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Sample records for carcinoma t61 grown

  1. installing the new T61p laptop

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-21

    ISS029-E-007213 (21 Sept. 2011) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, Expedition 29 flight engineer, installs a new T61p laptop to replace the previous A31p as OCA Router in the Joint Station LAN/Local Area Network (JSL LAN). The laptop is located in the hatch area of the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  2. installing the new T61p laptop

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-21

    ISS029-E-007212 (21 Sept. 2011) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, Expedition 29 flight engineer, installs a new T61p laptop to replace the previous A31p as OCA Router in the Joint Station LAN/Local Area Network (JSL LAN). The laptop is located in the hatch area of the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  3. Testosterone metabolism of fibroblasts grown from prostatic carcinoma, benign prostatic hyperplasia and skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Schweikert, H.U.; Hein, H.J.; Romijn, J.C.; Schroeder, F.H.

    1982-02-01

    The metabolism of (1,2,6,7-3H)testosterone was assessed in fibroblast monolayers derived from tissue of 5 prostates with benign hyperplasia (BPH), 4 prostates with carcinoma (PC), and 3 biopsy samples of skin, 2 nongenital skin (NG) and 1 genital skin. The following metabolites could be identified: androstanedione androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, androsterone, epiandrosterone, androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol and androstane-3 beta, 17 beta-diol. Testosterone was metabolized much more rapidly in fibroblasts originating from prostatic tissue than in fibroblasts derived from NG. A significantly higher formation of 5 alpha-androstanes and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroids could be observed in fibroblasts from BPH as compared to PC. 17-ketosteroid formation exceeded 5 alpha-androstane formation in BPH, whereas 5 alpha-reduction was the predominant pathway in fibroblasts grown from PC and NG. Since testosterone metabolism in fibroblasts of prostatic origin therefore resembles in many aspects that in whole prostatic tissue, fibroblasts grown from prostatic tissues might be a valuable tool for further investigation of the pathogenesis of human BPH and PC.

  4. Embutramide, a Component of Tanax(®) (T-61) as a New Drug of Abuse?

    PubMed

    Lajtai, Anikó; Mayer, Mátyás; Lakatos, Ágnes; Porpáczy, Zoltán; Miseta, Attila

    2016-03-01

    Tanax(®) (T-61) is a euthanasia solution commonly used in veterinary medicine in Europe. It consists of three active components: embutramide, mebezonium iodide, and tetracaine hydrochloride. Human consumption of Tanax(®) (T-61) is usually associated with suicide attempts. In our 15-year-long practice, embutramide was detected only three times but within a short period. First, it was found in the urine of a 42-year-old veterinarian, and the other two observations were made in a 16-year-old young man. Urine samples were analyzed using Shimadzu Prominence TOX.I.S.II. HPLC-DAD system with online SPE extraction system. Both of the two patients denied any intention to die. These cases show that this veterinary drug may also be considered as potential drugs of abuse. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Salicylic acid induces apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells grown in-vitro: Influence of oxygen and salicylic acid concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Zitta, Karina; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Huang, Ying; Heinrich, Christin; Scholz, Jens; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin

    2012-04-15

    In solid tumors the hypoxic environment can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Recently, acetylsalicylic acid a major component of analgesic drugs and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) have been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but the mechanisms of action remain still unclear. Here we elucidate the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of SA on colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2) grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Western blotting, caspase-3/7 apoptosis assays, MTS cell-proliferation assays, LDH cytotoxicity assays and hydrogen peroxide measurements were performed to investigate the effects of 1 and 10 {mu}M SA on CaCo-2 cells grown under normoxic conditions and cells exposed to hypoxia. Under normoxic conditions, SA did not influence cell proliferation or LDH release of CaCo-2 cells. However, caspase-3/7 activity was significantly increased. Under hypoxia, cell proliferation was reduced and LDH release and caspase-3/7 activities were increased. None of these parameters was altered by the addition of SA under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations 300-fold and SA significantly augmented the release of hydrogen peroxide under normoxic, but not under hypoxic conditions. Phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinases akt and erk1/2 was not changed by SA under hypoxic conditions, whereas under normoxia SA reduced phosphorylation of erk1/2 after 2 hours. We conclude that in colon carcinoma cells effects of SA on apoptosis and cellular signaling are dependent on the availability of oxygen. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of salicylic acid on colon carcinoma cells grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid increases caspase-3/7 activity and hydrogen peroxide release under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid decreases pro-survival erk-1/2 phosphorylation under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid does

  6. Complete genome of biodegradable plastics-decomposing Roseateles depolymerans KCTC 42856(T) (=61A(T)).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Heon; Choe, Hanna; Kim, Song-Gun; Park, Doo-Sang; Nasir, Arshan; Kim, Byung Kwon; Kim, Kyung Mo

    2016-02-20

    Roseateles depolymerans is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, flagellated, obligately aerobic, photosynthetic bacterium that was isolated from the Hanamuro River, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. Here, we report the complete genome of R. depolymerans KCTC 42856(T) (=61A(T)=DSM 11813(T)=CCUG 48747(T)=NCIMB 13588(T)), which consists of 5,681,722bp (G+C content of 66.57%) with a single chromosome, 4,773 protein-coding genes, 57 tRNAs and 4 rRNA operons. Several genes related to degradation of aliphatic and aromatic polymers were detected in the genome that help explain how the strain mediates decomposition of biodegradable plastics into fragments which are then assimilated and subsequently metabolized by microbial cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeting ATM strengthen apoptosis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma grown in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun; Zou, Jian; Li, Li; Zhao, Yongsheng; Liu, Shixi

    2011-04-17

    To conserve laryngeal function and elevate living quality of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) patients, we designed antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODNs) to reduce expression of ATM and to enhance the apoptosis of hep-2 (Human epidermoid laryngeal carcinoma) cells to radiation in vitro and in vivo. The expression of ATM mRNA and protein in hep-2 cells were examined by real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting respectively. Clonogenic survival assay was carried out to detect the survival ability of hep-2 cells after irradiation, and analyzed the cell apoptosis by flow cytometry. The volume of solid tumors was measured, while TUNEL assay and western blotting used to analyze cell apoptosis and protein expression after irradiation. The relative ATM mRNA and protein expression in hep-2 cells treated with ATM AS-ODNs were decreased to 11.03 ± 2.51% and 48.14 ± 5.53% of that in untreated cells respectively (P <0.05). After irradiation, the survival fraction (SF) of cells treated with ATM AS-ODNs was lower than that of other groups at the same dose of radiation (P < 0.05). The inhibition rate in hep-2 cells solid tumor exposed to X-ray alone was 5.95 ± 4.52%, while it was 34.28 ± 2.43% in the group which irradiated in combination with the treatment of ATM AS-ODNs (P < 0.05). The apoptotic index for the group irradiated in combination with ATM AS-ODNs injection was 17.12 ± 4.2%, which was significantly higher than that of others (P < 0.05). AS-ODNs of ATM reduce ATM expression and enhance hep-2 cells apoptosis to radiation in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Withanolides from Aeroponically Grown Physalis peruviana and Their Selective Cytotoxicity to Prostate Cancer and Renal Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ya-Ming; Wijeratne, E M Kithsiri; Babyak, Ashley L; Marks, Hanna R; Brooks, Alan D; Tewary, Poonam; Xuan, Li-Jiang; Wang, Wen-Qiong; Sayers, Thomas J; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2017-07-28

    Investigation of aeroponically grown Physalis peruviana resulted in the isolation of 11 new withanolides, including perulactones I-L (1-4), 17-deoxy-23β-hydroxywithanolide E (5), 23β-hydroxywithanolide E (6), 4-deoxyphyperunolide A (7), 7β-hydroxywithanolide F (8), 7β-hydroxy-17-epi-withanolide K (9), 24,25-dihydro-23β,28-dihydroxywithanolide G (10), and 24,25-dihydrowithanolide E (11), together with 14 known withanolides (12-25). The structures of 1-11 were elucidated by the analysis of their spectroscopic data, and 12-25 were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported. All withanolides were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against a panel of tumor cell lines including LNCaP (androgen-sensitive human prostate adenocarcinoma), 22Rv1 (androgen-resistant human prostate adenocarcinoma), ACHN (human renal adenocarcinoma), M14 (human melanoma), SK-MEL-28 (human melanoma), and normal human foreskin fibroblast cells. Of these, the 17β-hydroxywithanolides (17-BHWs) 6, 8, 9, 11-13, 15, and 19-22 showed selective cytotoxic activity against the two prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and 22Rv1, whereas 13 and 20 exhibited selective toxicity for the ACHN renal carcinoma cell line. These cytotoxicity data provide additional structure-activity relationship information for the 17-BHWs.

  9. Expressions of cytochrome P450, UDP-glucuronosyltranferase, and transporter genes in monolayer carcinoma cells change in subcutaneous tumors grown as xenografts in immunodeficient nude mice.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Michiko; Okamoto, Kiyoshi; Kadowaki, Tadashi; Kusano, Kazutomi; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Yoshimura, Tsutomu

    2010-03-01

    Human tumors grown as xenografts in immunodeficient nude mice are widely used to investigate the pharmacological activities of anticancer drugs. Drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters are expressed in tumor cell lines and changes in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (DMPK)-related gene expression after inoculation of the tumor cell may affect the pharmacological activity of the drug under consideration. The aims of the current study were to characterize DMPK-related gene expression profiles and responses to typical cytochrome P450 inducers in monolayer carcinoma cells grown in tissue culture versus those inoculated into a xenograft model. We used the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line PLC/PRF/5 for this study and comprehensively assessed changes in DMPK-related gene expression by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction quantitation. CYP3A4 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A protein amounts were also analyzed by immunoprecipitation followed by immunoblotting. We found that the expression of many DMPK-related genes was elevated in the inoculated tumor compared with the monolayer carcinoma cells, indicating changes in their gene regulation pathways, presumably due to modulation of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. In addition, monolayer carcinoma versus inoculated tumor cells showed different responses to rifampicin, but similar responses to dexamethasone or 3-methylcholanthrene. These results suggest that inoculation of tumor cells results in the activation of drug metabolism and transport function, leading to changes in the responses to pregnane X receptor ligands and consequent discrepancies in the pharmacological activities between in vitro monolayer carcinoma cells and in vivo xenograft models.

  10. The gene expression profiles of canine mammary cancer cells grown with carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) as a co-culture in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It is supposed that fibroblasts present in tumour microenvironment increase cancer invasiveness and its ability to metastasize but the mechanisms have not been clearly defined yet. Thus, the current study was designed to assess changes in gene expression in five various cancer cell lines grown as a co-culture with the carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in vitro. Results A carcinoma-associated fibroblast cell line was isolated from a canine mammary cancer. Then, a co-culture of cancer cells with the CAFs was established and maintained for 72 hrs. Having sorted the cells, a global gene expression in cancer cells using DNA microarrays was examined. The analysis revealed an up-regulation of 100 genes and a down-regulation of 106 genes in the cancer cells grown as a co-culture with the CAFs in comparison to control conditions. The PANTHER binomial statistics tool was applied to determine statistically over-manifested pathways (p < 0.05). Bulk of the up-regulated genes are involved in the adhesion, the angiogenesis, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and generally take part in the developmental processes. These results were further confirmed using real-time qPCR. Moreover, a wound-healing assay and growth characteristics on Matrigel matrix showed that CAFs increase cancer cell migration and matrix invasion. Conclusion The results of the current study showed that the co-culturing of cancer cells and the CAFs caused significant changes to the cancer gene expression. The presence of the CAFs in a microenvironment of cancer cells promotes adhesion, angiogenesis and EMT. PMID:22453032

  11. Dorzolamide synergizes the antitumor activity of mitomycin C against Ehrlich's carcinoma grown in mice: role of thioredoxin-interacting protein.

    PubMed

    Ali, Belal M; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Shouman, Samia A; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2015-12-01

    The antitumor activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors is attributed to their ability to induce a state of intracellular acidification. In fact, acidic intracellular pH was demonstrated to upregulate several tumor suppressor proteins and increase the activity of many chemotherapies. The present study aimed to investigate the antitumor activity of the CA inhibitor, dorzolamide, in combination with mitomycin C and to study the effect of these drugs on tumoral thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) as well as tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis. Solid tumors were induced by subcutaneous inoculation of Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells in female mice. Mice were treated with dorzolamide (3, 10, or 30 mg/kg/day, i.p.) and/or mitomycin C (1 mg/kg, i.p.) weekly for 3 weeks. Treatment with mitomycin C increased TXNIP level in EAC solid tumors in mice. Likewise, treatment with dorzolamide upregulated TXNIP and p53 while downregulated bcl-2. Both drug therapies increased tumoral caspase 9, caspase 3, and PARP-1 cleavage in addition to decreasing the proliferative Ki-67-stained nuclear fraction. Indeed, a synergistic effect was detected between mitomycin C and dorzolamide. The current data demonstrated that the antitumor activity of mitomycin C and dorzolamide was, at least in part, mediated through stimulating tumoral expression of TXNIP and enhancing tumor apoptosis.

  12. Comparison of HPLC and GC-MS methods for determination of embutramide (a component of Tanax or T-61) in biological specimens.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, M; Bertini, S; Soldani, G; Giusiani, M

    2001-01-01

    Tanax or T-61, a euthanasia solution commonly used in veterinary medicine, has been often involved in suicide attempts (humans) and malicious intoxications (animals). For forensic reasons, the identification of one or more of the three components (embutramide, mebenzonium iodide, and tetracaine hydrochloride) of Tanax is needed to confirm the hypothesis of intoxication. This study was performed with new high-performance liquid chromatographic and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods to identify embutramide in biological matrices (blood, liver, kidney) from different animal species. The good sensitivity and specificity of both methods recommend their use in toxicological analysis in both human and veterinary medicine.

  13. The antiviral agent cidofovir [(S)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonyl-methoxypropyl)cytosine] has pronounced activity against nasopharyngeal carcinoma grown in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Neyts, J; Sadler, R; De Clercq, E; Raab-Traub, N; Pagano, J S

    1998-02-01

    The effect of the antiviral agent (S)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl) cytosine (cidofovir) on the EBV-associated tumor nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) was evaluated in NPC xenografts in athymic mice. Intratumoral injection arrested tumor growth within 1 week, and by 4 weeks, tumors regressed to 8-75% (39 +/- 33%) of the original size, whereas control tumors injected with PBS grew to 282 +/- 25% of the original size. Ganciclovir slowed but did not arrest or cause regression of tumor growth. A striking antitumor effect was also produced by systemic administration; at 4 weeks, tumors were 79 +/- 49% of the original size, compared with 635 +/- 91% for the controls. Widespread apoptosis was detected after treatment for 2-6 days in C15 as well as two other NPC xenografts, C17 and C18; the latter NPCs have mutations in the p53 gene. These data indicate that cidofovir induces rapid cell death through apoptosis in EBV-transformed epithelial cells.

  14. Antrodia camphorata grown on germinated brown rice inhibits HT-29 human colon carcinoma proliferation through inducing G0/G1 phase arrest and apoptosis by targeting the β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Ki; Lim, Yoong Ho; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-08-01

    Antrodia camphorata (AC) has been used as a traditional medicine to treat food and drug intoxication, diarrhea, abdominal pain, hypertension, pruritis (skin itch), and liver cancer in East Asia. In this study, we investigated anticancer activities of AC grown on germinated brown rice (CBR) in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. We found that the inhibitory efficacy of CBR 80% ethanol (EtOH) extract on HT-29 and CT-26 cell proliferation was more effective than ordinary AC EtOH 80% extract. Next, 80% EtOH extract of CBR was further separated into four fractions; hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), butanol (BuOH), and water. Among them, CBR EtOAc fraction showed the strongest inhibitory activity against HT-29 cell proliferation. Therefore, CBR EtOAc fraction was chosen for further studies. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining data indicated that CBR EtOAc fraction induced apoptosis. Induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest on human colon carcinoma cell was observed in CBR EtOAc fraction-treated cells. We found that CBR decreased the level of proteins involved in G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. CBR EtOAc fraction inhibited the β-catenin signaling pathway, supporting its suppressive activity on the level of cyclin D1. High performance liquid chromatography analysis data indicated that CBR EtOAc fraction contained adenosine. This is the first investigation that CBR has a greater potential as a novel chemopreventive agent than AC against colon cancer. These data suggest that CBR might be useful as a chemopreventive agent against colorectal cancer.

  15. Adrenocortical carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001663.htm Adrenocortical carcinoma To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a cancer of the adrenal glands . ...

  16. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Rapidly Indicates Vessel Regression in Human Squamous Cell Carcinomas Grown in Nude Mice Caused by VEGF Receptor 2 Blockade with DC1011

    PubMed Central

    Kiessling, Fabian; Farhan, Nabeel; Lichy, Matthias P; Vosseler, Silvia; Heilmann, Melanie; Krix, Martin; Bohlen, Peter; Miller, Dan W; Mueller, Margareta M; Semmler, Wolfhard; Fusenig, Norbert E; Stefan, Delorme

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of our study was the investigation of early changes in tumor vascularization during antiangiogenic therapy with the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 antibody (DC101) using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI). Subcutaneous heterotransplants of human skin squamous cell carcinomas in nude mice were treated with DC101. Animals were examined before and repeatedly during 2 weeks of antiangiogenic treatment using Gd-DTPA-enhanced dynamic T1-weighted MRI. With a two-compartment model, dynamic data were parameterized in “amplitude” (increase of signal intensity relative to precontrast value) and kep (exchange rate constant). Data obtained by MRI were validated by parallel examinations of histological sections immunostained for blood vessels (CD31). Already 2 days after the first DC101 application, a decrease of tumor vascularization was observed, which preceded a reduction of tumor volume. The difference between treated tumors and controls became prominent after 4 days, when amplitudes of treated tumors were decreased by 61% (P = .02). In line with change of microvessel density, the decrease in amplitudes was most pronounced in tumor centers. On day 7, the mean tumor volumes of treated (153 ± 843 mm3) and control animals (596 ± 384 mm3) were significantly different (P = .03). After 14 days, treated tumors showed further growth reduction (83 ± 93 mm3), whereas untreated tumors (1208 ± 822 mm3) continued to increase (P = .02). Our data underline the efficacy of DC101 as antiangiogenic treatment in human squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in nude mice and indicate DCE MRI as a valuable tool for early detection of treatment effects before changes in tumor volume become apparent. PMID:15153333

  17. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, G A

    1999-05-01

    Hepatitis C infection is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, and progress has been made in a number of areas. Transgenic mice lines expressing the hepatitis C core protein develop hepatic steatosis, adenomas, and hepatocellular carcinomas, with no significant hepatitis or fibrosis. This implies that hepatitis C can lead directly to malignant transformation. A new lesion, irregular regeneration, has been described in chronic hepatitis C infection and is associated with a 15-fold increase in the relative risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. A minority of patients with hepatitis C-related hepatocellular carcinoma have intense lymphocytic infiltration of the cancer, a feature associated with a better prognosis. Several studies have confirmed the association between large cell dysplasia and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, large cell dysplasia may not be a premalignant lesion and instead may be a marker for premalignant alterations elsewhere in the liver. Oral contraceptives previously have been linked to an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. A large multicenter European case-control study has shown minimal increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma with use of steroidal contraception. Tamoxifen had shown promise in the management of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. However, a randomized placebo-controlled study of 477 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma found no benefit from tamoxifen. In a preliminary study, however, octreotide has shown improved survival and quality of life in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Finally, interferon treatment continues to be linked to a reduced risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis C. These studies generally are not randomized, and a randomized prospective study is required to address this issue.

  18. Childhood Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Sara O

    2010-09-01

    Carcinoma in children differs from that occurring in adults. It is far rarer and represents only a small fraction of all pediatric cancer diagnoses. Pediatric sarcomas were among the first tumors in which recurrent chromosomal aberrations were discovered. Once defined, these recurrent aberrations, many of them translocations, became incorporated into the pathologist's diagnostic armamentarium. In the past several years, defining chromosomal rearrangements have been identified in pediatric carcinomas as well, and this has become a new frontier in pathologic diagnosis. This article provides an overview of pediatric carcinoma as well as a detailed review of selected types of carcinoma that in particular can present diagnostic difficulty to the practicing pathologist and illustrate new and emerging concepts in pediatric carcinoma.

  19. Hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, T.; Kojiro, M.

    1986-01-01

    With the remarkable recent diagnostic and therapeutic advances and the discovery of a possible pathogenetic role of hepatitis B virus, the study and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma are entering a new era. Parallel developments in the pathological study of this malignancy are also to be expected. To coincide with this new era, this book presents the authors' accumulated pathomorphological knowledge of hepatocellular carcinoma. The detailed coverage is based on the examination findings of 439 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma autopsied at the authors' department in the last twenty years.

  20. Graphic Grown Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ann

    2009-01-01

    It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their…

  1. Graphic Grown Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ann

    2009-01-01

    It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their…

  2. Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

  3. Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

  4. Pituitary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cusimano, Michael D.; Ohori, Paul; Martinez, A. Julio; Jungreis, Charles; Wright, Donald C.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of distant metastases may be asymptomatic in patients who present with symptoms and signs due to the local mass effects of an invasive pituitary adenoma. A case of pituitary carcinoma in a 54-year-old man who presented with widespread asymptomatic distant metastases 12 years after initial diagnosis is reviewed. The long course and asymptomatic metastases suggested a relatively slow-growing malignancy. The factors that played a role in the pathogenesis of the metastasis are unknown. A review of the literature on pituitary carcinoma suggests that accurate diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach to management of such lesions emphasizing surgery, radiotherapy, and hormonal manipulation may provide these patients with the longest and best quality of survival. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3p48-bFigure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:17170926

  5. Bronchiolar Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, J. J.; Schaffner, V. D.; Hiltz, J. E.

    1966-01-01

    Bronchiolar carcinoma is a malignant tumour which apparently arises in a terminal bronchiole from which it spreads either by bronchial embolization or by lymphogenous and/or hematogenous dissemination. It is not a common neoplasm. Histologically, the tumour bears a striking resemblance to the disease of sheep, jagziekte, which is of virus etiology. A very common finding in reported cases is preexisting pulmonary fibrosis. At the Nova Scotia Sanatorium, Kentville, 80 cases of primary lung cancer have been encountered within the past 25 years. Six of these were bronchiolar carcinomas. Five patients had co-existing chronic pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis in one and tuberculosis in four. One patient died of a rapidly progressive bilateral lesion and five were explored. Lobectomy was done in all five, but in one for palliation only. Three patients are alive and well three, six and 14 years, respectively, after their operations. PMID:4285258

  6. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, J.H.C.

    1985-07-01

    In this editorial comment, the author presents a review of recent achievements in the diagnosis and treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx. The value of the use of CT scans for differentiating between cranial nerve involvement by recurring tumors and irradiation neuropathy, and between temporal lobe irradiation encephalopathy and other nonneoplastic neurologic disorders and meningeal metastasis is discussed. Magnetic resonance imaging is said to be superior to CT for finding soft tissue involvement or abnormalities in the brain. 13 references.

  7. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Alex C.; Sabolch, Aaron; Raymond, Victoria M.; Kandathil, Asha; Caoili, Elaine M.; Jolly, Shruti; Miller, Barbra S.; Giordano, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy, often with an unfavorable prognosis. Here we summarize the knowledge about diagnosis, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy of ACC. Over recent years, multidisciplinary clinics have formed and the first international treatment trials have been conducted. This review focuses on evidence gained from recent basic science and clinical research and provides perspectives from the experience of a large multidisciplinary clinic dedicated to the care of patients with ACC. PMID:24423978

  8. Oral Rigosertib for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  9. Carcinoma gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Biswas, P K

    2010-07-01

    Carcinoma gallbladder (CaGb) is a rare disease. The aetiology of CaGb is yet not known. However the risk of CaGb is increased in anomalous pancreaticobiliary duct junction (APBDJ), gall stones, xanthogranulomatus cholecystitis, calcified or porcelain gallbladder, cholelithiasis with typhoid carriers, gallbladder adenoma, red meat consumption and tobacco uses. There are protective effects of vegetables on CaGb. Most of the cases present with advanced disease. In early carcinoma of a gallbladder sign and symptoms mimic benign disease. The diagnosis is established by ultrasonography, computerized tomography and guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Biochemical tests are of very little value in making a diagnosis. The treatment depends on the clinical stage at presentation. Surgery offers the best chance of cure. In stage T1a, laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy alone is curative, and in T1b, cholecystectomy with hepatoduodenal lymph node dissection without combined resection of an adjacent organ is required. Segment S4a+5 hepatectomy combined with extrahepatic bile duct resection (BDR) and D2 lymph node dissection is a highly recommended operation for the treatment of T2 and T3 CaGb. The dye injection method is useful in determining the appropriate extent of hepatic resection for advanced CaGb. Resurgery is required only in those cases where tumour has invaded the serosa and/ or adjacent structures when diagnosed postoperatively. Biliary bypass is required for palliation. Prognosis depends on early diagnosis and appropriate surgical excision.

  10. [Bronchoalveolar carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Wislez, Marie; Cadranel, Jacques; Milleron, Bernard

    2003-04-01

    Bronchoalveolar carcinoma is one of the four histologic subtypes of adenocarcinoma and its incidence is increasing. It grows in a lepidic fashion along the alveolar septa without invasive growth. The lack of invasive growth is an essential criterion based on data indicating that patients may be curable by surgical resection. The revised definition seems to be suitable for its solitary nodular form but less for multifocal or pneumonic-type form. High-resolution lung CT-scan is necessary to evaluate pulmonary involvement because of the high frequency of multifocal disease at initial presentation and because of the presence of ground glass opacity that could be one of the first manifestation of cancer bronchiolo-alvéolaireon CT. Therapeutic management does not differ from the one of non small cell lung cancer. Solitary nodules are treated by surgical resection with a good prognosis while multifocal and/or pneumonic forms are treated by systemic chemotherapy with a worse prognosis.

  11. Protein Crystals Grown in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A collage of protein and virus crystals, many of which were grown on the U.S. Space Shuttle or Russian Space Station, Mir. The crystals include the proteins canavalin; mouse monoclonal antibody; a sweet protein, thaumatin; and a fungal protease. Viruses are represented here by crystals of turnip yellow mosaic virus and satellite tobacco mosaic virus. The crystals are photographed under polarized light (thus causing the colors) and range in size from a few hundred microns in edge length up to more than a millimeter. All the crystals are grown from aqueous solutions and are useful for X-ray diffraction analysis. Credit: Dr. Alex McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

  12. Carcinoma cuniculatum: not a verrucous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kubik, M J; Rhatigan, R M

    2012-12-01

    Carcinoma cuniculatum and verrucous carcinoma are both very well differentiated forms of squamous carcinoma and thus difficult to separate histologically from pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia. The diagnosis of each often requires clinical-pathologic correlation. We reviewed the literature on cases reported as carcinoma cuniculatum and compared these to the cases originally reported by Aird et al. In addition, we report an additional case of this entity that we encountered in our practice. In reviewing the literature it is evident that most authors consider carcinoma cuniculatum and verrucous carcinoma to be synonymous even though Aird's original two cases had no verrucous features. The lack of a clear conceptual distinction between these two entities may cause diagnostic confusion. The purpose of this report is to record a case of carcinoma cuniculatum which the authors believe to be similar to those reported by Aird et al., to emphasize the differences between carcinoma cuniculatum and verrucous carcinoma, and to explain how the lack of a clear conceptual distinction between these two tumors can lead to further delay in an already difficult diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... in children and adults. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by ...

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tang, Z Y

    2000-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has ranked second in cancer mortality in China since the 1990s and is increasing in frequency among males in many countries. Hepatitis B and C viruses, aflatoxin and algal toxin in the contaminated drinking water remain major aetiological factors and hepatitis G virus and transfusion-transmitted virus can not be excluded. A prospective randomized control trial screening for HCC in a high-risk population using alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and ultrasonography has demonstrated a decrease in HCC mortality. Rapidly progressing medical imaging has continuously contributed to the improving treatment results. Surgical resection still plays a major role in influencing prognosis of HCC. Studies on recurrence and metastasis after curative resection have become a key issue for further improvement of the surgical outcome. Regional cancer therapies are progressing rapidly, based on the advances in early diagnosis. The advantages and disadvantages of these are noted. Multimodality combination and sequential treatment has been accepted as an important approach for unresectable HCC and cytoreduction and sequential resection have attracted attention. Conformal radiotherapy has shown important potential for HCC treatment. Intra-arterial chemotherapy has been repeatedly proved effective; however, systemic chemotherapy for HCC remains disappointing. The effects of tamoxifen are questionable, whereas alpha-interferon has been shown to have significant potential, particularly in prevention of recurrence. All of these treatments have resulted in continuing improvement of HCC prognosis in some centres.

  15. Nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Klink, B.K.; Karulf, R.E.; Maimon, W.N.; Peoples, J.B. )

    1991-07-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare clinical entity accounting for only 4 per cent of all cases of parathyroid neoplasia. Nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma is even rarer. Previously, virtually all patients with these lesions were treated for a nonspecific neck mass. However, in the present case, a preoperative diagnosis of nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma was made based on the technetium pertechnetate/thallium 201 subtraction scan. The authors report on the 14th case of nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma, a review of the literature, and guidelines for the preoperative and operative evaluation of neck masses suspected to be parathyroid carcinoma.22 references.

  16. Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Maria Isabel Ramos; Vieira, Marcella Amaral Horta Barbosa; Portocarrero, Larissa Karine Leite; Fraga, Rafael Cavanellas; Kakizaki, Priscila; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai

    2016-01-01

    Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma is an eccrine carcinoma subtype, and only twelve cases have been reported until now. It is a rare tumor and its histopathological diagnosis is difficult. Almost half of patients are misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma by the incisional biopsy. We report the thirteenth case of squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma. Female patient, 72 years old, in the last 6 months presenting erythematous, keratotic and ulcerated papules on the nose. The incisional biopsy diagnosed squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma. After excision, histopathology revealed positive margins. A wideningmargins surgery and grafting were performed, which again resulted in positive margins. The patient was then referred for radiotherapy. After 25 sessions, the injury reappeared. After another surgery, although the intraoperative biopsy showed free surgical margins, the product of resection revealed persistent lesion. Distinction between squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma is important because of the more aggressive nature of the first, which requires wider margins surgery to avoid recurrence.

  17. Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, Maria Isabel Ramos; Vieira, Marcella Amaral Horta Barbosa; Portocarrero, Larissa Karine Leite; Fraga, Rafael Cavanellas; Kakizaki, Priscila; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai

    2016-01-01

    Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma is an eccrine carcinoma subtype, and only twelve cases have been reported until now. It is a rare tumor and its histopathological diagnosis is difficult. Almost half of patients are misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma by the incisional biopsy. We report the thirteenth case of squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma. Female patient, 72 years old, in the last 6 months presenting erythematous, keratotic and ulcerated papules on the nose. The incisional biopsy diagnosed squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma. After excision, histopathology revealed positive margins. A wideningmargins surgery and grafting were performed, which again resulted in positive margins. The patient was then referred for radiotherapy. After 25 sessions, the injury reappeared. After another surgery, although the intraoperative biopsy showed free surgical margins, the product of resection revealed persistent lesion. Distinction between squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma is important because of the more aggressive nature of the first, which requires wider margins surgery to avoid recurrence. PMID:28099603

  18. Aeromonas salmonicida grown in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Garduño, R A; Thornton, J C; Kay, W W

    1993-01-01

    The virulent fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida was rapidly killed in vivo when restricted inside a diffusion chamber implanted intraperitoneally in rainbow trout. After a period of regrowth, the survivors had acquired resistance to host-mediated bacteriolysis, phagocytosis, and oxidative killing, properties which were subsequently lost by growth in vitro. Resistance to bacteriolysis and phagocytosis was associated with a newly acquired capsular layer revealed by acidic polysaccharide staining and electron microscopy. This capsular layer shielded the underlying, regular surface array (S-layer) from immunogold labeling with a primary antibody to the S-layer protein. Resistance to oxidative killing was mediated by a mechanism not associated with the presence of the capsular layer. An attenuated vaccine strain of A. salmonicida grown in vivo failed to express the capsular layer. Consequently, the in vivo-grown cells of this attenuated strain remained as sensitive to bacteriolysis, and as avidly adherent to macrophages, as the in vitro-grown cells. The importance of these new virulence determinants and their relation to the known virulence factors of A. salmonicida are discussed. Images PMID:8359906

  19. Pilomatrix carcinoma of the clitoris.

    PubMed

    Gazic, Barbara; Sramek-Zatler, Simona; Repse-Fokter, Alenka; Pizem, Joze

    2011-12-01

    Pilomatrix carcinoma, a malignant counterpart of pilomatrixoma, is a rare skin neoplasm composed of basaloid and shadow cells that characterize differentiation toward the hair matrix. The authors present a case of pilomatrix carcinoma of the clitoris, a very unusual location not previously reported. Diagnostic criteria and differential diagnoses are discussed. Pilomatrix carcinoma should be differentiated from benign pilomatrixoma and other carcinomas with shadow cells, including basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation and metastases of visceral carcinomas with shadow cells.

  20. Chromophobe cell renal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Megumi, Y; Nishimura, K

    1998-01-01

    Chromophobe cell renal carcinoma is a recently established subtype of renal cell carcinoma. Herein we report a case of chromophobe cell renal carcinoma in a 67-year-old male patient who occasionally underwent computed tomography. In a microscopic study with hematoxylin and eosin stain, clear eosinophilic cytoplasm, and a moderately atypical nucleus were observed. And it was stained positively by Hale's colloidal iron. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasm was filled with numerous microvesicles. From these results, this tumor was pathologically diagnosed as chromophobe cell renal carcinoma.

  1. [Radiotherapy of oropharynx carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Servagi Vernat, S; Tochet, F; Vieillevigne, L; Pointreau, Y; Maingon, P; Giraud, P

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, technique of radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy for oropharynx carcinoma are presented. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed.

  2. Harvesting microalgae grown on wastewater.

    PubMed

    Udom, Innocent; Zaribaf, Behnaz H; Halfhide, Trina; Gillie, Benjamin; Dalrymple, Omatoyo; Zhang, Qiong; Ergas, Sarina J

    2013-07-01

    The costs and life cycle impacts of microalgae harvesting for biofuel production were investigated. Algae were grown in semi-continuous culture in pilot-scale photobioreactors under natural light with anaerobic digester centrate as the feed source. Algae suspensions were collected and the optimal coagulant dosages for metal salts (alum, ferric chloride), cationic polymer (Zetag 8819), anionic polymer (E-38) and natural coagulants (Moringa Oleifera and Opuntia ficus-indica cactus) were determined using jar tests. The relative dewaterability of the algae cake was estimated by centrifugation. Alum, ferric chloride and cationic polymer could all achieve >91% algae recovery at optimal dosages. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis results revealed that cationic polymer had the lowest cost but the highest environmental impacts, while ferric chloride had the highest cost and lowest environmental impacts. Based on the LCA results, belt presses are the recommended algae dewatering technology prior to oil extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Breast carcinoma in men].

    PubMed

    Zigić, B; Balvanović, D; Rac, S; Bilbija, S

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe 8 cases of carcinoma of the male breast treated at the Clinic of Surgery, Clinical Medical Center Banja Luka in the period 1968-1988. In their discussion, the authors review contemporary findings concerning the genesis, evolution and treatment of this carcinoma.

  4. [Medullary thyroid carcinoma and other rare types of thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Obara, Takao

    2007-11-01

    Among 4 major traditional groups of thyroid carcinoma, papillary and follicular carcinomas are most common, and other forms, anaplastic and medullary carcinomas, are relatively rare. The 2003 WHO histological classification of thyroid tumor separated 7 other malignant thyroid tumors into distinct pathological entities, such as poorly differentiated, squamous cell, mucinous carcinomas, carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE), etc. Although they are also extremely rare, recognition of their clinicopathologic features are very important. In this review, not only diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for the rare forms of thyroid carcinomas, specifically focussed on medullary carcinoma and CASTLE, but also their histogenetic abnormalities were discussed.

  5. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Todd M; Parekh, Vishwas

    2016-09-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor that shares the same histologic appearance and ETV6 gene (12p13) rearrangement as secretory carcinoma of the breast. Prior to its recognition, MASC cases were commonly labeled acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. Despite distinctive histologic features, MASC may be difficult to distinguish from other salivary gland tumors, in particular zymogen-poor acinic cell carcinoma and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. Although characteristic morphologic and immunohistochemical features form the basis of a diagnosis of MASC, the presence of an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion is confirmatory. Given its recent recognition the true prognostic import of MASC is not yet clearly defined.

  6. Container-Grown Longleaf Pine Seedling Quality

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Hainds; James P. Barnett

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the comparative hardiness of various classes or grades of container-grown longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings. Most container longleaf seedlings are grown in small ribbed containers averaging 5 to 7 cubic inches in volume and 3 to 6 inches in depth. Great variability is often exhibited in typical lots of container-...

  7. Accessory Breast Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Hyun Jo; Jung, Sung Hoo

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Ectopic breast tissue usually develops along the mammary ridges, and the incidence has been reported to be 2–6% of the general population. Occurrence of primary carcinoma in ectopic breast tissue is rare. Case Report We report the case of 59-year-old woman with accessory breast carcinoma in her left axilla. Conclusion Because an accessory areola or nipple is often missing and awareness of physicians and patients about these unsuspicious masses is lacking, clinical diagnosis of accessory breast carcinoma is frequently delayed. Therefore, a mass along the ‘milk line’ should be examined carefully, and any suspicious lesions should be evaluated. PMID:20847887

  8. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly occurring cancer in the world and overall incidence is still on the rise. While typically a slow-growing tumor for which metastases is rare, basal cell carcinoma can be locally destructive and disfiguring. Given the vast prevalence of this disease, there is a significant overall burden on patient well-being and quality of life. The current mainstay of basal cell carcinoma treatment involves surgical modalities, such as electrodessication and curettage, excision, cryosurgery, and Mohs micrographic surgery. Such methods are typically reserved for localized basal cell carcinoma and offer high five-year cure rates, but come with the risk of functional impairment, disfigurement, and scarring. Here, the authors review the evidence and indications for nonsurgical treatment modalities in cases where surgery is impractical, contraindicated, or simply not desired by the patient. PMID:27386043

  9. Breast carcinoma metastases.

    PubMed

    Bodzin, G A; Staren, E D; Faber, L P

    1998-02-01

    With careful selection of patients, complete resection of pulmonary metastases from breast carcinoma may be a useful therapeutic option. Such a treatment appears to offer a significant survival benefit when compared with medical treatment alone, or with incomplete resection.

  10. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The radiographs of 136 patients with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma were reviewed. The varied radiographic manifestations were a result of the characteristic peripheral location of the tumor, its tendency to infiltrate the local airways with mucus production and desmoplasia, and its variable aggressiveness resulting in a wide variation in rate of intrathoracic and extrathoracic spread. In the absence of surgical intervention, a localized lesion progressed to diffuse disease in every patient. The findings supported the concept of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma as a distinct clinical entity.

  11. [Multiple primary pulmonary carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Guitart, A C; Gómez, G; Estrada, G; Rodríguez, C; León, C; Cornudella, R

    1991-02-01

    Three cases of multiple simultaneous primary lung carcinomas are presented, in which diagnosis was established by post-surgery pathological exam. In all three cases, chest X-ray showed pulmonary masses suggestive or clinical malignancy, and pre-surgery pathological diagnosis or squamous lung carcinoma. During thoracotomy or in the resected segment, a second lesion we confirmed which made resection necessary being this second lesion classified as lung adenocarcinoma.

  12. [Etiopathogenesis of colorectal carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Reichlin, B

    1980-09-20

    There are a small group of colonic carcinomas of known etiology and large group of unknown etiology. In the latter group epidemiology, metabolic epidemiology, and animal experiments suggest a correlation between the fat content of the diet and the incidence of colonic carcinoma. Burkitt's postulate of a protective value of high fibre intake receives backing from 3 epidemiological studies from Israel, Scandinavia, and San Francisco.

  13. Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Matthew; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Tatishchev, Sergei F.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States. Pathologic examination of biopsy, polypectomy and resection specimens is crucial to appropriate patient managemnt, prognosis assessment and family counseling. Molecular testing plays an increasingly important role in the era of personalized medicine. This review article focuses on the histopathology and molecular pathology of colorectal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, with an emphasis on their clinical relevance. PMID:22943008

  14. [Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Martine; Vieira, Thibault; Fallet, Vincent; Hamard, Cécile; Duruisseaux, Michael; Cadranel, Jacques; Wislez, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are a rare group of tumors accounting for about one percent of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In 2015, the World Health Organization classification united under this name all the carcinomas with sarcomatous-like component with spindle cell or giant cell appearance, or associated with a sarcomatous component sometimes heterologous. There are five subtypes: pleomorphic carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma and pulmonary blastoma. Clinical characteristics are not specific from the other subtypes of NSCLC. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway may play a key role. Patients, usually tobacco smokers, are frequently symptomatic. Tumors are voluminous more often peripherical than central, with strong fixation on FDG TEP CT. Distant metastases are frequent with atypical visceral locations. These tumors have poorer prognosis than the other NSCLC subtypes because of great aggressivity, and frequent chemoresistance. Here we present pathological description and a review of literature with molecular features in order to better describe these tumors and perhaps introduce new therapeutics.

  15. Transplantable pancreatic acinar carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.R.; Reddy, J.K.

    1981-03-15

    Fragments of the nafenopin-induced pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma of rat have been examined in vitro for patterns of intracellular protein transport and carbamylcholine-induced protein discharge. Continuous incubation of the fragments with (3H)-leucine for 60 minutes resulted in labeling of rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi cisternae, and mature zymogen granules, revealed by electron microscope autoradiography. This result indicates transport of newly synthesized protein from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to mature zymogen granules in approximately 60 minutes. The secretagogue carbamylcholine induced the discharge of radioactive protein by carcinoma fragments pulse-chase labeled with (3H)-leucine. A maximal effective carbamylcholine concentration of 10(-5) M was determined. The acinar carcinoma resembles normal exocrine pancreas in the observed rate of intracellular protein transport and effective secretagogue concentration. However, the acinar carcinoma fragments demonstrated an apparent low rate of carbamylcholine-induced radioactive protein discharge as compared with normal pancreatic lobules or acinar cells. It is suggested that the apparent low rate of radioactive protein discharge reflects functional immaturity of the acinar carcinoma. Possible relationships of functional differentiation to the heterogeneous cytodifferentiation of the pancreatic acinar carcinoma are discussed.

  16. Incidental carcinoma of the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Pezzolla, Angela; Marzaioli, Rinaldo; Lattarulo, Serafina; Docimo, Giovanni; Conzo, Giovanni; Ciampolillo, Anna; Barile, Graziana; Anelli, Ferdinando Massimiliano; Madaro, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of incidental thyroid carcinoma in patients submitted to thyroidectomy for a benign disease is quite frequent. A retrospective analysis was performed on 455 patients submitted to surgical intervention in order to establish the incidence of this kind of carcinoma. Two hundred fifty-six patients (56%) were affected by benign disease (176 multinodular goiter, 12 uninodular goiter, 1 Plummer disease and 67 Basedow disease) and 202 (44%) by carcinoma. In 28 of 256 patients (11%), affected by benign disease, occurred a histological diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma, (10 papillary carcinoma, 1 follicular carcinoma, 29 papillary carcinoma follicular variant). In this study it's considered incidental thyroid carcinoma the one occurred in patients who never underwent Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) and there were no suspicious features in all exams that may suggest the presence of carcinoma. Twenty-three of the 40 incidental carcinoma (57.5%) were microcarcinomas. Ten patients had a sincronous carcinoma. Actually, these patients are still in a follow up program and no recurrency of disease is occasionally observed. This study shows that the only way to put doubts on the real benignity of the disease is the fine needle aspiration; there are no other instruments that could identify the occurrence of the carcinoma. Moreover in the majority of cases the incidental carcinoma is a microcarcinoma, it doesn't reach significant volume, may be not centered by a FNA, but in most cases it's not really biologically aggressive.

  17. Molecule diagram from space-grown crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Researchers' at Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute, in Buffalo, N.Y. have analyzed the molecular structures of insulin crystals grown during Space Shuttle experiments and are unlocking the mystery of how insulin works.

  18. Molecule diagram from space-grown crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Researchers' at Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute, in Buffalo, N.Y. have analyzed the molecular structures of insulin crystals grown during Space Shuttle experiments and are unlocking the mystery of how insulin works.

  19. Burn scar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yuan; Feng, Chung-Ho; Hsiao, Yen-Chang; Chuang, Shiow Shuh; Yang, Jui-Yung

    2010-11-01

    Since Jean-Nicolas Marjolin reported carcinoma arising in post-traumatic scars in 1828, the term 'Marjolin ulcer' has been applied to malignant changes in burn scars. Although many papers have been published already in this field, there are few reports from Oriental people. From 1989 to 2008, there were 11 cases noted as burn scar carcinoma in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Ten were reported as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and the one was verrucous carcinoma. Most of the cases occurred in the extremities (10/11). Ten cases underwent an operation initially with wide excision and skin graft or local flap for coverage. Forefoot amputation was performed in one patient. One patient received above-knee amputation and adjuvant therapy because recurrent verrucous carcinoma occurred 2 years later. One patient suffered from a new lesion 8 years later and another case had inguinal lymph node metastasis 8 months later. Five patients were lost to follow-up and six cases were tumor-free during the follow-up period. Most scar malignancies are SCC while other cell types are rarer. The casual association between burn injuries and a later risk of basal cell carcinoma is questionable. Owing to poor prognosis in advanced scar cancer, the best treatment for scar carcinoma is to prevent the scar from developing repeated ulceration by performing aggressive initial burn wound care: early grafting by surgeons and daily scar care with regular follow-up for patients. This may be why a lower incidence has been noted in recent years.

  20. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    NBCC syndrome; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome; Basal cell nevus syndrome; BCNS; Basal cell cancer - nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma nevus syndrome is a rare genetic condition. The gene linked to the syndrome is known as PTCH (" ...

  1. Sequential Therapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Burke, John M.; Agrawal, Manish; Hauke, Ralph J.; Hutson, Thomas E.; Doshi, Gury; Fleming, Mark T.; Vogelzang, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has changed dramatically in the past decade. As the number of available agents, and related volume of research, has grown, it is increasingly complex to know how to optimally treat patients. The authors are practicing medical oncologists at the US Oncology Network, the largest community-based network of oncology providers in the country, and represent the leadership of the Network’s Genitourinary Research Committee. We outline our thought process in approaching sequential therapy of mRCC and the use of real-world data to inform our approach. We also highlight the evolving literature that will impact practicing oncologists in the near future. PMID:28326277

  2. Subungual squamous cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Padilha, Carolina Barbosa de Sousa; Balassiano, Laila Klotz de Almeida; Pinto, Julyana Calegari; de Souza, Flávia Crespo Schueler; Kac, Bernard Kawa; Treu, Curt Mafra

    2016-01-01

    Although subungual squamous cell carcinoma is rare, it is the most common primary malignant neoplasms in this location. The higher incidence occurs in the fingernails, but involvement of the toenails is also possible. Subungual squamous cell carcinoma often looks like other more common benign lesions, such as fungal infection, onychomycosis, or viral wart. These factors, together with a general lack of awareness of this disease among physicians, often result in delayed diagnosis. Therefore, it is underdiagnosed, with few reports in the literature. The authors present a case of a man with a diagnosis of subungual squamous cell carcinoma in the hallux, without bone involvement, which was submitted to the appropriate surgical treatment. PMID:28099608

  3. [Imaging renal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Bazan, F; Busto, M

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the eighth most common malignancy in adults and the most common malignancy in the kidney. It is thus a very common disease for radiologists. This review aims to provide a general overview of the imaging techniques used to diagnose, characterize, and help plan the treatment of renal cell carcinoma as well as to review basic aspects related to staging, imaging-guided percutaneous treatment, and follow-up in the most common clinical scenarios. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiation-induced bladder carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Uyama, T.; Nakamura, S.; Moriwaki, S.

    1981-01-01

    Two cases are presented of radiation-induced bladder carcinoma which followed prior irradiation for cervical carcinoma of the uterus. One was a sixty-eight-year-old woman with bladder carcinoma fourteen years after irradiation (total dose of 4,500 rad) for cervical carcinoma of the uterus. The other was a sixty-four-year-old woman with bladder carcinoma twenty-five years after irradiation with 150-K volt apparatus for cervical carcinoma of the uterus. From the late radiation change of the skin, it was estimated that the total dose of prior radiation might be 4,000 rad or more. Both had high-grade, high-stage transitional cell bladder carcinoma, and the former was with marked mucus-forming adenomatous metaplasia.

  5. [Markers of prostatic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Safarík, L

    1998-08-31

    Author gives the survey of markers at prostate carcinoma, that has been known so far, their origin and the use in experiment and clinical praxis. He discusses their sensitivity and specificity and shows the perspective of new markers discovered and used in the praxis on basis of molecular genetics.

  6. Carcinoma of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Orovan, W. L.; DeMaria, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    Prostatic carcinoma is the third most common cause of death from cancer among males. Selection of appropriate therapy and evaluation of results is often difficult, since patients present at different stages of the disease. Methods of staging, diagnosis, treatment of localized tumor, radiation, surgery and treatment of metastases are described. PMID:21274084

  7. Stability of Detached Grown Germanium Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweizer, M.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Vujisic, L.; Szofran, F. R.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Detachment of the melt meniscus from the crucible during semiconductor Bridgman growth experiments has been observed in recent years, especially under microgravity experiments. Under earth conditions, the hydrostatic pressure counteracts the mechanism, whereby it is more difficult to achieve detached Bridgman growth. Attempts to get stable detached growth under terrestrial conditions have been discussed in the literature and have been the subject of recent experiments in our own group. The advantage of crystals grown without wall contact is obvious: In general, they possess a higher crystal quality than conventional Bridgman grown crystals with wall contact. However, due to the interaction of different parameters such as the wetting behavior of the melt with the crucible, and the dependence of the growth angle with the shape of the melt meniscus, the mechanism leading to detachment is very complicated and not completely understood. We have grown several doped and undoped Germanium crystals with the detached Bridgman and the normal Bridgman growth technique. Pyrolytic boron nitride containers were used for all growth experiments. In the detached grown crystals the typical gap thickness between the pBN crucible and the crystal is in the range of 10 to 100 micrometers, which was determined by performing profilometer measurements. Etch pit density measurements were also performed and a comparison between detached and attached grown crystals will be given. An interesting feature was detected on the surface of a detached grown crystal. Strong surface striations with an average axial distance of 0.5 mm were observed around the whole circumference. The maximum fluctuation of the gap thickness is in the range of 5-10 micrometers. These variations of the detached gap along the crystal axis can be explained by a kind of stiction of the melt/crucible interface and thus by a variation of the meniscus shape. This phenomenon leading to the fluctuation of the gap thickness will be

  8. Stability of Detached Grown Germanium Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweizer, M.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Motakef, S.; Szofran, F. R.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Detachment of the melt meniscus from the crucible during semiconductor Bridgman growth experiments has been observed in recent years especially, under microgravity experiments. Under earth conditions, the hydrostatic pressure counteracts the mechanism, whereby it is more difficult to achieve detached Bridgman growth. Attempts to get stable detached growth under terrestrial conditions have been discussed in the literature and have been the subject of recent experiments in our own group. The advantage of crystals grown without wall contact is obvious: In general, they possess a higher crystal quality than conventional Bridgman grown crystals with wall contact. However, due to the interaction of different parameters such as the wetting behavior of the melt with the crucible, and the dependence of the growth angle with the shape of the melt meniscus, the mechanism leading to detachment is very complicated and not completely understood. We have grown several doped and undoped Germanium crystals with the detached Bridgman and the normal Bridgman growth technique. Pyrolytic boron nitride containers were used for all growth experiments. In the detached grown crystals the typical gap thickness between the pBN crucible and the crystal is in the range of 10 to 100 microns, which was determined by performing profilometer measurements. Etch pit density measurements were also performed and a comparison between detached and attached grown crystals will be given. An interesting feature was detected on the surface of a detached grown crystal. Strong surface striations with an average axial distance of 0.5mm were observed around the whole circumference. The maximum fluctuation of the gap thickness is in the range of 5-10 microns. These variations of the detached gap along the crystal axis can be explained by a kind of stiction of the melt/crucible interface and thus by a variation of the meniscus shape. This phenomenon leading to the fluctuation of the gap thickness will be

  9. Stability of Detached Grown Germanium Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweizer, M.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Motakef, S.; Szofran, F. R.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Detachment of the melt meniscus from the crucible during semiconductor Bridgman growth experiments has been observed in recent years especially, under microgravity experiments. Under earth conditions, the hydrostatic pressure counteracts the mechanism, whereby it is more difficult to achieve detached Bridgman growth. Attempts to get stable detached growth under terrestrial conditions have been discussed in the literature and have been the subject of recent experiments in our own group. The advantage of crystals grown without wall contact is obvious: In general, they possess a higher crystal quality than conventional Bridgman grown crystals with wall contact. However, due to the interaction of different parameters such as the wetting behavior of the melt with the crucible, and the dependence of the growth angle with the shape of the melt meniscus, the mechanism leading to detachment is very complicated and not completely understood. We have grown several doped and undoped Germanium crystals with the detached Bridgman and the normal Bridgman growth technique. Pyrolytic boron nitride containers were used for all growth experiments. In the detached grown crystals the typical gap thickness between the pBN crucible and the crystal is in the range of 10 to 100 microns, which was determined by performing profilometer measurements. Etch pit density measurements were also performed and a comparison between detached and attached grown crystals will be given. An interesting feature was detected on the surface of a detached grown crystal. Strong surface striations with an average axial distance of 0.5mm were observed around the whole circumference. The maximum fluctuation of the gap thickness is in the range of 5-10 microns. These variations of the detached gap along the crystal axis can be explained by a kind of stiction of the melt/crucible interface and thus by a variation of the meniscus shape. This phenomenon leading to the fluctuation of the gap thickness will be

  10. Stability of Detached Grown Germanium Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweizer, M.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Vujisic, L.; Szofran, F. R.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Detachment of the melt meniscus from the crucible during semiconductor Bridgman growth experiments has been observed in recent years, especially under microgravity experiments. Under earth conditions, the hydrostatic pressure counteracts the mechanism, whereby it is more difficult to achieve detached Bridgman growth. Attempts to get stable detached growth under terrestrial conditions have been discussed in the literature and have been the subject of recent experiments in our own group. The advantage of crystals grown without wall contact is obvious: In general, they possess a higher crystal quality than conventional Bridgman grown crystals with wall contact. However, due to the interaction of different parameters such as the wetting behavior of the melt with the crucible, and the dependence of the growth angle with the shape of the melt meniscus, the mechanism leading to detachment is very complicated and not completely understood. We have grown several doped and undoped Germanium crystals with the detached Bridgman and the normal Bridgman growth technique. Pyrolytic boron nitride containers were used for all growth experiments. In the detached grown crystals the typical gap thickness between the pBN crucible and the crystal is in the range of 10 to 100 micrometers, which was determined by performing profilometer measurements. Etch pit density measurements were also performed and a comparison between detached and attached grown crystals will be given. An interesting feature was detected on the surface of a detached grown crystal. Strong surface striations with an average axial distance of 0.5 mm were observed around the whole circumference. The maximum fluctuation of the gap thickness is in the range of 5-10 micrometers. These variations of the detached gap along the crystal axis can be explained by a kind of stiction of the melt/crucible interface and thus by a variation of the meniscus shape. This phenomenon leading to the fluctuation of the gap thickness will be

  11. Ion implanted epitaxially grown ZnSe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The epitaxial growth of ZnSe on (100) Ge using the close-spaced transport process is described. Substrate temperature of 575 C and source temperatures of 675 C yield 10 micron, single crystal layers in 10 hours. The Ge substrates provides a nonreplenishable chemical transport agent and the epitaxial layer thickness is limited to approximately 10 microns. Grown epitaxial layers show excellent photoluminescence structure at 77 K. Grown layers exhibit high resistivity, and annealing in Zn vapor at 575 C reduces the resistivity to 10-100 ohms-cm. Zinc vapor annealing quenches the visible photoluminescence.

  12. Photoaffinity labeling of the progesterone receptor from human endometrial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, C.L.; Satyaswaroop, P.G.

    1985-11-01

    A nude mouse model for the growth of human endometrial carcinoma and hormonal modulation of the progesterone receptor (PR) was established previously. This study describes the effect of 17 beta-estradiol and tamoxifen (TAM) on growth rate and PR concentration in a hormonally responsive human endometrial tumor (EnCa 101) grown in this experimental system and presents the first characterization of human endometrial carcinoma PR. EnCa 101 was transplanted subcutaneously into ovariectomized, BALB/c, nu/nu athymic mice and grown under 17 beta-estradiol-stimulated, TAM-stimulated, and control conditions. Both 17 beta-estradiol and TAM increased the growth rate of EnCa 101 in nude mice, and a parallel increase in the cytosol PR concentration was observed. PR was partially purified by phosphocellulose and DEAE cellulose chromatography, and the DEAE eluate was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and photoaffinity labeling with (17 alpha-methyl-TH)promegestone ((TH)R5020). Two PR-negative tumors (EnCa K and EnCa V) were also examined in parallel. Photolabeling and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of EnCa 101 grown in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol or TAM revealed incorporation of (3H)R5020 into proteins of molecular weight approximately 116,000 and 85,000. Labeled proteins of molecular weight 66,000, 45,000, and 35,000 were also observed. No incorporation of (TH)R5020 was observed in EnCa 101 grown in the absence of estrogen, nor was any observed in EnCa K or EnCa V.

  13. Container-grown longleaf pine seedling quality

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Hainds; James P. Barnett

    2006-01-01

    The Longleaf Alliance, in cooperation with the USDA Forest Service, the Georgia Forestry Commission, and the Clemson Extension Service, has installed numerous longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedling quality studies across the Southeastern United States. This paper reviews survival and growth for different classes of container-grown longleaf...

  14. Cannabis plants illicitly grown in Jutland (Denmark).

    PubMed

    Kaa, E

    1989-01-01

    Four hundred forty-nine fresh cannabis plants and 26 fruiting tops harvested in Jutland (Denmark) from July to September 1988 were characterized according to weight, height, marihuana yield, and cannabinoid content. The median weights were 308 g and 584 g for plants grown outdoors (n = 418) and in greenhouses (n = 31), respectively. The average marihuana yield was 8.7% for the plants grown outdoors and slightly lower for the greenhouse plants. Great variations, however, were seen both between and within the individual harvests. The mean concentration of total THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) was 0.87% for the plants grown outdoors. An increase according to the month of harvest was observed. For plants grown in greenhouses the mean value of total THC was 1.35%, while the mean concentration of fruiting tops was 2.13%. All plants contained cannabidiol (CBD), but only negligible concentrations of other cannabinoids. In approximately 80% of the plants the THC content was higher than the CBD content (drug type), while the rest either contained equal concentrations (intermediate type) or most CBD (fiber type).

  15. Molecule diagram from earth-grown crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Like many chemicals in the body, the three-dimensional structure of insulin is extremely complex. When grown on the ground, insulin crystals do not grow as large or as ordered as researchers desire--obscuring the blueprint of the insulin molecules.

  16. Efflux Of Nitrate From Hydroponically Grown Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. C.; Aslam, M.; Ward, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiments to measure influx, and efflux of nitrate from hydroponically grown wheat seedlings. Ratio between efflux and influx greater in darkness than in light; increased with concentration of nitrate in nutrient solution. On basis of experiments, authors suggest nutrient solution optimized at lowest possible concentration of nitrate.

  17. Grown-ups Ought To Know Better.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brightman, Samuel C.

    Among the articles by Sam Brightman collected in this volume from the newsletter, "Adult & Continuing Education Today (ACET)" are the following: "Grown-Ups Ought to Know Better"; "Adult Education: The Only Sure Factor Is Growth"; "Adult Education Important in This Election Year"; "Will Nursery School External Degree Programs Come Next?";…

  18. Molecule diagram from earth-grown crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Like many chemicals in the body, the three-dimensional structure of insulin is extremely complex. When grown on the ground, insulin crystals do not grow as large or as ordered as researchers desire--obscuring the blueprint of the insulin molecules.

  19. Efflux Of Nitrate From Hydroponically Grown Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. C.; Aslam, M.; Ward, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiments to measure influx, and efflux of nitrate from hydroponically grown wheat seedlings. Ratio between efflux and influx greater in darkness than in light; increased with concentration of nitrate in nutrient solution. On basis of experiments, authors suggest nutrient solution optimized at lowest possible concentration of nitrate.

  20. Luminescence from Erbium Oxide Grown on Silicon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    H9.14 Luminescence from erbium oxide grown on silicon E. Nogales’, B. Mrndez , J.Piqueras’, R.Plugaru2 , J. A. Garcfa3 and T. J. Tate4 ’ Universidad ... Complutense de Madrid, Dpto. Ffsica de Materiales, 28040 Madrid, Spain.2Inst. of Microtechnology, Bucharest, Romania.3Universidad del Pais Vasco, Dpto

  1. Fallacious Carcinoma- Spindle Cell Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M; Govinda, Girish; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Venugopal, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a unique, rare and peculiar biphasic tumour of head and neck which is not frequently observed in the oral cavity. This variant of squamous cell carcinoma although of monophasic epithelial origin, simulates a sarcoma and is an aggressive carcinoma with high frequency of recurrence and metastasis. A correct and timely diagnosis is of paramount importance. Most of the tumours require an Immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel for confirmation or diagnosis. We report a case of spindle cell carcinoma with varied histopathological morphology and clinical presentation in a middle aged female with a brief review of literature. PMID:27630965

  2. Oblimersen in Treating Patients With Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Recurrent Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage I Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage II Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage IV Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin

  3. Secretory Carcinoma of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Aktepe, Fatma; Sarsenov, Dauren; Özmen, Vahit

    2016-01-01

    Secretory carcinoma is a very rare subtype of breast carcinoma. These tumors are generally associated with a favorable prognosis, although having triple-negative phenotype (estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) negative and c-erbB2 (HER2) negative). In this presentation, a rare secretory carcinoma of the breast in a woman aged 24 years is discussed and the literature is reviewed. PMID:28331758

  4. Recurrent fusion oncogenes in carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Manuel R

    2006-12-01

    Chromosome structural aberrations giving rise to fusion oncogenes is one of the most common mechanisms in oncogenesis. Although this type of gene rearrangement has long been recognized as a fundamental pathogenetic mechanism in hematologi-cal malignancies and soft-tissue tumors, it has until recently only rarely been described in the common carcinomas. In this review, the existing information on recurrent fusion oncogenes characterizing carcinomas is summarized, namely, the RET and NTRK1 fusion oncogenes in papillary thyroid carcinoma, PAX8-PPARG in follicular thyroid carcinoma, MECT1-MAML2 in mucoepidermoid carcinoma, the TFE3 and TFEB fusion oncogenes in kidney carcinomas, BRD4-NUT in midline carcinomas, ETV6-NTRK3 in secretory breast carcinomas, and TMPRSS2-ETS fusion oncogenes in prostate carcinomas. As in hematological and soft-tissue malignancies, the most common types of genes involved in fusion oncogenes in carcinomas are transcription factors and tyrosine kinases. With a few exceptions, most fusion oncogenes are tumor type specific in carcinomas, as in other cancers. The mechanisms behind the relative specificity of this type of somatic mutation involve the cellular environment influencing the selection of oncogenic fusions, and the oncogenic fusions in turn driving differentiation programs that may alter the cellular environment. The data summarized on different types of carcinomas characterized by fusion oncogenes indicate that the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in epithelial carcino-genesis may be similar to those known to operate in hematological and soft-tissue malignancies, and further anticipates that many more fusion oncogenes await identification in the most common types of human cancer.

  5. Primary pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Avila Martínez, Régulo José; Marrón Fernández, Carmen; Hermoso Alarza, Fátima; Zuluaga Bedoya, Mauricio; Meneses Pardo, José Carlos; Gámez García, A Pablo

    2013-09-01

    To describe the characteristics and the result of surgical treatment in a series of patients with primary pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC). A descriptive study of 11 patients with primary PSC who were treated by the Thoracic Surgery Department at the Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre in Madrid (Spain) between 2005 and 2009. We analyzed age, gender, histologic type, pathological stage, type of surgery and survival (in months). Ten patients were male and 11 were smokers; mean age of was 55. The pathologic stages were: 4 stage IIA, 3 stage IIB, 2 stage IB and 2 stage IA. The most frequent histologic type was pleomorphic carcinoma, which was found in 5 cases. Complete resection was performed in 10 cases, and 7 received adjuvant therapy. Seven are disease-free after a mean follow-up period of 49 months. Complete surgery in the initial stages of primary PSC can improve survival. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Database.

    PubMed

    Pua, K C; Khoo, A S B; Yap, Y Y; Subramaniam, S K; Ong, C A; Gopala Krishnan, G; Shahid, H

    2008-09-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a cancer which is common in Asia. We report the establishment and early results of a multi-institutional prospective study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which seeks to systematically collect data as well as blood and tumour tissue samples from patients diagnosed with nasopharyngeal cancer at six centres in Malaysia. A total of 484 confirmed NPC cases were reported from the six participating centres between 1st July 2007 and 29th February 2008. Of these, 225 were newly diagnosed cases, 53 were recurrent cases and 206 were in remission at the time of reporting. Amongst the newly diagnosed cases, the most common presenting symptom was the presence of neck lumps (42%). Ophthalmo-neurologic symptoms were the presenting symptoms of 11% of the new cases. The majority of cases (75%) presented at stage III/IV.

  7. Biomarkers for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Behne, Tara; Copur, M. Sitki

    2012-01-01

    The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors and carries a poor survival rate. The management of patients at risk for developing HCC remains challenging. Increased understanding of cancer biology and technological advances have enabled identification of a multitude of pathological, genetic, and molecular events that drive hepatocarcinogenesis leading to discovery of numerous potential biomarkers in this disease. They are currently being aggressively evaluated to establish their value in early diagnosis, optimization of therapy, reducing the emergence of new tumors, and preventing the recurrence after surgical resection or liver transplantation. These markers not only help in prediction of prognosis or recurrence but may also assist in deciding appropriate modality of therapy and may represent novel potential targets for therapeutic interventions. In this paper, a summary of most relevant available data from published papers reporting various tissue and serum biomarkers involved in hepatocellular carcinoma was presented. PMID:22655201

  8. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kew, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Because of its frequency and grave prognosis, preventing hepatocellular carcinoma is an urgent priority. Prevention should be possible because environmental carcinogens-chronic hepatitis B and C virus infections, dietary exposure to aflatoxins, and iron overload-cause the great majority of these tumors. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection accounts for 55% of global hepatocellular carcinomas and 80% of those in the high-incidence Asia Pacific and sub-Saharan African regions. In these regions the infection that becomes chronic is predominantly acquired very early in life. A safe and effective vaccine against this virus is available and its universal inclusion in the immunization of infants has already resulted in a marked reduction of chronic infection and a 70% decrease in the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in those immunized. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in industrialized countries. The infection is mainly acquired in adulthood and, until a vaccine becomes available, prevention will consist mainly of identifying, counselling, and treating chronically infected individuals, preventing spread of the virus by the use of safe injection practices (particularly in intravenous drug abusers), and screening all donated blood for the presence of the virus. 4.5 billion of the world.s population are exposed to dietary aflatoxins. Prevention involves treating susceptible crops to prevent fungal contamination, and handling the foodstuffs in such a way as to prevent contamination during storage. Iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis can be prevented by repeated venesection and in African dietary iron overload by fermenting the home-brewed beer in iron-free containers.

  9. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: clinical trends.

    PubMed

    Indudharan, R; Valuyeetham, K A; Kannan, T; Sidek, D S

    1997-08-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most difficult diseases to diagnose at an early stage. The clinical presentation of 122 patients with confirmed NPC is described and the findings analysed. The common modes of presentation and cases where detailed nasopharyngeal examination need to be performed are highlighted. We emphasize the importance of health education and training for primary care physicians for early detection of these cases.

  10. Megakaryocytes mimicking metastatic breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hoda, Syed A; Resetkova, Erika; Yusuf, Yasmin; Cahan, Anthony; Rosen, Paul P

    2002-05-01

    False-positive diagnosis of lymph nodes occurs when a benign element in a lymph node, or in its capsule, is interpreted as metastatic carcinoma. This report describes a patient with breast carcinoma who had megakaryocytes in axillary sentinel lymph nodes mimicking metastatic carcinoma. The patient had no history of a hematologic disease, and we found no evidence of a concurrent hematopoietic disorder. The megakaryocytes were reactive for CD31, CD61, and von Willebrand factor, but not for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3). Megakaryocytes should be added to the list of benign histologic abnormalities that may simulate metastatic carcinoma in a sentinel lymph node.

  11. [Radiotherapy for primary lung carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Giraud, P; Lacornerie, T; Mornex, F

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, technique of radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy, for primary lung carcinoma are presented. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed.

  12. Vismodegib in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Amaria, R N; Bowles, D W; Lewis, K D; Jimeno, A

    2012-07-01

    Vismodegib is a novel, small-molecule inhibitor of smoothened, a key component of the hedgehog signaling pathway. Increased hedgehog pathway signaling is critical in the development of hereditary and spontaneous basal cell carcinomas of the skin, and has been implicated in the development of a number of other tumors. In preclinical models, vismodegib demonstrated potent antitumor activity in hedgehog-dependent tumors, particularly basal cell carcinomas. Clinically, phase I and II studies showed dramatic anticancer activity in patients with advanced basal cell carcinomas. In January 2012, vismodegib was approved by the FDA for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic basal cell carcinomas of the skin.

  13. Merkel cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koljonen, Virve

    2006-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an unusual primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. MCC is a fatal disease, and patients have a poor chance of survival. Moreover, MCC lacks distinguishing clinical features, and thus by the time the diagnosis is made, the tumour usually have metastasized. MCC mainly affects sun-exposed areas of elderly persons. Half of the tumours are located in the head and neck region. Methods MCC was first described in 1972. Since then, most of the cases reported, have been in small series of patients. Most of the reports concern single cases or epidemiological studies. The present study reviews the world literature on MCC. The purpose of this article is to shed light on this unknown neuroendocrine carcinoma and provide the latest information on prognostic markers and treatment options. Results The epidemiological studies have revealed that large tumour size, male sex, truncal site, nodal/distant disease at presentation, and duration of disease before presentation, are poor prognostic factors. The recommended initial treatment is extensive local excision. Adjuvant radiation therapy has recently been shown to improve survival. Thus far, no chemotherapy protocol have achieved the same objective. Conclusion Although rare, the fatality of this malignancy makes is important to understand the etiology and pathophysiology. During the last few years, the research on MCC has produced prognostic markers, which can be translated into clinical patient care. PMID:16466578

  14. Hypopharyngeal carcinoma after radiation for tuberculosis: radiation-induced carcinoma.

    PubMed

    van der Putten, Lisa; de Bree, Remco; Kuik, Dirk J; Rietveld, Derek H F; Langendijk, Johannes A; Leemans, C René

    2010-09-01

    Radiation may cause radiation-induced cancers after a long latency period. In a group of 111 patients surgically treated for hypopharyngeal carcinoma, patients previously treated with radiotherapy for tuberculosis in the neck were compared to patients without previous radiotherapy. Seven patients (7.4%) underwent radiotherapy (median age 15 years) and developed a hypopharyngeal carcinoma (median age 70 years, median latency period 54.4 year). Considering this long latency period and the localisation in the previous radiation field these tumours can be classified as potentially radiation-induced carcinomas. Patients with potentially radiation-induced carcinomas were significantly older when the hypopharyngeal carcinoma was diagnosed (p=0.048), were more frequently females (p=0.05) and had a worse 5-year regional control rate (p=0.048). When radiotherapy is considered in young patients the risk of induction of tumours has to be kept in mind. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mineral composition of organically grown tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

  16. Nucleolus in clinostat-grown plants

    SciTech Connect

    Shen-Miller, J.; Dannenhoffer, J. ); Hinchman, R. )

    1991-05-01

    The clinostat is an apparatus that is used to mimic zero gravity in studies of plant growth in the absence of gravitropic response. Clinostat-grown tissue cultures of carrot exhibit significant increases both in the number of nuclei containing more than one nucleolus and in nucleolar volume. Oat seedlings germinated and grown on clinostats exhibit a decreased rate of shoot elongation, increased tissue sensitivity to applied auxin, and an increased response to gravitropic stimulation. Clinostat treatment clearly affects plant metabolism. The nucleolus is the region in the nucleus where ribosome synthesis and assembly take place. The 18S, 5.8S, and 25S ribosomal genes, in tandem units, are located in the nucleolus. Ribosomes orchestrate the production of all proteins that are necessary for the maintenance of cell growth, development, and survival. A full study of the effects of nullification of gravitropism, by clinostat rotation, on nucleolar development in barley has been initiated. The authors study developmental changes of nucleolar number and diameter in clinostat-grown root tissues. Preliminary results show that barley roots exhibit changes in nucleolar number and diameter. Growth rates of barley root and shoot also appear to be reduced, in measurements of both length and weight.

  17. Lobomycosis and squamous cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Lisiane; Rodrigues, Luciana; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto Chirano; Santos, Mônica; Talhari, Sinésio; Talhari, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    The occurence of squamous cell carcinoma on long-lasting ulcers is classic. Malignant transformation may occur on burn scars and chronic ulcers of varying etiology, including infectious agents. Transformation of old lobomycosis lesion scars into squamous cell carcinoma has been rarely reported. Careful and long-term follow-up of such patients is important to avoid carcinomatous transformation. PMID:23739701

  18. Tubulocystic carcinoma of the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Adair, Carol F.; Zhang, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    Tubulocystic carcinoma (TCC) of the kidney is a unique, rare, and recently recognized neoplasm. Although originally considered a low-grade collecting duct carcinoma, TCC is now considered to be a distinct entity. TCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic renal neoplasms. We report a case of TCC arising in the left kidney. PMID:26130898

  19. Targeting Ovarian Carcinoma Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    expertise with expertise in gynecologic oncology /ovarian carcinoma and in animal models of cancer this proposal will: 1) Identify, isolate, and...more numerous differentiated progeny characterizing the malignancy . Although the clinical significance of these cancer stem cells (CSC) has been...the dramatic initial response rates in ovarian carcinoma represent therapeutic effectiveness against the differentiated cancer cells making up the

  20. Spindle cell carcinoma in maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Soumi; Sreelatha, S V; Hegde, Nidarsh; Nair, Preeti P

    2013-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinomas (sarcomatoid carcinomas) are rare tumours. It is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma which has spindled tumour cells, which simulate a true sarcoma, but are epithelial in origin. They are extremely uncommon in the head and neck region. Only five cases with maxillary origin have been discussed in the literature. As compared to squamous cell carcinoma of maxilla, this variant is associated with poor diagnosis and advanced disease at presentation, as is demonstrated in the case presented. There are no standard recommendations for management owing to the rarity of this histology. Surgery and radiotherapy form the mainstays of treatment. We report a rare case of spindle cell carcinoma involving the maxilla. PMID:23632620

  1. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctiva.

    PubMed

    Gamel, J W; Eiferman, R A; Guibor, P

    1984-05-01

    A 73-year-old man had a limbal nodule that, on histopathologic examination, proved to be mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctiva. Despite radiation therapy and extensive corneoscleral lamellar resection, widespread invasion of the lids and orbit ultimately led to exenteration. Although mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctiva resembles squamous cell carcinoma clinically and histopathologically, it pursues a more rapid and destructive clinical course. Intraepithelial invasion often leads to tumor involvement of conjunctiva and skin that seem normal on clinical examination. Special stains and a high level of suspicion are required for diagnosis of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctiva, and proper initial management demands more aggressive surgical resection than is usually indicated for squamous cell carcinoma.

  2. Physical and mechanical properties of saligna eucalyptus grown in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    C.C. Gerhards

    1965-01-01

    Physical and mechanical properties were determined for saligna eucalyptus (Eucalyptus saligna, Smith) grown in Hawaii. In comparison with wood of the same species grown in Australia, saligna eucalyptus grown in Hawaii was lower in density, shrinkage, and compressive strength parallel to grain; it was about equal in strength in bending and shear; and it was stiffer....

  3. Human lung small-cell carcinoma contains bombesin.

    PubMed Central

    Erisman, M D; Linnoila, R I; Hernandez, O; DiAugustine, R P; Lazarus, L H

    1982-01-01

    The presence of immunoreactive bombesin in a human lung small-cell carcinoma grown in nude mice was established by several criteria: (i) Radioimmunoassay of tissue extracts for bombesin revealed approximately 6.5 pmol/g of tissue; (ii) bombesin was found in 12-14% of the tumor cells by immunohistochemical localization; (iii) gel filtration of small-cell carcinoma extract on Sephadex G-75 and Bio-Gel P-4 gave only a single peak of immunoreactivity, which occurred at the elution volume of bombesin; and (iv) reverse-phase HPLC of acid-solubilized extracts separated the immunoreactive material into three discrete peaks, one of which eluted with a retention time identical to that of synthetic bombesin. The presence of bombesin may represent the ectopic expression of this peptide in small-cell carcinoma, because immunoreactive bombesin was found in human fetal and neonatal lung but apparently not in adult lung tissue [Wharton, J., Polak, J. M., Bloom, S. R., Ghatei, M. A., Solcia, E., Brown, M. R. & Pearse, A. G. E. (1978) Nature (London) 273, 769-770]. The immunoreactive bombesin previously found in mammalian tissues is considerably larger than amphibian bombesin; these data substantiate the presence of a mammalian form of bombesin in a human tumor that may have a structure similar to that of the amphibian peptide. Images PMID:6285381

  4. [Adrenal carcinoma induced hypoglycemia].

    PubMed

    Soutelo, Jimena; Saban, Melina; Borghi Torzillo, Florencia; Lutfi, Ruben; Leal Reyna, Mariela

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal carcinoma is a rare malignancy of poor prognosis. The most common clinical presentation is secondary to hormone production, while the development of symptomatic hypoglycemia is exceptional. We report the case of a 37 year old-woman admitted to hospital with severe hypoglycemia, hypertension, hypokalemia and amenorrhea. In the laboratory we found hypoglycemia, with low insulin levels, and androgen levels in tumor range. CT of abdomen and pelvis showed a heterogeneous lesion of solid appearance without a cleavage plane relative to liver parenchyma, and intense contrast enhancement. Retroperitoneal mass was removed, and the patient evolved without complications, blood glucose and potassium were normalized, blood pressure stabilized and menstrual cycles recovered.

  5. Endomandibular acinic cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bondi, R; Nardi, P; Urso, C

    1989-01-01

    A rare case of endomandibular acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) in a white woman aged 79 is reported. Radiologic examination revealed an osteolytic area within the jaw, extending from the left molar region to the ascending branch. The tumor was located within a cavity of the mandible and did not seem to infiltrate the bone. Histologically, it was composed of large epithelial cells with granular cytoplasm, arranged in solid nests, sometimes displaying microcystic spaces. ACC generally occurs in salivary glands. In the reported case, the tumor was considered to arise from ectopic salivary tissue enclosed in the jaw, as no lesion was found in minor salivary glands.

  6. [Vascularization of hepatoceliular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Tumanova, U N; Shchegolev, A I

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives the data available in the literature on vascularization of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sinusoidal capillarization and unpaired arteries are shown to play an important role in the development and progression of HCC. The density of microvessels detected by immunohistochemical techniques is a morphological indicator of the degree of angiogenic processes. Higher-grade HCC is followed by changes in its vascularization and concurrent with a progressive increase in the proportion of blood entering along the hepatic artery. The morphological indicators of microvessel density are recommended to use as addi- tional criteria for determining the prognosis of the disease, designing targeted anti-angiogenic drugs, and evaluating the efficiency of performed therapy.

  7. Squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Webb, Julie L; Burns, Rachel E; Brown, Holly M; LeRoy, Bruce E; Kosarek, Carrie E

    2009-03-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a relatively common, malignant neoplasm of dogs and cats that can arise in a variety of locations. The gross appearance of SCC can be variable and nonspecific, so definitive diagnosis requires microscopic examination of the tissue (cytology or histology). Several treatment modalities exist, but surgical excision, if possible, is regarded as the best treatment option. Early diagnosis and treatment of SCC are key because small, early-stage tumors are the most amenable to treatment and carry the best prognosis.

  8. [Basal cell carcinoma and rare form variants].

    PubMed

    Liersch, J; Schaller, J

    2014-09-01

    Basal cell carcinomas are the most common primary cutaneous malignant neoplasms. The diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma represents a common and routine task for pathologists and dermatopathologists. The aim of this review is the clinical and histopathological presentation of the most common subtypes of basal cell carcinoma. Furthermore, the rare variants of basal cell carcinoma and their differential diagnoses are also discussed.

  9. Composite encapsulated papillary carcinoma and solid papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaoyan; Wei, Shi

    2015-03-01

    Encapsulated papillary carcinoma (EPC) and solid papillary carcinoma (SPC) are distinctive variants of intraductal papillary carcinomas, each accounting for <1% of breast carcinomas. Here we report a composite carcinoma consisting of EPC and SPC. A 73-year-old woman was found to have a high density mass in the left breast on mammogram. A biopsy showed intermediate to high grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Gross examination of the lumpectomy specimen revealed a solid, multinodular mass. Microscopic examination demonstrated two morphologically distinct intraductal carcinomas intermingled with each other. One had delicate papillae in multi-cystic spaces surrounded by thick fibrous capsule, consistent with EPC. The other had solid tumor nests with delicate fibrovascular cores. The cells were monotonous with round nuclei and salt and pepper-like chromatin, characteristic of SPC. The lack of myoepithelial cells within the papillae and at the periphery of the lesion was confirmed by immunostaining for p63 and CK5/6. Neuroendocrine differentiation of SPC was demonstrated by neuron specific enolase staining. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of composite EPC and SPC. It raises an interesting question as to a possible common pathway of carcinogenesis of these two rare variants.

  10. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens of cartilage tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Constructs grown on Mir (A) tended to become more spherical, whereas those grown on Earth (B) maintained their initial disc shape. These findings might be related to differences in cultivation conditions, i.e., videotapes showed that constructs floated freely in microgravity but settled and collided with the rotating vessel wall at 1g (Earth's gravity). In particular, on Mir the constructs were exposed to uniform shear and mass transfer at all surfaces such that the tissue grew equally in all directions, whereas on Earth the settling of discoid constructs tended to align their flat circular areas perpendicular to the direction of motion, increasing shear and mass transfer circumferentially such that the tissue grew preferentially in the radial direction. A and B are full cross sections of constructs from Mir and Earth groups shown at 10-power. C and D are representative areas at the construct surfaces enlarged to 200-power. They are stained red with safranin-O. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Photo credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  11. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  12. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens of cartilage tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Constructs grown on Mir (A) tended to become more spherical, whereas those grown on Earth (B) maintained their initial disc shape. These findings might be related to differences in cultivation conditions, i.e., videotapes showed that constructs floated freely in microgravity but settled and collided with the rotating vessel wall at 1g (Earth's gravity). In particular, on Mir the constructs were exposed to uniform shear and mass transfer at all surfaces such that the tissue grew equally in all directions, whereas on Earth the settling of discoid constructs tended to align their flat circular areas perpendicular to the direction of motion, increasing shear and mass transfer circumferentially such that the tissue grew preferentially in the radial direction. A and B are full cross sections of constructs from Mir and Earth groups shown at 10-power. C and D are representative areas at the construct surfaces enlarged to 200-power. They are stained red with safranin-O. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Photo credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  13. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  14. Histopathology of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schlageter, Manuel; Terracciano, Luigi Maria; D’Angelo, Salvatore; Sorrentino, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently the sixth most common type of cancer with a high mortality rate and an increasing incidence worldwide. Its etiology is usually linked to environmental, dietary or life-style factors. HCC most commonly arises in a cirrhotic liver but interestingly an increasing proportion of HCCs develop in the non-fibrotic or minimal fibrotic liver and a shift in the underlying etiology can be observed. Although this process is yet to be completely understood, this changing scenario also has impact on the material seen by pathologists, presenting them with new diagnostic dilemmas. Histopathologic criteria for diagnosing classical, progressed HCC are well established and known, but with an increase in detection of small and early HCCs due to routine screening programs, the diagnosis of these small lesions in core needle biopsies poses a difficult challenge. These lesions can be far more difficult to distinguish from one another than progressed HCC, which is usually a clear cut hematoxylin and eosin diagnosis. Furthermore lesions thought to derive from progenitor cells have recently been reclassified in the WHO. This review summarizes recent developments and tries to put new HCC biomarkers in context with the WHOs reclassification. Furthermore it also addresses the group of tumors known as combined hepatocellular-cholangiocellular carcinomas. PMID:25473149

  15. Immunotherapy of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Märten, Angela

    2008-05-01

    Patients with carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas have especially poor prognosis with a five-year survival rate of <1% and a median survival of 4-6 months. Pancreatic carcinoma is a systemic disease, insensitive to radiotherapy and mostly to chemotherapy. Accordingly, new treatment modalities are worth being investigated. One of the promising approaches is immunotherapy. Several phase I/II trials that have been published show interesting results, whereupon antibody-based strategies seem to fail and unspecific stimulation or vaccination with peptides look encouraging. Furthermore, phase II trials dealing with combination therapies are highly promising. One of them, a combination of chemoradiotherapy plus interferon-alpha is currently tested in a randomized phase III trial. As most of the trials had enrolled only limited numbers of patients and most of the trials were not conducted and/or reported according to the new standards it is difficult to draw final conclusions from the discussed trials. Immuno-monitoring was performed only in 40% of the discussed publications. In all cases immune responses were observed and correlation with the clinical outcome is discussed. Immunotherapy of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and especially combination therapies including immunotherapy is an up-and-coming approach and needs to be investigated in well conducted phase III randomized controlled trials accompanied by appropriate immuno-monitoring.

  16. Etiopathogenesis of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Makazlieva, Tanja; Vaskova, Olivija; Majstorov, Venjamin

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Thyroid malignomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasm consisting of most frequent differentiated encountered carcinomas, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma, then medullary thyroid carcinoma originating from neuroendocrine calcitonin-producing C-cells and rare forms of thyroid lymphomas arising from intrathyroidal lymphatic tissue, thyroid sarcomas and poorly differentiated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. There are increasing numbers of epidemiological studies and publications that have suggested increased incidence rate of thyroid carcinomas. We have read, analysed and compare available reviews and original articles investigating different etiological factors in the development of thyroid carcinomas through Google Scholar and PubMed Database. DISCUSSION: Aetiology involved in the development of thyroid carcinomas is multifactorial and includes external influences, as well as constitutional predispositions and genetic etiological factors. The actual effect of environmental and constitutional factors is on promoting genetic and epigenetic alterations which result in cell proliferation and oncogenesis. Until now are identified numerous genetic alterations, assumed to have an important role in oncogenesis, with MAPK and PI3K-AKT as crucial signalling networks regulating growth, proliferation, differentiation and cell survival/apoptosis. CONCLUSION: This new molecular insight could have a crucial impact on diagnosis and also on improving and selecting an appropriate treatment to the patients with thyroid malignancies. PMID:27703585

  17. Simultaneous development of renal cell carcinoma and multifocal urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Heng-Chang; Chuang, Cheng-Keng; Ng, Kwai-Fong

    2008-01-01

    Simultaneous occurrence of multifocal urothelial carcinoma (UC) and ipsilateral renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rare. We report a 67-year-old woman with multifocal, infiltrating urothelial carcinoma and unilateral renal cell carcinoma. She was referred to our department because of painless gross hematuria. Cystoscopy, computed tomography and retrograde pyelography studies revealed bladder, bilateral renal and ureter UC. She was treated with transurethral resection of the bladder tumor followed by bilateral nephroureterectomy. The pathological diagnosis was high-grade UC over the bladder and both renal pelves and ureters. A second tumor in the upper pole of the right kidney was reported as clear cell RCC. The patient was alive and still under careful surveillance at this writing.

  18. Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

  19. Magnetization dynamics of cobalt grown on graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, A. J.; White, S. P.; Adur, R.; Pu, Y.; Hammel, P. C.; Amamou, W.; Kawakami, R. K.

    2014-05-07

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spin pumping is a rapidly growing field which has demonstrated promising results in a variety of material systems. This technique utilizes the resonant precession of magnetization in a ferromagnet to inject spin into an adjacent non-magnetic material. Spin pumping into graphene is attractive on account of its exceptional spin transport properties. This article reports on FMR characterization of cobalt grown on chemical vapor deposition graphene and examines the validity of linewidth broadening as an indicator of spin pumping. In comparison to cobalt samples without graphene, direct contact cobalt-on-graphene exhibits increased FMR linewidth—an often used signature of spin pumping. Similar results are obtained in Co/MgO/graphene structures, where a 1 nm MgO layer acts as a tunnel barrier. However, magnetometry, magnetic force microscopy, and Kerr microscopy measurements demonstrate increased magnetic disorder in cobalt grown on graphene, perhaps due to changes in the growth process and an increase in defects. This magnetic disorder may account for the observed linewidth enhancement due to effects such as two-magnon scattering or mosaicity. As such, it is not possible to conclude successful spin injection into graphene from FMR linewidth measurements alone.

  20. Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

  1. Phytochemical phenolics in organically grown vegetables.

    PubMed

    Young, Janice E; Zhao, Xin; Carey, Edward E; Welti, Ruth; Yang, Shie-Shien; Wang, Weiqun

    2005-12-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake is inversely correlated with risks for several chronic diseases in humans. Phytochemicals, and in particular, phenolic compounds, present in plant foods may be partly responsible for these health benefits through a variety of mechanisms. Since environmental factors play a role in a plant's production of secondary metabolites, it was hypothesized that an organic agricultural production system would increase phenolic levels. Cultivars of leaf lettuce, collards, and pac choi were grown either on organically certified plots or on adjacent conventional plots. Nine prominent phenolic agents were quantified by HPLC, including phenolic acids (e. g. caffeic acid and gallic acid) and aglycone or glycoside flavonoids (e. g. apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, and quercetin). Statistically, we did not find significant higher levels of phenolic agents in lettuce and collard samples grown organically. The total phenolic content of organic pac choi samples as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, however, was significantly higher than conventional samples (p < 0.01), and seemed to be associated with a greater attack the plants in organic plots by flea beetles. These results indicated that although organic production method alone did not enhance biosynthesis of phytochemicals in lettuce and collards, the organic system provided an increased opportunity for insect attack, resulting in a higher level of total phenolic agents in pac choi.

  2. Is Invasive Micropapillary Serous Carcinoma a Low-grade Carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Yoshihiro; Imamura, Hiroko; Aman, Murasaki; Shida, Kaai; Kaku, Tsunehisa; Kato, Kiyoko; Oda, Yoshinao

    2016-01-01

    "Invasive micropapillary serous carcinoma" has been proposed as a synonym for low-grade serous carcinoma by some expert pathologists. In contrast, Singer and colleagues reported that some serous carcinomas with conspicuous invasive micropapillary pattern (SC-IMPs) can show high-grade nuclear atypia. However, the molecular features of such tumors have not been well documented. The aim of this study was to demonstrate and emphasize the fact that high-grade serous carcinoma confirmed by immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis can show conspicuous invasive micropapillary pattern. We selected 24 "SC-IMPs" and investigated: (1) their morphologic features; (2) the immunostaining pattern of p53 protein; and (3) KRAS/BRAF/TP53 gene mutations. The 24 SC-IMPs were subdivided into low-grade and high-grade tumors based primarily on the nuclear atypia, with the mitotic rate used as a secondary feature: low grade (n=5) and high grade (n=19). Low-grade SC-IMPs were characterized by low-mitotic activity, absence of abnormal mitosis, presence of serous borderline tumor, occasional BRAF mutation, and infrequent TP53 mutation. High-grade SC-IMPs were characterized by high-mitotic activity, presence of abnormal mitosis, conventional high-grade serous carcinoma, frequent TP53 mutation, and lack of KRAS/BRAF mutation. We demonstrated that high-grade serous carcinoma confirmed by aberrant p53 immunostaining and molecular analysis can show conspicuous invasive micropapillary pattern, validating Singer and colleague's report. Serous carcinoma with conspicuous invasive micropapillary pattern should not be readily regarded as low-grade serous carcinoma. Nuclear grade is the most important diagnostic feature in the SC-IMPs.

  3. Comparison of hydrocarbon yields in cotton from field grown vs. greenhouse grown plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four accession of cotton (SA-1181, 1403, 1419, and 2269) were grown both in field conditions and a greenhouse to compare the environmental effects on leaf biomass, % yield of hydrocarbons (HC), and total HC (g HC /g leaves) under natural and controlled (protected) conditions. Leaf biomass was simi...

  4. Prevention of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schütte, Kerstin; Balbisi, Fathi; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has significantly changed throughout the past decade and will continue to do so in the future as a consequence of effective primary prevention and treatment of virus-related liver diseases. However, other risk factors for HCC are constantly on the rise, including alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The knowledge on these and further risk factors associated with an increased risk of HCC provide the opportunity and chance for the development and implementation of successful preventive strategies to decrease the worldwide burden of HCC. This mini-review gives a short overview on current strategies in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of HCC. PMID:27722155

  5. Medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Leboulleux, Sophie; Baudin, Eric; Travagli, Jean-Paul; Schlumberger, Martin

    2004-09-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) arises from parafollicular or C cells that produce calcitonin (CT), and accounts for 5-10% of all thyroid cancers. MTC is hereditary in about 25% of cases. The discovery of a MTC in a patient has several implications: disease extent should be evaluated, phaeochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism should be screened for and whether the MTC is sporadic or hereditary should be determined by a direct analysis of the RET proto-oncogene. In this review, pathological characteristics, tumour markers and genetic abnormalities in MTC are discussed. The diagnostic and therapeutic modalities applied to patients with clinical MTC and those identified with preclinical disease through familial screening are also described. Progresses concerning genetics, initial treatment, follow-up, screening and treatment of pheochromocytoma have permitted an improvement in the long-term outcome. However, there is no effective treatment for distant metastases, and new therapeutic modalities are urgently needed.

  6. [Radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Maingon, P; Blanchard, P; Bidault, F; Calmels, L

    2016-09-01

    Nasapharyngeal carcinoma is a rare disease. Oftenly, the diagnostic is made for advanced disease. Localized tumors, T1 or T2 NO observed a good prognosis and are locally controlled in more than 90 % of the cases by radiotherapy alone. The standard treatment of locally advanced disease is combined chemoradiation. A special vigilance of fast decrease of the volume of the pathological lymph nodes, sometimes associated to loss of weight might indicate an adaptive dosimetric revision. The treatment of recurrent disease is of great importance. Surgical indications are limited but should be discussed in multidisciplinary tumor board when possible. Surgical nodal sampling has to be proposed for nodal recurrence as well as reirradiation, which could be indicated according to the technical issues.

  7. Perianal Pagetoid Intraepithelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sisodia, Suanga; Boushey, Robin; Lee, Goo; Marginean, Celia; Gomes, Marcio M.; Bhattacharya, Gaurav; dennis, Kristopher

    2017-01-01

    Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) involving the perianal region is rare and challenging to manage. Primary EMPD involves stand-alone noninvasive lesions within the epidermis, while secondary EMPD involves phenotypically similar lesions derived from separate underlying malignancies. Differentiating between primary and secondary EMPD is challenging when no underlying malignancies are detected during workup. Continued reporting of perianal EMPD cases is encouraged so that risk stratification can be improved and patients can be managed with an appropriate level of aggressiveness. Herein, we report the case of a 74-year-old woman who chose aggressive surgical management after being diagnosed with perianal pagetoid intraepithelial carcinoma from a suspected occult underlying primary colorectal tumor. PMID:28611562

  8. Angiotropic syringomatous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Eri; Saruta, Hiroshi; Nanri, Aya; Nakama, Takekuni; Ohata, Chika

    2017-01-11

    Syringomatous carcinoma (SC) is a slow-growing malignant skin tumor that usually affects the face or scalp. An 83-year-old female developed SC on the sole, a rare location. Histopathologically, numerous ducts with few keratinizing cysts were seen in the upper dermis, and cords, strands and nests with sclerotic stroma were seen in the deep dermis and subcutis. In addition to the perineural and intraneural invasion of the tumor, the tumor cells had also invaded the vessel walls. There was no intravasation of tumor cells or interruption of the endothelium. Because melanoma with vascular wall invasion without intravasation of melanoma cells or interruption of the endothelium has been called angiotropic melanoma, we termed the present tumor angiotropic SC. Tumor cells showed wide local invasion.

  9. Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered to be one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and the most common one in Africa and Asia. Over the last decade, a rising incidence of up to 10-15/100,000 per population has been seen in the Western world, with an estimate of 250,000 deaths and more than a million worldwide per year. By the year 2010, the World Health Organization expects that HCC will be the leading cause of cancer mortality surpassing lung cancer. This increasing incidence is most likely related to an increasing prevalence of chronic hepatitis C (HC) and B (HB) virus infections and other diseases inducing chronic inflammation (Befeler and Di Bisceglie 2002; Llovet et al. 2003).

  10. Surgery and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Cillo, Umberto; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Donadon, Matteo; Pinna, Antonio Daniele; Torzilli, Guido; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    The optimal surgical strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is under active debate. Bio-markers of the liver functional reserve as well as volumetric analysis of the future liver remnant are essential for safe liver resection of HCC. The present algorithms applied to surgical strategies for HCC are not ideal because many patients who could potentially undergo safe resection are deemed liver transplant candidates in Western countries, whereas the opposite is the case in Eastern countries. In addition, there is too much focus on expanded criteria for patients with HCC to undergo liver transplantation. The transplantation benefit for patients with HCC should be considered based not only on the individual's benefit, but also on the effect of other patients waiting for LT for other indications. PMID:27995087

  11. Diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.

    2005-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is responsible for a large proportion of cancer deaths worldwide. HCC is frequently diagnosed after the development of clinical deterioration at which time survival is measured in months. Long-term survival requires detection of small tumors, often present in asymptomatic individuals, which may be more amenable to invasive therapeutic options. Surveillance of high-risk individuals for HCC is commonly performed using the serum marker alfa-fetoprotein (AFP) often in combination with ultrasonography. Various other serologic markers are currently being tested to help improve surveillance accuracy. Diagnosis of HCC often requires more sophisticated imaging modalities such as CT scan and MRI, which have multiphasic contrast enhancement capabilities. Serum AFP used alone can be helpful if levels are markedly elevated, which occurs in fewer than half of cases at time of diagnosis. Confirmation by liver biopsy can be performed under circumstances when the diagnosis of HCC remains unclear. PMID:18333158

  12. Immunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pardee, Angela D.; Butterfield, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    Current therapies for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are marginally effective and exacerbate underlying liver disease. The ability of immunotherapy to elicit nontoxic, systemic, long-lived anti-tumor activity makes it particularly well-suited for use in the setting of HCC. While therapeutic benefit has been achieved in early clinical trials, the efficacy of immune-based therapies is limited by several unique properties of HCC, most notably the inherently tolerogenic character of the liver in both healthy and diseased (chronically-infected or tumor-bearing) states. Therapeutic regimens that both counteract these immunosuppressive mechanisms and amplify tumor-specific immunity are expected to profoundly improve clinical outcomes for HCC patients. PMID:22720211

  13. General Information about Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... that forms in the adrenal medulla is called pheochromocytoma and is not discussed in this summary. See the PDQ summary on Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma for more information. Adrenocortical carcinoma and ...

  14. Stages of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  15. Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Echanique, Kristen A; Desai, Stuti V; Marchiano, Emily; Spinazzi, Eleonora F; Strojan, Primož; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2017-01-01

    Objective Laryngeal verrucous carcinoma (LVC) is a rare, locally invasive neoplasm comprising 1% to 3.4% of laryngeal carcinomas. Management strategies are a topic of ongoing conversation, and no definitive treatment protocol based on T stage and presentation exists. This review examines characteristics, treatment modalities, and patient outcomes of LVC. Data Sources PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Methods Databases were searched through October 29, 2015, for literature detailing individual patient cases of LVC. Variables analyzed included patient demographics, tumor characteristics, tumor size, treatment, and outcomes. Results Thirty-seven articles with 369 cases were included. LVC was found more commonly in males (13.8:1), at an average age of 58.7 years, and located in the glottis (74.0%). Most patients had local disease at presentation (94.9%). The most common presenting symptom was hoarseness (92.3%). The most common primary treatment was surgery alone (72.3%), with local excision as the most common technique (56.8%). In patients with data available on both surgical modality and T stage, most patients who presented as T1 and were managed surgically underwent local excision (79.2%). Surgical treatment alone led to high rates of disease-free survival at follow-up (86.8%). A large number of patients presenting with T1 disease were disease free at follow-up (88.6%). Overall survival was 80.3%. Conclusion LVC is most often managed surgically. The extent of surgical resection may be guided by T stage, with smaller tumors resected via local excision and larger tumors via partial or total laryngectomy. Regardless of T stage or therapy, LVC has a good posttreatment prognosis.

  16. [Bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Bregante, J I; Rituerto, B; Font de Mora, F; Alonso, F; Andreu, M J; Figuerola, J; Mulet, J F

    1998-07-01

    We submit the case of a child afflicted with a mucoepidermoid bronchial tumor. The patient is a boy, aged seven, who after undergoing antibiotic treatment for six weeks because of a fever and atelectasia-condensation in the right lower lobe showed no signs of clinical improvement and was sent to our department to undergo further study and treatment. A bronchoscopy performed shows a polypoid mass that partially blocks the main bronchial tube a few milimiters under the access to the right upper lobe. A biopsy is carried out and the anatomopathological test shows there is a low degree epidermoid carcinoma. We decide to perform a lobectomy which for the tumor location and the lung condition has to be medium and lower right. We proceed to remove the adenopaty of hilium not affected by the tumor. The postoperative period develops without incidents. A check-up bronchoscopy performed three months later shows two polypoid masses in the right bronchial tube which, once a biopsy is performed, proved to be granulation tissue. Twelve months after undergoing surgery, the patient's condition is good, there is no evidence of tumor relapse and the breathing capacity is adequate, though there is an obstructive restrictive pattern in the espirometry. Even taking into consideration that lung tumors are extremely unusual, the epidermoid carcinoma is the one which most frequently occurs. The tumor's low malignancy is a sign that points to a good prognosis. Performing conservative surgery by means of bronchoplasty should be taken into account so as to keep the sequelae on the lung condition to a minimum, even though in this case the tumor location made it impossible.

  17. Multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Velasquez, G.; Glass, T.A.; D'Souza, V.J.; Formanek, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Renal oncocytoma, although rare, is being diagnosed more frequently, and criteria to differentiate it from other tumors have been described. Multiple oncocytomas have been reported, but an association between multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma in the same kidney has not been described. The authors report a case with two oncocytomas and a renal carcinoma in the right kidney as well as a right adrenal adenoma.

  18. Perfect crystals grown from imperfect interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Falub, Claudiu V.; Meduňa, Mojmír; Chrastina, Daniel; Isa, Fabio; Marzegalli, Anna; Kreiliger, Thomas; Taboada, Alfonso G.; Isella, Giovanni; Miglio, Leo; Dommann, Alex; von Känel, Hans

    2013-01-01

    The fabrication of advanced devices increasingly requires materials with different properties to be combined in the form of monolithic heterostructures. In practice this means growing epitaxial semiconductor layers on substrates often greatly differing in lattice parameters and thermal expansion coefficients. With increasing layer thickness the relaxation of misfit and thermal strains may cause dislocations, substrate bowing and even layer cracking. Minimizing these drawbacks is therefore essential for heterostructures based on thick layers to be of any use for device fabrication. Here we prove by scanning X-ray nanodiffraction that mismatched Ge crystals epitaxially grown on deeply patterned Si substrates evolve into perfect structures away from the heavily dislocated interface. We show that relaxing thermal and misfit strains result just in lattice bending and tiny crystal tilts. We may thus expect a new concept in which continuous layers are replaced by quasi-continuous crystal arrays to lead to dramatically improved physical properties. PMID:23880632

  19. Perfect crystals grown from imperfect interfaces.

    PubMed

    Falub, Claudiu V; Meduňa, Mojmír; Chrastina, Daniel; Isa, Fabio; Marzegalli, Anna; Kreiliger, Thomas; Taboada, Alfonso G; Isella, Giovanni; Miglio, Leo; Dommann, Alex; von Känel, Hans

    2013-01-01

    The fabrication of advanced devices increasingly requires materials with different properties to be combined in the form of monolithic heterostructures. In practice this means growing epitaxial semiconductor layers on substrates often greatly differing in lattice parameters and thermal expansion coefficients. With increasing layer thickness the relaxation of misfit and thermal strains may cause dislocations, substrate bowing and even layer cracking. Minimizing these drawbacks is therefore essential for heterostructures based on thick layers to be of any use for device fabrication. Here we prove by scanning X-ray nanodiffraction that mismatched Ge crystals epitaxially grown on deeply patterned Si substrates evolve into perfect structures away from the heavily dislocated interface. We show that relaxing thermal and misfit strains result just in lattice bending and tiny crystal tilts. We may thus expect a new concept in which continuous layers are replaced by quasi-continuous crystal arrays to lead to dramatically improved physical properties.

  20. Vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF) composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ciminelli, D.L.; Kearns, K.M.; Ragland, W.R.

    1996-12-31

    Vapor grown carbon fibers (VGCF) offer a unique opportunity for carbon fiber composites to expand into a multitude of new markets due to their low cost of only $3 to 5 per pound. Additionally, VGCFs are extremely graphitic and have demonstrated the highest thermal conductivity of any graphite material. Pyrograf-III{reg_sign}, a VGCF produced by Applied Sciences, Inc (ASI), is a small diameter (0.1 {mu}m) fiber with a high aspect ratio (100- 1000). The primary interest of the work is for thermal management applications. The focus of the work has been developing novel process methodologies for these unusual fibers using phenolic and epoxy resin to produce low cost composites. The development of VGCF composites is being performed through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRDA) between ASI and the Materials Directorate (WL/ML), Wright Laboratory, United States Air Force.

  1. [Influence of clinical and pathomorphological parameters on prognosis in colon carcinoma and rectal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Xu, Fang-ying; Di, Mei-juan; Dong, Jian-kang; Wang, Feng-juan; Jin, Yi-sen; Zhu, Yi-min; Lai, Mao-de

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the effects of clinical and pathomorphological parameters on the prognosis of colon carcinoma and rectal carcinoma. Univariate and multivariate COX proportional hazard models were used to study the effects of the clinical and pathomorphological factors on the prognosis in 101 cases of colon carcinoma, 219 of rectal carcinoma and 137 of rectal carcinoma under curative resections. By using univariate analysis, we identified that lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis were the common prognostic factors for both colon carcinoma and rectal carcinoma. Smoking, deep infiltration, chemotherapy and serum albumin concentration were the uncertain prognostic factors for colon carcinoma. Signet-ring cell carcinoma, larger tumor size (>6 cm), deep infiltration, lack of radical surgery, and advanced TNM stage were the exclusive adverse prognostic factors for rectal carcinoma. Further studies showed that the adverse prognostic factors for the rectal carcinoma under curative resection included deep infiltration, lymph node metastasis, vessel invasion, less of peritumoral lymphocyte infiltration, lack of Crohn's like reactivity, high level of tumor budding, advanced TNM stage and positive urine glucose. By using multivariate analysis based on a COX proportional hazard model, it was identified that smoking, lymph node metastasis and serum albumin concentration were independent prognostic factors for colon carcinoma; advanced TNM stage, distant metastasis and palliative surgery for rectal carcinoma; and vessel invasion, lymph node metastasis and urine glucose for rectal carcinoma under curative resections. The various clinical and pathomorphological parameters show different prognostic value for colon carcinoma, rectal carcinoma and rectal carcinoma under curative resections.

  2. van der Waals Heterostructures Grown by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Christopher

    In this work, we demonstrate the high-quality MBE heterostructure growth of various layered 2D materials by van der Waals epitaxy (VDWE). The coupling of different types of van der Waals materials including transition metal dichalcogenide thin films (e.g., WSe2, WTe2, HfSe2) , insulating hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), and topological insulators (e.g., Bi2Se3) allows for the fabrication of novel electronic devices that take advantage of unique quantum confinement and spin-based characteristics. The relaxed lattice-matching criteria of van der Waals epitaxy has allowed for high-quality heterostructure growth with atomically abrupt interfaces, allowing us to couple these materials based primarily on their band alignment and electronic properties. We will discuss the impact of sample preparation, surface reactivity, and lattice mismatch of various substrates (sapphire, graphene, TMDs, Bi2Se3) on the growth mode and quality of the films and will discuss our studies of substrate temperature and flux rates on the resultant growth and grain size. Structural and chemical characterization was conducted via reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. Experimentally determined band alignments have been determined and compared with first-principles calculations allowing the design of novel low-power logic and magnetic memory devices. Initial results from the electrical characterization of these grown thin films and some simple devices will also be presented. These VDWE grown layered 2D materials show significant potential for fabricating novel heterostructures with tunable band alignments and magnetic properties for a variety of nanoelectronic and optoelectronic applications.

  3. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the sublingual gland.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H; Kim, J H; Lee, J K; Lim, S C

    2017-10-01

    Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary gland is a rare subtype of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The most common site of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands is the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular gland, and the minor salivary glands. Here we report the first case of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the sublingual gland. Clinicians should consider sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the differential diagnosis of salivary gland neoplasm. Surgical excision with clear margins seems to be a sufficient initial treatment option for sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary gland. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Video of Tissue Grown in Space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Principal investigator Leland Chung grew prostate cancer and bone stromal cells aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia during the STS-107 mission. Although the experiment samples were lost along with the ill-fated spacecraft and crew, he did obtain downlinked video of the experiment that indicates the enormous potential of growing tissues in microgravity. Cells grown aboard Columbia had grown far larger tissue aggregates at day 5 than did the cells grown in a NASA bioreactor on the ground.

  5. Synchronous metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the colon and cervical lymph nodes from a carcinoma of unknown primary site: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ito, Homare; Miyakura, Yasuyuki; Tsukui, Hidenori; Naoi, Daishi; Tahara, Makiko; Morimoto, Mitsuaki; Koinuma, Koji; Horie, Hisanaga; Lefor, Alan Kawarai; Sata, Naohiro

    2016-05-12

    Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from an unknown primary site to the colon has not been reported previously. A 75-year-old woman presented with a mass in the left submandibular region. Biopsy revealed a Class V lesion, but the histologic type was undetermined. Surgical resection of the left submandibular gland with cervical lymph node dissection was performed. However, SCC was seen in the lymph nodes only, with no tumor in the submandibular gland. Three months after surgery, computed tomography revealed that the preoperatively diagnosed lesion in the transverse colon had grown considerably. A laparoscopic right hemicolectomy was performed. Histological examination showed features of SCC, similar to the findings in the cervical lymph nodes. We report a rare case of synchronous metastatic SCC to the colon and cervical lymph nodes from a carcinoma of unknown primary site. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016.

  6. Treatment Options for Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of thymoma and thymic carcinoma include a cough and chest pain. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma may ... if you have any of the following: A cough that doesn't go away. Chest pain. Trouble ...

  7. General Information about Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of thymoma and thymic carcinoma include a cough and chest pain. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma may ... if you have any of the following: A cough that doesn't go away. Chest pain. Trouble ...

  8. Stages of Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of thymoma and thymic carcinoma include a cough and chest pain. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma may ... if you have any of the following: A cough that doesn't go away. Chest pain. Trouble ...

  9. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  10. Renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, James J; Purdue, Mark P; Signoretti, Sabina; Swanton, Charles; Albiges, Laurence; Schmidinger, Manuela; Heng, Daniel Y; Larkin, James; Ficarra, Vincenzo

    2017-03-09

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) denotes cancer originated from the renal epithelium and accounts for >90% of cancers in the kidney. The disease encompasses >10 histological and molecular subtypes, of which clear cell RCC (ccRCC) is most common and accounts for most cancer-related deaths. Although somatic VHL mutations have been described for some time, more-recent cancer genomic studies have identified mutations in epigenetic regulatory genes and demonstrated marked intra-tumour heterogeneity, which could have prognostic, predictive and therapeutic relevance. Localized RCC can be successfully managed with surgery, whereas metastatic RCC is refractory to conventional chemotherapy. However, over the past decade, marked advances in the treatment of metastatic RCC have been made, with targeted agents including sorafenib, sunitinib, bevacizumab, pazopanib and axitinib, which inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor (VEGFR), and everolimus and temsirolimus, which inhibit mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), being approved. Since 2015, agents with additional targets aside from VEGFR have been approved, such as cabozantinib and lenvatinib; immunotherapies, such as nivolumab, have also been added to the armamentarium for metastatic RCC. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of RCC, with a focus on ccRCC, as well as updates to complement the current clinical guidelines and an outline of potential future directions for RCC research and therapy.

  11. Endometrial carcinoma stage I.

    PubMed

    Baram, A; Ron, I; Kupferminc, M; Inbar, M

    1997-01-01

    Standard staging and therapeutic approach to endometrial cancer involves lymph node sampling (LNS) at the time of total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO). Lymphadenectomy prolongs time of surgery and increases the risk of morbidity; where other predictors are available, it may not contribute important supplementary information. 185/247 women with stage I endometrial carcinoma underwent the standard surgery while 62 underwent TAH+BSO. Recurrence and survival were monitored for a mean of 6.5 years and retrospectively reviewed: the rates for groups with and without known lymph node status were alike [13.5% (25/185) recurrence for the former and 12.9% (8/62) for the latter, and 5-year survival rates of 75.7% (140/185) for the former and 74.2 (46/62) for the latter]. Myometrial invasion and histological grade appeared to have been highly accurate predictors without lymph node information. Because information on histological grade is available early and is highly predictive, its use could be incorporated into a revised management algorithm for stage I endometrial cancer which would depend upon ensuring lymphadenectomy for women with low grade histopathology and omitting it for those with high grades on the grounds that no further information is necessary to act appropriately.

  12. Pediatric Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), which originates from thyroid parafollicular C cells, accounts for 3 to 5% of thyroid malignancies. MTC occurs either sporadically or in an inherited autosomal dominant manner. Hereditary MTC occurs as a familial MTC or as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A and B syndromes. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation has been observed between hereditary MTC and germ-line "gain of function" mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Most cases of pediatric MTC are hereditary whereas sporadic MTC is rare in children and is usually diagnosed in adults. Therefore, MTC in children is most often diagnosed in the course of a familial genetic investigation. The standard treatment of MTC mainly requires surgery involving total thyroidectomy and central neck node dissection before extrathyroidal extension occurs. To prevent MTC development in hereditary syndromes, prophylactic thyroidectomy is performed in presymptomatic patients. An appropriate age at which the surgery should take place is determined based upon the data from genotyping, serum calcitonin measurements, and ultrasonography. For the treatment of advanced MTC cases, the broad spectrum receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors vandetanib and cabozantinib, which also inhibit RET, are used although they are not always effective.

  13. Basal cell carcinoma: pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Chatterjee, Kingshuk; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer in humans, which typically appears over the sun-exposed skin as a slow-growing, locally invasive lesion that rarely metastasizes. Although the exact etiology of BCC is unknown, there exists a well-established relationship between BCC and the pilo-sebaceous unit, and it is currently thought to originate from pluri-potential cells in the basal layer of the epidermis or the follicle. The patched/hedgehog intracellular signaling pathway plays a central role in both sporadic BCCs and nevoid BCC syndrome (Gorlin syndrome). This pathway is vital for the regulation of cell growth, and differentiation and loss of inhibition of this pathway is associated with development of BCC. The sonic hedgehog protein is the most relevant to BCC; nevertheless, the Patched (PTCH) protein is the ligand-binding component of the hedgehog receptor complex in the cell membrane. The other protein member of the receptor complex, smoothened (SMO), is responsible for transducing hedgehog signaling to downstream genes, leading to abnormal cell proliferation. The importance of this pathway is highlighted by the successful use in advanced forms of BCC of vismodegib, a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, that selectively inhibits SMO. The UV-specific nucleotide changes in the tumor suppressor genes, TP53 and PTCH, have also been implicated in the development of BCC.

  14. [The colorectal carcinoma risk factors].

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Andrzej; Wawrzyn-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria

    2005-12-01

    Colorectal carcinoma constitutes the second, as for the rate, death cause due to a malignant disease both in the western countries and in Poland. Despite deep knowledge concerning morphogenesis and spread of colorectal carcinoma as well as vast achievements in surgery, chemo- and radiotherapy, the percentage of 5-year-survivals still reaches 40%. According to most authors there are 4 risk factor categories: epidemiological, intestinal, dietetic, and mixed. It is well-known that colorectal carcinoma, like neoplasms localized in other organs and systems, is a disease, in which genetic mutations of somatic cells are the molecular base/source of the disease. The inner innervation of the colon seems to play an important role in carcinoma pathogenesis and spread. At present, 80% of colorectal carcinomas are diagnosed in the advanced stage, with infiltration exceeding the intestinal wall or spreading to neighboring organs, which gives full clinical symptoms. The prognosis as to survival and disease progression is usually poor. Therefore, the ways of early diagnosis, monitoring, and the knowledge of etiological factors are so important in medical practice.

  15. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 in Treating Patients With Progressive, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cyst Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-14

    Recurrent Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

  16. Transitional cell bladder carcinoma with presentation mimicking ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Erickson, D R; Dabbs, D J; Olt, G J

    1996-05-01

    In the case described here, the patient's initial presentation suggested ovarian carcinoma. She had recurrent ascites, a pelvic mass, elevated CA-125, and extensive peritoneal carcinomatosis with transitional cell histology. The presence of hematuria prompted a cystoscopy, which revealed the true site of origin to be the urinary bladder rather than ovaries. This presentation is extremely rare for bladder cancer. Since transitional cell tumors from the bladder have a much worse prognosis than those of ovarian origin, it is important to identify the primary site correctly. Therefore, cystoscopy is essential for patients with hematuria, and should be considered in cases of apparent primary peritoneal carcinoma with transitional cell histology.

  17. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  18. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  19. Pathogenicity of Listeria monocytogenes grown on crabmeat.

    PubMed Central

    Brackett, R E; Beuchat, L R

    1990-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Listeria monocytogenes as influenced by growth on crabmeat at 5 and 10 degrees C was studied. Crabmeat was inoculated with L. monocytogenes V7 (ca. 10(4) CFU/g) and incubated for up to 14 days at 5 and 10 degrees C. At selected incubation times, L. monocytogenes was removed from crabmeat by washing with 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), and populations were determined by surface plating on LiCl-phenylethanol-moxalactam agar. Buffered suspensions were then centrifuged, and the resulting pellets were suspended in phosphate buffer containing 10% glycerol and stored at -18 degrees C. Thawed, diluted suspensions of cells were tested for pathogenicity by intraperitoneal injection into immunocompromised and nonimmunocompromised mice. L. monocytogenes cells recovered from crabmeat and then recultured in tryptose phosphate broth (TPB), as well as cells which had not been passed through crabmeat but had been cultured in TPB, were likewise harvested, suspended in buffered 10% glycerol, frozen, thawed, diluted, and tested for pathogenicity by intraperitoneal injection. Growth on crabmeat at 5 and 10 degrees C did not have a significant effect on pathogenicity. The population of L. monocytogenes necessary to kill about 50% of the immunocompromised mice in each test set within 7 days was about 10(4) CFU, and this result was not significantly affected by storage temperature of the crabmeat or type of substrate, i.e., crabmeat or TPB, on which it had grown. PMID:2111120

  20. Radiative efficiency of MOCVD grown QD lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawst, Luke; Tsvid, Gene; Dudley, Peter; Kirch, Jeremy; Park, J. H.; Kim, N.

    2010-02-01

    The optical spectral gain characteristics and overall radiative efficiency of MOCVD grown InGaAs quantum dot lasers have been evaluated. Single-pass, multi-segmented amplified spontaneous emission measurements are used to obtain the gain, absorption, and spontaneous emission spectra in real units. Integration of the calibrated spontaneous emission spectra then allows for determining the overall radiative efficiency, which gives important insights into the role which nonradiative recombination plays in the active region under study. We use single pass, multi-segmented edge-emitting in which electrically isolated segments allow to vary the length of a pumped region. In this study we used 8 section devices (the size of a segment is 50x300 μm) with only the first 5 segments used for varying the pump length. The remaining unpumped segments and scribed back facet minimize round trip feedback. Measured gain spectra for different pump currents allow for extraction of the peak gain vs. current density, which is fitted to a logarithmic dependence and directly compared to conventional cavity length analysis, (CLA). The extracted spontaneous emission spectrum is calibrated and integrated over all frequencies and modes to obtain total spontaneous radiation current density and radiative efficiency, ηr. We find ηr values of approximately 17% at RT for 5 stack QD active regions. By contrast, high performance InGaAs QW lasers exhibit ηr ~50% at RT.

  1. Antioxidant enzymes in oral verrucous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ting-Ying; Tsai, Meng-Han; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Ger, Luo-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma is a non-metastasizing variant of welldifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma, which has been associated with reactive oxygen species generated by betel quid chewing. Salivary antioxidant systems have been suggested to play a protective role in reducing the oxidative damage. Herein, we investigated the difference of the enzymatic antioxidant system expressions in oral verrucous carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma. The enzymatic antioxidant system expressions, including manganese superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a series of 202 surgically resected oral squamous cell carcinoma and 20 oral verrucous carcinoma specimens, using tissue microarray slides. The immuno-staining intensities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were strongest in the oral squamous cell carcinoma group than in verrucous carcinoma. The catalase expression showed no difference between different pathological groups. The different degrees of superoxide dismutase and glutathione expressions in verrucous carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma may be helpful for pathologists to differentiate these two entities, especially between oral verrucous carcinoma and well differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Influence of shading on container-grown flowering dogwoods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bare root dogwoods can be successfully grown when transplanted into a container production system. Shade treatments regardless of color or density did have an effect on the plant growth of Cherokee Brave™ and Cherokee Princess dogwood. Plants grown under 50% black and 50% white shade had more heigh...

  3. 78 FR 77367 - Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 981 Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum AGENCY... referendum be conducted among eligible growers of almonds in California to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order that regulates the handling of almonds grown in California. DATES: The...

  4. 78 FR 45898 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 955 Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia... document directs that a referendum be conducted among eligible producers of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia... Vidalia onions produced in the production area. DATES: The referendum will be conducted from September 9...

  5. 78 FR 77327 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate... marketing order, which regulates the handling of walnuts grown in California. Assessments upon walnut...

  6. 76 FR 11937 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural... assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for 2011 and subsequent fiscal... order which regulates the handling of olives grown in California. Assessments upon olive handlers are...

  7. 78 FR 9307 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 966 Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: This rule decreases the assessment... the marketing order which regulates the handling of tomatoes grown in Florida. Assessments upon...

  8. 75 FR 22211 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate... order, which regulates the handling of olives grown in California. Assessments upon olive handlers are...

  9. 77 FR 51684 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate... which regulates the handling of olives grown in California. Assessments upon olive handlers are used by...

  10. 78 FR 24979 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural... assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2013 and subsequent fiscal... marketing order which regulates the handling of olives grown in California. Assessments upon olive handlers...

  11. 78 FR 57101 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY... assessment rate established for the California Walnut Board (Board) for the 2013-14 and subsequent marketing... administers the marketing order which regulates the handling of walnuts grown in California. Assessments upon...

  12. 76 FR 35957 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY... the assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for 2011 and subsequent... marketing order which regulates the handling of olives grown in California. Assessments upon olive handlers...

  13. 76 FR 8871 - Walnuts Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural... Agriculture (USDA) is adopting, as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that decreased the assessment... administers the marketing order that regulates the handling of walnuts grown in California. The assessment...

  14. 78 FR 45841 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural... Agriculture (USDA) is adopting, as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that decreased the assessment... marketing order for olives grown in California. Assessments upon olive handlers are used by the Committee to...

  15. 76 FR 67320 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate... marketing order which regulates the handling of walnuts grown in California. Assessments upon walnut...

  16. Superficial carcinoma of the stomach.

    PubMed Central

    Machado, G; Davies, J D; Tudway, A J; Salmon, P R; Read, A E

    1976-01-01

    Nine cases of superficial gastric carcinoma have been detected with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in Bristol in the past two years. This contrasted with only six cases found from postoperative gastrectomy specimens examined in the previous eight years. It is often difficult to distinguish a superficial carcinoma from a benign ulcer, and endoscopic diagnosis is effective only if multiple biopsy specimens are taken. Endoscopy should also be repeated and multiple specimens taken until the lesion has healed; even malignant ulcers may heal, and any healed area that is depressed with interrupted mucosal folds should be suspected of malignancy. The endoscopic and histological appearances, the age of the patients, and the clinical behaviour of the disease resembled descriptions of the disease, principally from Japan. Superficial gastric carcinoma is probably under-diagnosed in Britain. PMID:1276819

  17. Aflibercept in epithelial ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Moroney, John W; Sood, Anil K; Coleman, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a hallmark of malignant transformation. With improved understanding of angiogenic signaling in both the normal and malignant state, there have been a number of agents developed that target VEGF signaling. These targeted agents can affect downstream VEGF signal transduction via unique mechanisms at different cellular and extracellular locations. The aflibercept, or VEGF-Trap, molecule is the subject of this article. Its molecular structure, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile, and preclinical and early clinical data in epithelial ovarian carcinoma is reviewed. For comparison, other anti-angiogenic agents that have been or are currently being studied in epithelial ovarian carcinoma are also summarized. Finally, the anticipated role of aflibercept in the treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma is also discussed. PMID:19519199

  18. Sorafenib in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Davoudi, Ehsan Taghizadeh; bin-Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Javar, Hamid Akbari; Kadivar, Ali; Sabeti, Bahare

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is among most important causes of death in recent decades. Whoever the renal cell carcinoma incidence is low but it seems it is more complicated than the other cancers in terms of pathophysiology and treatments. The purpose of this work is to provide an overview and also deeper insight to renal cell carcinoma and the steps which have been taken to reach more specific treatment and target therapy, in this type of cancer by developing most effective agents such as Sorafenib. To achieve this goal hundreds of research paper and published work has been overviewed and due to limitation of space in a paper just focus in most important points on renal cell carcinoma, treatment of RCC and clinical development of Sorafenib. The information presented this paper shows the advanced of human knowledge to provide more efficient drug in treatment of some complicated cancer such as RCC in promising much better future to fight killing disease.

  19. Genetic heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Unsal, H.; Isselbacher, K.J. ); Yakicier, C.; Marcais, C.; Ozturk, M. ); Kew, M. ); Volkmann, M. ); Zentgraf, H. )

    1994-01-18

    The authors studied 80 hepatocellular carcinomas from three continents for p53 gene (TP53) mutations and hepatitis B virus (HBV) sequences. p53 mutations were frequent in tumors from Mozambique but not in tumors from South Africa, China, and Germany. Independent of geographic origin, most tumors were positive for HBV sequences. X gene coding sequences of HBV were detected in 78% of tumors, whereas viral sequences in the surface antigen- and core antigen-encoding regions were present in less than 35% of tumors. These observations indicate that hepatocellular carcinomas are genetically heterogeneous. Mozambican-types of hepatocellular carcinomas are characterized by a high incidence of p53 mutations related to aflatoxins. In other tumors, the rarity of p53 mutations combined with the frequent presence of viral X gene coding sequences suggests a possible interference of HBV with the wild-type p53 function.

  20. Squamous carcinoma of the nasopharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Moloy, P.J.; Chung, Y.T.; Krivitsky, P.B.; Kim, R.C.

    1985-07-01

    Nasophryngeal carcinoma is an unusual neoplasm among squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. The tumor is rare in most parts of the world but is strikingly common in several Asian subpopulations, notably Chinese in Hong Kong and Guangdong Province. The Epstein-Barr virus is intimately related to the disease and elicits the formation of antibodies that are useful for diagnosis and follow-up study. The virus has not been conclusively shown to cause nasopharyngeal cancer, however. Histologically, nasopharyngeal carcinoma is anaplastic in 75% of cases and better differentiated in 25% of patients. All tumors are treated by high-dose radiation to the primary site and both sides of the neck. Surgical treatment, in the neck only, is reserved for irradiation failures. The prognosis is better in patients younger than 40 years, in patients without clinical cervical nodal involvement and, unexpectedly, in patients with anaplastic tumors. 18 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Basosquamous carcinoma: appearance and reality

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Rakesh L.; Collins, Damian; Chapman, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Basosquamous carcinoma (BsC) is a controversial entity and both a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. BsC has mixed histopathological characteristics of both basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). BCC and SCC display characteristic histopathology and behaviour; on the other hand, BsC is a rare tumour, which has variable morphology and displays less predictable behaviour. An early diagnosis of BsC is important due to the particularly aggressive nature of the tumour, the increased likelihood of recurrence and the potential for metastasis. Here, we present a case of BsC presenting as an extensive ulcer on the back. The case highlights the aggressive nature of the tumour and variation in appearance. It is important for all clinicians to be aware of this diagnosis so that the urgency of adequate biopsy in specialist clinics is not underestimated. PMID:28058108

  2. Treatment of thyroid follicular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Antonio; Rodríguez, José M; Parrilla, Pascual

    2015-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma includes 2 different tumor types, papillary (PC) and follicular carcinoma (FC), and although similar, their prognosis is different. FC is uncommon, and this has led to it often being analyzed together with PC, and therefore the true reality of this tumor is difficult to know. As a result, the diagnostic and therapeutic management and the prognostic factors in differentiated carcinoma are more predictive of PC than FC. In this review we analyze the current state of many of the therapeutic aspects of this pathology. The best surgical technique and the usefulness of associated lymphadenectomy is also analyzed. Regarding post-surgical ablation with 131I, the indications, doses and usefulness are discussed. For the remaining therapies we analyze the few indications for radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and of new drugs such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  3. Radioimmune localization of occult carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Duda, R.B.; Zimmer, A.M.; Rosen, S.T.; Gilyon, K.A.; Webber, D.; Spies, S.; Spies, W.; Merchant, B. )

    1990-07-01

    Patients with a rising serum carcinoembryonic antigen level and no clinical or roentgenographic evidence of recurrent or metastatic cancer present a treatment dilemma. Eleven such patients, 10 with a previously treated colorectal carcinoma and 1 with a previously treated breast carcinoma, received an injection of the anticarcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody ZCE-025 labeled with the radioisotope indium 111. Nuclear scintigraphy was performed on days 3 and 5 through 7 to detect potential sites of tumor recurrence. The monoclonal antibody scan accurately predicted the presence or absence of occult malignancy in 7 (64%) patients. Second-look laparotomy confirmed the monoclonal antibody scan results in the patients with colorectal cancer, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed metastatic breast cancer. This study demonstrates that In-ZCE-025 can localize occult carcinoma and may assist the surgeon in facilitating the operative exploration. In-ZCE-025 assisted in the initiation of adjuvant therapy for the patient with breast cancer.

  4. Carboxylate metabolism in sugar beet plants grown with excess Zn.

    PubMed

    Sagardoy, R; Morales, F; Rellán-Álvarez, R; Abadía, A; Abadía, J; López-Millán, A F

    2011-05-01

    The effects of Zn excess on carboxylate metabolism were investigated in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants grown hydroponically in a growth chamber. Root extracts of plants grown with 50 or 100μM Zn in the nutrient solution showed increases in several enzymatic activities related to organic acid metabolism, including citrate synthase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, when compared to activities in control root extracts. Root citric and malic acid concentrations increased in plants grown with 100μM Zn, but not in plants grown with 50μM Zn. In the xylem sap, plants grown with 50 and 100μM Zn showed increases in the concentrations of citrate and malate compared to the controls. Leaves of plants grown with 50 or 100μM Zn showed increases in the concentrations of citric and malic acid and in the activities of citrate synthase and fumarase. Leaf isocitrate dehydrogenase increased only in plants grown with 50μM Zn when compared to the controls. In plants grown with 300μM Zn, the only enzyme showing activity increases in root extracts was citrate synthase, whereas the activities of other enzymes decreased compared to the controls, and root citrate concentrations increased. In the 300μM Zn-grown plants, the xylem concentrations of citric and malic acids were higher than those of controls, whereas in leaf extracts the activity of fumarase increased markedly, and the leaf citric acid concentration was higher than in the controls. Based on our data, a metabolic model of the carboxylate metabolism in sugar beet plants grown under Zn excess is proposed.

  5. Hepatocellular carcinoma: a review

    PubMed Central

    Balogh, Julius; Victor, David; Asham, Emad H; Burroughs, Sherilyn Gordon; Boktour, Maha; Saharia, Ashish; Li, Xian; Ghobrial, R Mark; Monsour, Howard P

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In the United States, HCC is the ninth leading cause of cancer deaths. Despite advances in prevention techniques, screening, and new technologies in both diagnosis and treatment, incidence and mortality continue to rise. Cirrhosis remains the most important risk factor for the development of HCC regardless of etiology. Hepatitis B and C are independent risk factors for the development of cirrhosis. Alcohol consumption remains an important additional risk factor in the United States as alcohol abuse is five times higher than hepatitis C. Diagnosis is confirmed without pathologic confirmation. Screening includes both radiologic tests, such as ultrasound, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, and serological markers such as α-fetoprotein at 6-month intervals. Multiple treatment modalities exist; however, only orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) or surgical resection is curative. OLT is available for patients who meet or are downstaged into the Milan or University of San Francisco criteria. Additional treatment modalities include transarterial chemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, percutaneous ethanol injection, cryoablation, radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy, and molecularly targeted therapies. Selection of a treatment modality is based on tumor size, location, extrahepatic spread, and underlying liver function. HCC is an aggressive cancer that occurs in the setting of cirrhosis and commonly presents in advanced stages. HCC can be prevented if there are appropriate measures taken, including hepatitis B virus vaccination, universal screening of blood products, use of safe injection practices, treatment and education of alcoholics and intravenous drug users, and initiation of antiviral therapy. Continued improvement in both surgical and nonsurgical approaches has demonstrated

  6. Leptin in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shen-Nien; Lee, King Teh; Ker, Chen-Guo

    2010-01-01

    The risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development have been established, and include chronic hepatitis B and C, heavy alcohol consumption, and aflatoxins. In fact, 5%-30% of patients with HCC still lack a readily identifiable risk factor. It has been reported that the majority of ‘‘cryptogenic’’ HCC may be attributed to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the hepatic presentation of the metabolic syndrome (MS). Obesity is associated with the development of the MS. Recently, adipose tissue has been considered as an endocrine organ because of its capacity to secrete a variety of cytokines, which are collectively known as the adipokines. Leptin, the product of the obese gene, is mainly produced by adipose tissue. Since leptin was first characterized in 1994, accumulated literature has demonstrated the involvement of this adipokine in several areas of human physiology. After binding to its receptor, leptin initiates a cascade of signaling events and subsequent cellular effects. In addition to being the regulatory mediator of energy homeostasis, several in vitro studies have demonstrated the fibrogenic role of leptin in the liver. Furthermore, the deregulated expression of leptin and its receptor have been demonstrated to be associated with a variety of metabolic disorders as well as human cancers. Most importantly, direct evidence supporting the inhibitory and/or activating role of leptin in the process of carcinogenesis and progression of human HCC has been accumulating rapidly. This review aims to provide important insights into the potential mechanisms of leptin in the development of HCC. Hopefully, further investigations will shed light on a new therapeutic target in HCC. PMID:21155000

  7. Update in adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fassnacht, Martin; Kroiss, Matthias; Allolio, Bruno

    2013-12-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an orphan malignancy that has attracted increasing attention during the last decade. Here we provide an update on advances in the field since our last review published in this journal in 2006. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway and IGF-2 signaling have been confirmed as frequently altered signaling pathways in ACC, but recent data suggest that they are probably not sufficient for malignant transformation. Thus, major players in the pathogenesis are still unknown. For diagnostic workup, comprehensive hormonal assessment and detailed imaging are required because in most ACCs, evidence for autonomous steroid secretion can be found and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (if necessary, combined with functional imaging) can differentiate benign from malignant adrenocortical tumors. Surgery is potentially curative in localized tumors. Thus, we recommend a complete resection including lymphadenectomy by an expert surgeon. The pathology report should demonstrate the adrenocortical origin of the lesion (eg, by steroidogenic factor 1 staining) and provide Weiss score, resection status, and quantitation of the proliferation marker Ki67 to guide further treatment. Even after complete surgery, recurrence is frequent and adjuvant mitotane treatment improves outcome, but uncertainty exists as to whether all patients benefit from this therapy. In advanced ACC, mitotane is still the standard of care. Based on the FIRM-ACT trial, mitotane plus etoposide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin is now the established first-line cytotoxic therapy. However, most patients will experience progress and require salvage therapies. Thus, new treatment concepts are urgently needed. The ongoing international efforts including comprehensive "-omic approaches" and next-generation sequencing will improve our understanding of the pathogenesis and hopefully lead to better therapies.

  8. Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Presenting as Bilateral Cheek Masses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Wook; Hah, J. Hun; An, Soo-Youn; Chang, Hak

    2013-01-01

    Mandibular metastasis of thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare. We present the case of a 46-year-old woman who had bilateral huge cheek masses that had grown rapidly over several years. Intra-oral mucosal tissue biopsy and imaging work-up including computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and the initial diagnosis was presumed to be central giant cell granuloma. Incidentally detected thyroid lesions were studied with ultra-sonography guided fine needle aspiration and diagnosed as simple benign nodules. Due to continuous oral bleeding and the locally destructive feature of the lesions, we decided to excise the mass surgically. To avoid functional deficit, a stepwise approach was performed: Firstly, the larger left mass was excised and the mandible was reconstructed with a fibular free flap. The final pathologic diagnosis was follicular thyroid cancer. Postoperative I-131 thyroid scan and whole body positron-emissions-tomography were performed. Right side mass was revealed as a thyroid malignancy. Multiple bony metastases were detected. Since further radioactive iodine therapy was required, additional total thyroidectomy and right side mandibulectomy with fibular free flap reconstruction was performed. The patient also underwent high dose radioactive iodine therapy and palliative extra-beam radiotherapy for the metastatic lumbar lesion. Follicular thyroid carcinoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis for mandibular mass lesions. PMID:23526730

  9. Follicular thyroid carcinoma presenting as bilateral cheek masses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Wook; Hah, J Hun; An, Soo-Youn; Chang, Hak; Kim, Kwang Hyun

    2013-03-01

    Mandibular metastasis of thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare. We present the case of a 46-year-old woman who had bilateral huge cheek masses that had grown rapidly over several years. Intra-oral mucosal tissue biopsy and imaging work-up including computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and the initial diagnosis was presumed to be central giant cell granuloma. Incidentally detected thyroid lesions were studied with ultra-sonography guided fine needle aspiration and diagnosed as simple benign nodules. Due to continuous oral bleeding and the locally destructive feature of the lesions, we decided to excise the mass surgically. To avoid functional deficit, a stepwise approach was performed: Firstly, the larger left mass was excised and the mandible was reconstructed with a fibular free flap. The final pathologic diagnosis was follicular thyroid cancer. Postoperative I-131 thyroid scan and whole body positron-emissions-tomography were performed. Right side mass was revealed as a thyroid malignancy. Multiple bony metastases were detected. Since further radioactive iodine therapy was required, additional total thyroidectomy and right side mandibulectomy with fibular free flap reconstruction was performed. The patient also underwent high dose radioactive iodine therapy and palliative extra-beam radiotherapy for the metastatic lumbar lesion. Follicular thyroid carcinoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis for mandibular mass lesions.

  10. [Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Campos Arbulú, Ana L; Sadava, Emmanuel E; Sánchez Ruiz, Alejandro; Fernández Vila, Juan M; Dillon, Horacio S; Mezzadri, Norberto A

    2017-01-01

    Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma is a rare entity. There is little published literature. We report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the orbital soft tissues. Surgical resection offered the best treatment for the patient. Complete resection of the lesion was achieved. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy due to the proximity of the lesion to the surgical margins. Surgical treatment is feasible and should be considered as part of the surgeon's arsenal. However, therapeutic decisions must be made on a case-by-case basis.

  11. Imaging of Renal Medullary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Faiella, Eliodoro; Santucci, Domiziana; Mallio, Carlo Augusto; Nezzo, Marco; Quattrocchi, Carlo Cosimo; Beomonte Zobel, Bruno; Grasso, Rosario Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare, highly aggressive tumor recognized as an independent pathological entity. African-descent adolescents and young adults with sickle cell hemoglobinopathy are the most affected groups. This rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma has its own morphogenetic and pathological characteristics. The major clinical manifestations include gross hematuria, abdominal or flank pain, and weight loss. The prognosis is very poor, with 95% of cases diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease. In this review, we summarize the morphologic and dynamic characteristics of RMC under various imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance. Differential diagnosis and management strategies are also discussed. PMID:28405543

  12. [Laparoscopic colectomy for colorectal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Konishi, F; Kojima, M; Hoshino, T; Kanzaki, M

    2000-08-01

    Laparoscopic-assisted colectomy is considered to be a less invasive technique, and patients experience less pain and more rapid postoperative recovery. This operation has been indicated for large sessile adenomas or for early invasive carcinomas in Japan. The indications for this procedure in more advanced colorectal carcinomas is controversial. However, based on our experience with 130 cases, laparoscopic-assisted colectomy can be as curative as open colectomy provided that the patients are properly selected. In this review, the technical difficulties of this procedure are also discussed.

  13. Interferon prophylaxis of hepatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Voiosu, R; Dimitriu, L; Dragomir, P; Eremia, L

    1999-01-01

    The present article reveals the importance of hepatic carcinoma among the other diseases in digestive oncology, and also the importance of a correct designation of these cases. Epidemiology and actual hypothesis on the mechanisms of oncogenesis are discussed. There are reviewed some studies in the literature concerning infection with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, coinfection (B and C viruses, B and D viruses), the role of interferon prophylaxis in such cases. Also there is present a statistics on chronic viral hepatits, cirrhosis of viral etiology and hepatic carcinoma, diagnosed in patients in "N.Gh.Lupu" Hospital, over two decades.

  14. Irrigation frequency alters nutrient uptake in container-grown Rhododendron plants grown with different rates of nitrogen

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The influence of irrigation frequency (same amount of water per day given at different times) on nutrient uptake of container-grown evergreen Rhododendron ‘P.J.M. Compact’ (PJM) and ‘English Roseum’ (ER) and deciduous Rhododendron ‘Gibraltar’ (AZ) grown with different rates of nitrogen (N) fertilize...

  15. Carbon Nanotube Microarrays Grown on Nanoflake Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Howard K.; Hauge, Robert H.; Pint, Cary; Pheasant, Sean

    2013-01-01

    This innovation consists of a new composition of matter where single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are grown in aligned arrays from nanostructured flakes that are coated in Fe catalyst. This method of growth of aligned SWNTs, which can yield well over 400 percent SWNT mass per unit substrate mass, exceeds current yields for entangled SWNT growth. In addition, processing can be performed with minimal wet etching treatments, leaving aligned SWNTs with superior properties over those that exist in entangled mats. The alignment of the nanotubes is similar to that achieved in vertically aligned nanotubes, which are called "carpets. " Because these flakes are grown in a state where they are airborne in a reactor, these flakes, after growing SWNTs, are termed "flying carpets. " These flakes are created in a roll-to-roll evaporator system, where three subsequent evaporations are performed on a 100-ft (approx. =30-m) roll of Mylar. The first layer is composed of a water-soluble "release layer, " which can be a material such as NaCl. After depositing NaCl, the second layer involves 40 nm of supporting layer material . either Al2O3 or MgO. The thickness of the layer can be tuned to synthesize flakes that are larger or smaller than those obtained with a 40-nm deposition. Finally, the third layer consists of a thin Fe catalyst layer with a thickness of 0.5 nm. The thickness of this layer ultimately determines the diameter of SWNT growth, and a layer that is too thick will result in the growth of multiwalled carbon nanotubes instead of single-wall nanotubes. However, between a thickness of 0.5 nm to 1 nm, single-walled carbon nanotubes are known to be the primary constituent. After this three-layer deposition process, the Mylar is rolled through a bath of water, which allows catalyst-coated flakes to detach from the Mylar. The flakes are then collected and dried. The method described here for making such flakes is analogous to that which is used to make birefringent ink that is

  16. Diamond films grown from fullerene precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Gruen, D.M.; Zuiker, C.D.; Krauss, A.R.

    1995-07-01

    Fullerene precursors have been shown to result in the growth of diamond films from argon microwave plasmas. In contradistinction to most diamond films grown using conventional methane-hydrogen mixtures, the fullerene-generated films are nanocrystalline and smooth on the nanometer scale. They have recently been shown to have friction coefficients approaching the values of natural diamond. It is clearly important to understand the development of surface morphology during film growth from fullerene precursors and to elucidate the factors leading to surface roughness when hydrogen is present in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) gas mixtures. To achieve these goals, we are measuring surface reflectivity of diamond films growing on silicon substrates over a wide range of plasma processing conditions. A model for the interpretation of the laser interferometric data has been developed, which allows one to determine film growth rate, rms surface roughness, and bulk losses due to scattering and absorption. The rms roughness values determined by reflectivity are in good agreement with atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements. A number of techniques, including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and near-edge x-ray absorption find structure (NEXAFS) measurements, have been used to characterize the films. A mechanism for diamond-film growth involving the C{sub 2} molecule as a growth species will be presented. The mechanism is based on (1) the observation that the optical emission spectra of the fullerene- containing plasmas are dominated by the Swan bands of C{sub 2} and (2) the ability of C{sub 2} to insert directly into C-H and C-C bonds with low activation barriers, as shown by recent theoretical calculations of reactions of C{sub 2} with carbon clusters.

  17. [Lactobacilli and colon carcinoma--A review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shumei; Zhang, Lanwei; Shan, Yujuan

    2015-06-04

    Epidemiological studies showed that incidence of colon carcinoma is increased in the world. There are many difficulties to inhibit colon carcinoma because the causes of inducing colon carcinoma were various and interactive each other. Previous evidence supported the balance of the colonic microflora was critical in inhibiting colon carcinoma and the protection by colonic microflora could be improved by ingesting lactobacilli. Therefore, the biological functions and anticancer effects of lactobacilli attract attention of researchers. In this review we discussed the causes of colon carcinoma; the anticancer mechanisms of lactobacilli on the basis of our own studies. Eventually, we summarized the effects of anticancer of different components and metabolic products extracted from lactobacilli.

  18. Synchronous papillary thyroid carcinoma and breast ductal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jinjing; Lei, Jianyong; Jiang, Ke; Li, Zhihui; Gong, Rixiang; Zhu, Jingqiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The incidences of both thyroid cancer and breast cancer have been rising in recent years; however, it is very rare to find a single person with both of these cancers. Only a few cases of synchronous thyroid and breast cancer have been published, and even fewer cases have been reported in older patients (>60 years). Case summary: The current study presents a case of synchronous papillary thyroid carcinoma and breast ductal carcinoma in an elderly patient. The patient first underwent a mastectomy and axillary lymphadenectomy in our department, followed by a total thyroidectomy and lymphadenectomy of the left lateral region of the neck 1 month later. Postoperative pathological examination identified invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Over almost half a year of follow-up, the patient has exhibited no evidence of recurrence or metastasis, as demonstrated by careful ultrasound examinations. Herein, we not only report this case but also present a systematic review of the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of synchronous breast and thyroid cancer. Conclusion: Although synchronous primary tumors of the thyroid and breast are very rare, they remain a possibility; therefore, more attention should be paid to these cases. PMID:28207532

  19. Amebiasis complicating carcinomas: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Mhlanga, B R; Lanoie, L O; Norris, H J; Lack, E E; Connor, D H

    1992-06-01

    Two black African women and one black American man had carcinomas of cervix, perineum, and sigmoid colon, respectively. In each of these patients, trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica had invaded the surface of the tumor, and in some areas had invaded more deeply into the stroma between the tumor cells. Although it is well known that cutaneous amebiasis of anus, penis, vulva, and cervix can mimic squamous cell carcinoma, it may be, perhaps, less well known that carcinomas at these sites may be colonized by trophozoites of E. histolytica. In patients with amebiasis but without an associated carcinoma, a correct diagnosis of amebiasis spares the patient unnecessary and sometimes mutilating surgery. But a diagnosis of amebiasis, when there is an unrecognized underlying carcinoma, delays effective treatment of the carcinoma. A smear that establishes a diagnosis of cutaneous amebiasis, therefore, should be followed by biopsy to exclude or confirm an underlying carcinoma.

  20. Inhibitory effects of tetradecanoylphorbol acetate and diacylglycerol on erythropoietin production in human renal carcinoma cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Hagiwara, Masamichi; Nagakura, Kazuhiko; Ueno, Munehisa; Fisher, J.W. )

    1987-11-01

    A human renal carcinoma from a patient with an erythrocytosis, serially transplanted into athymic nude mice, was grown in primary monolayer cell cultures. After reaching confluency the cultured cells formed multicellular hemicysts (domes) which became more abundant as the cultures approached saturation density. Erythropoietin (Ep) production by this renal carcinoma in culture was only slightly increased at the time of semiconfluency but showed a marked increase in Ep levels in the culture medium after the cultures reached confluency, in parallel with an increase in dome formation. The phorbol ester tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) showed a significant dose-related inhibitory effect on Ep production and dome formation in the renal carcinoma cell cultures, suggesting an important role of protein kinase C, the only known receptor for TPA, in inhibiting the expression of differentiated phenotypes in the renal carcinoma cells. These studies suggest a role of the inositol-lipid second messenger path and protein kinase C in the regulation of Ep production.

  1. A spontaneous high-grade undifferentiated mammary carcinoma in a seven-week-old female rat.

    PubMed

    Faustino-Rocha, Ana I; Gama, Adelina; Oliveira, Paula A; Alvarado, Antonieta; Ferreira, Rita; Ginja, Mário

    2017-02-01

    The present work describes a rare case of a spontaneous high-grade carcinoma in a seven-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rat that had been included in the control group of an assay of mammary carcinogenesis. The mass was detected at 50days of age, it grown quickly and the animal was humanely sacrificed eight days later. The tumor was located in the left cervical region, in the vicinity of the left submandibular and sublingual glands. It was soft and reddish and had several dens with a bloody content. The tumor was PAS negative and exhibited immunostaining for ER-α. The histopathologic and immunohistochemical data are suggestive of a high-grade carcinoma from mammary gland. It was the first report of a spontaneous mammary tumor in such a young rat.

  2. Radiotherapy T1 glottic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zablow, A.I.; Erba, P.S.; Sanfillippo, L.J.

    1989-11-01

    From 1970 to 1985, curative radiotherapy was administered to 63 patients with stage I carcinoma of the true vocal cords. Precision radiotherapeutic technique yields cure rates comparable to surgical results. Good voice quality was preserved in a high percentage of patients.

  3. Undifferentiated carcinoma of parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    López, J I; Alfaro, J; Ballestin, C

    1991-01-01

    Two cases of undifferentiated carcinomas of the major salivary glands were studied using immunohistochemical techniques. Results showed that this entity was a high grade malignant neoplasm arising from the excretory duct. Despite the undifferentiated appearance multiple immunophenotypes were evident in both cases. PMID:2045506

  4. Transrectal Ultrasound of Prostatic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Daniel J.; Cooperberg, Peter L.; Goldenberg, S. Larry; Toi, Ants

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the indications for transrectal ultrasound; to briefly describe the sonographic technique; to describe the sonographic findings of prostatic carcinoma; to review the indications for transrectal sonographic-guided biopsy; and to discuss the controversles of routine screening and staging. ImagesFigures 1-3 PMID:21229044

  5. Occult Carcinoma of the Bronchus

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, F. G.; Thompson, D. W.

    1966-01-01

    The term “occult carcinoma” is applied to those patients with carcinoma of the bronchus at an in situ or early invasive stage who have carcinoma cells in their sputum but have no recognizable evidence of tumour in the chest radiograph. In eight such patients at the Toronto General Hospital, the lesion was localized and treatment instituted. Our experience with these eight patients can be compared with that of 27 patients described in two similar studies. The lesions were commonly symptomatic. Localization, although sometimes difficult, was accomplished using information obtained during bronchoscopy and bronchography. The prognosis following adequate resection appeared excellent. No patient died of carcinoma during the post-treatment follow-up period, which was continued for a minimum of 18 months. Pathological evidence indicates that bronchial carcinoma at this occult stage can be diagnosed cytologically, is rarely multifocal and, as a localized neoplasm, is amenable to curative therapy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13 PMID:5929532

  6. [Primary radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Rübe, C; Grevers, G; Grimminger, H; Wendt, T; Rohloff, R

    1995-02-01

    One hundred twenty-one patients treated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma with radiation therapy were analyzed; 85 were male, 36 were female. Twenty-one percent had tumour stage T0/T1; 32.5%, T2; 27.5%, T3; and 19%, T4. In 75% of the cases, the lymph nodes were involved. Twelve patients underwent a neck dissection. Histology showed squamous cell carcinoma in 38%, lymphoepitheloid carcinoma in 41.4%, undifferentiated carcinoma in 19%, and adenocarcinoma in 2%. Beginning in 1980, a modified radiation technique with large portals and an increase of the dose from 57.1 Gy to 61.5 Gy targe volume dose was used. Five year overall survival was 32.1%, recurrence-free survival, 30.7%; and local recurrence free survival, 45.8%. Age, sex, and T stage had no significant influence on survival. Multivariate analysis (Cox model) showed that involvement of the lymph nodes, histology, and the new irradiation technique with the higher total dose significantly influenced survival.

  7. Myofibroblasts reaction in urothelial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Aurora; Baderca, Flavia; Lighezan, Rodica; Izvernariu, D

    2009-01-01

    The myofibroblast is a connective tissue cell with intermediate features between the fibroblast and the smooth muscle cell and unknown origin, which normally is present in only a few organs, but with increased incidence in malignancies. The patterns of myofibroblastic reaction may be synchronous, metachronous and mixed. The presence of the myofibroblasts has been demonstrated into the stroma of breast carcinomas, particularly in firm, retracted tumors with no inflammatory infiltrate. The present literature lacks data regarding the presence and the behavior of the myofibroblasts in urothelial carcinomas. Fifty-nine urothelial carcinoma specimens from patients admitted into the Urology Clinic of the Emergency County Hospital of Timisoara between 1999 and 2004 were stained with usual HE stain for the morphological diagnosis and immunohistochemically stained with smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and desmin for the detection of myofibroblasts. In biopsies sampled from normal urinary bladder and in urothelial carcinomas of the superior urinary tract Ta, we have not noticed any cells with myofibroblast morphology or immunophenotype. In Ta tumors, no matter the differentiation grade, we have not noticed myofibroblasts neither between the tumor cells nor at distance. The myofibroblasts were identified in seven of the 26 (26.92%) tumors in T1 stage. In T2 and T3 stage tumors the number of myofibroblasts differs from case to case, being significantly higher in tumors with high differentiation grade, G3.

  8. Epidemiology of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chinem, Valquiria Pessoa; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm in humans and its incidence has increased over the last decades. Its high frequency significantly burdens the health system, making the disease a public health issue. Despite the low mortality rates and the rare occurrence of metastases, the tumor may be locally invasive and relapse after treatment, causing significant morbidity. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the main environmental risk factor associated with its cause. However, other elements of risk are described, such as light skin phototypes, advanced age, family history of skin carcinoma, light eyes and blond hair, freckles in childhood and immunosuppression. Behavioral aspects such as occupational sun exposure, rural labor and sunburns at a young age also play a role. Between 30% and 75% of the sporadic cases are associated with patched hedgehog gene mutation, but other genetic changes are also described. The tumor is commonly found in concomitance with skin lesions related to chronic sun exposure, such as actinic keratoses, solar lentigines and facial telangiectasia. The prevention of basal cell carcinoma is based on the knowledge of risk factors, early diagnosis and treatment, as well as on the adoption of specific measures, particularly in susceptible populations. The authors present a review of the epidemiology of basal cell carcinoma.

  9. Papillary carcinoma of breast: Minireview

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, Sachin B; Murdeshwar, Hemant G; Siddiqui, Saleha

    2016-01-01

    The term “intracystic papillary ductal carcinoma in situ” constitutes only 0.5% to 1% of all breast cancers. It is usually seen in postmenopausal age group. Herein, we are presenting a minireview about this unusual breast malignancy usually difficult to diagnose on clinical grounds and highlighting modalities of diagnosis and management. PMID:26798627

  10. Identification of genes differentially expressed in V79 cells grown as multicell spheroids.

    PubMed

    Oloumi, A; Lam, W; Banáth, J P; Olive, P L

    2002-06-01

    Growth of Chinese hamster V79 cells as multicell spheroids leads to an increase in resistance to killing by ionizing radiation and etoposide. Differential display was used to identify changes in gene expression that occur when cells are grown as spheroids. Differential display was performed using exponentially growing Chinese hamster V79 cells and the outer cell layer of V79 spheroids. Using six different pairs of primers, 20 altered bands were selected. Eight genes, confirmed using reverse Northerns, showed a match in a GenBank search. Antibodies against a calcium-binding protein, mts1, confirmed differential expression of this protein. Intracellular free calcium levels were measured using fluo-3 fluorescence, and the effect of a calcium-binding agent on etoposide resistance was examined using the comet assay. Genes upregulated in the outer cell layer of spheroids relative to monolayers included: (1) mts1 (S100A4), a calcium binding protein implicated in proliferation, metastasis, cell adhesion, and angiogenesis; (2) cytochrome c oxidase II; (3) B-ind1, a mediator of Rac-1 signaling; (4) TRAM, an endoplasmic reticulum protein. Genes downregulated in spheroids were: (5) phosphoglycerate kinase; (6) ARL-3, a ras-related GTP binding protein; (7) MHC class III complement 4A; and (8) 2,4-dienoyl-CoA. Immunohistochemistry confirmed overexpression of mts1 and another calcium-binding protein, calreticulin, in V79 outer spheroid cells relative to monolayers. C6 rat glioma and SiHa human cervical carcinoma cells that demonstrate a contact effect also showed upregulation of mts1 or calreticulin, while WiDr colon carcinoma cells that lack contact resistance showed no change in expression of either calcium binding protein. Intracellular free calcium levels were found to be almost two times lower in the outer cells of V79 spheroids compared to monolayers. V79 monolayer and outer spheroid cells treated with the calcium chelating agent BAPTA-AM showed a similar level of DNA

  11. Sclerosing ductal carcinoma of the clitoris with microcystic adnexal carcinoma-like features.

    PubMed

    DuPont, Nefertiti C; Mabuchi, Seiji; Ries, Savita; Berman, Michael L

    2009-03-01

    Primary clitoral malignancies are rare and most are invasive squamous cell carcinomas. Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is an indolent, rare dermatologic carcinoma that typically affects the head and neck region. A 23-year-old nulligravid Hispanic female presented with a 9-month history of an enlarging periclitoral mass. After surgical resection, the mass was diagnosed as a MAC. MAC is a cutaneous carcinoma rarely found on the vulva. It is a slow growing but locally aggressive carcinoma that is best treated with surgical resection. Sclerosing ductal carcinomas may have MAC-like features, and the diagnosis and management of one case is provided here.

  12. Auxin transport is required for hypocotyl elongation in light-grown but not dark-grown Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jensen, P J; Hangarter, R P; Estelle, M

    1998-02-01

    Many auxin responses are dependent on redistribution and/or polar transport of indoleacetic acid. Polar transport of auxin can be inhibited through the application of phytotropins such as 1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). When Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were grown in the light on medium containing 1.0 microM NPA, hypocotyl and root elongation and gravitropism were strongly inhibited. When grown in darkness, however, NPA disrupted the gravity response but did not affect elongation. The extent of inhibition of hypocotyl elongation by NPA increased in a fluence-rate-dependent manner to a maximum of about 75% inhibition at 50 mumol m-2 s-1 of white light. Plants grown under continuous blue or far-red light showed NPA-induced hypocotyl inhibition similar to that of white-light-grown plants. Plants grown under continuous red light showed less NPA-induced inhibition. Analysis of photoreceptor mutants indicates the involvement of phytochrome and cryptochrome in mediating this NPA response. Hypocotyls of some auxin-resistant mutants had decreased sensitivity to NPA in the light, but etiolated seedlings of these mutants were similar in length to the wild type. These results indicate that light has a significant effect on NPA-induced inhibition in Arabidopsis, and suggest that auxin has a more important role in elongation responses in light-grown than in dark-grown seedlings.

  13. Frequent CCNE1 amplification in endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma and uterine serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Elisabetta; Bahadirli-Talbott, Asli; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2014-07-01

    Uterine serous carcinoma accounts for only 10% of all uterine epithelial cancers, but is the leading cause of death among them. The pathogenesis of this aggressive neoplasm has been largely elusive until recently, when comprehensive genome-wide analyses of uterine serous carcinoma have been performed. Among amplified cancer-related genes, CCNE1, encoding for cyclin E1, is frequently amplified in uterine serous carcinoma. In the current study we applied fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to determine CCNE1 copy number in uterine serous carcinoma and concurrent endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma, the noninvasive component of uterine serous carcinoma, and the results were correlated with clinicopathological and molecular features. We found that 20 (45%) of 44 uterine serous carcinomas and 11 (41%) of 27 endometrial intraepithelial carcinomas showed CCNE1 amplification. Overall, we found high concordance in CCNE1 copy number in concurrent uterine serous carcinoma and endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma pairs (P-value=0.0003). No correlation was observed between CCNE1 copy number and clinicopathological features, as well as common mutations previously reported in uterine serous carcinoma. In summary, we confirm that amplification of CCNE1 is a frequent molecular genetic change in uterine serous carcinoma. Moreover, the identification of CCNE1 amplification in many endometrial intraepithelial carcinomas suggests that this genetic event occurs early during tumor progression.

  14. Nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates

    DOEpatents

    Melechko, Anatoli V [Oak Ridge, TN; McKnight, Timothy E [Greenback, TN; Guillorn, Michael A [Ithaca, NY; Ilic, Bojan [Ithaca, NY; Merkulov, Vladimir I [Knoxville, TN; Doktycz, Mitchel J [Knoxville, TN; Lowndes, Douglas H [Knoxville, TN; Simpson, Michael L [Knoxville, TN

    2011-08-23

    Methods, manufactures, machines and compositions are described for nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates. An apparatus, includes a substrate and a nanoreplicant structure coupled to a surface of the substrate.

  15. Growing Media Affect Size of Container-Grown Red Pine

    Treesearch

    Howard M. Phipps

    1974-01-01

    Red pine seedlings were grown in nine different soil media and in two types of containers in a greenhouse. Growth differed significantly among the media after 16 weeks, with the largest seedlings produced in a peat-vermiculite mix

  16. Comparative lipid composition of heterotrophically and autotrophically grown Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    PubMed

    Langworthy, T A

    1977-06-01

    Complex lipids from the thermoacidophilic facultative autotroph Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, as well as a strictly autotrophic isolate, were compared between cells grown on yeast extract and elemental sulfur. Lipids from both organisms grown autotrophically were nearly identical. Each contained about 15% neutral lipids, 35% glycolipids, and 50% acidic lipids. Glycolipids and acidic lipids contained C40H82-76-derived glycerol ether residues. Major glycolipids included the glycerol ether analogues of glucosyl galactosyl diglyceride (5%) and glucosyl polyol diglyceride (75%). Acidic lipids were comprised mainly of the glycerol ether analogues of phosphatidyl inositol (7%), inositolphosphoryl glucosyl polyol diglyceride (72%), and a partially characterized sulfate- and phosphate-containing derivative of glucosyl polyol diglyceride (13%). The lipids from cells grown heterotrophically were similar to those from autotrophically grown cells, except that the partially characterized acidic lipid was absent. In addition, the two glycolipids as well as the respective inositolphosphoryl derivatives were each present in nearly equal proportions.

  17. Comparative lipid composition of heterotrophically and autotrophically grown Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    PubMed Central

    Langworthy, T A

    1977-01-01

    Complex lipids from the thermoacidophilic facultative autotroph Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, as well as a strictly autotrophic isolate, were compared between cells grown on yeast extract and elemental sulfur. Lipids from both organisms grown autotrophically were nearly identical. Each contained about 15% neutral lipids, 35% glycolipids, and 50% acidic lipids. Glycolipids and acidic lipids contained C40H82-76-derived glycerol ether residues. Major glycolipids included the glycerol ether analogues of glucosyl galactosyl diglyceride (5%) and glucosyl polyol diglyceride (75%). Acidic lipids were comprised mainly of the glycerol ether analogues of phosphatidyl inositol (7%), inositolphosphoryl glucosyl polyol diglyceride (72%), and a partially characterized sulfate- and phosphate-containing derivative of glucosyl polyol diglyceride (13%). The lipids from cells grown heterotrophically were similar to those from autotrophically grown cells, except that the partially characterized acidic lipid was absent. In addition, the two glycolipids as well as the respective inositolphosphoryl derivatives were each present in nearly equal proportions. Images PMID:863856

  18. Nanowire LEDs grown directly on flexible metal foil

    SciTech Connect

    May, Brelon J.; Sarwar, A. T. M. Golam; Myers, Roberto C.

    2016-04-04

    Using molecular beam epitaxy, self-assembled AlGaN nanowires are grown directly on Ta and Ti foils. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the nanowires are locally textured with the underlying metallic grains. Photoluminescence spectra of GaN nanowires grown on metal foils are comparable to GaN nanowires grown on single crystal Si wafers. Similarly, photoluminescence lifetimes do not vary significantly between these samples. Operational AlGaN light emitting diodes are grown directly on flexible Ta foil with an electroluminescence peak emission of ∼350 nm and a turn-on voltage of ∼5 V. These results pave the way for roll-to-roll manufacturing of solid state optoelectronics.

  19. At last, a medical website designed for grown-ups

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues At last, a medical website designed for grown-ups Past Issues / Winter ... by the National Institutes of Health - the Nation's Medical Research Agency. NIH is part of the U.S. ...

  20. Detection of polyol accumulation in a new ovarian carcinoma cell line, CABA I: a(1)H NMR study.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, A; D'Ascenzo, S; Knijn, A; Iorio, E; Dolo, V; Pavan, A; Podo, F

    2002-04-08

    Ovarian carcinomas represent a major form of gynaecological malignancies, whose treatment consists mainly of surgery and chemotherapy. Besides the difficulty of prognosis, therapy of ovarian carcinomas has reached scarce improvement, as a consequence of lack of efficacy and development of drug-resistance. The need of different biochemical and functional parameters has grown, in order to obtain a larger view on processes of biological and clinical significance. In this paper we report novel metabolic features detected in a series of different human ovary carcinoma lines, by (1)H NMR spectroscopy of intact cells and their extracts. Most importantly, a new ovarian adenocarcinoma line CABA I, showed strong signals in the spectral region between 3.5 and 4.0 p.p.m., assigned for the first time to the polyol sorbitol (39+/-11 nmol/10(6) cells). (13)C NMR analyses of these cells incubated with [1-(13)C]-D-glucose demonstrated labelled-sorbitol formation. The other ovarian carcinoma cell lines (OVCAR-3, IGROV 1, SK-OV-3 and OVCA432), showed, in the same spectral region, intense resonances from other metabolites: glutathione (up to 30 nmol/10(6) cells) and myo-inositol (up to 50 nmol/10(6) cells). Biochemical and biological functions are suggested for these compounds in human ovarian carcinoma cells, especially in relation to their possible role in cell detoxification mechanisms during tumour progression.

  1. Systemic regulation of photosynthetic function in field-grown sorghum.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Liu, Yujun; Shi, Lei; Jiang, Chuangdao

    2015-09-01

    The photosynthetic characteristics of developing leaves of plants grown under artificial conditions are, to some extent, regulated systemically by mature leaves; however, whether systemic regulation of photosynthesis occurs in field-grown crops is unclear. To explore this question, we investigated the effects of planting density on growth characteristics, gas exchange, leaf nitrogen concentration and chlorophyll a fluorescence in field-grown sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). Our results showed that close planting resulted in a marked decline in light intensity in lower canopy. Sorghum plants grown at a high planting density had lower net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), and transpiration rate (E) than plants grown at a low planting density. Moreover, in the absence of mineral deficiency, close planting induced a slight increase in leaf nitrogen concentration. The decreased photosynthesis in leaves of the lower canopy at high planting density was caused mainly by the low light. However, newly developed leaves exposed to high light in the upper canopy of plants grown at high planting density also exhibited a distinct decline in photosynthesis relative to plants grown at low planting density. Based on these results, the photosynthetic function of the newly developed leaves in the upper canopy was not determined fully by their own high light environment. Accordingly, we suggest that the photosynthetic function of newly developed leaves in the upper canopy of field-grown sorghum plants is regulated systemically by the lower canopy leaves. The differences in systemic regulation of photosynthesis were also discussed between field conditions and artificial conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Photosynthesis and Biomass Allocation in Oak Seedlings Grown Under Shade

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    1998-01-01

    Abstract-Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) (NRO) and white oak (Q. alba L.) (WO) acorns were sown into wooden plots and grown under 30 percent shade screen (30 percent S) or 70 percent shade screen (70 percent S). Seedlings grown under full sun were the controls (C). At the end of the first year, the 30 percent S NRO had 30 percent greater seedling dry weight (DW...

  3. Quality and Quantity Evaluations of Shade Grown Forages

    Treesearch

    K. P. Ladyman; M. S. Kerley; R. L. Kallenbach; H. E. Garrett; J. W. Van Sambeek; N. E. Navarrete-Tindall

    2003-01-01

    Seven legumes were grown during the summer-fall of 2000, at the Horticulture and Agroforestry Research Center (39? 01 ' N, 92? 46' W) near New Franklin, MO. The forages were grown in 7.5L white pots placed on light-colored gravel either under full sunlight, 45% sunlight, or 20% sunlight created by a shade cloth over a rectangular frame. Drip irrigation was...

  4. Quantification of confocal images of biofilms grown on irregular surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Stacy Sommerfeld; Tu, Mai Han; Falsetta, Megan L.; Ketterer, Margaret R.; Kiedrowski, Megan R.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Apicella, Michael A.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Fiegel, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms grow on many types of surfaces, including flat surfaces such as glass and metal and irregular surfaces such as rocks, biological tissues and polymers. While laser scanning confocal microscopy can provide high-resolution images of biofilms grown on any surface, quantification of biofilm-associated bacteria is currently limited to bacteria grown on flat surfaces. This can limit researchers studying irregular surfaces to qualitative analysis or quantification of only the total bacteria in an image. In this work, we introduce a new algorithm called modified connected volume filtration (MCVF) to quantify bacteria grown on top of an irregular surface that is fluorescently labeled or reflective. Using the MCVF algorithm, two new quantification parameters are introduced. The modified substratum coverage parameter enables quantification of the connected-biofilm bacteria on top of the surface and on the imaging substratum. The utility of MCVF and the modified substratum coverage parameter were shown with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms grown on human airway epithelial cells. A second parameter, the percent association, provides quantified data on the colocalization of the bacteria with a labeled component, including bacteria within a labeled tissue. The utility of quantifying the bacteria associated with the cell cytoplasm was demonstrated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae biofilms grown on cervical epithelial cells. This algorithm provides more flexibility and quantitative ability to researchers studying biofilms grown on a variety of irregular substrata. PMID:24632515

  5. Re-grown aligned carbon nanotubes with improved field emission.

    PubMed

    Lim, Xiaodai; Zhu, Yanwu; Varghese, Binni; Gao, Xingyu; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen; Sow, Chorng-Haur

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a simple technique to improve the field emission property of multi-walled carbon nanotubes is presented. Re-grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes are grown on the same substrates after the as-grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes are transferred to other substrates using polydimethylsiloxane as intermediation. For the duration of the synthesis of the re-grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes, similar synthesis parameters used in growing the as-grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes are utilized. As a form of possible application, field emission studies show -2.6 times improvement in field enhancement factor and more uniform emission for the re-grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes. In addition, the turn-on field is reduced from 2.85 V/microm to 1.40 V/microm. Such significant improvements are attributed to new emission sites comprising of sharp carbonaceous impurities encompassing both tip and upper portion of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes. As such, this technique presents a viable route for the production of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with better field emission quality.

  6. Defect Density Characterization of Detached-Grown Germanium Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweizer, M.; Cobb, S. D.; Volz, M. P.; Szoke, J.; Szofran, F. R.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several (111)-oriented, Ga-doped germanium crystals were grown in pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) containers by the Bridgman and the detached Bridgman growth techniques. Growth experiments in closed-bottom pBN containers resulted in nearly completely detached-grown crystals, because the gas pressure below the melt can build up to a higher pressure than above the melt. With open-bottom tubes the gas pressure above and below the melt is balanced during the experiment, and thus no additional force supports the detachment. In this case the crystals grew attached to the wall. Etch pit density (EPD) measurements along the axial growth direction indicated a strong improvement of the crystal quality of the detached-grown samples compared to the attached samples. Starting in the seed with an EPD of 6-8 x 10(exp 3)/square cm it decreased in the detached-grown crystals continuously to about 200-500/square cm . No significant radial difference between the EPD on the edge and the middle of the crystal exists. In the attached grown samples the EPD increases up to a value of about 2-4 x 10(exp 4)/square cm (near the edge) and up to 1 x 10(exp 4)/square cm in the middle of the sample. Thus the difference between the detached- and the attached-grown crystals with respect to the EPD is approximately two orders of magnitude.

  7. Defect Density Characterization of Detached-Grown Germanium Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweizer, M.; Cobb, S. D.; Volz, M. P.; Szoke, J.; Szofran, F. R.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several (111)-oriented, Ga-doped germanium crystals were grown in pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) containers by the Bridgman and the detached Bridgman growth techniques. Growth experiments in closed-bottom pBN containers resulted in nearly completely detached-grown crystals, because the gas pressure below the melt can build up to a higher pressure than above the melt. With open-bottom tubes the gas pressure above and below the melt is balanced during the experiment, and thus no additional force supports the detachment. In this case the crystals grew attached to the wall. Etch pit density (EPD) measurements along the axial growth direction indicated a strong improvement of the crystal quality of the detached-grown samples compared to the attached samples. Starting in the seed with an EPD of 6-8 x 10(exp 3)/square cm it decreased in the detached-grown crystals continuously to about 200-500/square cm . No significant radial difference between the EPD on the edge and the middle of the crystal exists. In the attached grown samples the EPD increases up to a value of about 2-4 x 10(exp 4)/square cm (near the edge) and up to 1 x 10(exp 4)/square cm in the middle of the sample. Thus the difference between the detached- and the attached-grown crystals with respect to the EPD is approximately two orders of magnitude.

  8. A Case of Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the External Auditory Canal Previously Treated for Verrucous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Soo Jung; Yang, Chan Joo

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma in the external auditory canal (EAC) is a rare malignancy with an annual incidence of one per one million people, accounting for less than 0.2% of all head and neck cancers. The most common histopathological type of EAC cancer is squamous cell carcinoma. Verrucous carcinoma is a well-differentiated, low-grade variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is a locally destructive, invasive, and slow growing tumor that rarely metastasizes. Verrucous carcinoma occurs predominantly in the oral cavity and larynx, and its occurrence in the EAC is extremely rare. In this report, we present a histologically confirmed case of verrucous carcinoma in the EAC and temporal bone, which for several years had been classified as epithelial hyperplasia. Two-and-a-half years after diagnosis of verrucous carcinoma, a recurrent mass was found and the lesion was then confirmed to be squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27942606

  9. A Case of Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the External Auditory Canal Previously Treated for Verrucous Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nam, Soo Jung; Yang, Chan Joo; Chung, Jong Woo

    2016-12-01

    Carcinoma in the external auditory canal (EAC) is a rare malignancy with an annual incidence of one per one million people, accounting for less than 0.2% of all head and neck cancers. The most common histopathological type of EAC cancer is squamous cell carcinoma. Verrucous carcinoma is a well-differentiated, low-grade variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is a locally destructive, invasive, and slow growing tumor that rarely metastasizes. Verrucous carcinoma occurs predominantly in the oral cavity and larynx, and its occurrence in the EAC is extremely rare. In this report, we present a histologically confirmed case of verrucous carcinoma in the EAC and temporal bone, which for several years had been classified as epithelial hyperplasia. Two-and-a-half years after diagnosis of verrucous carcinoma, a recurrent mass was found and the lesion was then confirmed to be squamous cell carcinoma.

  10. Undifferentiated sinonasal carcinoma in a patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sobota, Amy; Pena, Maria; Santi, Mariarita; Ali Ahmed, Atif

    2007-07-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder characterized by developmental anomalies and occurrence of multiple basal cell carcinomas and other tumors in early childhood. In this article, the authors report a case of a 19-year-old African American male with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome and a history of medulloblastoma at age 2, meningioma at age 14, thyroid follicular adenomas with papillary carcinoma at age 15, and 2 basal cell carcinomas at ages 16 and 18. Recently, he developed sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC). The radiology and pathology of the sinonasal carcinoma are presented in this report. Review of the literature reveals that this is the first case of SNUC occurring in a patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions head and neck squamous cell carcinoma head and neck squamous cell carcinoma Printable PDF Open All Close ... body cavities such as the airways and intestines. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) develops in the mucous ...

  12. Sonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinomas according to tumor size: comparison with papillary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liguang; Chen, Bo; Zhao, Miaoqing; Zhang, Huawei; Liang, Bo

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in sonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinomas according to nodule size and compared with findings for papillary thyroid carcinomas. This study included 38 medullary thyroid carcinoma nodules and 91 papillary thyroid carcinoma nodules, which were confirmed by pathologic examination between May 2008 and September 2013. Nodules were divided into those that were greater than 10 mm (large nodules) and 10 mm or less (small nodules). The differences in sonographic features (composition, echogenicity, margin, calcifications, and shape) between groups were analyzed with a χ(2) test. Large medullary thyroid carcinomas more frequently showed an ovoid-to-round shape and a smooth margin; small medullary thyroid carcinomas more frequently showed a taller-than-wide shape and a spiculated margin; the differences were statistically significant between the groups (P < .05). Compared with papillary thyroid carcinomas, large medullary thyroid carcinomas tended to have an ovoid-to-round shape, a smooth margin, and macrocalcifications and were more frequently diagnosed as indeterminate nodules (P < .05); however, there were no significant differences in the internal composition, calcifications, echogenicity, margin, and shape between small medullary thyroid carcinomas and small papillary thyroid carcinomas (P > .05). Our data indicate that the sonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinomas are associated with tumor size; furthermore, the sonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinomas are similar to those of small papillary thyroid carcinomas but greatly different from those of large papillary thyroid carcinomas. Large medullary thyroid carcinomas are more commonly diagnosed as indeterminate nodules by sonography than large papillary thyroid carcinomas, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy or serum calcitonin measurement may be helpful. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Medullary Carcinoma of Thyroid.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, S; Chakrabarti, S; Mandal, P K; Das, S

    2014-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) has been found to be associated with lymphoma, papillary carcinoma and Hürthle cell neoplasms of thyroid. In contrast, there are only a few reports of co-existence of HT with medullary carcinoma of thyroid. An overall prevalence of medullary carcinoma of only 0.35% has been reported in HT patients. Such a rare combination is being presented here. A 33 year old female presented with history of goiter for one year. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the swelling revealed cytological features suggestive of medullary carcinoma of thyroid. Histopathological examination of total thyroidectomy specimen revealed Hashimoto's thyroiditis along with medullary carcinoma of thyroid. Although Hashimoto's thyroiditis can uncommonly co-exist with thyroid neoplasm, its association with medullary carcinoma is extremely rare and hence being presented.

  14. Renal cell carcinoma: Evolving and emerging subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Crumley, Suzanne M; Divatia, Mukul; Truong, Luan; Shen, Steven; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rapidly expanding. For those who diagnose and treat RCC, it is important to understand the new developments. In recent years, many new renal tumors have been described and defined, and our understanding of the biology and clinical correlates of these tumors is changing. Evolving concepts in Xp11 translocation carcinoma, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, multilocular cystic clear cell RCC, and carcinoma associated with neuroblastoma are addressed within this review. Tubulocystic carcinoma, thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of kidney, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, and clear cell papillary RCC are also described. Finally, candidate entities, including RCC with t(6;11) translocation, hybrid oncocytoma/chromophobe RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome, and renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor are reviewed. Knowledge of these new entities is important for diagnosis, treatment and subsequent prognosis. This review provides a targeted summary of new developments in RCC. PMID:24364021

  15. NUT Midline Carcinoma: A Rare Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Al Diffalha, Sameer; Al Aukla, Nidal; Hasan, Saleh; Dickinson, Shohreh; Khalil, Farah

    2017-04-01

    Nuclear protein of the testis (NUT) midline carcinoma can present in the head, neck, and mediastinum. In general, it presents in young adult men and has a poor prognosis. We report on a case of NUT midline carcinoma of the mediastinum in a man 27 years of age without any prior malignancy. Due to the location of the tumor, mediastinal lymphoma and germ cell tumor were initially considered; however, immunohistochemistry was performed using NUT antibody that revealed it to be NUT midline carcinoma. Although guidelines exist for squamous cell carcinoma of the head, neck, and mediastinum, no such specific guidelines are available for NUT midline carcinoma, which looks morphologically similar to squamous cell carcinoma but behaves more aggressively and carries a poor prognosis.

  16. Basosquamous Carcinoma: Controversy, Advances, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Tan, Caroline Z; Rieger, Kerri E; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2017-01-01

    Basosquamous carcinoma is a rare cutaneous neoplasm that has caused considerable controversy as to its classification, pathogenesis, and management. To review and summarize current literature on the definition, pathogenesis, incidence, and management of basosquamous carcinoma. Through December 2015, an electronic search of the Pubmed database was performed using combinations of basosquamous carcinoma and metatypical basal cell carcinoma as search terms. A selection of 39 publications including case reports and series, retrospective studies, and systematic reviews of the literature were included. Descriptions of the definition of basosquamous carcinoma, clinical behavior, histopathological characteristics, current treatment therapies, and future advances are summarized. This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of basosquamous carcinoma. Further study is required to elucidate the mechanisms driving the formation of this aggressive tumor.

  17. Evidence That an Internal Carbonic Anhydrase Is Present in 5% CO(2)-Grown and Air-Grown Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Moroney, J V; Togasaki, R K; Husic, H D; Tolbert, N E

    1987-07-01

    Inorganic carbon (C(i)) uptake was measured in wild-type cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in cia-3, a mutant strain of C. reinhardtii that cannot grow with air levels of CO(2). Both air-grown cells, that have a CO(2) concentrating system, and 5% CO(2)-grown cells that do not have this system, were used. When the external pH was 5.1 or 7.3, air-grown, wild-type cells accumulated inorganic carbon (C(i)) and this accumulation was enhanced when the permeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, ethoxyzolamide, was added. When the external pH was 5.1, 5% CO(2)-grown cells also accumulated some C(i), although not as much as air-grown cells and this accumulation was stimulated by the addition of ethoxyzolamide. At the same time, ethoxyzolamide inhibited CO(2) fixation by high CO(2)-grown, wild-type cells at both pH 5.1 and 7.3. These observations imply that 5% CO(2)-grown, wild-type cells, have a physiologically important internal carbonic anhydrase, although the major carbonic anhydrase located in the periplasmic space is only present in air-grown cells. Inorganic carbon uptake by cia-3 cells supported this conclusion. This mutant strain, which is thought to lack an internal carbonic anhydrase, was unaffected by ethoxyzolamide at pH 5.1. Other physiological characteristics of cia-3 resemble those of wild-type cells that have been treated with ethoxyzolamide. It is concluded that an internal carbonic anhydrase is under different regulatory control than the periplasmic carbonic anhydrase.

  18. Evidence That an Internal Carbonic Anhydrase Is Present in 5% CO2-Grown and Air-Grown Chlamydomonas1

    PubMed Central

    Moroney, James V.; Togasaki, Robert K.; Husic, H. David; Tolbert, N. E.

    1987-01-01

    Inorganic carbon (Ci) uptake was measured in wild-type cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in cia-3, a mutant strain of C. reinhardtii that cannot grow with air levels of CO2. Both air-grown cells, that have a CO2 concentrating system, and 5% CO2-grown cells that do not have this system, were used. When the external pH was 5.1 or 7.3, air-grown, wild-type cells accumulated inorganic carbon (Ci) and this accumulation was enhanced when the permeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, ethoxyzolamide, was added. When the external pH was 5.1, 5% CO2-grown cells also accumulated some Ci, although not as much as air-grown cells and this accumulation was stimulated by the addition of ethoxyzolamide. At the same time, ethoxyzolamide inhibited CO2 fixation by high CO2-grown, wild-type cells at both pH 5.1 and 7.3. These observations imply that 5% CO2-grown, wild-type cells, have a physiologically important internal carbonic anhydrase, although the major carbonic anhydrase located in the periplasmic space is only present in air-grown cells. Inorganic carbon uptake by cia-3 cells supported this conclusion. This mutant strain, which is thought to lack an internal carbonic anhydrase, was unaffected by ethoxyzolamide at pH 5.1. Other physiological characteristics of cia-3 resemble those of wild-type cells that have been treated with ethoxyzolamide. It is concluded that an internal carbonic anhydrase is under different regulatory control than the periplasmic carbonic anhydrase. PMID:16665517

  19. Molecular genetic heterogeneity in undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Rosa, Juan M; Leskelä, Susanna; Cristóbal-Lana, Eva; Santón, Almudena; López-García, Ma Ángeles; Muñoz, Gloria; Pérez-Mies, Belen; Biscuola, Michele; Prat, Jaime; Esther, Oliva E; Soslow, Robert A; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Palacios, Jose

    2016-11-01

    Undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas are rare and highly aggressive subtypes of uterine cancer, not well characterized at a molecular level. To investigate whether dedifferentiated carcinomas carry molecular genetic alterations similar to those of pure undifferentiated carcinomas, and to gain insight into the pathogenesis of these tumors, we selected a cohort of 18 undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas, 8 of them with a well-differentiated endometrioid carcinoma component (dedifferentiated endometrioid carcinomas), and studied them by immunohistochemistry and massive parallel and Sanger sequencing. Whole-exome sequencing of the endometrioid and undifferentiated components, as well as normal myometrium, was also carried out in one case. According to The Cancer Genome Atlas classification, we distributed 95% of the undifferentiated carcinomas in this series as follows: (a) hypermutated tumors with loss of any mismatch repair protein expression and microsatellite instability (eight cases, 45%); (b) ultramutated carcinomas carrying mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE (two cases, 11%); (c) high copy number alterations (copy-number high) tumors group exhibiting only TP53 mutations and high number of alterations detected by FISH (two cases, 11%); and (d) low copy number alterations (copy-number low) tumors with molecular alterations typical of endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (five cases, 28%). Two of the latter cases, however, also had TP53 mutations and higher number of alterations detected by FISH and could have progressed to a copy-number high phenotype. Most dedifferentiated carcinomas belonged to the hypermutated group, whereas pure undifferentiated carcinomas shared molecular genetic alterations with copy-number low or copy-number high tumors. These results indicate that undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas are molecularly heterogeneous tumors, which may have prognostic value.

  20. Merkel cell carcinoma in an immunosuppressed patient*

    PubMed Central

    Góes, Heliana Freitas de Oliveira; Lima, Caren dos Santos; Issa, Maria Cláudia de Almeida; Luz, Flávio Barbosa; Pantaleão, Luciana; da Paixão, José Gabriel Miranda

    2017-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is an uncommon neuroendocrine carcinoma with a rising incidence and an aggressive behavior. It predominantly occurs in older patients, with onset occurring at a mean age of 75-80 years. Recognized risk factors are ultraviolet sunlight exposure, immunosuppression, and, more recently, Merkel cell polyomavirus. We report a case of Merkel cell carcinoma in a young HIV positive patient with Merkel Cell polyomavirus detected in the tumor.

  1. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  2. [Synchronous carcinoma of the colorectum].

    PubMed

    Pisciotta, M; Gulotta, G; Profita, G; Amoroso, S; Mineo, R; Rodolico, V

    1991-06-30

    The incidence of synchronous carcinoma of the large intestine is rising in relation to a greater oncogenic environmental charge and increased average life expectancy. There is also a constant risk of not recognising the disease, especially in the case of small carcinoma and, to a greater extent, in patients operated during the occlusive phase. Having underlined the diagnostic value of a correct preparation of the colon prior to instrumental tests, the authors emphasise the importance of a careful intraoperative exploration of the viscera, its preliminary confinement in occluded subjects and repeated surgery in the event of doubts regarding the monolocation of the tumour. Lastly, they underline the importance of postoperative radiological and endoscopic controls since these tests mark both the successful outcome of treatment and the start of follow-up.

  3. Endometrioid carcinoma of the oviduct.

    PubMed

    Seraj, I M; Chase, D R; King, A

    1991-05-01

    Endometrioid carcinoma is a malignant tumor which microscopically resembles endometrial adenocarcinoma, but arises from extrauterine sites, most commonly the ovary. Although its association with endometriosis has received considerable discussion, it appears that most of the malignant endometrioid tumors arise de novo. We present a case of endometrioid carcinoma which is outstanding for its primary site in the oviduct and for its histologic appearance, which incorporated a close interplay between both stromal and epithelial elements. The neoplasm was found incidentally, when the woman presented with postmenopausal bleeding due to adenomatous hyperplasia of the endometrium. The patient presented with a stage I, grade I tumor which did not invade the wall of the oviduct. Twelve years following a TAH-BSO and postoperative radiation, the tumor recurred, requiring additional surgery and chemotherapy. The patient is currently disease free, 2 years from her recurrence.

  4. Cervical carcinoma: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Cowan, M E; Skinner, G R

    1988-01-01

    A mouse model system was used to investigate the preventive efficacy of a subunit herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine on the development of HSV induced cervical carcinoma. Ten groups of mice were vaccinated before receiving repeated intravaginal exposure to HSV-type 2 inactivated by ultraviolet irradiation. At 20 months postvaccination, neutralizing antibody activity to herpes simplex viruses was detected in the sera of the mice which had received the highest vaccine dose. Although three experimental mice and one control mouse developed cervical tumours and five mice developed preinvasive malignant changes, 87% of cervices were of normal or koilocytotic appearance on histological examination. There was therefore no evidence from this study that repeated exposure of mouse cervices to inactivated HSV-2 induced a significant incidence of preinvasive or invasive cervical carcinoma.

  5. Cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gaitan-Gaona, Francisco; Said, Mirra C; Valdes-Rodriguez, Rodrigo

    2016-03-16

    A 66-year-old woman presented with a 3 cm black, ulcerated nodule located on the skin of the upper abdomen, just below the breast. The lesion was painful to the touch, but the patient reported no other associated symptoms and was otherwise healthy. A 4-mm punch biopsy of the affected skin was obtained and the histological diagnosis was cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma.

  6. BRAF in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanzilotta, Salvatore Giovanni; Grammatica, Luciano; Paradiso, Angelo; Simone, Gianni

    2007-01-01

    Novel genetic findings about papillary thyroid carcinoma identify BRAF gene as a subject of great interest. Involvement of BRAF gene in pathogenesis of PTC, diagnostic value and the putative prognostic significance of its T1799A mutation are summarized in this article. Furthermore, a particular attention is focused to the role of pre-operative detection of BRAF mutation in the FNAB specimens of thyroid nodules and to the use of this gene as target for an effective cancer therapy. PMID:17641411

  7. Anaplastic giant cell thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wallin, G; Lundell, G; Tennvall, J

    2004-01-01

    Anaplastic (giant cell) thyroid carcinoma (ATC), is one of the most aggressive malignancies in humans with a median survival time after diagnosis of 3-6 months. Death from ATC was earlier seen because of local growth and suffocation. ATC is uncommon, accounting for less than 5 % of all thyroid carcinomas. The diagnosis can be established by means of multiple fine needle aspiration biopsies, which are neither harmful nor troublesome for the patient. The cytological diagnosis of this high-grade malignant tumour is usually not difficult for a well trained cytologist. The intention to treat patients with ATC is cure, although only few of them survive. The majority of the patients are older than 60 years and treatment must be influenced by their high age. We have by using a combined modality regimen succeeded in achieving local control in most patients. Every effort should be made to control the primary tumour and thereby improve the quality of remaining life and it is important for patients, relatives and the personnel to know that cure is not impossible. Different treatment combinations have been used since 30 years including radiotherapy, cytostatic drugs and surgery, when feasible. In our latest combined regimen, 22 patients were treated with hyper fractionated radiotherapy 1.6Gy x 2 to a total target dose of 46 Gy given preoperatively, 20 mg doxorubicin was administered intravenously once weekly and surgery was carried out 2-3 weeks after the radiotherapy. 17 of these 22 patients were operated upon and none of these 17 patients got a local recurrence. In the future we are awaiting the development of new therapeutic approaches to this aggressive type of carcinoma. Inhibitors of angiogenesis might be useful. Combretastatin has displayed cytotoxicity against ATC cell lines and has had a positive effect on ATC in a patient. Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) genetherapy is also being currently considered for dedifferentiated thyroid carcinomas with the ultimate aim of

  8. Defect studies in 4H- Silicon Carbide PVT grown bulk crystals, CVD grown epilayers and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrappa, Shayan M.

    Silicon Carbide [SiC] which exists as more than 200 different polytypes is known for superior high temperature and high power applications in comparison to conventional semiconductor materials like Silicon and Germanium. The material finds plethora of applications in a diverse fields due to its unique properties like large energy bandgap, high thermal conductivity and high electric breakdown field. Though inundated with superior properties the potential of this material has not been utilized fully due to impeding factors such as defects especially the crystalline ones which limit their performance greatly. Lots of research has been going on for decades to reduce these defects and there has been subsequent improvement in the quality as the diameter of SiC commercial wafers has reached 150mm from 25mm since its inception. The main focus of this thesis has been to study yield limiting defect structures in conjunction with several leading companies and national labs using advanced characterization tools especially the Synchrotron source. The in depth analysis of SiC has led to development of strategies to reduce or eliminate the density of defects by studying how the defects nucleate, replicate and interact in the material. The strategies discussed to reduce defects were proposed after careful deliberation and analysis of PVT grown bulk crystals and CVD grown epilayers. Following are some of the results of the study: [1] Macrostep overgrowth mechanism in SiC was used to study the deflection of threading defects onto the basal plane resulting in stacking faults. Four types of stacking faults associated with deflection of c/c+a threading defects have been observed to be present in 76mm, 100mm and 150mm diameter wafers. The PVT grown bulk crystals and CVD grown epilayers in study were subjected to contrast studies using synchrotron white beam X-ray topography [SWBXT]. The SWBXT image contrast studies of these stacking faults with comparison of calculated phase shifts for

  9. Feminizing Adrenocortical Carcinoma with Distinct Histopathological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Masako; Takenaka, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Ikuo; Homma, Keiko; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Sasano, Hisanobu; Awata, Takuya; Katayama, Shigehiro

    2016-01-01

    We herein present a 60-year-old man with adrenocortical carcinoma who had gynecomastia. An endocrinological examination revealed increased levels of serum estradiol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) and reduced levels of free testosterone. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an adrenal tumor with heterogeneous intensity. Iodine-131 adosterol scintigraphy showed an increased uptake at the same site. Because feminizing adrenocortical carcinoma was suspected, right adrenalectomy was performed; the pathological diagnosis was adrenocortical carcinoma. The results of immunostaining indicated a virilizing tumor. Aromatase activity was identified on RT-PCR. As disorganized steroidogenesis is pathologically present in adrenocortical carcinoma, this diagnosis should be made with caution. PMID:27853073

  10. Pathogenesis and Nomenclature of Odontogenic Carcinomas: Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Swagatika; Sahoo, Sujit Ranjan; Srivastav, Gunjan; Padhiary, Subrat; Dhull, Kanika Singh; Aggarwal, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic carcinoma is rare group of malignant epithelial odontogenic neoplasms with characteristic clinical behavior and histological features, which requires an aggressive surgical approach. The pathogenesis of this rare group remains still controversial and there have been many varied opinions over the classification of this rare group of lesions. As there have not been many reviews on odontogenic carcinoma, the existing knowledge is mostly derived from the published case reports. This review is discussing the pathogenetic mechanisms and is updating the knowledge on nomenclature system of less explored odontogenic carcinomas. This review might throw light on the pathogenesis and nomenclature system of odontogenic carcinoma and this knowledge may be applied therapeutically. PMID:24799899

  11. Warty Carcinoma Penis: An Uncommon Variant

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arnab; Shrestha, Santosh; Ghartimagar, Dilasma; Narasimhan, Raghavan; Talwar, OP

    2017-01-01

    Penile carcinoma frequency varies widely in different parts of the world and comprises 1–10% of all the malignancies in males. Majority of the cases of penile carcinoma are squamous cell carcinoma of penis comprising 60% to 70% of all cases. Warty carcinoma of penis is an unusual neoplasm and a variant of penile squamous cell carcinoma comprising 5%–10% of all the variants. The other histological variants include basaloid, verrucous, papillary, sarcomatous, mixed, and adenosquamous carcinoma. The various histological entities with an exophytic papillary lesions including warty carcinoma are together referred to as the “verruciform” group of neoplasms. The warty carcinoma has to be differentiated from these lesions and is typically distinguished by histological features of hyperkeratosis, arborescent papillomatosis, acanthosis, and prominent koilocytosis with nuclear pleomorphism. We present a case of 65-year-old male with growth measuring 6 × 4 cm in the penis who underwent total penectomy and was diagnosed as warty carcinoma penis. PMID:28154768

  12. Small cell carcinoma of the bladder

    PubMed Central

    Calado, Bruno Nagel; Maron, Paulo Eduardo Goulart; Vedovato, Bruno César; Barrese, Tomas Zecchini; Fernandes, Roni de Carvalho; Perez, Marjo Deninson Cardenuto

    2015-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is an extremely aggressive and rare tumor. Even though small cell carcinoma most commonly arises from the lungs there are several reports of small cell carcinoma in extrapulmonary sites. Due to its low frequency there is no well-established management for this disease. We report the case of a 61 year-old man with small cell carcinoma of the bladder who underwent radical cystectomy following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We also reviewed the literature for the optimal treatment strategy. PMID:25517085

  13. Biomarkers of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Tin C; Wood, Christopher G; Karam, Jose A

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has increased steadily in past few decades and is partially attributable to the increased utilization of cross-sectional imaging. Many of these carcinomas are small incidental discoveries, although a subset leads to locally advanced or distant disease. Although its molecular pathophysiology is not completely understood, knowledge of hereditary RCCs has shed light on some of the pathways involved. More recently, the rapid advances in genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics have allowed for a deeper and more nuanced understanding of the genetic aberrations that lead up to and result from the transformation of a renal tubular epithelial cell into a carcinoma. These discoveries have allowed for the development of novel therapeutics that target these pathways. They have also led to the development of diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers that could radically change the way RCC is diagnosed and treated. Although some of the current investigations are nascent and it remains to be seen which biomarkers will become clinically available, many candidate biomarkers show promise and require external validation. Ultimately, biomarkers may allow for cost-effective screening of high-risk patients, the identification of aggressive cancers among small renal masses, the identification of high-risk patients, the detection of recurrences postoperatively with minimal imaging, and the ability to choose appropriate targeted therapies for patients with metastatic disease.

  14. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, and mimickers: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Todd M; Kovalovsky, Andra O; Velosa, Claudia; Shi, Qiuying; Dai, Qian; Owen, Randall P; Bell, Walter C; Wei, Shi; Althof, Pamela A; Sanmann, Jennifer N; Sweeny, Larissa; Carroll, William R; Siegal, Gene P; Bullock, Martin J; Brandwein-Gensler, Margaret

    2015-08-01

    Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently recognized low-grade salivary carcinoma characterized by a specific ETV6 rearrangement. We describe 14 new MASCs and examine their immunophenotypic and genetic profiles in the context of look-alikes, namely, low-and high-grade salivary duct carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. ETV6 rearrangement, and robust expression of mammaglobin and S100, were demonstrated in 11/11, 14/14, and 12/14 MASCs, respectively. All low-grade salivary duct carcinomas coexpressed S100/mammaglobin (6/6); none harbored ETV6 rearrangements (0/5). Given that S100/mammaglobin coexpression and absence of zymogen granules are features of both MASC and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, these two are best distinguished histologically. The former is predominantly an extraductal neoplasm with bubbly pink cytoplasm, whereas the latter is a distinct intraductal micropapillary and cribriform process. Querying ETV6 gene status may be necessary for difficult cases. No acinic cell carcinoma expressed mammaglobin (0/13) or harbored an ETV6 rearrangement (0/7); only 1/13 acinic cell carcinomas weakly expressed S100. DOG1 expression was limited or absent among all tumor types, except acinic cell carcinoma which expressed DOG1 diffusely in a canalicular pattern. Therefore, histology and immunohistochemistry (mammaglobin, S100, DOG1) suffices in distinguishing acinic cell carcinoma from both MASC and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. HER2 (ERBB2) amplification was detected in only 1/10 acinic cell carcinomas, but none of the MASCs or low-grade salivary duct carcinomas tested. High-grade salivary duct carcinomas frequently expressed mammaglobin (11/18) and harbored HER2 amplifications (13/15); none harbored ETV6 rearrangements (0/12). High-grade salivary duct carcinomas can easily be distinguished from these other entities by histology and HER2 amplification.

  15. [Hepatocellular carcinoma. Part 2. Treatment].

    PubMed

    Conte, V P

    2000-01-01

    Recent improvements on the therapeutical management of hepatocellular carcinoma are revised with special attention to evaluate the role of surgery for the disease. Considering that definitive surgical intervention is not feasible in most cases because of extreme tumor extension, multiplicity of tumor foci, and associated advanced liver cirrhosis at the time of diagnosis, others forms of treatment are listed, such as transcatheterarterial chemoembolization, percutaneous ethanol and acetic acid injections, and chemotherapy only to a small portion of patients with no indication for standard treatments. The emerging role of retinoic acid metabolism blocking agents, was examined and may offer a significant new potential treatment for cancer, inclusive the possibility of combining other anticancer drugs with exogenous retinoids or modulation of endogenous retinoids as a real opportunity to advance our ability to treat or prevent human cancer effectively Octreotide, nitrosamine and other drugs are analyzed and is concluded that improves survival and is a valuable alternative in the treatment of inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma. The potential role of intersticial laser coagulation for patients with irresectable hepatic tumors was investigated, and in terms of experience, it has now been developed sufficiently to study its effect on these patients survival. The homeostatic control of angiogenesis and its influences on the tumor growth and for migration of metastatic cells, was focused in this concise review, given that hepatocytes are the source of much of the precursor pool, regulation of angiogenesis may be regarded as a new liver function with important consequences for tissue repair and cancer. Early hepatocellular carcinoma and its recognition in routine clinical practice contributes to improved patients survival. Recombinant-Interferon-alpha therapy surely prevents, the development of cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma in about one-third of patients, with

  16. Radiosensitivity of different human tumor cells lines grown as multicellular spheroids determined from growth curves and survival data

    SciTech Connect

    Schwachoefer, J.H.C.; Crooijmans, R.P.; van Gasteren, J.J.; Hoogenhout, J.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Kal, H.B.; Theeuwes, A.G. )

    1989-11-01

    Five human tumor cell lines were grown as multicellular tumor spheroids (MTS) to determine whether multicellular tumor spheroids derived from different types of tumors would show tumor-type dependent differences in response to single-dose irradiation, and whether these differences paralleled clinical behavior. Multicellular tumor spheroids of two neuroblastoma, one lung adenocarcinoma, one melanoma, and a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue, were studied in terms of growth delay, calculated cell survival, and spheroid control dose50 (SCD50). Growth delay and cell survival analysis for the tumor cell lines showed sensitivities that correlated well with clinical behavior of the tumor types of origin. Similar to other studies on melanoma multicellular tumor spheroids our spheroid control dose50 results for the melanoma cell line deviated from the general pattern of sensitivity. This might be due to the location of surviving cells, which prohibits proliferation of surviving cells and hence growth of melanoma multicellular tumor spheroids. This study demonstrates that radiosensitivity of human tumor cell lines can be evaluated in terms of growth delay, calculated cell survival, and spheroid control dose50 when grown as multicellular tumor spheroids. The sensitivity established from these evaluations parallels clinical behavior, thus offering a unique tool for the in vitro analysis of human tumor radiosensitivity.

  17. Seedborne fungal contamination: consequences in space-grown wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. L.; Levine, H. G.; Kropp, B. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Hood, E. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses that may promote microbial growth and result in disease symptoms. Wheat (cv. Super Dwarf) recovered from an 8-day mission aboard a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) space shuttle showed disease symptoms, including girdling of leaf sheaths and chlorosis and necrosis of leaf and root tissues. A Neotyphodium species was isolated from the seed and leaf sheaths of symptomatic wheat used in the spaceflight mission. Certain isozymes of a peroxidase unique to extracts from the microgravity-grown plants were observed in extracts from earth-grown Neotyphodium-infected plants but were not present in noninfected wheat. The endophytic fungus was eliminated from the wheat seed by prolonged heat treatment at 50 degrees C followed by washes with water at 50 degrees C. Plants from wheat seed infected with the Neotyphodium endophyte were symptomless when grown under greenhouse conditions, whereas symptoms appeared after only 4 days of growth in closed containers. Disease spread from an infected plant to noninfected plants in closed containers. Dispersion via spores was found on asymptomatic plants at distances of 7 to 18 cm from infected plants. The size and shape of the conidia, mycelia, and phialide-bearing structures and the ability to grow rapidly on carbohydrates, especially xylose, resembled the characteristics of N. chilense, which is pathogenic on orchard grass, Doctylis glomerati. The Neotyphodium wheat isolate caused disease symptoms on other cereals (wheat cv. Malcolm, orchard grass, barley, and maize) grown in closed containers.

  18. Growth and photosynthetic responses of wheat plants grown in space.

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, B C; Brown, C S; Levine, H G; Krikorian, A D

    1996-01-01

    Growth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Super Dwarf) plants grown onboard the space shuttle Discovery for 10 d were examined. Compared to ground control plants, the shoot fresh weight of space-grown seedlings decreased by 25%. Postflight measurements of the O2 evolution/photosynthetic photon flux density response curves of leaf samples revealed that the CO2-saturated photosynthetic rate at saturating light intensities in space-grown plants declined 25% relative to the rate in ground control plants. The relative quantum yield of CO2-saturated photosynthetic O2 evolution measured at limiting light intensities was not significantly affected. In space-grown plants, the light compensation point of the leaves increased by 33%, which likely was due to an increase (27%) in leaf dark-respiration rates. Related experiments with thylakoids isolated from space-grown plants showed that the light-saturated photosynthetic electron transport rate from H2O through photosystems II and I was reduced by 28%. These results demonstrate that photosynthetic functions are affected by the microgravity environment. PMID:8819868

  19. Growth and photosynthetic responses of wheat plants grown in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathy, B. C.; Brown, C. S.; Levine, H. G.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    Growth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Super Dwarf) plants grown onboard the space shuttle Discovery for 10 d were examined. Compared to ground control plants, the shoot fresh weight of space-grown seedlings decreased by 25%. Postflight measurements of the O2 evolution/photosynthetic photon flux density response curves of leaf samples revealed that the CO2-saturated photosynthetic rate at saturating light intensities in space-grown plants declined 25% relative to the rate in ground control plants. The relative quantum yield of CO2-saturated photosynthetic O2 evolution measured at limiting light intensities was not significantly affected. In space-grown plants, the light compensation point of the leaves increased by 33%, which likely was due to an increase (27%) in leaf dark-respiration rates. Related experiments with thylakoids isolated from space-grown plants showed that the light-saturated photosynthetic electron transport rate from H2O through photosystems II and I was reduced by 28%. These results demonstrate that photosynthetic functions are affected by the microgravity environment.

  20. Diversity in Butane Monooxygenases among Butane-Grown Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hamamura, Natsuko; Storfa, Ryan T.; Semprini, Lewis; Arp, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    Butane monooxygenases of butane-grown Pseudomonas butanovora, Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5, and an environmental isolate, CF8, were compared at the physiological level. The presence of butane monooxygenases in these bacteria was indicated by the following results. (i) O2 was required for butane degradation. (ii) 1-Butanol was produced during butane degradation. (iii) Acetylene inhibited both butane oxidation and 1-butanol production. The responses to the known monooxygenase inactivator, ethylene, and inhibitor, allyl thiourea (ATU), discriminated butane degradation among the three bacteria. Ethylene irreversibly inactivated butane oxidation by P. butanovora but not by M. vaccae or CF8. In contrast, butane oxidation by only CF8 was strongly inhibited by ATU. In all three strains of butane-grown bacteria, specific polypeptides were labeled in the presence of [14C]acetylene. The [14C]acetylene labeling patterns were different among the three bacteria. Exposure of lactate-grown CF8 and P. butanovora and glucose-grown M. vaccae to butane induced butane oxidation activity as well as the specific acetylene-binding polypeptides. Ammonia was oxidized by all three bacteria. P. butanovora oxidized ammonia to hydroxylamine, while CF8 and M. vaccae produced nitrite. All three bacteria oxidized ethylene to ethylene oxide. Methane oxidation was not detected by any of the bacteria. The results indicate the presence of three distinct butane monooxygenases in butane-grown P. butanovora, M. vaccae, and CF8. PMID:10508093

  1. Growth and photosynthetic responses of wheat plants grown in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathy, B. C.; Brown, C. S.; Levine, H. G.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    Growth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Super Dwarf) plants grown onboard the space shuttle Discovery for 10 d were examined. Compared to ground control plants, the shoot fresh weight of space-grown seedlings decreased by 25%. Postflight measurements of the O2 evolution/photosynthetic photon flux density response curves of leaf samples revealed that the CO2-saturated photosynthetic rate at saturating light intensities in space-grown plants declined 25% relative to the rate in ground control plants. The relative quantum yield of CO2-saturated photosynthetic O2 evolution measured at limiting light intensities was not significantly affected. In space-grown plants, the light compensation point of the leaves increased by 33%, which likely was due to an increase (27%) in leaf dark-respiration rates. Related experiments with thylakoids isolated from space-grown plants showed that the light-saturated photosynthetic electron transport rate from H2O through photosystems II and I was reduced by 28%. These results demonstrate that photosynthetic functions are affected by the microgravity environment.

  2. Seedborne fungal contamination: consequences in space-grown wheat.

    PubMed

    Bishop, D L; Levine, H G; Kropp, B R; Anderson, A J

    1997-11-01

    Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses that may promote microbial growth and result in disease symptoms. Wheat (cv. Super Dwarf) recovered from an 8-day mission aboard a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) space shuttle showed disease symptoms, including girdling of leaf sheaths and chlorosis and necrosis of leaf and root tissues. A Neotyphodium species was isolated from the seed and leaf sheaths of symptomatic wheat used in the spaceflight mission. Certain isozymes of a peroxidase unique to extracts from the microgravity-grown plants were observed in extracts from earth-grown Neotyphodium-infected plants but were not present in noninfected wheat. The endophytic fungus was eliminated from the wheat seed by prolonged heat treatment at 50 degrees C followed by washes with water at 50 degrees C. Plants from wheat seed infected with the Neotyphodium endophyte were symptomless when grown under greenhouse conditions, whereas symptoms appeared after only 4 days of growth in closed containers. Disease spread from an infected plant to noninfected plants in closed containers. Dispersion via spores was found on asymptomatic plants at distances of 7 to 18 cm from infected plants. The size and shape of the conidia, mycelia, and phialide-bearing structures and the ability to grow rapidly on carbohydrates, especially xylose, resembled the characteristics of N. chilense, which is pathogenic on orchard grass, Doctylis glomerati. The Neotyphodium wheat isolate caused disease symptoms on other cereals (wheat cv. Malcolm, orchard grass, barley, and maize) grown in closed containers.

  3. Growth and photosynthetic responses of wheat plants grown in space.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, B C; Brown, C S; Levine, H G; Krikorian, A D

    1996-03-01

    Growth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Super Dwarf) plants grown onboard the space shuttle Discovery for 10 d were examined. Compared to ground control plants, the shoot fresh weight of space-grown seedlings decreased by 25%. Postflight measurements of the O2 evolution/photosynthetic photon flux density response curves of leaf samples revealed that the CO2-saturated photosynthetic rate at saturating light intensities in space-grown plants declined 25% relative to the rate in ground control plants. The relative quantum yield of CO2-saturated photosynthetic O2 evolution measured at limiting light intensities was not significantly affected. In space-grown plants, the light compensation point of the leaves increased by 33%, which likely was due to an increase (27%) in leaf dark-respiration rates. Related experiments with thylakoids isolated from space-grown plants showed that the light-saturated photosynthetic electron transport rate from H2O through photosystems II and I was reduced by 28%. These results demonstrate that photosynthetic functions are affected by the microgravity environment.

  4. Seedborne fungal contamination: consequences in space-grown wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. L.; Levine, H. G.; Kropp, B. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Hood, E. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses that may promote microbial growth and result in disease symptoms. Wheat (cv. Super Dwarf) recovered from an 8-day mission aboard a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) space shuttle showed disease symptoms, including girdling of leaf sheaths and chlorosis and necrosis of leaf and root tissues. A Neotyphodium species was isolated from the seed and leaf sheaths of symptomatic wheat used in the spaceflight mission. Certain isozymes of a peroxidase unique to extracts from the microgravity-grown plants were observed in extracts from earth-grown Neotyphodium-infected plants but were not present in noninfected wheat. The endophytic fungus was eliminated from the wheat seed by prolonged heat treatment at 50 degrees C followed by washes with water at 50 degrees C. Plants from wheat seed infected with the Neotyphodium endophyte were symptomless when grown under greenhouse conditions, whereas symptoms appeared after only 4 days of growth in closed containers. Disease spread from an infected plant to noninfected plants in closed containers. Dispersion via spores was found on asymptomatic plants at distances of 7 to 18 cm from infected plants. The size and shape of the conidia, mycelia, and phialide-bearing structures and the ability to grow rapidly on carbohydrates, especially xylose, resembled the characteristics of N. chilense, which is pathogenic on orchard grass, Doctylis glomerati. The Neotyphodium wheat isolate caused disease symptoms on other cereals (wheat cv. Malcolm, orchard grass, barley, and maize) grown in closed containers.

  5. Mixed primary squamous cell carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dong, Su; Song, Xue-Song; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare, and mixed squamous cell and follicular carcinoma is even rarer still, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The simultaneous presentation of three primary cancers of the thyroid has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old female patient presented with complaints of pain and a 2-month history of progressively increased swelling in the anterior region of the neck. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of both lobes indicated the possibility of the presence of a follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy with left-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine was administered. Radioiodine and radiotherapy also were recommended, but the patient did not complete treatment as scheduled. The patient remained alive more than 9 months after operation. The present case report provides an example of the coexistence of multiple distinct malignancies in the thyroid.

  6. Mucinous carcinoma occurring in the male breast.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Mitsuaki; Umeda, Tomoko; Kawai, Yuki; Mori, Tsuyoshi; Kubota, Yoshihiro; Abe, Hajime; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Tani, Tohru; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2014-02-01

    Male breast carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm, accounting for 0.6% of all breast carcinomas. Invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type is the most common type of male breast carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma occurring in the male breast is extremely rare. In the present study, we report a case of mucinous carcinoma of the male breast and discuss the clinicopathological features of this type of tumor. A 63-year-old Japanese male presented with a gradually enlarged nodule in the right breast. The resected breast specimen revealed pure mucinous carcinoma and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that tumor cells were positive for estrogen receptor (ER), but negative for progesterone receptor (PgR). In addition, HER2 expression was not amplified. Pure mucinous carcinoma is generally associated with a low incidence of lymph node or distant metastases, and excellent disease-free survival in females. However, certain cases of this type of tumor with axillary lymph node metastasis in the male breast have been reported. In addition, the immunoprofiles of mucinous carcinoma in males are fundamentally the same as those in females. More than 90% of cases show positive immunoreactivity for ER and/or PgR, and HER2 expression is not amplified. However, it has been reported that breast cancer in males is more frequently positive for ER than in females, and has less HER2 overexpression. The high rate of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in males is considered to be due to similar conditions as those in breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The pathogenesis of male breast carcinoma, including mucinous carcinoma, remains unclear; therefore, additional clinicopathological studies are required.

  7. Hep par-1: a novel immunohistochemical marker for differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Razia; Mansoor, Samina

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic utility of Hep par-1 in differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma taking histopathology as a gold standard. Comparative cross-sectional study. Pathology Department, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, from April 2007 to February 2008. Hep par-1 immunohistochemical stain was performed on 60 cases of liver carcinoma, 30 cases each of metastatic and hepatocellular carcinoma. Information regarding patient age, gender, sign and symptoms, radiographic findings, histological grade of tumour, and expression of Hep par-1 on hepatocellular and metastatic carcinoma were recorded on proforma sheet. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of Hep par-1 were calculated using the formulas. Hep par-1 expression was noted in 25 out of 30 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (83%). Out of 30 cases of metastatic carcinoma, only one case expressed staining in < 5% tumour cells and remaining 29 cases showed no reactivity. The age of the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma ranged from 40 to 76 years with a median age of 60.5 years and 40 - 75 years for metastatic carcinomas with a median age of 57.5 years. Hep par-1 is a reliable immunohistochemical marker for cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It can be used along with other markers in morphologically difficult cases when differential diagnosis lies between poorly differentiated HCC and metastatic carcinoma of liver.

  8. The diagnostic utility of the minimal carcinoma triple stain in breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Ross, Dara S; Liu, Yi-Fang; Pipa, Jennifer; Shin, Sandra J

    2013-01-01

    Pathologists are expected to accurately diagnose increasingly smaller breast carcinomas. Correct classification (ie, lobular vs ductal or in situ vs invasive) directly affects subsequent management, especially when the focus is near a surgical margin or present in a needle core biopsy and is further challenging if the lesion is morphologically ambiguous. We assessed the diagnostic utility of a multiplex, trichromogen immunostain of 3 commonly employed antibodies (CK7, p63, and E-cadherin) developed in our laboratory to evaluate these small lesions. Of the 147 specimens containing minimal (defined as ≤3 mm in size) invasive carcinoma, 81 also contained in situ carcinoma. In each case, the Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain was prepared with a parallel H&E-stained slide. Observations of staining characteristics in the focus of interest were recorded. The Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain was diagnostically useful in all but 1 case. In a case of invasive lobular carcinoma in an excisional biopsy, the Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain stained only the surrounding breast tissue (appropriately) and not the focus of interest. Also, a subset of 29 of 81 excisional biopsies had minimal invasive carcinoma located 2 mm or less from the inked surgical margin, in which in all cases the Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain was fully interpretable despite morphologic distortion due to concomitant cautery artifact and tissue disruption in some cases. The Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain offers an accurate and tissue-conserving method to diagnose small, morphologically problematic foci of breast carcinoma while ideally leaving more tissue for additional adjunctive studies.

  9. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado Filho, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Background Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Objectives Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Methods Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). Results The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. Conclusion The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment. PMID:27828631

  10. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment.

  11. Monitoring the progression from intraductal carcinoma to invasive ductal carcinoma based on multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan; Fu, Fangmeng; Lian, Yuane; Nie, Yuting; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Jianxin

    2015-09-01

    Intraductal carcinoma is a precancerous lesion of the breast and the immediate precursor of invasive ductal carcinoma. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was used to monitor the progression from intraductal carcinoma to invasive ductal carcinoma, which can improve early detection of precursor lesions and halt progression to invasive neoplastic disease. It was found that MPM has the capability to reveal the qualitative changes in features of cells, structure of basement membranes, and architecture of collagens during the development from intraductal carcinoma to invasive ductal carcinoma, as well as the quantitative alterations in nuclear area, circle length of basement membrane, and collagen density. Combined with intra-fiberoptic ductoscopy or transdermal biopsy needle, MPM has the potential to provide immediate histological diagnosis of tumor progression in the field of breast carcinoma.

  12. Electrochromic nanostructures grown on a silicon nanowire template.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yuna; Baek, Jehoon; Kim, Myoung-Ha; Choi, Heon-Jin; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2008-09-01

    Vertically grown Si nanowires were prepared as a nanotemplate for conducting polymers. Electrochromic (EC) PEDOT (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) layer was successfully grown on Si nanowires by electrochemical polymerization method to form PEDOT nanowires having average wall thickness of approximately 60 nm. As-prepared conductive nanowire electrode was applied to a low voltage working EC device by fabricating an all solid state EC device. The EC properties of the device were enhanced in the nanowire structure, showing reversible fast optical transition by applying +/-2 V. The response time (t(R)) of the EC device from the PEDOT grown on Si nanowires was approximately 0.7 s, which was much faster than that from PEDOT film coated on ITO glass electrochemically (t(R)=1.9 s).

  13. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-μm-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100–270 nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500 nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600 nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies. PMID:26568414

  14. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-11-16

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-μm-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100-270 nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500 nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600 nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies.

  15. 7 CFR 30.43 - Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. 30.43 Section 30.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE.... Foreign-grown cigar wrapper. (b) Type 82. Foreign-grown cigar filler. (c) Type 83. Foreign-grown cigar...

  16. Shock initiation experiments on ratchet grown PBX 9502

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen, Richard L; Thompson, Darla G; Olinger, Barton W; Deluca, Racci; Bartram, Brian D; Pierce, Timothy H; Sanchez, Nathaniel J

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the shock initiation behavior of PBX 9502 pressed to less than nominal density (nominal density is 1.890 {+-} 0.005 g/cm{sup 3}) with PBX 9502 pressed to nominal density and then ''ratchet grown'' to low density. PBX 9502 is an insensitive plastic bonded explosive consisting of 95 weight % dry-aminated tri-amino-tri-nitro-benzene (TATB) and 5 weight % Kel-F 800 plastic binder. ''Ratchet growth'' - an irreversible increase in specific volume - occurs when an explosive based on TATB is temperature cycled. The design of our study is as follows: PBX 9502, all from the same lot, received the following four treatments. Samples in the first group were pressed to less than nominal density. These were not ratchet grown and used as a baseline. Samples in the second group were pressed to nominal density and then ratchet grown by temperature cycling 30 times between -54 C and +80 C. Samples in the final group were pressed to nominal density and cut into 100 mm by 25.4 mm diameter cylinders. During thermal cycling the cylinders were axially constrained by a 100 psi load. Samples for shock initiation experiments were cut perpendicular (disks) and parallel (slabs) to the axial load. The four sample groups can be summarized with the terms pressed low, ratchet grown/no load, axial load/disks, and axial load/slabs. All samples were shock initiated with nearly identical inputs in plate impact experiments carried out on a gas gun. Wave profiles were measured after propagation through 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm of explosive. Side by side comparison of wave profiles from different samples is used as a measure of relative sensitivity. All reduced density samples were more shock sensitive than nominal density PBX 9502. Differences in shock sensitivity between ratchet grown and pressed to low density PBX 9502 were small, but the low density pressings are slightly more sensitive than the ratchet grown samples.

  17. Coexistence of papillary carcinoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Matesa-Anić, Dubravka; Matesa, Neven; Dabelić, Nina; Kusić, Zvonko

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of coexistence of papillary carcinoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in cytologic material. Cytologic findings were collected from 10508 patients that underwent ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the thyroid. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was found in 2156 (20.5%) and papillary carcinoma in 269 (2.6%) of 10508 patients with FNAC, whereas both Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma were present in 42 (0.4%) patients. Among patients with FNAC diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the prevalence of papillary carcinoma was 1.9%. Among patients with FNAC diagnosis of papillary carcinoma, the prevalence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis was 15.6%. There was no statistically significant association between the presence of papillary carcinoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in patients undergoing FNAC (p=0.0522). In conclusion, in a large series of patients, the incidence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma coexistence in cytologic material was 0.4%. There was no statistically significant relationship between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma in cytologic material.

  18. Clinical presentation of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Suzina, S A; Hamzah, M

    2003-10-01

    The poor prognosis for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma is principally due to its advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. The symptoms and clinical findings at presentation of 56 patients with confirmed nasopharyngeal carcinoma is described and analysed. Recognising the common modes of presentation is essential to diagnose the disease at an early stage.

  19. Orbital Involvement by NUT Midline Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Jill N; Notz, Gregory; Bogdasarian, Ronald N; Cognetti, David M; Curry, Joseph M; Rosen, Marc R; Tuluc, Madalina; Evans, James J; Bilyk, Jurij R

    2015-01-01

    A 32-year-old female presented with a sino-orbital lesion that proved to be a NUT midline carcinoma. This is only the third case of orbital involvement by this aggressive lesion. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features of NUT midline carcinoma are discussed, as well as its management options.

  20. A rare case of NUT midline carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ball, Allison; Bromley, Amy; Glaze, Sarah; French, Christopher A; Ghatage, Prafull; Köbel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    ► NUT midline carcinoma is a rare and aggressive cancer arising in midline structures and is of squamous cell lineage. ► Diagnosis by use of molecular tests is possible with clinical suspicion. ► NUT midline carcinoma is refractory to conventional treatments, but understanding of molecular alterations may lead to an effective therapy.

  1. Occult carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Arellano, L; Ibarra, A

    1984-09-01

    Ten occult carcinomas of the thyroid gland were found in 274 unselected autopsies at the Pathology Service, Hospital José Joaquín Aguirre, between December 1980 and March 1983. This is the lowest incidence among the most recent published series. The present results suggest that environmental factors play an important role in the etiology of this type of carcinoma.

  2. Secondary mucinous carcinoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Frances, Laura; Cuesta, Laura; Leiva-Salinas, Maria; Bañuls, Jose

    2014-04-16

    We report a case of a woman who presented with a cystic-appearing nodule on her left nipple. After cutaneous biopsy and gynecological staging study, she was diagnosed with skin invasion of mucinous carcinoma of the breast. We describe the main features of this rare tumor and the controversies in its diagnosis because primary and metastatic mucinous carcinomas in skin are histologically indistinguishable.

  3. Bilateral Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Orbit.

    PubMed

    Branson, Sara V; McClintic, Elysa; Yeatts, R Patrick

    A 41-year-old woman with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the left lacrimal gland underwent extended left orbital exenteration and postoperative external beam radiation therapy. She presented 1 year postoperatively with contralateral right orbital involvement. The authors report a rare case of adenocystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland with bilateral orbital involvement.

  4. Thermal stability of corrugated epitaxial graphene grown on Re(0001).

    PubMed

    Miniussi, E; Pozzo, M; Baraldi, A; Vesselli, E; Zhan, R R; Comelli, G; Menteş, T O; Niño, M A; Locatelli, A; Lizzit, S; Alfè, D

    2011-05-27

    We report on a novel approach to determine the relationship between the corrugation and the thermal stability of epitaxial graphene grown on a strongly interacting substrate. According to our density functional theory calculations, the C single layer grown on Re(0001) is strongly corrugated, with a buckling of 1.6 Å, yielding a simulated C 1s core level spectrum which is in excellent agreement with the experimental one. We found that corrugation is closely knit with the thermal stability of the C network: C-C bond breaking is favored in the strongly buckled regions of the moiré cell, though it requires the presence of diffusing graphene layer vacancies.

  5. Large-area, laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor layers

    DOEpatents

    Han, Jung; Song, Jie; Chen, Danti

    2017-07-18

    Structures and methods for confined lateral-guided growth of a large-area semiconductor layer on an insulating layer are described. The semiconductor layer may be formed by heteroepitaxial growth from a selective growth area in a vertically-confined, lateral-growth guiding structure. Lateral-growth guiding structures may be formed in arrays over a region of a substrate, so as to cover a majority of the substrate region with laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor tiles. Quality regions of low-defect, stress-free GaN may be grown on silicon.

  6. Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma and Tonsil Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Marcotullio, Dario; Iannella, Giannicola; Zelli, Melissa; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the most common renal tumor in adults. Clear cell carcinoma represents 85% of all histological subtypes. In February 2012 a 72-year-old woman came to our department due to the appearance of massive hemoptysis and pharyngodinia. Previously, this patient was diagnosed with a renal cell carcinoma treated with left nephrectomy. We observed an exophytic, grayish, and ulcerated mass in the left tonsillar lodge and decided to subject the patient to an immediate tonsillectomy. Postoperative histology showed nests of cells with highly hyperchromatic nuclei and clear cytoplasm. These features enabled us to make the diagnosis of renal clear cell carcinoma metastasis. Only few authors described metastasis of renal cell carcinoma in this specific site. PMID:24455373

  7. Renal clear cell carcinoma and tonsil metastasis.

    PubMed

    Marcotullio, Dario; Iannella, Giannicola; Macri, Gian Franco; Marinelli, Caterina; Zelli, Melissa; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the most common renal tumor in adults. Clear cell carcinoma represents 85% of all histological subtypes. In February 2012 a 72-year-old woman came to our department due to the appearance of massive hemoptysis and pharyngodinia. Previously, this patient was diagnosed with a renal cell carcinoma treated with left nephrectomy. We observed an exophytic, grayish, and ulcerated mass in the left tonsillar lodge and decided to subject the patient to an immediate tonsillectomy. Postoperative histology showed nests of cells with highly hyperchromatic nuclei and clear cytoplasm. These features enabled us to make the diagnosis of renal clear cell carcinoma metastasis. Only few authors described metastasis of renal cell carcinoma in this specific site.

  8. Peritoneal carcinoma in a male patient.

    PubMed

    Jermann, Monika; Vogt, Peter; Pestalozzi, Bernhard C

    2003-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinoma is a rare primary tumor, described in the literature almost exclusively in women. This report describes our clinicopathological findings in a 51-year-old male patient with peritoneal carcinoma and ascites. Pathologic studies included routine histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy on biopsy and autopsy tumor tissue. After chemotherapy, the patient achieved a complete remission twice, lasting for 14 months and 8 months, respectively, and died after 3 years. His clinical course was similar to that of female patients with peritoneal carcinoma or advanced ovarian cancer. Our case confirms the existence of primary peritoneal carcinoma in males. In addition, it shows that this entity responds to the same chemotherapy as used for ovarian cancer and primary peritoneal carcinoma in females.

  9. HNdb: an integrated database of gene and protein information on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Henrique, Tiago; José Freitas da Silveira, Nelson; Henrique Cunha Volpato, Arthur; Mioto, Mayra Mataruco; Carolina Buzzo Stefanini, Ana; Bachir Fares, Adil; Gustavo da Silva Castro Andrade, João; Masson, Carolina; Verónica Mendoza López, Rossana; Daumas Nunes, Fabio; Paulo Kowalski, Luis; Severino, Patricia; Tajara, Eloiza Helena

    2016-01-01

    The total amount of scientific literature has grown rapidly in recent years. Specifically, there are several million citations in the field of cancer. This makes it difficult, if not impossible, to manually retrieve relevant information on the mechanisms that govern tumor behavior or the neoplastic process. Furthermore, cancer is a complex disease or, more accurately, a set of diseases. The heterogeneity that permeates many tumors is particularly evident in head and neck (HN) cancer, one of the most common types of cancer worldwide. In this study, we present HNdb, a free database that aims to provide a unified and comprehensive resource of information on genes and proteins involved in HN squamous cell carcinoma, covering data on genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, literature citations and also cross-references of external databases. Different literature searches of MEDLINE abstracts were performed using specific Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) for oral, oropharyngeal, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. A curated gene-to-publication assignment yielded a total of 1370 genes related to HN cancer. The diversity of results allowed identifying novel and mostly unexplored gene associations, revealing, for example, that processes linked to response to steroid hormone stimulus are significantly enriched in genes related to HN carcinomas. Thus, our database expands the possibilities for gene networks investigation, providing potential hypothesis to be tested. Database URL: http://www.gencapo.famerp.br/hndb PMID:27013077

  10. [Therapeutic management of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine lung tumors and neuroendocrine carcinomas of the digestive system].

    PubMed

    Pellat, Anna; Wislez, Marie; Svrcek, Magali; Hammel, Pascal; Afchain, Pauline; André, Thierry

    2016-10-01

    Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors are rare but their incidence is rising. High-grade neuroendocrine lung tumors, including small-cell lung cancer, are part of this group. Outside of the lung, they most often arise within the gastrointestinal tract (oesophagus, guts and pancreas) and are called neuroendocrine carcinomas. Due to their rarity, very little is known about neuroendocrine carcinomas of the pancreas and the gastrointestinal tract and few studies have been done. Therefore, most therapeutic recommendations are issued from studies on small-cell lung cancers. Histological scores have grown more accurate these past few years: poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors regroup various entities such as small-cells, large-cells and mix tumors, which seem to have different prognosis. They are diagnosed at a metastatic state in more than 50 % of cases. In localised disease, surgery is performed on selected patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy is administered in poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the lung and is an option in neuroendocrine carcinomas, without proof of efficacy. If not operable, radiochemotherapy is done for tumors of the lung, rectum, and eosophagus. If the disease is diagnosed at a metastatic state, chemotherapy is administered with a combination of platin salts (cisplatin or carboplatin) and etoposide. In poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the lung, prophylactic cranial irradiation is performed in localized disease if there is a good response to chemotherapy. Even if these therapies have improved the overall survival, no improvement has been made during the past four decades and the prognosis remains low.

  11. [Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast: rare form carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Maksimović, Sinisa

    2009-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare form of breast carcinoma. Incidence is reported to be 0.1-3.6%. We report a case of a young woman, 37-year-old, with history of a lump in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast with ulceration of the skin surface. Menarche occurred at age of 12. The patient was married, had two deliveries and had her first child at age of 26. She did not use contraceptive pills. Diagnosis of the tumour of the breast was made at the Department of surgery in General Hospital in Bijeljina in September 2007. Clinical examination, mammography and ultrasonography were performed. Physical examination revealed a circumscribed and firm mass measuring 60 x 60 x 80 mm. Mammogram showed a round, high-density mass with almost regular but partially irregular margin. Ultrasonogram of the left breast tumor identified an irregularly shaped hypoechoic lesion. After clinical staging of the disease, we performed incision biopsy of the skin and tumour of the left breast with histopathology examination (standard hematoxylin and eosin). Patient had estrogen and progesteron receptors negative and was HER2/neu negative. After histopathology, patient's case was presented to the working group for breast tumors which decided to start with the neoadjuvant chemotherapy using platinum. After six cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, regression of breast tumor was confirmed. Working group decided that radical mastectomy of left breast should be performed.

  12. [Conservative surgery for renal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    González Martín, M; Alvarez Castelo, L M; Chantada Abal, V; Rodríguez-Rivera, J; Sánchez Merino, J M; Gómez Veiga, F

    1999-05-01

    To report on our experience in conservative surgery for renal cell carcinoma, pointing at indications, surgical techniques and results. We also make a review of the literature. From 1975 until 1997, 231 patients underwent surgical treatment of renal cell carcinoma. In 17 cases conservative surgery was done. 11 patients were male and 6 female, with age range 33-78 years. Polar nephrectomy was done in 4 cases and tumorectomy in 13 cases. The indication was elective in 10 cases, and imperative in 7 due to: 4 bilateral carcinomas, 1 chronic renal failure, 1 von Hippel Lindau disease and 1 tumor associated with surgical lithiasis of the kidney. 58.8% of the patients did not have clinical symptoms and the diagnose was incidental. The average size of the tumors was 3.8 cm. The pathological stage was: 3 cases T1N0M0 and 12 T2N0M0. All the T1 cases had an incidental diagnose. The complications were: 1 urinary fistula, 1 haematoma, and 1 case of postoperative fever. All these complications were solved in a conservative way. We had tumoral recurrence in one patient affected with von Hippel Lindau disease. It appeared 4 years after the surgical procedure and required radical nephrectomy. One patient died 24 months after surgery because of causes not related with renal tumor. The rest of the patients are alive, with no tumoral recurrence, within an average follow-up of 49.6 months. None of the patients needed dialysis. Our experience, though not great is enough to demonstrate the benefits of conservative surgery for renal cell carcinoma. Partial nephrectomy in selected patients and with the appropriate surgical technique offers short-term results similar to those obtained with radical nephrectomy. It is indispensable to make the resection and intraoperative pathological study of a margin of renal parenchyma surrounding the tumor, and also to examine the whole surface of the kidney to search for satellite tumoral nodules. It is very important to do a close follow up of these

  13. Management of large hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Amarapurkar, D N

    2004-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer in the world. There is increasing incidence of HCC in India. More than 70% of HCC are not suitable for curative treatment. Majority of the HCCs are large when diagnosed all over the world. There is no standard treatment for large HCCs. Different palliative treatments like arterial embolization/chemoembolization, intraarterial lipoidol chemotherapy, hormonal compounds like tamoxifene, octerotide systemic chemotherapy, immuno therapy with interferon, internal radiation with 131I or 99Yttrium. Arterial chemoembolization is the treatment of choice with proved efficacy in selected group of patients. The newer modalities and strategies need to be tried in controlled randomized trials.

  14. Prostatic carcinoma in two cats.

    PubMed

    Caney, S M; Holt, P E; Day, M J; Rudorf, H; Gruffydd-Jones, T J

    1998-03-01

    Clinical, radiological and pathological features of two cats with prostatic carcinoma are reported. In both cats the presenting history included signs of lower urinary tract disease with haematuria and dysuria. Prostatomegaly was visible radiographically in one cat; an irregular intraprostatic urethra was seen on retrograde contrast urethrography in both cats. In one of the cats, neoplasia was suspected on the basis of a transurethral catheter biopsy. Following a poor response to palliative treatment in both cases, euthanasia was performed with histological confirmation of the diagnosis.

  15. Oncogenic viruses and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ben Ari, Ziv; Weitzman, Ella; Safran, Michal

    2015-05-01

    About 80% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections especially in the setting of established cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis, making HCC prevention a major goal of antiviral therapy. HCC tumors are highly complex and heterogeneous resulting from the aberrant function of multiple molecular pathways. The roles of HCV or HBV in promoting HCC development are still either directly or indirectly are still speculative, but the evidence for both effects is compelling. In patients with chronic hepatitis viral infection, cirrhosis is not a prerequisite for tumorigenesis.

  16. Transhemangioma Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Pua, Uei

    2012-12-15

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-established treatment modality in the treatment of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [1]. Safe trajectory of the RFA probe is crucial in decreasing collateral tissue damage and unwarranted probe transgression. As a percutaneous technique, however, the trajectory of the needle is sometimes constrained by the available imaging plane. The presence of a hemangioma beside an HCC is uncommon but poses the question of safety related to probe transgression. We hereby describe a case of transhemangioma ablation of a dome HCC.

  17. GATA-3 and FOXA1 expression is useful to differentiate breast carcinoma from other carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Davis, Drew G; Siddiqui, Momin T; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Stevens, Keith; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Cohen, Cynthia; Li, Xiaoxian Bill

    2016-01-01

    GATA-3, a member of the GATA family of zinc-finger DNA binding proteins, and FOXA1, a member of the forkhead transcription factor family, are both associated with estrogen receptor expression. Both GATA-3 and FOXA1 are useful markers for breast carcinoma, but their expression in the different breast cancer subtypes and other neoplasms has not been thoroughly evaluated. We examined the expression of GATA-3 and FOXA1 in estrogen receptor-positive, Her2/neu-positive, and triple-negative breast carcinomas as well as in 10 other common carcinomas, including hepatocellular, colonic, pancreatic, gastric, endometrial (endometrioid), lung, prostatic, renal cell, urothelial, and ovarian serous carcinomas. Primary and metastatic melanomas and mesotheliomas were also evaluated. GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining of estrogen receptor-positive breast carcinomas was seen in 96.6% and 96.2%, respectively. In triple-negative breast carcinomas, GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining was seen in 21.6% and 15.9%, respectively. Among the other tumors, GATA-3 staining was only seen in urothelial carcinoma (70.9%) and FOXA1 staining was only seen in prostatic (87.5%), urothelial (5.1%) carcinomas, and mesotheliomas (40.0%). In conclusion, GATA-3 and FOXA1 are excellent breast carcinoma markers; however, their utility is limited in the triple-negative subtype. The utility of FOXA1 in diagnosing prostatic carcinoma and mesothelioma warrants further investigation.

  18. Basosquamous cell carcinoma: a survey of 76 patients and a comparative analysis of basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Betti, Roberto; Crosti, Carlo; Ghiozzi, Simona; Cerri, Amilcare; Moneghini, Laura; Menni, Silvano

    2013-01-01

    Basosquamous carcinoma (BSC) is a rare epithelial tumor with a still confusing terminology. Since 2005 a more comprehensive and broader classification has existed. To retrospectively review our cases of BSC according to the new WHO definition and to re-evaluate their clinical and demographic characteristics and the margin involvement after traditional surgical excision. The data were compared with the same results obtained by basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Histologically confirmed carcinomas observed in our Department during a sixteen-year period (1994-2011) were studied. Surgical excision was evaluated following the international guidelines. Histopathologic subtypes of BSC were classified in accordance with accepted criteria. Seventy-six patients had a BSC, 305 a SCC, 3,643 a BCC. There were significant differences among the median age of BSCs, the total BCCs and Non-Aggressive BCCs (74.7, 68.8 and 68.3 years respectively; p<0.05). BSC was more significantly located on head-neck region than Non-Aggressive BCC (p<0.04), and less on trunk than Mixed Histology BCC (p<0.01) and Non-Aggressive BCC (p<0.005). BSC has higher prevalence of positive margins after excision than total (p<0.03) and Non-Aggressive BCC (p<0.001). Basosquamous carcinoma fits to a tumor type with a different behavior pattern from non-aggressive basal cell carcinoma and more similar to squamous cell carcinoma or aggressive variants of basal cell carcinoma. Its infiltrative growth and the stromal reaction patterns give enough evidence to support the notion of considering basosquamous carcinoma as a relatively aggressive tumor.

  19. Shade periodicity affects growth of container grown dogwoods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Container-grown dogwoods rank third in the US in nursery sales of ornamental trees. However, Dogwoods are a challenging crop to produce in container culture, especially when bare root liners are used as the initial transplant into containers due unacceptable levels of mortality and poor growth. This...

  20. Characterization of sodium chloride crystals grown in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Pietro; Schefer, Jürg; Pettit, Donald

    2011-06-01

    NaCl crystals grown by the evaporation of an aqueous salt solution in microgravity on the International Space Station (ISS) were characterized and compared to salt crystals grown on earth. NaCl crystallized as thin wafers in a supersaturated film of 200-700 μm thickness and 50 mm diameter, or as hopper cubes in 10 mm diameter supersaturated spheres. Neutron diffraction shows no change in crystal structure and in cell parameters compared to earth-grown crystals. However, the morphology can be different, frequently showing circular, disk-like shapes of single crystals with <1 1 1> perpendicular to the disks, an unusual morphology for salt crystals. In contrast to the growth on earth the lateral faces of the microgravity tabular hopper crystals are symmetrical because they are free floating during the crystallization process. Hopper cubes were produced without the need to suspend the growing crystals by an ongoing stirring. "Fleur de Sel" is shown as an example of two-dimensional growth of salt on earth and compared to the space grown crystals. It is shown that in microgravity conditions brine fluid inclusions form within the salt crystals.

  1. 78 FR 62959 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 920 Kiwifruit Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: This rule decreases the... the date of the entry of the ruling. This rule decreases the assessment rate established for the...

  2. 75 FR 9536 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased... increase the assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2010 and... the date of the entry of the ruling. This rule would increase the assessment rate established for the...

  3. Longleaf pine grown in Virginia: a provenance test

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Johnsen; Jerre L. Creighton; Chris A. Maier

    2015-01-01

    In 2006 the Virginia Department of Forestry established a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) provenance test on three sites near Richmond, VA, near the most northern native range of longleaf pine. Seedlings were grown in containers at the Virginia Department of Forestry New Kent Forestry Center during the 2005 growing season.

  4. Energy content of tropical grasses and legumes grown for bioenergy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biomass samples of the tropical grasses Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Staph, Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick, Brachiaria decumbens Staph, Panicum maximum Jacq., Pennistetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng and three species of the tropical legume Stylosanthes grown in Mato Grosso do Su...

  5. Lumber grade recoverey from Hawaii-grown robusta Eucalyptus logs

    Treesearch

    Roger G. Skolmen

    1970-01-01

    In part to supplement meager data on lumber grade yield of Hawaii-grown timber, 30 robusta eucalyptus logs were shipped to a Michigan sawmill for processing. The logs were from 12 trees in three different stands. The lumber produced was graded according to National Hardwood Lumber Association standards. The sample was too small to provide a basis for predicting grade...

  6. Nutrient leaching from container-grown ornamental tree production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Economically producing marketable container-grown ornamental shade trees with minimum amounts of nutrient leachate requires better management of nutrient applications during a growing season. Fertilizer practices with 16 treatments were used to test the nutrient leachate for growing Acer rubrum ‘Red...

  7. Fertilizer applications for container-grown ornamental tree production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Knowledge of better utilization of nutrients during the growing season is needed to produce marketable container-grown ornamental shade trees economically. Fertilizer practices to grow Acer rubrum ‘Red Sunset’ trees in two separate fields (each containing four plots) irrigated with either city or po...

  8. The Nesting Syndrome: Grown Children Living at Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Valerie

    Parents across the nation are experiencing the phenomenon of adult children returning home to live with their parents after brief or extended excursions into independent living, or of adult children reluctant to move out until their financial or lifestyle expectations are guaranteed. Referring to these grown children as "nesters," this…

  9. Chemical composition of Brazilian chia seeds grown in different places.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Bárbara Pereira; Anunciação, Pamella Cristine; Matyelka, Jessika Camila da Silva; Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2017-04-15

    This study investigated and compared the occurrence and concentration of macronutrients, moisture, ash, dietary fiber, fatty acids, minerals, carotenoids, vitamins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, phytate and tannin in Brazilian chia seeds grown in the states of Mato Grosso (MT) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS). High concentrations of lipids (31.2g.100g(-1), on average), proteins (18.9g.100g(-1), on average), dietary fiber (35.3g.100g(-1), on average), vitamin E (8,203.6μg.100g(-1), on average) were observed. Similar values for total phenolic compounds and phytic acid in chia seeds from both regions were observed. Chia grown in RS showed higher antioxidant activity than chia grown in MT, and the tannin concentrations were higher in chia seeds grown in Mato Grosso (19.08±1.08eq.catequina/gsample). In conclusion, Brazilian chia seeds showed high concentrations of lipids, proteins, total dietary fiber, minerals and vitamin E. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. X-ray Characterization of Detached-Grown Germanium Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Schweizer, M.; Raghothamachar, B.; Dudley, M.; Szoke, J.; Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.

    2005-01-01

    Germanium (111)-oriented crystals have been grown by the vertical Bridgman technique, in both detached and attached configurations. Microstructural characterization of these crystals has been performed using synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) and double axis x-ray diffraction. Dislocation densities were measured from x-ray topographs obtained using the reflection geometry. For detached-grown crystals, the dislocation density is 4-6 x 10(exp 4) per square centimeter in the seed region, and decreases in the direction of growth to less than 10(exp 3) per square centimeter, and in some crystals reaches less than 10(exp 2) per square centimeter. For crystals grown in the attached configuration, dislocation densities were on the order of 10(exp 4) per square centimeter in the middle of the crystals, increasing to greater than 10(exp 5) per square centimeter near the edge. The measured dislocation densities are in excellent agreement with etch pit density results. The rocking curve linewidths were relatively insensitive to the dislocation densities. However, broadening and splitting of the rocking curves were observed in the vicinity of subgrain boundaries identified by x-ray topography in some of the attached-grown crystals.

  11. Melon types and cultivars grown with organic and synthetic fertilizers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For three years, twelve melon cultivars were grown with either synthetic or organic (poultry litter) fertilizer. Both fertilizers were applied at 100 lbs N, 100 lbs P2O5, and 100 lbs K2O per acre. In order to satisfy the requirements of the USDA National Organic Program, all fertilizer was applied...

  12. Seed handling practices for southern pines grown in containers

    Treesearch

    William H. Pawuk; James P. Barnett

    1979-01-01

    Cost of producing container-grown seedlings increase when containers are not fully stocked. Best use of containers requires high seed viability and low losses of newly germinated seedlings. Seed handling practices before and after sowing affect germination and seedling survival. This is a summary of seed preperation, sowing rates, disease control, and seed...

  13. The Nesting Syndrome: Grown Children Living at Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Valerie

    Parents across the nation are experiencing the phenomenon of adult children returning home to live with their parents after brief or extended excursions into independent living, or of adult children reluctant to move out until their financial or lifestyle expectations are guaranteed. Referring to these grown children as "nesters," this…

  14. Pest Control For Container-Grown Longleaf Pine

    Treesearch

    Scott Enebak; Bill Carey

    2002-01-01

    Several insect, weed, and disease pests are discussed that have been observed affecting container-grown longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings. The available tools to minimize the effects of these pests are limited to a few select insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. Extreme care should be taken to ensure that the chemical chosen is...

  15. Glutamate affects dendritic morphology of neurons grown on compliant substrates.

    PubMed

    Previtera, Michelle L; Firestein, Bonnie L

    2015-01-01

    Brain stiffness changes in response to injury or disease. As a secondary consequence, glutamate is released from neurons and astroglia. Two types of glutamate receptors, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, sense mechanotransduction, leading to downstream signaling in neurons. Recently, our group reported that these two receptors affect dendrite morphology in hippocampal neurons grown on compliant substrates. Blocking receptor activity has distinct effects on dendrites, depending on whether neurons are grown on soft or stiff gels. In the current study, we examine whether exposure to glutamate itself alters stiffness-mediated changes to dendrites in hippocampal neurons. We find that glutamate augments changes seen when neurons are grown on soft gels of 300 or 600 Pa, but in contrast, glutamate attenuates changes seen when neurons are grown on stiff gels of 3,000 Pa. These results suggest that there is interplay between mechanosensing and glutamate receptor activation in determining dendrite morphology in neurons.

  16. Yield performance of cowpea genotypes grown in alkaline soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at soil pH of 7.5 or higher, cowp...

  17. Yield performance of cowpea plant introductions grown in calcareous soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at a soil pH of 7.5 or higher, co...

  18. Soybean micronutrient content in irrigated plants grown in the Midsouth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Micronutrients are essential to soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) but required in minute quantities. Concentrations and tissue contents of Fe, B, Zn, Mn and Cu were determined for two MG IV and one MG V irrigated cultivars grown in twin-rows in the Mississippi Delta on clay and sandy loam soil sites i...

  19. Transgene expression of lilies grown in the greenhouse and outdoors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White plants were transformed with either the bar-uidA fusion gene or the npt II and uidA genes and grown for two seasons in the greenhouse and outdoors in containers. All transgenes were under control of the CaMV 35S promoter. During the first year there was no differ...

  20. 77 FR 33104 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule would increase the assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2012 and... administers the marketing order which regulates the handling of olives grown in California. Assessments upon...

  1. 78 FR 77604 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This proposed rule would increase the assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee) for... tomatoes grown in Florida. Assessments upon Florida tomato handlers are used by the Committee to fund...

  2. 78 FR 28120 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 966 Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY... the assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee) for the 2012-13 and... order, Florida tomato handlers are subject to assessments, which provide funds to administer the order...

  3. Sarcomatoid Carcinoma of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Açıkgöz, Onur; Gazel, Eymen; Zengin, Neslihan İnci; Kasap, Yusuf; Çamtosun, Ahmet; Yazıcıoğlu, Ahmet Hamdi

    2013-01-01

    Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the prostate is among the rarest malignant neoplasm types and has been well known for its aggressive clinical course. Patient was admitted with the symptoms of lower urinary tract. Transurethral resection of prostate (TUR-P) was carried out. Revealing Gleason 5 + 3 = 8 prostate adenocarcinoma in TUR-P material. Thereby, a Radical Prostatectomy procedure was planned. In operation, frozen examination revealed adenocarcinoma metastasis to the obturator lymph node. The operation was terminated. In the postoperative 3rd month, the patient was re-admitted with acute urinary system symptoms. A cystoscopy performed and complete resection of the mass was performed. The pathological examination reported that the tumor was compatible with undifferentiated adenocarcinoma owing to presence of poorly differentiated tumoral cells and detection of adenocarcinoma in a relatively small (<1%) focus. 4 month after the operation, the patient underwent another cyctoscopic examination which revealed the prostatic lounge and most of the bladder lumen to be filled with tumoral tissue. The tumoral tissues was resected incompletely. This material was diagnosed to be “Sarcomatoid Malignant Tumor” upon the new evidences of progressive dedifferentiation and predominant sarcomatoid appearance, compared with the former TUR-P materials. Subsequent PET-CT scan depicted multiple metastasis. The patient was referred to oncology department. In conclusion, sarcomatoid carcinoma is a malignant variant that brings along diagnostic and treatment difficulties. PMID:23691427

  4. Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Açıkgöz, Onur; Gazel, Eymen; Zengin, Neslihan İnci; Kasap, Yusuf; Camtosun, Ahmet; Yazıcıoğlu, Ahmet Hamdi

    2013-01-01

    Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the prostate is among the rarest malignant neoplasm types and has been well known for its aggressive clinical course. Patient was admitted with the symptoms of lower urinary tract. Transurethral resection of prostate (TUR-P) was carried out. Revealing Gleason 5 + 3 = 8 prostate adenocarcinoma in TUR-P material. Thereby, a Radical Prostatectomy procedure was planned. In operation, frozen examination revealed adenocarcinoma metastasis to the obturator lymph node. The operation was terminated. In the postoperative 3rd month, the patient was re-admitted with acute urinary system symptoms. A cystoscopy performed and complete resection of the mass was performed. The pathological examination reported that the tumor was compatible with undifferentiated adenocarcinoma owing to presence of poorly differentiated tumoral cells and detection of adenocarcinoma in a relatively small (<1%) focus. 4 month after the operation, the patient underwent another cyctoscopic examination which revealed the prostatic lounge and most of the bladder lumen to be filled with tumoral tissue. The tumoral tissues was resected incompletely. This material was diagnosed to be "Sarcomatoid Malignant Tumor" upon the new evidences of progressive dedifferentiation and predominant sarcomatoid appearance, compared with the former TUR-P materials. Subsequent PET-CT scan depicted multiple metastasis. The patient was referred to oncology department. In conclusion, sarcomatoid carcinoma is a malignant variant that brings along diagnostic and treatment difficulties.

  5. Carcinoma arising in pilonidal sinuses.

    PubMed Central

    Pilipshen, S J; Gray, G; Goldsmith, E; Dineen, P

    1981-01-01

    Pilonidal carcinoma is an infrequent complication of pilonidal disease. The surgeon's suspicion should be raised in cases of longstanding pilonidal inflammation. The disease occurs most frequently in men. The lesion is often a well-differentiated squamous carcinoma. Wide excisions at the initial procedure following a brief period of local wound care, is the optimum treatment and increases the chances for a five-year survival. Definitive closure of the defect is delayed and accomplished by rotational flaps or skin grafts. It palpable nodes are present in the inguinal region they should be biopsied even though this does not necessarily connote metastasis. When inguinal node metastasis is present, this is associated with a poor prognosis. The incidence of occult node metastasis is not known because no prophylactic groin dissections were performed. Staged groin dissections were not associated with any long-term survivals. The series was too small to determine its palliative potential. Radiation therapy may palliate local bone or soft tissue recurrences. Re-excisions of local soft tissue recurrences can provide, in some instances, long disease-free intervals. Both topical and systemic chemotherapy were administered in more recent cases with poor results, but this series is not large enough to form conclusions for this modality of treatment. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:7212813

  6. HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reusser, Nicole M.; Downing, Christopher; Guidry, Jacqueline; Tyring, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies severely affects the immunosuppressed population, particularly HIV-positive patients and organ-transplant recipients. There is growing incidence of HPV-associated anogenital malignancies as well as a decrease in the average age of affected patients, likely related to the rising number of high-risk individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of HPV-related malignancy. Current treatment options for HPV infection and subsequent disease manifestations include imiquimod, retinoids, intralesional bleomycin, and cidofovir; however, primary prevention with HPV vaccination remains the most effective strategy. This review will discuss anogenital lesions in immunocompromised patients, cutaneous warts at nongenital sites, the association of HPV with skin cancer in immunocompromised patients, warts and carcinomas in organ-transplant patients, HIV-positive patients with HPV infections, and the management of cutaneous disease in the immunocompromised patient. PMID:26239127

  7. Estrogen receptors in breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huaman, A

    1979-11-01

    On the basis of estrogen receptor assays, breast carcinomas are presently classified as estrogen-dependent tumors, which respond to endocrine therapy, and autonomous tumors, for which endocrine therapy is useless. This paper presents a short review of the biochemical principles of estrogen dependence, the procedures used to determine estrogen receptors, and the clinical applications of the findings of these assay procedures. Biobhemically, the estroogen dependence of normal breast cells is explained as a biochemical reaction occurring between the circulating estradiol and the breast cell, which occurs in 3 steps: 1) circulating estradiol penetrates the cellular membrane by passive diffusion, followed by 2) combining of estradiol with the estrogen-binding protein (estrophilin) and formation of an estrogen receptor complex which undergoes activation and translocation into the nucleus, to result in 3) the activated steroid receptor which combines with the nuclear charomatin and stimulates ribonucleic acid synthesis for the formation of estradiol binding proteins or estradiol receptors. The cytosol method of Wittliff et al. is described in brief and entails radioactive competitive analysis; the other available laboratory procedure is immunofluorescence of tumor sections. Quantification of estrogen receptor content can be used clinically to decide on ablative endocrine therapy, to determine the effectiveness of anti-estrogen administration, to determine the primary site of metastatic carcinoma, and as a screenng device.

  8. Primary cutaneous apocrine gland carcinoma from areolar tissue in a male patient with gynecomastia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Seo, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Jae-Jun

    2015-09-08

    Primary cutaneous apocrine gland carcinoma, which is a type of sweat gland carcinoma, is an extremely rare type of cancer. Clinical courses of this type of cancer usually progress slowly but can, occasionally, be associated with rapid progression. This case report describes a 53-year-old Korean man with primary cutaneous apocrine gland carcinoma that arose from an apocrine gland in the areola tissue. The patient visited our hospital because of a large, painful chest wall mass beneath the right nipple. The mass had been present for more than eight years but had grown rapidly over the past few months. The patient was initially diagnosed with a benign cystic mass, and we performed a wide excision with a clear margin and without lymph node dissection. The mass was a well-encapsulated cystic lesion that contained old blood material, and there was no invasion into the surrounding tissue. The final pathology showed that the mass was a primary cutaneous apocrine gland carcinoma that arose from the areola apocrine sweat gland, not from the breast parenchymal tissue. Herein, we report an extremely rare chest wall mass unfamiliar to thoracic surgeons.

  9. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-19

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  10. Neoadjuvant Intravesical Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Bladder Carcinoma Who Are Undergoing Cystectomy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-22

    Bladder Adenocarcinoma; Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Stage I Bladder Cancer; Stage II Bladder Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer

  11. Surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gualdi, G; Monari, P; Apalla, Z; Lallas, A

    2015-08-01

    Non melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are the most common human neoplasms, encompassing basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), but also cutaneous lymphomas, adnexal tumors, merckel cell carcinoma and other rare tumors. The incidence of BCC and SCC varies significantly among different populations, and the overall incidence of both tumors has increased over the last decades. Although generally associated with a favorable prognosis, recent evidence suggests that the mortality rates of SCC might have been underestimated up-to-date.1 According to Medicare data, NMSC is the fifth most expensive cancer for health care systems. This increased economic burden is not associated with the cost of treating an individual patient, but with the large number of affected patients and the recurrence rates.2 Therefore, the adequate management of the primary tumor with a complete excision becomes a priority not only for the patient but also for the public health systems. Multiple treatment modalities are currently usedin clinicalpractice for the treatment of NMSC. While surgical excision (SE) remains the gold standard of care, non-surgical techniques have gained appreciation due to lower morbidity and better cosmetic results. The optimal management of treatment includes a complete tumor clearance, preservation of the normal tissue function, and the best possible cosmetic outcome.3 Surgery with a predefined excision margin is the treatment of choice for most NMSCs, with Mohs micrographic surgery being recommended for tumors considered to be at a higher recurrence risk or those developing on cosmetically sensitive areas.4, 5 Therefore, the surgical approach of a NMSC consists with three different and equally important steps. First the preoperative clinical assessment of the tumor margins, which can be facilitated by the use of dermoscopy. Second, the definition of the surgical margins depending on the tumor subtype and its biological behavior. Finally, the surgical

  12. Gene Expression Patterns in Ovarian Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Schaner, Marci E.; Ross, Douglas T.; Ciaravino, Giuseppe; Sørlie, Therese; Troyanskaya, Olga; Diehn, Maximilian; Wang, Yan C.; Duran, George E.; Sikic, Thomas L.; Caldeira, Sandra; Skomedal, Hanne; Tu, I-Ping; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Johnson, Steven W.; O'Dwyer, Peter J.; Fero, Michael J.; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Robert; van de Rijn, Matt; Teng, Nelson N.; Longacre, Teri A.; Botstein, David; Brown, Patrick O.; Sikic, Branimir I.

    2003-01-01

    We used DNA microarrays to characterize the global gene expression patterns in surface epithelial cancers of the ovary. We identified groups of genes that distinguished the clear cell subtype from other ovarian carcinomas, grade I and II from grade III serous papillary carcinomas, and ovarian from breast carcinomas. Six clear cell carcinomas were distinguished from 36 other ovarian carcinomas (predominantly serous papillary) based on their gene expression patterns. The differences may yield insights into the worse prognosis and therapeutic resistance associated with clear cell carcinomas. A comparison of the gene expression patterns in the ovarian cancers to published data of gene expression in breast cancers revealed a large number of differentially expressed genes. We identified a group of 62 genes that correctly classified all 125 breast and ovarian cancer specimens. Among the best discriminators more highly expressed in the ovarian carcinomas were PAX8 (paired box gene 8), mesothelin, and ephrin-B1 (EFNB1). Although estrogen receptor was expressed in both the ovarian and breast cancers, genes that are coregulated with the estrogen receptor in breast cancers, including GATA-3, LIV-1, and X-box binding protein 1, did not show a similar pattern of coexpression in the ovarian cancers. PMID:12960427

  13. Clear cell carcinoma of ovary and uterus.

    PubMed

    Glasspool, Rosalind M; McNeish, Iain A

    2013-12-01

    Clear cell carcinomas of the female genital tract are rare tumours with a fearsome reputation for having poor responses to conventional platinum-based chemotherapy and poor prognosis. However, it is now clear that early-stage ovarian clear cell carcinoma has an excellent prognosis and may not require any adjuvant therapy. In addition, radiotherapy may also have a key role to play in adjuvant management of clear cell tumours. Identification of patients who truly do not need adjuvant chemotherapy is important. The past 3 years has seen a significant improvement in our understanding of clear cell carcinoma biology-in particular, the role of mutations in the chromatin remodelling gene ARID1A as key drivers that are common to clear cell carcinomas of ovarian and endometrial origin. Moreover, gynaecological clear cell carcinomas appear to share many features with renal clear cell tumours, suggesting a common pathogenesis. This raises the possibility of clinical trials that include patients with clear cell tumours from different organs of origin. Dissecting the role of disordered chromatin organisation in clear cell carcinoma pathogenesis is a key priority. Finally, the role of endometriosis and the attendant chronic inflammation are recognised. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 appears to play a key role in clear cell carcinoma biology and is an excellent potential therapeutic target.

  14. Erythrocyte autoantibodies, autoimmune haemolysis, and carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Sokol, R J; Booker, D J; Stamps, R

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To examine a large series of patients in whom both red cell autoantibodies and carcinoma are present; and to determine whether this rare occurrence is a true association or a chance event. METHODS--The laboratory records of 160 patients (76 men, 84 women; mean age 68 years) with erythrocyte autoantibodies and confirmed carcinoma were examined for site of tumour origin and clinical and immunohematological findings. To test whether the concomitant occurrence of autoantibodies and carcinoma was fortuitous, data on total population and carcinoma incidence were included in a chi 2 analysis. RESULTS--The association was significant (chi 2 = 97.5, p < 0.0005); erythrocyte autoantibodies and carcinoma were found together 12-13 times more often than expected from their relative frequencies. Autoantibodies occurred with a variety of carcinomas, particularly those of breast, lung, colon, rectum, and prostate; this largely reflected tumour incidence. Adenocarcinoma, squamous, anaplastic, and transitional cell types were all represented. Warm, cold, and mixed autoantibodies were not associated with particular tumour sites or histology. Eighty six patients had haemolysis of varying severity, 37 had metastatic disease, and 28 died within a few months of presentation. CONCLUSIONS--The presence of erythrocyte autoantibodies and carcinoma in the same patient is a true association and probably reflects a fundamental disturbance in immune homeostasis. It tends to occur with a large tumour mass and metastatic disease, and generally indicates a poor prognosis. PMID:8027372

  15. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the head and face.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2016-02-05

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is an important risk factor for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin. These cancers most commonly affect persons with fair skin and blue eyes who sunburn rather than suntan. However, each of these cancers appears to be associated with a different pattern of UV exposure and to be mediated by different intracellular molecular pathways.Some melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants play a direct role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma apart from their role in determining a cancer-prone pigmentory phenotype (fair skin, red hair, blue eyes) through their interactions with other genes regulating immuno-inflammatory responses, DNA repair or apoptosis.In this short review we focus on the aetiological role of UV in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin, and on some associated biopathological events.

  16. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: Brazilian survey

    PubMed Central

    Cotrim, Helma P.; Oliveira, Claudia P.; Coelho, Henrique Sérgio M.; Alvares-da-Silva, Mario R.; Nabuco, Leticia; Parise, Edison Roberto; Ivantes, Claúdia; Martinelli, Ana LC; Galizzi-Filho, João; Carrilho, Flair J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The majority of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma have been reported in individuals with cirrhosis due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcoholism, but recently, the prevalence has become increasingly related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis around the world. The study aimed to evaluate the clinical and histophatological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in Brazilians' patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis at the present time. METHODS: Members of the Brazilian Society of Hepatology were invited to complete a survey regarding patients with hepatocellular carcinoma related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Patients with a history of alcohol intake (>20 g/day) and other liver diseases were excluded. Hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis was performed by liver biopsy or imaging methods according to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases' 2011 guidelines. RESULTS: The survey included 110 patients with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease from nine hepatology units in six Brazilian states (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul). The mean age was 67±11 years old, and 65.5% were male. Obesity was observed in 52.7% of the cases; diabetes, in 73.6%; dyslipidemia, in 41.0%; arterial hypertension, in 60%; and metabolic syndrome, in 57.2%. Steatohepatitis without fibrosis was observed in 3.8% of cases; steatohepatitis with fibrosis (grades 1-3), in 27%; and cirrhosis, in 61.5%. Histological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was performed in 47.2% of the patients, with hepatocellular carcinoma without cirrhosis accounting for 7.7%. In total, 58 patients with cirrhosis had their diagnosis by ultrasound confirmed by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Of these, 55% had 1 nodule; 17%, 2 nodules; and 28%, ≥3 nodules. CONCLUSIONS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is a relevant risk factor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with and

  17. Prevalence of Glomerulopathies in Canine Mammary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of paraneoplastic glomerulopathy, especially associated with carcinoma, are a matter of debate and the causal link between cancer and glomerular diseases remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate renal biopsies of selected bitches with spontaneous mammary gland carcinoma. We hypothesized that dogs with mammary carcinomas would show histologic evidence of glomerular pathology. A prospective study was performed in dogs with naturally occurring mammary carcinoma that were undergoing tumor resection and ovariohysterectomy. We evaluated renal biopsies of 32 bitches with spontaneous mammary gland carcinoma and 11 control dogs without mammary gland neoplasia. Samples were obtained from the left kidney and the biopsy material was divided for light microscopy (LM), immunofluorescence (IF) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Light microscopy abnormalities were identified in 78.1% of dogs with mammary carcinoma (n = 25) and in none of the dogs in the control group. Focal glomerular mesangial matrix expansion was the most common alteration (n = 15, 60.0%), but mesangial cell proliferation (n = 9, 36.0%) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (n = 9, 36.0%), synechiae (n = 7, 28.0%), and globally sclerotic glomeruli (n = 6, 24.0%) were also frequent in dogs with malignancy. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed strong IgM staining was demonstrated in 64.3% (n = 18) of carcinoma dogs. Transmission electron microscopy from dogs with carcinoma revealed slight changes, the most frequent of which was faint sub-endothelial and mesangial deposits of electron-dense material (78%). Mesangial cell interpositioning and segmental effacement of podocyte foot processes were identified in some specimens (45%). Changes in the glomerulus and proteinuria are common in dogs with naturally occurring mammary carcinoma and this condition appears to provide an excellent large animal model for cancer-associated glomerulopathy in humans. PMID:27764139

  18. Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Mechanistic Distinction From Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Riggle, Kevin M.; Turnham, Rigney; Scott, John D.; Yeung, Raymond S.

    2016-01-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL‐HCC) has historically been classified as a rare subtype of HCC. However, unlike “classic” HCC, it occurs in children and young adults without underlying liver disease. The recent discovery of a deletion mutation in all FL‐HCCs represented a major advancement in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. This deletion results in the fusion of the genes encoding a heat shock protein (DNAJB1) and the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA, PRKACA), and overexpression of PRKACA and enhanced cAMP‐dependent PKA activity. This review summarizes recent advancements in FL‐HCC pathogenesis and characteristics of the HSP40‐PKA C protein. PMID:26990031

  19. An atypical presentation of infiltrating ductal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Kunal Kishor; Gupta, Suresh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    A 64-year-old African-American female presented with nonbloody nipple discharge. Clinical and cytological examination of the discharge was normal. The mammography suggested pleomorphic calcification in the left breast. A stereotactic biopsy showed ductal carcinoma in situ and her estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-neu receptor were negative. We removed the tumor tissue through lumpectomy and found that the mass was invasive ductal carcinoma. This case report highlights invasive ductal carcinoma, presenting with unilateral nipple discharge.

  20. [Acinar cell carcinoma of submaxillary gland].

    PubMed

    Comeche, C; Calabuig, C; Barona, R

    1997-01-01

    Although acine cell neoplasms have for a long time been regarded as benign tumors, they are presently considered to represent the carcinomas. These rare tumors mainly affect the parotid glands, and only exceptionally involve other salivary glands. Clinically, acic cell carcinoma present as isolated tumors simulating a pleomorphic adenoma. The diagnosis is histopathological, and complete surgical removal of the tumor is the treatment of choice, with cervical lymphatic voiding and/or postoperative radiotherapy in selected cases. A prolonged patient follow-up is required, for the tumor may recur many years after surgery. We report a case of acinic cell carcinoma in submaxillary gland.

  1. [Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation].

    PubMed

    Goldman-Lévy, Gabrielle; Frouin, Eric; Soubeyran, Isabelle; Maury, Géraldine; Guillot, Bernard; Costes, Valérie

    2015-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation is a very rare variant of basal cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, less than 30 cases have been reported. This tumor is composed of basaloid lobules showing a differentiation toward the pilar matrix cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that beta-catenin would interfer with physiopathogenesis of matrical tumors, in particular pilomatricomas, but also basal cell carcinomas with matrical differentiation. This is a new case, with immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of beta-catenin, in order to explain its histogenesis.

  2. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid transformation.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Neil A; Ayala, Alberto G; Czerniak, Bogdan

    2003-10-01

    We present a rare case of a chromophobe renal cell carcinoma that progressed to a high-grade spindle cell sarcoma. The tumor affected a 50-year-old man who had presented with right upper quadrant discomfort and hematuria and subsequently underwent a right radical nephrectomy. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of two distinct components, a chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and a sarcomatoid component. The sarcomatoid component had exhibited aggressive behavior by spreading to a regional lymph node. This case report shows that chromophobe carcinoma can develop a sarcomatoid transformation with a high propensity for invasive growth and metastasis.

  3. Myoepithelial carcinoma of palate: case report.

    PubMed

    Thayumanavan, Balakrishnan; Vani, Nandimandalam Venkata

    2014-01-01

    Myoepithelial carcinoma is an uncommon malignant salivary gland neoplasm with a predilection for parotid gland. However, its occurrence in minor salivary glands is considerably less with only 28 cases being reported in the literature. We report a case of myoepithelial carcinoma of palate in a 50-year-old woman. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an extensive lesion in the palate. Microscopically, the tumor exhibited a wide spectrum of cytomorphologic features that overlap with other salivary gland tumors. Immunohistochemistry served as an adjunct in the diagnosis of the lesion. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic correlation along with immunohistochemical profile enabled to arrive at a diagnosis of myoepithelial carcinoma.

  4. Definitive Chemoradiotherapy for Advanced Pulmonary Sarcomatoid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kazuya; Matsushita, Haruo; Kubozono, Masaki; Tanabe, Takaya; Ishikawa, Yojiro; Yamamoto, Takaya; Kozumi, Maiko; Takahashi, Noriyoshi; Katagiri, Yu; Tasaka, Shun; Fukui, Katsuya; Takeda, Ken; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Ichinose, Masakazu; Jingu, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare subtype of non-small cell lung cancer with a poor prognosis. We herein report on a case of pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma that was treated successfully by concurrent chemoradiotherapy. A 65-year-old man was diagnosed to have pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma (clinical T4N2M0 stage IIIB). He received concurrent chemoradiotherapy (60 Gy of radiotherapy in 30 fractionations and two courses of chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel). After chemoradiotherapy, a significant reduction of the tumor size was observed. Two courses of adjuvant chemotherapy were performed. He is currently alive at 15 months after the first treatment without any recurrence or metastasis. PMID:27853077

  5. [Initial pretherapeutic assessment of anal epidermoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    de Parades, Vincent; Bauer, Pierre; Benbunan, Jean-Louis; Bouillet, Thierry; Cottu, Paul-Henri; Cuenod, Charles-André; Durdux, Catherine; Fléjou, Jean-François; Atienza, Patrick

    2007-02-01

    Anal epidermoid carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor, comprising less than 5% of all carcinomas of the colon, rectum, and anus. The primary therapy now includes radiotherapy, often in combination with chemotherapy. Radical surgery is now rarely indicated. Therapeutic indications are based on locoregional staging, the presence of visceral metastases and an evaluation of the medical history. Anorectal endosonography is helpful in evaluating locoregional extension. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography scanning and inguinal sentinel lymph node procedure should play a role in a more selective approach in patients with anal carcinoma.

  6. Merkel cell carcinoma (primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of skin) mimicking basal cell carcinoma with review of different histopathologic features.

    PubMed

    Succaria, Farah; Radfar, Arash; Bhawan, Jag

    2014-02-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but highly aggressive malignancy, which often has typical histopathologic and immunohistochemical (IHC) features. Sometimes the diagnosis is missed because of atypical histological or aberrant IHC findings. A case of MCC that showed irregular lobules of basaloid cells with keratotic areas on the initial shave biopsy is being reported. IHC showed positive staining for high-molecular weight cytokeratin but negative staining for cytokeratin 20, findings consistent with basal cell carcinoma. Subsequent excision specimen showed histopathologic features more typical of MCC. IHC still was negative for cytokeratin 20 but positive for synaptophysin. Review of the literature shows other examples of MCC with basal cell carcinoma-like features. Various other histopathologic differentiations of MCC include those that demonstrate squamous cell and eccrine carcinoma features and those that show melanocytic, lymphomatous, sarcomatous, muscular, and atypical fibroxanthoma-like features. Different histopathologic patterns and mimics of MCC are reviewed to help prevent dermatopathologists from misdiagnosing this aggressive tumor.

  7. Cholecystocolic fistula caused by gallbladder carcinoma: preoperatively misdiagnosed as hepatic colon carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ha, Gi Won; Lee, Min Ro; Kim, Jong Hun

    2015-04-21

    Cholecystocolic fistula secondary to gallbladder carcinoma is extremely rare and has been reported in very few studies. Most cholecystocolic fistulae are late complications of gallstone disease, but can also develop following carcinoma of the gallbladder when the necrotic tumor penetrates into the adjacent colon. Although no currently available imaging technique has shown great accuracy in recognizing cholecystocolic fistula, abdominopelvic computed tomography may show fistulous communication and anatomical details. Herein we report an unusual case of cholecystocolic fistula caused by gallbladder carcinoma, which was preoperatively misdiagnosed as hepatic flexure colon carcinoma.

  8. Synchronous papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma - a pitfall waiting to happen.

    PubMed

    Tang, P Y; Khor, L Y; Takano, A

    2017-08-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid carcinoma and is derived from thyroid follicular cells. In contrast, medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is rare and originates from the parafollicular C-cells. Synchronous occurrence of these two carcinomas is uncommon and occurs as either discrete lesions or as a mixed lesion. The current case report describes a 50-year-old woman with synchronous multiple discrete MTC and PTC with lymph nodes metastasis. Pathologists and treating physicians should be aware of the synchronous coexistence of these entities to avoid possible misdiagnosis.

  9. Increased EGF receptors on human squamous carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Cowley, G. P.; Smith, J. A.; Gusterson, B. A.

    1986-01-01

    Characterisation and quantitation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) have been carried out on eight human squamous carcinoma cell lines and the results compared with those from simian virus transformed keratinocytes and normal keratinocytes grown under similar conditions. All cells tested possess both high and low affinity receptors with dissociation constants ranging from 2.4 X 10(-10) M to 5.4 X 10(-9) M. When epidermal growth factor (EGF) binds to its receptor it is internalised and degraded and the receptor is down regulated. Malignant cells and virally transformed cells possess 5-50 times more EGF receptors than normal keratinocytes and one cell line LICR-LON-HN-5 possesses up to 1.4 X 10(7) receptors per cell, which is the highest number yet reported for a cell line. These results are discussed in the context of recent data that suggest that the increased expression of EGF receptors in epidermoid malignancies may be an important component of the malignant phenotype in these tumours. PMID:2420349

  10. Giant metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bognet, Rachel; Thompson, Christina; Campanelli, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    A 68-year-old man presented with a rapidly growing, asymptomatic mass on his left mid-back for the past 3 months. The patient's medical history revealed an intentional 60-pound weight loss over the previous 2 years along with smoking approximately 1 pack of cigarettes per day. On physical examination, a fungating, 11-cm red tumor with palpable broader underlying extension (23 cm total) was present on the left mid-back with distinct red dermal nodules in a dermatomal distribution. In close proximity were two ulcerated nodules, proven histologically to be basal cell carcinomas. In the left groin was massive, fixed lymphadenopathy. A punch biopsy of the tumor was performed, which showed a dense infiltrate of small, round hyperchromatic blue cells that stained positive for CD 56 and pancytokeratin in a perinuclear dot pattern. Tumor cells were negative for CK20, TTF, CK7, and LCA.

  11. Hepatocellular carcinoma: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Lisa P; Deshpande, Vrushak; Pyrsopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rapidly becoming one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide. With a rising rate, it is a prominent source of mortality. Patients with advanced fibrosis, predominantly cirrhosis and hepatitis B are predisposed to developing HCC. Individuals with chronic hepatitis B and C infections are most commonly afflicted. Different therapeutic options, including liver resection, transplantation, systemic and local therapy, must be tailored to each patient. Liver transplantation offers leading results to achieve a cure. The Milan criteria is acknowledged as the model to classify the individuals that meet requirements to undergo transplantation. Mean survival remains suboptimal because of long waiting times and limited donor organ resources. Recent debates involve expansion of these criteria to create options for patients with HCC to increase overall survival. PMID:26609342

  12. Arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jian; Ten, Gao-Jing; He, Shi-Cheng; Guo, Jin-He; Yang, Dong-Pei; Weng, Guo-Ying

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To study the therapeutic effects of transcatheter arterial three-segment chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: According to the anatomy of vessels, the tumor capillary networks, muscular arterioles and feeding arteries were successively occluded using lipiodol ultra-fluid (LUF), sinobufagin microsphere (SBMs) and particles of gelatin sponge (PGS). In this series of 80 cases, therapeutic effects were evaluated in 76 cases. RESULTS: There were 22 cases (28.9%) with partial response and 41 (53.9%) with minor response in the 76 evaluated patients. The 6-month, 1-year, 2-year and 3-year survival rates were 97.4%, 86.8%, 46.1% and 27.6% respectively. CONCLUSION: This regimen was a rational chemoembolization method for HCC patients. PMID:11819226

  13. Molecular Pathogenesis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Daniel Wai-Hung; Lo, Regina Cheuk-Lam; Chan, Lo-Kong; Ng, Irene Oi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multistep process involving the progressive accumulation of molecular alterations pinpointing different molecular and cellular events. The next-generation sequencing technology is facilitating the global and systematic evaluation of molecular landscapes in HCC. There is emerging evidence supporting the importance of cancer metabolism and tumor microenvironment in providing a favorable and supportive niche to expedite HCC development. Moreover, recent studies have identified distinct surface markers of cancer stem cell (CSC) in HCC, and they also put forward the profound involvement of altered signaling pathways and epigenetic modifications in CSCs, in addition to the concomitant drug resistance and metastasis. Taken together, multiple key genetic and non-genetic factors, as well as liver CSCs, result in the development and progression of HCC. PMID:27781201

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma and industrial epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Braillon, Alain; Dubois, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, the burden of the non viral causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is usually underestimated. Clearly industrial goods, tobacco, alcohol and processed foods are the agents of new epidemics in modern times which far outscore the burden of infectious agents on morbidity and mortality. Smoking, a dose-related contributing factor for HCC, receives too little attention in clinical practice. In France, tobacco, hepatitis B and C virus and alcohol are the main risk factors for HCC mortality (33%, 31% and 26%, respectively). In developing countries, where tobacco consumption is dramatically increasing, this epidemic may soon surpass hepatitis B. Obesity and diabetes are the contributing factors too. The role of industrial processed foods in the increase of the prevalence of obesity and diabetes cannot be ignored. PMID:21734811

  15. Immunotherapeutic approaches for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gardini, Andrea Casadei; Pisconti, Salvatore; Licchetta, Antonella; Scartozzi, Mario; Memeo, Riccardo; Palmieri, Vincenzo Ostilio; Aprile, Giuseppe; Santini, Daniele; Nardulli, Patrizia; Silvestris, Nicola; Brunetti, Oronzo

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a cancer with a high mortality rate due to the fact that the diagnosis usually occurs at anadvanced stage. Even in case of curative surgical treatment, recurrence is common. Sorafenib and regorafenib are the only therapeutic agents that have been demonstrated to be effective in advanced HCC, thus novel curative approaches are urgently needed. Recent studies focus on the role of immune system in HCC. In fact, the unique immune response in the liver favors tolerance, which can represent a real challenge for conventional immunotherapy in these patients. Spontaneous immune responses against tumor antigens have been detected, and new immune therapies are under investigation: dendritic cell vaccination, immune-modulator strategy, and immune checkpoint inhibition. In recent years different clinical trials examining the use of immunotherapy to treat HCC have been conducted with initial promising results. This review article will summarize the literature data concerning the potential immunotherapeutic approaches in HCC patients. PMID:28420805

  16. Percutaneous cryoablation for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kyoung Doo

    2016-01-01

    Local ablation therapy is considered as a conventional treatment option for patients with early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although radiofrequency (RF) ablation is widely used for HCC, the use of cryoablation has been increasing as newer and safer cryoablation systems have developed. The thermodynamic mechanism of freezing and thawing used in cryoablation is the Joule-Thomson effect. Cryoablation destroys tissue via direct tissue destruction and vascular-related injury. A few recent comparative studies have shown that percutaneous cryoablation for HCCs is comparable to percutaneous RF ablation in terms of long term therapeutic outcomes and complications. Cryoablation has several advantages over RF ablation such as well visualization of iceball, no causation of severe pain, and lack of severe damage to great vessels and gallbladder. It is important to know the advantages and disadvantages of cryoablation compared with RF ablation for improvement of therapeutic efficacy and safety. PMID:28081593

  17. Transarterial Therapies for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, Ezio; Donadon, Matteo; Poretti, Dario; Pedicini, Vittorio; Tramarin, Marco; Roncalli, Massimo; Rhee, Hyungjin; Park, Young Nyun; Torzilli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Background The treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still a major health issue because of its increasing incidence and because of the complexity of its management. Transarterial embolization (TAE) and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) are two widely used locoregional therapies in the treatment of HCC, especially for unresectable intermediate and advanced HCCs. Summary The modern use of TAE and TACE opens new scenarios for the treatment of unresectable HCC and has yielded interesting results. The present work describes the role of transarterial therapies for HCC and focuses on the different Western and Eastern approaches to the study of response predictors. Key Messages Recent refinements in interventional radiology techniques and in HCC patient selection have facilitated better local control of the disease. The molecular profiling of HCC to predict the response to TACE and TAE will greatly help clinicians identify the optimum therapy. PMID:27995085

  18. [Therapy of basal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Schmitz, L; Dirschka, T

    2016-06-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represents the most common malignant skin tumour in fair-skinned people. Despite low metastatic potential, BCC can cause decisive tissue destruction and disfigurement by invasive growth. In addition to clinical and histologic diagnosis modern imaging techniques as optical coherence tomography and confocal laser microscopy have been introduced. BCCs with aggressive growth pattern and/or increased risk of relapse are preferentially treated surgically. For superficial BCCs various topical treatments and photodynamic therapy are available. Inhibitors of the sonic hedgehog pathway have been approved for symptomatic treatment of metastatic BCC and locally advanced BCC inappropriate for surgery or radiotherapy. Detailed knowledge of the clinical spectrum of BCC and an appropriate choice of therapy are mandatory for the successful treatment of BCC.

  19. Sunitinib benefits patients with renal cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Findings from clinical trial patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, a common kidney cancer, show they did not have accelerated tumor growth after treatment with sunitinib, in contrast to some study results in animals.

  20. Oral verrucous carcinoma. Treatment with radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, M.K.; Sankaranarayanan, R.; Padmanabhan, T.K.; Madhu, C.S.

    1988-02-01

    Fifty-two cases of oral verrucous carcinoma treated with radiotherapy at the Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, Kerala, India in 1982 were evaluated to determine the distribution within the oral cavity, clinical extent, and effectiveness of radiotherapy in controlling the disease. The most common site was the buccal mucosa. Fifty percent of the patients had clinically negative regional lymph nodes and 33% were in earlier stages (T1, T2, N0, and M0). The overall 3-year no evidence of disease (NED) survival rate was 44%. The 3-year NED survival rate with radium implant was 86%. We cannot comment on anaplastic transformation after radiotherapy because our treatment failures have not been subjected for biopsy concerning this matter. Because the results are comparable with those of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, we think that the treatment policies advocated for oral squamous cell carcinoma are also applicable to oral verrucous carcinoma.

  1. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma: A diagnostic impediment

    PubMed Central

    Koduganti, Rekha Rani; Sehrawat, Sangeeta; Reddy, P. Veerendra Nath

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas represent 3% of cancers in men and 2% of cancers in women. More than 90% of oral cancer occurs in people older than 45 years Lesions of gingiva account for approximately 10% of the oral squamous cell carcinomas and may present clinically as an area of ulceration, exophytic mass, or red/white speckled patches. The proximity to the underlying periosteum may invite early bone invasion. Carcinoma of gingiva constitutes an extremely important group of neoplasms as the lesion frequently mimics the reactive and inflammatory conditions affecting the periodontium, delaying the diagnosis and making the prognosis of the patient poorer. A rare case of gingival squamous cell carcinoma has been reported here, in a 40 Year old male patient. Careful recording of the case history and results of clinical examination, radiographic, and laboratory investigations, along with a critical review of similar conditions led to the diagnosis, and treatment was initiated. PMID:22628973

  2. Paraneoplastic Cough and Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    A case of patient with intractable cough due to renal cell carcinoma is reported. The discussion reviews the literature regarding this unusual paraneoplastic manifestation of renal malignancy. PMID:27445553

  3. TCGA analysis of adrenocortical carcinoma - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    In the most comprehensive molecular characterization to date of adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare cancer of the adrenal cortex, researchers extensively analyzed 91 cases for alterations in the tumor genomes.

  4. Bladder carcinoma: MDCT cystography and virtual cystoscopy.

    PubMed

    Panebianco, Valeria; Sciarra, Alessandro; Di Martino, Michele; Bernardo, Silvia; Vergari, Valeria; Gentilucci, Alessandro; Catalano, Carlo; Passariello, Roberto

    2010-06-01

    Bladder carcinoma is the most common tumor among the low urinary tract, accounting for 90% of cancer cases. Conventional cystoscopy represents the gold standard for diagnosis and local management of bladder carcinoma. As the prevalence of transitional cell carcinoma is four-fold greater in men than in women, the endoscopic procedure presents objective difficulties related to the length and bending of male urethra. The most important problems are represented by intense discomfort for the patient and bleeding; furthermore, the high cost, invasivity, and local complications such as infections and mechanical lesions are well-known drawbacks. Additionally, conventional cystoscopy does not provide information about extravescical extensions of the tumor. CT cystography, combined with virtual cystoscopy, is mandatory for TNM staging of the tumor and also is useful when conventional cystoscopy is inconclusive or cannot be performed. We presents the CT cystography findings with virtual endoscopy correlation and bladder carcinoma appearance.

  5. Perioperative Considerations in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Flavin, Kate; Vasdev, Nikhil; Ashead, Jim; Lane, Tim; Hanbury, Damian; Nathan, Paul; Gowrie-Mohan, Shanmugasundaram

    2016-01-01

    Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma are complex, with the potential for significant complications, and require extensive pre-, peri-, and postoperative management. This article discusses, in depth, the necessary considerations in the treatment of these patients. PMID:27833463

  6. [Radiotherapy of carcinoma of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Servagi-Vernat, S; Tochet, F

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, and technique of radiotherapy for salivary glands carcinoma are presented, and the contribution of neutrons and carbon ions. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed.

  7. [Lichen sclerosus and squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Pascual, M; Vicente-Martín, F J; López-Estebaranz, J L

    2012-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease that can progress to malignancy. The literature indicates an association with anogenital squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma. Two pathogenic pathways, differentiated vulvar and penile intraepithelial neoplasias, which have recently been described in relation to squamous cell carcinoma, are both highly associated with genital lichen sclerosus independently of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. Furthermore, tumor-promoting molecular changes unrelated to HPV infection have been demonstrated and may explain the malignant potential of lichen sclerosus. The possible relationship between HPV and genital lichen sclerosus currently remains open to discussion, and the prognostic importance of the overlapping of these 2 diseases is still unclear. This review considers the relationship between lichen sclerosus and squamous cell and verrucous carcinomas, the possible oncogenic mechanisms involved, and their possible association with HPV infection.

  8. Lichen sclerosus and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Pascual, M; Vicente-Martín, F J; López-Estebaranz, J L

    2012-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease that can progress to malignancy. The literature indicates an association with anogenital squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma. Two pathogenic pathways, differentiated vulvar and penile intraepithelial neoplasias, which have recently been described in relation to squamous cell carcinoma, are both highly associated with genital lichen sclerosus independently of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. Furthermore, tumor-promoting molecular changes unrelated to HPV infection have been demonstrated and may explain the malignant potential of lichen sclerosus. The possible relationship between HPV and genital lichen sclerosus currently remains open to discussion, and the prognostic importance of the overlapping of these 2 diseases is still unclear. This review considers the relationship between lichen sclerosus and squamous cell and verrucous carcinomas, the possible oncogenic mechanisms involved, and their possible association with HPV infection.

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  10. Signet ring carcinoma of ampulla of vater

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Ardeshir; Mohammadizadeh, Fareshteh; Hani, Mohsen; Bagheri, Marzie; Bagheri, Azam

    2014-01-01

    Signet ring carcinoma is a common type of adenocarcinoma of stomach but its occurrence in ampulla of Vater is extremely rare. There are only a few previous reported cases of signet ring carcinoma of ampulla of Vater. Here we reported a 61-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice. Ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT scan) examination showed intra- and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation. Endoscopic examination with biopsies revealed a small-size mass in ampulla of Vater with diagnosis of signet ring carcinoma. On consequent pancreatoduodenectomy the tumor was diagnosed as T2N0M0, stage IB. Because of the specific site of signet ring carcinoma of ampulla of Vater, the tumor seems to present itself at an early stage of disease. We review in the literature to suggest our idea. PMID:24592377

  11. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  12. Carcinoma of the breast with choriocarcinomatous features.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Amir; Rosa, Marilin

    2011-09-01

    Choriocarcinomatous differentiation has been described in tumors arising from many organs including lung, rectum, colon, stomach, bladder, and rarely breast. Mammary carcinoma with choriocarcinomatous features is a rare variant of breast metaplastic carcinoma characterized by malignant cells morphologically resembling choriocarcinoma cells in which reactivity with human placental lactogen and human chorionic gonadotropin can be demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. The characteristic syncytiotrophoblast-like giant cells seen in these neoplasms are more commonly associated with moderately to poorly differentiated carcinomas with or without a clear-cut mesenchymal component. Most of the reported cases have behaved very aggressively. The reason for this poor prognosis remains unclear. Because of the small number of cases, special treatment protocols have not been developed and these patients are treated surgically and with the standard chemotherapeutic agents available for other types of carcinoma of the breast. Pathologically, these tumors must be distinguished from metastatic choriocarcinoma to the breast.

  13. Treatment Options by Stage (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  14. General Information about Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  15. Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Livasy, Chad A

    2009-06-01

    Triple-negative breast carcinomas (TNBCs) comprise approximately 15% to 20% of breast cancers. Accurate assessment of tumor estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status is an essential part of classifying tumors into this group. As a group, these tumors are associated with poor clinical outcomes and have been shown to exhibit an increased propensity for hematogenous metastasis to the brain and lungs. Many TNBCs, particularly ductal, not otherwise specified (NOS), and metaplastic carcinomas, show an overlapping characteristic gene expression pattern when evaluated by cDNA microarrays. This group has been termed basal-like because of the similarity with normal breast basal/myoepithelial cells including basal cytokeratin expression and lack of hormone receptor and HER2 expression. The array data have been used to develop multiple immunohistochemical surrogates to identify basal-like tumors in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, most employing basal cytokeratins and epidermal growth factor receptor. Currently, there is no international consensus on biomarkers used to identify tumors as basal-like, and the routine use of the term basal-like in surgical pathology reports is premature. Tumor morphologic features associated with triple-negative status include Nottingham grade 3 with high mitotic rate, pushing border of invasion, geographic tumor necrosis, solid/sheet-like growth pattern, lymphocytic infiltrate, and large central acellular zone. Most breast cancers arising in patients who have a germ-line BRCA1 mutation show similar histologic features and a triple-negative phenotype. Not all TNBCs are associated with an unfavorable prognosis, drawing attention to the heterogeneity of this tumor group and the continued need to link tumor morphology and grade with triple-negative status. This article focuses on histopathology, molecular characterization, carcinogenesis, clinical behavior, and treatment of these

  16. [Viruses and primary hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Jablonská, M

    1997-10-22

    The etiological association between primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHCC) and chronic viral hepatitis has been proved by now beyond doubt in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and C virus (HCV). PHCC develops most frequently in cirrhotic livers, sometimes also in the absence of cirrhosis. Extensive epidemiological studies provided convincing evidence of this etiological relationship which is also supported by observations and animal experiments. An important factor in hepatocarcinogenesis due to the influence of HBV is integration of the viral genoma into the liver cell genoma. In the tumourous part of the liver integrated HBV sequences are more frequent than in the non-tumourous part. The integration can produce changes in the genome of the liver cell which may sometimes lead to malignant transformation. The mechanisms of this process are not quite clear so far. Their outcome--the development of carcinoma--can be summarized as the peak effect of factors leading to the disorganization of DNA with participation of chromosomal changes, the action of transactivation of HBs protein, transformation growth factors and the important influence of mutations of the suppressor gene p 53 on the 17th chromosome which is probably the target of HBV. HCV produces chronic live: disease developing into cirrhosis and PHCC, even more frequent than HBV; however its integration into the liver cell does not take place. The genetic variability of this gene is great. Its transformating action is probably implemented rather as a co-carcinogen on the background of cirrhosis of the liver which alone regardless of its cause is an increased risk for the development of PHCC. In clinical practice these findings imply the necessity of optimal prevention of chronic viral hepatic infection (vaccination, so far available for HBV, transfusions) and the necessity to assess the virological status in patients with chronic liver disease and early detection of small tumourous liver lesions where nowadays due to

  17. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bellahammou, Khadija; Lakhdissi, Asmaa; Akkar, Othman; Rais, Fadoua; Naoual, Benhmidou; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; M’rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it occurs in less than 0, 1% of all cases. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a rare form of basal cell carcinoma, more aggressive and defined as a tumor measuring more than 5 cm at its largest diameter. Only 1% of all basal cell carcinoma develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma, resulting of patient's negligence. Giant basal cell carcinoma is associated with higher potential of metastasis and even death, compared to ordinary basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of giant basal cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurring in a 79 years old male patient, with a fatal evolution after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a very rare entity, early detection of these tumors could prevent metastasis occurrence and improve the prognosis of this malignancy. PMID:27795755

  18. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bellahammou, Khadija; Lakhdissi, Asmaa; Akkar, Othman; Rais, Fadoua; Naoual, Benhmidou; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it occurs in less than 0, 1% of all cases. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a rare form of basal cell carcinoma, more aggressive and defined as a tumor measuring more than 5 cm at its largest diameter. Only 1% of all basal cell carcinoma develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma, resulting of patient's negligence. Giant basal cell carcinoma is associated with higher potential of metastasis and even death, compared to ordinary basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of giant basal cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurring in a 79 years old male patient, with a fatal evolution after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a very rare entity, early detection of these tumors could prevent metastasis occurrence and improve the prognosis of this malignancy.

  19. Columnar grown copper films on polyimides strained beyond 100%

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jeong-Yun; Lee, Hae-Ryung; Hwan Oh, Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Many flexible electronic devices contain metal films on polymer substrates to satisfy requirements for both electrical conductivity and mechanical durability. Despite numerous trials to date, the stretchability of metal interconnects remains an issue. In this paper, we have demonstrated a stretchable metal interconnect through control of the texture of a copper film with columnar grown grains on a polyimide (PI) substrate. The columnar grown copper films (CGC films) were deposited by regulating radio frequency (RF) sputtering powers. CGC films were able to sustain their electrical conductivity at strains above 100%. Instead of ultimate electrical discontinuity by channel crack propagation, CGC films maintained their conductivity by forming ligament structures, or a ‘conductive net,’ through trapped micro-cracks. XRD, AFM and in situ SEM analysis were used to investigate these stretchable conductors. PMID:26337668

  20. Contents of capsaicinoids in chillies grown in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Duelund, Lars; Mouritsen, Ole G

    2017-04-15

    We have studied 15 different cultivars of chillies (Capsicum var.) grown in temperate climate Denmark and determined the contents of the four major capsaicinoids: capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin, and homocapsaicin. From these contents we have, as commonly done for chillies, calculated the so-called pungency in Scoville heat units in order to compare with previous studies from other climatical zones. For three of the investigated cultivars, Serrano, Habanero and BIH Jolokia, for which reliable pungencies has previously been reported, we have found pungencies of 34,000±1400, 247,000±24,000 and 665,000±4000, respectively, which are all in the same ranges as found earlier for chillies grown in more traditional chilli growing areas. Furthermore we have found that the relative distribution of the four capsaicinoids in the 15 different cultivars is highly variable, with the content of capsaicin ranging from 31% to 71% of the total capsaicinoid content.

  1. Bioengineered Dental Tissues Grown in the Rat Jaw

    PubMed Central

    Duailibi, S.E.; Duailibi, M.T.; Zhang, W.; Asrican, R.; Vacanti, J.P.; Yelick, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Our long-term objective is to develop methods to form, in the jaw, bioengineered replacement teeth that exhibit physical properties and functions similar to those of natural teeth. Our results show that cultured rat tooth bud cells, seeded onto biodegradable scaffolds, implanted into the jaws of adult rat hosts and grown for 12 weeks, formed small, organized, bioengineered tooth crowns, containing dentin, enamel, pulp, and periodontal ligament tissues, similar to identical cell-seeded scaffolds implanted and grown in the omentum. Radiographic, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses showed that bioengineered teeth consisted of organized dentin, enamel, and pulp tissues. This study advances practical applications for dental tissue engineering by demonstrating that bioengineered tooth tissues can be regenerated at the site of previously lost teeth, and supports the use of tissue engineering strategies in humans, to regenerate previously lost and/or missing teeth. The results presented in this report support the feasibility of bioengineered replacement tooth formation in the jaw. PMID:18650546

  2. Reproductive Ontogeny of Wheat Grown on the MIR Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Stieber, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    The reproductive ontogeny of 'Super-Dwarf' wheat grown on the space station Mir is chronicled from the vegetative phase through flower development. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition From the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of 'Super Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Filament elongation, which characteristically occurs just prior to anthesis and moves the anthers through the stigmatic branches thus facilitating pollination, did no1 xcur in the flowers of spikes grown on Mir. While development of spikes on tillers typically occurs later :han that of spikes on the main stem, all flowers appear to be arrested at the same developmental point.

  3. Biodiesel production from indigenous microalgae grown in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Komolafe, Oladapo; Velasquez Orta, Sharon B; Monje-Ramirez, Ignacio; Yáñez Noguez, Isaura; Harvey, Adam P; Orta Ledesma, María T

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a process for producing biodiesel sustainably from microalgae grown in wastewater, whilst significantly reducing the wastewater's nutrients and total coliform. Furthermore, ozone-flotation harvesting of the resultant biomass was investigated, shown to be viable, and resulted in FAMEs of greater oxidation stability. Desmodesmus sp. and two mixed cultures were successfully grown on wastewater. Desmodesmus sp. grew rapidly, to a higher maximum biomass concentration of 0.58 g/L. A native mixed culture dominated by Oscillatoria and Arthrospira, reached 0.45 g/L and exhibited the highest lipid and FAME yield. The FAME obtained from ozone-flotation exhibited the greatest oxidative stability, as the degree of saturation was high. In principle ozone could therefore be used as a combined method of harvesting and reducing FAME unsaturation. During microalgae treatment, the total nitrogen in wastewater was reduced by 55.4-83.9%. More importantly, total coliform removal was as high as 99.8%.

  4. Neural signal registration and analysis of axons grown in microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigareva, Y.; Malishev, E.; Gladkov, A.; Kolpakov, V.; Bukatin, A.; Mukhina, I.; Kazantsev, V.; Pimashkin, A.

    2016-08-01

    Registration of neuronal bioelectrical signals remains one of the main physical tools to study fundamental mechanisms of signal processing in the brain. Neurons generate spiking patterns which propagate through complex map of neural network connectivity. Extracellular recording of isolated axons grown in microchannels provides amplification of the signal for detailed study of spike propagation. In this study we used neuronal hippocampal cultures grown in microfluidic devices combined with microelectrode arrays to investigate a changes of electrical activity during neural network development. We found that after 5 days in vitro after culture plating the spiking activity appears first in microchannels and on the next 2-3 days appears on the electrodes of overall neural network. We conclude that such approach provides a convenient method to study neural signal processing and functional structure development on a single cell and network level of the neuronal culture.

  5. Platinum blue staining of cells grown in electrospun scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Mohammed; Millas, Ana Luiza G; Estandarte, Ana Katrina C; Bhella, Gurdeep K; McKean, Robert; Bittencourt, Edison; Robinson, Ian K

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast cells grown in electrospun polymer scaffolds were stained with platinum blue, a heavy metal stain, and imaged using scanning electron microscopy. Good contrast on the cells was achieved compared with samples that were gold sputter coated. The cell morphology could be clearly observed, and the cells could be distinguished from the scaffold fibers. Here we optimized the required concentration of platinum blue for imaging cells grown in scaffolds and show that a higher concentration causes platinum aggregation. Overall, platinum blue is a useful stain for imaging cells because of its enhanced contrast using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In the future it would be useful to investigate cell growth and morphology using three-dimensional imaging methods.

  6. Inversion domains in GaN grown on sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, L.T.; Northrup, J.E.; OKeefe, M.A.

    1996-10-01

    Planar defects observed in GaN films grown on (0001) sapphire have been identified as inversion domain boundaries (IDBs) by a combination of high resolution transmission electron microscopy, multiple dark field imaging, and convergent beam electron diffraction techniques. Films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), metalorganic vapor deposition (MOCVD), and hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) were investigated and all were found to contain IDBs. The IDBs in the MBE and HVPE films extended from the interface to the film surface and formed columnar domains that ranged in width from 3 to 20 nm in the MBE films and up to 100 nm in the HVPE films. For the films investigated, the MBE films had the highest density, and the MOCVD films had the lowest density of IDBs. The nucleation of inversion domains (IDs) may result from step-related inhomogeneities of the GaN/sapphire interface. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Laser alexandrite crystals grown by horizontal oriented crystallization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurov, V. V.; Tsvetkov, E. G.; Yurkin, A. M.

    2008-05-01

    Comparative studies were performed for alexandrite crystals, Al 2BeO 4:Cr 3+, employed in solid state lasers and grown by the horizontal oriented crystallization (HOC) technique and alexandrite crystals grown by the Czochralski (Cz) method. It was shown that the structural quality and possibilities of generation of stimulated emission HOC-crystals are similar to Cz-crystals, whereas their damage threshold is about three times higher. The obtained results and considerably lower cost price of HOC-alexandrite crystals prove their advantageous application in powerful laser systems, which require large laser rods with a higher resistance to laser beam. It is emphasized that application of HOC technique is promising for growth of laser crystals of other high-temperature oxide compounds.

  8. OM-VPE grown materials for high efficiency solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, R.; Cooper, B., III; Ludowise, M.; Borden, P.; Gregory, P.

    1980-01-01

    Organometallic sources are available for all the III-V elements and a variety of dopants; thus it is possible to use the technique to grow a wide variety of semiconductor compounds. AlGaAsSb and AlGaInAs alloys for multijunction monolithic solar cells were grown by OM-VPE. While the effort concentrated on terrestrial applications, the success of OM-VPE grown GaAs/AlGaAs concentrator solar cells (23% at 400 suns) demonstrates that OM-VPE is suitable for growing high efficiency solar cells in large quantities for space applications. In addition, OM-VPE offers the potential for substantial cost reduction of photovoltaic devices with scale up and automation and due to high process yield from reproducible, uniform epitaxial growths with excellent surface morphology.

  9. Diffraction study of protein crystals grown in cryoloops and micromounts.

    PubMed

    Berger, Michael A; Decker, Johannes H; Mathews, Irimpan I

    2010-12-01

    Protein crystals are usually grown in hanging or sitting drops and generally get transferred to a loop or micromount for cryocooling and data collection. This paper describes a method for growing crystals on cryoloops for easier manipulation of the crystals for data collection. This study also investigates the steps for the automation of this process and describes the design of a new tray for the method. The diffraction patterns and the structures of three proteins grown by both the new method and the conventional hanging-drop method are compared. The new setup is optimized for the automation of the crystal mounting process. Researchers could prepare nanolitre drops under ordinary laboratory conditions by growing the crystals directly in loops or micromounts. As has been pointed out before, higher levels of supersaturation can be obtained in very small volumes, and the new method may help in the exploration of additional crystallization conditions.

  10. Silicon on glass grown from indium and tin solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansen, Roman; Ehlers, Christian; Teubner, Thomas; Böttcher, Klaus; Gambaryan, Karen; Schmidtbauer, Jan; Boeck, Torsten

    2016-04-01

    A two-step process is used to grow crystalline silicon (c-Si) on glass at low temperatures. In the first step, nanocrystalline seed layers are formed at temperatures in the range of 230 to 400°C by either metal-induced crystallization or by direct deposition on heated substrates. In the second step, c-Si is grown on the seed layer by steady-state liquid phase epitaxy at a temperature range of 580 to 710°C. Microcrystalline Si layers with grain sizes of up to several tens of micrometers are grown from In and Sn solutions. Three-dimensional simulations of heat and convective flow in the crucible have been conducted and give valuable insights into the growth process. The experimental results are promising with regard to the designated use of the material in photovoltaics.

  11. Growth and characterization of hexamethylenetetramine crystals grown from solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, B.; Chandrasekaran, J.; Balaprabhakaran, S.

    2014-06-01

    Organic nonlinear optical single crystals of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT; 10 × 10 × 5 mm3) were prepared by crystallization from methanol solution. The grown crystals were subjected to various characterization techniques such as single crystal XRD, powder XRD, UV-Vis and electrical studies. Single crystal XRD analysis confirmed the crystalline structure of the grown crystals. Their crystalline nature was also confirmed by powder XRD technique. The optical transmittance property was identified from UV-Vis spectrum. Dielectric measurements were performed as a function of frequency at different temperatures. DC conductivity and photoconductivity studies were also carried out for the crystal. The powder second harmonic generation efficiency (SHG) of the crystal was measured using Nd:YAG laser and the efficiency was found to be two times greater than that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP).

  12. Transition between urothelial carcinoma in situ and non-invasive micropapillary carcinoma as a pivot connection between diverse morphologies of bladder carcinoma: a case report of urothelial carcinoma with villoglandular differentiation.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Koda, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma has numerous histological variants, and these variants may coexist in a single case. Here, we present a case of a 70-year-old man with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder with a maximal diameter of 5 mm that involved micropapillary and plasmacytoid variants, with villoglandular differentiation. The presence of these variants was confirmed by pathological examination of a transurethral resection specimen, and high-grade urothelial carcinoma was found as a minor component. Although this bladder carcinoma was classified as pT1, cystoprostatectomy, urethrectomy, and lymphadenectomy were performed due to the presence of the micropapillary and plasmacytoid variants, which are known to be aggressive. Examination of a surgically resected specimen revealed no carcinoma. A transition between urothelial carcinoma in situ and non-invasive micropapillary carcinoma was found to be a pivot point connecting the diverse morphologies of this bladder carcinoma, from which there existed two pathways. One pathway was from urothelial carcinoma in situ to the plasmacytoid variant through invasive high-grade urothelial carcinoma, and the other was from non-invasive micropapillary carcinoma to urothelial carcinoma with villoglandular differentiation or to the micropapillary variant. This is the 16th reported case of urothelial carcinoma with villoglandular differentiation in the literature. As urothelial carcinoma with villoglandular differentiation is often associated with aggressive variants, as shown in our case, it should be reported whenever encountered in routine pathological practice.

  13. Efficacy and Tolerability of ABT-869 Versus Sorafenib in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-09-07

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma Non-resectable; Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrent; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Liver Diseases; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Digestive System Neoplasms; Carcinoma; Liver Neoplasms; Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Adenocarcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial

  14. Depsipeptide in Unresectable Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-29

    Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  15. Ureterocele urothelial carcinoma: managing a rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Astigueta, Juan Carlos; Abad-Licham, Milagros; Silva, Eloy; Alvarez, Víctor; Piccone, Francis; Cruz, Enrique; Redorta, Joan Palou

    2016-01-01

    It is very uncommon for urothelial carcinoma to develop in an ureterocele. It is generally discovered in an imaging study or in connection with haematuria. We found very few reports in the literature. Here, we report on the case of a 71-year-old male who initially presented with haematuria and low back pain and who then underwent transurethral resection for an intraureterocele tumour. Pathology confirmed urothelial carcinoma. PMID:26913072

  16. [Clinical characteristics of the thyroid follicular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Hermosillo, Hugo; Tamez-Peréz, Héctor Eloy; Díaz de León-Gonzaléz, Enrique; Gutiérrez-Hermosillo, Violeta; Avila-Sanchéz, Jair

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: se ha identificado carcinoma folicular en 39 % de los pacientes con nódulos tiroideos cuya citología prequirúrgica ha indicado resultados indeterminados. El propósito de esta investigación fue conocer la prevalencia de esta entidad en un hospital de concentración. Métodos: se buscaron los reportes quirúrgicos con diagnóstico de carcinoma folicular. Se registró tamaño del tumor, sexo y edad del paciente, diagnósticos pre y posquirúrgico y patologías asociadas. Resultados: se diagnosticó carcinoma folicular en 35 pacientes: 30 mujeres (85 %) y cinco hombres (15 %). La edad en los hombres fue de 57 ± 6.6 y de 44 ± 16.9 en las mujeres. Los diagnósticos preoperatorios fueron carcinoma folicular en 14 (40 %), cáncer tiroideo en seis (17.1 %), adenoma folicular en cuatro (11.4 %), bocio en tres (8.5 %), nódulo tiroideo en tres (8.5 %); carcinoma papilar, tumor de tiroides, carcinoma poco diferenciado de tiroides, adenocarcinoma folicular bien diferenciado, cáncer medular en un paciente (2.8 %) cada uno. Las patologías asociadas fueron tiroiditis de Hashimoto y carcinoma papilar contralateral, con dos pacientes cada uno (5.6 %). Conclusiones: la edad de los pacientes y la presentación clínica del carcinoma folicular difirieron de las informadas en otras investigaciones.

  17. Cardiac metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pattni, Neeraj; Rennie, Andrew; Hall, Timothy; Norman, Aidan

    2015-09-09

    We present a case of isolated cardiac metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. An 89-year-old woman was due to undergo curative resection of a histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma of the retromolar region. On admission, it was noted that there were ECG changes, and following further investigations, the patient was diagnosed with a cardiac metastasis of her oral malignancy. The presentation, including the diagnostic difficulties, as well as the clinical features of this rare case, are discussed.

  18. Clinicopathological Features of Triple Negative Breast Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Gowry Maram; Pai, Radha R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Breast carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies affecting women in developing countries. Molecular studies of breast carcinoma have classified the tumour based on the immunohistochemical staining into 4 subtypes, such as Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2/neu Positive and Triple Negative Breast Carcinoma (TNBC). TNBCs are reported to have an aggressive behaviour and wide metastasis, leading to selective treatment outcomes. Aim The aim was to study the clinicopathological features such as age, site, tumour size, histopathological type, histologic grade, lymph node status, stage and treatment outcomes of triple negative breast carcinoma. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was conducted on 108 cases of breast carcinoma received during the period of 2 years. The tumour was classified based on immunohistochemical staining into four subtypes. The clinicopathological details, histomorphological and immunohistochemical features of TNBC were studied. Results Of the 108 patients, 34 patients were diagnosed as TNBC. The average age at presentation was 48 years. Most of the cases showed Nottingham Modification of Scarff Bloom-Richardson (NMBR) grade 3 (55.9%) and stage II (67.6%). Ly-mph node metastasis was seen in 50% of cases. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (not otherwise specified) type (91.2%) was the most common histological type. Among the other subtypes, Luminal A carcinoma was the most common (36.1%), followed by TNBC (31.5%) and HER2/neu positive carcinomas (28.7%). Compared to the other types of tumours, TNBC showed the most frequent distant lymph node metastasis (50%) when compared to luminal A (38.5%), luminal B (25%), HER2/neu positive (48.4%). Unlike the other types of tumours, TNBC were mostly high-grade. Conclusion TNBC have an aggressive behaviour compared to other subtypes with higher NMBR grade, nuclear pleomorphism, high mitotic rate and lymph node metastasis. PMID:28273970

  19. Concurrent medullary and papillary carcinoma of thyroid.

    PubMed

    Ateşpare, Altay; Çalış, Aslı Batur; Çelik, Öner; Yener, Neşe; Vural, Çetin

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in the same thyroid gland is a rare condition. These tumors derive from different cells; PTC originates from follicular cells whereas MTC originates from parafollicular cells. Because of this, the treatment of these tumors also differs. This article describes two rare cases of the simultaneous occurrence of MTC and PTC in the thyroid gland.

  20. Molecular Imaging of Ovarian Carcinoma Angiogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    is found at a significantly higher rate in primary ovarian cancer than in ovarian tumors of low malignant potential, a fact which points to a role of...the correlation between αv-integrin expression and poor survival in ovarian carcinoma (11). Given that the initial critical step of ovarian cancer ...marker of poor prognosis in advanced-stage ovarian carcinoma . Clin Cancer Res. Dec 2001;7(12):4073-4079. 9. van der Flier A, Sonnenberg A. Function

  1. Pancreatic carcinoma: results with fast neutron therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, R.; Cohen, L.; Hendrickson, F.; Awschalom, M.; Hrejsa, A.F.; Rosenberg, I.

    1981-02-01

    Results of therapy in 31 of 50 patients who were treated for advanced pancreatic carcinoma at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are presented here. To date, six patients are alive and four are free of disease. Since the main reason for failure was lack of control of primary tumor, the tumor dose has been increased by 15%. Based on our results, a nationwide study has been launched to assess the effectiveness of neutrons vs photons in the treatment of locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma.

  2. Resection of intraocular squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Char, D H; Crawford, J B; Howes, E L; Weinstein, A J

    1992-01-01

    A patient with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva was referred with 20/20 vision in an eye with obvious intraocular extension. A modified iridocyclochoroidectomy was performed and the tumour was removed. Three and a half years later the patient's vision is 20/30 and there is no recurrence. This is the first case in which an eye has been successfully salvaged with documented intraocular squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva. Images PMID:1739709

  3. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Paget’s disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget’s disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget’s disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget’s disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget’s disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget’s disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone. PMID:27660736

  4. Clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Rabade, Nikhil R; Goel, Naina A

    2014-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common epithelial neoplasm of lacrimal gland. A clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma arising in the background of pleomorphic adenoma is common in the salivary glands but very rare in the lacrimal glands. We report the case of a 27 year old man whose lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma recurred several times over a period of four years and ultimately evolved into a clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.

  5. Nano transfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates

    DOEpatents

    Melechko, Anatoli V [Oak Ridge, TN; McKnight, Timothy E [Greenback, TN; Guillorn, Michael A [Ithaca, NY; Ilic, Bojan [Ithaca, NY; Merkulov, Vladimir I [Knoxville, TX; Doktycz, Mitchel J [Knoxville, TN; Lowndes, Douglas H [Knoxville, TN; Simpson, Michael L [Knoxville, TN

    2012-03-27

    Methods, manufactures, machines and compositions are described for nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates. An apparatus, includes a substrate and a nanoconduit material coupled to a surface of the substrate. The substrate defines an aperture and the nanoconduit material defines a nanoconduit that is i) contiguous with the aperture and ii) aligned substantially non-parallel to a plane defined by the surface of the substrate.

  6. Consumer sensory analysis of organically and conventionally grown vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Chambers, Edgar; Matta, Ziad; Loughin, Thomas M; Carey, Edward E

    2007-03-01

    Consumers of organically grown fruits and vegetables often believe that these products taste better than conventional produce. However, comparison of produce from supermarket shelves does not permit adequate assessment of this consumer perception, given potentially confounding cultivar and environmental effects. We used replicated side-by-side plots to produce organic and conventional vegetables for consumer sensory studies. In one test, red loose leaf lettuce, spinach, arugula, and mustard greens, grown organically and conventionally, were evaluated for overall liking as well as for intensity of flavor and bitterness. Another consumer test was conducted comparing organically and conventionally grown tomatoes, cucumbers, and onions. Overall, organically and conventionally grown vegetables did not show significant differences in consumer liking or consumer-perceived sensory quality. The only exception was in tomatoes where the conventionally produced tomato was rated as having significantly stronger flavor than the organically produced tomato. However, overall liking was the same for both organic and conventional samples. As conventional tomatoes also were scored marginally significantly higher in ripeness and a positive correlation was found between ratings of flavor intensity and ripeness, the flavor difference observed could not be simply ascribed to the contrasting growing conditions. Consumer panelists in both tests considered organic produce to be healthier (72%) and more environmentally friendly (51%) than conventional produce, while 28% considered organic produce to have better taste. Covariance analysis indicated that consumer demographics affected sensory comparisons of organic and conventional lettuce and cucumbers. Future study is needed to substantiate the influence of segmentation of consumers on their preference for organic food.

  7. [Nutritive value of carrots grown using the herbicide prometryne].

    PubMed

    Dubenetskaia, M M; Patent, R L; Voĭtik, N P; Voinova, I V; Krasnaia, S D

    1981-01-01

    Subject to study were some parameters of the nutritive value of carrot grown with the use of the herbicide prometryne introduced at a rate of 2 kg/ha. It was demonstrated that application of prometryne might exert an effect on the chemical composition of carrot and stimulate the synthesis of some of the nutrients (dry substances, sugars, vitamin C) on the one hand, and decrease the formation of other substances (carotene, some of the elements), on the other hand.

  8. Catalyst traces after chemical purification in CVD grown carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biró, L. P.; Khanh, N. Q.; Horváth, Z. E.; Vértesy, Z.; Kocsonya, A.; Kónya, Z.; Osváth, Z.; Koós, A.; Gyulai, J.; Zhang, X. B.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Fonseca, A.; Nagy, J. B.

    2001-11-01

    For many applications, in particular for those in which transport occurs through carbon nanotubes (CNT), and for certain characterization techniques too, it is important to know whether traces of the catalyst used to grow the nanotubes are incorporated in the grown tubes. Nuclear analytical techniques (RBS, PIXE) and XRF were applied to investigate the transition metal content of CNTs after different steps of chemical purification. TEM and HRTEM were used to monitor the influence of purification process on the structure of the CNTs.

  9. Glucosinolates in collard greens grown under three soil management practices.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs, β-D-thioglucoside-N-hydroxysulfates) are polar compounds present in varying amounts in members of the Brassicaceae family. They suppress soil-borne pests due to the biofumigant properties of the highly toxic isothiocyanates present in Brassica vegetables. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) assess variation in GSLs concentrations among collard plants grown under three soil management practices: sewage sludge (SS) mixed with native soil, chicken manure (CM) mixed with native soil, and no-mulch (NM) native soil, (2) quantify GSLs concentrations in collard roots, leaves, and stems at harvest for potential use of their crude extracts in plant protection, and (3) assess myrosinase activity in soil amended with CM and SS mixed with native soil. Separation of GSLs was accomplished by adsorption on a DEAE-Sephadex ion exchange resin using disposable pipette tips filled with DEAE, a weak base, with a net positive charge when ionized and exchange anions such as GSLs (hydrophilic plant secondary metabolites). Quantification of total GSLs was based on inactivation of collard endogenous myrosinase and liberation of the glucose moiety from the GSLs molecule by addition of standardized myrosinase and colorimetric determination of the liberated glucose moiety. Across all treatments, SS and CM increased soil organic matter content from 2.2% in native soil to 4.2 and 6.5%, respectively. GSLs concentrations were significantly greater in collard leaves (30.9 µmoles g(-1) fresh weight) compared to roots and stems (7.8 and 1.2 µmoles g(-1) fresh weight), respectively. Leaves of collard grown in soil amended with SS contained the greatest concentrations of GSLs compared to leaves of plants grown in CM and NM treatments. Accordingly, leaves of collard plants grown in soil amended with SS could play a significant role in sustainable agriculture as alternative tools for soil-borne disease management in conventional and organic agriculture.

  10. Summer planting of container-grown northern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Raymond Graber

    1978-01-01

    Seedlings of paper birch and yellow birch were grown in Styrofoam blocks of two cavity sizes, 40 cc and 125 cc, in four different soil mixes. After 16 weeks, the seedlings were outplanted on a cleared forest site in mid July. Seedling survival for all treatments after two growing seasons was very good (98.8 percent). The effects of container size and soil mix were...

  11. Characterization of Graphene Grown Directly on Crystalline Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothwell, Sara L.

    Graphene has become one of the most popular materials under research, particularly since the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics. Many visions posit that graphene electronics will be some of the fastest and smallest circuitry physically feasible, however before this becomes reality the scientific community must gain a firm handle on the creation of semiconducting varieties of graphene. In addition, well understood epitaxial growth of graphene on insulating materials will add to the facility of fabricating all-carbon electronics. This thesis presents experimental work detailing the growth of pristine graphene grown on sapphire (GOS) through the thermal decomposition of acetylene, and the electronic characterization of graphene grown on nitrogen-seeded silicon carbide (NG), a semiconducting variety of graphene grown in collaboration with researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology and Rutgers University. GOS displays turbostratic stacking and characteristics of monolayer graphene as analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Scanning tunneling microscopy characterization of NG illustrates a topography of pleats from 0.5-2 nm tall, 1-4 nm thick, and 1-20 nm long, as well as atomically flat plateaus and other areas of intermixed features. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements across NG features show peaks interpreted as Landau levels induced by strain. Analysis of these Landau levels in coordination with previous characterization concludes that a model employing a bandgap fits best.

  12. Femtosecond laser processing of protein crystals grown in agarose gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenaka, Hitoshi; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Hirose, Mika; Shimizu, Noriko; Kitatani, Tomoya; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Adachi, Hiroaki; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi

    2009-12-01

    Manual manipulation of protein crystals is often required in order to obtain X-ray diffraction (XRD) data, but the success of the manual operation depends on the experience and fortuity of the operators. Here, we demonstrated the processing of protein crystals grown in semi-solid agarose gel using a femtosecond laser. This high-precision, reproducible processing could be achieved without unsealing the crystallization trays by using a focused femtosecond laser. We confirmed that the gel-immobilized crystals of hen egg white lysozyme, glucose isomerase and thaumatin could be processed by this technique. In contrast, the processing of protein crystals grown in non-gelled solution triggered polycrystallization or was unsuccessful. The processed gel-grown lysozyme crystal was subsequently captured by a nylon loop without difficulty and mounted onto the goniometer head of the XRD equipment for XRD data collection. The statistics of the obtained XRD data indicated that laser irradiation has little influence on crystallinity, suggesting that the processed protein crystals are virtually suitable for X-ray analysis. This approach provides a reliable method of processing protein crystals and may lead to an automated system for protein crystal processing.

  13. Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, G.P.; Sands, K.; Waters, M.; Wixson, B.G.; Dorward-King, E.

    2000-03-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc were quantified in mine wastes and in soils mixed with mine wastes. Metal concentrations were found to be heterogeneous in the wastes. Iceberg lettuce, Cherry Belle radishes, Roma bush beans, and Better Boy tomatoes were cultivated in mine wastes and in waste-amended soils. Lettuce and radishes had 100% survival in the 100% mine waste treatments compared to 0% and 25% survival for tomatoes and beans, respectively. Metal concentrations were determined in plant tissues to determine uptake and distribution of metals in the edible plant parts. Individual soil samples were collected beneath each plant to assess metal content in the immediate plant environment. This analysis verified heterogeneous metal content of the mine wastes. The four plant species effectively accumulated and translocated lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc. Tomato and bean plants contained the four metals mainly in the roots and little was translocated to the fruits. Radish roots accumulated less metals compared to the leaves, whereas lettuce roots and leaves accumulated similar concentrations of the four metals. Lettuce leaves and radish roots accumulated significantly more metals than bean and tomato fruits. This accumulation pattern suggests that consumption of lettuce leaves or radish roots from plants grown in mine wastes would pose greater risks to humans and wildlife than would consumption of beans or tomatoes grown in the same area. The potential risk may be mitigated somewhat in humans, as vegetables grown in mine wastes exhibited stunted growth and chlorosis.

  14. Developmental, nutritional and hormonal anomalies of weightlessness-grown wheat.

    PubMed

    Carman, J G; Hole, P; Salisbury, F B; Bingham, G E

    2015-07-01

    The behavior of water in weightlessness, as occurs in orbiting spacecraft, presents multiple challenges for plant growth. Soils remain saturated, impeding aeration, and leaf surfaces remain wet, impeding gas exchange. Herein we report developmental and biochemical anomalies of "Super Dwarf" wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown aboard Space Station Mir during the 1996-97 "Greenhouse 2" experiment. Leaves of Mir-grown wheat were hyperhydric, senesced precociously and accumulated aromatic and branched-chain amino acids typical of tissues experiencing oxidative stress. The highest levels of stress-specific amino acids occurred in precociously-senescing leaves. Our results suggest that the leaf ventilation system of the Svet Greenhouse failed to remove sufficient boundary layer water, thus leading to poor gas exchange and onset of oxidative stress. As oxidative stress in plants has been observed in recent space-flight experiments, we recommend that percentage water content in apoplast free-spaces of leaves be used to evaluate leaf ventilation effectiveness. Mir-grown plants also tillered excessively. Crowns and culms of these plants contained low levels of abscisic acid but high levels of cytokinins. High ethylene levels may have suppressed abscisic acid synthesis, thus permitting cytokinins to accumulate and tillering to occur. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Radioactivity in foods grown on Florida phosphate lands. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Guidry, J.J.; Bolch, W.E.; Roessler, C.E.; McClave, J.T.; Moon, J.R.

    1986-03-01

    This study involved radioactivity in foods grown on Florida phosphate lands. More than 90 land parcels in central Florida were identified and evaluated for potential food production. Over 100 food samples were collected from 62 of these land parcels and subjected to radioassay for isotopes of radium, uranium, and thorium. Corresponding soil samples were also collected and analyzed for radium-226 and pH. Statistical analysis of the radium-226 data has shown that the average concentrations exhibited by foods grown on mined lands was significantly higher than the average concentrations exhibited by foods grown on unmined lands. Descriptive analyses of the other radionuclides support the conclusion. A hypothetical individual who obtains 100% of the foods sampled in the study from mined lands and the remainder of his diet from the general food pool is estimated to receive 4 microrems per year in committed effective dose equivalent from ingestion of the radionuclides reported in the study. This is 0.3 microrems (8%) per year more than a similar individual who obtains 100% of the food sampled in the study from unmined lands. These dose levels are quite low and are not considered to be a health hazard.

  16. Induced abnormality in Mir- and earth grown super dwarf wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Stieber, J.; Campbell, W. F.; Salisbury, F. B.; Levinski, M.; Sytchev, V.; Pdolsky, I.; Chernova, L.

    Super-dwarf wheat grown on the Mir space station using the Svet ``Greenhouse'' exhibited morphological, metabolic and reproductive abnormalities compared with Earth-grown wheat. Of prominent importance were the abnormalities associated with reproductive ontogeny and the total absence of seed formation on Mir. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition from the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of `Super-Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Observation of ruptured anthers from the Mir-grown plants revealed what appeared to be normally developed pollen. These pollen gains, however, contained only one nuclei, while normal viable pollen is tri-nucleate. A potentially important difference in the flight experiment, compared with ground reference studies, was the presence of a high level of atmospheric ethylene (1,200 ppb). Ground studies conducted by exposing `Super-Dwarf' wheat to ethylene just prior to anthesis resulted in manifestation of the same abnormalities observed in the space flight samples.

  17. Induced abnormality in Mir- and Earth grown Super Dwarf wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Stieber, J.; Campbell, W. F.; Salisbury, F. B.; Levinski, M.; Sytchev, V.; Podolsky, I.; Chernova, L.; Pdolsky, I.

    2003-01-01

    Super-dwarf wheat grown on the Mir space station using the Svet "Greenhouse" exhibited morphological, metabolic and reproductive abnormalities compared with Earth-grown wheat. Of prominent importance were the abnormalities associated with reproductive ontogeny and the total absence of seed formation on Mir. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition from the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of 'Super-Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Observation of ruptured anthers from the Mir-grown plants revealed what appeared to be normally developed pollen. These pollen gains, however, contained only one nuclei, while normal viable pollen is tri-nucleate. A potentially important difference in the flight experiment, compared with ground reference studies, was the presence of a high level of atmospheric ethylene (1,200 ppb). Ground studies conducted by exposing 'Super-Dwarf' wheat to ethylene just prior to anthesis resulted in manifestation of the same abnormalities observed in the space flight samples. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  18. Induced abnormality in Mir- and Earth grown Super Dwarf wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Stieber, J.; Campbell, W. F.; Salisbury, F. B.; Levinski, M.; Sytchev, V.; Podolsky, I.; Chernova, L.; Pdolsky, I.

    2003-01-01

    Super-dwarf wheat grown on the Mir space station using the Svet "Greenhouse" exhibited morphological, metabolic and reproductive abnormalities compared with Earth-grown wheat. Of prominent importance were the abnormalities associated with reproductive ontogeny and the total absence of seed formation on Mir. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition from the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of 'Super-Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Observation of ruptured anthers from the Mir-grown plants revealed what appeared to be normally developed pollen. These pollen gains, however, contained only one nuclei, while normal viable pollen is tri-nucleate. A potentially important difference in the flight experiment, compared with ground reference studies, was the presence of a high level of atmospheric ethylene (1,200 ppb). Ground studies conducted by exposing 'Super-Dwarf' wheat to ethylene just prior to anthesis resulted in manifestation of the same abnormalities observed in the space flight samples. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  19. Solution-Grown Rubrene Crystals as Radiation Detecting Devices

    DOE PAGES

    Carman, Leslie; Martinez, H. Paul; Voss, Lars; ...

    2017-01-11

    There has been increased interest in organic semiconductors over the last decade because of their unique properties. Of these, 5, 6, 11, 12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene) has generated the most interest because of its high charge carrier mobility. In this paper, large single crystals with a volume of ~1 cm3 were grown from solution by a temperature reduction technique. The faceted crystals had flat surfaces and cm-scale, visually defect-free areas suitable for physical characterization. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that solvent does not incorporate into the crystals and photoluminescence spectra are consistent with pristine, high-crystallinity rubrene. Furthermore, the response curve to pulsed opticalmore » illumination indicates that the solution grown crystals are of similar quality to those grown by physical vapor transport, albeit larger. The good quality of these crystals in combination with the improvement of electrical contacts by application of conductive polymer on the graphite electrodes have led to the clear observation of alpha particles with these rubrene detectors. Finally, preliminary results with a 252Cf source generate a small signal with the rubrene detector and may demonstrate that rubrene can also be used for detecting high-energy neutrons.« less

  20. Developmental, nutritional and hormonal anomalies of weightlessness-grown wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carman, J. G.; Hole, P.; Salisbury, F. B.; Bingham, G. E.

    2015-07-01

    The behavior of water in weightlessness, as occurs in orbiting spacecraft, presents multiple challenges for plant growth. Soils remain saturated, impeding aeration, and leaf surfaces remain wet, impeding gas exchange. Herein we report developmental and biochemical anomalies of "Super Dwarf" wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown aboard Space Station Mir during the 1996-97 "Greenhouse 2" experiment. Leaves of Mir-grown wheat were hyperhydric, senesced precociously and accumulated aromatic and branched-chain amino acids typical of tissues experiencing oxidative stress. The highest levels of stress-specific amino acids occurred in precociously-senescing leaves. Our results suggest that the leaf ventilation system of the Svet Greenhouse failed to remove sufficient boundary layer water, thus leading to poor gas exchange and onset of oxidative stress. As oxidative stress in plants has been observed in recent space-flight experiments, we recommend that percentage water content in apoplast free-spaces of leaves be used to evaluate leaf ventilation effectiveness. Mir-grown plants also tillered excessively. Crowns and culms of these plants contained low levels of abscisic acid but high levels of cytokinins. High ethylene levels may have suppressed abscisic acid synthesis, thus permitting cytokinins to accumulate and tillering to occur.

  1. Hyperspectral imaging for detecting pathogens grown on agar plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seung Chul; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Siragusa, Gregory R.; Line, John E.; Park, Bosoon; Windham, William R.

    2007-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of a hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting and identifying one of the most common foodborne pathogens, Campylobacter. Direct plating using agars is an effective tool for laboratory tests and analyses of microorganisms. The morphology (size, growth pattern, color, etc.) of colonies grown on agar plates has been widely used to tentatively differentiate organisms. However, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate target organisms like Campylobacters from other contaminants grown together on the same agar plates. A hyperspectral imaging system operating at the visible and near infrared (VNIR) spectral region from 400 nm to 900 nm was set up to measure spectral signatures of 17 different Campylobacter and non-Campylobacter subspecies. Protocols for culturing, imaging samples and for calibrating measured data were developed. The VNIR spectral library of all 17 organisms commonly encountered in poultry was established from calibrated hyperspectral images. A classification algorithm was developed to locate and identify Campylobacters, non-Campylobacter contaminants, and background agars with 99.29% accuracy. This research has a potential to be expanded to detect other pathogens grown on agar media.

  2. Microinvasive lobular carcinoma arising in a fibroadenoma.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Brian D; Quinn, Cecily M

    2013-08-01

    A 51-year-old woman had a 35 mm circumscribed calcified lesion identified on screening mammography, designated R4. Excision showed a fibroadenoma with multiple foci of lobular neoplasia (atypical lobular hyperplasia and classical lobular carcinoma in situ [LCIS]). A focus of microinvasive lobular carcinoma (MILC) was also present, confirmed on immunohistochemistry. The MILC cells were ER positive, Her-2-negative, and e-cadherin negative. Microinvasive carcinoma, defined as "invasive carcinoma with no focus measuring >1 mm" (TNM UICC 7th edition) is usually encountered in ductal carcinoma in situ but may occur with classical, florid, or pleomorphic LCIS. In one series MILC constituted 0.4% of all invasive lobular carcinomas and was present in 0.4% of all LCIS. MILC is a histologically subtle lesion, the identification of which lends further weight to the concept of lobular neoplasia as a precursor lesion. MILC has been observed in hamartoma but, to our knowledge, has not previously been reported in fibroadenoma.

  3. [Carcinoma and acute pancreatitis--case reports].

    PubMed

    Snarska, Jadwiga; Puchalski, Zbigniew; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Hady, Razak H; Kamiński, Fabian; Dadan, Jacek

    2007-10-01

    The coexistence of pancreatic carcinoma with severe form of acute pancreatitis (AP) is not only an extremely rare phenomenon described in literature but also a real problem in the aspect of differential diagnostics of neoplastic and inflammatory morphological changes in this organ. The study objective was the analysis of clinical material obtained from patients with inflammatory and neoplastic lesions, treated surgically in I Department of General and Endocrinological Surgery, Medical University of Bialystok in the years 1980-2005. Of these patients, 7 had pancreatic carcinoma at various stages of advancement diagnosed in the late postoperative period after severe form of AP. Patients' history, physical examination as well as biochemical tests and imaging diagnostic procedures (ultrasonography, CT) of the abdominal cavity explicitly showed severe form of acute pancreatitis. In every case, CA19-9 antigen values were substantially elevated (mean 780 +/-325 IU/ml, norm 0-37 IU/ml). Histopathological analyses of samples collected during laparotomy revealed the presence of necrotic-purulent tissues. In the late postoperative period, i.e. 3-24 months, all these patients were reoperated on for pancreatic carcinoma or its metastases. Only in one case, radical Whipple surgery was performed. All the remaining patients underwent palliative procedures or samples for histopathological examinations were only collected. In all the seven cases, metastatic carcinoma was diagnosed, including pancreatic carcinoma in 6 patients. These observations seem to indicate that severe AP may be insidiously accompanied by pancreatic carcinoma and that this coexistence should always be taken into consideration.

  4. Landscape of Genomic Alterations in Cervical Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Freeman, Samuel S.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Imaz-Rosshandler, Ivan; Pugh, Trevor J.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Ambrogio, Lauren; Cibulskis, Kristian; Bertelsen, Bjørn; Romero-Cordoba, Sandra; Treviño, Victor; Vazquez-Santillan, Karla; Guadarrama, Alberto Salido; Wright, Alexi A.; Rosenberg, Mara W.; Duke, Fujiko; Kaplan, Bethany; Wang, Rui; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Walline, Heather M.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Stewart, Chip; Carter, Scott L.; McKenna, Aaron; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram P.; Espinosa-Castilla, Magali; Woie, Kathrine; Bjorge, Line; Wik, Elisabeth; Halle, Mari K.; Hoivik, Erling A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Gabiño, Nayeli Belem; Gómez-Macías, Gabriela Sofia; Valdez-Chapa, Lezmes D.; Garza-Rodríguez, María Lourdes; Maytorena, German; Vazquez, Jorge; Rodea, Carlos; Cravioto, Adrian; Cortes, Maria L.; Greulich, Heidi; Crum, Christopher P.; Neuberg, Donna S.; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Escareno, Claudia Rangel; Akslen, Lars A.; Carey, Thomas E.; Vintermyr, Olav K.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A.; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Getz, Gad; Salvesen, Helga B.; Meyerson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is responsible for 10–15% of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide1,2. The etiological role of infection with high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPV) in cervical carcinomas is well established3. Previous studies have implicated somatic mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, TP53, STK11 and KRAS4–7 as well as several copy number alterations in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinomas8,9. Here, we report whole exome sequencing analysis of 115 cervical carcinoma-normal paired samples, transcriptome sequencing of 79 cases and whole genome sequencing of 14 tumor-normal pairs. Novel somatic mutations in 79 primary squamous cell carcinomas include recurrent E322K substitutions in the MAPK1 gene (8%), inactivating mutations in the HLA-B gene (9%), and mutations in EP300 (16%), FBXW7 (15%), NFE2L2 (4%) TP53 (5%) and ERBB2 (6%). We also observed somatic ELF3 (13%) and CBFB (8%) mutations in 24 adenocarcinomas. Squamous cell carcinomas had higher frequencies of somatic mutations in the Tp*C dinucleotide context than adenocarcinomas. Gene expression levels at HPV integration sites were significantly higher in tumors with HPV integration compared with expression of the same genes in tumors without viral integration at the same site. These data demonstrate several recurrent genomic alterations in cervical carcinomas that suggest novel strategies to combat this disease. PMID:24390348

  5. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Mlika, Mona; Kourda, Nadia; Zidi, YSH; Aloui, Raoudha; Zneidi, Nadia; Rammeh, Soumaya; Zermani, Rachida; Jilani, Sarah Ben

    2012-01-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is an uncommon tumor, highly aggressive. About 200 cases have been reported in the English literature. Pathomorphologically, these tumors showed great similarities to ductal carcinoma of the female breast, which is why they described this tumor as “salivary duct carcinoma.” The authors describe a new case of salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland. We present the case of a 50-year-old patient with progressive facial paralysis. The MRI examination of the head showed two ill-defined formations. A malignant tumor was strongly suspected, so that a total left parotidectomy with excision of the adjacent facial nerve and left lymph node dissection was performed. Microscopic examination concluded to a salivary duct carcinoma of the left parotid gland negative with Her2/neu antibody with lymph node metastasis. There were no recurrences or metastases within 3 years of follow-up. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is a rare tumor with an aggressive behavior. This is due to its propensity to infiltrate distant organs. The diagnosis is based on microscopic examination. Treatment modalities are non-consensual, but some authors advocate the necessity of aggressive approach, especially in tumors negative with Heur2/neu antibody. This is due to the fact that the overexpression of this antigen was reported to be associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:22434951

  6. Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma accompanying gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  7. Controversies in the Management of Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most common type of female genital tract malignancy. Although endometrial carcinoma is a low grade curable malignancy, the condition of the disease can range from excellent prognosis with high curability to aggressive disease with poor outcome. During the last 10 years many researches have provided some new valuable data of optimal treatments for endometrial carcinoma. Progression in diagnostic imaging, radiation delivery systems, and systemic therapies potentially can improve outcomes while minimizing morbidity. Firstly, total hysterectomy and bilateral salphingo-oophorectomy is the primary operative procedure. Pelvic lymhadenectomy is performed in most centers on therapeutic and prognostic grounds and to individualize adjuvant treatment. Women with endometrial carcinoma can be readily segregated intraoperatively into “low-risk” and “high-risk” groups to better identify those women who will most likely benefit from thorough lymphadenectomy. Secondly, adjuvant therapies have been proposed for women with endometrial carcinoma postoperatively. Postoperative irradiation is used to reduce pelvic and vaginal recurrences in high risk cases. Chemotherapy is emerging as an important treatment modality in advanced endometrial carcinoma. Meanwhile the availability of new hormonal and biological agents presents new opportunities for therapy. PMID:20613958

  8. Recurrence of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in transplanted lungs.

    PubMed

    Garver, R I; Zorn, G L; Wu, X; McGiffin, D C; Young, K R; Pinkard, N B

    1999-04-08

    Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma is a distinctive subtype of typical adenocarcinoma of the lung that tends to metastasize widely throughout the lungs but less commonly elsewhere. Because conventional therapies for intrapulmonary metastatic bronchioloalveolar carcinoma are generally ineffective, we treated seven patients who had intrapulmonary metastatic bronchioloalveolar carcinoma with lung transplantation. Seven patients with biopsy-proved bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and no evidence of extrapulmonary disease received transplants of either one or two cadaveric lungs. At transplantation, all native lung tissue was removed and replaced with a donor lung or lungs. The patients received the usual post-transplantation care given at the institution. Four of the seven patients had recurrent bronchioloalveolar carcinoma within the donor lungs; the recurrences appeared from 10 to 48 months after transplantation. All recurrences were limited to the donor lungs. Histologic and molecular analyses showed that the recurrent tumors in three patients originated from the recipients of the transplants. Lung transplantation for bronchioloalveolar carcinoma is technically feasible, but recurrence of the original tumor within the donor lungs up to four years after transplantation was common.

  9. Integrated genomic characterization of oesophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    2017-01-12

    Oesophageal cancers are prominent worldwide; however, there are few targeted therapies and survival rates for these cancers remain dismal. Here we performed a comprehensive molecular analysis of 164 carcinomas of the oesophagus derived from Western and Eastern populations. Beyond known histopathological and epidemiologic distinctions, molecular features differentiated oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas from oesophageal adenocarcinomas. Oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas resembled squamous carcinomas of other organs more than they did oesophageal adenocarcinomas. Our analyses identified three molecular subclasses of oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas, but none showed evidence for an aetiological role of human papillomavirus. Squamous cell carcinomas showed frequent genomic amplifications of CCND1 and SOX2 and/or TP63, whereas ERBB2, VEGFA and GATA4 and GATA6 were more commonly amplified in adenocarcinomas. Oesophageal adenocarcinomas strongly resembled the chromosomally unstable variant of gastric adenocarcinoma, suggesting that these cancers could be considered a single disease entity. However, some molecular features, including DNA hypermethylation, occurred disproportionally in oesophageal adenocarcinomas. These data provide a framework to facilitate more rational categorization of these tumours and a foundation for new therapies.

  10. Studies on conventional and Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method grown ferroelectric glycine phosphite (GPI) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil Pandian, M.; Pattanaboonmee, N.; Ramasamy, P.; Manyum, P.

    2011-01-01

    Transparent single crystals of glycine phosphite were grown by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method and conventional slow evaporation solution technique (SEST) which had the sizes of 100 mm in length, 30 mm diameter and 10×11×8 mm 3. The conventional slow evaporation and Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy method grown glycine phosphite single crystals were characterized using laser damage threshold, chemical etching, Vickers microhardness, UV-vis-NIR and dielectric analysis. The laser damage threshold value was higher in SR method grown GPI crystal as against conventional method grown crystal. The SR method grown GPI has higher hardness and also higher transmittance compared to conventional method grown crystal. The chemical etching and dielectric loss measurements indicate that the crystal grown by SR method has low density of defects and low value of dielectric loss compared to conventional method grown GPI crystal.

  11. Cytologic characteristics and histomorphologic correlations of 21 salivary duct carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Klijanienko, J; Vielh, P

    1998-11-01

    Fine-needle samplings (FNS) of 21 salivary duct carcinomas, histologically correlated, including 19 primaries, one local recurrence, and one lymph node metastasis from 19 patients, are reported. Cytologic diagnosis of high-grade adenocarcinoma was established in 15 (71%). Five (24%) cases were misclassified as high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas and one (5%) as squamous-cell carcinoma. The histologic evaluation in all cases showed cytomorphologic features resembling mammary duct carcinoma with marked cytonuclear atypia and occasional oncocytic appearance. Our cytohistologic correlations indicate that irregular clusters of high-grade adenocarcinoma cells with necrotic background and oncocytic features suggest a cytologic diagnosis of either primary salivary duct carcinoma or metastatic mammary carcinoma.

  12. Synchronous Renal Neoplasm: Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma and Papillary Urothelial Carcinoma in the Same Kidney.

    PubMed

    Benavides-Huerto, Miguel Armando; Chávez-Valencia, Venice; Lagunas-Rangel, Francisco Alejandro

    2017-02-01

    Abdominal computed tomography in a 64 year-old male presenting hematuria showed two malignant tumors in the left kidney, thus radical nephrectomy was realized. In histological preparations a clear cell renal cell carcinoma and a papillary urothelial carcinoma were identified occurring synchronously, which is a rare occurrence having only about 50 cases reported in the literature.

  13. Renal adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and pancreatic islet cell carcinoma in a binturong (Arctictis binturong).

    PubMed

    Klaphake, Eric; Shoieb, Ahmed; Ramsay, Ed; Schumacher, Juergen; Craig, Linden

    2005-03-01

    A 19-yr-old binturong (Arctictis binturong) with acute upper respiratory disease was euthanized. Postmortem findings included hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, and renal adenocarcinoma with metastasis to the spleen, pleura, and pericardium. A link between primary hepatic and renal neoplasms has been noted in older humans.

  14. Comparative Floral Development of Mir-Grown and Ethylene-Treated, Earth-Grown Super Dwarf Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William F.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Bugbee, Bruce; Klassen, Steven; Naegle, Erin; Strickland, Darren T.; Bingham, Gail E.; Levinskikh, Margarita; Iljina, Galena M.; Veselova, Tatjana D.

    2001-01-01

    To study plant growth in microgravity, we grew Super Dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Svet growth chamber onboard the orbiting Russian space station, Mir, and in identical ground control units at the Institute of BioMedical Problems in Moscow, Russia. Seedling emergence was 56% and 73% in the two root-module compartments on Mir and 75% and 90% on Earth. Growth was vigorous (produced ca. 1 kg dry mass), and individual plants produced 5 to 8 tillers on Mir compared with 3 to 5 on Earth-grown controls. Upon harvest in space and return to Earth, however, all inflorescences of the flight-grown plants were sterile. To ascertain if Super Dwarf wheat responded to the 1.1 to 1.7 micromol/mol atmospheric levels of ethylene measured on the Mir prior to and during flowering, plants on earth were exposed to 0, 1, 3, 10, and 20 micromol/mol of ethylene gas and 1200 micromol/mol CO2 from 7d after emergence to maturity. As in our Mir wheat, plant height, awn length, and the flag leaf were significantly shorter in the ethylene-exposed plants than in controls; inflorescences also exhibited 100% sterility. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination of florets from Mir-grown and ethylene-treated, earth-grown plants showed that development ceased prior to anthesis, and the anthers did not dehisce. Laser scanning confocal microscopic (LSCM) examination of pollen grains from Mir and ethylene-treated plants on earth exhibited zero, one, and occasionally two, but rarely three nuclei; pollen produced in the absence of ethylene was always trinucleate, the normal condition. The scarcity of trinucleate pollen, abrupt cessation of floret development prior to anthesis, and excess tillering in wheat plants on Mir and in ethylene-containing atmospheres on earth build a strong case for the ethylene on Mir as the agent for the induced male sterility and other symptoms, rather than microgravity.

  15. Comparative Floral Development of Mir-Grown and Ethylene-Treated, Earth-Grown Super Dwarf Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William F.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Bugbee, Bruce; Klassen, Steven; Naegle, Erin; Strickland, Darren T.; Bingham, Gail E.; Levinskikh, Margarita; Iljina, Galena M.; Veselova, Tatjana D.

    2001-01-01

    To study plant growth in microgravity, we grew Super Dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Svet growth chamber onboard the orbiting Russian space station, Mir, and in identical ground control units at the Institute of BioMedical Problems in Moscow, Russia. Seedling emergence was 56% and 73% in the two root-module compartments on Mir and 75% and 90% on Earth. Growth was vigorous (produced ca. 1 kg dry mass), and individual plants produced 5 to 8 tillers on Mir compared with 3 to 5 on Earth-grown controls. Upon harvest in space and return to Earth, however, all inflorescences of the flight-grown plants were sterile. To ascertain if Super Dwarf wheat responded to the 1.1 to 1.7 micromol/mol atmospheric levels of ethylene measured on the Mir prior to and during flowering, plants on earth were exposed to 0, 1, 3, 10, and 20 micromol/mol of ethylene gas and 1200 micromol/mol CO2 from 7d after emergence to maturity. As in our Mir wheat, plant height, awn length, and the flag leaf were significantly shorter in the ethylene-exposed plants than in controls; inflorescences also exhibited 100% sterility. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination of florets from Mir-grown and ethylene-treated, earth-grown plants showed that development ceased prior to anthesis, and the anthers did not dehisce. Laser scanning confocal microscopic (LSCM) examination of pollen grains from Mir and ethylene-treated plants on earth exhibited zero, one, and occasionally two, but rarely three nuclei; pollen produced in the absence of ethylene was always trinucleate, the normal condition. The scarcity of trinucleate pollen, abrupt cessation of floret development prior to anthesis, and excess tillering in wheat plants on Mir and in ethylene-containing atmospheres on earth build a strong case for the ethylene on Mir as the agent for the induced male sterility and other symptoms, rather than microgravity.

  16. Oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in barley grown under space environment.

    PubMed

    Shagimardanova, Elena; Gusev, Oleg; Bingham, Gail E; Levinskikh, Margarita A; Sychev, Vladimir N; Tiansu, Zhou; Kihara, Makoto; Ito, Kazutoshi; Sugimoto, Manabu

    2010-01-01

    The gene expression and enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase in the space-grown barley were not significantly different from those of the ground-grown barley. Cu2+ reducing and radical scavenging activities in an extract of the space-grown barley were lower than those of the ground-grown barley by 0.7 fold, suggesting that the space environment does not induce oxidative stress, and reduces antioxidant capacity in plants.

  17. Non-responders to egg grown influenza vaccine seroconvert after booster immunization with MDCK cell grown vaccine.

    PubMed

    Oxford, John S; Al-Jabri, Ali A; Lambkin, Robert; Palache, A M; Fleming, D M

    2003-06-20

    We have investigated whether 'at risk' subjects who did not respond serologically during a pre-study vaccination with a commercial egg grown influenza sub-unit vaccine would respond to a subsequent vaccination with either a single dose of MDCK cell grown influenza vaccine or a standard egg grown influenza vaccine containing the same virus strains. We studied 48 non-responder subjects with a mean age 67.5, range: 34-82 years. In this non-responder group the increased immune response that was detected after boosting with an MDCK cell derived vaccine response was variable and relatively modest, except for the A/Texas strain in the vaccine. The proportion of subjects, with an HI titre of >/=40 (protective antibody titre) increased from 50 to 83% (A/Texas strain), from 13 to 25% (B/Harbin strain) and from 38 to 46% (A/Wuhan strain). In comparison a booster vaccination with egg-derived influenza vaccine resulted in an increase immune response with an HI antibody titre >/=40 for two of the three strains, namely from 17 to 58% for the B/Harbin strain and from 8 to 33% for the A/Wuhan strain.

  18. [New developments in molecular diagnostics of carcinomas of the salivary glands: "translocation carcinomas"].

    PubMed

    Skálová, Alena; Šteiner, Petr; Vaneček, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the discovery of translocations and the fusion oncogenes that they result in has changed the way diagnoses are made in salivary gland pathology. These genetic aberrations are recurrent; and at the very least serve as powerful diagnostic tools in salivary gland tumors diagnosis and classification. They also show promise as prognostic markers and hopefully as targets of therapy. In this review the 4 carcinomas currently known to harbor translocations will be discussed, namely mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. The discovery and implications of each fusion will be highlighted and how they have helped to reshape the current classification of salivary gland tumors.

  19. Ameloblastic carcinoma with features of ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma in a patient with suspected Gardner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, S G; Hirsch, S A; Listinsky, C M; Lyu, D J-H; Baur, D A

    2015-04-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma and ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma are rare malignancies arising in odontogenic epithelium within the jaws. Gardner syndrome is a multifaceted autosomal dominant condition, which results in multiple dentofacial anomalies along with premalignant colon polyp formation and tumor formation in the skin and other organs. We report a case of ameloblastic carcinoma with features of ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma and extensive clear cell change and melanin pigmentation in a patient with clinical features of Gardner syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, odontogenic carcinoma arising in a patient with features of Gardner syndrome has not been reported previously. The clinical, radiographic, and histologic features of the case are discussed along with a review of the relevant literature.

  20. Concurrent primary peritoneal low-grade serous carcinoma and endometrial high-grade serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lockyer, Megan G; Deavers, Michael T; Zarrin-Khameh, Neda

    2015-05-01

    A 64-yr-old postmenopausal woman with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and atypical glandular cell of undetermined significance on her Pap test was found to have endometrial serous carcinoma (high grade) involving a polyp in a subsequent endometrial biopsy. She underwent hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with multiple biopsies of the peritoneum. Microscopic examination of the entirely submitted uterus showed no residual serous carcinoma. Multiple foci of low-grade serous tumor with extensive calcifications and psammoma bodies were identified on the surfaces of the left fallopian tube, ovaries, and biopsies of the peritoneum, consistent with peritoneal primary low-grade serous carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of low-grade serous carcinoma of the peritoneum with a concurrent (high-grade) serous carcinoma of the endometrium arising from an endometrial polyp.

  1. Oral Carcinoma Cuniculatum: A New Entity in the Clinicopathological Spectrum of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Alka; Mane, Deepa

    2017-01-01

    Carcinoma cuniculatum is principally recognized as a variant of carcinoma involving foot. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes Oral Carcinoma Cuniculatum (OCC) as a distinct and rare clinicopathological variant of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). OCC is confused clinically and histologically with Verrucous Carcinoma (VC) and is often misdiagnosed as either VC or OSCC. To best of our knowledge, till date, only 50 cases of this tumour have been reported in oral cavity (including the present case) and only limited number of cases have been reported from Indian subcontinent. Pathognomonic feature of OCC is proliferation of stratified squamous epithelium and its infiltration into underlying stroma forming a complex pattern of keratin cores and keratin filled crypts. These complex crypts give it a likeness of rabbit burrow hence, the name cuniculatum (cuniculatus=‘rabbit warren’). The report aims to present a case of OCC of mandibular gingiva, discuss its diagnostic features and highlight its differences from VC and OSCC. PMID:28274074

  2. A Rare Breast Tumor Confused with Ductal Carcinoma in Situ, Primary Solid Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Alıcı, Ömer; Aydoğdu, Serap Korkmaz

    2014-01-01

    The concept of pure neuroendocrine breast tumors was initially defined by Sapino et al. There are three sub-types of these tumors: solid, small cell/oat cell, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. To diagnose neuroendocrine tumors, more than half of the tumor cells must have neuroendocrine differentiation. The possibility of metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma must always be excluded in the differential diagnosis. In addition, it should be considered that solid neuroendocrine (NE) carcinomas can be confused with ductal carcinoma in situ due to their similar morphologic appearance. In this article, a patient with primary solid neuroendocrine breast cancer who had been diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ at another center was presented along with morphological and immunohistochemical features.

  3. Detection of polyol accumulation in a new ovarian carcinoma cell line, CABA I: a1H NMR study

    PubMed Central

    Ferretti, A; D'Ascenzo, S; Knijn, A; Iorio, E; Dolo, V; Pavan, A; Podo, F

    2002-01-01

    Ovarian carcinomas represent a major form of gynaecological malignancies, whose treatment consists mainly of surgery and chemotherapy. Besides the difficulty of prognosis, therapy of ovarian carcinomas has reached scarce improvement, as a consequence of lack of efficacy and development of drug-resistance. The need of different biochemical and functional parameters has grown, in order to obtain a larger view on processes of biological and clinical significance. In this paper we report novel metabolic features detected in a series of different human ovary carcinoma lines, by 1H NMR spectroscopy of intact cells and their extracts. Most importantly, a new ovarian adenocarcinoma line CABA I, showed strong signals in the spectral region between 3.5 and 4.0 p.p.m., assigned for the first time to the polyol sorbitol (39±11 nmol/106 cells). 13C NMR analyses of these cells incubated with [1-13C]-D-glucose demonstrated labelled-sorbitol formation. The other ovarian carcinoma cell lines (OVCAR-3, IGROV 1, SK-OV-3 and OVCA432), showed, in the same spectral region, intense resonances from other metabolites: glutathione (up to 30 nmol/106 cells) and myo-inositol (up to 50 nmol/106 cells). Biochemical and biological functions are suggested for these compounds in human ovarian carcinoma cells, especially in relation to their possible role in cell detoxification mechanisms during tumour progression. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 1180–1187. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600189 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:11953869

  4. Clinicopathological analysis of basal cell carcinoma of the anal region and its distinction from basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Patil, Deepa T; Goldblum, John R; Billings, Steven D

    2013-10-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the anal region is rare and morphologically difficult to distinguish from basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, particularly on biopsies. This distinction has therapeutic and prognostic implications. We reviewed morphological features of 9 basal cell carcinomas and 15 basaloid squamous cell carcinomas from the anal region diagnosed during 1993-2011 and determined the utility of Ber-EP4, BCL2, TP63, CK5/6, CDKN2A, and SOX2 as diagnostic tools. Immunostains were scored in a semi-quantitative manner (1+-1-10%, 2+-11-50%, 3+->50%). All basal cell carcinomas were located in the perianal region, while all basaloid squamous cell carcinomas originated in the anal canal/anorectum. Nodular subtype of basal cell carcinoma was the most common subtype. Retraction artifact was the only significant distinguishing histological feature of basal cell carcinoma compared with basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (88% vs 26%; P=0.04). Atypical mitoses were more common in basaloid squamous cell carcinomas (71% vs 11%; P=0.05). An in situ component was only present in basaloid squamous cell carcinomas, and was noted in 6/15 cases. Basal cell carcinomas had 2-3+ Ber-EP4 (basal cell carcinoma 100% vs basaloid squamous cell carcinoma 40%; P<0.001) and BCL2 immunoreactivity (basal cell carcinomas 100% vs basaloid squamous cell carcinoma 33%; P<0.001). Diffuse CDKN2A and SOX2 expression was seen only in basaloid squamous cell carcinomas (basal cell carcinoma 0% vs basaloid squamous cell carcinoma 93%; P<0.001). There was no difference in TP63 and CK5/6 expression. Perianal location, retraction artifact, and lack of atypical mitoses are histological features that help distinguish basal cell carcinoma from basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. An in situ component, when present, supports the diagnosis of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Immunostains are extremely helpful as diffuse Ber-EP4 and BCL2 expression is a feature of basal cell carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma

  5. 78 FR 32068 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Revising Reporting Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 905 Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida... marketing order for oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in Florida (order). The Citrus... oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in Florida, hereinafter referred to as the...

  6. 78 FR 14236 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Revising Reporting Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 905 Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida... prescribed under the Federal marketing order for oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in... handling of oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in Florida, hereinafter referred to as...

  7. Electroluminescence Studies on Longwavelength Indium Arsenide Quantum Dot Microcavities Grown on Gallium Arsenide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    ELECTROLUMINESCENCE STUDIES ON LONG WAVELENGTH INDIUM ARSENIDE QUANTUM DOT MICROCAVITIES GROWN ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE THESIS John C...11-46 ELECTROLUMINESCENCE STUDIES ON LONGWAVELENGTH INDIUM ARSENIDE QUANTUM DOT MICROCAVITIES GROWN ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE THESIS...58 1 ELECTROLUMINESCENCE STUDIES ON LONGWAVELENGTH INDIUM ARSENIDE QUANTUM DOT MICROCAVITIES GROWN ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE I

  8. Response of container-grown flowering dogwood cultivars to sun/shade production regime, 2015

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flowering dogwood, Cornus florida, ‘Cherokee Brave™’ and ‘Cherokee Princess’ were grown in #5 nursery containers in an amended 100% bark substrate. Treatments were assigned based on exposure time to a full sun/shade condition during the growing season: 1) plants grown in full sun, 2) plants grown in...

  9. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco §...

  10. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

  11. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

  12. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

  13. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco §...

  14. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco §...

  15. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco §...

  16. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

  17. 78 FR 28118 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting and Assessment Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 955 Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting and... the marketing order for Vidalia onions grown in Georgia (order). The order regulates the handling of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia and is administered locally by the Vidalia Onion Committee...

  18. Leaf chemical composition of twenty-one Populus hybrid clones grown under intensive culture

    Treesearch

    Richard E. Dickson; Philip R. Larson

    1976-01-01

    Leaf material from 21 nursery-grown Populus hybrid clones was analyzed for three nitrogen fractions (total N, soluble protein, and soluble amino acids) and three carbhydrate fractions (reducing sugars, total soluble sugars, and total nonstructural carbohydrates-TNC). In addition, nursery-grown green ash and silver maple, field-grown bigtooth and trembling aspen, and...

  19. Limited evaluation of physical and mechanical properties of Nepal alder grown in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    C. C. Gerhards

    1964-01-01

    Nepal alder (Alnus nepalensis ) grown in Hawaii was evaluated for shrinkage, strength in bending, and hardness. This Hawaii-grown wood was comparable in bending strength to wood of the same species grown in Bengal, India, but was lower in modulus of elasticity and exhibited greater hardness and shrinkage. It was also harder than such Mainland species as aspen (Populus...

  20. Dielectric Spectroscopy Study of ZnSe Grown by Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kokan, Julie L.; Gerhardt, Rosario; Su, Ching-Hua

    1997-01-01

    The dielectric properties of ZnSe samples grown by physical vapor transport were measured as a function of frequency. Differences can be seen in the dielectric properties of samples grown under different conditions. The spectra of heat treated samples were also acquired and were found to exhibit significant deviations from those of the as grown crystals.

  1. Titanium distribution in Ti-sapphire single crystals grown by Czochralski and Verneuil technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alombert-Goget, G.; Li, H.; Faria, J.; Labor, S.; Guignier, D.; Lebbou, K.

    2016-01-01

    The distributions of Ti3+ and Ti4+ ions were evaluated by photoluminescence measurement in the wafers cut from different positions of the ingots grown by Czochralski and Verneuil techniques. Particular radial distributions of Ti4+ as function of the position in the ingot were observed in the crystals grown by Verneuil technique different than the crystals grown by Czochralski method.

  2. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  3. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  4. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  5. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  6. Dielectric Spectroscopy Study of ZnSe Grown by Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kokan, J.; Gerhardt, R.; Su, Ching-Hua

    1997-01-01

    The dielectric properties of ZnSe samples grown by physical vapor transport were measured as a function of frequency. Differences can be seen in the dielectric properties of samples grown under different conditions. The spectra of heat treated samples were also acquired and were found to exhibit significant deviations from those of the as grown crystals.

  7. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced from...

  8. 76 FR 4254 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 989 Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increased... raisins produced from grapes grown in California. Assessments upon raisin handlers are used by the... CFR part 989), regulating the handling of raisins produced from grapes grown in California...

  9. 76 FR 18003 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 989 Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increased... produced from grapes grown in California. Assessments upon raisin handlers are used by the committee to... CFR part 989), regulating the handling of raisins produced from grapes grown in California...

  10. Cisplatin and Etoposide or Temozolomide and Capecitabine in Treating Patients With Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Gastrointestinal Tract or Pancreas That Is Metastatic or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-05

    Colorectal Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Esophageal Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Gallbladder Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Gastric Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Pancreatic Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Small Intestinal Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

  11. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma-like thyroid carcinoma: A novel clinicopathologic entity possibly associated with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Miyauchi, Akira; Kihara, Minoru; Kudo, Takumi; Hashimoto, Yuko; Suzuki, Shinichi; Daa, Tsutomu; Vuong, Huy Gia; Mitsutake, Norisato

    2017-07-06

    We report three cases of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma-like thyroid carcinoma as a novel clinicopathologic entity possibly associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. A 15-year-old female, a 19-year-old male, and a 21-year-old male presented with primary thyroid carcinoma. Two of the patients had associated tuberous sclerosis complex. Macroscopically, the carcinomas showed invasive growth. Histologically, the carcinoma cells showed a trabecular pattern with thin vascular stroma, and were characterized by abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm with perinuclear clearing, a prominent cell border, a wrinkled nuclear membrane, and binucleation, which are all features of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the carcinoma cells were positive for thyroglobulin, TTF1, and PAX8, and negative for CD10, calcitonin, and carcinoembryonic antigen. Vascular invasion was visible in all cases, but distant metastasis was not detected during follow-up. The original pathological diagnoses of the three cases were widely invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma, poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and oxyphilic variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Thus, the cases were similar to chromophobe renal cell carcinoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex as they were characterized by histologic findings consistent with chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, occurrence in an adolescent or young adult, and favorable prognosis regardless of the presence of vascular invasion and an infiltrating growth pattern resembling poorly differentiated carcinoma. The etiopathogenesis also seemed to suggest the presence of the tuberous sclerosis complex genetic abnormality.

  12. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Pancreas: A Review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaun Kian Hong; Chuah, Khoon Leong

    2016-06-01

    The pancreas is an unusual site for tumor metastasis, accounting for only 2% to 5% of all malignancies affecting the pancreas. The more common metastases affecting the pancreas include renal cell carcinomas, melanomas, colorectal carcinomas, breast carcinomas, and sarcomas. Although pancreatic involvement by nonrenal malignancies indicates widespread systemic disease, metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the pancreas often represents an isolated event and is thus amenable to surgical resection, which is associated with long-term survival. As such, it is important to accurately diagnose pancreatic involvement by metastatic renal cell carcinoma on histology, especially given that renal cell carcinoma metastasis may manifest more than a decade after its initial presentation and diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the clinicopathologic findings of isolated renal cell carcinoma metastases of the pancreas, with special emphasis on separating metastatic renal cell carcinoma and its various differential diagnoses in the pancreas.

  13. Histological variants of urothelial carcinoma: diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic implications.

    PubMed

    Amin, Mahul B

    2009-06-01

    It is well established that invasive urothelial carcinoma, involving the urinary bladder and renal pelvis, has marked propensity for divergent differentiation. In recent years, several 'variant' morphologies have been described and most have been recognized in the 2004 World Health Organization Classification. These histological variants of urothelial carcinoma have clinical significance at various levels, including diagnostic, that is, awareness of the morphological variant is essential in order to avoid diagnostic misinterpretations; prognostic for patient risk stratification; and therapeutic, where a diagnostic assignment of a particular variant may be associated with the administration of a therapy distinctive from that used in conventional invasive urothelial carcinoma. The diagnoses of micropapillary urothelial carcinoma, small-cell carcinoma, lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma are prime examples where treatment protocols may be different than the usual muscle-invasive bladder cancer. This review discusses the variants of urothelial carcinoma, outlining for each the diagnostic features, differential diagnostic considerations and the clinical significance.

  14. Mucinous carcinoma of the breast is genomically distinct from invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type.

    PubMed

    Lacroix-Triki, Magali; Suarez, Paula H; MacKay, Alan; Lambros, Maryou B; Natrajan, Rachael; Savage, Kay; Geyer, Felipe C; Weigelt, Britta; Ashworth, Alan; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2010-11-01

    Mucinous carcinomas are a rare entity accounting for up to 2% of all breast cancers, which have been shown to display a gene expression profile distinct from that of invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type (IDC-NSTs). Here, we have defined the genomic aberrations that are characteristic of this special type of breast cancer and have investigated whether mucinous carcinomas might constitute a genomic entity distinct from IDC-NSTs. Thirty-five pure and 11 mixed mucinous breast carcinomas were assessed by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, HER2, Ki67, cyclin D1, cortactin, Bcl-2, p53, E-cadherin, basal markers, neuroendocrine markers, and WT1. Fifteen pure mucinous carcinomas and 30 grade- and ER-matched IDC-NSTs were microdissected and subjected to high-resolution microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). In addition, the distinct components of seven mixed mucinous carcinomas were microdissected separately and subjected to aCGH. Pure mucinous carcinomas consistently expressed ER (100%), lacked HER2 expression (97.1%), and showed a relatively low level of genetic instability. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that pure mucinous carcinomas were homogeneous and preferentially clustered together, separately from IDC-NSTs. They less frequently harboured gains of 1q and 16p and losses of 16q and 22q than grade- and ER-matched IDC-NSTs, and no pure mucinous carcinoma displayed concurrent 1q gain and 16q loss, a hallmark genetic feature of low-grade IDC-NSTs. Finally, both components of all but one mixed mucinous carcinoma displayed similar patterns of genetic aberrations and preferentially clustered together with pure mucinous carcinomas on unsupervised clustering analysis. Our results demonstrate that mucinous carcinomas are more homogeneous between themselves at the genetic level than IDC-NSTs. Both components of mixed mucinous tumours are remarkably similar at the

  15. Therapy for Primary Vulvar Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Herr, D; Juhasz-Boess, I; Solomayer, E F

    2014-03-01

    The rather rare vulvar cancer is almost always a squamous cell carcinoma that mostly develops from an underlying VIN or HPV infection. In addition, lichen sclerosus et atrophicans, immune deficiency, nicotine abuse or anogenital intraepithelial neoplasias may play a role in the pathogenesis. Surgical therapy aims at an R0 resection in the sense of a complete vulvectomy or a radical local excision with, if necessary, plastic reconstruction. Also, the vulvar field resection with consideration of the compartment model has been discussed. Besides the classic inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, in selected cases of vulvar cancer sentinel biopsies are performed by experienced surgeons in the larger centres. In contrast, systemic therapy plays only a subordinate role; in isolated cases down-staging by means of neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be useful. However, there is at present no indication for adjuvant chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy is also not to be recommended on account of its unfavourable ratio of efficacy to side effects. On the other hand adjuvant radiotherapy is indicated in cases of positive inguinal lymph nodes. According to the current data the indication should be made generously in such cases.

  16. Hepatitis D and hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Zaigham; Abbas, Minaam; Abbas, Sarim; Shazi, Lubna

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective circular shape single stranded HDV RNA virus with two types of viral proteins, small and large hepatitis D antigens, surrounded by hepatitis B surface antigen. Superinfection with HDV in chronic hepatitis B is associated with a more threatening form of liver disease leading to rapid progression to cirrhosis. In spite of some controversy in the epidemiological studies, HDV infection does increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to hepatitis B virus (HBV) monoinfection. Hepatic decompensation, rather than development of HCC, is the first usual clinical endpoint during the course of HDV infection. Oxidative stress as a result of severe necroinflammation may progress to HCC. The large hepatitis D antigen is a regulator of various cellular functions and an activator of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 and the nuclear factor kappa B pathway. Another proposed epigenetic mechanism by which HCC may form is the aberrant silencing of tumor suppressor genes by DNA Methyltransferases. HDV antigens have also been associated with increased histone H3 acetylation of the clusterin promoter. This enhances the expression of clusterin in infected cells, increasing cell survival potential. Any contribution of HBV DNA integration with chromosomes of infected hepatocytes is not clear at this stage. The targeted inhibition of STAT3 and cyclophilin, and augmentation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ have a potential therapeutic role in HCC. PMID:25914778

  17. Hepatocellular carcinoma: a global view

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ju Dong; Roberts, Lewis R.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a global health problem, although developing countries are disproportionally affected: over 80% of HCCs occur in such regions. About three-quarters of HCCs are attributed to chronic HBV and HCV infections. In areas endemic for HCV and HBV, viral transmission occurs at an early age, and infected individuals develop HCC in mid-adulthood. As these are their most productive years of life, HCC accounts for a substantial burden on the health-care system and drain of productive capacity in the low-income and middle-income countries most affected by HCV and HBV infections. Environments with disparate resource levels require different strategies for the optimal management of HCC. In high-resource environments, guidelines from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases or European Association for the Study of the Liver should be applied. In intermediate-resource or low-resource environments, the fundamental focus should be on primary prevention of HCC, through universal HBV vaccination, taking appropriate precautions and antiviral treatments. In intermediate-resource and low-resource environments, the infrastructure and capacity for abdominal ultrasonography, percutaneous ethanol injection, radiofrequency ablation and surgical resection should be established. Programs to provide targeted therapy at low cost, similar to the approach used for HIV therapy in the developing world, should be pursued. PMID:20628345

  18. Unusual Metastasis from Carcinoma Cervix.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Virendra; Kausar, Mehlam; Naik, Ayush; Batra, Manika

    2016-10-01

    Although the incidence of cancer cervix has reduced in India during the last two decades, still most of the patients presenting in tertiary care centers are in advanced stages. At this center, we see 6% of cancer cervix cases every year, and most of these cases are in stage III and IVa. All these patients have squamous cell carcinoma and were treated with a combination of external and intracavitary radiotherapy along with concurrent cisplatin given once weekly. Eighty-nine point nine % patients had achieved a complete response. Local recurrence was seen in 17.9% at a median duration of 10.5 months, and 8.17% developed distant metastasis involving lung, liver, bone, and supraclavicular lymph nodes. Three patients developed metastasis at unusual sites involving breast, paraspinal muscles, and duodenum which are very rarely involved. These patients were treated with chemotherapy using carboplatin and Paclitaxel combination but succumbed within 8-10 months of development of metastasis. The cause of involvement of these unusual sites is not clear, but it may be hematological spread, and we want to share these reports such that these sites are seen during follow-up of patients of cancer cervix.

  19. Colorectal carcinoma in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, J; Ong, G B

    1978-04-01

    The clinical and pathological features of colorectal carcinoma occurring in 470 Chinese patients in Hong Kong are reported. There was a preponderance of advanced stages of the disease in spite of the presence of a large number of well-differentiated lesions. Polyposis coli was the predisposing cause in 1% of our patients, and none of them had ulcerative colitis. The clinical features of our patients on presentation were generally similar to those exhibited by Caucasians. An abdominal mass was palpable in about half of patients with colonic lesions, and virtually all rectal cancers could be felt by rectal examination. Almost a quarter of our patients presented with complications. In 2% of our patients the initial diagnosis was acute appendictis. A high resection rate was achieved, but many radical resections turned out to be only palliative. Our operative mortality was 8.3%, although for social reasons, the "in-hospital" mortality was 19.2%. The corrected five-year survival rate was 42.7% when curative resection was attempted.

  20. Tissue Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Deepali

    2014-01-01

    The current American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) guideline provides strategies for achieving the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on the size of liver nodules seen on surveillance imaging. For lesions less than 1 cm in size, follow-up surveillance imaging is recommended. Lesions larger than 2 cm require typical radiological hallmark on dynamic imaging. Lesions of 1–2 cm in size require typical imaging features including intense uptake of contrast during arterial phases followed by decreased enhancement during portal venous phases on at least 2 imaging modalities. In cases of atypical radiological features of the suspected lesion, tissue diagnosis either by fine needle aspiration or biopsy should be obtained. Although fine needle aspiration could give a smaller risk of seeding than biopsy, biopsy has been preferred over cytology. Percutaneous biopsy of HCC carries a potential risk of tumor seeding along the needle tract. However the risk is low and there is no clear evidence of post transplant recurrence due to needle tract seeding. Histopathologic assessment can differentiate between premalignant lesions such as dysplastic nodules and early HCC. Atypical variants of HCC can be recognized morphologically which may have associated prognostic value. PMID:25755614

  1. Therapy for Primary Vulvar Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Herr, D.; Juhasz-Boess, I.; Solomayer, E. F.

    2014-01-01

    The rather rare vulvar cancer is almost always a squamous cell carcinoma that mostly develops from an underlying VIN or HPV infection. In addition, lichen sclerosus et atrophicans, immune deficiency, nicotine abuse or anogenital intraepithelial neoplasias may play a role in the pathogenesis. Surgical therapy aims at an R0 resection in the sense of a complete vulvectomy or a radical local excision with, if necessary, plastic reconstruction. Also, the vulvar field resection with consideration of the compartment model has been discussed. Besides the classic inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, in selected cases of vulvar cancer sentinel biopsies are performed by experienced surgeons in the larger centres. In contrast, systemic therapy plays only a subordinate role; in isolated cases down-staging by means of neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be useful. However, there is at present no indication for adjuvant chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy is also not to be recommended on account of its unfavourable ratio of efficacy to side effects. On the other hand adjuvant radiotherapy is indicated in cases of positive inguinal lymph nodes. According to the current data the indication should be made generously in such cases. PMID:24882877

  2. Epigenetic mechanisms in penile carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kuasne, Hellen; Marchi, Fabio Albuquerque; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; de Syllos Cólus, Ilce Mara

    2013-05-23

    Penile carcinoma (PeCa) represents an important public health problem in poor and developing countries. Despite its unpredictable behavior and aggressive treatment, there have only been a few reports regarding its molecular data, especially epigenetic mechanisms. The functional diversity in different cell types is acquired by chromatin modifications, which are established by epigenetic regulatory mechanisms involving DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and miRNAs. Recent evidence indicates that the dysregulation in these processes can result in the development of several diseases, including cancer. Epigenetic alterations, such as the methylation of CpGs islands, may reveal candidates for the development of specific markers for cancer detection, diagnosis and prognosis. There are a few reports on the epigenetic alterations in PeCa, and most of these studies have only focused on alterations in specific genes in a limited number of cases. This review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the epigenetic alterations in PeCa and the promising results in this field. The identification of epigenetically altered genes in PeCa is an important step in understanding the mechanisms involved in this unexplored disease.

  3. Basal cell carcinoma and rhinophyma.

    PubMed

    Leyngold, Mark; Leyngold, Ilya; Letourneau, Peter R; Zamboni, William A; Shah, Himansu

    2008-10-01

    Rhinophyma, the end stage in the development of acne rosacea, is characterized by sebaceous hyperplasia, fibrosis, follicular plugging, and telangiectasia. Although it is commonly considered a cosmetic problem, it can result in gross distortion of soft tissue and airway obstruction. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a rare finding in patients with rhinophyma. The objective of this study is to review the literature of BCC in rhinophyma and report on a case. A 70-year-old male presented with long-standing rosacea that resulted in a gross nasal deformity. The patient suffered from chronic drainage and recurrent infections that failed conservative treatment with oral and topical antibiotics. The patient decided to proceed with surgical intervention and underwent tangential excision and dermabrasion in the operating room. Since 1955 there have been 11 cases reported in the literature. In our case, the pathology report noted that the specimen had an incidental finding of a completely resected BCC. The patient did well postoperatively and at follow-up remains tumor-free. Despite the uncommon occurrence of BCC in resection specimens for rhinophyma, we recommend that all specimens be reviewed by a pathologist. If BCC is detected, re-excision may be necessary and careful follow-up is mandatory. Larger studies would be needed to determine the correlation between the 2 conditions.

  4. Challenges of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Colagrande, Stefano; Inghilesi, Andrea L; Aburas, Sami; Taliani, Gian G; Nardi, Cosimo; Marra, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignancy, resulting as the third cause of death by cancer each year. The management of patients with HCC is complex, as both the tumour stage and any underlying liver disease must be considered conjointly. Although surveillance by imaging, clinical and biochemical parameters is routinely performed, a lot of patients suffering from cirrhosis have an advanced stage HCC at the first diagnosis. Advanced stage HCC includes heterogeneous groups of patients with different clinical condition and radiological features and sorafenib is the only approved treatment according to Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer. Since the introduction of sorafenib in clinical practice, several phase III clinical trials have failed to demonstrate any superiority over sorafenib in the frontline setting. Loco-regional therapies have also been tested as first line treatment, but their role in advanced HCC is still matter of debate. No single agent or combination therapies have been shown to impact outcomes after sorafenib failure. Therefore this review will focus on the range of experimental therapeutics for patients with advanced HCC and highlights the successes and failures of these treatments as well as areas for future development. Specifics such as dose limiting toxicity and safety profile in patients with liver dysfunction related to the underlying chronic liver disease should be considered when developing therapies in HCC. Finally, robust validated and reproducible surrogate end-points as well as predictive biomarkers should be defined in future randomized trials. PMID:27678348

  5. Multidisciplinary Management of Laryngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, William M. Mancuso, Anthony A.; Hinerman, Russell W.; Malyapa, Robert S.; Werning, John W.; Amdur, Robert J.; Villaret, Douglas B.

    2007-10-01

    The management of head and neck cancer has evolved into a multidisciplinary approach in which patients are evaluated before treatment and decisions depend on prospective multi-institutional trials, as well as retrospective outcome studies. The choice of one or more modalities to use in a given case varies with the tumor site and extent, as exemplified in the treatment of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. The goals of treatment include cure, laryngeal voice preservation, voice quality, optimal swallowing, and minimal xerostomia. Treatment options include transoral laser excision, radiotherapy (both definitive and postoperative), open partial laryngectomy, total laryngectomy, and neck dissection. The likelihood of local control and preservation of laryngeal function is related to tumor volume. Patients who have a relatively high risk of local recurrence undergo follow-up computed tomography scans every 3-4 months for the first 2 years after radiotherapy. Patients with suspicious findings on computed tomography might benefit from fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to differentiate post-radiotherapy changes from tumor.

  6. Fibrosing mediastinitis mimicking bronchogenic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bayiz, Hulya; Mutluay, Neslihan; Koyuncu, Adem; Demirag, Funda; Dagli, Gulfidan; Berktas, Bahadir; Berkoglu, Mine

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosing mediastinitis is a rare but benign disorder characterized by an excessive fibrotic reaction in the mediastinum which can result in compromise of airways, great vessels, and other mediastinal structures. In this paper we presented a patient with fibrosing mediastinitis mimicking bronchogenic carcinoma. The patient was a 32-year-old diabetic male admitting with cough and hemoptysis. There was a right hilar mass and multiple mediastinal conglomerated lymph nodes on chest computed tomography. Positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) scan demonstrated increased fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake at the right hilar mass lesion and mediastinal lymph nodes. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy showed mucosal distortion of right upper lobe. Pathologic examination of the mucosal biopsy revealed inflammation. Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle and cervical mediastinoscopic lymph node biopsies were undiagnostic. Diagnostic thoracotomy confirmed the diagnosis fibrosing mediastinitis. Administration of six months of systemic corticosteroid and antituberculous therapy was not beneficial. In conclusion, despite being a rare clinical entity, fibrosing mediastinitis should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal mass lesions of unknown etiology. The diagnosis is exceptionally difficult in the presence of atypical radiological findings. The treatment is particularly challenging without any proven effective therapy. PMID:23372962

  7. Intracystic Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Breast: A Challenging Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, João; Simões, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 36-year-old woman that presented with a painful mass in the outer quadrants of the left breast that had grown rapidly. Physical examination revealed a well circumscribed elastic mass and breast ultrasound showed a cyst measuring 26 mm with vegetation growing on the inner wall. Microscopic evaluation, after fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), suggested benign lesion. Tumorectomy was performed and the final diagnosis was a pure squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the breast. A simple mastectomy with sentinel node biopsy was performed. The histological study of the specimen revealed residual SCC and the sentinel lymph node was negative. The patient received 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant radiotherapy. Four years later, the patient is free of disease. PMID:27747114

  8. Chlorophyll Synthesis in Dark-Grown Pine Primary Needles1

    PubMed Central

    Schoefs, Benoît; Franck, Fabrice

    1998-01-01

    The pigment content of dark-grown primary needles of Pinus jeffreyi L. and Pinus sylvestris L. was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The state of protochlorophyllide a and of chlorophylls during dark growth were analyzed by in situ 77 K fluorescence spectroscopy. Both measurements unambiguously demonstrated that pine primary needles are able to synthesize chlorophyll in the dark. Norflurazon strongly inhibited both carotenoid and chlorophyll synthesis. Needles of plants treated with this inhibitor had low chlorophyll content, contained only traces of xanthophylls, and accumulated carotenoid precursors. The first form of chlorophyll detected in young pine needles grown in darkness had an emission maximum at 678 nm. Chlorophyll-protein complexes with in situ spectroscopic properties similar to those of fully green needles (685, 695, and 735 nm) later accumulated in untreated plants, whereas in norflurazon-treated plants the photosystem I emission at 735 nm was completely lacking. To better characterize the light-dependent chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway in pine needles, the 77 K fluorescence properties of in situ protochlorophyllide a spectral forms were studied. Photoactive and nonphotoactive protochlorophyllide a forms with emission properties similar to those reported for dark-grown angiosperms were found, but excitation spectra were substantially red shifted. Because of their lower chlorophyll content, norflurazon-treated plants were used to study the protochlorophyllide a photoreduction process triggered by one light flash. The first stable chlorophyllide photoproduct was a chlorophyllide a form emitting at 688 nm as in angiosperms. Further chlorophyllide a shifts usually observed in angiosperms were not detected. The rapid regeneration of photoactive protochlorophyllide a from nonphotoactive protochlorophyllide after one flash was demonstrated. PMID:9847090

  9. Plasmonic and Superconducting Self-Assembled MBE Grown Indium Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Ricky Dean, Jr.

    Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown metal has been a renewed area of interest recently in order to achieve high quality metal films or nanostructures for plasmonics. Recently MBE grown silver films have been shown to possess optical constants closer to that of intrinsic silver leading to lower losses and thus allowing for higher quality plasmonics. MBE has also been used to grow silver nanocrystals and indium droplets, or islands, for plasmonics. These self-assembled nanostructures can be grown in close proximity to quantum confined structures such as InAs/GaAs quantum dots or InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells in a single process, without post-processing and fabrication, allowing for increased plasmonic enhancement due to the improved interface between the semiconductor and plasmonic structures. In this dissertation, widely tunable plasmonic resonances of indium islands will be discussed and plasmonic enhancement results will be presented and compared to those of nanoantennas constructed from standard fabrication processes. The coupling between near-surface quantum confined structures, both fabricated and self-assembled, will be compared to the coupling in typical dielectric cavities, such as photonic crystal nanobeams. Beyond the plasmonic possibilities of indium islands, indium becomes superconducting at 3.4 K. With the proximity effect allowing for electrons in materials in contact with a superconductor to occupy a superconducting like state, allowing for the possibility for a hybrid superconductor/semiconductor optical source. The observation of superconductivity in indium islands will be presented and considerations for a superconductor/semiconductor source will be discussed.

  10. The microbial flora associated with oral carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Byakodi, Raghavendra; Krishnappa, R; Keluskar, Vaishali; Bagewadi, Anjana; Shetti, Arvind

    2011-10-01

    Changes in the microbial flora on the oral mucosa after cancerous alteration may lead to both local and systemic infections. In this study, we assessed the microbial flora associated with the surfaces of oral squamous cell carcinoma. A comparative evaluation of these microbial contents was made with that of the contralateral healthy mucosa and control (healthy) mucosa. We also assessed the microbial flora from the saliva culture in subjects with oral squamous cell carcinoma and healthy controls. The case control study was made up of 30 subjects with oral squamous cell carcinoma as the study group; 30 healthy age-, sex-, habit-, and dentition-matched subjects served as the control group. In the study group, microbial samples were collected from the carcinoma site, contralateral healthy mucosa, and saliva, whereas in the control group, samples were collected from the healthy mucosa and saliva. These samples were stored on ice and subsequently transported to the laboratory in 2 mL of thioglycollate transport media, where the microbial cultures were carried out. Oral squamous cell carcinoma sites harbor significantly more microbial flora (bacteria and yeasts) compared to those of healthy mucosa (control group). The microbial flora predominantly isolated from the carcinoma site were Streptococcus species, Staphylococcus species, Moraxella species, Enterococcus feacalis, Aerobic spore bearers, Klebsiella species, Citrobacter species, Proteus species, Pseudomonas species, and Candida albicans. The median number of colony forming units (CFU)/mL at carcinoma sites (3.85 x 105 CFU/mL) was significantly higher than that of the healthy mucosa (0.571 x 105 CFU/mL; P = .0000, Wilcoxon nonparametric test). Similarly, in saliva of carcinoma subjects, the median number of CFU/mL (2.408 x 105 CFU/mL) was significantly higher than that of saliva in control subjects (0.78 x 105 CFU/mL; P = .0000, Wilcoxon nonparametric test). The present study clearly indicates that the subjects with

  11. Space Grown Insulin Crystals Provide New Data on Diabetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Diabetic patients may someday reduce their insulin injections and lead more normal lives because of new insights gained through innovative space research in which insulin crystals were grown on the Space Shuttle. Results from a 1994 insulin crystals growth experiment in space are leading to a new understanding of protein insulin. Lack of insulin is the cause of diabetes, a disease that accounts for one-seventh of the nation's health care costs. Champion Deivanaygam, a researcher at the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography at the University of Alabama in Birmingham, assists in this work. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  12. Space Grown Insulin Crystals Provide New Data on Diabetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Diabetic patients may someday reduce their insulin injections and lead more normal lives because of new insights gained through irnovative space research in which insulin crystals were grown on the Space Shuttle. Results from a 1994 insulin crystal growth experiment in space are leading to a new understanding of protein insulin. Lack of insulin is the cause of diabetes, a desease that accounts for one-seventh of the nation's health care costs. Dr. Marianna Long, associate director of the Center of Macromolecular Crystallography at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, is a co-investigator on the research. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  13. Nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates

    DOEpatents

    Melechko, Anatoli V [Oak Ridge, TN; McKnight, Timothy E. , Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan [Ithaca, NY; Merkulov, Vladimir I [Knoxville, TN; Doktycz, Mitchel J [Knoxville, TN; Lowndes, Douglas H [Knoxville, TN; Simpson, Michael L [Knoxville, TN

    2011-05-17

    Methods, manufactures, machines and compositions are described for nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates. A method includes depositing a catalyst particle on a surface of a substrate to define a deterministically located position; growing an aligned elongated nanostructure on the substrate, an end of the aligned elongated nanostructure coupled to the substrate at the deterministically located position; coating the aligned elongated nanostructure with a conduit material; removing a portion of the conduit material to expose the catalyst particle; removing the catalyst particle; and removing the elongated nanostructure to define a nanoconduit.

  14. Progress in MBE grown type-II superlattice photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Cory J.; Li, Jian V.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the status of GaSb/InAs type-II superlattice diodes grown and fabricated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory designed for infrared absorption in the 8-12(mu)m range. Recent devices have produced detectivities as high as 8x10 to the tenth power Jones with a differential resistance-area product greater than 6 Ohmcm(sup 2) at 80K with a long wavelength cutoff of approximately 12(mu)m. The measured quantum efficiency of these front-side illuminated devices is close to 30% in the 10-11(mu)m range without antireflection coatings.

  15. Characterization of metal oxide layers grown on CVD graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Matsubayashi, Akitomo; Abel, Joseph; Prasad Sinha, Dhiraj; Lee, Ji Ung; LaBella, Vincent P.

    2013-03-15

    Growth of a fully oxidized aluminum oxide layer with low surface roughness on graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition is demonstrated. This is accomplished by the deposition of a 0.2 nm thick titanium seed layer on the graphene prior to the deposition of the aluminum under ultra high vacuum conditions, which was subsequently oxidized. The stoichiometry and surface roughness of the oxide layers were measured for a range of titanium and aluminum depositions utilizing ex situ x-ray photoelectron spectrometry and atomic force microscopy. These fully oxidized films are expected to produce good dielectric layers for use in graphene based electronic devices.

  16. Inversion domains in AlN grown on (0001) sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Jasinski, J.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Paduano, Q.S.; Weyburne, D.W.

    2003-08-25

    Al-polarity inversion domains formed during AlN layer growth on (0001) sapphire were identified using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). They resemble columnar inversion domains reported for GaN films grown on (0001) sapphire. However, for AlN, these columns have a V-like shape with boundaries that deviate by 2 {+-} 0.5{sup o} from the c-axis. TEM identification of these defects agrees with the post-growth surface morphology as well as with the microstructure revealed by etching in hot aqueous KOH.

  17. GaAs vapor-grown bipolar transistors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuese, C. J.; Gannon, J. J.; Dean, R. H.; Gossenberger, H. F.; Enstrom, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of an approach for the fabrication of high-temperature GaAs transistors which is centered on the preparation of n-p-n three-layered structures entirely by a vapor-phase growth technique, as described by Tietjen and Amick (1966). The low growth temperature of approximately 750 C is thought to reduce contamination during crystal growth and to contribute to the reasonably high minority-carrier lifetimes obtained for the vapor-grown p-n junctions. The fact that impurity concentrations and layer thicknesses can be precisely controlled for epitaxial layers as thin as 1 micrometer is an important feature of this growth technique.

  18. Scientists Inspect Plant Grown onboard the ISS in 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Astroculture (tm) unit is growing plants on its second flight on the International Space Station. Dr. Weijia Zhou (left), director of the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, inspects soybeans grown in the plant growth unit aboard ISS in 2002. Coating technology is used inside the miniature plant greenhouse to remove ethylene, a chemical produced by plant leaves that can cause plants to mature too quickly. This same coating technology is used in a new anthrax-killing device. The Space Station experiment is managed by the Space Partnership Development Program at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala.

  19. Gold-enhanced oxidation of MBE-grown silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büttner, C. C.; Zakharov, N. D.; Pippel, E.; Gösele, U.; Werner, P.

    2008-07-01

    Thermal oxidation of MBE-grown silicon nanowires with a gold droplet on their tips was investigated. Two kinds of oxidation behavior were observed: (i) enhanced axial oxidation, if there was a direct contact between the gold droplet and the nanowire, and (ii) conventional oxidation for nanowires when there was no direct contact between the gold and silicon. For a dry atmosphere, such enhanced oxidation takes place at temperatures down to 500 °C. Under a wet atmosphere, remarkable oxidation was observed even for temperatures down to 250 °C.

  20. Atomically flat nickel film grown on synthetic mica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2016-07-01

    We have grown nickel heteroepitaxially on muscovite and synthetic mica in vacuo for use as substrates for scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and graphene formation. We have determined annealing conditions that could generate atomically flat surfaces (with rms surface roughness of less than 1 nm). Owing to accelerated degradation at temperatures above 600 °C, muscovite mica was unsuitable as a substrate at high growth temperatures. Thermally stable synthetic fluorophlogopite mica [KMg3(AlSi3O10)F2], on the other hand, was found to be stable at 800 °C and successfully employed for the formation of atomically flat films.