshizawa, Tadashi; Morohashi, Satoko; Haga, Toshihiro; Wu, Yunyan; Ota, Rie; Takatsuna, Masafumi; Akasaka, Harue; Hakamada, Kenichi; Kijima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma of solid type is known to show a clinicopathological diversity, but its morphological characteristics have rarely been investigated. In this study, we defined poorly differentiated medullary carcinoma indicating the following three characteristics: (i) more than 90% of the entire tumor were composed of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in a medullary growth, (ii) the tumor exhibited an expansive growth at the tumor margin, and (iii) special types such as an α-fetoprotein-producing carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, and carcinoma with lymphoid stroma were excluded. Based on the definition, we subclassified the poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma of solid type into the two groups: medullary carcinoma and non-medullary carcinoma, and clinicopathologically analyzed 23 cases of medullary carcinomas and 38 cases of non-medullary carcinomas. The medullary carcinomas less frequently displayed lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, and lymph node metastasis, compared with the non-medullary carcinoma (P < 0.001, P = 0.002, and P < 0.001, respectively). The patients with medullary carcinomas significantly showed better disease-free survival (P = 0.017). This is the first study to demonstrate that poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of solid type can be subclassified into tumors with low and high malignant potentials. Gastric poorly differentiated medullary carcinoma is considered to be a novel histological type predicting good patients' prognosis. PMID:27108877

  3. Late metastases of ovarian carcinoma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Friedman, M; Browde, S; Rabin, S; Murray, J; Nissenbaum, M

    1984-02-01

    In cases of ovarian carcinoma distant metastases are rarely discovered before local spread has become evident. This article reports an unusual case in which renal metastases appeared 9 years after the initial diagnosis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. A discussion of the histological features of the tumour and the spread of ovarian carcinoma is included.

  4. Macrofollicular encapsulated papillary thyroid carcinoma--a case report.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Savithri; Niveditha, S R; Geethamani, V; Rangaswamy, R

    2006-01-01

    Macrofollicular encapsulated papillary thyroid carcinoma (MEPC) is a rare variant of papillary carcinoma of thyroid with a favourable clinical course. It could be mistaken for a follicular neoplasm or a hyperplastic nodule. We report cytological and histopathological features of this rare variant of papillary carcinoma in a 22 year old female with brief review of literature.

  5. Bilateral acrometastasis in a case renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vaishya, Raju; Vijay, Vipul; Vaish, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    We present a unique case of bilateral skeletal metastasis below the knee in a patient with renal cell carcinoma. In this rarest of rare cases, bony metastases were the first presentation of a primary tumour. Incidentally, the primary tumour (renal cell carcinoma) involved the solitary kidney of the patient and the same patient also had coexisting carcinoma of the prostate. PMID:25368128

  6. Gene expression signatures differentiate ovarian/peritoneal serous carcinoma from breast carcinoma in effusions.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Ben; Stavnes, Helene Tuft; Holth, Arild; Chen, Xu; Yang, Yanqin; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Tian-Li

    2011-03-01

    Ovarian/primary peritoneal carcinoma and breast carcinoma are the gynaecological cancers that most frequently involve the serosal cavities.With the objective of improving on the limited diagnostic panel currently available for the differential diagnosis of these two malignancies,as well as to define tumour-specific biological targets, we compared their global gene expression patterns. Gene expression profiles of 10 serous ovarian/peritoneal and eight ductal breast carcinoma effusions were analysed using the HumanRef-8 BeadChip from Illumina.Differentially expressed candidate genes were validated using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using all 54,675 genes in the array separated ovarian from breast carcinoma samples. We identified 288 unique probes that were significantly differentially expressed in the two cancers by greater than 3.5-fold, of which 81 and 207 were overexpressed in breast and ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma, respectively. SAM analysis identified 1078 differentially expressed probes with false discovery rate less than 0.05. Genes overexpressed in breast carcinoma included TFF1, TFF3, FOXA1, CA12, GATA3, SDC1, PITX1, TH, EHFD1, EFEMP1, TOB1 and KLF2. Genes overexpressed in ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma included SPON1, RBP1, MFGE8, TM4SF12, MMP7, KLK5/6/7, FOLR1/3,PAX8, APOL2 and NRCAM. The differential expression of 14 genes was validated by quantitative real-time PCR, and differences in 5 gene products were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Expression profiling distinguishes ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma from breast carcinoma and identifies genes that are differentially expressed in these two tumour types. The molecular signatures unique to these cancers may facilitate their differential diagnosis and may provide a molecular basis for therapeutic target discovery.

  7. GATA3 immunohistochemistry expression in histologic subtypes of primary breast carcinoma and metastatic breast carcinoma cytology.

    PubMed

    Deftereos, Georgios; Sanguino Ramirez, Angela M; Silverman, Jan F; Krishnamurti, Uma

    2015-09-01

    GATA3 plays a role in cell proliferation and differentiation in many tissues, including breast, and it has been suggested that GATA3 expression correlates with ER expression. However, little is known on GATA3 expression in various subtypes of breast carcinoma, its utilization in cytology, and on how GATA3 performs in comparison with GCDFP-15 and mammaglobin. Eighty-four histology cases of breast carcinoma of various subtypes, including 28 triple-negative breast carcinomas, along with 20 cytology cases of metastatic breast carcinoma and 12 cytology cases of ER-positive metastatic gynecologic malignancies, were stained for GATA3, GCDFP-15, and mammaglobin. In non-triple-negative breast carcinomas (n=56), GATA3 showed 100% sensitivity, higher than GCDFP-15 (42.8%; P<0.0001) and mammaglobin (58.9%; P<0.0001), whereas staining patterns were similar for all the histologic subtypes examined. Staining scores were determined by multiplying the percentage of cancer cells staining with an intensity score of 1+, 2+, or 3+ (range, 0 to 300). In non-triple-negative carcinomas, GATA3 showed a mean score of 273.7, higher than GCDFP-15 (107.5; P<0.0001) and mammaglobin (147.7; P<0.0001). In triple-negative breast carcinomas (n=28), GATA3 showed a sensitivity of 60.7%, greater than GCDFP-15 (17.9%; P=0.0022) and mammaglobin (7.1%; P<0.0001). These results were consistent irrespective of the subtype examined. In breast carcinoma cytology cases, 100% stained with GATA3, higher than GCDFP-15 (20%; P<0.0001) and mammaglobin (45%; P<0.0001). None of the metastatic endometrial or ovarian carcinomas were positive for GATA3. Although GATA3 expression correlates with ER expression in breast, no correlation is observed in gynecologic malignancies. Thus, in working up ER-positive metastatic malignancies GATA3 demonstrates specificity for breast.

  8. [Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and premalignant skin lesions--how to treat?].

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, Sari; Jeskanen, Leila; Ylitalo, Leea

    2014-01-01

    Increasing exposure to UV radiation is considered the most important etiologic factor of nonmelanoma skin cancers. Consequently, exposed areas such as the scalp and face, are the primary areas for developing non-melanoma skin cancers. Once a patient has presented with one tumor, additional lesions are common. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical picture and biopsy or excision for histopathological analysis. Various non-surgical treatment options have been established. Superficial basal cell carcinoma, superficial carcinoma in situ and all actinic keratoses are preferentially treated non-surgically. Most other basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas should be surgically removed. PMID:24724463

  9. Current management of ductal carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Barth, A; Brenner, R J; Giuliano, A E

    1995-10-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ represents a biologically and histologically heterogeneous group of lesions characterized by the proliferation of neoplastic epithelial cells confined to the ducts of the breast. Before screening mammography, ductal carcinoma in situ was considered uncommon; patients were usually diagnosed by a breast mass or bloody nipple discharge, and their treatment was mastectomy. Today it represents 20% to 30% of mammographically detected breast cancers and 10% to 15% of all diagnosed breast cancers in the United States. The invariable progression of this cancer to invasive breast cancer requiring mastectomy has been challenged, but because most patients have been treated with mastectomy, knowledge about ductal carcinoma in situ is limited and primarily based on retrospective data. Further insight will emerge from randomized prospective studies that are near completion. Currently available data indicate that breast-conserving treatments are valid alternatives to mastectomy for most patients with this disease. PMID:7483593

  10. Carcinoma of the cervix with massive eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Lowe, D G

    1988-04-01

    Massive local eosinophilia of 100 or more eosinophils per high power field was found in 3.2% cases of invasive carcinoma of the cervix. The prevalence, length of history before presentation to surgery and histological features were similar in patients from Great Britain and Malawi, but in both populations the mean age at diagnosis was lower than in patients with cervical carcinomas without tissue eosinophilia. In some of the tumours, the malignant cells were very difficult to find because of the eosinophil infiltrate, and misinterpretation as an inflammatory lesion was possible. In the absence of circulating eosinophilia, cervical carcinomas with massive eosinophilia were found to have a better prognosis than tumours without. Five patients had circulating eosinophilia as well as local tumour eosinophil infiltration, and each of them had extensive tumour spread.

  11. HLA class I expression in bladder carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, T; Pedrajas, G; Cozar, J M; Garrido, A; Vicente, J; Tallada, M; Garrido, F

    2003-10-01

    HLA class I molecules are frequently lost in a large variety of human carcinomas, possibly because of T-cell immune selection of major histocompatibility complex class I deficient tumor variants. We report that this phenomenon is also a frequent event in bladder carcinomas. Of a total of 72 bladder carcinomas, 72% of the tumors had at least one alteration in HLA class I expression. These altered HLA class I phenotypes were classified as total HLA class I loss (25%; phenotype I); HLA-A or/and HLA-B locus-specific loss (12%; phenotype III); and HLA class I allelic loss (35%; phenotype II or IV). Comparison of histopathological parameters with HLA class I expression showed a statistically significant relationship with the degree of differentiation and tumor recurrence.

  12. Unusual cases of carcinoma of palatine tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Boovalli, Mythri M; Kumar, R Praveen; Murthy, V Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    We present two unusual cases of carcinoma of palatine tonsil in elderly patients. Both the cases were initially diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, second case, in addition, showed lung metastasis. On subsequent follow-up, the first case developed cutaneous metastasis in the right frontoparietal region while second case showed granulocytosis as paraneoplastic manifestation. The association of cutaneous metastasis and paraneoplastic granulocytosis with carcinoma of tonsil is rare. Cutaneous metastasis has been described only once in the literature while paraneoplastic granulocytosis is being reported for the first time. Both the conditions need long-term follow-up as they manifest at the extreme edges of the neoplastic process. PMID:26604503

  13. Breast carcinoma in a prepubertal girl.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syed Tausif; Singh, Sudipto Kumar; Mukherjee, Tanmoy; Banerjee, Manju

    2014-04-15

    Breast carcinoma is a very rare disease in children. We present a rare case of breast cancer in an 11-year-old prepubertal girl. Clinically, it was a case of locally advanced breast cancer (T4bN1M0). The core biopsy report showed adenocarcinoma of the not otherwise specified (NOS) variety (oestrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative). Diagnosis was late in this case due to lack of suspicion. A modified radical mastectomy was considered to be adequate treatment. Histologically, it was adenocarcinoma NOS, which is rare in young girls (the secretory type being more common). Incidence, differential diagnoses, investigation and management of breast carcinoma in young girls are discussed. The purpose of reporting this case is to highlight that prevention and early detection of breast carcinoma in children is very important.

  14. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Atar, Yavuz; Topaloglu, Ilhan; Ozcan, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses can be misdiagnosed as primary malignant or benign diseases. A 33-year-old male attended our outpatient clinic complaining of difficulty breathing through the nose, bloody nasal discharge, postnasal drop, snoring, and discharge of phlegm. Endoscopic nasopharyngeal examination showed a vascularized nasopharyngeal mass. Under general anesthesia, multiple punch biopsies were taken from the nasopharynx. Pathologically, the tumor cells had clear cytoplasm and were arranged in a trabecular pattern lined by a layer of endothelial cells. After the initial pathological examination, the pathologist requested more information about the patient's clinical status. A careful history revealed that the patient had undergone left a nephrectomy for a kidney mass diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma 3 years earlier. Subsequently, nasopharyngeal metastatic renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with CD10 and vimentin. Radiotherapy was recommended for treatment. PMID:23924557

  15. [A Case of Composite Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Neuroendocrine Carcinoma in a Patient with Liver Cirrhosis Caused by Chronic Hepatitis B].

    PubMed

    Yun, Eun Young; Kim, Tae Hyo; Lee, Sang Soo; Kim, Hong Jun; Kim, Hyun Jin; Jung, Woon Tae; Lee, Ok Jae; Song, Dae Hyun

    2016-08-25

    Primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (PHNEC) is rare and its origin is not clearly understood. The coexistence of PHNEC and hepaotcellular carcinoma has been reported in only a few cases. We report a rare case of combined PHNEC and hepaotcellular carcinoma in a patient with liver cirrhosis caused by chronic hepatitis B that resulted in aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. PMID:27554219

  16. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s’, RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s’, showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  17. New advances in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Sonia; Herrera, Iván; Irurzun, Javier

    2016-03-28

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of deaths in cirrhotic patients and the third cause of cancer related deaths. Most HCC are associated with well known underlying risk factors, in fact, HCC arise in cirrhotic patients in up to 90% of cases, mainly due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcohol abuse. The worldwide prevention strategies are conducted to avoid the infection of new subjects and to minimize the risk of liver disease progression in infected patients. HCC is a condition which lends itself to surveillance as at-risk individuals can readily be identified. The American and European guidelines recommended implementation of surveillance programs with ultrasound every six months in patient at-risk for developing HCC. The diagnosis of HCC can be based on non-invasive criteria (only in cirrhotic patient) or pathology. Accurately staging patients is essential to oncology practice. The ideal tumour staging system in HCC needs to account for both tumour characteristics and liver function. Treatment allocation is based on several factors: Liver function, size and number of tumours, macrovascular invasion or extrahepatic spread. The recommendations in terms of selection for different treatment strategies must be based on evidence-based data. Resection, liver transplant and interventional radiology treatment are mainstays of HCC therapy and achieve the best outcomes in well-selected candidates. Chemoembolization is the most widely used treatment for unresectable HCC or progression after curative treatment. Finally, in patients with advanced HCC with preserved liver function, sorafenib is the only approved systemic drug that has demonstrated a survival benefit and is the standard of care in this group of patients. PMID:27028578

  18. Primary prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, S Z

    1995-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major cancers in China. Accordingly, the mortality rates in 1990 (per 100,000) were 20.10 in certain cities and 24.32 in certain counties. More than 90% of HCC cases and 70% of controls were infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) (Odds Ratio (OR) = 10-50). In the same group of patients, 8-27% of those with HCC and 0-11% of the healthy controls were also infected with hepatitis C (HCV) (OR = 2.11-17.29). There appears to be some correlation between HBV markers and the OR. The government requires that 85% of infants be immunized with HBV vaccine. In 1992, there were 3 million infants inoculated with HB vaccines. Aflatoxins have been found as contaminants in food, particularly in corn, peanut oil, soya sauce and fermented soya beans. The intake of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by people of ten different villages correlated with HCC mortality rates (r = 0.55; P < 0.05). The concentration of AFB1-albumin adducts is an indicator of individual exposure to aflatoxins. These adducts are higher in hyperendemic HCC areas and cases. Most people have now changed their staple food and eat rice instead of corn. Six large epidemiological studies have confirmed that people who drink pond-ditch water experience higher HCC mortality rates than people who drink deep-well water. Recent research has found that the blue-green algal toxin microcystin (MCYST) was a contaminant of pond-ditch water. MCYST is a strong promoter of HCC and will induce severe intrahepatic haemorrhages and liver necrosis. More than 80% of people in Qidong County have already changed their sources of water from pond-ditches to deep wells. Therefore, a combined strategy of the prevention of hepatitis, control of crops and control of drinking water is advocated for the primary prevention of HCC in China.

  19. New advances in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Sonia; Herrera, Iván; Irurzun, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of deaths in cirrhotic patients and the third cause of cancer related deaths. Most HCC are associated with well known underlying risk factors, in fact, HCC arise in cirrhotic patients in up to 90% of cases, mainly due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcohol abuse. The worldwide prevention strategies are conducted to avoid the infection of new subjects and to minimize the risk of liver disease progression in infected patients. HCC is a condition which lends itself to surveillance as at-risk individuals can readily be identified. The American and European guidelines recommended implementation of surveillance programs with ultrasound every six months in patient at-risk for developing HCC. The diagnosis of HCC can be based on non-invasive criteria (only in cirrhotic patient) or pathology. Accurately staging patients is essential to oncology practice. The ideal tumour staging system in HCC needs to account for both tumour characteristics and liver function. Treatment allocation is based on several factors: Liver function, size and number of tumours, macrovascular invasion or extrahepatic spread. The recommendations in terms of selection for different treatment strategies must be based on evidence-based data. Resection, liver transplant and interventional radiology treatment are mainstays of HCC therapy and achieve the best outcomes in well-selected candidates. Chemoembolization is the most widely used treatment for unresectable HCC or progression after curative treatment. Finally, in patients with advanced HCC with preserved liver function, sorafenib is the only approved systemic drug that has demonstrated a survival benefit and is the standard of care in this group of patients. PMID:27028578

  20. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s', RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s', showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  1. Newer markers for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Jorge A; Lok, Anna S F

    2004-11-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing worldwide; the overall survival of patients with HCC is grim because most patients are diagnosed late, when curative treatment is not possible. Cirrhosis is the strongest risk factor for the development of HCC. HCC surveillance with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and ultrasonography has been recommended for persons with cirrhosis. However, AFP level is insensitive for the early detection of HCC, and ultrasonography is expensive and operator dependent. Clearly, there is a need for novel strategies for the early detection of HCC. The ideal biomarker assay for HCC would be sensitive, specific, noninvasive, reproducible, inexpensive, and acceptable to patients. The Early Detection Research Network of the National Cancer Institute has proposed 5 phases for biomarker validation: preclinical exploratory studies, clinical assay development for disease, retrospective longitudinal study to detect preclinical disease, prospective screening study, and cancer control studies. Several biomarkers, such as des-gamma carboxyprothrombin, lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive AFP, human hepatocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1, are promising, but none of these markers has been validated for clinical use. Limitations of the current literature include inadequate sample size, heterogeneity in biomarker assay methods and result reporting, limited analysis of demographics and cause of liver disease as covariates in the expression of these markers, and a scarcity of longitudinal studies evaluating the ability of biomarkers to detect preclinical disease. There is an urgent need for novel biomarkers for the detection of early HCC; the National Cancer Institute proposal provides a framework for future validation studies. PMID:15508074

  2. Targeted Therapies for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Augusto; Llovet, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike most solid tumors, incidence and mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have increased in the US and Europe in the last decade. Most patients are diagnosed at advanced stages, so there is an urgent need for new systemic therapies. Sorafenib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has demonstrated clinical efficacy in patients with HCC. Studies in patients with lung, breast, or colorectal cancers indicated that the genetic heterogeneity of cancer cells within a tumor affect its response to therapeutics designed to target specific molecules. When tumor progression requires alterations in specific oncogenes (oncogene addiction), drugs that selectively block their products might slow tumor growth. However, no specific oncogene alterations are yet known to be implicated in HCC progression, so it is important to improve our understanding of its molecular pathogenesis. There are currently many clinical trials evaluating TKIs for HCC, including those tested in combination with (e.g., erlotinib) or compared to (e.g., linifanib) sorafenib as a first-line therapy. For patients that do not respond or are intolerant to sorafenib, TKIs such as brivanib, everolimus, and monoclonal antibodies (e.g. ramucirumab) are being tested as second-line therapies. There are early-stage trials investigating the efficacy for up to 60 reagents for HCC. Together, these studies might change the management strategy for HCC, and combination therapies might be developed for patients with advanced HCC. Identification of oncogenes that mediate progression of HCC, and trials that monitor their products as biomarkers, might lead to personalized therapy; reagents that interfere with signaling pathways required for HCC progression might be used to treat selected populations, and thereby maximize the efficacy and cost-benefit. PMID:21406195

  3. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Where are we?

    PubMed Central

    Mazzanti, Roberto; Arena, Umberto; Tassi, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second cause of death due to malignancy in the world, following lung cancer. The geographic distribution of this disease accompanies its principal risk factors: Chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection, alcoholism, aflatoxin B1 intoxication, liver cirrhosis, and some genetic attributes. Recently, type II diabetes has been shown to be a risk factor for HCC together with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Although the risk factors are quite well known and it is possible to diagnose HCC when the tumor is less than 1 cm diameter, it remains elusive at the beginning and treatment is often unsuccessful. Liver transplantation is thus far considered the best treatment for HCC as it cures HCC and the underlying liver disease. Using the Milan criteria, overall survival after liver transplantation for HCC is about 70% after 5 years. Many attempts have been made to go beyond the Milan Criteria and according to recent works reasonably good results have been achieved by using a histochemical marker such as cytokeratine 19 and the so-called “up to seven criteria” to divide patients into categories according to their risk of relapse. In addition to liver transplantation other therapies have been proposed such as resection, tumor ablation by different means, embolization and chemotherapy. An important step in the treatment of advanced HCC has been the introduction of sorafenib, the first oral, systemic drug that has provided significant improvement in survival. Treatment of HCC patients must be multidisciplinary and by using the different approaches discussed in this review it is possible to offer prolonged survival and quite good and sometimes even excellent quality of life to many patients. PMID:26929917

  4. Thyroid carcinoma in patients with Graves' disease: an institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuanzeng; Baloch, Zubair W; LiVolsi, Virginia A

    2015-03-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by diffuse hyperplasia and excessive production of thyroid hormone. The association between thyroid carcinoma and GD is controversial. The prevalence of thyroid carcinoma was investigated in patients with GD who underwent thyroidectomy for thyroid nodular lesions or GD from 1994 to 2013 at our institution. Three hundred and forty-seven patients were placed into two groups: Graves' disease with nodular lesions group (group GN) included 85 patients who had thyroidectomy for nodular lesion, and Graves' disease group (group G) included 262 patients who had thyroidectomy for hyperthyroidism. There were 59 patients with thyroid carcinomas in the 85 patients (69 %) of group GN, including 3 follicular carcinomas (5 %), 1 poorly differentiated carcinoma (2 %), and 55 papillary thyroid carcinomas (93 %). Among the 55 papillary thyroid carcinomas, 19 cases were papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (34 %); and 5 cases of tall cell variant (9 %) were identified. There were 8 cases with lymph node metastasis (14 %), 6 cases with lymphovascular invasion (10 %), and 12 cases with extrathyroidal invasion (20 %). In addition, 24 carcinomas showed multiple foci of tumor (41 %). In contrast, 51 patients (19 %) of 262 patients in group G had carcinoma, including 2 follicular carcinomas (4 %) and 49 papillary thyroid carcinomas (96 %). In the 49 cases of papillary thyroid carcinomas, 47 cases were microcarcinomas (96 %); and 2 cases of tall cell variant (4 %) were found. There were no lymph node metastasis or lymphovascular and extrathyroidal invasion, but 11 cases (22 %) demonstrated multiple carcinoma foci. In conclusion, thyroid nodular lesions in patients with GD should raise a high suspicion of carcinoma, and these lesions are frequently clinically significant tumors. Incidental thyroid carcinomas in patients with GD are not uncommon, but most of them are low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma without lymph node

  5. Ossifying Parotid Carcinoma ex Pleomorphic Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Suresh; Puram, Sidharth V.; Yarlagadda, Bharat; Nosé, Vania; Deschler, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    We present a unique case of an extensively ossified carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) in a 76-year-old man with a five-year history of a slowly growing parotid mass. Fine-needle aspiration of the mass was nondiagnostic. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the lesion revealed a well-circumscribed mass with peripheral calcification. Initial pathological analysis suggested a benign parotid mass, but rigorous decalcification revealed noninvasive CXPA. The patient underwent complete resection of the mass and remained disease-free nine months later. Extensive ossification of a seemingly benign parotid mass may mask areas of carcinoma that may progress if left untreated. PMID:26075129

  6. Therapeutic challenges in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Penticuff, Justin C; Kyprianou, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignancy that in advanced disease, is highly resistant to systemic therapies. Elucidation of the angiogenesis pathways and their intrinsic signaling interactions with the genetic and metabolic disturbances within renal cell carcinoma variants has ushered in the era of “targeted therapies”. Advanced surgical interventions and novel drugs targeting VEGF and mTOR, have improved patient survival and prolonged clinically stable-disease states. This review discusses the current understanding of diagnostic challenges and the mechanism-based clinical evidence on therapeutic management of advanced RCC. PMID:26309897

  7. Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Bidari-Zerehpoosh, Farahnaz; Naghibzadeh, Bijan; Jamali, Elena; Jamali, Moein; Mafi, Amirali; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma represents one of the most common malignant salivary gland tumors. However, the sclerosing morphologic variant is extremely rare with only 23 reported cases in the English-language literature since it was discovered in 1987. Case Report: Herein, we describe another case that was diagnosed in a 25-year-old woman presenting with a posterior auricular mass, as well as a review of the literature, which demonstrates that this is an extremely rare malignancy with no strict protocol for treatment. Conclusion: Pathologists must be aware of recognizing low grade sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma which has metastatic potential and is frequently misdiagnosed as a benign lesion.

  8. Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Bidari-Zerehpoosh, Farahnaz; Naghibzadeh, Bijan; Jamali, Elena; Jamali, Moein; Mafi, Amirali; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma represents one of the most common malignant salivary gland tumors. However, the sclerosing morphologic variant is extremely rare with only 23 reported cases in the English-language literature since it was discovered in 1987. Case Report: Herein, we describe another case that was diagnosed in a 25-year-old woman presenting with a posterior auricular mass, as well as a review of the literature, which demonstrates that this is an extremely rare malignancy with no strict protocol for treatment. Conclusion: Pathologists must be aware of recognizing low grade sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma which has metastatic potential and is frequently misdiagnosed as a benign lesion. PMID:27602340

  9. Cytoreductive nephrectomy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chery, Lisly J; Karam, Jose A; Wood, Christopher G

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma is increasing, with up to one-third of patients presenting with metastatic disease. Combination therapy is used to prolong survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, which carries a poor prognosis. Although two pivotal phase 3 trials have demonstrated the efficacy of immunotherapy after cytoreductive nephrectomy for metastatic disease, for now, targeted therapy has replaced immunotherapy as the preferred systemic treatment in these patients. Two ongoing phase 3 trials are evaluating the role of cytoreductive nephrectomy prior to targeted therapy. Proper patient selection is paramount in achieving successful outcomes. PMID:27673288

  10. Carcinoma in ectopic breast: a cytological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shailaja; Sehgal, Shivali; Rai, Preeti; Agarwal, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic breast carcinoma in the axillary region is rare with an incidence ranging from 0.3-6%. We report a case of infiltrating duct carcinoma in an adult female arising in aberrant breast tissue in the axilla diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. There was history of recent increase in size of the lump which was otherwise present for the past 5 years. This case highlights the role fine needle aspiration cytology can play in the early diagnosis of malignant transformation of lumps.

  11. Synchronous Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Auricular Myxoma

    PubMed Central

    González-Cantú, Yessica M.; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina; Tena-Suck, Martha Lilia; García de la Fuente, Alberto; Mejía-Bañuelos, Rosa María; Díaz Mendoza, Raymundo; Quintanilla-Garza, Samuel; Batisda-Acuña, Yolaester

    2015-01-01

    Synchronic occurrence of benign and malignant tumors is extremely rare. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma represents 1% to 2% of all hepatocarcinomas, while myxomas represent about half of all the cases of primary tumors of the heart. We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with a left atrial myxoma that was surgically removed. Several weeks later, the patient returned to the hospital with abdominal pain. CT scan showed a mass in the left lobe of the liver that was resected and diagnosed as fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. As of this writing, the patient is healthy. PMID:26509093

  12. Synchronous Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Auricular Myxoma.

    PubMed

    González-Cantú, Yessica M; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina; Tena-Suck, Martha Lilia; García de la Fuente, Alberto; Mejía-Bañuelos, Rosa María; Díaz Mendoza, Raymundo; Quintanilla-Garza, Samuel; Batisda-Acuña, Yolaester

    2015-01-01

    Synchronic occurrence of benign and malignant tumors is extremely rare. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma represents 1% to 2% of all hepatocarcinomas, while myxomas represent about half of all the cases of primary tumors of the heart. We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with a left atrial myxoma that was surgically removed. Several weeks later, the patient returned to the hospital with abdominal pain. CT scan showed a mass in the left lobe of the liver that was resected and diagnosed as fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. As of this writing, the patient is healthy.

  13. Carcinoma of the lung complicating lipoid pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Felson, B.; Ralaisomay, G.

    1983-11-01

    The authors have encountered four cases of oil aspiration pneumonia complicated by carcinoma. Each had a clear-cut history of chronic intake of an oily substance, radiographic changes, and histologically documented oil aspiration pneumonia. Lung cancer later appeared in the involved area. A small number of similar cases also have been reported. The implication is that oil aspiration pneumonitis may induce bronchogenic carcinoma, particularly either the alveolar cell or the squamous cell variety. The radiographic diagnosis of the malignant transformation is difficult, and consequently the prognosis is poor.

  14. Colon carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, J.W. Jr.; Carter, M.P.; Berens, S.V.; Long, R.F.; Caplan, G.E.

    1986-09-01

    Metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid gland rarely is encountered in clinical practice; however, autopsy series have shown that it is not a rare occurrence. A case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with metastases to the thyroid is reported. A review of the literature reveals that melanoma, breast, renal, and lung carcinomas are the most frequent tumors to metastasize to the thyroid. Metastatic disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules on radionuclide thyroid scans, particularly in patients with a known primary.

  15. Differential Immunohistochemical Profiles for Distinguishing Prostate Carcinoma and Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Woo Jin; Chung, Arthur Minwoo; Kim, Jee Soon; Han, Ji Heun; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Yeol; Choi, Yeong Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background The pathologic distinction between high-grade prostate adenocarcinoma (PAC) involving the urinary bladder and high-grade urothelial carcinoma (UC) infiltrating the prostate can be difficult. However, making this distinction is clinically important because of the different treatment modalities for these two entities. Methods A total of 249 patient cases (PAC, 111 cases; UC, 138 cases) collected between June 1995 and July 2009 at Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital were studied. An immunohistochemical evaluation of prostatic markers (prostate-specific antigen [PSA], prostate-specific membrane antigen [PSMA], prostate acid phosphatase [PAP], P501s, NKX3.1, and α-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase [AMACR]) and urothelial markers (CK34βE12, p63, thrombomodulin, S100P, and GATA binding protein 3 [GATA3]) was performed using tissue microarrays from each tumor. Results The sensitivities of prostatic markers in PAC were 100% for PSA, 83.8% for PSMA, 91.9% for PAP, 93.7% for P501s, 88.3% for NKX 3.1, and 66.7% for AMACR. However, the urothelial markers CK34βE12, p63, thrombomodulin, S100P, and GATA3 were also positive in 1.8%, 0%, 0%, 3.6%, and 0% of PAC, respectively. The sensitivities of urothelial markers in UC were 75.4% for CK34βE12, 73.9% for p63, 45.7% for thrombomodulin, 22.5% for S100P, and 84.8% for GATA3. Conversely, the prostatic markers PSA, PSMA, PAP, P501s, NKX3.1, and AMACR were also positive in 9.4%, 0.7%, 18.8%, 0.7%, 0%, and 8.7% of UCs, respectively. Conclusions Prostatic and urothelial markers, including PSA, NKX3.1, p63, thrombomodulin, and GATA3 are very useful for differentiating PAC from UC. The optimal combination of prostatic and urothelial markers could improve the ability to differentiate PAC from UC pathologically. PMID:27498545

  16. Unique Transcriptomic Profile of Collecting Duct Carcinomas Relative to Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinomas and other Kidney Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Malouf, Gabriel G; Compérat, Eva; Yao, Hui; Mouawad, Roger; Lindner, Veronique; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Verkarre, Virginie; Leroy, Xavier; Dainese, Linda; Classe, Marion; Descotes, Jean-Luc; Barthelemy, Philippe; Yacoub, Mokrane; Rouprêt, Morgan; Bernhard, Jean-Christophe; Creighton, Chad J; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Su, Xiaoping; Khayat, David

    2016-01-01

    Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is a kidney cancer subtype that is thought to arise from principal cells in distal parts of the collecting ducts. Some studies suggested an overlap of CDC with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), making the pathological diagnosis challenging. Herein, we performed for the first time transcriptome sequencing of CDC and compared them to UTUC and renal cell carcinoma subtypes. We discovered that CDC displays a unique transcriptomic signature among kidney cancer subtypes, with a putative cell of origin in the distal convoluted tubules. Hierarchical unsupervised clustering reveals that the CDC signature is closer to that of other RCC subtypes than to UTUC, which is similar to that of bladder carcinoma. CDC is characterized by a metabolic shift, with impairment of oxidoreductase activity, pyruvate metabolism and the tricarboxlyic acid cycle, as well as an immunogenic response consistent with increased tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, particularly within metastatic cases. In addition, pathways differentially altered between CDC and UTUC point to a basal-like phenotype of CDC in contrast to the luminal-like signature of UTUC. We conclude that CDC harbors a pathognomonic transcriptomic signature characterized by immunogenic and a metabolic aberrations, indicating that targeting these processes might provide therapeutic options for patients. PMID:27484008

  17. Unique Transcriptomic Profile of Collecting Duct Carcinomas Relative to Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinomas and other Kidney Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Malouf, Gabriel G.; Compérat, Eva; Yao, Hui; Mouawad, Roger; Lindner, Veronique; Rioux-leclercq, Nathalie; Verkarre, Virginie; Leroy, Xavier; Dainese, Linda; Classe, Marion; Descotes, Jean-Luc; Barthelemy, Philippe; Yacoub, Mokrane; Rouprêt, Morgan; Bernhard, Jean-Christophe; Creighton, Chad J.; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Su, Xiaoping; Khayat, David

    2016-01-01

    Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is a kidney cancer subtype that is thought to arise from principal cells in distal parts of the collecting ducts. Some studies suggested an overlap of CDC with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), making the pathological diagnosis challenging. Herein, we performed for the first time transcriptome sequencing of CDC and compared them to UTUC and renal cell carcinoma subtypes. We discovered that CDC displays a unique transcriptomic signature among kidney cancer subtypes, with a putative cell of origin in the distal convoluted tubules. Hierarchical unsupervised clustering reveals that the CDC signature is closer to that of other RCC subtypes than to UTUC, which is similar to that of bladder carcinoma. CDC is characterized by a metabolic shift, with impairment of oxidoreductase activity, pyruvate metabolism and the tricarboxlyic acid cycle, as well as an immunogenic response consistent with increased tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, particularly within metastatic cases. In addition, pathways differentially altered between CDC and UTUC point to a basal-like phenotype of CDC in contrast to the luminal-like signature of UTUC. We conclude that CDC harbors a pathognomonic transcriptomic signature characterized by immunogenic and a metabolic aberrations, indicating that targeting these processes might provide therapeutic options for patients. PMID:27484008

  18. Lung Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma: ACase Report of Pulmonary Sarcomatoid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fan, Tao; Song, Ying-Jie

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC) is a rare malignant cancer composed of sarcoma and sarcoma-like elements with spindle or giant cell features. We report the case of a 60-year-old male with past medical history of right renal cell carcinoma 2 years earlier. Apulmonary nodule was detected in the left upper lobe, 23 months after nephrectomy. Systemic positron emission tomography-computerized tomography (PET-CT) revealed one high metabolic mass shadow in the left upper lobe. Chest CTscan with contrast revealed a left upper lobe mass (2.9 x 2.5 cm). The case was suspected to be a lung metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. After surgery, the pathology revealed PSC-giant cell carcinoma. The tumor's pathology and treatment methods are discussed. PMID:27376226

  19. A Rare Constellation of Hürthle Cell Thyroid Carcinoma and Parathyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zakerkish, Mehrnoosh; Rajaei, Elham; Dargahi, Mehrdad; Bahadoram, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Separate occurrence of thyroid and parathyroid carcinoma in patients is extremely rare, and to the best of our knowledge, only 7 patients with documented parathyroid and papillary thyroid carcinomas have been described formerly in published reports. We report a patient with an extremely unusual clinical presentation of Hürthle cell carcinoma in thyroid and parathyroid carcinoma. The patient displayed a rare presentation of life-threatening hypercalcaemia after total para-thyroidectomy and failed to respond to standard therapy. Our review of available literature yielded insufficient evidence in managing such. When a patient with thyroid cancer is diagnosed, checking for serum calcium is advised. This is considered a useful method for detecting possible incidental parathyroid lesion and screening the probable concealed parathyroid pathology.

  20. PAX 2: a novel Müllerian marker for serous papillary carcinomas to differentiate from micropapillary breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chivukula, Mamatha; Dabbs, David J; O'Connor, Siobhan; Bhargava, Rohit

    2009-11-01

    Ovarian serous papillary carcinoma, although rarely metastasizing to the breast, is often challenging based on morphology alone, particularly from the micropapillary variant of breast carcinoma. Gross cystic disease fluid protein-15, although a specific marker, can be negative in up to 50% of breast carcinomas. Wilm's tumor gene 1 (WT-1) has been identified as a useful marker to differentiate metastatic ovarian serous papillary carcinoma from primary breast carcinoma; however, it has recently been shown in the micropapillary variant of the primary breast carcinoma making it a less specific marker. PAX 2, a nuclear transcription factor, was recently observed in ovarian serous papillary carcinomas. In this study of 89 breast carcinoma cases, 26 micropapillary carcinoma, and 63 nonmicropapillary carcinoma types were retrieved from our pathology archives, represented on a single tissue microarray (TMA) with a 3-fold redundancy (TMA-1, TMA-2). In addition, whole tissue sections of a variety of benign and neoplastic müllerian tissues were surveyed with the PAX 2 immunostain. All cases were stained with rabbit polyclonal PAX 2 antibody and, in addition, the 5 metastatic ovarian serous carcinoma cases were stained with WT-1 as well for comparison. Only nuclear staining was considered positive. All primary breast carcinomas represented on TMA-1 and TMA-2 were entirely negative for PAX 2 100% (89/89), whereas 100% (5/5) of all metastatic ovarian serous carcinomas showed moderate-to-strong staining. PAX 2 expression was comparable with WT-1 as well in the metastatic ovarian serous carcinoma group. We therefore conclude that PAX 2 is a promising new, sensitive, and specific müllerian immunomarker for ovarian serous carcinomas (primary and metastatic).

  1. Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  2. Metastatic brain tumor from urothelial carcinoma of the prostatic urethra

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Kohei; Oda, Masashi; Koyanagi, Masaomi; Saiki, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urothelial carcinoma occurs in the bladder, upper urinary tract, and lower urinary tract, including prostatic urethra. A majority of the reported cases of intracranial metastasis from urothelial carcinoma originates from the bladder and upper urinary tract. Brain metastasis from urothelial carcinoma of the prostatic urethra has not yet been reported in the literature. Case Description: A 72-year-old male presented with a metastatic brain tumor and a 3-year history of urothelial carcinoma of the prostatic urethra treated with cystourethrectomy and chemotherapy with gemcitabine-cisplatin. Pathological diagnosis for tumor removal was compatible with metastatic brain tumor from urothelial carcinoma. Conclusion: Brain metastasis from urothelial carcinoma of the prostatic urethra has not yet been reported in the literature. It is an extremely rare case, however, we should be careful of brain metastasis during follow-up for urothelial carcinoma in the lower urinary tract. PMID:27512612

  3. Occult distal urethral carcinoma presenting as metastatic carcinoma in the inguinal lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Hammer-Hansen, Niels; Høyer, Søren; Jensen, Jørgen Bjerggaard

    2015-02-01

    A 65-year-old man presented with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in the inguinal lymph nodes from an unknown primary tumour. The initial work-up lacked clinical examination of the glans penis, in part due to the patient having phimosis. More than a year after presentation, a primary tumour, located distally on the penis, was diagnosed. A discussion of urethral carcinoma as well as inguinal lymph-node metastasis of unknown primary tumour is presented. PMID:25313619

  4. Mammaglobin and S-100 immunoreactivity in salivary gland carcinomas other than mammary analogue secretory carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kalyani R; Solomon, Isaac H; El-Mofty, Samir K; Lewis, James S; Chernock, Rebecca D

    2013-11-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor that has morphologic features similar to secretory carcinoma of the breast and that also harbors the same ETV6 translocation. Diffuse mammaglobin and S-100 immunoreactivity are used to differentiate MASC from its morphologic mimics, especially acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. However, the combination of mammaglobin and S-100 immunoreactivity has not been well studied in other types of salivary gland carcinomas that may have focal areas reminiscent of MASC. Here we evaluated mammaglobin and S-100 immunoreactivity in 15 cases each of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and also in 2 cases of adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified, and 1 mucinous adenocarcinoma. Cases with significant co-expression of mammaglobin and S-100 (moderate or strong immunoreactivity in >25% of tumor cells) were further analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization using the ETV6 (12p13) break-apart probe. Nine cases (60%) of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma and two (13.3%) of adenoid cystic carcinoma met the criteria for significant co-expression of mammaglobin and S-100. All were negative for the ETV6 translocation by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Although mammaglobin and S-100 positivity was seen in the majority of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas and a minority of adenoid cystic carcinomas, none were positive for the ETV6 translocation characteristic of MASC. This indicates a need for caution in the use of immunohistochemistry for diagnosing MASC, especially in the absence of cytogenetic confirmation.

  5. Pedunculated-type T1 colorectal carcinoma with lung carcinoma metastasis at the deepest invasive portion.

    PubMed

    Asayama, Naoki; Oka, Shiro; Tanaka, Shinji; Hirano, Daiki; Sumimoto, Kyoku; Ninomiya, Yuki; Tamaru, Yuzuru; Shigita, Kenjiro; Hayashi, Nana; Shimamoto, Fumio; Arihiro, Koji; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2016-08-01

    We present a rare case of colorectal T1 carcinoma with metastasis of previous lung carcinoma found at the deepest invasive portion. A 61-year-old man presented with cervical lymphadenopathy 18 years after undergoing surgery for right lung carcinoma [poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma stage IIb (T3N0M0)]. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed enlarged lymph nodes (LNs) in the neck and mediastinal regions. Combined hybrid-F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission-computerized tomography showed increased radionuclide uptake in multiple cervical LNs and mediastinal LNs. LN biopsy revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, suspected to be a metastatic tumor of the lung. Subsequent colonoscopy revealed a pedunculated-type lesion with a depressed area in the ascending colon. We performed polypectomy as total excisional biopsy; this tumor was composed mainly of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, partially mixed with mucinous adenocarcinoma. The pathological findings of the invasive front of the colorectal carcinoma showed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with a morphological pattern similar to that of the previous lung carcinoma. Furthermore, immunohistochemical results for the histological type of the deepest invasive portion of the tissue specimen were positive for thyroid transcription factor-1 but negative for Caudal-type homeobox 2. From these morphological and immunohistochemical findings, the final diagnosis was moderately differentiated lung carcinoma, pTX N3 M1b (LN, colon) Stage IV. PMID:27259703

  6. Case report of the bronchioloalveolar carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Mohammad; Kalantari, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma is a form of adenocarcinoma. Its clinical presentation spans the entire spectrum from asymptomatic solitary pulmonary nodule to full presentation with cough, hemoptysis and dyspnea. Clinical symptoms usually are in correlation with the extent of disease. The case we present here is a patient in late stage of disease with few symptoms regarding to the extent of disease involvement. PMID:25709995

  7. Merkel cell carcinoma with glandular differentiation admixed with sweat gland carcinoma and spindle cell carcinoma: histogenesis of merkel cell carcinoma from hair follicle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Koba, Shinichi; Nagase, Kotaro; Ikeda, Satoshi; Aoki, Shigehisa; Misago, Noriyuki; Narisawa, Yutaka

    2015-03-01

    We describe a unique case of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) with a heterogeneous differentiation exhibiting distinct triphasic phenotypic differentiation features: small cells typical of MCC, sweat gland carcinoma (sweat gland Ca.) with possible decapitation secretion, and spindle cell carcinoma (spindle cell Ca.). The patient was an 84-year-old Japanese woman. We evaluated the present case immunohistochemically with various antibodies. The histological features showed a gradual transition from MCC to sweat gland Ca. and spindle cell Ca. For clarifying the histogenesis, immunophenotypic analysis of the 3 different components of the carcinoma was performed using hair follicle stem cell markers (eg, CK15, CK19, and CD200) that have been identified as biomarkers of human bulge cells. The triphasic components immunohistochemically shared the characteristic feature of CK19 and CD200 expression. We posit that the MCC arose from hair follicle stem cells residing within the bulge area where Merkel cells are preferentially situated. Based on our findings, we recommend adding this rare neoplasm to the expanding morphological spectrum of MCC.

  8. Odontogenic squamous cell carcinoma with osseous metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J H; Jones, J; Speight, P M

    1993-07-01

    Intra-osseous carcinomas of the jaw are rare tumours, thought to arise from residual elements of the odontogenic epithelium. We report an additional case which, unusually, was characterised by marked osseous metaplasia. We propose that the new bone formed around the tumour is the result of an epithelial-mesenchymal interaction between malignant odontogenic epithelium and osteogenic precursor cells in the surrounding stroma.

  9. Prognostic factors for hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence.

    PubMed

    Colecchia, Antonio; Schiumerini, Ramona; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Cescon, Matteo; Taddia, Martina; Marasco, Giovanni; Festi, Davide

    2014-05-28

    The recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, the sixth most common neoplasm and the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, represents an important clinical problem, since it may occur after both surgical and medical treatment. The recurrence rate involves 2 phases: an early phase and a late phase. The early phase usually occurs within 2 years after resection; it is mainly related to local invasion and intrahepatic metastases and, therefore, to the intrinsic biology of the tumor. On the other hand, the late phase occurs more than 2 years after surgery and is mainly related to de novo tumor formation as a consequence of the carcinogenic cirrhotic environment. Since recent studies have reported that early and late recurrences may have different risk factors, it is clinically important to recognize these factors in the individual patient as soon as possible. The aim of this review was, therefore, to identify predicting factors for the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, by means of invasive and non-invasive methods, according to the different therapeutic strategies available. In particular the role of emerging techniques (e.g., transient elastography) and biological features of hepatocellular carcinoma in predicting recurrence have been discussed. In particular, invasive methods were differentiated from non-invasive ones for research purposes, taking into consideration the emerging role of the genetic signature of hepatocellular carcinoma in order to better allocate treatment strategies and surveillance follow-up in patients with this type of tumor.

  10. Impact of Squamous Differentiation in Breast Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pai, Trupti; Shet, Tanuja; Desai, Sangeeta; Patil, Asawari; Nair, Nita; Parmar, Vani; Gupta, Sudeep; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Sarin, Rajiv; Badwe, Rajendra

    2016-09-01

    This study attempted to review the impact of extent of squamous differentiation in 56 infiltrating duct carcinomas (IDC) with squamous differentiation (metaplastic squamous carcinomas [MSC]). Tumors showing 100% squamous elements were labeled as primary squamous carcinomas (PSC; n = 28) and compared with 28 MSC showing lesser squamous components. A clinicopathological comparison revealed that lymphovascular emboli were never seen in any PSC but were noted in 7/28 of other MSC, while perineural invasion was seen only in PSC and not in MSC. Nodal metastasis was significantly more in other MSC as opposed to PSC. Most MSC presented with 2- to 5-cm sized tumors while PSC were 5 to 10 cm in size. PSC showed cystic change while MSC did not. Disease free survival (DFS) for MSC versus PSC was 64% versus 39.8%, while overall survival (OAS) was 72.7% in MSC versus 66.7% in PSC. Tumor stage affected DFS in MSC while none of the factors affected DFS/OAS in PSC. The extent of squamous differentiation affected DFS with best behavior for metaplastic carcinomas showing <40% squamous elements and worse for those with >90% squamous component (P = .024). PSC of breast is an aggressive disease and show distinct clinicopathological features from other MSC, and though the current definition of MSC does not advocate quantifying the squamous element, clearly this affects prognosis. PMID:27076454

  11. [Report on 114 primary vaginal carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Sun, J H; Zhang, W H; Li, A L; Wu, A R

    1987-11-01

    114 patients with primary carcinoma of the vagina were treated in our hospital from 1958 to 1978. It accounted for 0.83% of all gynecological malignant tumors in the same period. The youngest was 26 years of age, the oldest 75. Patients 40-59 years comprised 61.4%. 33% of patients had wedding age under 17. 63.4% had more than 4 pregnancies and 58.4% gave more than 4 births. 89.69% was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma, 7.2% as adenocarcinoma, 2.06% as undifferentiated carcinoma and 1 as embryonic carcinoma. The tumor occurred frequently in the upper third and posterior wall of the vagina (60% and 68%). In this series, there were 21 stage I, 29 stage II, 61 stage III and 3 stage IV lesions. 110 patients were treated by radiotherapy in different schemes. Intracavitary radium or caesium plus 60Co external irradiation by four fields gave better result with a 5 year survival rate of 66.1%. Only 2 out of 12 patients were cured by 60Co rotation alone but if supplemented by intracavitary radium or caesium, the cure rate was increased. The 5 year survival rate was 71.4% for stage I, 62.1% for stage II, 42.6% for stage III and O for stage IV. After the radiotherapy, rectovaginal fistula developed in 1 patient, vesicovaginal fistula in 1. 14% was complicated with rectal bleeding and 8.18% with hematuria. PMID:3452544

  12. Integrated genomic characterization of endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kandoth, Cyriac; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cherniack, Andrew D; Akbani, Rehan; Liu, Yuexin; Shen, Hui; Robertson, A Gordon; Pashtan, Itai; Shen, Ronglai; Benz, Christopher C; Yau, Christina; Laird, Peter W; Ding, Li; Zhang, Wei; Mills, Gordon B; Kucherlapati, Raju; Mardis, Elaine R; Levine, Douglas A

    2013-05-01

    We performed an integrated genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic characterization of 373 endometrial carcinomas using array- and sequencing-based technologies. Uterine serous tumours and ∼25% of high-grade endometrioid tumours had extensive copy number alterations, few DNA methylation changes, low oestrogen receptor/progesterone receptor levels, and frequent TP53 mutations. Most endometrioid tumours had few copy number alterations or TP53 mutations, but frequent mutations in PTEN, CTNNB1, PIK3CA, ARID1A and KRAS and novel mutations in the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex gene ARID5B. A subset of endometrioid tumours that we identified had a markedly increased transversion mutation frequency and newly identified hotspot mutations in POLE. Our results classified endometrial cancers into four categories: POLE ultramutated, microsatellite instability hypermutated, copy-number low, and copy-number high. Uterine serous carcinomas share genomic features with ovarian serous and basal-like breast carcinomas. We demonstrated that the genomic features of endometrial carcinomas permit a reclassification that may affect post-surgical adjuvant treatment for women with aggressive tumours.

  13. Pituitary Carcinoma: Difficult Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Context: Although pituitary tumors are common, pituitary carcinoma is very rare and is only diagnosed when pituitary tumor noncontiguous with the sellar region is demonstrated. Diagnosis is difficult, resulting in delays that may adversely effect outcome that is traditionally poor. Barriers to earlier diagnosis and management strategies for pituitary carcinoma are discussed. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was employed to identify relevant studies, a review of the literature was conducted, and data were summarized and integrated from the author's perspective. Evidence Synthesis: The available data highlight the difficulties in diagnosis and management and practical challenges in conducting clinical trials in this rare condition. They suggest that earlier diagnosis with aggressive multimodal therapy may be advantageous in some cases. Conclusions: Although pituitary carcinoma remains difficult to diagnose and treat, recent developments have led to improved outcomes in selected cases. With broader use of molecular markers, efforts to modify current histopathological criteria for pituitary carcinoma diagnosis may now be possible. This would assist earlier diagnosis and, in combination with targeted therapies, potentially improve long-term survival. PMID:21956419

  14. [Multifocus or recurrent carcinoma adenoides cysticum].

    PubMed

    Wójtowicz, P; Sujkowska, U; Kukwa, A; Sobczyk, G; Misztela, T

    1995-01-01

    Authors present the case of carcinoma adenoides cysticum, which was located in small salivary glands of palatum. After surgical treatment and radiotherapy during 3 years observation of the patient two new ca adenoides cysticum focus were noticed. It can give evidence of cancer multifocus of cancer recurrents.

  15. [Two autopsy cases of primary pituitary carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Negishi, K; Suzuki, T; Masuda, Y; Masugi, Y; Teramoto, A; Ohama, E

    1988-05-01

    We studied two autopsy cases of primary pituitary carcinoma. Case-1. A 45 year old female was admitted on Oct. 4 1978, with a complaint of right homonymous hemianopsia. And diagnosis was pituitary adenoma. Partial removal of pituitary tumor was performed on Oct. 23 1978. She died on Dec. 5 1978 due to bleeding of gastrointestinal tract. Autopsy disclosed a pituitary carcinoma invading the left hypothalamus, mamillary body, optic and V cranial nerves, and mid brain as well as sphenoid bone. No extracranial metastasis was noted. Case-2. A 44 year old female with a history of acromegaly for 6 years was admitted with a complaint of headache on May 8 1976. She was diagnosed as having pituitary adenoma. The subtotal removal of pituitary tumor was performed on May 21 1976 and followed by 4500 rad irradiation. At this time, pathological diagnosis was eosinophilic adenoma. Seven years later, she complained of progressive right hearing disturbance, dysarthria and ataxic gait 1983. The second subtotal removal of pituitary tumor was performed with a diagnosis of recurrence of pituitary adenoma on Oct. 7 1983. After the operation, she complicated sepsis and died on Jan. 14 1984. An autopsy disclosed a pituitary carcinoma from residual pituitary gland, continuously extending to the subarachnoid space of the pons, and invading right cerebello-pontine angle and cerebellum. The histological examination revealed pituitary carcinoma with high pleomorphism and glioblastoma multiform-like feature were within the tumor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma mimicking lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Basoglu, A; Findik, S; Celik, B; Yildiz, L

    2006-06-01

    Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma has rarely been reported and is a benign entity of unknown origin. The chest radiograph reveals multiple and frequently bilateral pulmonary nodules. We describe a patient with pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma who presented with a central mass in the left lung mimicking lung carcinoma. PMID:16755455

  17. Hepatocellular carcinoma and evidence-based surgery

    PubMed Central

    Braillon, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Transplantation cannot be considered the most important therapeutic procedure for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In France, no more than 2% of patients with HCC undergo a transplantation. Randomized controlled trial must assess the benefit to risk ratio of various potentially “curative” treatment procedures (transplantation, resection, radio-frequency ablation). PMID:19908350

  18. Impact of Squamous Differentiation in Breast Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pai, Trupti; Shet, Tanuja; Desai, Sangeeta; Patil, Asawari; Nair, Nita; Parmar, Vani; Gupta, Sudeep; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Sarin, Rajiv; Badwe, Rajendra

    2016-09-01

    This study attempted to review the impact of extent of squamous differentiation in 56 infiltrating duct carcinomas (IDC) with squamous differentiation (metaplastic squamous carcinomas [MSC]). Tumors showing 100% squamous elements were labeled as primary squamous carcinomas (PSC; n = 28) and compared with 28 MSC showing lesser squamous components. A clinicopathological comparison revealed that lymphovascular emboli were never seen in any PSC but were noted in 7/28 of other MSC, while perineural invasion was seen only in PSC and not in MSC. Nodal metastasis was significantly more in other MSC as opposed to PSC. Most MSC presented with 2- to 5-cm sized tumors while PSC were 5 to 10 cm in size. PSC showed cystic change while MSC did not. Disease free survival (DFS) for MSC versus PSC was 64% versus 39.8%, while overall survival (OAS) was 72.7% in MSC versus 66.7% in PSC. Tumor stage affected DFS in MSC while none of the factors affected DFS/OAS in PSC. The extent of squamous differentiation affected DFS with best behavior for metaplastic carcinomas showing <40% squamous elements and worse for those with >90% squamous component (P = .024). PSC of breast is an aggressive disease and show distinct clinicopathological features from other MSC, and though the current definition of MSC does not advocate quantifying the squamous element, clearly this affects prognosis.

  19. Intra-mandibular adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bouaichi, A; Aimad-Eddine, S; Mommers, X-A; Ella, B; Zwetyenga, N

    2014-04-01

    Intra-mandibular localization of adenoid cystic carcinoma is rare. This tumor is characterized by progressive local, regional, and distant aggressiveness. We reviewed the latest data on this rare type of cancer with a small number of reported cases, alack of consensus for its treatment, and its bad prognosis.

  20. Metastatic thyroid carcinoma of the mandibule.

    PubMed

    Erdag, T; Bilgen, C; Ceryan, K

    1999-01-01

    A case of metastatic papillary carcinoma to the mandible is presented. Though relatively rare, metastatic tumours of the mandible should be included in the differential diagnosis of the tumours in the parotid region. For the primary site; being in the cervicofacial region, the thyroid gland must be considered by the head and neck surgeon.

  1. [Thyroglossal cyst and papillary carcinoma. Management proposals].

    PubMed

    Palomino-Martínez, Brisa Denise; Beristain-Hernández, José Luis; Piscil-Salazar, Marco Antonio; Villalpando-Mendoza, César Javier; Velázquez-García, José Arturo

    2014-01-01

    The thyroid descends through the foramen cecum leaving the thyroglossal duct, which disappears between the fifth and the tenth week of pregnancy. The lack of involution of any part of this duct results in thyroglossal cyst formation. Its diagnostic approach is made by cervical ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Approximately 1 % of the thyroglossal cyst formation contains malignant elements, and the most reported primary tumor has been papillary carcinoma. The recommended treatment for these carcinomas is controversial and it has evolved as time goes by. From Sistrunk procedure to neck dissection with total thyroidectomy and complementary therapies, such as iodine ablation and thyroid supplements, yet there is still no consensus as to the type of surgery and postoperative management it should be used to treat this carcinoma. Therapy should be applied according to each specific case, and it should be based on histological diagnosis, the invasive character of the tumor, and the lymph node affectation. In this paper we review the literature published so far with regards to the treatment of this carcinoma.

  2. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor in Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Natalie; Babur, Muhammad; Resch, Julia; Williams, Kaye J.; Brabant, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Intratumoural hypoxia (low oxygen tension) is associated with aggressive disease and poor prognosis. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 is a transcription factor activated by hypoxia that regulates the expression of genes that promote tumour cell survival, progression, metastasis, and resistance to chemo/radiotherapy. In addition to hypoxia, HIF-1 can be activated by growth factor-signalling pathways such as the mitogen-activated protein kinases- (MAPK-) and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinases- (PI3K-) signalling cascades. Mutations in these pathways are common in thyroid carcinoma and lead to enhanced HIF-1 expression and activity. Here, we summarise current data that highlights the potential role of both hypoxia and MAPK/PI3K-induced HIF-1 signalling in thyroid carcinoma progression, metastatic characteristics, and the potential role of HIF-1 in thyroid carcinoma response to radiotherapy. Direct or indirect targeting of HIF-1 using an MAPK or PI3K inhibitor in combination with radiotherapy may be a new potential therapeutic target to improve the therapeutic response of thyroid carcinoma to radiotherapy and reduce metastatic burden. PMID:21765994

  3. Targeting Hsp90 in urothelial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Skotnicki, Kamil; Landas, Steve; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Bourboulia, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma, or transitional cell carcinoma, is the most common urologic malignancy that carries significant morbidity, mortality, recurrence risk and associated health care costs. Despite use of current chemotherapies and immunotherapies, long-term remission in patients with muscle-invasive or metastatic disease remains low, and disease recurrence is common. The molecular chaperone Heat Shock Protein-90 (Hsp90) may offer an ideal treatment target, as it is a critical signaling hub in urothelial carcinoma pathogenesis and potentiates chemoradiation. Preclinical testing with Hsp90 inhibitors has demonstrated reduced proliferation, enhanced apoptosis and synergism with chemotherapies and radiation. Despite promising preclinical data, clinical trials utilizing Hsp90 inhibitors for other malignancies had modest efficacy. Therefore, we propose that Hsp90 inhibition would best serve as an adjuvant treatment in advanced muscle-invasive or metastatic bladder cancers to potentiate other therapies. An overview of bladder cancer biology, current treatments, molecular targeted therapies, and the role for Hsp90 inhibitors in the treatment of urothelial carcinoma is the focus of this review. PMID:25909217

  4. Association of urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis with papillary and medullary thyroid carcinomas. A new sporadic neoplastic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Albores-Saavedra, Jorge; Dorantes-Heredia, Rita; Chablé-Montero, Fredy; Córdova-Ramón, Juan Carlos; Henson, Donald E

    2014-10-01

    We describe 2 adult women (72 and 54 years), 1 with a low-grade noninvasive papillary urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis, who 14 years later developed a papillary carcinoma in 1 thyroid lobe and a medullary carcinoma in the contralateral lobe. Both neoplasms were similar in size and appeared symmetrical. Despite its small size, the medullary carcinoma metastasized in multiple cervical lymph nodes. The second patient had a high-grade invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis that infiltrated the renal parenchyma and metastasized in one of the lungs. Five months later, a papillary carcinoma was discovered in the thyroid gland. The 2 papillary thyroid carcinomas were of the follicular variant. Adjacent to 1 papillary carcinoma, there was a dominant nodule of a colloid and adenomatous goiter. The medullary carcinoma contained stromal amyloid and was immunoreactive for calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen. There was no C-cell hyperplasia (medullary carcinoma in situ). The 2 patients are alive, 1 is living with pulmonary metastasis from the high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Twelve cases of this neoplastic association were registered in the Survey, Epidemiology, and End Results Program from 1980 to 2009. We believe that the combination of these unusual neoplasms in the same patient may represent a new sporadic neoplastic syndrome.

  5. Gallbladder carcinoma: Prognostic factors and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Goetze, Thorsten Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of gallbladder carcinoma is poor, and the overall 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. In early-stage disease, a 5-year survival rate up to 75% can be achieved if stage-adjusted therapy is performed. There is wide geographic variability in the frequency of gallbladder carcinoma, which can only be explained by an interaction between genetic factors and their alteration. Gallstones and chronic cholecystitis are important risk factors in the formation of gallbladder malignancies. Factors such as chronic bacterial infection, primary sclerosing cholangitis, an anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct, and several types of gallbladder polyps are associated with a higher risk of gallbladder cancer. There is also an interesting correlation between risk factors and the histological type of cancer. However, despite theoretical risk factors, only a third of gallbladder carcinomas are recognized preoperatively. In most patients, the tumor is diagnosed by the pathologist after a routine cholecystectomy for a benign disease and is termed ‘‘incidental or occult gallbladder carcinoma’’ (IGBC). A cholecystectomy is performed frequently due to the minimal invasiveness of the laparoscopic technique. Therefore, the postoperative diagnosis of potentially curable early-stage disease is more frequent. A second radical re-resection to complete a radical cholecystectomy is required for several IGBCs. However, the literature and guidelines used in different countries differ regarding the radicality or T-stage criteria for performing a radical cholecystectomy. The NCCN guidelines and data from the German registry (GR), which records the largest number of incidental gallbladder carcinomas in Europe, indicate that carcinomas infiltrating the muscularis propria or beyond require radical surgery. According to GR data and current literature, a wedge resection with a combined dissection of the lymph nodes of the hepatoduodenal ligament is adequate for T1b and T2

  6. Calculator for ovarian carcinoma subtype prediction.

    PubMed

    Kalloger, Steve E; Köbel, Martin; Leung, Samuel; Mehl, Erika; Gao, Dongxia; Marcon, Krista M; Chow, Christine; Clarke, Blaise A; Huntsman, David G; Gilks, C Blake

    2011-04-01

    With the emerging evidence that the five major ovarian carcinoma subtypes (high-grade serous, clear cell, endometrioid, mucinous, and low-grade serous) are distinct disease entities, management of ovarian carcinoma will become subtype specific in the future. In an effort to improve diagnostic accuracy, we set out to determine if an immunohistochemical panel of molecular markers could reproduce consensus subtype assignment. Immunohistochemical expression of 22 biomarkers were examined on tissue microarrays constructed from 322 archival ovarian carcinoma samples from the British Columbia Cancer Agency archives, for the period between 1984 and 2000, and an independent set of 242 cases of ovarian carcinoma from the Gynaecologic Tissue Bank at Vancouver General Hospital from 2001 to 2008. Nominal logistic regression was used to produce a subtype prediction model for each of these sets of cases. These models were then cross-validated against the other cohort, and then both models were further validated in an independent cohort of 81 ovarian carcinoma samples from five different centers. Starting with data for 22 markers, full model fit, backwards, nominal logistic regression identified the same nine markers (CDKN2A, DKK1, HNF1B, MDM2, PGR, TFF3, TP53, VIM, WT1) as being most predictive of ovarian carcinoma subtype in both the archival and tumor bank cohorts. These models were able to predict subtype in the respective cohort in which they were developed with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity (κ statistics of 0.88±0.02 and 0.86±0.04, respectively). When the models were cross-validated (ie using the model developed in one case series to predict subtype in the other series), the prediction equation's performances were reduced (κ statistics of 0.70±0.04 and 0.61±0.04, respectively) due to differences in frequency of expression of some biomarkers in the two case series. Both models were then validated on the independent series of 81 cases, with very good to

  7. Gingival Squamous Cell Carcinoma: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Luiz Antonio Guimarães; de Carvalho, Luis Felipe das Chagas e Silva; Salgado, José Antônio Pereira; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant epithelial neoplasm characterized by variable clinical manifestations. When located in the gingiva, this neoplasm may mimic common inflammatory lesions. The aim of this study was to report a case of atypical squamous cell carcinoma, in which the patient had no risk factors for the development of this neoplasm. Methods A 61 year old Caucasian female was seen with a 3 month history of a rapidly growing, painful nodule in the gingiva adjacent to tooth #11. Clinical examination revealed a proliferative lesion in the vestibular marginal gingiva of teeth #11 and #12, presenting with purulent exudation. Thus, in view of the clinical symptoms and differential diagnosis of an infectious granulomatous process and malignant neoplasm, an incisional biopsy was obtained from the lesion. Results The diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma was made and fourteen days after incisional biopsy, healing was found to be unsatisfactory. The patient was referred for treatment consisting of surgical excision of the tumour. A removable partial denture was fabricated for rehabilitation, one month after surgery of the maxilla; the patient was submitted to dissection of the regional lymph nodes and radiotherapy for an additional 3 months. Three years after the end of treatment, the patient continues to be followed-up and does not show any sign of recurrence. Conclusions Gingival squamous cell carcinoma is a condition which chance of cure is higher when carcinomatous lesions are diagnosed and treated early. In this instance dentists play an important role in early detection of gingival squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:24421976

  8. Cixutumumab, Everolimus, and Octreotide Acetate in Treating Patients With Advanced Low to Intermediate Grade Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-14

    Gastrin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Pancreatic Glucagonoma; Pancreatic Insulinoma; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Paraganglioma; Recurrent Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Regional Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Somatostatin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Stage III Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  9. Biological and clinical significance of NAC1 expression in cervical carcinomas: a comparative study between squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yeasmin, Shamima; Nakayama, Kentaro; Rahman, Mohammed Tanjimur; Rahman, Munmun; Ishikawa, Masako; Katagiri, Atsuko; Iida, Kouji; Nakayama, Naomi; Otuski, Yoshiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Satoru; Miyazaki, Kohji

    2012-04-01

    This study examined the biological and clinical significance of NAC1 (nucleus accumbens associated 1) expression in both cervical squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas. Using immunohistochemistry, the frequency of positive NAC1 expression in adenocarcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas (31.0%; 18/58) was significantly higher than that in squamous cell carcinomas (16.2%; 12/74) (P = .043). NAC1 gene amplification was identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 5 (7.2%) of 69 squamous cell carcinomas. NAC1 amplification was not identified in the adenocarcinomas (0%; 0/58). Positive NAC1 expression was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival in squamous cell carcinomas (P < .0001). A multivariate analysis showed that positive NAC1 expression in squamous cell carcinomas was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival after standard radiotherapy (P = .0003). In contrast to squamous cell carcinomas, positive NAC1 expression did not correlate with shorter overall survival in adenocarcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas (P = .317). Profound growth inhibition, increased apoptosis, decreased cell proliferation, and decreased cell migration and invasion were observed in silencing RNA-treated cancer cells with NAC1 overexpression compared with cancer cells without NAC1 expression. NAC1 overexpression stimulated proliferation, migration, and invasion in the cervical cancer cell lines TCS and Hela P3, which normally lack NAC1 expression. These findings indicate that NAC1 overexpression is critical to the growth and survival of cervical carcinomas irrespective of histologic type. Furthermore, they suggest that NAC1 silencing RNA-induced phenotypes depend on the expression status of the targeted cell line. Therefore, cervical carcinoma patients with NAC1 expression may benefit from a targeted therapy irrespective of histologic type.

  10. A Case of Gastric Cancer with Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma Components, and Intramural Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, Keishiro; Kizaki, Junya; Isobe, Taro; Akagi, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 67 Final Diagnosis: Gastric cancer with neuroendocrine carcinoma Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Total gastrectomy • splenectomy with D2 lymph node dissection Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Many neuroendocrine carcinomas exhibit medullary infiltration and expanded proliferation. Differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma is frequently seen in the superficial region in many neuroendocrine carcinoma cases. However, the present case showed non-medullary infiltration and signet ring cell carcinoma in the superficial region, with intramural metastases distributed throughout the whole of the stomach. Case Report: A 67-year-old man was referred to our institution for treatment of gastric cancer. Type IIc-like advanced gastric cancer was detected in the greater curvature of the middle body of the stomach. The patient underwent total gastrectomy, splenectomy with D2 lymph node dissection, and Roux-en-Y reconstruction with curative resection. The tumor was diagnosed as a large-cell endocrine carcinoma of the stomach. A solid growth of signet ring cells was seen in the mucosa and submucosa. Intramural metastases were observed in many other depressed lesions. Large-cell carcinoma invaded the submucosa, mainly in the intramural metastatic site. Metastasis to one lesser curvature lymph node was also seen on histological examination. The final diagnosis was a gastric cancer of type 0–IIc (T4a) [M] (with intramural metastases) at T4aN1H0P0M0 Stage IIIA. This patient has remained alive without recurrence for 72 months after surgery. Conclusions: We recommend close preoperative examination of neuroendocrine carcinoma, taking intramural metastases into consideration. PMID:27102318

  11. A subset of prostatic basal cell carcinomas harbor the MYB rearrangement of adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A; Yonescu, Raluca; Epstein, Jonathan I; Westra, William H

    2015-08-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a basaloid tumor consisting of myoepithelial and ductal cells typically arranged in a cribriform pattern. Adenoid cystic carcinoma is generally regarded as a form of salivary gland carcinoma, but it can arise from sites unassociated with salivary tissue. A rare form of prostate carcinoma exhibits ACC-like features; it is no longer regarded as a true ACC but rather as prostatic basal cell carcinoma (PBCC) and within the spectrum of basaloid prostatic proliferations. True ACCs often harbor MYB translocations resulting in the MYB-NFIB fusion protein. MYB analysis could clarify the true nature of prostatic carcinomas that exhibit ACC features and thus help refine the classification of prostatic basaloid proliferations. Twelve PBCCs were identified from the pathology consultation files of Johns Hopkins Hospital. The histopathologic features were reviewed, and break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization for MYB was performed. All 12 cases exhibited prominent basaloid histology. Four were purely solid, 7 exhibited a cribriform pattern reminiscent of salivary ACC, and 1 had a mixed pattern. The MYB rearrangement was detected in 2 (29%) of 7 ACC-like carcinomas but in none (0%) of the 5 PBCCs with a prominent solid pattern. True ACCs can arise in the prostate as is evidenced by the presence of the characteristic MYB rearrangement. When dealing with malignant basaloid proliferations in the prostate, recommendations to consolidate ACCs with other tumor types may need to be reassessed, particularly in light of the rapidly advancing field of biologic therapy where the identification of tumor-specific genetic alterations presents novel therapeutic targets.

  12. Squamous cell and adenosquamous carcinomas of the gallbladder: clinicopathological analysis of 34 cases identified in 606 carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Roa, Juan C; Tapia, Oscar; Cakir, Asli; Basturk, Olca; Dursun, Nevra; Akdemir, Deniz; Saka, Burcu; Losada, Hector; Bagci, Pelin; Adsay, N Volkan

    2011-08-01

    The information in the literature on squamous cell and adenosquamous carcinomas of the gallbladder is highly limited. In this study, 606 resected invasive gallbladder carcinoma cases were analyzed. Squamous differentiation was identified in 41 cases (7%). Those without any identifiable glandular-type invasive component were classified as pure squamous cell carcinomas (8 cases) and those with the squamous component constituting 25-99% of the tumors were classified as adenosquamous carcinomas (26 cases) and included into the analysis. The remaining 7 that had <25% squamous component were classified as adenocarcinoma with focal squamous change and excluded. The clinicopathological characteristics of adenosquamous carcinoma/squamous cell carcinomas were documented and contrasted with that of ordinary gallbladder adenocarcinomas. The average patient age was 65 years (range 26-81); female/male ratio, 3.8. In only 13%, there was a preoperative clinical suspicion of malignancy. Grossly, 58% presented as thickening and hardening of the wall and 6% were polypoid. In 12%, mucosa adjacent to the tumor revealed squamous metaplasia. All pure squamous cell carcinomas had prominent keratinization. Giant cells and tumor-infiltrating eosinophils were observed in 29 and 51% of the squamous cell carcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas versus 10% (P=0.02) and 6% (P=0.001) in gallbladder adenocarcinomas, respectively. All but three cases had 'advanced' (pT2 and above) carcinomas. Follow-up was available in 31 patients: 25 died of disease (median=5 months, range 0-20), and 6 were alive (median=64 months, range 5-112.5). The survival of patients with squamous cell carcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas was significantly worse than that of gallbladder adenocarcinomas (P=0.003), and this adverse prognosis persisted when compared with stage-matched advanced gallbladder adenocarcinoma cases (median=11.4 months, P=0.01). In conclusion, squamous differentiation was noted in 7% of gallbladder

  13. Radiation Therapy With or Without Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Who Have Undergone Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-04

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Spindle Cell Variant; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  14. Immunohistochemical and oncogenetic analyses of the esophageal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in comparison with conventional squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Imamhasan, Abdukadir; Mitomi, Hiroyuki; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Takuo; Takahashi, Michiko; Kajiyama, Yoshiaki; Yao, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma. We reviewed 878 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and detected 22 cases (3%) of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. These tumors and stage-matched paired conventional squamous cell carcinomas were investigated for clinicopathologic features and immunoreactivity of cytokeratin subtypes, p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2), β-catenin, and epidermal growth factor receptor. Molecular aberrations in p53, CTNNB1 (the gene encoding β-catenin), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were also determined. Patients with basaloid squamous cell carcinomas demonstrated a 5-year survival rate of 42%, significantly worse than those with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (P<.01). Histologically, solid nests with central necrosis and a cribriform pattern were identified in almost all (≥95%) cases, and ductal differentiation was less frequent (45%) but associated with significantly better survival (P<.05). Compared with conventional squamous cell carcinomas, the basaloid squamous cell carcinomas were less immunoreactive for cytokeratin 14, cytokeratin 903, and membranous β-catenin (P<.01-.001) but more reactive for bcl-2, nuclear β-catenin, epidermal growth factor receptor, and Ki-67 (P<.05-.001). Direct sequencing showed mutations of p53 (36%), EGFR (14%), but not CTNNB1; fluorescent in situ hybridization detected amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (22%). In basaloid squamous cell carcinomas, low-level expression of cytokeratin 14/cytokeratin 903 and mutations of p53 and EGFR had a significant influence on worse survival (P<.05-.001). We conclude that the esophageal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, a neoplasm with particularly aggressive biologic behavior, should be differentiated from conventional squamous cell carcinomas. In this context, immunohistochemical assessment of several markers might provide a useful adjunct diagnostic tool

  15. High-grade endometrial carcinoma: serous and grade 3 endometrioid carcinomas have different immunophenotypes and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alkushi, Abdulmohsen; Köbel, Martin; Kalloger, Steve E; Gilks, C Blake

    2010-07-01

    High-grade endometrial carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors and include grade 3 endometrioid (EC-3), serous (SC), and clear cell carcinomas (CCC). There are conflicting data about the prognosis of these subtypes of high-grade endometrial carcinoma; this may be a result of lack of reproducibility in classifying tumor cell type. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in immunophenotype and outcome in a series of high-grade endometrial carcinomas, focusing on the comparison of EC-3 versus SC. We selected 180 endometrial carcinomas of SC, EC, or CCC type. No mixed carcinomas were included in the study. We chose the following immunohistochemical markers, estrogen receptor (ER), insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3), p16, p53, progesterone receptor (PR), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) as being significantly differentially expressed in endometrial carcinoma subtypes. The tumors were stratified into 4 groups on the basis of their cell type and grade: EC grade 1 or 2, EC-3, SC, and CCC. Univariate survival analysis revealed significant differences in outcome between the 4 groups (P<0.0001), with significantly longer disease-specific survival for grade 1 or 2 EC versus EC-3 (P=0.0001), and EC-3 versus SC (P=0.0003). p16, PTEN, and IMP3 expression was observed more frequently in SC compared with EC-3 (P<0.0001, P=0.021, and P=0.031, respectively). These 3 markers showed the highest sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing between EC-3 and SC, with receiver operating characteristics area under the curve of 0.85, 0.69, and 0.71, respectively. ER and p53 approached but did not reach significance for differential expression in EC-3 versus SC (P=0.055 and P=0.068, respectively). A combination of p16 and PTEN predicts EC-3 versus SC with a sensitivity of 90.0% and specificity of 96.8%. p16 and PTEN can aid in distinguishing between EC-3 and SC of the endometrium, and are superior to ER, PR, and p53 for this purpose. EC-3

  16. 77 FR 24959 - Scientific Information Request on Local Therapies for Unresectable Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Therapies for Unresectable Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and... local, minimally invasive, medical devices for unresectable primary hepatocellular carcinoma (e.g... Comparative Effectiveness Review of Local Therapies for Unresectable Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma,...

  17. Immunotherapy With MK-3475 in Surgically Resectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-18

    Cancer of Head and Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck

  18. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal region is composed of salivary duct carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma components.

    PubMed

    Nakamori, K; Ohuchi, T; Hasegawa, T; Hiratsuka, H

    2009-10-01

    A 73-year-old female presented with an asymptomatic mass in the left buccal region that she had first noticed 4 years earlier. The tumor, which was located in the buccal space, was clinically diagnosed as a salivary gland tumor and treated by excision. Histopathological examination revealed a capsule of connective tissue consisting of three different histopathological neoplastic areas in a large, fibrous, hyalinizing stromal background. The neoplastic lesion contained two malignant and one benign element, with histological characteristics consistent with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) and pleomorphic adenoma (PA). The SCC nests showed no continuity with the buccal mucosa. Both the SCC and SDC nests were surrounded by non-atypical myoepithelial cells, suggesting that both components may have developed from transformation of metaplastic luminal epithelial cells of PA. The tumor was diagnosed as a non-invasive carcinoma (SCC and SDC) ex pleomorphic adenoma (Ca-ex-PA). There was no evidence of recurrence 16 months after operation.

  19. The roles of tumor- and metastasis-promoting carcinoma-associated fibroblasts in human carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Mezawa, Yoshihiro; Orimo, Akira

    2016-09-01

    Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) constitute a substantial proportion of the non-neoplastic mesenchymal cell compartment in various human tumors. These fibroblasts are phenotypically converted from their progenitors via interactions with nearby cancer cells during the course of tumor progression. The resulting CAFs, in turn, support the growth and progression of carcinoma cells. These fibroblasts have a major influence on the hallmarks of carcinoma and promote tumor malignancy through the secretion of tumor-promoting growth factors, cytokines and exosomes, as well as through the remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Coevolution of CAFs and carcinoma cells during tumorigenesis is therefore essential for progression into fully malignant tumors. Recent studies have revealed the molecular mechanisms underlying CAF functions, especially in tumor invasion, metastasis and drug resistance and have highlighted the significant heterogeneity among these cells. In this review, we summarize the impacts of recently identified roles of tumor-promoting CAFs and discuss the therapeutic implications of targeting the heterotypic interactions of these fibroblasts with carcinoma cells. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27506216

  20. Mandibular Destruction Secondary to Invasion by Carcinoma Cuniculatum.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Michael C; Wong, Brian; O'Brien, Michael J; Salama, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Carcinoma cuniculatum is a rare form of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma that is often misdiagnosed. It has a propensity for local invasion and rarely metastasizes. Oral carcinoma cuniculatum is exceedingly rare, with very few reported cases in the English-language literature. Classically, its presentation mimics osteomyelitis or a dental abscess, resulting in misdiagnosis, multiple biopsy examinations, and procedures before a final diagnosis of carcinoma cuniculatum. This case report describes the case of a 71-year-old woman who was referred to the authors' clinic for evaluation of persistent pain and swelling of the mandible. Multiple biopsy examinations were negative for malignancy, and the patient was misdiagnosed with osteomyelitis and dental abscess before obtaining an accurate diagnosis of carcinoma cuniculatum. The aim of this report is to provide a thorough clinical and histopathologic report of carcinoma cuniculatum of the mandible, provide a brief review of the literature, and highlight the difficulties in arriving at this uncommon diagnosis.

  1. Clinical, epidemiological and histopathological prognostic factors in oral squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dragomir, L P; Simionescu, Cristiana; Dăguci, Luminiţa; Searpe, Monica; Dragomir, Manuela

    2010-10-01

    The study that was carried out was comprised of 117 cases of oral squamous carcinomas, selected in two years interval, between 2007-2008. The tumors were diagnosed especially at patients between the ages of 50 and 79 years, 96,6% being over 40 years old. It came out a clear predominance of the male sex in approximatively 90% of the cases. The main localisation was the lower lip and the tongue ( 67,5% ), in approximatively equal proportions ( 35% and 32,5% ). The histopathologically analisys releaved that 37,6% were well differentiated squamous carcinomas, 27,4% were moderately differentiated squamous carcinomas and 35% were poorly differentiated squamous carcinomas. Out of these 3,3% were microcarcinomas, 91,9% were non-metastatic invasive carcinomas and 4,8% were invasive carcinomas with metastatic adenopathy. PMID:24778830

  2. Carcinoma of the Breast With Medullary-like Features

    PubMed Central

    Kleer, Celina G.

    2016-01-01

    This case presentation reviews the histologic distinction between pure medullary carcinoma and breast carcinomas with medullary-like features. This particular case prompts us to analyze the relationship among medullary carcinoma, basal-like breast carcinomas and carcinomas associated with germline BRCA1 mutations. In addition to now well-defined features, such as expression of high-molecular-weight cytokeratins and EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), basal-like tumors have a deficiency or dysfunction of BRCA1. This association in part explains the histologic features of BRCA1-associated breast cancers. Recent studies in our laboratory demonstrate that BRCA1 protein is regulated by a recently described gene, EZH2. These concepts illustrate the important relationships among histopathologic features; genomic profile; single gene abnormalities, such as BRCA1 and EZH2; and growth regulation in this subset of breast carcinomas. PMID:19886718

  3. Clinical, Epidemiological And Histopathological Prognostic Factors In Oral Squamous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dragomir, L.P.; Simionescu, Cristiana; Dăguci, Luminiţa; Şearpe, Monica; Dragomir, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    The study that was carried out was comprised of 117 cases of oral squamous carcinomas, selected in two years interval, between 2007-2008. The tumors were diagnosed especially at patients between the ages of 50 and 79 years, 96,6% being over 40 years old. It came out a clear predominance of the male sex in approximatively 90% of the cases. The main localisation was the lower lip and the tongue ( 67,5% ), in approximatively equal proportions ( 35% and 32,5% ). The histopathologically analisys releaved that 37,6% were well differentiated squamous carcinomas, 27,4% were moderately differentiated squamous carcinomas and 35% were poorly differentiated squamous carcinomas. Out of these 3,3% were microcarcinomas, 91,9% were non-metastatic invasive carcinomas and 4,8% were invasive carcinomas with metastatic adenopathy. PMID:24778830

  4. Medullary carcinoma of the breast: a tumour lacking keratin 19.

    PubMed

    Larsimont, D; Lespagnard, L; Degeyter, M; Heimann, R

    1994-06-01

    The presence of keratin 19 (K19) was searched for by immunostaining in 16 medullary carcinomas, comprising 12 typical and four atypical cases, in 29 undifferentiated high-grade carcinomas (NOS-HG) with conspicuous lymphoid response and in 12 well differentiated low-grade carcinomas (NOS-LG). The medullary carcinomas were all negative whereas 23 of the high-grade and all 12 low-grade carcinomas expressed K19. Staining for K19 could be of value in the differential diagnosis of these tumours. Furthermore, these findings, with other observations, raise the possibility that medullary carcinoma cells could be linked to precursor cells of the terminal duct lobular units because both populations share several characteristics. PMID:7520414

  5. Safety and Tolerability of Everolimus as Second-line Treatment in Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma / Neuroendocrine Carcinoma G3 (WHO 2010) and Neuroendocrine Tumor G3 - an Investigator Initiated Phase II Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-18

    Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma,; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 1 [Well-differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 2 [Moderately Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Tumor, Grade 3 and Disease Progression as Measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1.)

  6. Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland consisting of high-grade salivary duct carcinoma and keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Magaki, Shino D; Bhuta, Sunita; Abemayor, Elliot; Nabili, Vishad; Sepahdari, Ali R; Lai, Chi K

    2015-09-01

    Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is a rare salivary gland malignancy that presents diagnostic difficulties partly because of its wide range of histologic presentations. We report a case of a 77-year-old man, who presented with a 6-year history of a parotid mass that had undergone rapid growth within weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an infiltrative mass in the parotid gland, and the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy result was highly suspicious for carcinoma. Subsequent excision of the tumor demonstrated a poorly differentiated epithelial neoplasm consisting of keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma with regions of both ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive salivary duct carcinoma (SDC). Only focal areas exhibited a benign pleomorphic adenoma component. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a CXPA that consists of both a high-grade SDC and a keratinizing SCC in the parotid gland.

  7. Pulmonar collision tumor: metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Blanco, M; García-Fontán, E; Ríos, J; Rivo, J E; Fernández-Martín, R; Cañizares, M A

    2012-01-01

    We report an extraordinary case of collision tumor consisting of a lung adenocarcinoma and a metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma in a 56 year-old man. He was diagnosed with a pulmonary nodule 11 years after treatment of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right maxillary sinus. A non-small cell carcinoma was observed when a transbronchial biopsy was performed. The other component of the nodule was only diagnosed with pathological examination of the resection specimen. PMID:21802893

  8. Pulmonar collision tumor: metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Blanco, M; García-Fontán, E; Ríos, J; Rivo, J E; Fernández-Martín, R; Cañizares, M A

    2012-01-01

    We report an extraordinary case of collision tumor consisting of a lung adenocarcinoma and a metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma in a 56 year-old man. He was diagnosed with a pulmonary nodule 11 years after treatment of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right maxillary sinus. A non-small cell carcinoma was observed when a transbronchial biopsy was performed. The other component of the nodule was only diagnosed with pathological examination of the resection specimen.

  9. Aggressive Metaplastic Carcinoma of the Breast with Osteoclastic Giant Cells.

    PubMed

    Khong, Kathleen; Zhang, Yanhong; Tomic, Mary; Lindfors, Karen; Aminololama-Shakeri, Shadi

    2015-09-01

    Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast is an uncommon type of malignancy that is aggressive but can mimic other benign breast neoplastic processes on imaging. We present a case of a young female patient who presented with a rapidly progressing metaplastic carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells subtype. There have been only very rare published reports of this pathologic subtype of metaplastic carcinoma containing osteoclastic giant cells.

  10. Aggressive Metaplastic Carcinoma of the Breast with Osteoclastic Giant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Khong, Kathleen; Zhang, Yanhong; Tomic, Mary; Lindfors, Karen; Aminololama-Shakeri, Shadi

    2015-01-01

    Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast is an uncommon type of malignancy that is aggressive but can mimic other benign breast neoplastic processes on imaging. We present a case of a young female patient who presented with a rapidly progressing metaplastic carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells subtype. There have been only very rare published reports of this pathologic subtype of metaplastic carcinoma containing osteoclastic giant cells. PMID:26629304

  11. Rapid onset of cutaneous angiosarcoma after radiotherapy for breast carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Otis, C.N.; Peschel, R.; McKhann, C.; Merino, M.J.; Duray, P.H.

    1986-06-01

    Malignant neoplasms known to develop following external beam radiation include squamous cell carcinoma, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, mixed mullerian tumors, malignant schwannoma, myelogenous leukemia and angiosarcoma. Latency periods of many years characterize the onset of these tumors following the exposure. Cutaneous angiosarcoma following radiotherapy for breast carcinoma has been rarely documented, occurring up to 13 years postirradiation. Two cases of this entity are reported occurring 37 months postradiotherapy at the site of mastectomy performed for mammary duct carcinoma.

  12. Primary hyperparathyroidism secondary to simultaneous bilateral parathyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jimmy J; Mohamed, Hezla; Williams-Smith, Lorraine; Osborne, Ryan; Coker, Joan; Yee, Brian

    2002-06-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare malignancy, and experience with its management is limited. It is generally accepted that surgery is the treatment of choice, and the initial operative intervention might represent the only chance for long-term success. At the time of surgery, a high index of suspicion for carcinoma is vital to performing the appropriate surgical procedures, because frozen-section diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma is notoriously unreliable. In this article, we describe our experience with this rare entity.

  13. Transcriptomic characterization of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Simon, Elana P; Freije, Catherine A; Farber, Benjamin A; Lalazar, Gadi; Darcy, David G; Honeyman, Joshua N; Chiaroni-Clarke, Rachel; Dill, Brian D; Molina, Henrik; Bhanot, Umesh K; La Quaglia, Michael P; Rosenberg, Brad R; Simon, Sanford M

    2015-11-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLHCC) tumors all carry a deletion of ∼ 400 kb in chromosome 19, resulting in a fusion of the genes for the heat shock protein, DNAJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 1, DNAJB1, and the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A, PRKACA. The resulting chimeric transcript produces a fusion protein that retains kinase activity. No other recurrent genomic alterations have been identified. Here we characterize the molecular pathogenesis of FLHCC with transcriptome sequencing (RNA sequencing). Differential expression (tumor vs. adjacent normal tissue) was detected for more than 3,500 genes (log2 fold change ≥ 1, false discovery rate ≤ 0.01), many of which were distinct from those found in hepatocellular carcinoma. Expression of several known oncogenes, such as ErbB2 and Aurora Kinase A, was increased in tumor samples. These and other dysregulated genes may serve as potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26489647

  14. Primary hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, V; Hernández, A F; Márquez, M L; Delgadillo, M A; Peña, J; Mercado, M

    1997-01-01

    Most cases of primary hyperparathyroidism are due to either a parathyroid adenoma or to parathyroid hyperplasia. Parathyroid carcinoma is a very rare cause of hyperparathyroidism. Although the diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma is usually established based on pathological criteria of vascular and capsular invasion, some clinical and biochemical features differentiate it from benign forms of hyperparathyroidism. We report the case of a middle-aged woman with a long standing history of nephrolithiasis, who presented with a palpable neck mass, weight loss, severe hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia, as well as very high serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone. Surgical neck exploration revealed a large tumor that invaded trachea, esophagus, reccurrent laryngeal nerve, right apical pleura and right carotid artery. Pathological examination confirmed the invasive nature of the tumor. Along with the case report, we review the literature and discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic options of this rare condition.

  15. Changing epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in Asia.

    PubMed

    Goh, George Boon-Bee; Chang, Pik-Eu; Tan, Chee-Kiat

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a major problem in Asia because of the presence of multiple risk factors in the region such as endemicity of hepatitis B and significant contamination of foodstuff by aflatoxin in some areas. Another risk factor for HCC, chronic hepatitis C infection, in Asia is most significant in Japan, the only Asian country with more HCV than HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma. As these risk factors can and are being modified by measures such as universal hepatitis B immunisation, successful treatment of HCV infections, reduction and improved surveillance of aflatoxin contamination of foodstuff, it is not surprising that the epidemiology of HCC in Asia is changing. All these are offset by the rising importance of NAFLD and NASH as chronic liver diseases and risk factors for HCC which contributes to the changing epidemiology of HCC in Asia.

  16. Transcriptomic characterization of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Elana P.; Freije, Catherine A.; Farber, Benjamin A.; Lalazar, Gadi; Darcy, David G.; Honeyman, Joshua N.; Chiaroni-Clarke, Rachel; Dill, Brian D.; Molina, Henrik; Bhanot, Umesh K.; La Quaglia, Michael P.; Rosenberg, Brad R.; Simon, Sanford M.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLHCC) tumors all carry a deletion of ∼400 kb in chromosome 19, resulting in a fusion of the genes for the heat shock protein, DNAJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 1, DNAJB1, and the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A, PRKACA. The resulting chimeric transcript produces a fusion protein that retains kinase activity. No other recurrent genomic alterations have been identified. Here we characterize the molecular pathogenesis of FLHCC with transcriptome sequencing (RNA sequencing). Differential expression (tumor vs. adjacent normal tissue) was detected for more than 3,500 genes (log2 fold change ≥1, false discovery rate ≤0.01), many of which were distinct from those found in hepatocellular carcinoma. Expression of several known oncogenes, such as ErbB2 and Aurora Kinase A, was increased in tumor samples. These and other dysregulated genes may serve as potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26489647

  17. Computed tomographic appearance of resectable pancreatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Itai, Y.; Araki, T.; Tasaka, A.; Maruyama, M.

    1982-06-01

    Thirteen patients with resectable pancreatic carcinoma were examined by computed tomography (CT). Nine had a mass, 2 had dilatation of the main pancreatic duct, 1 appeared to have ductal dilatation, and 1 had no sign of abnormality. Resectable carcinoma was diagnosed retrospectively in 8 cases, based on the following criteria: a mass with a distinct contour, frequently containing a tiny or irregular low-density area and accompanied by dilatation of the caudal portion of the main pancreatic duct without involvement of the large vessels, liver, or lymph nodes. Including unresectable cancer, chronic pancreatitis, and obstructive jaundice from causes other than cancer, the false-positive rate was less than 6%. However, a small cancer without change in pancreatic contour is difficult to detect with CT.

  18. Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Shrimati; Sharma, Nitika; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2016-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cause of increasing mortality in elderly hemophilia population. Majority of the patients treated with virus non-inactivated factor concentrates prepared from large plasma pools prior to 1985 have been found to be infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major risk factor for HCC. A PubMed search of articles published until February 2015 was performed utilizing the keywords hemophilia, malignancy, neoplasm, cancer, mortality, ageing hemophilia, epidemiology, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cancer and the relevant articles were included. Contradictory reports are available in literature on the incidence of cancers in general in hemophilia population. Almost all the studies where the incidence of HCC or mortality due to HCC have been analyzed in hemophilia population show that a vast majority of these patients are HCV infected. The incidence of HCC though higher in hemophilic population is related to the higher incidence of HCV infection and not due to the hemophilia phenotype.

  19. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, Ravinder S; Kufuor-Mensah, Eric

    2007-02-01

    A 7-year-old, spayed female Persian cat was referred for evaluation of progressive paraplegia. The cat was thin, cachectic and paraplegic on presentation. The survey radiographs showed a left caudal pulmonary lesion and lytic skeletal lesions at the right iliac crest and left distal scapula. Due to a poor prognosis for complete recovery, the owner opted for euthanasia. Post-mortem examination revealed bilaterally small and irregular kidneys, lysis of the left iliac crest and left distal scapula and a dilated left ventricular lumen with a thin interventricular septum. Histologically, all the lesions were determined to be squamous cell carcinoma. It appears that the origin or the primary site of the malignancy in this case is pulmonary as cardiac and skeletal tissues are primarily mesenchymal in origin and are less likely to develop a primary epithelial malignancy. To the best of our knowledge, there is no description of cardiac or skeletal metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in a cat. PMID:16859943

  20. Carcinoma of the lungs causing enlarged kidneys.

    PubMed

    Srisung, Weeraporn; Mankongpaisarnrung, Charoen; Warraich, Irfan; Sotello, David; Yarbrough, Shannon; Laski, Melvin

    2015-04-01

    Bilateral enlarged kidneys can be caused by a number of conditions. Renal metastasis is included in the differential diagnosis. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman with a 6-month history of productive cough and unintentional weight loss. Cavitary pulmonary lesions and bilateral enlarged kidneys were noted on imaging studies. Hematuria, azotemia, and proteinuria were present. Renal biopsy showed squamous carcinoma cells invading normal-appearing glomeruli and atrophic tubules. The invasive squamous cells stained negative for CK7 and CK 20. Lung biopsy confirmed squamous cell carcinoma. Our case shows that in patients with renal enlargement, even with the absence of a focal mass, renal metastasis should be considered, especially in those with suspected or diagnosed malignancy elsewhere. PMID:25829660

  1. [Surgical management of gastric carcinoma (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Junginger, T; Müller, J; Pichlmaier, H

    1976-01-01

    The treatment of choice of gastric carcinoma is still radical surgery which has to be tried in all cases which are not proven to be untreatable by this method. During surgery the tumor as well as regional lymph nodes and neighboring structures have to be removed; in special cases subtotal gastrectomy carrying a lower risk at surgery does allow complete removal of the tumor. Replacing the stomach by interposition of a long loop of the small intestine has proven to yield good results. The overall bad results of management of gastric carcinoma cannot be improved to any considerable extent by surgical means, e.g. by lowering the risk of surgery or by increasing the number of patients operated upon. Early diagnosis is of outmost importance since patients with tumors of an early stage have a rather good chance of being completely cured.

  2. RET rearrangements in familial papillary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Corvi, R; Lesueur, F; Martinez-Alfaro, M; Zini, M; Decaussin, M; Murat, A; Romeo, G

    2001-09-20

    Familial papillary thyroid carcinoma (FPTC) is an inherited tumor characterized by a more aggressive phenotype than that of its sporadic counterpart. Its mode of inheritance as well as its genetic and molecular bases are still poorly understood. On the contrary, genetic alterations in sporadic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are better characterized, the most common one involving the activation of the proto-oncogene RET through somatic rearrangements. In the present study, we investigated by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization the presence of RET rearrangements in a series of 20 FPTC. We show that one FPTC and the adenoma from the same patient carry a RET rearrangement (type PTC1) and that this rearrangement is absent in the germline. Furthermore, we excluded a RET haplotype sharing in two brothers of the same family. These results show that RET rearrangements can indeed be found in FPTC and confirm that RET is not involved in the inherited predisposition to FPTC.

  3. Specific Immune Response in Human Skin Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nairn, R. C.; Nind, A. P. P.; Guli, E. P. G.; Muller, H. K.; Rolland, J. M.; Minty, C. C. J.

    1971-01-01

    Eight out of nine patients with squamous cell carcinoma of skin have shown immunological reactivity against their own tumour cells by one or more tests with their sera or peripheral blood lymphocytes. The tests included membrane and cytoplasmic immunofluorescence, and, with cultured tumour, complement-dependent serum cytotoxicity and lymphocyte attack. One case examined in depth had an unusually conspicuous lymphocyte and plasma cell reaction on histological examination, and was positive by all four tests; a time-lapse cinephoto-micrographic record over seven days was obtained of the attack on the carcinoma cells in culture by the patient's lymphocytes. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9 PMID:4943032

  4. Phosphate treatment of hypercalcaemia due to carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Thalassinos, N; Joplin, G F

    1968-10-01

    Thirteen patients with hypercalcaemia due to carcinoma received inorganic phosphate, orally or intravenously, as palliative treatment for their high serum calcium levels. The serum calcium promptly fell in all patients fully treated, and there was a striking clinical improvement in most patients. The blood urea was usually unchanged or became nearer to normal, while the serum phosphate altered variably. Only two of the eight patients who were studied at necropsy had microscopical nephrocalcinosis; corneal calcification was evident in both before phosphate treatment was started.This oral inorganic phosphate (1 gramme thrice daily) is a safe and effective means of treating hypercalcaemia due to carcinoma. An intravenous infusion of 1 gramme over eight hours may sometimes be required initially for patients who are vomiting.

  5. Carcinoma of unknown primary and paraneoplastic dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenblick, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Dermatomyositis is known to be associated with neoplastic disorders, however the presentation of carcinoma of unknown primary as dermatomyositis is rare. We describe a case index of 50-year-old female who presented with enlarged inguinal lymph nodes accompanied with symmetric proximal muscle weakness and erythematous plaques. Conventional basic work-up did not reveal the diagnosis, however, positron emission tomography-computed tomography and re-staining of the pathology specimen suggested the ovaries as the primary site. Chemotherapy including carboplatin paclitaxel and bevacizumab led to complete response of disease and improvement in the dermatomyositis. The present case emphasizes the importance of a thorough directed evaluation for the underlying cancer in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary presenting as dermatomyositis. We further provide an up-to-date detailed review of published data describing these clinical entities. PMID:26677443

  6. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma: current clinical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lafaro, Kelly J; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2015-01-01

    Fibrolamellar carcinoma (FLC) is a variant of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which comprises ∼1%–9% of all HCCs. Although FLC is a variant of HCC, it is distinct from HCC in that it most often affects younger patients (10–35 years of age) with no underlying liver disease. FLC often presents with vague abdominal pain, nausea, abdominal fullness, malaise, and weight loss. Surgery is the current mainstay of treatment for FLC and remains the only potentially curative option. While FLCs are considered less responsive to chemotherapy than their classic HCC counterparts, there have been suggestions that multimodality treatments may be effective, especially in advanced cases. Further research is necessary to determine effective systemic therapies as an adjunct to surgery for FLC. PMID:27508204

  7. A Case of Acantholytic Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji Yeon; Do, Mi Ok; Kim, Seong Hyun; Hahm, Jeong Hee

    2008-01-01

    Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma is a well-defined variant of squamous cell cancer in which significant portions of the neoplastic proliferation show a pseudoglandular or tubular microscopic pattern. It usually presents as a nodule with various colors, and it is accompanied by scaling, crusting, and ulceration on the sun-exposed areas of older aged individuals. Histologically, the tumor consists of a nodular, epidermal-derived proliferation that forms island-like structures. At least focally or sometimes extensively, the tumor cells shows a loss of cohesion within the central gland-like or tubular spaces. This tumor resembles the structure of eccrine neoplasms, but it is negative for dPAS, CEA and mucicarmine and it is only positive for EMA and cytokeratins. Herein we report a case of acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma that occurred on the face of an 82-year-old woman. PMID:27303210

  8. Phosphate Treatment of Hypercalcaemia Due to Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Thalassinos, N.; Joplin, G. F.

    1968-01-01

    Thirteen patients with hypercalcaemia due to carcinoma received inorganic phosphate, orally or intravenously, as palliative treatment for their high serum calcium levels. The serum calcium promptly fell in all patients fully treated, and there was a striking clinical improvement in most patients. The blood urea was usually unchanged or became nearer to normal, while the serum phosphate altered variably. Only two of the eight patients who were studied at necropsy had microscopical nephrocalcinosis; corneal calcification was evident in both before phosphate treatment was started. This oral inorganic phosphate (1 gramme thrice daily) is a safe and effective means of treating hypercalcaemia due to carcinoma. An intravenous infusion of 1 gramme over eight hours may sometimes be required initially for patients who are vomiting. PMID:4175670

  9. Laryngeal acinic cell carcinoma following thyroid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Reibel, J.F.; McLean, W.C.; Cantrell, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Only three examples of acinic cell carcinoma of the larynx or trachea are found in the recent literature. A case of acinic cell carcinoma of the subglottic larynx and trachea was diagnosed and treated at the University of Virginia Medical Center. To our knowledge this is the first such case with a prior history of radiation to the neck. The patient is a 56-year-old woman who was irradiated for hyperthyroidism 46 years ago. When seen she also had parathyroid hyperplasia and multiple thyroid adenomas, conditions that frequently follow irradiation of the thyroid in children. These findings in this case support the concept that radiation may be responsible for inducing this tumor, which otherwise rarely occurs in this location. The use of electron microscopy was extremely useful in the diagnosis of this tumor. She was treated with total laryngectomy and right neck dissection and is now free of disease one year after surgery.

  10. Oncocytic mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Hamed, G; Shmookler, B M; Ellis, G L; Punja, U; Feldman, D

    1994-03-01

    Oncocytic mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary gland is rare. We describe a 60-year-old woman who presented with a slowly growing left parotid mass. The patient underwent a total parotidectomy, and her postoperative course was uneventful. The gland was enlarged and showed a partially cystic mass containing clear mucoid material. Microscopically, the entire mass showed variably sized cysts lined predominantly with oncocytes and a few mucous goblet cells. Histochemical stains for mitochondria, such as phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin, confirmed the presence of oncocytes. The recognition of this variant is important, since most of the other primary oncocytic lesions of the salivary glands are benign. The tumor in this case is considered to be a low-grade carcinoma; therefore, complete surgical excision and long-term clinical follow-up are adequate management.

  11. Genetic profile of clear cell odontogenic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Carinci, Francesco; Volinia, Stefano; Rubini, Corrado; Fioroni, Massimiliano; Francioso, Francesca; Arcelli, Diego; Pezzetti, Furio; Piattelli, Adriano

    2003-05-01

    In the head and neck region, clear cell tumors are usually derived from salivary glands, odontogenic tissues, and metastasis. The World Health Organization has classified clear cell odontogenic tumor among benign tumors, but it is now recognized as a more sinister lesion, and current opinion is that it should be designated as a carcinoma. It is characterized by aggressive growth, recurrences, and metastasis. By using complementary DNA microarrays, several genes in clear cell odontogenic tumor were identified that are differentially regulated when compared with non-tumor tissue. In conclusion, the first genetic profiling of clear odontogenic carcinoma is reported. DNA microarrays can potentially help in identifying some genes whose products could be disease-specific targets for cancer therapy as well as a tool for better classifying odontogenic tumor.

  12. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-12

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  13. An Immunohistochemical Algorithm for Ovarian Carcinoma Typing

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Kurosh; Rambau, Peter F.; Naugler, Christopher; Le Page, Cécile; Meunier, Liliane; de Ladurantaye, Manon; Lee, Sandra; Leung, Samuel; Goode, Ellen L.; Ramus, Susan J.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Li, Xiaodong; Ewanowich, Carol A.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Vanderhyden, Barbara; Provencher, Diane; Huntsman, David; Lee, Cheng-Han; Gilks, C. Blake; Mes Masson, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    There are 5 major histotypes of ovarian carcinomas. Diagnostic typing criteria have evolved over time, and past cohorts may be misclassified by current standards. Our objective was to reclassify the recently assembled Canadian Ovarian Experimental Unified Resource and the Alberta Ovarian Tumor Type cohorts using immunohistochemical (IHC) biomarkers and to develop an IHC algorithm for ovarian carcinoma histotyping. A total of 1626 ovarian carcinoma samples from the Canadian Ovarian Experimental Unified Resource and the Alberta Ovarian Tumor Type were subjected to a reclassification by comparing the original with the predicted histotype. Histotype prediction was derived from a nominal logistic regression modeling using a previously reclassified cohort (N=784) with the binary input of 8 IHC markers. Cases with discordant original or predicted histotypes were subjected to arbitration. After reclassification, 1762 cases from all cohorts were subjected to prediction models (χ2 Automatic Interaction Detection, recursive partitioning, and nominal logistic regression) with a variable IHC marker input. The histologic type was confirmed in 1521/1626 (93.5%) cases of the Canadian Ovarian Experimental Unified Resource and the Alberta Ovarian Tumor Type cohorts. The highest misclassification occurred in the endometrioid type, where most of the changes involved reclassification from endometrioid to high-grade serous carcinoma, which was additionally supported by mutational data and outcome. Using the reclassified histotype as the endpoint, a 4-marker prediction model correctly classified 88%, a 6-marker 91%, and an 8-marker 93% of the 1762 cases. This study provides statistically validated, inexpensive IHC algorithms, which have versatile applications in research, clinical practice, and clinical trials. PMID:26974996

  14. SnapShot: Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Christopher J; Crooks, Daniel R; Sourbier, Carole; Schmidt, Laura S; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Linehan, W Marston

    2016-04-11

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a heterogeneous disease made up of a number of different cancer types, with distinct histologies, clinical courses, therapeutic responses, and genetic drivers. Germline mutations in 14 genes have been associated with increased risk of RCC and can result in HIF pathway activation, chromatin dysregulation, and altered metabolism. Knowledge of these pathway alterations can inform the development of targeted therapeutic approaches. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:27070709

  15. [Urothelial carcinoma in a pyelocaliceal cyst].

    PubMed

    Abate, Danilo; Vella, Marco; Alonge, Vincenza; Serretta, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Renal complex cysts are lesions whose nature can be either benign or malignant. Depending on the presence of septa, solid components, enhancement or calcifications, they are distinguished according to the Bosniak classification based on CT findings, as well as MRI and ETG. We report a rare case of urothelial carcinoma, originating over a pyelocalyceal cyst in a 50-year-old man, and classified as Bosniak IIF by CT and MRI investigations.

  16. Renal cell carcinoma with intramyocardial metastases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac metastases from renal cell carcinoma without vena caval involvement are extremely rare with a limited number of cases reported in the worldwide literature until now. Nevertheless, this rare location of metastasis may significantly influence patient treatment and prognosis. Cooperation between oncology, cardiology, and urology teams are indispensable in cases of patients suffering from intramyocardial tumors. For these individuals, treatment guidelines based on large-scale studies are unavailable and only case/case series analysis may provide clinicians with decision assistance. Case presentation In this paper, we report a case of a 50-year-old Caucasian male diagnosed with a 10.2 × 10.3 × 10.0 cm lower pole left renal mass in January 2002. He was subsequently treated with immunochemotherapy, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), and mTOR inhibitors (mTORIs) - that is sunitinib, everolimus, and sorafenib. In March 2012, contrast-enhancing tumors in the left myocardium (∅22 mm) and in the interventricular septum (∅26 mm) were seen on CT. Cardiology testing was conducted and the patient was treated with pazopanib with a profound response. Overall survival since the clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) diagnosis was 11 years 2 months and since diagnosis of multiple heart metastases was 1 year. Conclusions Cardiac metastases present a unique disease course in renal cell carcinoma. Cardiac metastases may remain asymptomatic, as in the case of this patient at the time of diagnosis. The most common cardiac presentation of renal cell carcinoma is hypertension, but other cardiac presentations include shortness of breath, cough, and arrhythmias. Targeted systemic therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be useful for this group of patients, but necrosis in the myocardium can result in tamponade and death. Regular cardiac magnetic resonance imaging scans are required for treatment monitoring. PMID:25193011

  17. The Role of Anxiety in Prostate Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dale, William; Bilir, Pinar; Han, Misop; Meltzer, David

    2010-01-01

    Although the impact of anxiety on patients with some types of cancer is well recognized, to the authors knowledge its impact on patients with prostate carcinoma has not been studied as thoroughly. The authors conducted a systematic review of the medical literature for high-quality articles that quantified anxiety levels in men with prostate carcinoma and identified 29 articles. Using the clinical timeline of prostate carcinoma to organize the articles, cross-sectional studies that reflected anxiety prevalence in populations and longitudinal studies that reflected changes in anxiety over time were identified. Anxiety appeared to fluctuate over the clinical timeline in response to stressors and uncertainty (such as at the time of screening and/or biopsy), rising before these times and falling afterward. Although anxiety levels in men age > 55 years who were at risk for prostate carcinoma were modest (10–15%), multiple studies found that these levels were substantially higher in men who presented for screening (> 50%), and “seeking peace of mind” was the motivation cited most frequently for pursuing screening. Most studies demonstrated a significant decrease in anxiety levels after a normal screening or biopsy result, although the proportion of men who remained anxious afterward did not fall to baseline levels (20–36%). Men who presented for prostate-specific antigen monitoring after treatment had elevated anxiety levels at the time of testing (23–33%). Many years after therapy for localized disease, anxiety levels were lower after prostatectomy (23%) compared with the levels after watchful waiting (31%). PMID:15959911

  18. [Carcinoma of the hypophysis with acromegaly].

    PubMed

    Dusková, J; Chlumská, A; Vilikusová, E; Marek, J; Sprincl, L

    1984-08-01

    A 38-year old man deceased after being operated on recurring pituitary adenoma removed 13 years ago. Autopsy showed a massive spread of tumour on dura and in subarachnoid space. Growth hormone producing cells were found prevailing in the primary tumour as well as in secondaries by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence which concurred with acromegaly. Many cells produced prolactin. The tumour spreading discontinually in subdural and subarachnoid space was taken for a carcinoma.

  19. [Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma mimicking pulmonary carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Uçvet, Ahmet; Tözüm, Halil; Gürsoy, Soner; Gülle, Ali Alper; Yaldiz, Sadik; Aydoğdu Dinç, Zekiye

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma is a rare fibrosing nodular disease of the lung characterized by solitary or multiple pulmonary nodules. They can occur after inflammatory or post-inflammatory changes. A 60 years old asymptomatic patient admitted to our clinic because of a solid mass of 6 cm in his routine chest radiography. A lobectomy was performed and the histological diagnosis was reported as pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma. This case, mimicking pulmonary carcinoma, is rarely found in the literature. PMID:16615022

  20. Predictors of Microvascular Invasion in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yo-Ichi; Shirabe, Ken; Aishima, Shinichi; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2015-09-01

    This chapter covers a range of important topics in the evaluation of the microvascular invasion (MVI) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) before treatment. The malignant potential of HCC is reflected by the types of MVI such as portal venous (vp), hepatic vein (vv) or bile duct (b) infiltration. The identification of the type of MVI in HCC has a key role in decisions regarding the effective treatment of HCC. Here, we describe the possible and important predictors of MVI in HCC. PMID:26398341

  1. Lymphatic drainage and CTV in pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Morganti, Alessio G; Cellini, Numa; Mattiucci, Gian Carlo; Macchia, Gabriella; Smaniotto, Daniela; Luzi, Stefano; Balducci, Mario; Deodato, Francesco; Valentini, Vincenzo; Trodella, Lucio

    2003-01-01

    CTV definition in exclusive or adjuvant radiation therapy of pancreatic carcinoma is essentially based on the opinion of "expert" authors and on the knowledge of lymphatic pathways. The subject has been widely debated. Radiotherapy treatments of the entire upper abdomen (liver and pancreatic region), pancreas and lymph node stations, to volumes focused on macroscopic tumor only, have been proposed. Carcinoma of exocrine pancreas is characterized by the frequent, early appearance of metastasis via the lymphatic route. Most commonly involved lymph node stations include those of the celiac trunk, superior mesenteric, peripancreatic, lumboaortic lymph nodes, those of the hepatic portal (the latter in particular for pancreatic head tumors) and of the hilum of spleen (the latter in particular for pancreatic tail tumors). The possible multicentricity of pancreatic carcinoma, most likely due to intraductal spread, should lead to the inclusion in the CTV of the entire pancreatic parenchyma. This should be considered also for the frequent perineural intra- or extrapancreatic spread of pancreatic carcinoma present also in small tumors (T1). In extrapancreatic spread the retropancreatic adipose tissue should be included in the CTV at least at the GTV level. At the present state of knowledge, in the absence of pattern of failure analysis and of comparison of different treatment approaches, in terms of the definition of volumes of interest, CTV definitions which include lymphatic drainage stations, most part of pancreatic parenchyma and retropancreatic adipose tissue seem justified especially in treatments for cure. In palliation, the CTV may be limited to the GTV and the adipose tissue behind it. PMID:15018319

  2. Functioning unilateral adrenocortical carcinoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Lechowski, Roman; Zygner, Wojciech

    2012-06-01

    An 11-year-old, 24-kg, intact female Siberian husky dog in anestrus had a 2-month history of polyuria and polydipsia. The dog had signs of mineralocorticoid excess such as hypertension and hypokalemia refractory to potassium supplementation. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an irregular mass in the left adrenal gland. The ACTH stimulation test for aldosterone concentration did not reveal hyperaldosteronism. Unilateral adrenalectomy was performed and histopathology identified adrenal cortical carcinoma. All clinical signs of mineralocorticoid excess ceased after surgery.

  3. Carcinoma of the anal canal: radiation or radiation plus chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, B.J.

    1983-09-01

    An editorial is presented which discusses the treatment of carcinoma of the anal canal. Following the initial report of the successful preoperative use of combined chemotherapy and radiation by Nigro in 1974, several centers have confirmed the effectiveness of such combinations either as preoperative or as definitive treatment of anal carcinomas, and many patients are now being referred for radiation therapy. The article by Cantril in this issue describe the successful treatment of anal carcinomas by radiation alone, and raises the important issue of whether radiation plus chemotherapy is more effective treatment than radiation alone for squamous or cloacogenic carcinomas arising in the anal canal or perianal area. Several studies are cited.

  4. The role of GATA3 in breast carcinomas: a review.

    PubMed

    Asch-Kendrick, Rebecca; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley

    2016-02-01

    GATA3 is a zinc-binding transcription factor that regulates the differentiation of many human tissue types, including the mammary gland. In surgical pathology, immunohistochemistry for GATA3 is largely used to support urothelial or breast origin in a carcinoma of unknown origin. GATA3 is sensitive but not entirely specific in this setting. Although GATA3 labeling is highest in estrogen receptor-positive carcinomas, it also labels estrogen receptor-negative carcinomas and thus has particular diagnostic utility in the setting of triple-negative breast carcinomas, which are typically negative for other mammary-specific markers. PMID:26772397

  5. Specific Antigen in Serum of Patients with Colon Carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprowski, Hilary; Herlyn, Meenhard; Steplewski, Zenon; Sears, Henry F.

    1981-04-01

    The binding of monoclonal antibody specific for colon carcinoma was inhibited by serum from patients with adenocarcinoma of the colon but not by serum from patients with other bowel diseases or from healthy volunteers. Of other malignancies studied, serum from two patients with gastric carcinoma and two patients with pancreatic carcinoma also inhibited the specific binding of monoclonal antibody. The levels of carcinoembryonic antigen in these serum samples were not correlated with their levels of binding inhibition. Such monoclonal antibodies may prove useful for the detection of colorectal carcinoma.

  6. Human papillomavirus-related carcinomas of the sinonasal tract.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A; Guo, Theresa W; Smith, David F; Wang, Hao; Ogawa, Takenori; Pai, Sara I; Westra, William H

    2013-02-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is an established cause of head and neck carcinomas arising in the oropharynx. The presence of HPV has also been reported in some carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract, but little is known about their overall incidence or their clinicopathologic profile. The surgical pathology archives of The Johns Hopkins Hospital were searched for all carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract from 1995 to 2011, and tissue microarrays were constructed. p16 immunohistochemical analysis and DNA in situ hybridization for high-risk types of HPV were performed. Demographic and clinical outcome data were extracted from patient medical records. Of 161 sinonasal carcinomas, 34 (21%) were positive for high-risk HPV DNA, including type 16 (82%), type 31/33 (12%), and type 18 (6%). HPV-positive carcinomas consisted of 28 squamous cell carcinomas and variants (15 nonkeratinizing or partially keratinizing, 4 papillary, 5 adenosquamous, 4 basaloid), 1 small cell carcinoma, 1 sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, and 4 carcinomas that were difficult to classify but exhibited adenoid cystic carcinoma-like features. Immunohistochemistry for p16 was positive in 59/161 (37%) cases, and p16 expression strongly correlated with the presence of HPV DNA: 33 of 34 (97%) HPV-positive tumors exhibited high p16 expression, whereas only 26 of 127 (20%) HPV-negative tumors were p16 positive (P<0.0001). The HPV-related carcinomas occurred in 19 men and 15 women ranging in age from 33 to 87 years (mean, 54 y). A trend toward improved survival was observed in the HPV-positive group (hazard ratio=0.58, 95% confidence interval [0.26, 1.28]). The presence of high-risk HPV in 21% of sinonasal carcinomas confirms HPV as an important oncologic agent of carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract. Although nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histologic type, there is a wide morphologic spectrum of HPV-related disease that includes a variant that resembles

  7. [Insular carcinoma of the thyroid. An uncommon but aggressive neoplasm].

    PubMed

    Naranjo-Gómez, José Manuel; Folqué-Gómez, Emilio; Moreno-Mata, Nicolás; Moldes-Rodríguez, Milagros; Martínez-Martínez, Patricia; González-Aragoneses, Federico; Orusco-Palomino, Eduardo

    2005-04-01

    Insular carcinoma of the thyroid is an infrequent entity, named in 1984 by Carcangiu when he described its characteristic histology. Clinically and morphologically it is considered to be in an intermediate position between well-differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid (papillary or follicular) and undifferentiated or anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid. However, most authors believe it to be an independent entity. The prognosis of this tumor is worse than that of classic carcinoma of the thyroid, and most authors advise aggressive therapy, which in some cases can achieved prolonged survival. We describe 2 patients who experienced recurrence after treatment for the primary tumor. The recurrences were treated but the clinical courses differed.

  8. Case Report: Multifocal biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Jose Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    A multifocal biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma in a 68-year-old man is reported. Four different peripheral tumor nodules were identified on gross examination. A fifth central tumor corresponded to a conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma is a rare tumor that has been very recently characterized as a distinct histotype within the spectrum of papillary renal cell carcinoma. Immunostaining with cyclin D1 seems to be specific of this tumor subtype. This is the first reported case with multifocal presentation. PMID:27158455

  9. Small cell carcinoma of the anus in the setting of prior squamous dysplasia and carcinoma in situ

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Mark A.; Hawk, Natalyn N.; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Stapleford, Liza J.

    2013-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the anus is a rare tumor that has been infrequently described in the literature. In contrast to squamous cell carcinoma, which is known to be associated with high-risk subtypes of human papillomavirus (HPV), the etiology of small cell carcinoma of the anal canal is not established. We present a case of a patient with small cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the setting of prior squamous dysplasia and carcinoma in situ. In conjunction with recently published data demonstrating the presence of HPV in tumor specimens from patients with small cell carcinoma of the anal canal, our patient’s clinical course suggests a possible link between HPV and this rare malignancy. PMID:23730521

  10. Determination of stromal signatures in breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    West, Robert B; Nuyten, Dimitry S A; Subramanian, Subbaya; Nielsen, Torsten O; Corless, Christopher L; Rubin, Brian P; Montgomery, Kelli; Zhu, Shirley; Patel, Rajiv; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Goldblum, John R; Brown, Patrick O; van de Vijver, Marc; van de Rijn, Matt

    2005-06-01

    Many soft tissue tumors recapitulate features of normal connective tissue. We hypothesize that different types of fibroblastic tumors are representative of different populations of fibroblastic cells or different activation states of these cells. We examined two tumors with fibroblastic features, solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) and desmoid-type fibromatosis (DTF), by DNA microarray analysis and found that they have very different expression profiles, including significant differences in their patterns of expression of extracellular matrix genes and growth factors. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization on a tissue microarray, we found that genes specific for these two tumors have mutually specific expression in the stroma of nonneoplastic tissues. We defined a set of 786 gene spots whose pattern of expression distinguishes SFT from DTF. In an analysis of DNA microarray gene expression data from 295 previously published breast carcinomas, we found that expression of this gene set defined two groups of breast carcinomas with significant differences in overall survival. One of the groups had a favorable outcome and was defined by the expression of DTF genes. The other group of tumors had a poor prognosis and showed variable expression of genes enriched for SFT type. Our findings suggest that the host stromal response varies significantly among carcinomas and that gene expression patterns characteristic of soft tissue tumors can be used to discover new markers for normal connective tissue cells.

  11. Oral hybrid verrucous carcinoma: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Gokavarapu, Sandhya; Rao S, L M Chandrasekhara; Tantravahi, Uma Sankar; Gundimeda, Sandhya Devi; Rao, T Subramaneshwar; Murthy, Sudha

    2014-12-01

    Hybrid Verrucous Carcinoma is an uncommon tumour wherein Verrucous Carcinoma (VC) is coexisting with conventional Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) within same maternal field. The heterogeneous nature, infrequency of occurrence and the difficulties associated with diagnosis and management of this tumor is discussed through a retrospective study. Patients of primary hybrid VC treated from Jan 2010 to May 2013 at a tertiary institute were analyzed on multivariate cox regression model. During the above mentioned period; 37 patients of hybrid VC were reported; 18(48.6 %) were male and 19(51.3 %) were female. Age ranged between 33 years to 78 years. Median follow up period was 32 months. T stage status and Stage grouping was not statistically significant for mortality (p value: 0.338). In the multivariate cox-regression model, the presence of second primary oral cancer was significantly associated with mortality, adjusted HR; 23.10 (95 % CI: 1.73, 307.65) (p = 0.017). Tumour staging is often unreliable in predicting prognosis of hybrid VC, occurrence of second primary oral cancer and recurrence appears to be significant factors effecting prognosis. PMID:25767335

  12. Current management of carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed Central

    Eberlein, T J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An in-depth retrospective review of the multidisciplinary approach to the management of carcinoma of the breast was done. The author reviewed previous trials and treatment from the past to the present. The indications and contraindications of surgical procedures, radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy are discussed. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Carcinoma of the breast is one of the most common malignancies treated by the practicing general or oncologic surgeon. The disease is best treated using a multidisciplinary approach, combining the efforts of surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic treatments. Understanding the indications and contraindications for each of these modalities will provide the practicing surgeon the most up-to-date algorithms for the management of his/her patient. CONCLUSIONS: The author provides a comprehensive analysis of the multidisciplinary approach to the management of carcinoma of the breast. It emphasizes the results of previous trials and discusses future controversies and areas for study. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:8053734

  13. Obstructive jaundice in small cell lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar Pour, Ali; Masir, Noraidah; Isa, Mohd Rose

    2015-08-01

    Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) commonly metastasizes to distant organs. However, metastasis to the pancreas is not a common event. Moreover, obstructive jaundice as a first clinical presentation of SCLC is extremely unusual. This case reports a 51-year-old male with SCLC, manifesting with obstructive jaundice as the initial clinical presentation. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatograghy (ERCP) and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan showed a mass at the head of the pancreas. The patient underwent pancreatoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure). Histopathology revealed a chromogranin- A-positive poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. No imaging study of the lung was performed before surgery. A few months later, a follow-up CT revealed unilateral lung nodules with ipsilateral hilar nodes. A lung biopsy was done and histopathology reported a TTF- 1-positive, chromogranin A-positive, small cell carcinoma of the lung. On review, the pancreatic tumour was also TTF-1-positive. He was then treated with combination chemotherapy (cisplatin, etoposide). These findings highlight that presentation of a mass at the head of pancreas could be a manifestation of a metastatic tumour from elsewhere such as the lung, and thorough investigations should be performed before metastases can be ruled out. PMID:26277673

  14. [Pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Usami, N; Fukui, T; Ito, S; Sato, N; Uchiyama, M; Taniguchi, T; Yoshioka, H; Yokoi, K

    2005-10-01

    We report a case of a 64-year-old man with pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung and thymic cyst. He was admitted to our hospital because of an abnormal shadow observed on chest X-ray. Computed tomography (CT) showed a mass lesion located in the right upper lobe and a non-invasive anterior mediastinal tumor adjacent to the left brachiocepharic vein. On enhanced CT, the lung mass showed central low-attenuation areas with a substantial enhancement in the periphery. Preoperative transbronchial blushing cytology of the mass revealed adenocarcinoma. With a diagnosis of primary lung cancer (cT3N0M0) and mediastinal tumor, an operation was performed through a median sternotomy. The mediastinal tumor was excised and a right upper lobectomy and were also accomplished, because the lung tumor did not show adhesion or pleural invasion. Histopathologic examination of the resected specimen revealed that the lung tumor composed of a mixture of spindle and giant cell features and contained a component of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. This finding yielded a pathological diagnosis of pleomorphic carcinoma (pT2N0M0). The mediastinal tumor was diagnosed as thymic cyst. The postoperative course was uneventful, and he is currently well 6 months after surgery. PMID:16235854

  15. Tattoo granuloma of the eyelid mimicking carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bee, Carson R; Steele, Eric A; White, Kevin P; Wilson, David J

    2014-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman was referred to the Oculofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery service for evaluation of a left upper eyelid lesion that was worrisome for carcinoma. The mass measured 8 × 8 mm; it was well-circumscribed, pink, and firm with distortion of the eyelid margin, central ulceration, and loss of the lashes. The patient denied previous surgery or trauma in this area, but she had a history of blepharopigmentation (tattoo eyeliner) of all 4 eyelids approximately 7 years prior. Incisional biopsy revealed inflammatory changes consistent with a localized reaction to the tattoo pigment granules. Local kenalog injection was attempted with improvement of the overall appearance but with persistent deformity including irregularity of the margin and loss of lashes. The persistent abnormal appearance was worrisome for an underlying carcinoma missed on the initial incisional biopsy and prompted a full-thickness wedge resection and reconstruction of the abnormal area. The results of biopsy of the excised tissue confirmed absence of malignant neoplasm and showed changes consistent with tattoo granuloma. Tattoo granuloma of the eyelid should be considered in the differential diagnosis of eyelid lesions worrisome for carcinoma in patients with a history of blepharopigmentation. PMID:23511999

  16. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy that causes approximately 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. To date, no molecularly targeted agents have been approved for the disease. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project, we report here an integrated analysis of 131 urothelial carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of molecular alterations. There were statistically significant recurrent mutations in 32 genes, including multiple genes involved in cell cycle regulation, chromatin regulation, and kinase signaling pathways, as well as 9 genes not previously reported as significantly mutated in any cancer. RNA sequencing revealed four expression subtypes, two of which (papillary-like and basal/squamous-like) were also evident in miRNA sequencing and protein data. Whole-genome and RNA sequencing identified recurrent in-frame activating FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and expression or integration of several viruses (including HPV16) that are associated with gene inactivation. Our analyses identified potential therapeutic targets in 69% of the tumours, including 42% with targets in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and 45% with targets (including ERBB2) in the RTK/MAPK pathway. Chromatin regulatory genes were more frequently mutated in urothelial carcinoma than in any common cancer studied to date, suggesting the future possibility of targeted therapy for chromatin abnormalities. PMID:24476821

  17. Adjuvant and Definitive Radiotherapy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sabolch, Aaron; Feng, Mary; Griffith, Kent; Hammer, Gary; Doherty, Gerard; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of both adjuvant and definitive radiotherapy on local control of adrenocortical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed from 58 patients with 64 instances of treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma at the University of Michigan's Multidisciplinary Adrenal Cancer Clinic. Thirty-seven of these instances were for primary disease, whereas the remaining 27 were for recurrent disease. Thirty-eight of the treatment regimens involved surgery alone, 10 surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 definitive radiotherapy for unresectable disease. The effects of patient, tumor, and treatment factors were modeled simultaneously using multiple variable Cox proportional hazards regression for associations with local recurrence, distant recurrence, and overall survival. Results: Local failure occurred in 16 of the 38 instances that involved surgery alone, in 2 of the 10 that consisted of surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and in 1 instance of definitive radiotherapy. Lack of radiotherapy use was associated with 4.7 times the risk of local failure compared with treatment regimens that involved radiotherapy (95% confidence interval, 1.2-19.0; p = 0.030). Conclusions: Radiotherapy seems to significantly lower the risk of local recurrence/progression in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Adjuvant radiotherapy should be strongly considered after surgical resection.

  18. Pulmonary manifestations of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Abhinav; Sahni, Sonu; Iftikhar, Asma; Talwar, Arunabh

    2015-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for majority of all primary renal neoplasms. Classic manifestations of RCC include the triad of flank pain, hematuria and a palpable renal mass. Patients with RCC can develop various extra renal manifestations including involvements of the lungs, inferior vena cava, liver and the bones. The pulmonary manifestations of renal cell carcinoma include metastatic disease including endobronchial, pleural, parenchymal or lymph node metastasis, pleural effusion or hemothorax. Pulmonary embolism and tumor embolism is another common manifestation of renal cell carcinoma. RCC is a highly vascular tumor and can cause pulmonary arterio-venous fistulas leading to high output failure. Rarely, RCC can also present with paraneoplastic presentations including cough or bilateral diaphragm paralysis. Drugs used to treat RCC have been associated with drug related pneumonitis and form an important differential diagnosis in patients with RCC on therapy presenting with shortness of breath. In this review we discuss the various pulmonary manifestations of RCC. A high index of suspicion with these presentations can lead to an early diagnosis and assist in instituting an appropriate intervention. PMID:26525375

  19. Primary oat cell carcinoma of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, E.A. III; Robbins, K.T.; Stephens, J.; Dimery, I.W.; Batsakis, J.G.

    1987-02-01

    The aggressiveness of small (oat) cell carcinoma of the larynx presents a therapeutic challenge to the oncologist. Since the first description of this type of carcinoma in 1972, 52 patients have been reported in the literature and a variety of treatment regimens have been used. The purpose of this study was to report two new cases and review all previous reports to determine the disease's biological behavior, clinical manifestations, and optimum treatment. Thirty-five percent of the tumors were transglottic, and 27% were supraglottic. Fifty-four percent of patients had regional metastases at initial presentation and 17.6% had distant metastases. The median survival was 10 months for all patients. Patients who were treated with chemotherapy with or without other modalities had the best 2-year survival rates (52.2%). Forty-one percent of patients had regional recurrence only, 12.5% had regional recurrence and distant metastases, and 2% developed distant metastases only. We conclude that patients with oat cell carcinoma of the larynx should be treated with combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Surgery is best reserved for persistent and recurrent disease at the primary site and neck.

  20. [Tumor markers of urinary tract carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Haruhito

    2004-04-01

    The tumor markers for malignant tumors arisen from urinary system including prostate cancer were reviewed. As for renal cell carcinoma there was no good marker used in routine test level at present. In the diagnosis of urothelial (transitional cell) carcinoma, mainly bladder cancer, 3 methods (urinary BTA, NMP22 and BFP) are used now in Japan. They all seem to be not fully sufficient in respect of the specificity. In foreign countries, new tests such as urinary telomerase and BLCA-4 are used and have been evaluated. On the diagnosis of prostate cancer, serum total PSA is well established and used. Various PSA relation markers have been advocated for the differentiation between benign prostate hypertrophy and carcinoma in so called "gray zone" level of total PSA. In methods based on the molecular forms of PSA, the ratio of free PSA to total PSA (f/T) is widely use, and proPSA is a test that is expected. Other approaches such as volume of index PSA, age specific PSA reference range and PSA velocity are also in practical application. Human glandular kallikrein 2, which belong to the human kallikrein family as well as PSA, is expected as a tumor specific marker.

  1. Metastatic mucinous carcinoma of the eyelid.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurjeet; Ismail, Rosli; Harun, Hairulhasliza

    2005-12-01

    Metastatic eyelid tumours are rare and account for less than 2% of all eyelid neoplasms. We report a case of metastatic breast carcinoma to the eyelid in a 60-year-old Chinese lady presenting with a 2-year history of enlarging, painless nodular lower eyelid swelling. The 1 cm diameter lesion was provisionally diagnosed as a sebaceous cyst. However the excision biopsy revealed a mucinous carcinoma expressing oestrogen receptor protein. She had a past history of mastectomy one year previously and histology showed an infiltrating ductal carcinoma (oestrogen receptor status negative) without evidence of axillary lymph node metastasis. She had completed adjuvant radio- and chemotherapy. Further treatment of the current lesion involved a wide excision which did not show any residual malignancy. She had no other evidence of metastasis and was treated with letrozol. We highlight this case to create awareness among clinicians and opthalmologists on the possibility of metastatic disease as a cause of eyelid swelling, especially in patients with a history of cancer. It may also be the first sign of metastatic disease of an internal malignancy. A review of the literature is also presented.

  2. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma mimicking salivary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lindsay; Chiosea, Simion I

    2013-12-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor characterized by ETV6 translocation. It appears that prior studies have identified MASC by reviewing salivary gland carcinomas, such as acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. To address the possibility of MASC mimicking benign salivary neoplasms we reviewed 12 salivary gland (cyst)adenomas diagnosed prior to the discovery of MASC. One encapsulated (cyst)adenoma of the parotid gland demonstrated features of MASC. The diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization with an ETV6 break-apart probe. An unusual complex pattern of ETV6 rearrangement with duplication of the telomeric/distal ETV6 probe was identified. This case illustrates that MASC may mimic salivary (cyst)adenomas. To more accurately assess true clinical and morphologic spectrum of MASC, future studies may have to include review of salivary (cyst)adenomas. The differential diagnosis of MASC may have to be expanded to include cases resembling salivary (cyst)adenomas.

  3. [Bilateral choroidal metastases of kidney carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Galetović, Davor; Bućan, Kajo; Karlica, Dobrila; Lesin, Mladen; Znaor, Ljubo

    2010-07-01

    Metastatic tumors are among the most common intraocular malignancies, and are exclusively localized in the uvea, 88% in the choroids. A 54-year-old male patient was admitted to Urology Department for macrohematuria. A tumor of the left kidney was found. Upon nephrectomy, histopathology indicated papillary carcinoma of the kidney with some focal sarcomatous differentiation. The left suprarenal gland was normal, but one of the regional lymph nodes was invaded. Three years later, the patient was hospitalized again for tumor of the right suprarenal gland and para-aortic tumor. At the same time, the patient complained of visual acuity worsening on the left eye. Fundus examination and fundus photography revealed yellowish subretinal lesions with serous retinal detachment. Metastatic eye lesions may anticipate or follow the diagnosis of kidney carcinoma. All tumors with a tendency of hematogenous metastasizing have a high affinity of metastasizing into the uvea because of its abundant blood flow. Posterior pole is the most common localization; over 40% of lesions are found in macular region, which is attributed to the higher posterior choroidal blood flow and easy macular symptom detection. That is why kidney carcinoma has to be ruled out in all patients with such yellowish subretinal lesions.

  4. Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Rinaldo, A; McLaren, K M; Boccato, P; Maran, A G

    1999-01-01

    Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) is a rare, recently described tumor of salivary gland origin. Differential diagnosis includes benign lesions as clear cell change in a pleomorphic adenoma or in oncocytoma and malignant tumors - i.e. epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, clear cell acinic carcinoma, clear cell squamous carcinoma, clear cell malignant melanoma, clear cell odontogenic carcinoma, clear cell rhabdomyosarcoma, sebaceous carcinoma and metastasis of renal carcinoma. A favorable prognosis after wide local excision has been evidenced. Three new cases of HCCC (2 in the oral cavity and 1 in the parotid gland) are presented.

  5. Histopathological transformation to small-cell lung carcinoma in non-small cell lung carcinoma tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Morales, José Manuel; Cano-García, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the principal cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The use of targeted therapies, especially tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), in specific groups of patients has dramatically improved the prognosis of this disease, although inevitably some patients will develop resistance to these drugs during active treatment. The most common cancer-associated acquired mutation is the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) Thr790Met (T790M) mutation. During active treatment with targeted therapies, histopathological transformation to small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) can occur in 3–15% of patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) tumors. By definition, SCLC is a high-grade tumor with specific histological and genetic characteristics. In the majority of cases, a good-quality hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain is enough to establish a diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used to confirm the diagnosis and exclude other neoplasia such as sarcomatoid carcinomas, large-cell carcinoma, basaloid squamous-cell carcinoma, chronic inflammation, malignant melanoma, metastatic carcinoma, sarcoma, and lymphoma. A loss of the tumor-suppressor protein retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) is found in 100% of human SCLC tumors; therefore, it has an essential role in tumorigenesis and tumor development. Other genetic pathways probably involved in the histopathological transformation include neurogenic locus notch homolog (NOTCH) and achaete-scute homolog 1 (ASCL1). Histological transformation to SCLC can be suspected in NSCLC patients who clinically deteriorate during active treatment. Biopsy of any new lesion in this clinical setting is highly recommended to rule out a SCLC transformation. New studies are trying to assess this histological transformation by noninvasive measures such as measuring the concentration of serum neuron-specific enolase. PMID:27652204

  6. Histopathological transformation to small-cell lung carcinoma in non-small cell lung carcinoma tumors.

    PubMed

    Dorantes-Heredia, Rita; Ruiz-Morales, José Manuel; Cano-García, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer is the principal cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The use of targeted therapies, especially tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), in specific groups of patients has dramatically improved the prognosis of this disease, although inevitably some patients will develop resistance to these drugs during active treatment. The most common cancer-associated acquired mutation is the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) Thr790Met (T790M) mutation. During active treatment with targeted therapies, histopathological transformation to small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) can occur in 3-15% of patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) tumors. By definition, SCLC is a high-grade tumor with specific histological and genetic characteristics. In the majority of cases, a good-quality hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain is enough to establish a diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used to confirm the diagnosis and exclude other neoplasia such as sarcomatoid carcinomas, large-cell carcinoma, basaloid squamous-cell carcinoma, chronic inflammation, malignant melanoma, metastatic carcinoma, sarcoma, and lymphoma. A loss of the tumor-suppressor protein retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) is found in 100% of human SCLC tumors; therefore, it has an essential role in tumorigenesis and tumor development. Other genetic pathways probably involved in the histopathological transformation include neurogenic locus notch homolog (NOTCH) and achaete-scute homolog 1 (ASCL1). Histological transformation to SCLC can be suspected in NSCLC patients who clinically deteriorate during active treatment. Biopsy of any new lesion in this clinical setting is highly recommended to rule out a SCLC transformation. New studies are trying to assess this histological transformation by noninvasive measures such as measuring the concentration of serum neuron-specific enolase. PMID:27652204

  7. Histopathological transformation to small-cell lung carcinoma in non-small cell lung carcinoma tumors.

    PubMed

    Dorantes-Heredia, Rita; Ruiz-Morales, José Manuel; Cano-García, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer is the principal cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The use of targeted therapies, especially tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), in specific groups of patients has dramatically improved the prognosis of this disease, although inevitably some patients will develop resistance to these drugs during active treatment. The most common cancer-associated acquired mutation is the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) Thr790Met (T790M) mutation. During active treatment with targeted therapies, histopathological transformation to small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) can occur in 3-15% of patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) tumors. By definition, SCLC is a high-grade tumor with specific histological and genetic characteristics. In the majority of cases, a good-quality hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain is enough to establish a diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used to confirm the diagnosis and exclude other neoplasia such as sarcomatoid carcinomas, large-cell carcinoma, basaloid squamous-cell carcinoma, chronic inflammation, malignant melanoma, metastatic carcinoma, sarcoma, and lymphoma. A loss of the tumor-suppressor protein retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) is found in 100% of human SCLC tumors; therefore, it has an essential role in tumorigenesis and tumor development. Other genetic pathways probably involved in the histopathological transformation include neurogenic locus notch homolog (NOTCH) and achaete-scute homolog 1 (ASCL1). Histological transformation to SCLC can be suspected in NSCLC patients who clinically deteriorate during active treatment. Biopsy of any new lesion in this clinical setting is highly recommended to rule out a SCLC transformation. New studies are trying to assess this histological transformation by noninvasive measures such as measuring the concentration of serum neuron-specific enolase.

  8. p63 immunohistochemistry differentiates salivary gland oncocytoma and oncocytic carcinoma from metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Jonathan B; Hoschar, Aaron P; Dvorakova, Mari; Parwani, Anil V; Barnes, E Leon; Seethala, Raja R

    2007-12-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) can pose diagnostic challenges in the head and neck often resembling benign and malignant oncocytic lesions. Immunohistochemical panels have been reported to help with this differential but are not entirely specific or sensitive. We have noticed that p63 routinely stains salivary gland oncocytomas but not metastatic RCC. Nineteen oncocytomas, 9 cases of oncocytosis, 9 oncocytic carcinomas and 16 head and neck metastatic RCC were studied. Morphologic features evaluated were cytoplasmic character (clear versus oncocytic), Fuhrman nuclear grade, mitotic rate, growth pattern, presence of lumens/blood lakes and stromal characteristics. Tumors were stained with antibodies to p63, renal cell carcinoma marker (RCCm), CD10, and vimentin. Eight benign oncocytic tumors (29%) had clear cell features while 6 metastatic RCC (37%) had oncocytic features. Median Fuhrman nuclear grade was 2 in oncocytoma and oncocytosis and 3 both oncocytic carcinoma and metastatic RCC. Mitotic rates were only significantly different between benign oncocytic tumors and metastatic RCC. All oncocytomas had lumina compared to half of metastatic RCC, all of which also demonstrated blood lakes. Seven benign oncocytic tumors (25%) and 5 oncocytic carcinomas (56%) had RCC-like vascular stroma. All primary salivary gland tumors were positive for p63, predominately in basal cell-type distribution. None of the metastatic RCC was positive. RCCm was entirely specific but lacked sensitivity for metastatic RCC while CD10 and vimentin showed variable sensitivity and specificity. While clinical history and morphology usually are adequate, demonstration of p63 staining can definitively exclude metastatic RCC from the differential diagnosis of similar appearing tumors in salivary glands, namely oncocytoma and oncocytic carcinoma, with 100% specificity and sensitivity. While RCCm, CD10, and vimentin performed adequately, they were significantly less reliable than p63 with both

  9. KRAS gene mutations are more common in colorectal villous adenomas and in situ carcinomas than in carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Zauber, Peter; Marotta, Stephen; Sabbath-Solitare, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    We have evaluated the frequency of KRAS gene mutations during the critical transition from villous adenoma to colorectal carcinoma to assess whether the adenomas contain a KRAS mutation more frequently than carcinomas. We analyzed sporadic villous and tubulovillous adenomas, in situ carcinomas, and primary colorectal carcinomas from multiple patients. The cancers were further evaluated for mucinous status and microsatellite instability. Standard PCR molecular techniques were used for KRAS and microsatellite analyses. A KRAS mutation was found in 61.9% of 134 adenomas, 67.8% of 84 in situ carcinomas, and just 31.6% of 171 carcinomas. Our study clearly demonstrates that tubulovillous and villous adenomas, as well as both the benign and malignant parts of in situ carcinomas, are statistically more likely to contain a somatic KRAS gene mutation than colorectal carcinomas. This difference is confined to the non-mucinous and the microsatellite stable tumors. Our data support the possibility that non-mucinous and microsatellite stable carcinomas with wild-type KRAS gene may have had a mutation in the KRAS gene during their earlier stages, with the mutation lost during further growth. PMID:23565319

  10. Intraosseous carcinoma of the jaws--a clinicopathologic review. Part I: Metastatic and salivary-type carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Woolgar, Julia A; Triantafyllou, Asterios; Ferlito, Alfio; Devaney, Kenneth O; Lewis, James S; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Slootweg, Pieter J; Barnes, Leon

    2013-06-01

    This is the first part of a 3-part comprehensive review of intraosseous carcinoma of the jaws. We have outlined 4 groups of intraosseous carcinoma of the jaws (metastatic, salivary-type, odontogenic, and primary intraosseous carcinoma), emphasizing the need for accurate diagnosis and the problems associated with changing classification systems, standardization of diagnostic criteria and nomenclature, and the accuracy of existing literature. In this first part, the features of metastatic and the very rare salivary-type carcinomas of the jaws are examined with particular emphasis on histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics, diagnostic difficulties, and uncertainties.

  11. Sorafenib Tosylate, Cisplatin, and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-27

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  12. Papillomavirus, p53 alteration, and primary carcinoma of the vulva.

    PubMed

    Pilotti, S; D'Amato, L; Della Torre, G; Donghi, R; Longoni, A; Giarola, M; Sampietro, G; De Palo, G; Pierotti, M A; Rilke, F

    1995-12-01

    Twenty-nine samples from 28 cases of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma, of which 13 fulfilled the criteria of the bowenoid subtype (mean age 45 years, range 31-68) and 16 of the usual subtype of invasive squamous cell carcinoma (ISCC) (mean age 67.5 years, range 34-83) were investigated for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA, TP53 alterations, and mdm2 and bcl-2 gene product deregulation. Microscopically all the bowenoid subtype cases (group I) showed a high-grade intraepithelial (VIN 3, carcinoma in situ) lesion associated with early invasive carcinoma in six cases and overt invasive carcinoma in one. By contrast, no evidence of early carcinoma was present in the ISCCs (group II). By in situ hybridization and/or Southern blot hybridization or polymerase chain reaction (PCR), HPV DNA was detected in all cases of group I and in four of 16 cases (25%) of group II, two only by Southern blot after PCR. By single-strand conformation polymorphism and immunocytochemistry only wild-type TP53 and absence of detectable p53 product, respectively, were found in all cases of group I, i.e., in high-risk HPV-positive carcinomas, whereas mutations and/or p53 overexpression accounted for 75% in group II, i.e., in mainly HPV-negative carcinomas. The TP53 gene mutations observed in invasive carcinomas were significantly related to node-positive cases (p = 0.04). Taken together and in agreement with in vitro data, these results support the view that an alteration of TP53, gained either by interaction with viral oncoproteins or by somatic mutations, is a crucial event in the pathogenesis of vulvar carcinomas, but that TP53 mutations are mainly associated with disease progression. Finally, a preliminary immunocytochemical analysis seems to speak against the possible involvement of both MDM2 and BCL-2 gene products in the development of vulvar carcinoma.

  13. Hürthle cell carcinoma: diagnostic and therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Hanief, Mohamed R; Igali, Laszlo; Grama, Dimitrie

    2004-01-01

    Background Hürthle cell carcinoma is a variant of follicular cell carcinoma of thyroid. It may present as a low-grade tumour or as a more aggressive type. Prognosis depends upon the age of the patient, tumour size, extent of invasion and initial nodal or distant metastasis. Patient and methods The case of Hürthle cell carcinoma is reported in a 79-year-old man who presented with a rapidly increasing lump on the left side of his neck, having had a right hemithyroidectomy for colloid goitre 24-years-ago. Fine needle aspiration cytology confirmed the presence of Hürthle cells, raising the possibility of a Hürthle cell neoplasm. The patient underwent staging and surgery. Histology showed Hürthle cell carcinoma and the patient underwent adjuvant therapy. The literature on Hürthle cell neoplasms is reviewed. Conclusions Fine needle aspiration cytology may recognise Hürthle cell lesion but final diagnosis of carcinoma depends upon histological confirmation of vascular or capsular invasion. Staging and surgery in Hürthle cell carcinoma are similar to follicular carcinoma of thyroid with favourable outcome despite the controversy regarding the histological classification and adjuvant therapy. Elderly patients with Hürthle cell carcinoma need to be made aware of their poorer prognosis and should be offered more radical treatment. PMID:15306032

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma in glycogen storage disease type IV

    PubMed Central

    de Moor, R A; Schweizer, J; van Hoek, B; Wasser, M; Vink, R; Maaswinkel-Mooy, P

    2000-01-01

    A 13 year old patient with juvenile type IV glycogen storage disease died of the complications of hepatocellular carcinoma. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of hepatocellular carcinoma in association with type IV glycogen storage disease.

 PMID:10833181

  15. A Prognostic Dilemma of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Intravascular Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Niumsawatt, Vachara; Castley, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy; however, it very rarely metastasizes. Despite the low mortality caused by this cancer, once it spreads, it has dim prognosis. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma with rare intravascular invasion and review the literature for risk factors and management of metastasis.

  16. "Intercellular bridges" in a case of well differentiated squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Michaela; Mikita, Geoffrey; Hoda, Rana S

    2016-02-01

    Intercellular bridges may aide in definitive identification of malignant cell origin, especially in squamous cell carcinoma. They are difficult to identify in routine cytologic specimens and are especially rare in smear preparations. Herein, we present images of intercellular bridges from a case of well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in a cytologic specimen obtained from FNA of a paraesophageal lymph node.

  17. Acute cholecystitis or metastatic renal cell carcinoma? a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, L H; Coffman, L M

    1996-05-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is known to metastasize to many different organ systems. Lung and bone are clearly the most common sites of metastasis, but the symptoms at presentation may simulate those of other diseases of the organ system involved. The patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma described here had symptoms of acute cholecystitis.

  18. Multiple basal cell carcinomas arising in port-wine haemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Magaña-García, M; Magaña-Lozano, M

    1988-09-01

    We report the case of a 49-year-old man, who had had two port-wine stains from birth, in which many basal cell carcinomas developed during his forties. The appearance of multiple basal cell carcinomas in port-wine stains has not been reported previously to our knowledge and may represent a new syndrome.

  19. Medullary thyroid carcinoma: a rare presentation as a hypervascular tumour.

    PubMed

    Li, W Y; Tomlinson, M A; Bryson, J M; Hopkins, N F G

    2002-08-01

    Sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) usually presents with a thyroid mass, cervical lymphadenopathy or other local cervical symptoms. Often the diagnosis is unsuspected pre-operatively. We report a unique case of a mixed follicular medullary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a tumour with extreme vascularity. The management of hypervascular thyroid tumours is discussed together with current controversies regarding persistent hypercalcitoninaemia. PMID:12389699

  20. Immunotherapy in urothelial carcinoma: fade or future standard?

    PubMed Central

    Breyer, Johannes; Burger, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy of non-muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma by Bacillus-Calmette-Guérin (BCG) instillation is a well-established treatment option since decades. Despite this fact, the immunocellular basis was first studied in recent years. New aspects of immunotherapy, also for progressed bladder carcinoma, might follow promising research on immunological targets. PMID:27785423

  1. Two case reports of breast carcinoma associated with prolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Strungs, I; Gray, R A; Rigby, H B; Strutton, G

    1997-08-01

    Two cases of breast carcinoma associated with prolactinoma are presented. Literature review reveals only five previous case reports of this association. Both of our cases occurred in women, aged 55 and 34. Both were typical of the reported cases in that they had long histories of amenorrhea before diagnosis of prolactinomas and breast carcinomas. One patient had a three and a half year history of atypical ductal hyperplasia and a prominent intraduct component in the invasive tumor. Both had axillary lymph node metastases. The significance of the association of breast carcinoma with prolactinoma is discussed. Whereas studies in animals have shown prolactin to be an initiator and promoter of breast carcinoma, studies in humans have been inconclusive. Some studies have shown raised levels of prolactin in patients with breast carcinoma and their daughters, while others have not. The paucity of case reports linking breast carcinoma and prolactinoma may indicate that the association is mere coincidence, but studies evaluating the relationship between breast carcinoma and all forms of hyperprolactinemia need to be conducted before a causal link is dismissed. Prolactin may act as a cofactor with, for example, estrogen or stress, to induce breast carcinoma.

  2. Immunohistochemical expression of nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin in gastrointestinal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Michiko; Sangawa, Akiko; Yamao, Naoki; Kamoshida, Shingo

    2013-01-01

    Survivin is a protein that is highly expressed in many embryonic tissues, as well as most human tumors. Prior studies have reported both positive and negative correlations between survivin expression and cancer prognosis, but these associations remain controversial. In the present study, we assessed the expression of nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin in gastrointestinal carcinomas. Using these data, we determined the correlation between nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin and, further, investigated correlations between survivin expression and clinicopathological parameters. Seventy-two advanced gastric adenocarcinomas and 78 colorectal adenocarcinomas were analyzed for survivin expression by immunohistochemistry. Expression of both nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin was significantly higher in colorectal carcinomas than in gastric carcinomas (P < 0.01). There was a positive correlation between nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of survivin (r = 0.42, P < 0.001). In gastric carcinomas, the level of survivin protein expression was associated with tumor differentiation, patient age, and lymphatic invasion (P < 0.05, 0.01, and 0.01, respectively). In colorectal carcinomas, the level of nuclear survivin expression was significantly higher in females than in males (P < 0.05). There were no significant associations between survivin expression and most of the clinicopathological parameters. Nevertheless, there was a trend towards an inverse correlation between nuclear survivin expression and tumor aggressiveness in gastric carcinoma; there was a similar trend for cytoplasmic survivin expression. In summary, our results suggest that levels of nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin expression differ between gastric carcinoma and colorectal carcinoma.

  3. Relaxin Enhances the Oncogenic Potential of Human Thyroid Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hombach-Klonisch, Sabine; Bialek, Joanna; Trojanowicz, Bogusz; Weber, Ekkehard; Holzhausen, Hans-Jürgen; Silvertown, Josh D.; Summerlee, Alastair J.; Dralle, Henning; Hoang-Vu, Cuong; Klonisch, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The role of members of the insulin-like superfamily in human thyroid carcinoma is primarily unknown. Here we demonstrate the presence of RLN2 relaxin and relaxin receptor LGR7 in human papillary, follicular, and undifferentiated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma suggesting a specific involvement of relaxin-LGR7 signaling in thyroid carcinoma. Stable transfectants of the LGR7-positive human follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines FTC-133 and FTC-238 that secrete bioactive proRLN2 revealed this hormone to act as a multifunctional endocrine factor in thyroid carcinoma cells. Although RLN2 did not act as a mitogen, it acted as an autocrine/paracrine factor and significantly increased anchorage-independent growth and thyroid carcinoma cell motility and invasiveness through elastin matrices. Suppression of LGR7 expression by LGR7-siRNA abolished the RLN2-mediated accelerated tumor cell motility. The increased elastinolytic activity correlated with enhanced production and secretion of the lysosomal proteinases cathepsin-D (cath-D) and cath-L forms hereby identified as new RLN2 target molecules in human neoplastic thyrocytes. We found the intracellular distribution of procath-L specifically altered in RLN2 transfectants, providing first evidence for selective actions of relaxin on the powerful elastinolytic cath-L production, storage, and secretion in thyroid carcinoma cells. Thus, relaxin enhances the oncogenic potential and acts as novel endocrine modulator of invasiveness in human thyroid carcinoma cells. PMID:16877360

  4. Relaxin enhances the oncogenic potential of human thyroid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hombach-Klonisch, Sabine; Bialek, Joanna; Trojanowicz, Bogusz; Weber, Ekkehard; Holzhausen, Hans-Jürgen; Silvertown, Josh D; Summerlee, Alastair J; Dralle, Henning; Hoang-Vu, Cuong; Klonisch, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    The role of members of the insulin-like superfamily in human thyroid carcinoma is primarily unknown. Here we demonstrate the presence of RLN2 relaxin and relaxin receptor LGR7 in human papillary, follicular, and undifferentiated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma suggesting a specific involvement of relaxin-LGR7 signaling in thyroid carcinoma. Stable transfectants of the LGR7-positive human follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines FTC-133 and FTC-238 that secrete bioactive proRLN2 revealed this hormone to act as a multifunctional endocrine factor in thyroid carcinoma cells. Although RLN2 did not act as a mitogen, it acted as an autocrine/paracrine factor and significantly increased anchorage-independent growth and thyroid carcinoma cell motility and invasiveness through elastin matrices. Suppression of LGR7 expression by LGR7-siRNA abolished the RLN2-mediated accelerated tumor cell motility. The increased elastinolytic activity correlated with enhanced production and secretion of the lysosomal proteinases cathepsin-D (cath-D) and cath-L forms hereby identified as new RLN2 target molecules in human neoplastic thyrocytes. We found the intracellular distribution of procath-L specifically altered in RLN2 transfectants, providing first evidence for selective actions of relaxin on the powerful elastinolytic cath-L production, storage, and secretion in thyroid carcinoma cells. Thus, relaxin enhances the oncogenic potential and acts as novel endocrine modulator of invasiveness in human thyroid carcinoma cells.

  5. Electron microscopy, tissue culture,and immunology of ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ioachim, H L; Dorsett, B H; Sabbath, M; Barber, H R

    1975-10-01

    The ultrastructure of the major histologic types of ovarian carcinoma was investigated as part of a multilateral study of this tumor. The nuclear and nucleolar changes in size, shape, and structure correlated well with the degree of malignancy and tumor grading. Cytoplasmic organelles and intercellular junctions were abundant and fairly well differentiated even in ovarian carcinomas of higher grade and stage. Active processes of synthesis and secretion taking place in most of these tumors were suggested by the presence of a richly granulated endoplasmic reticulum, dilated cisternae, and numerous secretory granules. Seventy-eight different ovarian carcinomas of all histologic types were cultured in vitro for periods of up to 300 days, and their morphology in light and electron microscopy was compared to that of the original tumors. The cultures displayed a consistent pattern of growth which led to the conclusion that ovarian cancer cells in vitro preserve their salient features and are representative of the tumors of origin. Heterologous antisera raised with pooled extracts of various types of ovarian carcinomas reacted specifically in immunodiffusion and immunofluorescence tests only with ovarian carcinomas and not with normal ovaries, benigh ovarian tumors, and nonovarian malignant neoplasms, indicating the presence of a cross-reacting specific antigen for ovarian carcinomas. In other studies, autologous antibodies were isolated from antigen-antibody complexes recovered from peritoneal effusions of patients with ovarian carcinomas. These antibodies displayed a high degree of specificity against ovarian carcinoma cells when tested in immunofluorescence assays.

  6. Male breast carcinoma: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characterization study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ruoji; Yu, Lin; Zhou, Shuling; Bi, Rui; Shui, Ruohong; Yu, Baohua; Lu, Hongfen; Cai, Xu; Yang, Wentao

    2014-01-01

    Male breast carcinoma is a relatively rare disease. This study retrospectively investigated the clinicopathological features of 73 cases of male breast carcinoma in Chinese population, and classified the molecular subtype based on surrogate immunohistochemical definitions. The expression of GCDFP15, MGB, AR and FOXP1 were evaluated. Invasive carcinoma of no special type was the most common histological type in the study group (71.2%, 52/73). The luminal A and B subtypes were the major types of male breast carcinoma (60.9%, 34.8% respectively). AR and FOXP1 are expressed in 84.2% (48/57) and 71.9% (41/57) of the studied cases. Carcinoma of the luminal A subtype expressed GCDFP15 (73.5%, 25/34) and MGB (58.8%, 20/34) more frequently than cases of the luminal B subtypes (34.8%, 8/23 and 43.5%, 10/23, respectively; P = 0.004, P = 0.255, respectively). In conclusion, invasive carcinoma of no special type was the most common histological type in male breast carcinoma among Chinese population. Our study revealed that the luminal A and B subtypes were the major types of male breast carcinoma. AR and FOXP1 are highly expressed in male breast cancer. The luminal A subtype tends to express GCDFP15 and MGB more frequently than the luminal B subtype.

  7. Imaging of an adrenal cortical carcinoma and its skeletal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Drane, W.E.; Graham, M.M.; Nelp, W.B.

    1983-08-01

    Though the typical scintigraphic appearance in adrenal cortical carcinoma is bilateral nonvisualization of the adrenal glands, a case with simultaneous visualization of both an adrenal cortical carcinoma and its skeletal metastasis using 6-..beta..-(/sup 131/I)iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol is reported.

  8. Imaging of an adrenal cortical carcinoma and its skeletal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Drane, W.E.; Graham, M.M.; Nelp, W.B.

    1983-08-01

    Though the typical scintigraphic appearance in adrenal cortical carcinoma is bilateral nonvisualization of the adrenal glands, we report a case with simultaneous visualization of both an adrenal cortical carcinoma and its skeletal metastasis using 6-beta-(/sup 131/I)iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol.

  9. Targeted therapy: a new hope for thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Perri, Francesco; Pezzullo, Luciano; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Lastoria, Secondo; Di Gennaro, Francesca; Scarpati, Giuseppina Della Vittoria; Caponigro, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Thyroid carcinomas are rare and heterogeneous diseases representing less than 1% of all malignancies. The majority of thyroid carcinomas are differentiated entities (papillary and folliculary carcinomas) and are characterized by good prognosis and good response to surgery and radioiodine therapy. Nevertheless, about 10% of differentiated carcinomas recur and become resistant to all therapies. Anaplastic and medullary cancers are rare subtypes of thyroid cancer not suitable for radioiodine therapy. A small percentage of differentiated and all the anaplastic and medullary thyroid carcinomas often recur after primary treatments and are no longer suitable for other therapies. In the last years, several advances have been made in the field of molecular biology and tumorigenesis mechanisms of thyroid carcinomas. Starting from these issues, the targeted therapy may be employed as a new option. The MAP-Kinase pathway has been found often dysregulated in thyroid carcinomas and several upstream signals have been recognized as responsible for this feature. RET/PTC mutations are often discovered both in papillary and in medullary carcinomas, while B-RAF mutation is typical of papillary and anaplastic histologies. Also mTOR disruptions and VEGFR pathway disruption are common features in all advanced thyroid cancers. Some angiogenesis inhibitors and a number of RET/PTC pathway blocking agents are yet present in the clinical armamentarium. Vandetanib, cabozatinib and sorafenib have reached clinical use. A number of other biological compounds have been tested in phase II and III trials. Understanding the biology of thyroid cancers may help us to design a well shaped targeted therapy.

  10. Immunohistochemical expression of nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin in gastrointestinal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shintani, Michiko; Sangawa, Akiko; Yamao, Naoki; Kamoshida, Shingo

    2013-01-01

    Survivin is a protein that is highly expressed in many embryonic tissues, as well as most human tumors. Prior studies have reported both positive and negative correlations between survivin expression and cancer prognosis, but these associations remain controversial. In the present study, we assessed the expression of nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin in gastrointestinal carcinomas. Using these data, we determined the correlation between nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin and, further, investigated correlations between survivin expression and clinicopathological parameters. Seventy-two advanced gastric adenocarcinomas and 78 colorectal adenocarcinomas were analyzed for survivin expression by immunohistochemistry. Expression of both nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin was significantly higher in colorectal carcinomas than in gastric carcinomas (P < 0.01). There was a positive correlation between nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of survivin (r = 0.42, P < 0.001). In gastric carcinomas, the level of survivin protein expression was associated with tumor differentiation, patient age, and lymphatic invasion (P < 0.05, 0.01, and 0.01, respectively). In colorectal carcinomas, the level of nuclear survivin expression was significantly higher in females than in males (P < 0.05). There were no significant associations between survivin expression and most of the clinicopathological parameters. Nevertheless, there was a trend towards an inverse correlation between nuclear survivin expression and tumor aggressiveness in gastric carcinoma; there was a similar trend for cytoplasmic survivin expression. In summary, our results suggest that levels of nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin expression differ between gastric carcinoma and colorectal carcinoma. PMID:24294379

  11. Sebaceous carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma: a rare phenotypic occurrence.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Michael L; Callender, David L; El-Naggar, Adel K

    2004-08-01

    Primary sebaceous carcinoma of salivary glands is a rare entity with approximately 22 de novo documented cases. Similar tumor arising in a benign mixed tumor has only been reported once. We report a second case of sebaceous carcinoma in a pleomorphic adenoma and discuss the clinicopathologic features, histogenesis, and the differential diagnosis of this unusual tumor.

  12. "Secretory" Carcinoma of the Skin Mimicking Secretory Carcinoma of the Breast: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sixia; Liu, Yan; Su, Jing; Liu, Jianying; Guo, Xiaoning; Mei, Fang; Zheng, Jie; Liao, Songlin

    2016-09-01

    Secretory carcinoma is a unique kind of adenocarcinoma. It has distinct histological features and a special genetic change, that is, t (12; 15) (p13; q25) translocation which leads to the expression of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. Secretory carcinoma has been found to occur both in the breast and salivary gland. Here the authors present a case of 22-year-old woman with a unique cutaneous neoplasm located at the axilla. The tumor was characterized histologically with the formation of round to ovoid microcysts and papillary structure, which was similar to the secretory carcinoma of the breast and salivary gland. Furthermore, the gene sequence analysis of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction products demonstrated the expression of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of secretory carcinoma from the skin which has the same genetic change as those from the breast and salivary gland. Local excision was performed on this patient. She had been followed up for nearly 1 year. No recurrence or metastasis was found yet. PMID:26981741

  13. Metastatic metaplastic breast carcinoma mimicking pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma on fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Doreen N; Kawamoto, Satomi; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Illei, Peter B; Rosenthal, Dorothy L; VandenBussche, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Metaplastic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the breast is a rare type of breast cancer. Metastases to the lung, which can be a major site of second primary tumor development among breast cancer patients, are difficult to distinguish from primary SCC of the lung and present a unique challenge for pathologists. There are few available discriminating immunohistochemical markers as squamous differentiation typically leads to loss of expression of characteristic primary epithelial cell markers of both breast and lung origin. GATA protein binding 3 (GATA-3) is a useful marker of breast origin in metastatic ductal and lobular carcinomas including poorly differentiated triple-negative carcinomas and some metaplastic carcinomas. Here, we present a case of metastatic SCC presenting as a solitary lung mass with regional lymph node metastases and a single satellite lesion in a patient with a history of metaplastic SCC of the breast. In addition to the routine markers of squamous differentiation, the metastases were also positive for estrogen receptor (ER) and GATA-3 on cytologic material obtained by transbronchial FNA. This suggests that immunoreactivity for ER and GATA-3 may support a diagnosis of metastatic SCC in the context of a prior metaplastic SCC of the breast.

  14. SMARCB1 (INI-1)-deficient carcinomas of the sinonasal tract.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A; Antonescu, Cristina R; Westra, William H

    2014-09-01

    SMARCB1 (INI-1) is a tumor-suppressor gene located on chromosome 22q11.2. Its gene product is ubiquitously expressed in nuclei of all normal tissues. SMARCB1 gene inactivation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a diverse group of malignant neoplasms that tend to share "rhabdoid" cytomorphology. This group of SMARCB1-deficient tumors is now further expanded by a subset of carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract. SMARCB1 immunostaining was performed on 142 sinonasal carcinomas. Tumors that showed loss of expression were further characterized for SMARCB1 deletions by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Nine of 142 (6%) primary sinonasal carcinomas showed loss of SMARCB1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Five patients were women, and patients ranged in age from 33 to 78 years (mean 59 y). The SMARCB1-deficient tumors were characterized by nests, sheets, and cords of cells without any histologic evidence of specific (eg, squamous or glandular) differentiation. The tumors comprised varying proportions of basaloid and rhabdoid cells. The SMARCB1-deficient carcinomas had been diagnosed as nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinomas (n=3), sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas (n=2), myoepithelial carcinoma (n=2), nonintestinal adenocarcinoma (n=1), and carcinoma, not otherwise specified (n=1). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed SMARCB1 deletions in 6 of 8 (75%) carcinomas. The SMARCB1-deficient carcinomas did not harbor human papillomavirus or NUT-1 alterations. Six patients presented with T4 disease, 5 patients developed local recurrences and/or distant metastases, and 4 died of their disease. Inactivation of the SMARCB1 tumor-suppressor gene appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of a subset of sinonasal carcinomas, further expanding the family of SMARCB1-deficient neoplasms and further delineating a bewildering group of poorly/undifferentiated, aggressive carcinomas arising at this site. The ability to detect SMARCB1 loss by

  15. Investigation of human papillomavirus DNA in colorectal carcinomas and adenomas.

    PubMed

    Yavuzer, Dilek; Karadayi, Nimet; Salepci, Taflan; Baloglu, Huseyin; Dabak, Resat; Bayramicli, Oya Uygur

    2011-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been considered to be an etiological agent for anogenital cancers, such as cervical cancer and possibly a subset of cancers of the aerodigestive tract. The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of human papillomavirus DNA in colorectal carcinomas and adenomas. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded archival tissue samples were used for DNA extraction. One hundred and six colorectal carcinomas and 62 adenomas were screened by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HPV DNA with a control group of 49 cervical tissues with invasive cervical carcinoma and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). In the study group, we did not find HPV DNA positivity in any of all the colorectal carcinomas and adenomas. In the control group with cervical lesions, 34 out of 49 (69.4%) samples were positive for the HPV DNA. These results indicated that there was no correlation between HPV infection and colorectal carcinomas and adenomas. PMID:20082157

  16. A Case of Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mehrtens, Sarah; Veitch, David; Kulakov, Elizabeth; Perrett, Conal M.

    2016-01-01

    A 49-year-old lady presented with multiple recurring painful lesions over her thighs, arms, and back. Past medical history included a left sided nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma and a hysterectomy for multiple uterine fibroids (leiomyomas). Histopathological examination revealed changes consistent with pilar leiomyomas. Gene mutation analysis confirmed a diagnosis of hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma is an uncommon autosomal dominant condition characterised by the concurrent presentation of cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas. Renal cell carcinoma associated with this condition is more aggressive and a significant cause of mortality. Due to this association with potentially fatal renal cell carcinoma we felt that it was important to highlight this case with an update on pathophysiology and management. PMID:27144040

  17. Mammaglobin, a Valuable Diagnostic Marker for Metastatic Breast Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Spaulding, Betsy; Sienko, Anna; Liang, Yiaoming; Li, Hongbao; Nielsen, Gitte; Yub Gong, Gyung; Ro, Jae Y.; “Jim” Zhai, Qihui

    2009-01-01

    Identification of metastasis and occult micrometastases of breast cancer demands sensitive and specific diagnostic markers. In this study, we assessed the utility of a mouse monoclonal antibody to human mammaglobin for one such purpose. Immunohistochemical stains were performed on paraffin-embedded sections from a total of 284 cases, which consisted of primary breast invasive carcinomas (41 cases) with matched metastases to ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes, metastatic breast carcinoma to liver (1 case) and kidney (1 case), non-breast neoplasms (161 cases), and normal human tissues (39 cases). The results showed 31 of the 41 cases of primary breast cancer with axillary lymph node metastases were positive for mammaglobin (76%). In the meantime, we documented expression of mammaglobin in occasional cases of endometrial carcinoma (17%). Our data further validated that mammaglobin is a valuable diagnostic marker for metastatic carcinoma of breast origin, although endometrial carcinoma should be considered as a major differential diagnosis. PMID:19158935

  18. Fine needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M B; Fisher, P E; Holly, E A; Ljung, B M; Löwhagen, T; Bottles, K

    1990-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is an increasingly popular method for the evaluation of salivary gland tumors. Of the common salivary gland tumors, mucoepidermoid carcinoma is probably the most difficult to diagnose accurately by this means. A series of 96 FNA biopsy specimens of salivary gland masses, including 34 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 51 other benign and malignant neoplasms, 7 nonneoplastic lesions and 4 normal salivary glands, were analyzed in order to identify the most useful criteria for diagnosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Thirteen cytologic criteria were evaluated in the FNA specimens, and a stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed. The three cytologic features selected as most predictive of mucoepidermoid carcinoma were intermediate cells, squamous cells and overlapping epithelial groups. Using these three features together, the sensitivity and specificity of accurately diagnosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma were 97% and 100%, respectively.

  19. Renal cell carcinoma with areas mimicking renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor/clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Fredrik; Grossmann, Petr; Hora, Milan; Sperga, Maris; Montiel, Delia Perez; Martinek, Petr; Gutierrez, Maria Evelyn Cortes; Bulimbasic, Stela; Michal, Michal; Branzovsky, Jindrich; Hes, Ondrej

    2013-07-01

    We present a cohort of 8 renal carcinomas that displayed a variable (5%-95% extent) light microscopic appearance of renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor/clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (RAT/CCPRCC) without fulfilling the criteria for these tumors. All but 1 case predominantly (75%-95% extent) showed histopathologic features of conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma. In 5 of 7 cases with mostly conventional clear renal cell carcinoma (CRCC) morphology, a diagnosis of CRCC was supported by the molecular genetic findings (presence of von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor [VHL] mutation and/or VHL promoter methylation and/or loss of heterozygosity [LOH] for 3p). Of the other 2 cases with predominantly characteristic CRCC morphology, 1 tumor did not reveal any VHL mutation, VHL promoter methylation, or LOH for 3p, and both chromosomes 7 and 17 were disomic, whereas the other tumor displayed polysomy for chromosomes 7 and 17 and no VHL mutation, VHL promoter methylation, or LOH for 3p. One tumor was composed primarily (95%) of distinctly RAT/CCPRCC-like morphology, and this tumor harbored a VHL mutation and displayed polysomy for chromosomes 7 and 17. Of the 5 cases with both histomorphologic features and molecular genetic findings of CRCC, we detected significant immunoreactivity for α-methylacyl-CoA racemase in 2 cases and strong diffuse immunopositivity for cytokeratin 7 in 3 cases. Despite the combination of positivity for α-methylacyl-CoA racemase and cytokeratin 7 in 2 cases, there was nothing to suggest of the possibility of a conventional papillary renal cell carcinoma with a predominance of clear cells.

  20. Ovarian carcinoma. A decade of progress.

    PubMed

    Piver, M S

    1984-12-01

    Significant and dramatic progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of women with ovarian carcinoma in the last 10 years, the results of which are now just being reflected in an increase in survival and cure rates. In early staged disease (Stage I and II) significant progress has been made concerning our understanding of the sites of subclinical metastasis when at surgery the tumor is clinically limited to the ovary or pelvis. A prospective study of 100 patients with Stages IA to IIB ovarian cancer who underwent restaging within 4 weeks of initial surgery will report this. Moreover, preliminary results of the first randomized therapeutic trials (melphalan versus observation; melphalan versus chromic phosphate [P-32]) in patients surgically staged and found to be Stage IA to IIB carcinoma will be discussed. For Stages IB to III, the 5-year survival rates comparing whole abdominal radiation by the moving strip technique to open field irradiation will be discussed. For advanced (Stage III and IV) ovarian carcinoma, the new techniques in debulking surgery will be illustrated. Finally, the significant progress in response rates, median duration of survival, disease-free survival, and 5-year survival rates made during the past 10 years will be presented. This will be done by comparing a unique group of 117 patients treated with melphalan alone, all of whom have been followed for 5 years or until death, to patients who received cisplatin combination chemotherapy--cyclophosphamide, hexamethylmelamine, Adriamycin (doxorubicin), and cisplatin (CHAD) or cisplatin, Adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide (PAC)--and have now been followed 3.4+ and 4+ years, respectively. What is clearly evident is that in the last decade there has been significant increase in response rates, median duration of survival, 3.4+-, 4+-, and 5-year survival rates and cure rates with the advent of debulking surgery and platinum-containing combination chemotherapy.

  1. Adrenal Metastasis from Uterine Papillary Serous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lubana, Sandeep Singh; Singh, Navdeep; Tuli, Sandeep S.; Seligman, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 60 Final Diagnosis: UPSC with adrenal metastasis Symptoms: Post menopausal bleeding Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Adrenalectomy Specialty: Oncology Objective: Rare disease Background: Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) is a highly malignant form of endometrial cancer with a high propensity for metastases and recurrences even when there is minimal or no myometrial invasion. It usually metastasizes to the pelvis, retroperitoneal lymph nodes, upper abdomen, and peritoneum. However, adrenal metastases from UPSC is extremely rare. Here, we present a case of UPSC with adrenal metastasis that occurred 6 years after the initial diagnosis. Case Report: A 60-year-old woman previously diagnosed with uterine papillary serous carcinoma at an outside facility presented in September of 2006 with postmenopausal bleeding. She underwent comprehensive surgical staging with FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage 2. Post-operatively, the patient was treated with radiation and chemotherapy. The treatment was completed in April of 2007. The patient had no evidence of disease until July 2009 when she was found to have a mass highly suspicious for malignancy. Subsequently, she underwent right upper lobectomy. The morphology of the carcinoma was consistent with UPSC. She refused chemotherapy due to a previous history of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. The patient was followed up with regular computed tomography (CT) scans. In October 2012 a new right adrenal nodule was seen on CT, which showed intense metabolic uptake on positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scan. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy. Pathology of the surgical specimen was consistent with UPSC. Conclusions: UPSC is an aggressive variant of endometrial cancer associated with high recurrence rate and poor prognoses. Long-term follow-up is needed because there is a possibility of late metastases, as in this case. PMID:27117594

  2. Aflatoxins as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kew, Michael C

    2013-09-01

    Aflatoxins, metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, are frequent contaminants of a number of staple foods, particularly maize and ground nuts, in subsistence farming communities in tropical and sub-tropical climates in sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Asia and parts of South America. Contamination of foods occurs during growth and as a result of storage in deficient or inappropriate facilities. These toxins pose serious public health hazards, including the causation of hepatocellular carcinoma by aflatoxin B1. Exposure begins in utero and is life-long. The innocuous parent molecule of the fungus is converted by members of the cytochrome p450 family into mutagenic and carcinogenic intermediates. Aflatoxin-B1 is converted into aflatoxin B1-8,9 exo-epoxide, which is in turn converted into 8,9-dihydroxy-8-(N7) guanyl-9-hydroxy aflatoxin B1 adduct. This adduct is metabolized into aflatoxin B1 formaminopyrimidine adduct. These adducts are mutagenic and carcinogenic. In addition, an arginine to serine mutation at codon 249 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene is produced, abrogating the function of the tumor suppressor gene, and contributing to hepatocarcinogenesis. Aflatoxin B1 acts synergistically with hepatitis B virus in causing hepatocellular carcinoma. A number of interactions between the two carcinogens may be responsible for this action, including integration of hepatitis B virus x gene and its consequences, as well as interference with nucleotide excision repair, activation of p21waf1/cip1, generation of DNA mutations, and altered methylation of genes. But much remains to be learnt about the precise pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma as well as the interaction between the toxin and hepatitis B virus in causing the tumor.

  3. Elevated serum levels of Chromogranin A in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the past three decades, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States has tripled. The neuroendocrine character has been observed in some tumor cells within some hepatocellular carcinoma nodules and elevated serum chromogranin A also been reported in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of serum concentration of chromogranin A in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma at different stages. Methods The study population consisted of 96 patients (63 males and 33 females age range 52-84) at their first hospital admission for hepatocellular carcinoma. The control group consisted of 35 volunteers (20 males and 15 females age range 50-80). The hepatocellular carcinoma patients were stratified according the Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer classification. Venous blood samples were collected before treatment from each patients before surgery, centrifuged to obtain serum samples and stored at -80° C until assayed. Results The chromogranin A serum levels were elevated (> 100 ng/ml) in 72/96 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The serum levels of chromogranin A were significantly correlated (p<0.05) with alpha-fetoprotein. In comparison with controls, the hepatocellular carcinoma patients showed a significant increase (p<0.001) vs controls. The chromogranin A levels in the Barcelona staging of hepatocellular carcinoma was higher in stage D compared to stage C (p<0.01), to stage B (p<0.001), and to stage A (p<0.001). Conclusions Molecular markers, such as chromogranin A, could be very useful tools for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis. However the molecular classification should be incorporated into a staging scheme, which effectively separated patients into groups with homogeneous prognosis and response to treatment, and thus serves to aid in the selection of appropriate therapy. PMID:23173843

  4. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma: a potential mimic of conventional clear cell renal carcinoma on core biopsy.

    PubMed

    Liddell, Heath; Mare, Anton; Heywood, Sean; Bennett, Genevieve; Chan, Hin Fan

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCP-RCC) is a recently described, relatively uncommon variant of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with a reported incidence of 4.1%. Thought to only arise in those with end stage renal disease, CCP-RCC is increasingly identified in those without renal impairment. CCP-RCCs have unique morphologic, genetic, and immunohistochemical features distinguishing them from both conventional clear cell renal cell carcinomas and papillary renal cell carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, these tumors are positive for CK7 and negative for CD10 and racemase. This is in contrast to conventional cell renal cell carcinomas (CK7 negative, CD10 positive) and papillary cell carcinomas (CK7, CD10, and racemase positive). These tumours appear to be indolent in nature, with no current documented cases of metastatic spread. We present the case of a 42-year-old female who presented with an incidental finding of a renal mass that on a core biopsy was reported as clear cell carcinoma, Fuhrman grade 1. She subsequently underwent a radical nephrectomy and further histological examination revealed the tumor to be a clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma, Fuhrman grade 1. PMID:25709850

  5. Hepatocellular carcinoma and African iron overload.

    PubMed Central

    Gangaidzo, I T; Gordeuk, V R

    1995-01-01

    Both hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and iron overload are important health problems in Africa. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is recognised as a major risk factor for HCC, but iron overload in Africans has not been considered in pathogenesis. Up to half the patients with HCC in Africa do not have any recognised risk factors such as preceding chronic HBV infection, and other risk factors remain unidentified. HCC is an important complication of HLA-linked haemochromatosis, an iron loading disorder found in Europeans. It is proposed that African iron overload might also be a risk factor for HCC. PMID:8549953

  6. [Mucinous sweat gland carcinoma of the eyelid].

    PubMed

    Müller, P L; Herwig, M C; Holz, F G; Loeffler, K U

    2016-09-01

    A 52-year-old patient presented with a painless nodular tumor of the upper left eyelid, which was first noticed 6 months prior to the initial presentation. The histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of the excised tumor revealed a mucinous sweat gland carcinoma. This very rare neoplasm (1/150,000 skin lesions) is located within the ocular adnexa in 40 % of cases. If completely excised the prognosis is usually good; however, due to the histological similarity to metastases of an adenocarcinoma, a hitherto unknown primary tumor at another site should be excluded. PMID:26801324

  7. Squamous cell carcinoma and pilonidal cyst disease.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Francesco; Lauro, Mario; Tirone, Lucio Pasquale; Festa, Rosa Maria; Peluso, Gaia; Mazzoni, Giada; Scognamiglio, Marco; Grimaldi, Simona; Fresini, Antonio

    2015-02-20

    Il carcinoma a cellule squamose insorgente su malattia del seno pilonidale è una patologia abbastanza rara che sopraggiunge in presenza di malattia con decorso decennale. È caratterizzato da una crescita lenta ma da un’elevata invasività locale. Gli autori riportano il caso di un paziente di 63 anni con storia pluridecennale di malattia del seno pilonidale con ascessualizzazioni ricorrenti trattato chirurgicamente con resezione ampia e ricostruzione mediante uso di lembi. A distanza di 30 mesi non sono state osservate complicanze o recidive locali.

  8. The Role of Autophagy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Jang, Byoung Kuk

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic process involved in cellular homeostasis under basal and stressed conditions. Autophagy is crucial for normal liver physiology and the pathogenesis of liver diseases. During the last decade, the function of autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been evaluated extensively. Currently, autophagy is thought to play a dual role in HCC, i.e., autophagy is involved in tumorigenesis and tumor suppression. Recent investigations of autophagy have suggested that autophagy biomarkers can facilitate HCC prognosis and the establishment of therapeutic approaches. In this review, we briefly summarize the current understanding of autophagy and discuss recent evidence for its role in HCC. PMID:26561802

  9. Advanced Treatment for Basal Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Scott X.; Whitson, Ramon J.; Oro, Anthony E.

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are very common epithelial cancers that depend on the Hedgehog pathway for tumor growth. Traditional therapies such as surgical excision are effective for most patients with sporadic BCC; however, better treatment options are needed for cosmetically sensitive or advanced and metastatic BCC. The first approved Hedgehog antagonist targeting the membrane receptor Smoothened, vismodegib, shows remarkable effectiveness on both syndromic and nonsyndromic BCCs. However, drug-resistant tumors frequently develop, illustrating the need for the development of next-generation Hedgehog antagonists targeting pathway components downstream from Smoothened. In this article, we will summarize available BCC treatment options and discuss the development of next-generation antagonists. PMID:24985127

  10. Isolated humeral recurrence in endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Devdas, Santosh Kumar; Digumarti, Leela; Digumarti, Raghunadharao; Patro, Kunha Charan; Nutakki, Ramakoteswararao

    2016-01-01

    Isolated skeletal metastasis in endometrial carcinoma at recurrence is very rare. We report a 52-year-old woman diagnosed to have FIGO Stage 1b, Grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma, presenting with isolated distal humerus metastasis, 2 years after surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy for primary disease. Imaging, bone scintigraphy, and cytology confirmed the diagnosis of poorly differentiated metastatic adenocarcinoma. She was treated with local radiotherapy followed by six cycles of paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy along with zoledronic acid, monthly. She is symptom-free after the treatment and at a first follow-up visit after 3 months.

  11. Hepatitis C virus replication in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Niu, J; Kumar, U; Monjardino, J; Goldin, R; Rosin, D; Thomas, H C

    1995-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication is reported in both tumour and non-tumour tissue in a case of hepatocellular carcinoma. Viral replication was established by showing the presence of minus strand HCV RNA by PCR amplification, after excluding residual reverse transcriptase activity of Taq polymerase. No minus strand was found in serum derived virion RNA. PCR amplified products from both tumour and non-tumour parenchyma were sequenced in the 5' non-coding region and shown to be identical. The genotype of this Indonesian patient was found to be 1b (or II), the most prevalent type in the Far East. Images PMID:7490330

  12. Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma Causing Colonic Intussusception

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, André Costa; Marques, Ana; Lopes, Joanne; Duarte, Alexandre; da Silva, Pedro Correia; Lopes, José Manuel; Maia, J. Costa

    2016-01-01

    Colonic intussusception is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in adults and is caused by a malignant lesion in about 70% of cases. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential. We present a 64-year-old male patient with right colonic intussusception caused by a mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC), presenting as a giant pedunculated polyp (54 mm of largest diameter). The patient underwent right colectomy with primary anastomosis and adjuvant chemotherapy. The diagnosis of intussusception of the colon in adults is difficult because of its rarity and nonspecific clinical presentation. In this case, the cause was a rare histological type malignant tumor (MANEC). PMID:27525153

  13. Silica, pneumoconiosis and carcinoma of the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Heppleston, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The author explains the possible relationship between exposure to mineral dust with a high silica content and the development of bronchogenic carcinoma. Studies to date accept that lung cancer is a risk associated with exposure to siliceous dust. The author has sought to establish arguments to refute this theory and has accumulated observations based on practical experiences with miners which indicate that silica does not possess this carcinogenic role. The above mentioned observations take the form of medical examinations or autopsies on mine workers in different countries. 72 references.

  14. Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Ru-Wen; Tsoi, Daphne T.

    2012-01-01

    Malignancy is a common cause of disseminated intravascular coagulation and usually presents as a chronic disorder in solid organ tumours. We present a rare case of recurrent acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in neuroendocrine carcinoma after manipulation, firstly, by core biopsy and, later, by cytotoxic therapy causing a release of procoagulants and cytokines from lysed tumour cells. This is reminiscent of tumour lysis syndrome where massive quantities of intracellular electrolytes and nucleic acid are released, causing acute metabolic imbalance and renal failure. This case highlights the potential complication of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation after trauma to malignant cells. PMID:23139666

  15. Endometrial carcinoma in a young dog.

    PubMed

    Payne-Johnson, C E; Kelly, D F; Davies, P T

    1986-07-01

    A 2-years-old nulliparous cross-bred bitch had persistent vulval discharge following treatments that included a combined ethinyloestradiol/methyltestosterone preparation and megoestrol acetate. The uterus, removed at ovarohysterectomy, contained a large polypoid intraluminal mass with the histological features of endometrial carcinoma. The bitch has remained well for thirty-one months after surgery. The possibility is considered that the lesion is drug-related but no firm conclusion can be drawn about the precise nature and pathogenesis of this unusual lesion.

  16. Non-viral causes of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Blonski, Wojciech; Kotlyar, David S; Forde, Kimberly A

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and represents an international public health concern as one of the most deadly cancers worldwide. The main etiology of HCC is chronic infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses. However, there are other important factors that contribute to the international burden of HCC. Among these are obesity, diabetes, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and dietary exposures. Emerging evidence suggests that the etiology of many cases of HCC is in fact multifactorial, encompassing infectious etiologies, comorbid conditions and environmental exposures. Clarification of relevant non-viral causes of HCC will aid in preventative efforts to curb the rising incidence of this disease. PMID:20677332

  17. Innovative surgical approaches for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Memeo, Riccardo; de’Angelis, Nicola; de Blasi, Vito; Cherkaoui, Zineb; Brunetti, Oronzo; Longo, Vito; Piardi, Tullio; Sommacale, Daniele; Marescaux, Jacques; Mutter, Didier; Pessaux, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, with an increasing diffusion in Europe and the United States. The management of such a cancer is continuously progressing and the objective of this paper is to evaluate innovation in the surgical treatment of HCC. In this review, we will analyze the modern concept of preoperative management, the role of laparoscopic and robotic surgery, the intrao-perative use of three dimensional models and augme-nted reality, as well as the potential application of fluore-scence. PMID:27168871

  18. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Palatine Tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Lucas Novaes; Montalli, Victor Angelo Martins; Teixeira, Luiz Carlos Santana; Passador-Santos, Fabrício; Soares, Andresa Borges; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti

    2015-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common primary salivary gland malignancy in both adults and children. It has a slight female predilection and usually presents as a painless, rubber-like or soft mass, which may be fixed or mobile. Histologically, MEC is comprised of a mixture of cell types including mucous, epidermoid, and intermediate cells that can be arranged in solid nests or cystic structures. In the oral cavity, it most frequently occurs at the palate or buccal mucosa. The present paper aimed to describe an unusual case of MEC arising in the palatine tonsil. PMID:26550506

  19. Transarterial radioembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma: a review

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Rodolfo; Conte, Caterina; Tumino, Emanuele; Parisi, Giuseppe; Marceglia, Sara; Metrangolo, Salvatore; Eggenhoffner, Roberto; Bresci, Giampaolo; Cabibbo, Giuseppe; Giacomelli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer and is the second cause of death due to malignancy in the world. The treatment of HCC is complex and includes potentially curative and palliative approaches. However, both curative and palliative treatments for HCC are often associated with a not-completely favorable safety/efficacy ratio. Therefore, other treatment options appear necessary in clinical practice. Transarterial radioembolization has shown a promising efficacy in terms of disease control and is associated with a good safety profile. This review discusses the use of transarterial radioembolization in HCC, with a focus on the clinical aspects of this therapeutic strategy. PMID:27574589

  20. Epidemiology and Staging of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ridge, Carole A.; Pua, Bradley B.; Madoff, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Incidence and mortality trends attributed to kidney cancer exhibit marked regional variability, likely related to demographic, environmental, and genetic factors. Efforts to identify reversible factors, which lead to the development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), have led not only to a greater understanding of the etiology of RCC but also the genetic and histologic characteristics of renal tumors. This article describes this evolution by discussing contemporary RCC incidence and mortality data, the risk factors for development of RCC, the histologic features, and anatomic and integrated staging systems that guide treatment. PMID:24596434

  1. Isolated humeral recurrence in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Devdas, Santosh Kumar; Digumarti, Leela; Digumarti, Raghunadharao; Patro, Kunha Charan; Nutakki, Ramakoteswararao

    2016-01-01

    Isolated skeletal metastasis in endometrial carcinoma at recurrence is very rare. We report a 52-year-old woman diagnosed to have FIGO Stage 1b, Grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma, presenting with isolated distal humerus metastasis, 2 years after surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy for primary disease. Imaging, bone scintigraphy, and cytology confirmed the diagnosis of poorly differentiated metastatic adenocarcinoma. She was treated with local radiotherapy followed by six cycles of paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy along with zoledronic acid, monthly. She is symptom-free after the treatment and at a first follow-up visit after 3 months. PMID:27688615

  2. Tubulocystic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Great Imitator

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Indraneel; Yadav, Sher Singh; Tomar, Vinay; Yadav, Suresh; Talreja, Shyam

    2016-01-01

    Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TCRC) is a rare renal tumor. Patients are usually asymptomatic; it is usually detected incidentally, during imaging studies for Bosniak type III and type IV renal cysts. These tumors rarely metastasize. The role of targeted therapy in such rare tumors is still controversial. We report a case of TCRC initially presented as a Bosniak type II renal cyst and was discovered ultimately to be a metastatic disease. This type of presentation might broaden our understanding of this rare disease. PMID:27601972

  3. Bronchial carcinoma in a young Negro

    PubMed Central

    Kidner, P. H.; Williams, H. O.

    1969-01-01

    A case of bronchial carcinoma occurring in a young Negro is described. The incidence of the condition in the Negro race is reviewed. Although it is apparently rare in the native African, it is much more common in the American of Negro stock. Two factors are suggested as being responsible for this—increasing longevity and increasing contact with external carcinogens, of which the most likely is cigarette smoke. Available evidence indicates that the disease is, as yet, rare in the British Negro but may be expected to rise following the pattern in the United States. PMID:5795650

  4. Isolated humeral recurrence in endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Devdas, Santosh Kumar; Digumarti, Leela; Digumarti, Raghunadharao; Patro, Kunha Charan; Nutakki, Ramakoteswararao

    2016-01-01

    Isolated skeletal metastasis in endometrial carcinoma at recurrence is very rare. We report a 52-year-old woman diagnosed to have FIGO Stage 1b, Grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma, presenting with isolated distal humerus metastasis, 2 years after surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy for primary disease. Imaging, bone scintigraphy, and cytology confirmed the diagnosis of poorly differentiated metastatic adenocarcinoma. She was treated with local radiotherapy followed by six cycles of paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy along with zoledronic acid, monthly. She is symptom-free after the treatment and at a first follow-up visit after 3 months. PMID:27688615

  5. Cutaneous tuberculosis and squamous-cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ljubenovic, Milanka S; Ljubenovic, Dragisa B; Binic, Ivana I; Jankovic, Aleksandar S; Jancic, Snezana A

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of all forms of cutaneous tuberculosis, including lupus vulgaris (the most common form) decreased progressively in developed countries during the twentieth century, this change being attributed to improved living standards and specific therapy. Despite the decrease in cutaneous tuberculosis, some cases are still found and correct diagnosis and management are fundamental, both for the patients and for public health. Long lasting, misdiagnosed or untreated cutaneous tuberculosis may lead to different forms of cancer. This case report involves a 74-year old male farmer with lupus vulgaris on his face. During anti-tuberculosis treatment he developed a tumor on his forehead, which was histologically confirmed as a squamous cell carcinoma.

  6. Neglected foreign body aspiration mimicking bronchial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Afghani, Reza; Khandashpour Ghomi, Mahmoud; Khandoozi, Seyed Reza; Yari, Behrouz

    2016-07-01

    Foreign body aspiration can occur in any age group, but it is more commonly seen in children. In adults, there is usually a predisposing condition that poses a risk of aspiration. If aspiration occurs, prompt diagnosis and extraction of the foreign body is needed to prevent early and late complications. We report a rare case of neglected foreign body aspiration in a 45-year-old schizophrenic opium addicted patient, which resulted in an occlusive lesion in the bronchus, mimicking bronchial carcinoma. PMID:27273232

  7. Adrenocortical carcinoma in pregnancy: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Jairath, Ankush; Aulakh, Baldev S.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare disease. Additionally, in the case of coexisting pregnancy, there are diagnostic difficulties due to associated physiological hormonal changes as well as imaging limitations. Cushing's syndrome and virilization during pregnancy is a rare entity with few cases reported in the literature. Misdiagnosis is common as the syndrome may be easily confused with preeclampsia or gestational diabetes. We present the case of a 31-year-old pregnant woman with rapidly developing symptoms related to hormonally active adrenocortical cancer. PMID:25097324

  8. The Role of Autophagy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Jang, Byoung Kuk

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic process involved in cellular homeostasis under basal and stressed conditions. Autophagy is crucial for normal liver physiology and the pathogenesis of liver diseases. During the last decade, the function of autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been evaluated extensively. Currently, autophagy is thought to play a dual role in HCC, i.e., autophagy is involved in tumorigenesis and tumor suppression. Recent investigations of autophagy have suggested that autophagy biomarkers can facilitate HCC prognosis and the establishment of therapeutic approaches. In this review, we briefly summarize the current understanding of autophagy and discuss recent evidence for its role in HCC. PMID:26561802

  9. Basal cell carcinomas: attack of the hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Ervin H

    2008-10-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) were essentially a molecular 'black box' until some 12 years ago, when identification of a genetic flaw in a rare subset of patients who have a great propensity to develop BCCs pointed to aberrant Hedgehog signalling as the pivotal defect leading to formation of these tumours. This discovery has facilitated a remarkable increase in our understanding of BCC carcinogenesis and has highlighted the carcinogenic role of this developmental pathway when aberrantly activated in adulthood. Importantly, a phase 1 first-in-human trial of a Hedgehog inhibitor has shown real progress in halting and even reversing the growth of these tumours.

  10. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the palate in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Werther, Patti L; Alawi, Faizan; Lindemeyer, Rochelle G

    2015-01-01

    Although relatively rare, minor salivary gland tumors are more likely to be malignant in pediatric patients than in adults. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) represents the most common malignant tumor of the salivary glands. It is critical to differentiate such tumors from common benign salivary gland lesions. The purposes of this report are to present the case of a 15-year-old female with MEC of the palate, and to discuss the importance of a thorough intraoral examination on all patients regardless of age, as well as the need for timely referral for appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

  11. "Basal Cell Blanche": A Diagnostic Maneuver to Increase Early Detection of Basal Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Quach, Olivia Leigh; Barry, Megan; Roberts Cruse, Allison; Wilson, Barbara B

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas represent one of the most common skin cancers and often present initially in the primary care setting. Subtle basal cell carcinomas may be difficult to detect, and early detection of these carcinomas remains important in limiting patient morbidity. In this article, we present a simple diagnostic maneuver, "basal cell blanche," to increase early detection of basal cell carcinomas. PMID:27170799

  12. VX-970, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced HPV-Negative Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-28

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  13. Comparison of 2 monoclonal antibodies for immunohistochemical detection of BRAF V600E mutation in malignant melanoma, pulmonary carcinoma, gastrointestinal carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma, and gliomas.

    PubMed

    Routhier, Caitlin Ann; Mochel, Mark C; Lynch, Kerry; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Louis, David N; Hoang, Mai P

    2013-11-01

    BRAF mutation is seen in a variety of human neoplasms including cutaneous malignant melanoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, and others. Currently, there are 2 commercially available monoclonal antibodies for the detection of BRAF V600E mutation; however, a full and practical comparison of their performance in various tumor types on an automated staining platform has not been done. We investigated their sensitivity and specificity in detecting the BRAF V600E mutation in a series of 152 tumors including 31 malignant melanomas, 25 lung carcinomas, 32 gastrointestinal carcinomas, 23 thyroid carcinomas, 35 gliomas, and 6 other malignancies. In this series, the concordance rate between immunohistochemistry (IHC) and mutational analyses was 97% (148/152) for VE1 and 88% (131/149) for anti-B-Raf. The sensitivity and specificity were 98% (60/61) and 97% (88/91) for monoclonal VE1 and 95% (58/61) and 83% (73/88) for anti-B-Raf, respectively. There were 4 cases with discordant IHC and mutational results for monoclonal VE1 in contrast to 18 cases for anti-B-Raf. Our studies showed that IHC with monoclonal VE1 has a better performance compared with anti-B-Raf in an automated staining platform and confirmed that clone VE1 provides excellent sensitivity and specificity for detecting the BRAF V600E mutation in a variety of tumor types in a clinical setting.

  14. Small cell carcinoma of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Nadal, Rosa; Schweizer, Michael; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N.; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Eisenberger, Mario A.

    2015-01-01

    Pure small-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the prostate is a rare entity and one of the most aggressive malignancies of the prostate. Histologically, prostatic SCCs of the prostate are part of a spectrum of anaplastic tumours of the prostate and are similar to SCCs of the lungs. In most cases, SCC of the prostate is associated with conventional prostatic adenocarcinoma. Both components of these mixed tumours frequently share molecular alterations such as ERG gene rearrangements or AURKA and MYCN amplifications, suggesting a common clonal origin. The clinical behaviour of small-cell prostate carcinomas is characterized by extensive local disease, visceral disease, and low PSA levels despite large metastatic burden. Commonly, the emergence of the SCC occurs in patients with high-grade adenocarcinoma who are often treated with androgen deprivation treatment (ADT). However, SCCs do not usually benefit from ADT. A biopsy of accessible lesions is strongly recommended to identify those with SCC pathological features, as management is undoubtedly affected by this finding. Chemotherapy is the standard approach for treating patients with either localized or advanced prostatic SCC. Despite the emergence of more-aggressive treatment modalities, the prognosis of men with prostatic SCC remains dismal. PMID:24535589

  15. Differentiated thyroid carcinomas in children and adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, A.M.; Sharma, S.M. )

    1991-04-15

    An analysis of differentiated thyroid carcinomas in children and adolescents revealed that the incidence was 3.05% of total number of patients with differentiated thyroid cancers in all age groups. There was a female preponderance. The incidence of papillary, follicular and papillary with follicular elements was equal. There were no papillary carcinomas observed in children younger than 10 years. The predominant mode of presentation was a solitary nodule of thyroid and some of them had associated cervical adenopathy. A considerable number presented with only cervical adenopathy. The incidence of nodal metastases was 50% at time of presentation and lung involvement was present in 15% of children at the time of diagnosis. Radioiodine treatment was given in 70% of children. Ablation was achieved in 86% of patients given two doses of radioiodine (200 millicuries). The more resistant cases were those with lung and nodal metastases. There was complete ablation in 100% with only residual thyroid tissue, 83% in those with associated nodal metastases, and 57% in those with lung involvement. Average duration of follow-up was 10.3 years (range, 2 to 19 years). Recurrence rate or relapse was observed in 8.5% and was in the regional nodes. There was no recorded mortality due to the disease.

  16. Antineoplastic activity of monocrotaline against hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kusuma, Sandeep Solmon; Tanneeru, Karunakar; Didla, Swroopa; Devendra, Bellary Nagaraju; Kiranmayi, Patnala

    2014-01-01

    Plants are fantastic sources for present day life saving drugs. Monocrotaline a natural ligand exhibits dose-dependent cytotoxicity with potent antineoplastic activity. This study was intended to disclose the therapeutic potential of monocrotaline against hepatocellular carcinoma. The in silico predictions have highlighted the antineoplastic potential, druglikeness and biodegradability of monocrotaline. The in silico docking study has provided an insight and evidence for the antineoplastic activity of monocrotaline against p53, HGF and TREM1 proteins which play a threatening role in causing hepatocellular carcinoma. The mode of action of monocrotaline was determined experimentally by in vitro techniques such as XTT assay, NRU assay and whole cell brine shrimp assay have further supported our in silico studies. The in vitro cytotoxicity of monocrotaline was proved at IC50 24.966 µg/mL and genotoxicity at 2 X IC50 against HepG2 cells. Further, the credible druglike properties with non-mutagenicity, non-toxic on mammalian fibroblast and the potential antineoplastic activity through in vitro experimental validations established monocrotaline as a novel scaffold for liver cancer with superior efficacy and lesser side effects. PMID:25028149

  17. Therapeutic vaccination strategies to treat nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Graham S; Steven, Neil M

    2016-04-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects most people worldwide. EBV has oncogenic potential and is strongly associated with several lymphomas and carcinomas, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), that together total 200,000 cases of cancer each year. All EBV-associated cancers express viral proteins that allow highly selective immunotherapeutic targeting of the malignant cells. A number of therapeutic EBV vaccines have been tested in clinical trials with evidence of immune boosting and clinical responses in NPC patients. Therapeutic vaccination could be used after adoptive T-cell transfer to increase and sustain the number of infused T-cells or combined with immunotherapies acting at different stages of the cancer immunity cycle to increase efficacy. The therapeutic EBV vaccines tested to date have been well tolerated with minimal off-target toxicity. A safe therapeutic vaccine that was also able to be mass produced could, in principle, be used to vaccinate large numbers of patients after first line therapy to reduce recurrence. PMID:27121883

  18. Organ-preserving surgery for penile carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Martins, Francisco E; Rodrigues, Raul N; Lopes, Tomé M

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Penile carcinoma has traditionally been treated by either surgical amputation or radical radiotherapy, both associated with devastating anatomical, functional, and psychological impact on the patient's life. Innovative surgical techniques have focused on penile preservation in well-selected patients to minimize physical disfigurement and consequently maximize quality of life. The objective of this article is to define the current status of these organ-preserving surgical options for penile carcinoma. Materials and Methods. An extensive review of the Pubmed literature was performed to find articles discussing only reconstructive surgery which have contributed significantly to change traditional, frequently mutilating treatments, to develop less disfiguring surgery, and to improve patients' quality of life over the last two decades. Results. Several articles were included in this analysis in which a major contribution to the change in therapy was thought to have occurred and was documented as beneficial. Some articles reported novel techniques of less-mutilating surgery involving different forms of glans reconstruction with the use of flaps or grafts. The issue of safe surgical margins was also addressed. Conclusion. The development of less-disfiguring techniques allowing phallus preservation has reduced the negative impact on functional and cosmetic outcomes of amputation without sacrificing oncological objectives in appropriately selected patients based on stage, grade, and location of the tumour. Until more prospective studies are available and solid evidence is documented, organ preservation should be offered with caution.

  19. Contemporary Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stukalin, Igor; Alimohamed, Nimira; Heng, Daniel Y C

    2016-04-15

    The introduction of targeted therapy has revolutionized the treatment of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The current standard of care focuses on the inhibition of angiogenesis through the targeting of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Over the past few years, research exploring novel targeted agents has blossomed, leading to the approval of various targeted therapies. Furthermore, results from the CheckMate025 and the METEOR trials have brought about two additional novel options: the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab and the MET/VEGFR/AXL inhibitor cabozantinib, respectively. With the variety of therapeutic agents available for treatment of mRCC, research examining appropriate sequencing and combinations of the drugs is ongoing. This review discusses the role of prognostic criteria, such as those from the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) criteria. It also covers the current standard of treatment for mRCC with targeted therapy in first-, second-, and third-line setting. Additionally, the novel mechanism of action of nivolumab and cabozantinib, therapeutic sequencing and ongoing clinical trials are discussed. PMID:27471582

  20. Pancreatic panniculitis associated with pancreatic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guannan; Cao, Zhe; Yang, Gang; Wu, Wenming; Zhang, Taiping; Zhao, Yupei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Pancreatic panniculitis is a very rare complication of pancreatic cancer, most often accompanying rare acinar cell carcinoma. We herein report a case of pancreatic panniculitis that was associated with pancreatic mucinous adenocarcinoma. Patient information: A 57-year-old male was referred to our hospital for weight loss. A physical examination revealed subcutaneous nodules on his lower extremities. The blood test showed abnormal increases in amylase, lipase, and carbohydrate antigen 19–9 levels. A computed tomography scan detected a hypodense 2 × 1.5 cm solid mass with an unclear margin in the head of the pancreas. The biopsy of subcutaneous nodules on the lower extremities was conducted and revealed lobular panniculitis. Pancreatic cancer and pancreatic panniculitis were strongly suspected. After the administration of octreotide acetate and the Whipple procedure, the serous amylase and lipase levels returned to normal, and the pancreatic panniculitis had almost resolved by 4 weeks later. Conclusion: Pancreatic panniculitis is a rare complication of pancreatic cancer. However, in the presence of a pancreatic mass, as in this case, clinicians should be aware that panniculitis may be the sentinel of pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:27495045

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Lifeso, R.M.; Bull, C.A.

    1985-06-15

    Between January 1976 and January 1983, 37 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the extremities have been treated at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre by the authors. Each case has arisen in an area of preexisting scar or sinus. Twenty-nine cases were treated by definitive amputation, with 2 local recurrences and 12 nodal metastases. Seven cases had local excision, with three local recurrences and two nodal metastases. Recurrence rate was highest in Grade II and Grade III lesions, and 11 of 15 cases with Grade II disease had metastases to the regional lymph nodes an average of 5 months after surgery. With Grade I disease patients, 4 of 15 had nodal metastases an average of 5 months after surgery. Prophylactic regional nodal irradiation or node dissection was performed in seven cases. None of these cases have shown nodal metastases at an average of 24 months following definitive surgery and radiation. Routine prophylactic regional node irradiation is recommended in all cases of peripheral squamous cell carcinoma.

  2. Metastatic Breast Carcinoma to the Prostate Gland.

    PubMed

    Kapp, Meghan E; Giannico, Giovanna A; Desouki, Mohamed Mokhtar

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the male breast is an uncommon event with metastases to the breast occurring even less frequently. Prostate carcinoma has been reported as the most frequent primary to metastasize to the breast; however, the reverse has not been previously reported. Herein, we present, for the first time, a case of breast carcinoma metastasizing to the prostate gland. Prostate needle core biopsy revealed infiltrative nests of neoplastic epithelioid cells, demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to be positive for GATA3 and ER and negative for PSA and P501S. A prostate cocktail by IHC study demonstrated lack of basal cells (p63 and CK903) and no expression of P501S. The patient's previous breast needle core biopsy showed strong ER positivity and negative staining for PR and HER2. Similar to the prostate, the breast was negative for CK5/6, p63, and p40. This case demonstrates the importance of considering a broad differential diagnosis and comparing histology and IHC to prior known malignancies in the setting of atypical presentation or rare tumors. PMID:27429817

  3. Integrated Genomic Characterization of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Nishant; Akbani, Rehan; Aksoy, B. Arman; Ally, Adrian; Arachchi, Harindra; Asa, Sylvia L.; Auman, J. Todd; Balasundaram, Miruna; Balu, Saianand; Baylin, Stephen B.; Behera, Madhusmita; Bernard, Brady; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bishop, Justin A.; Black, Aaron D.; Bodenheimer, Tom; Boice, Lori; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Bowen, Jay; Bowlby, Reanne; Bristow, Christopher A.; Brookens, Robin; Brooks, Denise; Bryant, Robert; Buda, Elizabeth; Butterfield, Yaron S.N.; Carling, Tobias; Carlsen, Rebecca; Carter, Scott L.; Carty, Sally E.; Chan, Timothy A.; Chen, Amy Y.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cheung, Dorothy; Chin, Lynda; Cho, Juok; Chu, Andy; Chuah, Eric; Cibulskis, Kristian; Ciriello, Giovanni; Clarke, Amanda; Clayman, Gary L.; Cope, Leslie; Copland, John; Covington, Kyle; Danilova, Ludmila; Davidsen, Tanja; Demchok, John A.; DiCara, Daniel; Dhalla, Noreen; Dhir, Rajiv; Dookran, Sheliann S.; Dresdner, Gideon; Eldridge, Jonathan; Eley, Greg; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Eng, Stephanie; Fagin, James A.; Fennell, Timothy; Ferris, Robert L.; Fisher, Sheila; Frazer, Scott; Frick, Jessica; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Ganly, Ian; Gao, Jianjiong; Garraway, Levi A.; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Getz, Gad; Gehlenborg, Nils; Ghossein, Ronald; Gibbs, Richard A.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Gomez-Hernandez, Karen; Grimsby, Jonna; Gross, Benjamin; Guin, Ranabir; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Harper, Hollie A.; Hayes, D. Neil; Heiman, David I.; Herman, James G.; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Hofree, Matan; Holt, Robert A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Huang, Franklin W.; Huang, Mei; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Ideker, Trey; Iype, Lisa; Jacobsen, Anders; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Corbin D.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Kebebew, Electron; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Kim, Jaegil; Kramer, Roger; Kreisberg, Richard; Kucherlapati, Raju; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Ladanyi, Marc; Lai, Phillip H.; Laird, Peter W.; Lander, Eric; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lee, Darlene; Lee, Eunjung; Lee, Semin; Lee, William; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Lin, Pei; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Jinze; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Yingchun; LiVolsi, Virginia A.; Lu, Yiling; Ma, Yussanne; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S.; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; McFadden, David G.; Meng, Shaowu; Meyerson, Matthew; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Miller, Michael; Mills, Gordon; Moore, Richard A.; Mose, Lisle E.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Murray, Bradley A.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.; Noble, Michael S.; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Owonikoko, Taofeek K.; Ozenberger, Bradley A.; Pantazi, Angeliki; Parfenov, Michael; Park, Peter J.; Parker, Joel S.; Paull, Evan O.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Perou, Charles M.; Prins, Jan F.; Protopopov, Alexei; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Ramirez, Ricardo; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Ren, Xiaojia; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Rheinbay, Esther; Ringel, Matthew D.; Rivera, Michael; Roach, Jeffrey; Robertson, A. Gordon; Rosenberg, Mara W.; Rosenthall, Matthew; Sadeghi, Sara; Saksena, Gordon; Sander, Chris; Santoso, Netty; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Schumacher, Steven E.; Seethala, Raja R.; Seidman, Jonathan; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Seth, Sahil; Sharpe, Samantha; Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Shen, John P.; Shen, Ronglai; Sherman, Steven; Sheth, Margi; Shi, Yan; Shmulevich, Ilya; Sica, Gabriel L.; Simons, Janae V.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Smallridge, Robert C.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Soloway, Matthew G.; Song, Xingzhi; Sougnez, Carrie; Stewart, Chip; Stojanov, Petar; Stuart, Joshua M.; Tabak, Barbara; Tam, Angela; Tan, Donghui; Tang, Jiabin; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Taylor, Barry S.; Thiessen, Nina; Thorne, Leigh; Thorsson, Vésteinn; Tuttle, R. Michael; Umbricht, Christopher B.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Vandin, Fabio; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Verhaak, Roel G.W.; Vinco, Michelle; Voet, Doug; Walter, Vonn; Wang, Zhining; Waring, Scot; Weinberger, Paul M.; Weinstein, John N.; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Wheeler, David; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Wilson, Jocelyn; Williams, Michelle; Winer, Daniel A.; Wise, Lisa; Wu, Junyuan; Xi, Liu; Xu, Andrew W.; Yang, Liming; Yang, Lixing; Zack, Travis I.; Zeiger, Martha A.; Zeng, Dong; Zenklusen, Jean Claude; Zhao, Ni; Zhang, Hailei; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Zhang, Wei; Zmuda, Erik; Zou., Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Summary Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Here, we describe the genomic landscape of 496 PTCs. We observed a low frequency of somatic alterations (relative to other carcinomas) and extended the set of known PTC driver alterations to include EIF1AX, PPM1D and CHEK2 and diverse gene fusions. These discoveries reduced the fraction of PTC cases with unknown oncogenic driver from 25% to 3.5%. Combined analyses of genomic variants, gene expression, and methylation demonstrated that different driver groups lead to different pathologies with distinct signaling and differentiation characteristics. Similarly, we identified distinct molecular subgroups of BRAF-mutant tumors and multidimensional analyses highlighted a potential involvement of oncomiRs in less-differentiated subgroups. Our results propose a reclassification of thyroid cancers into molecular subtypes that better reflect their underlying signaling and differentiation properties, which has the potential to improve their pathological classification and better inform the management of the disease. PMID:25417114

  4. Genetic landscape of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yi-Bo; Chen, Zhao-Li; Li, Jia-Gen; Hu, Xue-Da; Shi, Xue-Jiao; Sun, Zeng-Miao; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Zi-Ran; Li, Zi-Tong; Liu, Zi-Yuan; Zhao, Yu-Da; Sun, Jian; Zhou, Cheng-Cheng; Yao, Ran; Wang, Su-Ya; Wang, Pan; Sun, Nan; Zhang, Bai-Hua; Dong, Jing-Si; Yu, Yue; Luo, Mei; Feng, Xiao-Li; Shi, Su-Sheng; Zhou, Fang; Tan, Feng-Wei; Qiu, Bin; Li, Ning; Shao, Kang; Zhang, Li-Jian; Zhang, Lan-Jun; Xue, Qi; Gao, Shu-Geng; He, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the deadliest cancers. We performed exome sequencing on 113 tumor-normal pairs, yielding a mean of 82 non-silent mutations per tumor, and 8 cell lines. The mutational profile of ESCC closely resembles those of squamous cell carcinomas of other tissues but differs from that of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulation were mutated in 99% of cases by somatic alterations of TP53 (93%), CCND1 (33%), CDKN2A (20%), NFE2L2 (10%) and RB1 (9%). Histone modifier genes were frequently mutated, including KMT2D (also called MLL2; 19%), KMT2C (MLL3; 6%), KDM6A (7%), EP300 (10%) and CREBBP (6%). EP300 mutations were associated with poor survival. The Hippo and Notch pathways were dysregulated by mutations in FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 or FAT4 (27%) or AJUBA (JUB; 7%) and NOTCH1, NOTCH2 or NOTCH3 (22%) or FBXW7 (5%), respectively. These results define the mutational landscape of ESCC and highlight mutations in epigenetic modulators with prognostic and potentially therapeutic implications. PMID:25151357

  5. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology, biology, diagnosis, and therapies.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marcos António; Priolli, Denise Gonçalves; Tralhão, José Guilherme; Botelho, Maria Filomena

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh in women, as is diagnosed in more than half a million individuals worldwide every year. In Portugal, its incidence and mortality rates are low compared to other types of cancers. In Brazil, in the city of São Paulo, according to data released by the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS), the incidence of primary liver cancer was 2.07/100,000 inhabitants. Although the vast majority of cases (85%) mainly affect developing countries, especially where infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic, the incidence in developed countries is increasing. This pathology is associated with several risk factors, not only environmental but also genetic, generating an increasing interest in attaining a better understanding of this disease, which is still associated with very late diagnosis and poor prognosis. Of the available treatments, few patients benefit from their scanty advantages, increasingly stimulating research of new forms of treatment against this disease. This review aimed to briefly but fully identify risk factors, molecular and biochemical pathways, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and possible clinical approaches of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  6. Contemporary Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Stukalin, Igor; Alimohamed, Nimira; Heng, Daniel Y.C.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of targeted therapy has revolutionized the treatment of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The current standard of care focuses on the inhibition of angiogenesis through the targeting of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Over the past few years, research exploring novel targeted agents has blossomed, leading to the approval of various targeted therapies. Furthermore, results from the CheckMate025 and the METEOR trials have brought about two additional novel options: the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab and the MET/VEGFR/AXL inhibitor cabozantinib, respectively. With the variety of therapeutic agents available for treatment of mRCC, research examining appropriate sequencing and combinations of the drugs is ongoing. This review discusses the role of prognostic criteria, such as those from the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) criteria. It also covers the current standard of treatment for mRCC with targeted therapy in first-, second-, and third-line setting. Additionally, the novel mechanism of action of nivolumab and cabozantinib, therapeutic sequencing and ongoing clinical trials are discussed. PMID:27471582

  7. Combined treatment in carcinoma of the nasopharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Souhami, L.; Rabinowits, M.

    1988-08-01

    From October 1982 to August 1984, 30 previously untreated patients with biopsy-proven carcinoma of the nasopharynx, stage III (26.5%) and stage IV (73.5%), received combined radiotherapy (6,000 to 7,000 cGy over a period of 7 to 7.5 weeks) and chemotherapy (mitomycin-C 10 mg/M2, IV; 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/M2, IV; and methotrexate 30 mg/M2, IV) concomitantly. There were 20 males and 10 females, with a median age of 40 years. Minimal follow-up duration was 24 months. Actuarial overall survival rate at 48 months was 49%. Complete local response was achieved in 75% of the patients, with 31% of the cases failing distantly. The complication rate was high and included severe mucositis, xerostomia, and septicemia (fatal in two cases). Despite high local disease control, survival rate did not increase. A randomized trial is urgently needed to establish whether or not combined treatment is of value in advanced carcinoma of the nasopharynx.

  8. Histopathological study of radionecrosis in laryngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Keene, M.; Harwood, A.R.; Bryce, D.P.; van Nostrand, A.W.

    1982-02-01

    With modern radiotherapy techniques, clinical radionecrosis is uncommon following eradication of primary squamous cell carcinoma from the larynx. Histologic sections from 265 specimens, prepared by the technique of whole organ subserial step-sectioning were studied to determine the incidence and location of chondronecrosis and/or osteomyelitis in both irradiated and non-irradiated cases. Chondronecrosis occurred in only 1 of 41 early (pT1 - pT2) tumors but in 143 advanced tumors (pT - pT4) treated with radical radiotherapy and containing residual carcinoma, 27% had evidence of significant necrosis, compared with 24% of those not irradiated. Age, sex, tumor grade and previous laryngeal surgery did not appear to be significant factors in the development of necrosis in irradiated patients. The arytenoid cartilage was most frequently involved when chondronecrosis occurred in association with radiotherapy. Six total laryngectomy specimens (3%) were received from patients with symptoms of chondronecrosis and in whom no residual tumor was present. We conclude that although the incidence of clinical perichondritis is low, histologic chondronecrosis and/or osteomyelitis occurred in 26% of all the larynges studied. Radiotherapy appears to be a significant causative factor only in advanced supraglottic tumors.

  9. Chromogranin positive cells in colorectal carcinoma and transitional mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Mori, M; Mimori, K; Kamakura, T; Adachi, Y; Ikeda, Y; Sugimachi, K

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--Immunostaining of chromogranin identifies gastrointestinal mucosal endocrine cells. The detailed distribution and significance of chromogranin positive cells in colorectal carcinomas and in transitional mucosa remain unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify these aspects. METHODS--The distribution of chromogranin positive cells was studied by immunohistochemical methods in normal epithelium remote from carcinoma, in transitional mucosa, and in carcinomas of the colorectum. In selected cases northern or western blot analyses were performed. RESULTS--Chromogranin positive cells were seen in the lower third of the normal crypts and less frequently in transitional mucosa. Thirty five per cent (n = 38) of colorectal carcinomas showed immunohistochemically positive carcinoma cells in the tumour tissue. Northern and western blot analyses showed similar results. There was no difference in clinicopathological factors, including prognosis, between chromogranin positive cases of colorectal carcinoma (n = 38) and chromogranin negative cases (n = 70). CONCLUSIONS--Neuroendocrine cell differentiation is controlled in transitional mucosa and the presence of chromogranin positive cells in carcinoma tissue does not influence the patient's prognosis. Images PMID:7560204

  10. [Usefulness of the present renal cell carcinoma classifications].

    PubMed

    Algaba, F; Arce, Y; Trias, I; Santaularia, J M; Antonio Rosales, A

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of classifying neoplasias is to recognize groups with similar progress and prognosis and, if possible, receiving the same treatment. This is why those classifications are systematically being submitted to review and improvement through the new technologies. Differentiation of various entities in renal cancer has been comparatively fast, as the new genetic and molecular discoveries have confirmed the morphologic criteria of the different cell types, thus making it possible to open new therapeutic pathways. Using the current WHO classification we recognize subtypes with excellent prognosis (Multilocular cystic renal carcinoma, Type I renal papillary carcinoma, Tubular and fusocellular mucinous carcinoma), other very aggressive ones (Bellini's collecting duct carcinoma, Medullary carcinoma), and also that the sarcomatoid transformation, even in small areas, impacts the prognosis negatively. Childhood-characteristic renal carcinomas associated with chromosome translocations have been recognized (genetic fusion TFE3 or TFEB), as well as the family forms of renal carcinoma. Regarding the UICC (International Union Against Cancer) classification, there are a series of aspects under argument (size, venous invasion, microvascular invasion, invasion of the adipous tissue of the renal sinus) that shall be discussed too, since it is possible that some modifications of the TNM might occur in the near future.

  11. Clinically-inspired automatic classification of ovarian carcinoma subtypes

    PubMed Central

    BenTaieb, Aïcha; Nosrati, Masoud S; Li-Chang, Hector; Huntsman, David; Hamarneh, Ghassan

    2016-01-01

    Context: It has been shown that ovarian carcinoma subtypes are distinct pathologic entities with differing prognostic and therapeutic implications. Histotyping by pathologists has good reproducibility, but occasional cases are challenging and require immunohistochemistry and subspecialty consultation. Motivated by the need for more accurate and reproducible diagnoses and to facilitate pathologists’ workflow, we propose an automatic framework for ovarian carcinoma classification. Materials and Methods: Our method is inspired by pathologists’ workflow. We analyse imaged tissues at two magnification levels and extract clinically-inspired color, texture, and segmentation-based shape descriptors using image-processing methods. We propose a carefully designed machine learning technique composed of four modules: A dissimilarity matrix, dimensionality reduction, feature selection and a support vector machine classifier to separate the five ovarian carcinoma subtypes using the extracted features. Results: This paper presents the details of our implementation and its validation on a clinically derived dataset of eighty high-resolution histopathology images. The proposed system achieved a multiclass classification accuracy of 95.0% when classifying unseen tissues. Assessment of the classifier's confusion (confusion matrix) between the five different ovarian carcinoma subtypes agrees with clinician's confusion and reflects the difficulty in diagnosing endometrioid and serous carcinomas. Conclusions: Our results from this first study highlight the difficulty of ovarian carcinoma diagnosis which originate from the intrinsic class-imbalance observed among subtypes and suggest that the automatic analysis of ovarian carcinoma subtypes could be valuable to clinician's diagnostic procedure by providing a second opinion. PMID:27563487

  12. Carcinoma in basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Nagao, T; Sugano, I; Ishida, Y; Matsuzaki, O; Konno, A; Kondo, Y; Nagao, K

    1997-01-01

    Malignant transformation of basal cell adenoma (BCA) of the parotid gland is rarely reported, and when occurred, may principally become manifest as a malignant basaloid tumor, i.e. basal cell adenocarcinoma or adenoid cystic carcinoma. We describe herein three cases of non-basaloid carcinoma arising in BCA. The incidence of this malignant tumor was 0.2% of all parotid gland tumors and 4.3% of BCAs in our series. One case was salivary duct carcinoma showing histologic evidence of transition between malignant and benign elements. The remaining two cases were well-encapsulated parotid gland tumors, which were composed of BCA and scattered foci of malignant transformation. Malignant components were adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified (NOS), and sometimes intermixed with neoplastic myoepithelial cells included BCA cells. These two cases were regarded to be intracapsular carcinoma in BCA. BCA components showed solid, tubular and trabecular arrangements. The patients' prognosis was quite variable among these three cases; the first case died of disease after 27 months, whereas the latter two cases are alive and well for 4 and 10 years after surgery. Ki-67 labeling index indicated that cell proliferative activity was at least five times higher in carcinomas than BCAs. Non-basaloid carcinomas such as salivary duct carcinoma or adenocarcinoma, NOS, do develop in BCAs as in the case of a pleomorphic adenoma with malignant transformation, though the incidence may be extremely rare.

  13. Human papillomavirus in lung carcinomas among three Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Andres; Aguayo, Francisco; Koriyama, Chihaya; Shuyama, Karem; Akiba, Suminori; Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Carrascal, Edwin; Klinge, German; Sánchez, Juvenal; Eizuru, Yoshito

    2006-04-01

    The presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) genome in lung carcinomas has been reported worldwide but its frequency varies from country to country. We examined HPV genome in 36 lung carcinomas, consisting of 14 squamous cell carcinomas, 13 adenocarcinomas, and 9 small cell carcinomas, collected from Colombia, Mexico and Peru. PCR analysis using GP5+/GP6+ primers, combined with Southern blot hybridization, found the presence of HPV genome in 10 (28%) of 36 cases. This percentage is similar to the value of 22% reported by Syrjänen, who conducted a meta-analysis of nearly 2500 lung carcinomas examined to date. Genotype analysis revealed that the most predominant genotype was HPV-16 (7 cases), followed by HPV-18 (2 cases) and HPV-33 (1 case). HPV-16 was more frequently found among female than male cases (P=0.008) but was not detected in any adenocarcinoma cases. On the other hand, HPV-18 and HPV-33 were detected only among male cases. These HPV genotypes were detected only in adenocarcinomas, and all the HPV genotypes detected in this histological type were HPV-18 or HPV-33. The frequency of HPV-16 positive cases among all the HPV positive cases differed in the sexes (P=0.033) and differed in the three histological types (P=0.017). The presence of HPV tended to be more frequent in well-differentiated tumors when squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas were combined. However, it was not statistically significant (P=0.093). Neither p16 nor p53 expression in carcinoma cells was related to the proportion of HPV-positive cases. In conclusion, high-risk HPV DNA was detected in 28% of lung carcinomas. The predisposition of HPV-16 to female cases and to non-adenomatous carcinomas warrants further investigation. PMID:16525675

  14. Hypercalcitoninemia is not Pathognomonic of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Sergio PA; Lourenço, Delmar M; Santos, Marcelo Augusto; Tavares, Marcos R; Toledo, Rodrigo A; de Menezes Correia-Deur, Joya Emilie

    2009-01-01

    Hypercalcitoninemia has frequently been reported as a marker for medullary thyroid carcinoma. Currently, calcitonin measurements are mostly useful in the evaluation of tumor size and progression, and as an index of biochemical improvement of medullary thyroid carcinomas. Although measurement of calcitonin is a highly sensitive method for the detection of medullary thyroid carcinoma, it presents a low specificity for this tumor. Several physiologic and pathologic conditions other than medullary thyroid carcinoma have been associated with increased levels of calcitonin. Several cases of thyroid nodules associated with increased values of calcitonin are not medullary thyroid carcinomas, but rather are related to other conditions, such as hypercalcemias, hypergastrinemias, neuroendocrine tumors, renal insufficiency, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas, and goiter. Furthermore, prolonged treatment with omeprazole (> 2–4 months), beta-blockers, glucocorticoids and potential secretagogues, have been associated with hypercalcitoninemia. An association between calcitonin levels and chronic auto-immune thyroiditis remains controversial. Patients with calcitonin levels >100 pg/mL have a high risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma (~90%–100%), whereas patients with values from 10 to 100 pg/mL (normal values: <8.5 pg/mL for men, < 5.0 pg/mL for women; immunochemiluminometric assay) have a <25% risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma. In multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), RET mutation analysis is the gold-standard for the recommendation of total preventive thyroidectomy to relatives at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation (50%). False-positive calcitonin results within MEN2 families have led to incorrect indications of preventive total thyroidectomy to RET mutation negative relatives. In this review, we focus on the differential diagnosis of hypercalcitoninemia, underlining its importance for the avoidance of misdiagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma and

  15. Squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).

    PubMed

    Hamano, Takahisa; Terasawa, Fumio; Tachikawa, Yoshiharu; Murai, Atsuko; Mori, Takashi; El-Dakhly, Khaled; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

    2014-09-01

    A 4-year and 2-month-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the buttocks after chronic recurrent dermatosis. The capybara was euthanized, examined by computed tomography and necropsied; the tumor was examined histologically. Computed tomography showed a dense soft tissue mass with indistinct borders at the buttocks. Histological examination of the tumor revealed islands of invasive squamous epithelial tumor cells with a severe desmoplastic reaction. Based on the pathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first study to report squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara.

  16. Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris)

    PubMed Central

    HAMANO, Takahisa; TERASAWA, Fumio; TACHIKAWA, Yoshiharu; MURAI, Atsuko; MORI, Takashi; EL-DAKHLY, Khaled; SAKAI, Hiroki; YANAI, Tokuma

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 4-year and 2-month-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the buttocks after chronic recurrent dermatosis. The capybara was euthanized, examined by computed tomography and necropsied; the tumor was examined histologically. Computed tomography showed a dense soft tissue mass with indistinct borders at the buttocks. Histological examination of the tumor revealed islands of invasive squamous epithelial tumor cells with a severe desmoplastic reaction. Based on the pathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first study to report squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara. PMID:24909968

  17. Delayed recurrence of renal cell carcinoma presenting as a haemorrhoid

    PubMed Central

    Davies, James R.L.; Smith, Gavin; Cornaby, Andrew J.; Thomas, Teresa; Lamparelli, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic non-colorectal cancer of the anal canal is a rare entity. To date, only four cases have been described in the literature. We present a 76-year-old man who was referred with an unusual perianal lesion. He had a history of renal cell carcinoma 7 years previously. Histologically, the lesion revealed clear cell carcinoma in keeping with metastasis. To our knowledge, this is only the second time a renal carcinoma metastasis to the anal canal has been identified. PMID:25818654

  18. MANDIBULAR SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN A BOBCAT (LYNX RUFUS).

    PubMed

    Sladakovic, Izidora; Burnum, Anne; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Kelly, Lisa S; Garner, Bridget C; Holmes, Shannon P; Divers, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    A 23-yr-old female spayed bobcat (Lynx rufus) presented with a 1-wk history of hypersalivation. On examination, the right mandible was markedly thickened, the right mandibular dental arcade was missing, and the oral mucosa over the right mandible was ulcerated and thickened. Skull radiographs and fine needle aspirate cytology were supportive of squamous cell carcinoma. The bobcat was euthanized as a result of its poor prognosis. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of oral squamous cell carcinoma in a bobcat.

  19. The “next-generation” knowledge of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Valerio; Esposito, Roberta; Pallante, Pierlorenzo; Ciccodicola, Alfredo; Fusco, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The application of Next-Generation Sequencing for studying the genetics of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) has recently revealed new somatic mutations and gene fusions as potential new tumor-initiating events in patients without any known driver lesion. Gene and miRNA expression analyses defined clinically relevant subclasses correlated to tumor progression. In addition, it has been shown that tumor driver mutations in BRAF, and RET rearrangements - altogether termed “BRAF-like” carcinomas - have a very similar expression pattern and constitute a distinct category. Conversely, “RAS-like” carcinomas have a different genomic, epigenomic, and proteomic profile. These findings justify the need to reconsider PTC classification schemes. PMID:26030480

  20. MANDIBULAR SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN A BOBCAT (LYNX RUFUS).

    PubMed

    Sladakovic, Izidora; Burnum, Anne; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Kelly, Lisa S; Garner, Bridget C; Holmes, Shannon P; Divers, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    A 23-yr-old female spayed bobcat (Lynx rufus) presented with a 1-wk history of hypersalivation. On examination, the right mandible was markedly thickened, the right mandibular dental arcade was missing, and the oral mucosa over the right mandible was ulcerated and thickened. Skull radiographs and fine needle aspirate cytology were supportive of squamous cell carcinoma. The bobcat was euthanized as a result of its poor prognosis. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of oral squamous cell carcinoma in a bobcat. PMID:27010306

  1. Endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of carcinoma pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Rajesh; Manrai, Manish; Thandassery, Ragesh Babu; Alfadda, Abdulrahman A

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has become an important component in the diagnosis and treatment of carcinoma pancreas. With the advent of advanced imaging techniques and tissue acquisition methods the role of EUS is becoming increasingly important. Small pancreatic tumors can be reliably diagnosed with EUS. EUS guided fine needle aspiration establishes diagnosis in some cases. EUS plays an important role in staging of carcinoma pancreas and in some important therapeutic methods that include celiac plexus neurolysis, EUS guided biliary drainage and drug delivery. In this review we attempt to review the role of EUS in diagnosis and management of carcinoma pancreas. PMID:26839647

  2. Digital necrosis with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, Vinod; Ahmad, Ali; Alshatti, Yaqoub; Jafar, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Digital necrosis is a rare phenomenon of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. Since 1965, more than 70 cases have been reported worldwide in the literature. Case report A 54-year-old male smoker presented with Raynaud’s phenomenon, proceeding to frank gangrene of the fingers. Working up the case finally pointed toward carcinoma of the tonsil as the underlying cause – a rare paraneoplastic manifestation. Conclusion No definite etiology has been found to be the cause of Raynaud’s phenomenon in this case of the squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. A brief discussion of the literature is also presented. PMID:27390535

  3. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the penis: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Márcio Rodrigues; Sugita, Denis Masashi; Vilela, Maria Helena Tavares; da Silva Mendonça, Rodrigo Pastor; de Morais, Danilo Tavares Maranhão; Júnior, Paulo Cézar Ribeiro Gomes; Costa, Théo Rodrigues; Barreira, Bernardo Monteiro Antunes

    2015-01-01

    We describe the fifth case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The patient had penile ulcer with bilateral inguinal and pelvic lymphadenopathy and underwent total penectomy. After antibiotic therapy, the patient began outpatient chemotherapy, but the treatment was discontinued due to his intolerance. The patient died due to infectious complications of the inguinal lymphatic fistula 7 months after the histological diagnosis. Notably, the periurethral area was involved in the anatomopathological evaluation of the excised penis. The penile mucoepidermoid carcinoma was aggressive and the perimeatal region was involved. This case helps demystify the origins and prognosis of this rare case. More reports documenting patient characteristics and their evolution with penile mucoepidermoid carcinoma are needed. PMID:25624963

  4. Differentiation of complicated cholecystitis from gallbladder carcinoma by computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Smathers, R.L.; Lee, J.K.T.; Heiken, J.P.

    1984-08-01

    Differentiation between complicated cholecystitis and advanced gallbladder carcinoma can be difficult when clinical findings are confusing. Computed tomographic (CT) scans were reviewed from 22 patients with a surgical diagnosis of complicated cholecystitis (11 cases) or advanced gallbladder carcinoma (11 cases). The presence of a curvilinear low-attenuation halo around the gallbladder wall was specific for complicated cholecystitis. Findings indicative of gallbladder carcinoma included a focal soft-invasion or metastases. Knowledge of these differential CT findings may result in a more accurate preoperative diagnosis.

  5. Reticular and myxoid non-keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma: an unusual case mimicking a salivary gland carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Fredrik; Vijayadwaja, Desai; Loh, Kwok Seng; Tan, Kong-Bing

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of non-keratinizing carcinoma of the nasopharynx (NK-NPC) with an unusual histopathological pattern. The neoplastic cells were arranged in anastomosing cords embedded in a stroma which contained a significant component of alcian blue-positive myxoid substance forming a reticular pattern. These histopathological features gave an initial impression of a salivary gland-type carcinoma. On immunohistochemistry the tumor cells were strongly and diffusely positive for cytokeratins (AE1-3 and 5/6) and p63 and there was strong and diffuse nuclear positivity for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA on in situ hybridization. This case highlights the histomorphological variability of NK-NPC. Awareness of the histological spectrum of NK-NPC is important in clinical practice and this is not always adequately highlighted in currently used standard textbooks of Head and Neck Pathology. PMID:24323539

  6. Reticular and myxoid non-keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma: an unusual case mimicking a salivary gland carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Fredrik; Vijayadwaja, Desai; Loh, Kwok Seng; Tan, Kong-Bing

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of non-keratinizing carcinoma of the nasopharynx (NK-NPC) with an unusual histopathological pattern. The neoplastic cells were arranged in anastomosing cords embedded in a stroma which contained a significant component of alcian blue-positive myxoid substance forming a reticular pattern. These histopathological features gave an initial impression of a salivary gland-type carcinoma. On immunohistochemistry the tumor cells were strongly and diffusely positive for cytokeratins (AE1-3 and 5/6) and p63 and there was strong and diffuse nuclear positivity for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA on in situ hybridization. This case highlights the histomorphological variability of NK-NPC. Awareness of the histological spectrum of NK-NPC is important in clinical practice and this is not always adequately highlighted in currently used standard textbooks of Head and Neck Pathology.

  7. Ten human carcinoma cell lines derived from squamous carcinomas of the head and neck.

    PubMed Central

    Easty, D. M.; Easty, G. C.; Carter, R. L.; Monaghan, P.; Butler, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    Ten cell lines of human squamous carcinomas of the tongue and larynx have been established from surgical specimens removed from 36 unselected patients, in order to provide systems for investigating the invasive and tissue-destructive capacity of squamous carcinomas of the head and neck. The morphology, ultrastructure and growth characteristics of the 10 lines are described. Detailed cytogenetic analysis of the first 4 lines indicates that each is karyotypically unique, with no evidence of cross-contamination. Nine of the 10 cell lines secrete immunoreactive beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) in the culture medium. No correlation was demonstrated between the ability of the cell lines to secrete plasminogen activator and their capacity to grow in soft agar or as xenografts in immune-deficient mice. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:7195729

  8. Radiation and thyroid carcinoma: radiotherapy, head and neck regions, thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Auguste, L J; Sako, K

    1985-01-01

    Radiotherapy for benign conditions of the head and neck area was first linked to thyroid carcinoma in 1950. All the salivary glands, the parathyroids, and the facial skin can also develop neoplastic lesions in this setting. Thyroid carcinoma is most commonly papillary or mixed papillary and follicular. It is very often multifocal and can be detected by hand palpation, nuclear scanning, high resolution sonography, and needle aspiration. Each test has its limitations and appropriate protocols for screening and detection should be adapted to different medical centers. The surgical management is controversial and ranges from simple lobectomy to total thyroidectomy with adjuvant 131I treatment and thyroid suppression. We prefer total thyroidectomy if it can be performed safely. With adequate treatment the survival should be good. Prevention by administration of iodine at the time of exposure to radiation seems feasible and deserves further clinical trial.

  9. Histological features of medullary carcinoma and prognosis in triple-negative basal-like carcinomas of the breast.

    PubMed

    Marginean, Felicia; Rakha, Emad A; Ho, Bernard C; Ellis, Ian O; Lee, Andrew H S

    2010-10-01

    Medullary carcinomas have a better prognosis than other grade 3 mammary carcinomas, but they typically show basal-like biological features, which are associated with a poor prognosis. In this study we examined the associations and prognostic relevance of medullary histological features in a series of 165 invasive carcinomas with a basal-like phenotype: triple-negative (oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2) and expressing at least one basal marker (CK5/6, CK14, CK17 or EGFR). The following histological features were associated with each other: prominent inflammation, anastomosing sheets, absence of fibrosis, absence of infiltrative margin and absence of gland formation. Prominent inflammation and anastomosing sheets in at least 30% of the tumour were associated with a better prognosis on univariate analysis. The combination of these two features (a simplified definition of medullary-like type) was present in 17% of tumours and was an independent prognostic factor on multivariate analysis. This simplified definition had good inter-observer reproducibility (κ=0.61) and is worthy of more detailed assessment in an unselected group of mammary carcinomas. A fibrotic focus was present in 36% of carcinomas. Only 3% of tumours with a fibrotic focus had features of medullary-like carcinomas. Fibrotic focus of greater than 30% of the tumour was associated with a poor prognosis. This study emphasizes the heterogeneity of morphology and behaviour of triple-negative basal-like carcinomas.

  10. Sunitinib, Cetuximab, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  11. The spectrum of Merkel cell polyomavirus expression in Merkel cell carcinoma, in a variety of cutaneous neoplasms, and in neuroendocrine carcinomas from different anatomical sites.

    PubMed

    Ly, Thai Yen; Walsh, Noreen M; Pasternak, Sylvia

    2012-04-01

    Most Merkel cell carcinomas display pure neuroendocrine differentiation (pure Merkel cell carcinoma), whereas a minority show combined neuroendocrine and nonneuroendocrine elements (combined Merkel cell carcinoma). Recent identification of Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA and Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen expression in a proportion of Merkel cell carcinomas has suggested viral-induced oncogenesis. To date, Merkel cell polyomavirus immunohistochemistry has shown an absence of viral large T antigen expression in combined Merkel cell carcinoma as well as select non-Merkel cell carcinoma cutaneous lesions and visceral neuroendocrine tumors. In our series, we aimed to further characterize the frequency and pattern of Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen expression by CM2B4 immunohistochemistry in primary and metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (pure Merkel cell carcinoma and combined Merkel cell carcinoma) and various non-Merkel cell carcinoma lesions from patients with Merkel cell carcinoma, patients without Merkel cell carcinoma, and individuals with altered immune function. Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen was detected in 17 (63%) of 27 pure Merkel cell carcinomas and absent in all 15 (0%) combined Merkel cell carcinomas. Furthermore, complete concordance (100%) of Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen expression was observed in 10 cases of primary Merkel cell carcinoma and subsequent tumor metastases. We also evaluated 70 non-Merkel cell carcinoma lesions including 15 cases each of pulmonary and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors. All 70 non-Merkel cell carcinoma lesions were negative for Merkel cell polyomavirus by CM2B4 immunohistochemistry, irrespective of any known Merkel cell carcinoma diagnosis and immune status. In summary, our identification of Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen expression in a subset of Merkel cell carcinoma and lack of findings in combined Merkel cell carcinomas and non-Merkel cell carcinoma lesions concur with

  12. Bladder Neck Urothelial Carcinoma: A Urinary Bladder Subsite Carcinoma With Distinct Clinicopathology.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Guang-Qian; Rashid, Hani

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the clinicopathology of carcinomas originating in the urinary bladder neck, 316 cystectomies for urinary bladder carcinoma performed between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2013, were analyzed. Clinicopathological parameters were compared between bladder neck carcinomas (BNCs) and non-BNCs. Among the 316 cystectomies were 19 BNCs and 297 non-BNCs. BNCs accounted for 19/316 (6%) of all the cases, with a male-to-female ratio 18:1. Bladder neck location was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage. Ninety percent and 58% BNCs presented at stage ≥T2 and ≥T3, respectively, versus 62% and 38% non-BNCs at ≥T2 and ≥T3, respectively. Significantly higher percentage of lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastasis were also seen in BNCs (68% and 47%, respectively) than in non-BNCs (29% and 17%, respectively). In conclusion, BNCs present with a significantly higher frequency of muscle invasion and advanced tumor stage, lymphovascular invasion, as well as local and distant metastasis at diagnosis compared with the non-BNCs group. Recognition of these unique clinicopathologic features with early detection and possibly more aggressive management of BNC can potentially have a significant impact on the patient's outcome.

  13. A case of endocrine cell carcinoma combined with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ko; Hikichi, Takuto; Sato, Masaki; Nakamura, Jun; Takagi, Tadayuki; Suzuki, Rei; Sugimoto, Mitsuru; Waragai, Yuichi; Kikuchi, Hitomi; Konno, Naoki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Obara, Katsutoshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2014-01-01

    A 55-year-old man with esophageal carcinoma received endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in en-bloc resection. Histopathological examination revealed an admixture of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and endocrine cell carcinoma (ECC) with invasion of the deep submucosa. Immunohistochemically, CD 56 and chromogranin A were positive for ECC. Small-cell, medium-cell, and large-cell type ECC were partly surrounded with SCC and partly formed the duct, presenting various patterns. After ESD, he received chemotherapy including CPT-11 plus Cisplatin. He is alive and in good condition today, 55 months after ESD, with no evidence of recurrence.

  14. Armc8 expression was elevated during atypia-to-carcinoma progression and associated with cancer development of breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chuifeng; Zhao, Yang; Mao, Xiaoyun; Miao, Yuan; Lin, Xuyong; Jiang, Guiyang; Zhang, Xiupeng; Han, Qiang; Luan, Lan; Wang, Enhua

    2014-11-01

    Armadillo repeat-containing protein 8 (Armc8) is a key factor to regulate cell membrane adhesion complex through promoting α-catenin degradation. However, its expression and function in human malignant tumors are largely unknown. Here, we present our study investigating Armc8 expression in tumor and non-tumor breast tissues including 45 normal epithelia, 53 lesions of hyperplasia with or without dysplasia, 22 benign tumors, and 92 carcinomas including 28 carcinomas in situ and 64 infiltrating carcinomas using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting study. Armc8 expression was detected mainly in the cytoplasm with occasional membrane immunostaining. The positive rate of Armc8 expression in normal breast epithelia (8.9%, four out of 45) was very low. No significant difference was found between Armc8 expression in usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH) (11.1%, two out of 18), benign breast tumors including intraductal papilloma (10.0%, one out of 10) and fibroadenoma (8.3%, one out of 12), and normal breast epithelia (p>0.05). Elevated expression of Armc8 was found in breast epithelia with dysplasia (24.0%, six out of 25) compared to that in normal breast epithelia, UDH, and benign breast tumors (p<0.05). Armc8 expression in breast carcinoma including breast carcinoma in situ (10/28, 35.7%), infiltrating ductal carcinoma (60.7%, 34/56), and infiltrating lobular carcinoma (50.0%, 4/8) was higher than that in normal breast epithelia, UDH, benign breast tumors, and breast epithelia with dysplasia (p<0.05). The highest expression of Armc8 was found in infiltrating breast carcinoma (59.4%, 38/64) compared to all the other breast tissues. Higher Armc8 expression was found to be linked to lymph node metastasis and advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stages (III+IV) in infiltrating breast carcinoma (p<0.05). We further confirmed Armc8 expression in breast epithelial cell line MCF10A and breast carcinoma cell lines including MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and ZR751 using Western

  15. [Undifferentiated carcinoma with lymphoid stroma (undifferentiated carcinoma nasopharyngeal type?). Optical, electron microscopical and immunofluorescence study (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wassef, M; Le Charpentier, Y; Monteil, J P; Le Tien, K; Galian, A

    1982-01-01

    A case of undifferentiated carcinoma with lymphoid stroma of the paired gland is reported in a chinese woman with positive Epstein-Barr virus serology. The histologic appearance of the tumor is very similar to undifferentiated carcinomas nasopharyngeal type (UCNT). Ultrastructural study reveals features of epidermoid differentiation. Immunofluorescence study shows numerous and predominant IgA plasma cells in the stroma. The relationship between this tumor and the benign lymphoepithelial lesions of the salivary glands are discussed. The present case and the review of the literature emphasize the morphological and epidemiological similarities between UCNT and undifferentiated carcinoma with lymphoid stroma of the salivary glands.

  16. Hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to the mandible.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mia E; McCall, Andrew A; Juillard, Guy F; Nadelman, Celina M; Wang, Marilene B; Nabili, Vishad

    2013-02-01

    We describe the case of a 55-year-old man with known multifocal hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who presented with a painful mandibular mass. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the mass revealed the presence of bile canaliculi and bile formation, an extremely rare finding. Findings on immunoperoxidase staining of the aspirate were consistent with an HCC. Since the patient was known to have multiorgan metastatic disease, he was administered palliative radiation therapy to the mandibular metastasis for pain control, which was achieved. One year after presentation, the patient died as a result of disease progression. HCC rarely metastasizes to the mandible, as only about 70 such cases have been reported in the literature. We discuss the histopathologic appearance of HCC metastatic to the mandible, the radiologic findings, and the established treatment modalities.

  17. Salivary duct carcinoma in the mandible.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuang; Fang, Qi-Gen; Sun, Changfu

    2014-11-01

    We reported 1 case of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) in the mandible. The patient complained of pain and a growing mass in the right submandibular area for approximately 2 months. On clinical examination, there was a mass under the right angle of the mandible with a size of approximately 3 × 3 cm, a smooth surface, a poor activity, and a hard texture. Panoramic radiograph revealed poorly circumscribed area. Computed tomography presented mandible central destruction. Biopsy examination showed a malignant tumor that originated in the central epithelium of the mandible. An operation of unilateral selective neck dissection and mandible subtotal ectomy was performed. Postoperative pathology reported SDC. The patient received postoperative radiation and stayed alive at last follow-up without disease recurrence. Ablative resection and postoperative radiotherapy were the standard treatment stratagem for SDC, but trastuzumab therapy might play a key role in treating the disease in future.

  18. Hyperthyroidism with metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, C.N.; Sziklas, J.J.; Spencer, R.P.; Bower, B.F.; Rosenberg, R.J.

    1984-04-01

    A 70-yr-old woman presented with hyperthyroidism and metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid. The blood level of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSIg) was elevated. A total thyroidectomy was performed. One month later she remained hyperthyroid. Three weeks after therapy with 218 mCi of I-131 sodium iodide, the patient was euthyroid. Six months after the initial radioiodide therapy, she was again hyperthyroid and was given a second oral treatment dose of I-131 (220 mCi). Five months later, the patient had again become euthyroid. It is likely that initially the woman's metastases were producing sufficient hormone to render her hyperthyroid. After thyroidectomy and two large doses of radioiodide, she has remained euthyroid without having to take exogenous hormone.

  19. Intraoperative photodynamic therapy for larynx carcinomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loukatch, Erwin V.; Latyshevska, Galina; Fekeshgazi, Ishtvan V.

    1995-05-01

    We made an experimental and clinical researches to examine Intraoperative Photodynamic Therapy (IPT) as a method to prevent the recidives of tumors. In experimental researches on models with radio-inducated fibrosarcomas and Erlich carcinomas of mice the best method of IPT was worked out. The therapeutic effect was studied also on patients with laryngeal cancer. In researches on C3H mice the antirecidive effect of IPT established with local administration of methylene blue and Ar-laser. We found that IPT (He-Ne laser combined with methylene blue administration) was endured by patients with laryngeal cancers without problems. We got good results of treatment 42 patients with laryngeal cancers with middle localization during three years with using IPT method. This can show the perspectives of using this method in treatment of other ENT-oncological diseases.

  20. The dermatoscopic universe of basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Specchio, Francesca; Raucci, Margaritha; Zalaudek, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Following the first descriptions of the dermatoscopic pattern of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that go back to the very early years of dermatoscopy, the list of dermatoscopic criteria associated with BCC has been several times updated and renewed. Up to date, dermatoscopy has been shown to enhance BCC detection, by facilitating its discrimination from other skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, upcoming evidence suggests that the method is also useful for the management of the tumor, since it provides valuable information about the histopathologic subtype, the presence of clinically undetectable pigmentation, the expansion of the tumor beyond clinically visible margins and the response to non-ablative treatments. In the current article, we provide a summary of the traditional and latest knowledge on the value of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis and management of BCC. PMID:25126452

  1. A flowgraph model for bladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Superficial bladder cancer has been the subject of numerous studies for many years, but the evolution of the disease still remains not well understood. After the tumor has been surgically removed, it may reappear at a similar level of malignancy or progress to a higher level. The process may be reasonably modeled by means of a Markov process. However, in order to more completely model the evolution of the disease, this approach is insufficient. The semi-Markov framework allows a more realistic approach, but calculations become frequently intractable. In this context, flowgraph models provide an efficient approach to successfully manage the evolution of superficial bladder carcinoma. Our aim is to test this methodology in this particular case. Results We have built a successful model for a simple but representative case. Conclusion The flowgraph approach is suitable for modeling of superficial bladder cancer. PMID:25080066

  2. Tumour marker detection in oesophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mealy, K; Feely, J; Reid, I; McSweeney, J; Walsh, T; Hennessy, T P

    1996-10-01

    Levels of the tumour markers CEA, CA 19-9, CA 125 and SCC were measured in 58 patients presenting with oesophageal carcinoma and compared with levels in patients with benign oesophageal disease and levels in normal volunteers. CEA and CA 19-9 were significantly increased in the patients with oesophageal cancer, however, individual sensitivity for CEA, CA 19-9, CA 125 and SCC was only 28, 34, 10, and 32%, respectively. The combined sensitivity of all markers was 64% and specificity was 80%. There was no difference in combined tumour marker sensitivity between squamous or adenocarcinomas of the oesophagus. No consistent change in marker levels occurred with treatment, and tumour marker levels could not be significantly correlated with stage of disease or short-term survival. These results indicate that tumour marker sensitivity is too low for oesophageal cancer screening and has poor prognostic significance in those undergoing treatment.

  3. BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yoram; Xing, Mingzhao; Mambo, Elizabeth; Guo, Zhongmin; Wu, Guogun; Trink, Barry; Beller, Uziel; Westra, William H; Ladenson, Paul W; Sidransky, David

    2003-04-16

    The BRAF gene has been found to be activated by mutation in human cancers, predominantly in malignant melanoma. We tested 476 primary tumors, including 214 lung, 126 head and neck, 54 thyroid, 27 bladder, 38 cervical, and 17 prostate cancers, for the BRAF T1796A mutation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction enzyme analysis of BRAF exon 15. In 24 (69%) of the 35 papillary thyroid carcinomas examined, we found a missense thymine (T)-->adenine (A) transversion at nucleotide 1796 in the BRAF gene (T1796A). The T1796A mutation was detected in four lung cancers and in six head and neck cancers but not in bladder, cervical, or prostate cancers. Our data suggest that activating BRAF mutations may be an important event in the development of papillary thyroid cancer.

  4. A Review: Proteomics in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ze-Tan; Liang, Zhong-Guo; Zhu, Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Although radiotherapy is generally effective in the treatment of major nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), this treatment still makes approximately 20% of patients radioresistant. Therefore, the identification of blood or biopsy biomarkers that can predict the treatment response to radioresistance and that can diagnosis early stages of NPC would be highly useful to improve this situation. Proteomics is widely used in NPC for searching biomarkers and comparing differentially expressed proteins. In this review, an overview of proteomics with different samples related to NPC and common proteomics methods was made. In conclusion, identical proteins are sorted as follows: Keratin is ranked the highest followed by such proteins as annexin, heat shock protein, 14-3-3σ, nm-23 protein, cathepsin, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins, enolase, triosephosphate isomerase, stathmin, prohibitin, and vimentin. This ranking indicates that these proteins may be NPC-related proteins and have potential value for further studies. PMID:26184160

  5. Renal cell carcinoma: links and risks

    PubMed Central

    Kabaria, Reena; Klaassen, Zachary; Terris, Martha K

    2016-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and a summary of the most commonly associated risk factors. A literature review was performed with a focus on recent studies with a high level of evidence (large prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses). The incidence rate of RCC varies globally, with the rate rising rapidly in more developed regions, demonstrating the effects of increased use of diagnostic imaging and prevalence of modifiable risk factors. Based on the current evidence, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most well-established risk factors for sporadic RCC worldwide. Acquired cystic kidney disease is also a significant risk factor, specifically in dialysis patients. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between RCC risk and moderate alcohol consumption. Certain analgesics and occupational exposure have been linked to an increased risk of RCC, although data are limited. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables may provide a protective effect. PMID:27022296

  6. [Thyroid metastasis due to right colonic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Rauber, E; Pancrazio, F; Spivach, A; Stanta, G

    1998-12-01

    Clinical evident metastases to the thyroid gland are rarely found antemortem. A case of a 62 year-old man with a history of right colonic carcinoma, who presented a mass in the right lobe of his thyroid gland one year after the removal of a metachronous metastasis in his right lung, is presented. The tumour of the thyroid was found to be metastatic adenocarcinoma from his previous colonic cancer. The clinical finding of metastases to the thyroid gland is rare, particularly from a colorectal primary neoplasm. However, the possibility of a tumour of the thyroid gland representing a secondary malignancy is to be considered in any patient with a prior history of cancer.

  7. Lupus vulgaris with squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Motswaledi, Mojakgomo Hendrick; Doman, Chantal

    2007-12-01

    Tuberculosis is still a significant problem in developing countries. Cutaneous forms of tuberculosis account for approximately 10% of all cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of true infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or because of tuberculids. Tuberculids are immunological reactions to haematogenously spread antigenic components of M. tuberculosis. True cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of inoculation or haematogenous spread of M. tuberculosis to the skin. Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of true cutaneous tuberculosis. Other forms of true cutaneous tuberculosis are tuberculous chancre, tuberculosis verrucosa cutis, scrofuloderma, periorificial tuberculosis and miliary tuberculosis of the skin. Lupus vulgaris is usually chronic and progressive. It occurs in patients with moderate to high immunity against M. tuberculosis as evidenced by strongly positive tuberculin test. Long-standing cases of lupus vulgaris may be complicated by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We describe a patient who had undiagnosed lupus vulgaris for 35 years until she developed SCC on the lesion of lupus vulgaris.

  8. Carcinomatous Meningitis from Unknown Primary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Favier, L.; Ladoire, L.; Guiu, B.; Arnould, L.; Guiu, S.; Boichot, C.; Isambert, N.; Besancenot, J.F.; Muller, M.; Ghiringhelli, F.

    2009-01-01

    Carcinomatous meningitis (CM) occurs in 3 to 8% of cancer patients. Patients present with a focal symptom, and multifocal signs are often found following neurological examination. The gold standard for diagnosis remains the demonstration of carcinomatous cells in the cerebrospinal fluid on cytopathological examination. Despite the poor prognosis, palliative treatment could improve quality of life and, in some cases, overall survival. We report on a patient who presented with vertigo, tinnitus and left-sided hearing loss followed by progressive diffuse facial nerve paralysis. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of CM. However, no primary tumor was discovered, even after multiple invasive investigations. This is the first reported case in the English-language medical literature of CM resulting from a carcinoma of unknown primary origin. PMID:20737034

  9. Metabolic alterations in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Massari, Francesco; Ciccarese, Chiara; Santoni, Matteo; Brunelli, Matteo; Piva, Francesco; Modena, Alessandra; Bimbatti, Davide; Fantinel, Emanuela; Santini, Daniele; Cheng, Liang; Cascinu, Stefano; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2015-11-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a metabolic disease, being characterized by the dysregulation of metabolic pathways involved in oxygen sensing (VHL/HIF pathway alterations and the subsequent up-regulation of HIF-responsive genes such as VEGF, PDGF, EGF, and glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, which justify the RCC reliance on aerobic glycolysis), energy sensing (fumarate hydratase-deficient, succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, mutations of HGF/MET pathway resulting in the metabolic Warburg shift marked by RCC increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate shunt, augmented lipogenesis, and reduced AMPK and Krebs cycle activity) and/or nutrient sensing cascade (deregulation of AMPK-TSC1/2-mTOR and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways). We analyzed the key metabolic abnormalities underlying RCC carcinogenesis, highlighting those altered pathways that may represent potential targets for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies.

  10. Primary laryngeal cryptococcosis resembling laryngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tamagawa, Shunji; Hotomi, Muneki; Yuasa, Jun; Tuchihashi, Shigeki; Yamauchi, Kazuma; Togawa, Akihisa; Yamanaka, Noboru

    2015-08-01

    A case of an 82-year-old female with primary laryngeal cryptococcosis who had undergone long-term corticosteroid therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and rheumatoid arthritis is reported. She complained hoarseness with swallowing pain and irritability of the larynx for over a month. Endoscopic examination revealed a white, exudative irregular region on right arytenoid that mimicked a laryngeal carcinoma. Histological examination showed pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia and severe submucosal inflammation with ovoid budding yeasts by Grocott's stain. A serological study indicated a high titer of cryptococcal antigen. After treating with oral fluconazole for 3 months, her primary lesion of larynx turned to be clear. We implicate a long-term use of steroids as the significant risk factor in developing cryptococcosis of the larynx.

  11. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Gall Bladder.

    PubMed

    Haid, Max; Gahju, Badri; Schulz, Craig; Sterner, David; Falconer, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the gall bladder (SCCGB) is a rare condition, with only 53 prior cases reported in the world literature when our case was first diagnosed. Our patient was found to have limited stage disease and was treated with sequential laparoscopic cholecystectomy, etoposide/carboplatin chemotherapy followed by consolidating loco-regional radiation therapy. She is alive and well without evidence of disease more than 132 months since diagnosis. We describe here our experience in the diagnosis, staging workup, treatment, and surveillance of a case of SCCGB and review the published literature. Treated aggressively with currently available methods, patients with limited stage SCCGB can have an excellent prognosis. The authors' intent is to provide a reasonable plan of treatment for other physicians facing such an unusual patient. PMID:27197345

  12. Combination therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Current therapy for metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) consists of the serial administration of single agents. Combinations of VEGF and mTOR inhibitors have been disappointing in previous randomized trials. However, the combination of lenvatinib, a multitargeted agent that inhibits VEGF as well as FGF receptors, and everolimus demonstrated promising results in a randomized phase II trial. Moreover, the emergence of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors has spawned the investigation of combinations of these agents with VEGF inhibitors and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors. These ongoing phase III trials in conjunction with the development of predictive biomarkers and agents inhibiting novel therapeutic targets may provide much needed advances in this still largely incurable disease. PMID:27047959

  13. Salivary duct carcinoma in the mandible.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuang; Fang, Qi-Gen; Sun, Changfu

    2014-11-01

    We reported 1 case of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) in the mandible. The patient complained of pain and a growing mass in the right submandibular area for approximately 2 months. On clinical examination, there was a mass under the right angle of the mandible with a size of approximately 3 × 3 cm, a smooth surface, a poor activity, and a hard texture. Panoramic radiograph revealed poorly circumscribed area. Computed tomography presented mandible central destruction. Biopsy examination showed a malignant tumor that originated in the central epithelium of the mandible. An operation of unilateral selective neck dissection and mandible subtotal ectomy was performed. Postoperative pathology reported SDC. The patient received postoperative radiation and stayed alive at last follow-up without disease recurrence. Ablative resection and postoperative radiotherapy were the standard treatment stratagem for SDC, but trastuzumab therapy might play a key role in treating the disease in future. PMID:25377985

  14. Duodenal bleeding from metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Tarun; Rangasamy, Priya; Versland, Mark

    2011-04-20

    Massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to malignancy is relatively uncommon and the duodenum is the least frequently involved site. Duodenal metastasis is rare in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and early detection, especially in case of a solitary mass, helps in planning further therapy. We report a case of intractable upper gastrointestinal bleeding from metastatic RCC to the duodenum. The patient presented with melena and anemia, 13 years after nephrectomy for RCC. On esophagogastroduodenoscopy, a submucosal mass was noted in the duodenum, biopsies of which revealed metastatic RCC. In conclusion, metastasis from RCC should be considered in nephrectomized patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms and a complete evaluation, especially endoscopic examination followed by biopsy, is suggested.

  15. Interval colorectal carcinoma: An unsolved debate

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Mark; Neto, Antonio Galvao; Zhang, Xuchen

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC), as the third most common new cancer diagnosis, poses a significant health risk to the population. Interval CRCs are those that appear after a negative screening test or examination. The development of interval CRCs has been shown to be multifactorial: location of exam-academic institution versus community hospital, experience of the endoscopist, quality of the procedure, age of the patient, flat versus polypoid neoplasia, genetics, hereditary gastrointestinal neoplasia, and most significantly missed or incompletely excised lesions. The rate of interval CRCs has decreased in the last decade, which has been ascribed to an increased understanding of interval disease and technological advances in the screening of high risk individuals. In this article, we aim to review the literature with regard to the multifactorial nature of interval CRCs and provide the most recent developments regarding this important gastrointestinal entity. PMID:26668498

  16. Renal cell carcinoma: links and risks.

    PubMed

    Kabaria, Reena; Klaassen, Zachary; Terris, Martha K

    2016-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and a summary of the most commonly associated risk factors. A literature review was performed with a focus on recent studies with a high level of evidence (large prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses). The incidence rate of RCC varies globally, with the rate rising rapidly in more developed regions, demonstrating the effects of increased use of diagnostic imaging and prevalence of modifiable risk factors. Based on the current evidence, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most well-established risk factors for sporadic RCC worldwide. Acquired cystic kidney disease is also a significant risk factor, specifically in dialysis patients. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between RCC risk and moderate alcohol consumption. Certain analgesics and occupational exposure have been linked to an increased risk of RCC, although data are limited. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables may provide a protective effect. PMID:27022296

  17. On Carcinomas and Other Pathological Entities

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Ceusters, Werner; Rosse, Cornelius

    2005-01-01

    Tumours, abscesses, cysts, scars and fractures are familiar types of what we shall call pathological continuant entities. The instances of such types exist always in or on anatomical structures, which thereby become transformed into pathological anatomical structures of corresponding types: a fractured tibia, a blistered thumb, a carcinomatous colon. In previous work on biomedical ontologies we showed how the provision of formal definitions for relations such as is_a, part_of and transformation_of can facilitate the integration of such ontologies in ways which have the potential to support new kinds of automated reasoning. We here extend this approach to the treatment of pathologies, focusing especially on those pathological continuant entities which arise when organs become affected by carcinomas. PMID:18629199

  18. Duodenal Bleeding from Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rustagi, Tarun; Rangasamy, Priya; Versland, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to malignancy is relatively uncommon and the duodenum is the least frequently involved site. Duodenal metastasis is rare in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and early detection, especially in case of a solitary mass, helps in planning further therapy. We report a case of intractable upper gastrointestinal bleeding from metastatic RCC to the duodenum. The patient presented with melena and anemia, 13 years after nephrectomy for RCC. On esophagogastroduodenoscopy, a submucosal mass was noted in the duodenum, biopsies of which revealed metastatic RCC. In conclusion, metastasis from RCC should be considered in nephrectomized patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms and a complete evaluation, especially endoscopic examination followed by biopsy, is suggested. PMID:21577373

  19. Charged Particle Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Heath D.; Hong, Theodore S.; Krishnan, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    Historically, the use of external beam radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been limited by toxicity to the uninvolved liver and surrounding structures. Advances in photon radiotherapy have improved dose conformality to the tumor and facilitated dose escalation, a key contributor to improved HCC radiation treatment outcomes. However, despite these advances in photon radiotherapy, significant volumes of liver still receive low doses of radiation that can preclude dose escalation, particularly in patients with limited functional liver reserves. By capitalizing on the lack of exit dose along the beam path beyond the tumor and higher biological effectiveness, charged particle therapy offers the promise of maximizing tumor control via dose escalation without excessive liver toxicity. In this review we discuss the distinctive biophysical attributes of both proton and carbon ion radiotherapy, particularly as they pertain to treatment of HCC. We also review the available literature regarding clinical outcomes and toxicity of using charged particles for the treatment of HCC. PMID:21939857

  20. Biomarker discovery of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by proteomics.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Liang; Xiao, Ta; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Cho, William C S; Xiao, Zhi-Qiang

    2014-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in southern China and southern Asia, and poses one of the most serious public health problems in these areas. Early diagnosis, predicting metastasis, recurrence, prognosis and therapeutic response of NPC remain a challenge. Discovery of diagnostic and predictive biomarkers is an ideal way to achieve these objectives. Proteomics has great potential in identifying cancer biomarkers. Comparative proteomics has identified a large number of potential biomarkers associated with NPC, although the clinical performance of such biomarkers needs to be further validated. In this article, we review the latest discovery and progress of biomarkers for early diagnosis, predicting metastasis, recurrence, prognosis and therapeutic response of NPC, inform the readers of the current status of proteomics-based NPC biomarker findings and suggest avenues for future work.