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Sample records for carcinoma t61 grown

  1. Embutramide, a Component of Tanax(®) (T-61) as a New Drug of Abuse?

    PubMed

    Lajtai, Anikó; Mayer, Mátyás; Lakatos, Ágnes; Porpáczy, Zoltán; Miseta, Attila

    2016-03-01

    Tanax(®) (T-61) is a euthanasia solution commonly used in veterinary medicine in Europe. It consists of three active components: embutramide, mebezonium iodide, and tetracaine hydrochloride. Human consumption of Tanax(®) (T-61) is usually associated with suicide attempts. In our 15-year-long practice, embutramide was detected only three times but within a short period. First, it was found in the urine of a 42-year-old veterinarian, and the other two observations were made in a 16-year-old young man. Urine samples were analyzed using Shimadzu Prominence TOX.I.S.II. HPLC-DAD system with online SPE extraction system. Both of the two patients denied any intention to die. These cases show that this veterinary drug may also be considered as potential drugs of abuse. PMID:27404634

  2. Salicylic acid induces apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells grown in-vitro: Influence of oxygen and salicylic acid concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Zitta, Karina; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Huang, Ying; Heinrich, Christin; Scholz, Jens; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin

    2012-04-15

    In solid tumors the hypoxic environment can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Recently, acetylsalicylic acid a major component of analgesic drugs and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) have been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but the mechanisms of action remain still unclear. Here we elucidate the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of SA on colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2) grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Western blotting, caspase-3/7 apoptosis assays, MTS cell-proliferation assays, LDH cytotoxicity assays and hydrogen peroxide measurements were performed to investigate the effects of 1 and 10 {mu}M SA on CaCo-2 cells grown under normoxic conditions and cells exposed to hypoxia. Under normoxic conditions, SA did not influence cell proliferation or LDH release of CaCo-2 cells. However, caspase-3/7 activity was significantly increased. Under hypoxia, cell proliferation was reduced and LDH release and caspase-3/7 activities were increased. None of these parameters was altered by the addition of SA under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations 300-fold and SA significantly augmented the release of hydrogen peroxide under normoxic, but not under hypoxic conditions. Phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinases akt and erk1/2 was not changed by SA under hypoxic conditions, whereas under normoxia SA reduced phosphorylation of erk1/2 after 2 hours. We conclude that in colon carcinoma cells effects of SA on apoptosis and cellular signaling are dependent on the availability of oxygen. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of salicylic acid on colon carcinoma cells grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid increases caspase-3/7 activity and hydrogen peroxide release under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid decreases pro-survival erk-1/2 phosphorylation under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid does

  3. Complete genome of biodegradable plastics-decomposing Roseateles depolymerans KCTC 42856(T) (=61A(T)).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Heon; Choe, Hanna; Kim, Song-Gun; Park, Doo-Sang; Nasir, Arshan; Kim, Byung Kwon; Kim, Kyung Mo

    2016-02-20

    Roseateles depolymerans is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, flagellated, obligately aerobic, photosynthetic bacterium that was isolated from the Hanamuro River, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. Here, we report the complete genome of R. depolymerans KCTC 42856(T) (=61A(T)=DSM 11813(T)=CCUG 48747(T)=NCIMB 13588(T)), which consists of 5,681,722bp (G+C content of 66.57%) with a single chromosome, 4,773 protein-coding genes, 57 tRNAs and 4 rRNA operons. Several genes related to degradation of aliphatic and aromatic polymers were detected in the genome that help explain how the strain mediates decomposition of biodegradable plastics into fragments which are then assimilated and subsequently metabolized by microbial cells.

  4. Blood investigation in a fatality involving the veterinary drug T-61.

    PubMed

    Kintz, P; Cirimele, V; Ludes, B

    2002-10-01

    A case involving an acute fatality resulting from self-administration of about 30 mL of T-61, a euthanasia solution, consisting of a mixture of embutramide, mebezonium, and tetracaine, in a 58-year-old veterinarian is presented. Forensic investigations consisted of an external body examination, during which 5 mL of fluorinated femoral blood was collected. Embutramide and tetracaine were quantitated using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry after extraction with chloroform/isopropanol/n-heptane (50:17:33, v/v) at pH 9.5 and separation on an HP5-MS capillary column. Mebezonium was quantitated using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry after ion-pair extraction (saturated KI solution) with methylene chloride at pH 5.4 and separation on a 5-mm Nucleosil C18 column. Blood concentrations were 43.0, 6.5, and 0.21 mg/L for embutramide, mebezonium, and tetracaine, respectively. No other drugs, including ethanol, were detected. PMID:12423012

  5. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection of the quaternary ammonium compound mebezonium as an active ingredient in t61.

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum, Katrin M; Grellner, Wolfgang; Rochholz, Gertrud; Musshoff, Frank; Madea, Burkhard

    2011-03-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds pose an analytical challenge. Mebezonium, a muscle-relaxing agent contained in veterinary euthanasia solution T61, was analyzed in body fluids, organs, and injection sites of a veterinarian by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method. Additionally, embutramide and tetracaine, which are two other active ingredients contained in T61, methadone, xylazine, and analgesics were detected by LC-MS-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection methods. For detection of mebezonium a solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with ionpairing reagent heptafluorobutyric acid was developed. Separation was achieved on Phenomenex Synergi Hydro RP C(18) column combined with ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile (pH 3.5). To enrich other drugs, liquid-liquid extraction procedures were used. Most of these drugs were separated on a Restek Allure PFP Propyl column using the mentioned mobile phase. Mebezonium and embutramide were detected in femoral vein serum in concentrations of 10.9 and 2.0 mg/L, respectively. The concentration of xylazine and methadone in serum was 2.0 and 0.4 mg/L, respectively. The LC-MS-MS method with SPE combined with an ion-pairing reagent allowed the quantitation of mebezonium. Methadone was detected in toxic concentrations and was, in combination with xylazine and T61, considered to be the cause of death. PMID:21396233

  6. The antiviral agent cidofovir [(S)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonyl-methoxypropyl)cytosine] has pronounced activity against nasopharyngeal carcinoma grown in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Neyts, J; Sadler, R; De Clercq, E; Raab-Traub, N; Pagano, J S

    1998-02-01

    The effect of the antiviral agent (S)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl) cytosine (cidofovir) on the EBV-associated tumor nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) was evaluated in NPC xenografts in athymic mice. Intratumoral injection arrested tumor growth within 1 week, and by 4 weeks, tumors regressed to 8-75% (39 +/- 33%) of the original size, whereas control tumors injected with PBS grew to 282 +/- 25% of the original size. Ganciclovir slowed but did not arrest or cause regression of tumor growth. A striking antitumor effect was also produced by systemic administration; at 4 weeks, tumors were 79 +/- 49% of the original size, compared with 635 +/- 91% for the controls. Widespread apoptosis was detected after treatment for 2-6 days in C15 as well as two other NPC xenografts, C17 and C18; the latter NPCs have mutations in the p53 gene. These data indicate that cidofovir induces rapid cell death through apoptosis in EBV-transformed epithelial cells.

  7. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Rapidly Indicates Vessel Regression in Human Squamous Cell Carcinomas Grown in Nude Mice Caused by VEGF Receptor 2 Blockade with DC1011

    PubMed Central

    Kiessling, Fabian; Farhan, Nabeel; Lichy, Matthias P; Vosseler, Silvia; Heilmann, Melanie; Krix, Martin; Bohlen, Peter; Miller, Dan W; Mueller, Margareta M; Semmler, Wolfhard; Fusenig, Norbert E; Stefan, Delorme

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of our study was the investigation of early changes in tumor vascularization during antiangiogenic therapy with the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 antibody (DC101) using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI). Subcutaneous heterotransplants of human skin squamous cell carcinomas in nude mice were treated with DC101. Animals were examined before and repeatedly during 2 weeks of antiangiogenic treatment using Gd-DTPA-enhanced dynamic T1-weighted MRI. With a two-compartment model, dynamic data were parameterized in “amplitude” (increase of signal intensity relative to precontrast value) and kep (exchange rate constant). Data obtained by MRI were validated by parallel examinations of histological sections immunostained for blood vessels (CD31). Already 2 days after the first DC101 application, a decrease of tumor vascularization was observed, which preceded a reduction of tumor volume. The difference between treated tumors and controls became prominent after 4 days, when amplitudes of treated tumors were decreased by 61% (P = .02). In line with change of microvessel density, the decrease in amplitudes was most pronounced in tumor centers. On day 7, the mean tumor volumes of treated (153 ± 843 mm3) and control animals (596 ± 384 mm3) were significantly different (P = .03). After 14 days, treated tumors showed further growth reduction (83 ± 93 mm3), whereas untreated tumors (1208 ± 822 mm3) continued to increase (P = .02). Our data underline the efficacy of DC101 as antiangiogenic treatment in human squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in nude mice and indicate DCE MRI as a valuable tool for early detection of treatment effects before changes in tumor volume become apparent. PMID:15153333

  8. Adrenocortical carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... this tumor. Adrenocortical carcinoma can produce the hormones cortisol, aldosterone, estrogen, or testosterone, as well as other ... Symptoms of increased cortisol or other adrenal gland hormones: ... high on the back just below the neck ( buffalo hump ) Flushed, ...

  9. [Thymic carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Ströbel, P; Weis, C-A; Marx, A

    2016-09-01

    Thymic carcinomas (TC) are approximately 10 times less prevalent than thymomas but of high clinical relevance because they are more aggressive, less frequently resectable than thymomas and usually refractory to classical and targeted long-term treatment approaches. Furthermore, in children and adolescents TC are more frequent than thymomas and particularly in this age group, germ cell tumors need to be a differential diagnostic consideration. In diagnostic terms pathologists face two challenges: a), the distinction between thymic carcinomas and thymomas with a similar appearance and b), the distinction between TC and histologically similar metastases and tumor extensions from other primary tumors. Overcoming these diagnostic challenges is the focus of the new WHO classification of thymic epithelial tumors. The objectives of this review are to highlight novel aspects of the WHO classification of thymic carcinomas and to address therapeutically relevant diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:27538748

  10. Graphic Grown Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ann

    2009-01-01

    It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their…

  11. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive than other types of basal ... to treat them early and with slightly more aggressive techniques. Excision – The basal cell carcinoma is cut ...

  12. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. MTC is very rare. It can occur in children and adults. Unlike other types ...

  13. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Alex C.; Sabolch, Aaron; Raymond, Victoria M.; Kandathil, Asha; Caoili, Elaine M.; Jolly, Shruti; Miller, Barbra S.; Giordano, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy, often with an unfavorable prognosis. Here we summarize the knowledge about diagnosis, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy of ACC. Over recent years, multidisciplinary clinics have formed and the first international treatment trials have been conducted. This review focuses on evidence gained from recent basic science and clinical research and provides perspectives from the experience of a large multidisciplinary clinic dedicated to the care of patients with ACC. PMID:24423978

  14. Oral Rigosertib for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  15. Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

  16. Adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Baudin, Eric

    2015-06-01

    Recent developments in the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) include diagnostic and prognostic risk stratification algorithms, increasing evidence of the impact of historical therapies on overall survival, and emerging targets from integrated epigenomic and genomic analyses. Advances include proper clinical and molecular characterization of all patients with ACC, standardization of proliferative index analyses, referral of these patients to large cancer referral centers at the time of first surgery, and development of new trials in patients with well-characterized ACC. Networking and progress in the molecular characterization of ACC constitute the basis for significant future therapeutic breakthroughs. PMID:26038209

  17. Thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.; Skolnik, E.M.; Baim, H.M.; Becker, S.P.; Katz, A.H.; Mantravadi, R.V.

    1980-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma was studied with regard to mode of presentation, initial findings, treatment and survival. The classic signs, symptoms, physical and scan findings were found to be present in approximately 70% of the patients. Prognosis was found to be dependent on age of presentation more than any other factor. Patients with prior exposure to radiation were found to have more extensive disease and require more extensive surgery but ultimately had the same prognosis for 15-year cure. Treatment for distant metastatic disease by surgery, radioactive iodine and external radiation all resulted in long-term survival in certain cases.

  18. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Buendia, Marie-Annick; Neuveut, Christine

    2015-02-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a widespread human pathogen that causes liver inflammation, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent sequencing technologies have refined our knowledge of the genomic landscape and pathogenesis of HCC, but the mechanisms by which HBV exerts its oncogenic role remain controversial. In a prevailing view, inflammation, liver damage, and regeneration may foster the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic defects leading to cancer onset. However, a more direct and specific contribution of the virus is supported by clinical and biological observations. Among genetically heterogeneous HCCs, HBV-related tumors display high genomic instability, which may be attributed to the ability of HBV to integrate its DNA into the host cell genome, provoking chromosomal alterations and insertional mutagenesis of cancer genes. The viral transactivator HBx may also participate in transformation by deregulating diverse cellular machineries. A better understanding of the complex mechanisms linking HBV to HCC will improve prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:25646384

  19. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or older. Hepatocellular ...

  20. Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Squamous cell carcinoma typically develops in sun-damaged skin in fair-skinned patients. Overview Squamous ... skin cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially in light-skinned individuals with ...

  1. [Hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Colombo, Massimo; Sangiovanni, Angelo

    2016-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer death and the first in patients with compensated cirrhosis. Chronic infection with hepatitis B and C, alcohol, smoking, exposure to aflatoxin and metabolic syndrome, associated with diabetes and obesity are the main etiological factors. Regardless of etiology, patients with cirrhosis stand as the category at higher risk of developing HCC, and indeed are the target of surveillance programs aimed to the early diagnosis of HCC, the only chance to reduce HCC-related mortality. This notwithstanding, International Scientific Societies have issued recommendations for the management of HCC, a significant number of patients are treated outside guidelines, due to several reasons. Among queries still unsolved, the impact of biological characterization of HCC, along with the biological profiling of patients at risk of developing HCC represent main challenges for the future. Treatment personalization and multimodal treatment being further challenges. This chapter summarizes the recommendations for surveillance, diagnosis and treatment of HCC and focus on future directions. PMID:27571469

  2. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Llovet, Josep M; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Pikarsky, Eli; Sangro, Bruno; Schwartz, Myron; Sherman, Morris; Gores, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally and has an incidence of approximately 850,000 new cases per year. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents approximately 90% of all cases of primary liver cancer. The main risk factors for developing HCC are well known and include hepatitis B and C virus infection, alcohol intake and ingestion of the fungal metabolite aflatoxin B1. Additional risk factors such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are also emerging. Advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of HCC have led to identification of critical driver mutations; however, the most prevalent of these are not yet druggable targets. The molecular classification of HCC is not established, and the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging classification is the main clinical algorithm for the stratification of patients according to prognosis and treatment allocation. Surveillance programmes enable the detection of early-stage tumours that are amenable to curative therapies - resection, liver transplantation or local ablation. At more developed stages, only chemoembolization (for intermediate HCC) and sorafenib (for advanced HCC) have shown survival benefits. There are major unmet needs in HCC management that might be addressed through the discovery of new therapies and their combinations for use in the adjuvant setting and for intermediate- and advanced-stage disease. Moreover, biomarkers for therapy stratification, patient-tailored strategies targeting driver mutations and/or activating signalling cascades, and validated measurements of quality of life are needed. Recent failures in the testing of systemic drugs for intermediate and advanced stages have indicated a need to refine trial designs and to define novel approaches. PMID:27158749

  3. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Okuda, K

    2000-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing in many countries as a result of an increase in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection since World War II. The epidemiology of HCC varies with the global region. There have been conflicting observations from different parts of the world concerning the frequency of HCC in patients who in the distant past had post-transfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis. The genetic basis of hepatocarcinogenesis is still poorly understood. In hepatitis B virus (HVB) associated HCC, codon 249 mutation in the p 53 gene seems more related to exposure to aflatoxin B1 than to hepatocarcinogenesis itself. HCC that occurs in children in high HBV endemic regions could be associated with germ-line mutations, but little information is available; not much is known about chemical hepatocarcinogens in the environment other than aflatoxins. The X gene of HBV seems to play an important role in HBV-associated hepatocarcinogenesis. There are preliminary observations on the molecular mechanism of HCV-associated HCC, such as HCV core protein inducing HCC in transgenic mice and the NS3 genome transforming NIH 3T3 cells. Pathological distinction between preneoplastic and very early transformed lesions still depends on classical morphology, and a more genetically oriented differential diagnosis is required. Clinical diagnosis based on modern imaging has improved greatly, but is still unsatisfactory in the differential diagnosis of preneoplastic and early transformed nodules, because the vasculature changes that occur within the nodule are not accurately discerned with the current imaging. Use of sensitive des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (PIVKA II) assay, and lectin affinity chromatography separating HCC specific subspecies of AFP molecules with a more practical biochemical technique will further improve diagnosis. Early diagnosis and transplantation are the best treatment at the moment, but transplantation is not widely available because of the donor shortage. Despite

  4. Protein Crystals Grown in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A collage of protein and virus crystals, many of which were grown on the U.S. Space Shuttle or Russian Space Station, Mir. The crystals include the proteins canavalin; mouse monoclonal antibody; a sweet protein, thaumatin; and a fungal protease. Viruses are represented here by crystals of turnip yellow mosaic virus and satellite tobacco mosaic virus. The crystals are photographed under polarized light (thus causing the colors) and range in size from a few hundred microns in edge length up to more than a millimeter. All the crystals are grown from aqueous solutions and are useful for X-ray diffraction analysis. Credit: Dr. Alex McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

  5. Squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    The hallmarks of squamous cell carcinoma are the differentiation features of the squamous epithelium: keratinization and intercellular bridges. Large central masses of keratin, individual cell keratinization, and/or keratin pearls may form. Necrosis of tumor cell nests and accumulation of acute inflammatory cells are frequent features of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.

  6. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Todd M; Parekh, Vishwas

    2016-09-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor that shares the same histologic appearance and ETV6 gene (12p13) rearrangement as secretory carcinoma of the breast. Prior to its recognition, MASC cases were commonly labeled acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. Despite distinctive histologic features, MASC may be difficult to distinguish from other salivary gland tumors, in particular zymogen-poor acinic cell carcinoma and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. Although characteristic morphologic and immunohistochemical features form the basis of a diagnosis of MASC, the presence of an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion is confirmatory. Given its recent recognition the true prognostic import of MASC is not yet clearly defined. PMID:27575269

  7. Stages of Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Childhood Treatment for more information.) Having certain genetic conditions increases the risk of adrenocortical carcinoma. Anything ... can be a sign of disease. CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that makes a series of ...

  8. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly occurring cancer in the world and overall incidence is still on the rise. While typically a slow-growing tumor for which metastases is rare, basal cell carcinoma can be locally destructive and disfiguring. Given the vast prevalence of this disease, there is a significant overall burden on patient well-being and quality of life. The current mainstay of basal cell carcinoma treatment involves surgical modalities, such as electrodessication and curettage, excision, cryosurgery, and Mohs micrographic surgery. Such methods are typically reserved for localized basal cell carcinoma and offer high five-year cure rates, but come with the risk of functional impairment, disfigurement, and scarring. Here, the authors review the evidence and indications for nonsurgical treatment modalities in cases where surgery is impractical, contraindicated, or simply not desired by the patient. PMID:27386043

  9. Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Matthew; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Tatishchev, Sergei F.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States. Pathologic examination of biopsy, polypectomy and resection specimens is crucial to appropriate patient managemnt, prognosis assessment and family counseling. Molecular testing plays an increasingly important role in the era of personalized medicine. This review article focuses on the histopathology and molecular pathology of colorectal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, with an emphasis on their clinical relevance. PMID:22943008

  10. Cholescintigraphy in gallbladder carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Colletti, P.M.; Ralls, P.W.; Siegel, M.E.; Halls, J.M.

    1986-04-01

    Findings on cholescintigraphy in gallbladder carcinoma are described in five patients. Four patients presenting with acute cholecystitis had nonvisualization of the gallbladder with normal hepatoenteric transit time. One of these had a large portal mass and two had liver metastasis as additional findings. The fifth patient was jaundiced, and showed absence of bowel activity compatible with total biliary obstruction. Both the clinical and scintigraphic findings in gallbladder carcinoma are difficult to separate from findings in cholelithiasis and cholecystitis.

  11. [Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Martine; Vieira, Thibault; Fallet, Vincent; Hamard, Cécile; Duruisseaux, Michael; Cadranel, Jacques; Wislez, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are a rare group of tumors accounting for about one percent of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In 2015, the World Health Organization classification united under this name all the carcinomas with sarcomatous-like component with spindle cell or giant cell appearance, or associated with a sarcomatous component sometimes heterologous. There are five subtypes: pleomorphic carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma and pulmonary blastoma. Clinical characteristics are not specific from the other subtypes of NSCLC. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway may play a key role. Patients, usually tobacco smokers, are frequently symptomatic. Tumors are voluminous more often peripherical than central, with strong fixation on FDG TEP CT. Distant metastases are frequent with atypical visceral locations. These tumors have poorer prognosis than the other NSCLC subtypes because of great aggressivity, and frequent chemoresistance. Here we present pathological description and a review of literature with molecular features in order to better describe these tumors and perhaps introduce new therapeutics.

  12. Selective toxicity of rhodamine 123 in carcinoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lampidis, T J; Bernal, S D; Summerhayes, I C; Chen, L B

    1983-02-01

    The study of mitochondria in situ has recently been facilitated through the use of rhodamine 123, a mitochondrial-specific fluorescent dye. It has been found to be nontoxic when applied for short periods to a variety of cell types and has thus become an invaluable tool for examining mitochondrial morphology and function in the intact living cell. In this report, however, we demonstrate that with continuous exposure, rhodamine 123 selectively kills carcinoma as compared to normal epithelial cells grown in vitro. At doses of rhodamine 123 which were toxic to carcinoma cells, the conversion of mitochondrial-specific to cytoplasmic-nonspecific localization of the drug was observed prior to cell death. At 10 microgram/ml, greater than 50% cell death occurred within 7 days in all nine of the carcinoma cell types and lines of different origin studied, while six of six normal epithelial cell types and lines remained unaffected. Cotreating carcinoma cells with 2-deoxyglucose and rhodamine 123 enhanced the inhibition of growth by rhodamine 123 alone in clonogenic survival assays. The observation of the selective toxicity of rhodamine 123 appears to be unique in view of the absence of selective toxicity reported in vitro for the various antitumor agents currently in clinical use. Preliminary results with rhodamine 123 in animal tumor systems indicate antitumor activity for carcinomas.

  13. Harvesting microalgae grown on wastewater.

    PubMed

    Udom, Innocent; Zaribaf, Behnaz H; Halfhide, Trina; Gillie, Benjamin; Dalrymple, Omatoyo; Zhang, Qiong; Ergas, Sarina J

    2013-07-01

    The costs and life cycle impacts of microalgae harvesting for biofuel production were investigated. Algae were grown in semi-continuous culture in pilot-scale photobioreactors under natural light with anaerobic digester centrate as the feed source. Algae suspensions were collected and the optimal coagulant dosages for metal salts (alum, ferric chloride), cationic polymer (Zetag 8819), anionic polymer (E-38) and natural coagulants (Moringa Oleifera and Opuntia ficus-indica cactus) were determined using jar tests. The relative dewaterability of the algae cake was estimated by centrifugation. Alum, ferric chloride and cationic polymer could all achieve >91% algae recovery at optimal dosages. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis results revealed that cationic polymer had the lowest cost but the highest environmental impacts, while ferric chloride had the highest cost and lowest environmental impacts. Based on the LCA results, belt presses are the recommended algae dewatering technology prior to oil extraction.

  14. Harvesting microalgae grown on wastewater.

    PubMed

    Udom, Innocent; Zaribaf, Behnaz H; Halfhide, Trina; Gillie, Benjamin; Dalrymple, Omatoyo; Zhang, Qiong; Ergas, Sarina J

    2013-07-01

    The costs and life cycle impacts of microalgae harvesting for biofuel production were investigated. Algae were grown in semi-continuous culture in pilot-scale photobioreactors under natural light with anaerobic digester centrate as the feed source. Algae suspensions were collected and the optimal coagulant dosages for metal salts (alum, ferric chloride), cationic polymer (Zetag 8819), anionic polymer (E-38) and natural coagulants (Moringa Oleifera and Opuntia ficus-indica cactus) were determined using jar tests. The relative dewaterability of the algae cake was estimated by centrifugation. Alum, ferric chloride and cationic polymer could all achieve >91% algae recovery at optimal dosages. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis results revealed that cationic polymer had the lowest cost but the highest environmental impacts, while ferric chloride had the highest cost and lowest environmental impacts. Based on the LCA results, belt presses are the recommended algae dewatering technology prior to oil extraction. PMID:23648758

  15. [Merkel cell skin carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Krejcí, K; Zadrazil, J; Tichý, T; Horák, P; Ciferská, H; Hodulová, M; Zezulová, M; Zlevorová, M

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare tumour of the skin. It affects predominantly elderly Caucasian males on sun-exposed areas of the skin. Distinctively more frequent and at significantly lower age, its incidence is higher in immunocompromised patients. In these patients we often observe the highly aggressive course of Merkel cell carcinoma and a fatal outcome. The incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma has been rising in recent years and is more dramatic than the increased incidence of cutaneous melanoma. More than one-third of Merkel cell carcinoma patients will die from this cancer, making it twice as lethal as melanoma. The malignant transformation of Merkel cells is currently thought to be related to an infection with Merkel cell polyomavirus. In the early stage the discreet clinical picture may be contrary to extensive microscopic invasion and this seemingly benign appearance can delay diagnosis or increase the risk of insufficient tumour excision. The diagnosis is definitely confirmed by histological evaluation and immunohistochemical tests. A typical feature is the tendency of Merkel cell carcinoma to frequent local recurrence and early metastasizing into regional lymph nodes with subsequent tumour generalization. The mainstay of therapy is radical excision of the tumour and adjuvant radiotherapy targeted at the site of primary incidence and local draining lymph nodes. The efficacy of different chemotherapy protocols in Merkel cell carcinoma is limited and the median survival rate is measured in months. In the future, prophylaxis with vaccination against Merkel cell polyomavirus will hopefully be possible in high-risk patients, as well as therapeutic usage of antisense oligonucleotides or microRNAs, eventually complete Merkel cell carcinoma elimination by affecting the tumour suppressor gene Atonal homolog 1 expression. The staging of the tumour at time of diagnosis is the most important prognostic factor. In this respect, the importance of preventative skin

  16. Chyluria associated with bronchial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Morice, A. H.; Wood, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Chylous pleural effusion, though not chyluria, is a recognized association of carcinoma of the bronchus. A case of chyluria associated with squamous bronchial carcinoma is reported. Chyluria in this patient was successfully treated by dietary modification. PMID:7329888

  17. Nonfunctional parathyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Giessler, G. A.; Beech, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare entity accounting for 0.5% to 5% of parathyroid neoplasia. Most of these malignancies present as functional hormone-producing masses with elevated serum levels of parathormone and calcium. These tumors may also be nonfunctional. Clinical detection of nonfunctioning parathyroid malignancies preoperatively is primarily based on symptoms of an expanding neck mass. This ominous complaint is typically accompanied with an advanced stage of the disease at initial diagnosis. Because there is a paucity of data in the literature regarding nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma, prognosis can not be readily assessed. In both functional and nonfunctional parathyroid carcinoma, early surgery has proven to be the only curative treatment approach whereas both chemotherapy and radiation therapy fail to produce systemic or regional benefit when used alone. Hence, parathyroid cancer should be considered in every patient evaluated for a neck mass regardless of the blood calcium and blood parathormone level. PMID:11491274

  18. Primary pulmonary cavitating carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, M. Ray

    1973-01-01

    A primary lung cancer can produce a cavity in three ways. The first is `cavitary necrosis' due to breakdown of the growth itself. The second is `stenotic abscess' due to infection and breakdown of the lung parenchyma distal to bronchial obstruction caused by the growth. The third type is `spill-over abscess'. In the present series, necrosis and cavitation were observed in 100 cases out of a total of 632 primary bronchial carcinomas seen at the London Chest Hospital from July 1967 to June 1970. There were 91 males and nine females with an average age of 58·45 years. All except one smoked very heavily and had considerable symptoms. The size of the cavities ranged from 1 to 10 cm and their wall thickness from 0·5 to 3 cm. They were single in 92 cases and multiple (up to four) in eight. In 42 cases, the cancerous cavitation was central, in 38 intermediate, and in 20 peripheral. The segments most frequently affected were the apicoposterior segment of the left upper lobe and the superior segment of the left lower lobe. For descriptive purposes, these cavitating carcinomas were also divided into six broad groups on the basis of radiological and pathological correlations. Neoplastic cells in the sputum were found in 64 cases. Bronchoscopy revealed growth in 42 cases and biopsy was positive in 48. The main microscopic feature was vascular invasion of medium-sized muscular arteries and veins found in the vicinity of every cavitating bronchial carcinoma. Invasion along with tumour plugging of the vessels was observed in 75 cases and thrombosis alone in 55 cases. There were 82 squamous-cell carcinomas, 11 undifferentiated carcinomas of large polygonal-cell type, and seven adeno-alveolar cell carcinomas. The single most important and noteworthy feature in the present series was that oat-cell carcinoma hardly ever undergoes necrosis. Out of a total of 95 cases observed, only three showed necrosis, and this was minimal and characteristically devoid of cavitation. In oat

  19. Maxillary sinus carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, F.; Ogura, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Primary site control, anatomical site of failure, survival, and complications of treatment were determined in a retrospective review of primary maxillary sinus carcinoma. Sixty-one patients were treated by radiation followed by surgery and 35 by radiation alone. Primary tumor control was achieved in 69% of patients receiving combined treatment, 14% of patients treated with radiation alone, and 49% of all patients. Local control did not differ with histological type. Virtually all epidermoid and undifferentiated carcinoma recurrences occurred within 2 years, but 27% of adenocarcinomas recurred after 2 years.

  20. [Merkel cell carcinoma (trabecular carcinoma) of the skin].

    PubMed

    Zala, L; Armagni, C; Krebs, A

    1983-04-01

    The Merkel cell carcinoma was first designated some years ago by the descriptive term trabecular carcinoma. Both names refer to a skin tumor occurring in elderly patients. This is another example where ultrastructural differentiating criteria are necessary for a definite diagnosis i.e., identification of so-called neurosecretory-like granules by electron microscopy. We report clinical, histological, ultrastructural, and histogenetic aspects of such a disease in a woman suffering from a metastasizing Merkel cell carcinoma. PMID:6853165

  1. Fallacious Carcinoma- Spindle Cell Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bavle, Radhika M; Govinda, Girish; Venkataramanaiah, Padmalatha Gundappanayakanahalli; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Venugopal, Reshma

    2016-07-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a unique, rare and peculiar biphasic tumour of head and neck which is not frequently observed in the oral cavity. This variant of squamous cell carcinoma although of monophasic epithelial origin, simulates a sarcoma and is an aggressive carcinoma with high frequency of recurrence and metastasis. A correct and timely diagnosis is of paramount importance. Most of the tumours require an Immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel for confirmation or diagnosis. We report a case of spindle cell carcinoma with varied histopathological morphology and clinical presentation in a middle aged female with a brief review of literature. PMID:27630965

  2. Fallacious Carcinoma- Spindle Cell Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M; Govinda, Girish; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Venugopal, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a unique, rare and peculiar biphasic tumour of head and neck which is not frequently observed in the oral cavity. This variant of squamous cell carcinoma although of monophasic epithelial origin, simulates a sarcoma and is an aggressive carcinoma with high frequency of recurrence and metastasis. A correct and timely diagnosis is of paramount importance. Most of the tumours require an Immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel for confirmation or diagnosis. We report a case of spindle cell carcinoma with varied histopathological morphology and clinical presentation in a middle aged female with a brief review of literature.

  3. Fallacious Carcinoma- Spindle Cell Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M; Govinda, Girish; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Venugopal, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a unique, rare and peculiar biphasic tumour of head and neck which is not frequently observed in the oral cavity. This variant of squamous cell carcinoma although of monophasic epithelial origin, simulates a sarcoma and is an aggressive carcinoma with high frequency of recurrence and metastasis. A correct and timely diagnosis is of paramount importance. Most of the tumours require an Immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel for confirmation or diagnosis. We report a case of spindle cell carcinoma with varied histopathological morphology and clinical presentation in a middle aged female with a brief review of literature. PMID:27630965

  4. Molecule diagram from space-grown crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Researchers' at Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute, in Buffalo, N.Y. have analyzed the molecular structures of insulin crystals grown during Space Shuttle experiments and are unlocking the mystery of how insulin works.

  5. Photoaffinity labeling of the progesterone receptor from human endometrial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, C.L.; Satyaswaroop, P.G.

    1985-11-01

    A nude mouse model for the growth of human endometrial carcinoma and hormonal modulation of the progesterone receptor (PR) was established previously. This study describes the effect of 17 beta-estradiol and tamoxifen (TAM) on growth rate and PR concentration in a hormonally responsive human endometrial tumor (EnCa 101) grown in this experimental system and presents the first characterization of human endometrial carcinoma PR. EnCa 101 was transplanted subcutaneously into ovariectomized, BALB/c, nu/nu athymic mice and grown under 17 beta-estradiol-stimulated, TAM-stimulated, and control conditions. Both 17 beta-estradiol and TAM increased the growth rate of EnCa 101 in nude mice, and a parallel increase in the cytosol PR concentration was observed. PR was partially purified by phosphocellulose and DEAE cellulose chromatography, and the DEAE eluate was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and photoaffinity labeling with (17 alpha-methyl-TH)promegestone ((TH)R5020). Two PR-negative tumors (EnCa K and EnCa V) were also examined in parallel. Photolabeling and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of EnCa 101 grown in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol or TAM revealed incorporation of (3H)R5020 into proteins of molecular weight approximately 116,000 and 85,000. Labeled proteins of molecular weight 66,000, 45,000, and 35,000 were also observed. No incorporation of (TH)R5020 was observed in EnCa 101 grown in the absence of estrogen, nor was any observed in EnCa K or EnCa V.

  6. Independent bilateral primary bronchial carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, M. Ray

    1971-01-01

    Independent bilateral primary bronchial carcinomas are not common. Since Beyreuther's description in 1924, 16 well-documented cases of independent primary bronchial carcinomas of different histology have been described. From 1965 to 1970, eight cases were seen at the London Chest Hospital. In order to make the diagnosis of a second primary bronchial carcinoma, each tumour should be malignant and neither should be a metastasis from the other. To meet this last criterion, the histopathological features of the two tumours must be different. Many cases have been described in the literature as double primary bronchial carcinomas where the second primary had the same histological features as the first. Images PMID:4327711

  7. Primary biliary carcinoma: CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsen, M.K.; Quiroz, F.; Lawson, T.L.; Smith, D.F.; Foley, W.D.; Steward, E.T.

    1984-08-01

    Fifty-three patients with documented primary biliary carcinoma were studied with computed tomography. Twenty-six patients had gallbladder carcinoma and 27 patients had carcinoma of the biliary ductal system. Ninety percent of patients with gallbladder cancer had an intraluminal mass. Local invasion into the liver was common. The majority of patients with biliary ductal carcinoma had dilated bile ducts, while only 50% of patients with gallbladder cancer had biliary ductal dilatation. The most common location of tumor involving the extrahepatic biliary ductal system was the distal common bile duct. This occurred in eight patients out of 27, or 30% of the cases.

  8. Merkel cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koljonen, Virve

    2006-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an unusual primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. MCC is a fatal disease, and patients have a poor chance of survival. Moreover, MCC lacks distinguishing clinical features, and thus by the time the diagnosis is made, the tumour usually have metastasized. MCC mainly affects sun-exposed areas of elderly persons. Half of the tumours are located in the head and neck region. Methods MCC was first described in 1972. Since then, most of the cases reported, have been in small series of patients. Most of the reports concern single cases or epidemiological studies. The present study reviews the world literature on MCC. The purpose of this article is to shed light on this unknown neuroendocrine carcinoma and provide the latest information on prognostic markers and treatment options. Results The epidemiological studies have revealed that large tumour size, male sex, truncal site, nodal/distant disease at presentation, and duration of disease before presentation, are poor prognostic factors. The recommended initial treatment is extensive local excision. Adjuvant radiation therapy has recently been shown to improve survival. Thus far, no chemotherapy protocol have achieved the same objective. Conclusion Although rare, the fatality of this malignancy makes is important to understand the etiology and pathophysiology. During the last few years, the research on MCC has produced prognostic markers, which can be translated into clinical patient care. PMID:16466578

  9. Primary duodenal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Adedeji, O. A.; Trescoli-Serrano, C.; Garcia-Zarco, M.

    1995-01-01

    Eight cases of primary duodenal carcinoma in a district general hospital are presented. The cases highlight the advanced state of the disease at presentation, the difficulty in diagnosis, and its poor prognosis. Duodenal carcinoma occurs in both sexes worldwide with no predisposing factors in the majority of cases. There is an increased risk in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and adenomas of the duodenum. Duodenal carcinoma occurs about 22 years from the diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis in about 2% of patients, forming over 50% of upper gastrointestinal cancers occurring in these patients. Carcinomatous changes occur in 30 to 60% of duodenal villous adenomas and much less in tubulo-villous and tubular adenomas. These categories of patients should be screened and adequately followed up. Aggressive and radical surgery, even in the presence of locally advanced disease and lymph node involvement, gives a better outcome. When curative surgery is not possible, chemotherapy must accompany palliation with or without radiotherapy. Pre-operative chemotherapy may facilitate a curative radical resection. The general five-year survival is 17-33% but some centres have achieved a five-year survival of 40-60% with aggressive management of these patients. PMID:7644397

  10. Urinary bladder carcinoma with divergent differentiation featuring small cell carcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma, and liposarcomatous component.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Mariko; Morikawa, Teppei; Nakagawa, Tohru; Miyakawa, Jimpei; Maeda, Daichi; Homma, Yukio; Fukayama, Masashi

    2016-09-01

    Both small cell carcinoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma of the urinary bladder are highly aggressive tumors, and a concurrence of these tumors is extremely rare. We report a case of urinary bladder cancer with small cell carcinoma as a predominant component, accompanied by sarcomatoid carcinoma and conventional urothelial carcinoma (UC). Although the small cell carcinoma component had resolved on receiving chemoradiotherapy, rapid growth of the residual tumor led to a fatal outcome. A 47-year-old man presented with occasional bladder irritation and had a 2-year history of asymptomatic hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed a huge mass in the urinary bladder, and transurethral resection was performed. Microscopically, small cell carcinoma was detected as the major tumor component. Spindle-shaped sarcomatoid cells were also observed that were intermingled with small cell carcinoma and conventional UC. In addition, a sheet-like growth of the lipoblast-like neoplastic cells was observed focally. Initially, by providing chemoradiotherapy, we achieved a marked tumor regression; however, the tumor rapidly regrew after the completion of chemoradiotherapy, and the patient underwent radical cystectomy. Only conventional UC and sarcomatoid carcinoma were identified in the cystectomy specimen. The patient died of the disease 4 months after cystectomy. Urinary bladder cancer may include a combination of multiple aggressive histologies as in the present case. Because the variation in the tumor components may affect the efficacy of therapy, a correct diagnosis of every tumor component is necessary.

  11. Urinary bladder carcinoma with divergent differentiation featuring small cell carcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma, and liposarcomatous component.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Mariko; Morikawa, Teppei; Nakagawa, Tohru; Miyakawa, Jimpei; Maeda, Daichi; Homma, Yukio; Fukayama, Masashi

    2016-09-01

    Both small cell carcinoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma of the urinary bladder are highly aggressive tumors, and a concurrence of these tumors is extremely rare. We report a case of urinary bladder cancer with small cell carcinoma as a predominant component, accompanied by sarcomatoid carcinoma and conventional urothelial carcinoma (UC). Although the small cell carcinoma component had resolved on receiving chemoradiotherapy, rapid growth of the residual tumor led to a fatal outcome. A 47-year-old man presented with occasional bladder irritation and had a 2-year history of asymptomatic hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed a huge mass in the urinary bladder, and transurethral resection was performed. Microscopically, small cell carcinoma was detected as the major tumor component. Spindle-shaped sarcomatoid cells were also observed that were intermingled with small cell carcinoma and conventional UC. In addition, a sheet-like growth of the lipoblast-like neoplastic cells was observed focally. Initially, by providing chemoradiotherapy, we achieved a marked tumor regression; however, the tumor rapidly regrew after the completion of chemoradiotherapy, and the patient underwent radical cystectomy. Only conventional UC and sarcomatoid carcinoma were identified in the cystectomy specimen. The patient died of the disease 4 months after cystectomy. Urinary bladder cancer may include a combination of multiple aggressive histologies as in the present case. Because the variation in the tumor components may affect the efficacy of therapy, a correct diagnosis of every tumor component is necessary. PMID:27461832

  12. Interleukin-8 as an autocrine growth factor for human colon carcinoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Brew, R; Erikson, J S; West, D C; Kinsella, A R; Slavin, J; Christmas, S E

    2000-01-01

    Cell lines derived from human colon carcinomas secrete interleukin 8 (IL-8) in vitro and this chemokine has also been detected immunohistochemically in human colon carcinoma specimens, in which it is tumour cell associated. In these experiments, IL-8 was shown to comprise an important component of the angiogenic activity of colon carcinoma cell line supernatants. The effect of modulating IL-8 activity upon the growth of the colon carcinoma cell lines HCT116A, HT29 and CaCo2 was investigated. Supplementing endogenously produced IL-8 by recombinant chemokine led to stimulation of cell growth. Neutralization of the effect of endogenously produced IL-8, either with the specific antagonist peptide AcRRWWCR or with blocking anti-IL-8 antibody, resulted in around 50% inhibition of cell growth (P<0.05). All of the colon carcinoma cell lines tested expressed mRNA for both IL-8RA and RB when grown at confluence. At the protein level, all cell lines expressed IL-8RA. Expression of IL-8RB was weak, although increased expression was seen in HCT116A cells as they approached confluence. Antibodies to IL-8RA and RB did not affect proliferation at low cell density but were strongly inhibitory when cells were cultured at a higher density. These data suggest that IL-8 acts as an autocrine growth factor for colon carcinoma cell lines and would support the concept that a similar autocrine loop operates in vivo.

  13. Lobomycosis and squamous cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Lisiane; Rodrigues, Luciana; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto Chirano; Santos, Mônica; Talhari, Sinésio; Talhari, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    The occurence of squamous cell carcinoma on long-lasting ulcers is classic. Malignant transformation may occur on burn scars and chronic ulcers of varying etiology, including infectious agents. Transformation of old lobomycosis lesion scars into squamous cell carcinoma has been rarely reported. Careful and long-term follow-up of such patients is important to avoid carcinomatous transformation. PMID:23739701

  14. Basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common form of skin cancer, predominantly affecting the head and neck, and can be diagnosed clinically in most cases. Metastasis of BCC is rare, but localised tissue invasion and destruction can lead to morbidity. Incidence of BCC increases markedly after the age of 40 years, but incidence in younger people is rising, possibly as a result of increased sun exposure. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions on treatment response/recurrence (within 1 year of therapy) in people with basal cell carcinoma? What are the effects of interventions on long-term recurrence (a minimum of 2 years after treatment) in people with basal cell carcinoma? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to December 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 16 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: cryotherapy/cryosurgery, curettage and cautery/electrodesiccation, fluorouracil, imiquimod 5% cream, photodynamic therapy, and surgery (conventional or Mohs' micrographic surgery). PMID:21718567

  15. Stability of Detached Grown Germanium Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweizer, M.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Vujisic, L.; Szofran, F. R.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Detachment of the melt meniscus from the crucible during semiconductor Bridgman growth experiments has been observed in recent years, especially under microgravity experiments. Under earth conditions, the hydrostatic pressure counteracts the mechanism, whereby it is more difficult to achieve detached Bridgman growth. Attempts to get stable detached growth under terrestrial conditions have been discussed in the literature and have been the subject of recent experiments in our own group. The advantage of crystals grown without wall contact is obvious: In general, they possess a higher crystal quality than conventional Bridgman grown crystals with wall contact. However, due to the interaction of different parameters such as the wetting behavior of the melt with the crucible, and the dependence of the growth angle with the shape of the melt meniscus, the mechanism leading to detachment is very complicated and not completely understood. We have grown several doped and undoped Germanium crystals with the detached Bridgman and the normal Bridgman growth technique. Pyrolytic boron nitride containers were used for all growth experiments. In the detached grown crystals the typical gap thickness between the pBN crucible and the crystal is in the range of 10 to 100 micrometers, which was determined by performing profilometer measurements. Etch pit density measurements were also performed and a comparison between detached and attached grown crystals will be given. An interesting feature was detected on the surface of a detached grown crystal. Strong surface striations with an average axial distance of 0.5 mm were observed around the whole circumference. The maximum fluctuation of the gap thickness is in the range of 5-10 micrometers. These variations of the detached gap along the crystal axis can be explained by a kind of stiction of the melt/crucible interface and thus by a variation of the meniscus shape. This phenomenon leading to the fluctuation of the gap thickness will be

  16. Stability of Detached Grown Germanium Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweizer, M.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Motakef, S.; Szofran, F. R.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Detachment of the melt meniscus from the crucible during semiconductor Bridgman growth experiments has been observed in recent years especially, under microgravity experiments. Under earth conditions, the hydrostatic pressure counteracts the mechanism, whereby it is more difficult to achieve detached Bridgman growth. Attempts to get stable detached growth under terrestrial conditions have been discussed in the literature and have been the subject of recent experiments in our own group. The advantage of crystals grown without wall contact is obvious: In general, they possess a higher crystal quality than conventional Bridgman grown crystals with wall contact. However, due to the interaction of different parameters such as the wetting behavior of the melt with the crucible, and the dependence of the growth angle with the shape of the melt meniscus, the mechanism leading to detachment is very complicated and not completely understood. We have grown several doped and undoped Germanium crystals with the detached Bridgman and the normal Bridgman growth technique. Pyrolytic boron nitride containers were used for all growth experiments. In the detached grown crystals the typical gap thickness between the pBN crucible and the crystal is in the range of 10 to 100 microns, which was determined by performing profilometer measurements. Etch pit density measurements were also performed and a comparison between detached and attached grown crystals will be given. An interesting feature was detected on the surface of a detached grown crystal. Strong surface striations with an average axial distance of 0.5mm were observed around the whole circumference. The maximum fluctuation of the gap thickness is in the range of 5-10 microns. These variations of the detached gap along the crystal axis can be explained by a kind of stiction of the melt/crucible interface and thus by a variation of the meniscus shape. This phenomenon leading to the fluctuation of the gap thickness will be

  17. Perianal Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bulur, Isil; Boyuk, Emine; Saracoglu, Zeynep Nurhan; Arik, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer. Exposure to ultraviolet light is an important risk factor for BCC development and the disorder therefore develops commonly on body areas that are more exposed to sunlight, such as the face and neck. It is uncommon in the closed area of the body and quite rare in the perianal and genital regions. Herein, we report a 34-year-old patient with perianal BCC who had no additional risk factors. PMID:25848349

  18. Carcinoma Adenomatodes Cervicis Uteri

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Herbert R.

    1926-01-01

    The case is one of carcinoma adenomatodes (adenoma malignum) cervicis uteri, which occurred in a patient, aged 49. Vaginal hysterectomy was performed with the Pacquelin cautery, and the patient remains well after 22 years. Attention is drawn to the rarity of the disease, and the point is emphasized that in true cases of the disease the glandular epithelium is nowhere proliferated, and therefore reliance on microscopic examination alone for the diagnosis may lead to serious error. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:19985105

  19. Immunotherapy of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Märten, Angela

    2008-05-01

    Patients with carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas have especially poor prognosis with a five-year survival rate of <1% and a median survival of 4-6 months. Pancreatic carcinoma is a systemic disease, insensitive to radiotherapy and mostly to chemotherapy. Accordingly, new treatment modalities are worth being investigated. One of the promising approaches is immunotherapy. Several phase I/II trials that have been published show interesting results, whereupon antibody-based strategies seem to fail and unspecific stimulation or vaccination with peptides look encouraging. Furthermore, phase II trials dealing with combination therapies are highly promising. One of them, a combination of chemoradiotherapy plus interferon-alpha is currently tested in a randomized phase III trial. As most of the trials had enrolled only limited numbers of patients and most of the trials were not conducted and/or reported according to the new standards it is difficult to draw final conclusions from the discussed trials. Immuno-monitoring was performed only in 40% of the discussed publications. In all cases immune responses were observed and correlation with the clinical outcome is discussed. Immunotherapy of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and especially combination therapies including immunotherapy is an up-and-coming approach and needs to be investigated in well conducted phase III randomized controlled trials accompanied by appropriate immuno-monitoring.

  20. Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Iezzi, G; Rubini, C; Fioroni, M; Piattelli, A

    2002-02-01

    Clear cell tumours, in the head and neck region, are usually derived from salivary or odontogenic tissues, or may be metastatic. A few clear cells may be present in odontogenic cysts, while, odontogenic neoplasms composed predominantly of clear cells are quite rare. They include calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumours (CEOT), ameloblastoma and odontogenic carcinoma. Clear cell odontogenic tumour (CCOT) has been classified in the last WHO classification as a benign tumour, but it is now recognized as a more sinister lesion and current opinion is that CCOT should be designated as a carcinoma. These tumours are characterized by aggressive growth, recurrences, and metastatic disease. A recent review of the literature has yielded 30 cases of tumours with similar characteristics. These tumours have a peak incidence in the 5th-7th decades, with a female predilection. The anterior portions of the jaws, especially the mandible, are most frequently affected. The aggressive potential of these neoplasms is well documented by the extensive invasion of adjacent tissues, multiple recurrences and regional or distant metastases.

  1. Etiopathogenesis of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Makazlieva, Tanja; Vaskova, Olivija; Majstorov, Venjamin

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Thyroid malignomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasm consisting of most frequent differentiated encountered carcinomas, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma, then medullary thyroid carcinoma originating from neuroendocrine calcitonin-producing C-cells and rare forms of thyroid lymphomas arising from intrathyroidal lymphatic tissue, thyroid sarcomas and poorly differentiated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. There are increasing numbers of epidemiological studies and publications that have suggested increased incidence rate of thyroid carcinomas. We have read, analysed and compare available reviews and original articles investigating different etiological factors in the development of thyroid carcinomas through Google Scholar and PubMed Database. DISCUSSION: Aetiology involved in the development of thyroid carcinomas is multifactorial and includes external influences, as well as constitutional predispositions and genetic etiological factors. The actual effect of environmental and constitutional factors is on promoting genetic and epigenetic alterations which result in cell proliferation and oncogenesis. Until now are identified numerous genetic alterations, assumed to have an important role in oncogenesis, with MAPK and PI3K-AKT as crucial signalling networks regulating growth, proliferation, differentiation and cell survival/apoptosis. CONCLUSION: This new molecular insight could have a crucial impact on diagnosis and also on improving and selecting an appropriate treatment to the patients with thyroid malignancies. PMID:27703585

  2. Grown-ups Ought To Know Better.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brightman, Samuel C.

    Among the articles by Sam Brightman collected in this volume from the newsletter, "Adult & Continuing Education Today (ACET)" are the following: "Grown-Ups Ought to Know Better"; "Adult Education: The Only Sure Factor Is Growth"; "Adult Education Important in This Election Year"; "Will Nursery School External Degree Programs Come Next?";…

  3. Molecule diagram from earth-grown crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Like many chemicals in the body, the three-dimensional structure of insulin is extremely complex. When grown on the ground, insulin crystals do not grow as large or as ordered as researchers desire--obscuring the blueprint of the insulin molecules.

  4. Efflux Of Nitrate From Hydroponically Grown Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. C.; Aslam, M.; Ward, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiments to measure influx, and efflux of nitrate from hydroponically grown wheat seedlings. Ratio between efflux and influx greater in darkness than in light; increased with concentration of nitrate in nutrient solution. On basis of experiments, authors suggest nutrient solution optimized at lowest possible concentration of nitrate.

  5. [DNA methylation in thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Song, Xianyun; Shang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yutuo

    2015-03-01

    Cancer has become clear that not merely gene variations but also epigenetic modifications may contribute to it. Epigenetic changes refer to stable alterations in gene expression with unrelated to changes in the underlying genetic sequence,resulting in heritable. DNA methylation is one of the common epigenetic changes. It control the gene expression through changing DNA conformation and stability, chromatin structer, DNA-protein interaction. The reversal of dysregulated DNA methylation has emerged as a potential strategy for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma. The artical will provide an overview of how DNA methylation contribute to thyroid carcinoma dissemination,invasion and metastasis and we will summarize the latest epigenetic therapies for thyroid carcinoma.

  6. Correlative imaging in gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Willekens, I; Goethals, L R; Brussaard, C; Verdries, D; de Mey, J

    2014-01-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma is a relatively rare malignant epithelial neoplasm, arising from gallbladder mucosa. It is the fifth most common gastrointestinal malignancy and the most common biliary tract cancer. Early diagnosis remains difficult, because clinical symptoms are sparse and non-specific, often resulting in advanced stage disease at the time of diagnosis. The most common feature of gallbladder carcinoma on different imaging modalities is focal wall thickening, associated with a large eccentric tumor mass. In this case we report the imaging characteristics of gallbladder carcinoma on ultrasound, MDCT and 18F-FDG PET/CT.

  7. Myoepithelial carcinoma with contralateral invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sun Young; Bae, Young Kyung; Cho, Jihyong; Kang, Sun Hee

    2011-09-01

    Adenomyoepithelioma (AME) is a rare benign tumor composed of myoepithelial cells (MECs) which are located beneath the epithelial cells of exocrine glands, especially in breast and salivary glands. These tumor cells show biphasic proliferation of epithelial and MECs. Malignant AME is characterized by distant metastasis, local recurrence, cytologic atypia, high mitotic activity and infiltrating tumor margins. A 51-year-old woman presented with an 8 months growth in the left breast. She underwent core-needle biopsy and consecutively mammotome assisted biopsy at a local clinic. After resection, she complained about re-growing remnant lesion and a newly developed solid mass in the right breast. Finally, the remnant mass in the left breast was diagnosed with myoepithelial carcinoma. Concurrently, contralateral breast mass was diagnosed with invasive micropapillary carcinoma. Herein we report an unusual case of synchronous myoepithelial carcinoma and invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast with a review of literatures.

  8. Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered to be one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and the most common one in Africa and Asia. Over the last decade, a rising incidence of up to 10-15/100,000 per population has been seen in the Western world, with an estimate of 250,000 deaths and more than a million worldwide per year. By the year 2010, the World Health Organization expects that HCC will be the leading cause of cancer mortality surpassing lung cancer. This increasing incidence is most likely related to an increasing prevalence of chronic hepatitis C (HC) and B (HB) virus infections and other diseases inducing chronic inflammation (Befeler and Di Bisceglie 2002; Llovet et al. 2003).

  9. Diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.

    2005-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is responsible for a large proportion of cancer deaths worldwide. HCC is frequently diagnosed after the development of clinical deterioration at which time survival is measured in months. Long-term survival requires detection of small tumors, often present in asymptomatic individuals, which may be more amenable to invasive therapeutic options. Surveillance of high-risk individuals for HCC is commonly performed using the serum marker alfa-fetoprotein (AFP) often in combination with ultrasonography. Various other serologic markers are currently being tested to help improve surveillance accuracy. Diagnosis of HCC often requires more sophisticated imaging modalities such as CT scan and MRI, which have multiphasic contrast enhancement capabilities. Serum AFP used alone can be helpful if levels are markedly elevated, which occurs in fewer than half of cases at time of diagnosis. Confirmation by liver biopsy can be performed under circumstances when the diagnosis of HCC remains unclear. PMID:18333158

  10. Prevention of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schütte, Kerstin; Balbisi, Fathi; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has significantly changed throughout the past decade and will continue to do so in the future as a consequence of effective primary prevention and treatment of virus-related liver diseases. However, other risk factors for HCC are constantly on the rise, including alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The knowledge on these and further risk factors associated with an increased risk of HCC provide the opportunity and chance for the development and implementation of successful preventive strategies to decrease the worldwide burden of HCC. This mini-review gives a short overview on current strategies in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of HCC. PMID:27722155

  11. Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vilar-González, S; Bradley, K; Rico-Pérez, J; Vogiatzis, P; Golka, D; Nigam, A; Sivaramalingam, M; Kazmi, S

    2015-11-01

    Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma (MC) or malignant myoepithelioma is a rare entity. MC usually presents as a slow-growing painless mass arising in the parotid gland, but may involve other salivary glands. This tumour may be particularly locally aggressive, but its clinical and biological features are not yet fully understood. MC may arise from pre-existing benign lesions, such as pleomorphic adenomas or benign myoepitheliomas, or may arise de novo. It usually affects patients over 50 years old, with no gender preference. Because it is often asymptomatic, the presentation and diagnosis can be delayed by months, even years. The current WHO classification considers MC to be an intermediate- to high-grade malignancy. Other published data suggest it is likely to be a high-grade neoplasm, consistent with its aggressive behaviour. Its epidemiology, histopathological features, immunohistochemical profile, clinical behaviour and optimal management are not well understood. Following review of the current literature we aim to address these.

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Adrenocortical Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Childhood Treatment for more information.) Having certain genetic conditions increases the risk of adrenocortical carcinoma. Anything ... can be a sign of disease. CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that makes a series of ...

  13. Stages of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  14. Onychocytic carcinoma: a new entity.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Christophe; Langbein, Lutz; Ambrossetti, Damien; Erfan, Nouran; Schweizer, Jürgen; Michiels, Jean-François

    2013-08-01

    We have recently described a new nail tumor known as onychocytic matricoma. Herein, we describe its malignant counterpart. Clinically, the tumor simulates onychomatricoma (OM). Histologically, this in situ malignant epithelial tumor exhibits a distinct picture of onychocytic differentiation with signs of both nail matrical differentiation and nail plate differentiation. We have proposed the name onychocytic carcinoma for this singular adnexal neoplasm. Given the peculiar thickening of the nail plate observed in OM, onychocytic matricoma, and onychocytic carcinoma, the clinical individualization of a new type of nail band pattern could be proposed. It presents as an acquired localized (monodactylous) longitudinal pachyonychia. Such longitudinal pachyonychia allow the recognition of the matrical nail tumor, which has a limited etiological spectrum. Xantholeucopachyonychia suggests mainly OM and rarely onychocytic carcinoma. Pachymelanonychia suggests onychocytic matricoma and rarely pigmented OM or onychocytic carcinoma. PMID:23518638

  15. Cutaneous metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lazaro, M; Serrano, M L; Allende, I; Ratón, J A; Acebo, E; Diaz-Perez, J L

    2009-12-01

    Cutaneous metastases are an unusual finding that may present as the first sign of an internal neoplasia. A case of cutaneous metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma, which may often involve other organs but very rarely metastases to the skin, is reported.

  16. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... radiation. Exposure to radiation can lead to skin cancers. ... DG, Farndon PA. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. 2002 Jun 20 ... al. eds. Cancer of the Skin. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  17. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Esmati, Ebrahim; Babaei, Mohammad; Matini, Amirhassan; Ashtiani, Monir Sadat Mirai; Hamed, Ehsan Akbari; Nosrati, Hassan; Razi, Farideh; Ganjalikhani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma usually originates from lung. Few data exist in the literature regarding neuroendocrine carcinoma of the tongue. Patient data including history, surgical procedure, histology, and radiology investigations were collected and summarized. A 40-year-old woman was referred after partial glossectomy. Squamous mucosa with neoplasm and cells with round nuclei and light cytoplasm was reported in the tongue biopsy. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was positive for cytokeratin, neuron specific enolase, synaptophysin and chromogranin and negative for leukocyte common antigen. This case showed a high proliferative activity (Ki-67 labeling index were 60%). These IHC findings were in favor of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. After surgery, she received chemotherapy and chemoradiation. The diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors in the present case is based on immunohistochemical markers and cellular shapes. Postoperative chemoradiotherapy is a critical element of therapy for head and neck high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas, our patient received this treatment after surgery. PMID:26458666

  18. [Bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Bregante, J I; Rituerto, B; Font de Mora, F; Alonso, F; Andreu, M J; Figuerola, J; Mulet, J F

    1998-07-01

    We submit the case of a child afflicted with a mucoepidermoid bronchial tumor. The patient is a boy, aged seven, who after undergoing antibiotic treatment for six weeks because of a fever and atelectasia-condensation in the right lower lobe showed no signs of clinical improvement and was sent to our department to undergo further study and treatment. A bronchoscopy performed shows a polypoid mass that partially blocks the main bronchial tube a few milimiters under the access to the right upper lobe. A biopsy is carried out and the anatomopathological test shows there is a low degree epidermoid carcinoma. We decide to perform a lobectomy which for the tumor location and the lung condition has to be medium and lower right. We proceed to remove the adenopaty of hilium not affected by the tumor. The postoperative period develops without incidents. A check-up bronchoscopy performed three months later shows two polypoid masses in the right bronchial tube which, once a biopsy is performed, proved to be granulation tissue. Twelve months after undergoing surgery, the patient's condition is good, there is no evidence of tumor relapse and the breathing capacity is adequate, though there is an obstructive restrictive pattern in the espirometry. Even taking into consideration that lung tumors are extremely unusual, the epidermoid carcinoma is the one which most frequently occurs. The tumor's low malignancy is a sign that points to a good prognosis. Performing conservative surgery by means of bronchoplasty should be taken into account so as to keep the sequelae on the lung condition to a minimum, even though in this case the tumor location made it impossible. PMID:12602035

  19. Cholangiographic evaluation of bile duct carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, D.A.; MacCarty, R.L.; Gaffey, T.A.

    1983-12-01

    Cholangiograms and clinical histories of 82 patients with biopsy-proved bile duct carcinoma were reviewed. The carcinomas were classified according to morphologic findings and clinical outcome. Ulcerative colitis and antecedent inflammatory disease of the biliary tree, particularly primary sclerosing cholangitis, seem to predispose to the development of bile duct carcinoma. Focal stenotic lesions were the most common morphologic type (62/82). Polypoid carcinomas and diffuse sclerosing carcinomas were less common and of about equal frequency. Prognosis was best for patients with polypoid carcinomas and worst for those with diffuse sclerosing carcinomas. In 69 cases (84%), the tumors involved the intrahepatic or proximal extrahepatic ducts, makin curative resection difficult or impossible. Patients with carcinomas limited to the more distal extrahepatic bile ducts had a longer average survival and a higher probability of surgical cure. Proper management of patients with bile duct carcinoma requires a complete and accurate cholangiographic evaluation of the morphology, location, and extent of the disease.

  20. Microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ünal, Emre; İdilman, İlkay Sedakat; Akata, Deniz; Özmen, Mustafa Nasuh; Karçaaltıncaba, Muşturay

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular invasion is a crucial histopathologic prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. We reviewed the literature and aimed to draw attention to clinicopathologic and imaging findings that may predict the presence of microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma. Imaging findings suggesting microvascular invasion are disruption of capsule, irregular tumor margin, peritumoral enhancement, multifocal tumor, increased tumor size, and increased glucose metabolism on positron emission tomography-computed tomography. In the presence of typical findings, microvascular invasion may be predicted. PMID:26782155

  1. Gene therapy and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J; Alusi, G; Wang, Y

    2012-06-01

    In 2003, a non-replicating adenoviral gene therapy product received the world`s first government licence for the treatment of head and neck cancer. Two years later approval was granted to a replication-selective adenovirus for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in combination with chemotherapy. This review introduces the reader to gene therapy as an emerging treatment modality, and outlines its application to the management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by examining recent pre-clinical and clinical research.

  2. Multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Velasquez, G.; Glass, T.A.; D'Souza, V.J.; Formanek, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Renal oncocytoma, although rare, is being diagnosed more frequently, and criteria to differentiate it from other tumors have been described. Multiple oncocytomas have been reported, but an association between multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma in the same kidney has not been described. The authors report a case with two oncocytomas and a renal carcinoma in the right kidney as well as a right adrenal adenoma.

  3. [Adenosquamous carcinoma of the palate].

    PubMed

    Mancusi, G; Susani, M; Kornfehl, J; Girsch, W; Kautzky, M

    2002-08-01

    A rare case of adenosquamous carcinoma in a 74 year-old man is reported. Presenting as a nodule on the soft palate, diagnosis was prolonged because of the benign macroscopic aspect. CT-scan and MR-tomography showed an encapsulated lesion but biopsy and histologic examination revealed the typical features of adenosquamous carcinoma. The tumour consisted of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in close proximity to minor salivary glands of which the tumour seemed to have its origin. This entity, although rare in the head and neck region has been documented to be very aggressive with early regional and hematogenic metastasis. Therefore it has to be distinguished from other tumours, especially from mucoepidermoid carcinomas of the salivary glands, which have a better prognosis. Adenosquamous carcinoma is considered to have poor radiosensitivity and chemotherapeutic approaches have also not been successful in the literature. In our case radical surgical therapy was performed by excision of the whole soft palate and bilateral neck dissection. This resulted in total removal of the tumour but revealed bilateral lymph node metastases. Vital functions were saved by reconstruction of the palate with a free vascularized tensor-fasciae-latae-perforator-flap. For the first time in a case of adenosquamous carcinoma carcinoembryonic antigen in serum was monitored. A pretherapeutical 29-fold elevation resulted in a marked decrease after surgery, but supranormal values indicated remaining tumour burden which was found in metastases in the lung. Because of the limitations in therapy, early histologic diagnosis is most important in this highly malignant tumour.

  4. Lethal photosensitization of biofilm-grown bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Michael

    1997-12-01

    Antibacterial agents are increasingly being used for the prophylaxis and treatment of oral diseases. As these agents can be rendered ineffective by resistance development in the target organisms there is a need to develop alternative antimicrobial approaches. Light-activated antimicrobial agents release singlet oxygen and free radicals which can kill adjacent bacteria and a wide range of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria has been shown to be susceptible to such agents. In the oral cavity these organisms are present as biofilms (dental plaques) which are less susceptible to traditional antimicrobial agents than bacterial suspensions. The results of these studies have shown that biofilm-grown oral bacteria are also susceptible to lethal photosensitization although the light energy doses required are grater than those needed to kill the organisms when they are grown as aqueous suspensions.

  5. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Worley, N K; Daroca, P J

    1997-06-01

    Undifferentiated carcinoma of the minor salivary glands has been rarely reported in the world literature. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma, which is a variant of undifferentiated carcinoma, is distinguished from small cell and large cell undifferentiated carcinoma by its association with benign lymphoepithelial lesions. We report a case of a lymphoepithelial carcinoma developing in a minor salivary gland of the oral cavity in a 69-year-old woman. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a lymphoepithelial carcinoma arising from a minor salivary gland.

  6. Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma Presenting with Two Different Patterns of Cutaneous Metastases: Carcinoma Telangiectaticum and Carcinoma Erysipeloides

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoobi, Reza; Talaizade, Abdolhasan; Lal, Karan; Ranjbari, Nastaran; Sohrabiaan, Nasibe

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous metastases can have many different clinical presentations. They are seen in patients with advanced malignant disease; however, they can be the initial manifestation of undetected malignancies. Inflammatory breast carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer that has a nonspecific appearance mimicking many benign conditions including mastitis, breast abscesses, and/or dermatitis. The authors report the case of a 40-year-old woman with inflammatory breast carcinoma presenting with violaceous papulovesicular lesions resembling lymphangioma circumscriptum and erythematous patches resembling erysipelas. These lesions represent two different types of cutaneous metastases, both of which were the initial signs of inflammatory breast carcinoma in the patient described herein. Skin biopsy of lesions confirmed invasive breast cancer and further prompted a work up for inflammatory breast carcinoma. This case demonstrates the importance of follow-up for all breast lesions, even those considered to be of benign nature, for they can be presenting signs of metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26345728

  7. Mineral composition of organically grown tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

  8. Nucleolus in clinostat-grown plants

    SciTech Connect

    Shen-Miller, J.; Dannenhoffer, J. ); Hinchman, R. )

    1991-05-01

    The clinostat is an apparatus that is used to mimic zero gravity in studies of plant growth in the absence of gravitropic response. Clinostat-grown tissue cultures of carrot exhibit significant increases both in the number of nuclei containing more than one nucleolus and in nucleolar volume. Oat seedlings germinated and grown on clinostats exhibit a decreased rate of shoot elongation, increased tissue sensitivity to applied auxin, and an increased response to gravitropic stimulation. Clinostat treatment clearly affects plant metabolism. The nucleolus is the region in the nucleus where ribosome synthesis and assembly take place. The 18S, 5.8S, and 25S ribosomal genes, in tandem units, are located in the nucleolus. Ribosomes orchestrate the production of all proteins that are necessary for the maintenance of cell growth, development, and survival. A full study of the effects of nullification of gravitropism, by clinostat rotation, on nucleolar development in barley has been initiated. The authors study developmental changes of nucleolar number and diameter in clinostat-grown root tissues. Preliminary results show that barley roots exhibit changes in nucleolar number and diameter. Growth rates of barley root and shoot also appear to be reduced, in measurements of both length and weight.

  9. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long...

  14. Treatment Options for Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of thymoma and thymic carcinoma include a cough and chest pain. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma may ... if you have any of the following: A cough that doesn't go away. Chest pain. Trouble ...

  15. Stages of Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of thymoma and thymic carcinoma include a cough and chest pain. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma may ... if you have any of the following: A cough that doesn't go away. Chest pain. Trouble ...

  16. General Information about Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Merkel Cell Carcinoma Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  17. General Information about Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Thymic Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  18. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  19. Hepatocellular carcinoma in India.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Gouri Shankar; Babu, K Govind; Malhotra, Hemant; Ranade, Anantbhushan A; Murshed, Shaiqua; Datta, Debasis

    2013-12-01

    Cancers of the liver are one of the commonest cancers that occur in the world, the commonest of which is the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is considered to be the 5th commonest cancer in the world. In the areas that are endemic for hepatitis B and C, it is extremely common. Unfortunately, India which is an endemic zone for hepatitis B, there has been no comprehensive analyzed data for HCC. Incidence of HCC in India occurs at two peaks, one at a young age between 40 to 55 years and another above 60 years. Eighty per cent of all HCCs occurring in India occur with cirrhosis of liver in the background and 60% of all these cases are hepatitis B positive carriers. Symptoms are reflective of late presentation with advanced disease. Surgery, the only curative modulus available, unfortunately is not possible in 95% of HCC patients. Majority of the patients are treated with palliative and supportive care and life spans are limited. Sorafenib is used in a small section of patients. Characterization of HCC with molecular sub-typing is the need of the hour.

  20. Epidemiology of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Falk, R T; Pickle, L W; Fontham, E T; Greenberg, S D; Jacobs, H L; Correa, P; Fraumeni, J F

    1992-01-01

    Descriptive features of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) are presented using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program population-based incidence data from 1973 through 1987, along with risk factors from histologically confirmed cases of BAC identified in a hospital-based case-control study conducted in Louisiana between 1979 and 1982. Compared to the rising incidence of lung cancer overall, BAC rates have remained relatively constant, accounting for less than 3% of all lung cancer. BAC incidence rates were higher in males, yet it explained proportionately more of the total lung cancer incidence in females. In the case-control study, 21 of the 33 cases originally ascertained from hospital pathology records were histologically confirmed as BAC. Most cases smoked cigarettes, with a 4-fold risk for ever smoking. Risks tended to increase with smoking intensity (reaching 10-fold for more than 1.5 packs/day) and duration (reaching 5-fold for more than 45 years of smoking). Following 10 or more years of employment, there was a 4-fold risk associated with motor freight occupations, along with nonsignificant excesses among construction workers, petroleum manufacturers, and sugar cane farmers. Cases were more likely than controls to have had emphysema or to have had a close family member with lung cancer. Although based on small numbers, this study suggests that BAC shares many of the epidemiological characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma.

  1. [External radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Girard, N; Mornex, F

    2011-02-01

    For a long time radiotherapy has been excluded from the therapeutic strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma, given its significant toxicity on the non-tumoral liver parenchyma. Conformal radiation is a recent advance in the field of radiotherapy, allowing dose escalation and combination with other therapeutic options for hepatocellular carcinoma, including trans-arterial chemo-embolization. Conformal radiotherapy is associated with interesting features, especially in cirrhotic patients: wide availability, non-invasiveness, possibility to target multiple localizations anywhere within the liver parenchyma, and favorable tolerance profile even in patients with cirrhosis and/or in a poor medical condition. Recently, radiation delivery has been optimized through several technical developments: respiratory gating and intensity-modulated radiotherapy, which allow a better focalization of the ballistics, stereotactic techniques and proton-beam radiotherapy, whose availability is currently limited in Europe. Given the high response rates of hepatocellular carcinoma to radiation, conformal radiotherapy may be regarded as a curative-intent treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma, similar to surgery and per-cutaneous techniques. Yet the impact of radiotherapy has to be evaluated in randomized trials to better integrate in the complex therapeutic algorithm of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 in Treating Patients With Progressive, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cyst Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-14

    Recurrent Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

  3. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  4. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens of cartilage tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Constructs grown on Mir (A) tended to become more spherical, whereas those grown on Earth (B) maintained their initial disc shape. These findings might be related to differences in cultivation conditions, i.e., videotapes showed that constructs floated freely in microgravity but settled and collided with the rotating vessel wall at 1g (Earth's gravity). In particular, on Mir the constructs were exposed to uniform shear and mass transfer at all surfaces such that the tissue grew equally in all directions, whereas on Earth the settling of discoid constructs tended to align their flat circular areas perpendicular to the direction of motion, increasing shear and mass transfer circumferentially such that the tissue grew preferentially in the radial direction. A and B are full cross sections of constructs from Mir and Earth groups shown at 10-power. C and D are representative areas at the construct surfaces enlarged to 200-power. They are stained red with safranin-O. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Photo credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  5. Transitional cell bladder carcinoma with presentation mimicking ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Erickson, D R; Dabbs, D J; Olt, G J

    1996-05-01

    In the case described here, the patient's initial presentation suggested ovarian carcinoma. She had recurrent ascites, a pelvic mass, elevated CA-125, and extensive peritoneal carcinomatosis with transitional cell histology. The presence of hematuria prompted a cystoscopy, which revealed the true site of origin to be the urinary bladder rather than ovaries. This presentation is extremely rare for bladder cancer. Since transitional cell tumors from the bladder have a much worse prognosis than those of ovarian origin, it is important to identify the primary site correctly. Therefore, cystoscopy is essential for patients with hematuria, and should be considered in cases of apparent primary peritoneal carcinoma with transitional cell histology.

  6. Treatment of thyroid follicular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Antonio; Rodríguez, José M; Parrilla, Pascual

    2015-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma includes 2 different tumor types, papillary (PC) and follicular carcinoma (FC), and although similar, their prognosis is different. FC is uncommon, and this has led to it often being analyzed together with PC, and therefore the true reality of this tumor is difficult to know. As a result, the diagnostic and therapeutic management and the prognostic factors in differentiated carcinoma are more predictive of PC than FC. In this review we analyze the current state of many of the therapeutic aspects of this pathology. The best surgical technique and the usefulness of associated lymphadenectomy is also analyzed. Regarding post-surgical ablation with 131I, the indications, doses and usefulness are discussed. For the remaining therapies we analyze the few indications for radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and of new drugs such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  7. Genetic heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Unsal, H.; Isselbacher, K.J. ); Yakicier, C.; Marcais, C.; Ozturk, M. ); Kew, M. ); Volkmann, M. ); Zentgraf, H. )

    1994-01-18

    The authors studied 80 hepatocellular carcinomas from three continents for p53 gene (TP53) mutations and hepatitis B virus (HBV) sequences. p53 mutations were frequent in tumors from Mozambique but not in tumors from South Africa, China, and Germany. Independent of geographic origin, most tumors were positive for HBV sequences. X gene coding sequences of HBV were detected in 78% of tumors, whereas viral sequences in the surface antigen- and core antigen-encoding regions were present in less than 35% of tumors. These observations indicate that hepatocellular carcinomas are genetically heterogeneous. Mozambican-types of hepatocellular carcinomas are characterized by a high incidence of p53 mutations related to aflatoxins. In other tumors, the rarity of p53 mutations combined with the frequent presence of viral X gene coding sequences suggests a possible interference of HBV with the wild-type p53 function.

  8. Radioimmune localization of occult carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Duda, R.B.; Zimmer, A.M.; Rosen, S.T.; Gilyon, K.A.; Webber, D.; Spies, S.; Spies, W.; Merchant, B. )

    1990-07-01

    Patients with a rising serum carcinoembryonic antigen level and no clinical or roentgenographic evidence of recurrent or metastatic cancer present a treatment dilemma. Eleven such patients, 10 with a previously treated colorectal carcinoma and 1 with a previously treated breast carcinoma, received an injection of the anticarcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody ZCE-025 labeled with the radioisotope indium 111. Nuclear scintigraphy was performed on days 3 and 5 through 7 to detect potential sites of tumor recurrence. The monoclonal antibody scan accurately predicted the presence or absence of occult malignancy in 7 (64%) patients. Second-look laparotomy confirmed the monoclonal antibody scan results in the patients with colorectal cancer, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed metastatic breast cancer. This study demonstrates that In-ZCE-025 can localize occult carcinoma and may assist the surgeon in facilitating the operative exploration. In-ZCE-025 assisted in the initiation of adjuvant therapy for the patient with breast cancer.

  9. Current management of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Lillemoe, K D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The author seeks to provide an update on the current management of pancreatic carcinoma, including diagnosis and staging, surgical resection and adjuvant therapy for curative intent, and palliation. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: During the 1960s and 1970s, the operative mortality and long-term survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic carcinoma was so poor that some authors advocated abandoning the procedure. Several recent series have reported a marked improvement in perioperative results with 5-year survival in excess of 20%. Significant advances also have been made in areas of preoperative evaluation and palliation for advanced disease. CONCLUSION: Although carcinoma of the pancreas remains a disease with a poor prognosis, advances in the last decade have led to improvements in the overall management of this disease. Resection for curative intent currently should be accomplished with minimal perioperative mortality. Surgical palliation also may provide the optimal management of selected patients. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 7. PMID:7531966

  10. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the liver.

    PubMed

    Katsuda, S; Nakanishi, I; Kajikawa, K; Takabatake, S

    1984-01-01

    An autopsy case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the liver associated with congenital cysts in a 78-year-old man was reported. The liver weighed 1,900 g, and there was a massive tumor of 11 X 10 X 6.5 cm in the left lobe with multiple sero-mucinous cysts. Histologically, the tumor cells consisted of four types of cells: mucus-secreting cells, squamous cells, intermediate cells, and oxyphilic cells. The variety of tumor cells quite resembled that of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary gland. The sero-mucinous cysts were lined with a single layer of cuboidal or columnar cells and were not communicated with the biliary ducts. Part of the cysts with benign lining cells was in continuity with tumor cells of the intermediate type. Discussion was made on the histogenesis of hepatic mucoepidermoid carcinoma in particular emphasis on the association of the congenital cysts.

  11. Parathyroid carcinoma in tertiary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Seup; Ryu, Han Suk; Kang, Kyung Ho; Park, Sung Jun

    2016-10-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare disease of unknown etiology. This study presents a case of parathyroid carcinoma in a patient with tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Despite a successful kidney transplantation, the intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level of the patient was elevated consistently and could not be controlled by medical therapy. Due to the development of tertiary hyperparathyroidism with bone pain and osteoporosis, subtotal parathyroidectomy was performed 4 months after the kidney transplantation. Histological evaluation revealed that one of four parathyroid lesions was a parathyroid carcinoma, while the others were diffuse hyperplasia. Postoperative laboratory studies indicated a decreased level of iPTH. A positron emission tomography-computed tomography performed 6 months after the operation revealed no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis. PMID:27664600

  12. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Merican, I

    1996-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the commonest cancers in Asian males. In Malaysia, it is one of the ten most common cancers amongst the male population. Most of our patients with HCC present to us rather late and almost all die within 4 months of diagnosis. HCC occurs more commonly in patients with cirrhosis associated with hepatitis B and C infections. Screening for HCC can lead to early detection of small tumours (< 5 cm) that are more amenable to surgical resection, resulting in improved survival rates. The average 5-year survival rate for those who have undergone surgical resection is 68% (range, 22-73%). Better results are obtained with the smaller tumours (< 2 cm in diameter). Patients with chronic hepatitis B and C infection especially those who are > 45 years of age, who have concomitant cirrhosis or have a family history of HCC should be examined every 3-6 months with periodic serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) measurements and abdominal ultrasound examinations. Abdominal ultrasound is useful in the detection of small tumours. While mass screening for HCC is not cost-effective in countries of low incidence of HCC, screening of high risk groups may be justified in countries with a high endemicity of HBV infection. Screening for HCC in Japan, Taiwan and China appears to yield better results than those in the West. Nonetheless, primary prevention with mass hepatitis B vaccination and blood donor screening for anti-HCV is expected to make a much greater impact in the control of HCC in the years to come.

  13. [Medullary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Niccoli-Sire, P; Conte-Devolx, B

    2007-10-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is developed from thyroid C cells that secrete calcitonin (CT). MTC represents 5-10% of thyroid cancers with a 1-2% incidence in nodular thyroid diseases. Diagnosis is usually made by a solitary nodule often associated to nodal metastasis and confirmed by a high basal CT level which represents its biological marker. MTC may present as a sporadic form and in about 30% of case as a familial form as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, an hereditary dominant inherited disease related to germline mutation of the proto-oncogene RET. Both biological (CT) and genetic (RET) markers allows the optimal diagnosis and treatment of MTC; the former allows screening and early diagnosis of MTC by routinely CT measurements in nodular thyroid diseases that make the adequate and complete surgery required to be performed. The former leads to diagnose familial MTC and to identify at risk subjects in whom early or prophylactic surgery may be performed. Treatment of MTC is based on the complete surgical resection: total thyroidectomy associated to central and laterocervical nodal dissection. For locally advanced or metastatic MTC, complete cervical surgery is required and needs to be associated to other systemic treatments: as chemotherapy is not very efficient, radioimmunotherapy and RET target gene therapy (mainly tyrosine kinase inhibitors) appears as possible valuable therapeutic options for the future. Prognosis of MTC is mainly related to both the stage of the disease and the extend of the initial surgery. Ten-year survival is about 80% when the patients are not surgically cured and reaches 95% when the biological marker CT is normalized after surgery. PMID:17572372

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma: a review

    PubMed Central

    Balogh, Julius; Victor, David; Asham, Emad H; Burroughs, Sherilyn Gordon; Boktour, Maha; Saharia, Ashish; Li, Xian; Ghobrial, R Mark; Monsour, Howard P

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In the United States, HCC is the ninth leading cause of cancer deaths. Despite advances in prevention techniques, screening, and new technologies in both diagnosis and treatment, incidence and mortality continue to rise. Cirrhosis remains the most important risk factor for the development of HCC regardless of etiology. Hepatitis B and C are independent risk factors for the development of cirrhosis. Alcohol consumption remains an important additional risk factor in the United States as alcohol abuse is five times higher than hepatitis C. Diagnosis is confirmed without pathologic confirmation. Screening includes both radiologic tests, such as ultrasound, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, and serological markers such as α-fetoprotein at 6-month intervals. Multiple treatment modalities exist; however, only orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) or surgical resection is curative. OLT is available for patients who meet or are downstaged into the Milan or University of San Francisco criteria. Additional treatment modalities include transarterial chemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, percutaneous ethanol injection, cryoablation, radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy, and molecularly targeted therapies. Selection of a treatment modality is based on tumor size, location, extrahepatic spread, and underlying liver function. HCC is an aggressive cancer that occurs in the setting of cirrhosis and commonly presents in advanced stages. HCC can be prevented if there are appropriate measures taken, including hepatitis B virus vaccination, universal screening of blood products, use of safe injection practices, treatment and education of alcoholics and intravenous drug users, and initiation of antiviral therapy. Continued improvement in both surgical and nonsurgical approaches has demonstrated

  15. Phytochemical phenolics in organically grown vegetables.

    PubMed

    Young, Janice E; Zhao, Xin; Carey, Edward E; Welti, Ruth; Yang, Shie-Shien; Wang, Weiqun

    2005-12-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake is inversely correlated with risks for several chronic diseases in humans. Phytochemicals, and in particular, phenolic compounds, present in plant foods may be partly responsible for these health benefits through a variety of mechanisms. Since environmental factors play a role in a plant's production of secondary metabolites, it was hypothesized that an organic agricultural production system would increase phenolic levels. Cultivars of leaf lettuce, collards, and pac choi were grown either on organically certified plots or on adjacent conventional plots. Nine prominent phenolic agents were quantified by HPLC, including phenolic acids (e. g. caffeic acid and gallic acid) and aglycone or glycoside flavonoids (e. g. apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, and quercetin). Statistically, we did not find significant higher levels of phenolic agents in lettuce and collard samples grown organically. The total phenolic content of organic pac choi samples as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, however, was significantly higher than conventional samples (p < 0.01), and seemed to be associated with a greater attack the plants in organic plots by flea beetles. These results indicated that although organic production method alone did not enhance biosynthesis of phytochemicals in lettuce and collards, the organic system provided an increased opportunity for insect attack, resulting in a higher level of total phenolic agents in pac choi.

  16. Magnetization dynamics of cobalt grown on graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, A. J.; White, S. P.; Adur, R.; Pu, Y.; Hammel, P. C.; Amamou, W.; Kawakami, R. K.

    2014-05-07

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spin pumping is a rapidly growing field which has demonstrated promising results in a variety of material systems. This technique utilizes the resonant precession of magnetization in a ferromagnet to inject spin into an adjacent non-magnetic material. Spin pumping into graphene is attractive on account of its exceptional spin transport properties. This article reports on FMR characterization of cobalt grown on chemical vapor deposition graphene and examines the validity of linewidth broadening as an indicator of spin pumping. In comparison to cobalt samples without graphene, direct contact cobalt-on-graphene exhibits increased FMR linewidth—an often used signature of spin pumping. Similar results are obtained in Co/MgO/graphene structures, where a 1 nm MgO layer acts as a tunnel barrier. However, magnetometry, magnetic force microscopy, and Kerr microscopy measurements demonstrate increased magnetic disorder in cobalt grown on graphene, perhaps due to changes in the growth process and an increase in defects. This magnetic disorder may account for the observed linewidth enhancement due to effects such as two-magnon scattering or mosaicity. As such, it is not possible to conclude successful spin injection into graphene from FMR linewidth measurements alone.

  17. Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

  18. Merkel cell carcinoma and chronic arsenicism.

    PubMed

    Lien, H C; Tsai, T F; Lee, Y Y; Hsiao, C H

    1999-10-01

    Arsenic is a well-documented human carcinogen. Bowen's disease, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma are the most common skin cancers found in patients exposed to arsenic over the long term. Merkel cell carcinoma has been documented in Taiwanese patients who resided in an endemic area of black foot disease, another condition found in patients with chronic arsenicism. We collected all cases of Merkel cell carcinoma diagnosed at two medical centers in Taiwan (N = 11) to find a possible association between chronic arsenicism and Merkel cell carcinoma. In our study 6 of the 11 patients were residents of the endemic areas for chronic arsenicism.

  19. Thyroid carcinoma, version 2.2014.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, R Michael; Haddad, Robert I; Ball, Douglas W; Byrd, David; Dickson, Paxton; Duh, Quan-Yang; Ehya, Hormoz; Haymart, Megan; Hoh, Carl; Hunt, Jason P; Iagaru, Andrei; Kandeel, Fouad; Kopp, Peter; Lamonica, Dominick M; Lydiatt, William M; McCaffrey, Judith; Moley, Jeffrey F; Parks, Lee; Raeburn, Christopher D; Ridge, John A; Ringel, Matthew D; Scheri, Randall P; Shah, Jatin P; Sherman, Steven I; Sturgeon, Cord; Waguespack, Steven G; Wang, Thomas N; Wirth, Lori J; Hoffmann, Karin G; Hughes, Miranda

    2014-12-01

    These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on some of the major updates to the 2014 NCCN Guidelines for Thyroid Carcinoma. Kinase inhibitor therapy may be used to treat thyroid carcinoma that is symptomatic and/or progressive and not amenable to treatment with radioactive iodine. Sorafenib may be considered for select patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma, whereas vandetanib or cabozantinib may be recommended for select patients with metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma. Other kinase inhibitors may be considered for select patients with either type of thyroid carcinoma. A new section on "Principles of Kinase Inhibitor Therapy in Advanced Thyroid Cancer" was added to the NCCN Guidelines to assist with using these novel targeted agents.

  20. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bo Mi; Park, Sung Hee; Kim, Soo Jin; Seo, Jae Seung; Kim, Yang Soo; Shim, Hyung Jin; Lee, Jong Beum

    2014-09-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma is uncommon in children and constitutes 0.5% to 3% of all pediatric malignancies. Few studies have reported imaging findings of childhood papillary thyroid carcinomas. We report 3 cases of papillary thyroid carcinomas in children. Among the 3 patients, the youngest was a 7-year-old girl. In the current report, we describe 2 cases of classic papillary thyroid carcinoma and 1 case of pediatric diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The ultrasonographic features and diagnostic procedures in these pediatric patients are similar to those in adults.

  1. [Lactobacilli and colon carcinoma--A review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shumei; Zhang, Lanwei; Shan, Yujuan

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological studies showed that incidence of colon carcinoma is increased in the world. There are many difficulties to inhibit colon carcinoma because the causes of inducing colon carcinoma were various and interactive each other. Previous evidence supported the balance of the colonic microflora was critical in inhibiting colon carcinoma and the protection by colonic microflora could be improved by ingesting lactobacilli. Therefore, the biological functions and anticancer effects of lactobacilli attract attention of researchers. In this review we discussed the causes of colon carcinoma; the anticancer mechanisms of lactobacilli on the basis of our own studies. Eventually, we summarized the effects of anticancer of different components and metabolic products extracted from lactobacilli.

  2. Tubulocystic carcinoma of kidney associated with papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Mahesh; Shet, Tanuja; Bakshi, Ganesh; Desai, Sangeeta

    2011-01-01

    Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TCRCC) is a rare variant of renal cell carcinoma, which has distinct histology but there is some controversy about its association with papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) and cell of origin in literature. We report an 18-year-old girl with the rare TCRCC of kidney associated with PRCC with metastases to the para-aortic nodes. The patient presented with hematuria and a right renal mass with enlarged regional nodes for which a radical nephrectomy with retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was done. On gross examination, a solid cystic lesion involving the lower pole and middle pole of the kidney measuring 12x9x9 cm was seen along with an additional cystic lesion in upper pole of kidney. Microscopically the main tumor showed the typical histology of a tubulocystic carcinoma with multiple cysts filled with secretions lined by variably flattened epithelium with hobnailing of cells. The mass in the upper pole was a high-grade PRCC and the nodal metastases had morphology similar to this component. To conclude, at least a small but definite subset of TCRCC is associated with PRCC, and cases associated with PRCC do seem to have a higher propensity for nodal metastasis as in the case we report.

  3. Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Presenting as Bilateral Cheek Masses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Wook; Hah, J. Hun; An, Soo-Youn; Chang, Hak

    2013-01-01

    Mandibular metastasis of thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare. We present the case of a 46-year-old woman who had bilateral huge cheek masses that had grown rapidly over several years. Intra-oral mucosal tissue biopsy and imaging work-up including computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and the initial diagnosis was presumed to be central giant cell granuloma. Incidentally detected thyroid lesions were studied with ultra-sonography guided fine needle aspiration and diagnosed as simple benign nodules. Due to continuous oral bleeding and the locally destructive feature of the lesions, we decided to excise the mass surgically. To avoid functional deficit, a stepwise approach was performed: Firstly, the larger left mass was excised and the mandible was reconstructed with a fibular free flap. The final pathologic diagnosis was follicular thyroid cancer. Postoperative I-131 thyroid scan and whole body positron-emissions-tomography were performed. Right side mass was revealed as a thyroid malignancy. Multiple bony metastases were detected. Since further radioactive iodine therapy was required, additional total thyroidectomy and right side mandibulectomy with fibular free flap reconstruction was performed. The patient also underwent high dose radioactive iodine therapy and palliative extra-beam radiotherapy for the metastatic lumbar lesion. Follicular thyroid carcinoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis for mandibular mass lesions. PMID:23526730

  4. Xenotransplanted human prostate carcinoma (DU145) cells develop into carcinomas and cribriform carcinomas: ultrastructural aspects.

    PubMed

    Gilloteaux, Jacques; Jamison, James M; Neal, Deborah R; Summers, Jack L; Taper, Henryk S

    2012-10-01

    Androgen-independent, human prostate carcinoma cells (DU145) develop into solid, carcinomatous xenotransplants on the diaphragm of nu/nu mice. Tumors encompass at least two poorly differentiated cell types: a rapidly dividing, eosinophilic cell comprises the main cell population and a few, but large basophilic cells able to invade the peritoneal stroma, the muscular tissue, lymph vessels. Poor cell contacts, intracytoplasmic lumina, and signet cells are noted. Lysosomal activities are reflected by entoses and programmed cell deaths forming cribriform carcinomas. In large tumors, degraded cells may align with others to facilitate formation of blood supply routes. Malignant cells would spread via ascites and through lymphatics.

  5. Mitochondriome and Cholangiocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bahitham, Wesam; Liao, Xiaoping; Peng, Fred; Bamforth, Fiona; Chan, Alicia; Mason, Andrew; Stone, Bradley; Stothard, Paul; Sergi, Consolato

    2014-01-01

    Cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCA) of the liver was the target of more interest, recently, due mainly to its increased incidence and possible association to new environmental factors. Somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been found in several cancers. Some of these malignancies contain changes of mtDNA, which are not or, very rarely, found in the mtDNA databases. In terms of evolutionary genetics and oncology, these data are extremely interesting and may be considered a sign of poor fitness, which may conduct in some way to different cellular processes, including carcinogenesis. MitoChip analysis is a strong tool for investigations in experimental oncology and was carried out on three CCA cell lines (HuCCT1, Huh-28 and OZ) with different outcome in human and a Papova-immortalized normal hepatocyte cell line (THLE-3). Real time quantitative PCR, western blot analysis, transmission electron microscopy, confocal laser microscopy, and metabolic assays including L-Lactate and NAD+/NADH assays were meticulously used to identify mtDNA copy number, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) content, ultrastructural morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and differential composition of metabolites, respectively. Among 102 mtDNA changes observed in the CCA cell lines, 28 were non-synonymous coding region alterations resulting in an amino acid change. Thirty-eight were synonymous and 30 involved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) regions. We found three new heteroplasmic mutations in two CCA cell lines (HuCCT1 and Huh-28). Interestingly, mtDNA copy number was decreased in all three CCA cell lines, while complexes I and III were decreased with depolarization of mitochondria. L-Lactate and NAD+/NADH assays were increased in all three CCA cell lines. MtDNA alterations seem to be a common event in CCA. This is the first study using MitoChip analysis with comprehensive metabolic studies in CCA cell lines potentially creating a platform for future

  6. Spontaneous regression of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Ayres, R C; Robertson, D A; Dewbury, K C; Millward-Sadler, G H; Smith, C L

    1990-01-01

    A 63 year old white woman presented with abdominal discomfort, anorexia, and weight loss. Investigations showed hepatocellular carcinoma with pulmonary metastases. The primary and secondary tumours resolved without specific treatment. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2165992

  7. Transrectal Ultrasound of Prostatic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Daniel J.; Cooperberg, Peter L.; Goldenberg, S. Larry; Toi, Ants

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the indications for transrectal ultrasound; to briefly describe the sonographic technique; to describe the sonographic findings of prostatic carcinoma; to review the indications for transrectal sonographic-guided biopsy; and to discuss the controversles of routine screening and staging. ImagesFigures 1-3 PMID:21229044

  8. Genomic homogeneity in fibrolamellar carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Sirivatanauksorn, Y; Sirivatanauksorn, V; Lemoine, N; Williamson, R; Davidson, B

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Fibrolamellar carcinoma (FLC) is a variant of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with distinctive clinical and histological features. To date there have been few studies on the genotypic aspects of FLC and no previous attempts have been made to use the arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) technique to detect genetic alterations in this disease.
AIM—The aim of this study was to assess the degree of genomic heterogeneity of FLC using the AP-PCR technique.
METHODS—A total of 50 tissue samples of primary and metastatic FLCs from seven patients were microdissected. AP-PCR amplification of each genomic DNA sample was carried out using two arbitrary primers.
RESULTS—DNA fingerprints of the primary FLCs and all their metastatic lesions (both synchronous and metachronous disease) were identical in an individual patient. The fingerprints were different between tumours of different patients. No evidence of intratumour heterogeneity was observed.
CONCLUSIONS—Such genomic homogeneity in FLCs may explain their indolent growth. The absence of clonal evolution, which is present in other tumours (particularly HCCs), may explain the distinct behaviour in this tumour. The tumorigenic pathway and degree of somatic genomic changes in this disease may be less complex than in HCC.


Keywords: fibrolamellar carcinoma; hepatocellular carcinoma; DNA fingerprint; arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction; laser capture microdissection PMID:11413114

  9. Radiotherapy T1 glottic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zablow, A.I.; Erba, P.S.; Sanfillippo, L.J.

    1989-11-01

    From 1970 to 1985, curative radiotherapy was administered to 63 patients with stage I carcinoma of the true vocal cords. Precision radiotherapeutic technique yields cure rates comparable to surgical results. Good voice quality was preserved in a high percentage of patients.

  10. Mandible metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Niedzielska, Iwona; Langowska-Adamczyk, Helena; Pajak, Jacek; Kajor, Maciej; Niedzielski, Zbigniew; Gołka, Dariusz

    2004-01-01

    Metastases to oral cavity are very uncommon. We present a case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis to the jaw. The x-ray examination and clinical picture of the lesion were not characteristic. The gingival metastasis may mimic other benign and malignant conditions which affect jaw and therefore the histopathological examination is necessary to make an ultimate diagnosis.

  11. Hexagonal boron nitride grown by MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Akasaka, T.; Makimoto, T.

    2008-11-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has a potential for optical device applications in the deep ultraviolet spectral region. For several decades, only amorphous and turbostratic boron nitride (BN) films had been grown by chemical vapor deposition and metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. By introducing flow-rate modulation epitaxy (FME), which enables us to reduce parasitic reactions and lower the optimal growth temperature, we have succeeded in growing single-phase h-BN epitaxial films on nearly lattice-matched (1 1 1) Ni substrates. The h-BN epitaxial films exhibit near-band-gap ultraviolet luminescence at a wavelength of 227 nm in cathodoluminescence at room temperature. The combination of FME and the lattice-matched substrate paves the way for the epitaxial growth of high-quality h-BN.

  12. Perfect crystals grown from imperfect interfaces.

    PubMed

    Falub, Claudiu V; Meduňa, Mojmír; Chrastina, Daniel; Isa, Fabio; Marzegalli, Anna; Kreiliger, Thomas; Taboada, Alfonso G; Isella, Giovanni; Miglio, Leo; Dommann, Alex; von Känel, Hans

    2013-01-01

    The fabrication of advanced devices increasingly requires materials with different properties to be combined in the form of monolithic heterostructures. In practice this means growing epitaxial semiconductor layers on substrates often greatly differing in lattice parameters and thermal expansion coefficients. With increasing layer thickness the relaxation of misfit and thermal strains may cause dislocations, substrate bowing and even layer cracking. Minimizing these drawbacks is therefore essential for heterostructures based on thick layers to be of any use for device fabrication. Here we prove by scanning X-ray nanodiffraction that mismatched Ge crystals epitaxially grown on deeply patterned Si substrates evolve into perfect structures away from the heavily dislocated interface. We show that relaxing thermal and misfit strains result just in lattice bending and tiny crystal tilts. We may thus expect a new concept in which continuous layers are replaced by quasi-continuous crystal arrays to lead to dramatically improved physical properties.

  13. Nanoelectronic biosensors based on CVD grown graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yinxi; Dong, Xiaochen; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Chang Ming; Li, Lain-Jong; Chen, Peng

    2010-08-01

    Graphene, a single-atom-thick and two-dimensional carbon material, has attracted great attention recently. Because of its unique electrical, physical, and optical properties, graphene has great potential to be a novel alternative to carbon nanotubes in biosensing. We demonstrate the use of large-sized CVD grown graphene films configured as field-effect transistors for real-time biomolecular sensing. Glucose or glutamate molecules were detected by the conductance change of the graphene transistor as the molecules are oxidized by the specific redox enzyme (glucose oxidase or glutamic dehydrogenase) functionalized onto the graphene film. This study indicates that graphene is a promising candidate for the development of real-time nanoelectronic biosensors.Graphene, a single-atom-thick and two-dimensional carbon material, has attracted great attention recently. Because of its unique electrical, physical, and optical properties, graphene has great potential to be a novel alternative to carbon nanotubes in biosensing. We demonstrate the use of large-sized CVD grown graphene films configured as field-effect transistors for real-time biomolecular sensing. Glucose or glutamate molecules were detected by the conductance change of the graphene transistor as the molecules are oxidized by the specific redox enzyme (glucose oxidase or glutamic dehydrogenase) functionalized onto the graphene film. This study indicates that graphene is a promising candidate for the development of real-time nanoelectronic biosensors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: AFM images of graphene film before and after functionalization, transfer curves of graphene after every step, SEM image of CNT-net, and detection results using CNT-net devices. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00142b

  14. van der Waals Heterostructures Grown by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Christopher

    In this work, we demonstrate the high-quality MBE heterostructure growth of various layered 2D materials by van der Waals epitaxy (VDWE). The coupling of different types of van der Waals materials including transition metal dichalcogenide thin films (e.g., WSe2, WTe2, HfSe2) , insulating hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), and topological insulators (e.g., Bi2Se3) allows for the fabrication of novel electronic devices that take advantage of unique quantum confinement and spin-based characteristics. The relaxed lattice-matching criteria of van der Waals epitaxy has allowed for high-quality heterostructure growth with atomically abrupt interfaces, allowing us to couple these materials based primarily on their band alignment and electronic properties. We will discuss the impact of sample preparation, surface reactivity, and lattice mismatch of various substrates (sapphire, graphene, TMDs, Bi2Se3) on the growth mode and quality of the films and will discuss our studies of substrate temperature and flux rates on the resultant growth and grain size. Structural and chemical characterization was conducted via reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. Experimentally determined band alignments have been determined and compared with first-principles calculations allowing the design of novel low-power logic and magnetic memory devices. Initial results from the electrical characterization of these grown thin films and some simple devices will also be presented. These VDWE grown layered 2D materials show significant potential for fabricating novel heterostructures with tunable band alignments and magnetic properties for a variety of nanoelectronic and optoelectronic applications.

  15. Inhibitory effects of tetradecanoylphorbol acetate and diacylglycerol on erythropoietin production in human renal carcinoma cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Hagiwara, Masamichi; Nagakura, Kazuhiko; Ueno, Munehisa; Fisher, J.W. )

    1987-11-01

    A human renal carcinoma from a patient with an erythrocytosis, serially transplanted into athymic nude mice, was grown in primary monolayer cell cultures. After reaching confluency the cultured cells formed multicellular hemicysts (domes) which became more abundant as the cultures approached saturation density. Erythropoietin (Ep) production by this renal carcinoma in culture was only slightly increased at the time of semiconfluency but showed a marked increase in Ep levels in the culture medium after the cultures reached confluency, in parallel with an increase in dome formation. The phorbol ester tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) showed a significant dose-related inhibitory effect on Ep production and dome formation in the renal carcinoma cell cultures, suggesting an important role of protein kinase C, the only known receptor for TPA, in inhibiting the expression of differentiated phenotypes in the renal carcinoma cells. These studies suggest a role of the inositol-lipid second messenger path and protein kinase C in the regulation of Ep production.

  16. Video of Tissue Grown in Space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Principal investigator Leland Chung grew prostate cancer and bone stromal cells aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia during the STS-107 mission. Although the experiment samples were lost along with the ill-fated spacecraft and crew, he did obtain downlinked video of the experiment that indicates the enormous potential of growing tissues in microgravity. Cells grown aboard Columbia had grown far larger tissue aggregates at day 5 than did the cells grown in a NASA bioreactor on the ground.

  17. Insular carcinoma: a distinct de novo entity among follicular carcinomas of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Pilotti, S; Collini, P; Mariani, L; Placucci, M; Bongarzone, I; Vigneri, P; Cipriani, S; Falcetta, F; Miceli, R; Pierotti, M A; Rilke, F

    1997-12-01

    We reclassified 720 nonmedullary invasive thyroid carcinomas diagnosed and treated between 1975 and 1993. Twenty-seven cases met the criteria of insular carcinoma and 29 cases those of widely invasive follicular carcinoma. Comparison of these histotypes with respect to pathologic stage and overall, relative, and visceral metastasis-free survival showed a significant association between histotype and pT and pN categories. In particular, pT4 (p < 0.001) and pN1 (p < 0.001) categories were more frequent in the insular carcinoma histotype. By contrast, no significant differences in overall, relative, or visceral metastasis-free survival were observed between insular carcinoma and widely invasive follicular carcinoma. Molecular analysis by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism demonstrated RAS gene family point mutations in five of eight cases analyzed in each of the two histotypes, with a high proportion of CAA-->AAA transversion at codon 61 of the N-RAS gene in insular carcinoma. These findings suggest that insular carcinoma represents a de novo entity distinct from widely invasive follicular carcinoma, that widely invasive follicular carcinoma has biologic characteristics more consistent with poorly differentiated than well-differentiated carcinomas, and that both insular carcinoma and widely invasive follicular carcinoma share similar molecular alterations.

  18. Synchronous invasive ductal carcinoma in encapsulated papillary ductal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Regan, J.P.; Casaubon, J.T.; Genelus-Dominique, E.

    2016-01-01

    Encapsulated papillary ductal carcinoma (EPC) of the breast is a rare form of cancer with defining histopathology of encapsulation. These lesions are typically indolent but may rarely have concomitant, synchronous invasive lesions. This report details a 56-year-old black female who presented with a palpable left breast mass. Adenosis with focal fibrous and ductal hyperplasia characteristics were found on core needle biopsy. Excisional biopsy showed EPC with invasive components. A simple mastectomy was performed and a second lesion was identified as invasive ductal carcinoma. EPC typically has good prognosis and a low incidence of invasion. The risk increases in the presence of a second, synchronous lesion as in our case. Management is typically performed with breast conserving methods; however, missing a second lesion is possible. This report provides an overview of the literature and discussion of the role of MRI in preoperative workup. PMID:27562577

  19. Renal cell carcinoma: Evolving and emerging subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Crumley, Suzanne M; Divatia, Mukul; Truong, Luan; Shen, Steven; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rapidly expanding. For those who diagnose and treat RCC, it is important to understand the new developments. In recent years, many new renal tumors have been described and defined, and our understanding of the biology and clinical correlates of these tumors is changing. Evolving concepts in Xp11 translocation carcinoma, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, multilocular cystic clear cell RCC, and carcinoma associated with neuroblastoma are addressed within this review. Tubulocystic carcinoma, thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of kidney, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, and clear cell papillary RCC are also described. Finally, candidate entities, including RCC with t(6;11) translocation, hybrid oncocytoma/chromophobe RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome, and renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor are reviewed. Knowledge of these new entities is important for diagnosis, treatment and subsequent prognosis. This review provides a targeted summary of new developments in RCC. PMID:24364021

  20. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  1. Clear cell carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, C; Carlile, A

    1985-01-01

    Six tumours of the lung initially classified as clear cell carcinoma, were studied. Examination of further material by light and electron microscopy showed adenocarcinomatous differentiation in three cases and squamous differentiation in two. One case showed the features of a large cell anaplastic carcinoma. The clear appearance of the cytoplasm in paraffin sections was due to accumulations of glycogen that were partially removed during processing. It is concluded that clear cell carcinoma is not a single and separate entity. Images PMID:4031101

  2. Small cell carcinoma of epididymis: multimodal therapy.

    PubMed

    Lima, Guilherme C; Varkarakis, Ioannis M; Allaf, Mohamad E; Fine, Samson W; Kavoussi, Louis R

    2005-08-01

    Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma is an infrequent tumor that can occur in various organs. Although a few sporadic reports about extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma have been published, much remains to be uncovered about the clinical features, optimal treatment, and natural history. We present a case of small cell carcinoma of the epididymis with retroperitoneal recurrence, an exceedingly rare tumor with behavior and treatment not well characterized. Multimodal therapy with chemotherapy and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was necessary to manage this aggressive disease.

  3. [Tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Tateishi, Ryosuke; Enooku, Kenichiro; Shiina, Shuichiro; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2012-05-01

    Three tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are available in Japan: alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonists-II (PIVKA-II), and Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3). Although AFP has drawbacks in its specificity, it is widely utilized in treatment evaluation and prognosis prediction. PIVKA-II is a unique marker that does not correlate with AFP value and can predict microvascular invasion. AFP-L3 is a highly specific marker and strong predictor of poor prognosis. These three markers are indispensable in every aspect of clinical practice of hepatocellular carcinoma including surveillance, diagnosis, treatment evaluation, and prognosis prediction.

  4. Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Rainey, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The human adrenal cortex secretes mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens. These steroids are produced from unique cell types located within the three distinct zones of the adrenal cortex. Disruption of adrenal steroid production results in a variety of diseases that can lead to hypertension, metabolic syndrome, infertility and androgen excess. The adrenal cortex is also a common site for the development of adenomas, and rarely the site for the development of carcinomas. The adenomas can lead to diseases associated with adrenal steroid excess, while the carcinomas are particularly aggressive and have a poor prognosis. In vitro cell culture models provide an important tool to examine molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling both the normal and pathologic function of the adrenal cortex. Herein we discuss the human adrenocortical cell lines and their use as model systems for adrenal studies. PMID:21924324

  5. Allelic loss in colorectal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, S.E.; Fearon, E.R.; Tersmette, K.W.F.; Enterline, J.P.; Vogelstein, B.; Hamilton, S.R. ); Leppert, M.; Nakamura, Yusuke; White, R. )

    1989-06-02

    Clinical and pathological associations with molecular genetic alterations were studied in colorectal carcinomas from 83 patients. Fractional allelic loss, a measure of allelic deletions throughout the genome, and allelic deletions of specific chromosomal arms (the short arm of 17 and long arm of 18) each provided independent prognostic information by multivariate analysis when considered individually with Dukes' classification. Distant metastasis was significantly associated with high fractional allelic loss and with deletions of 17p and 18q. Mutations of ras proto-oncogenes and deletions of 5q had no prognostic importance. Statistically significant associations were also found between allelic losses and a family history of cancer, left-sided tumor location, and absence of extracellular tumor mucin. Allelic deletion analysis thus identified subsets of colorectal carcinoma with increased predilection for distant metastasis and cancer-related death. Further studies may define a subset of genetic alterations that can be used clinically to help assess prognosis.

  6. Gastric Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rustagi, Tarun; Alekshun, Todd J.

    2010-01-01

    Case: A 63-year-old male presented with unintentional weight loss of 20 pounds over a 4-month duration. He reported loss of appetite, intermittent post-prandial nausea, bloating and early satiety. He also complained of dyspepsia and had been treated for reflux during the previous 2 years. He denied vomiting, dysphagia, odynophagia, abdominal pain, melena, hematochezia, or alterations in bowel habits. Additionally, he denied fevers, night sweats, cough, or dyspnea. He quit smoking 25 years ago, and denied alcohol use. His past medical history was significant for basal cell carcinoma treated with local curative therapy and he was without recurrence on surveillance. Pertinent family history included a paternal uncle with lung cancer at the age of 74. Physical examination was unremarkable except for occult heme-positive stools. Laboratory evaluation revealed elevated liver enzymes (ALT-112, AST-81, AlkPhos-364). CT scan of the chest, abdomen and pelvis showed diffuse heterogeneous liver with extensive nodularity, raising the concern for metastases. Serum tumor-markers: PSA, CEA, CA 19-9, and AFP were all within normal limits. Screening colonoscopy was normal, but esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a malignant-appearing ulcerative lesion involving the gastro-esophageal junction and gastric cardia. Pathology confirmed an invasive gastric large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of a hepatic lesion revealed malignant cells with cytologic features consistent with large-cell type carcinoma and positive immunostaining for synaptophysin favoring neuroendocrine differentiation. A PET-CT demonstrated intense diffuse FDG uptake of the liver, suggesting diffuse hepatic parenchymal infiltration by tumor. There were multiple foci of intense osseous FDG uptake with corresponding osteolytic lesions seen on CT scan. The remaining intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic structures were unremarkable. The patient will receive palliative systemic therapy

  7. Carcinoma in accessory axillary breast.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Seema; Mishra, Shashi Prakash; Kumar, Satendra; Khanna, Ajay Kumar

    2015-08-10

    We present a rare case of carcinoma developing in an accessory breast. The patient presented with a progressive lump in her right axilla for 1 year. On examination, there was a well-developed nipple areola complex in the right axilla overlying a hard, fixed 5 × 3 cm lump. On investigation, core biopsy revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma of the breast. Mammography also revealed features of a malignant lesion with skin and muscle infiltration. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered followed by modified radical mastectomy after three cycles. Immunohistochemistry study showed positive status of oestrogen and progesterone receptors, and negative HER-2 neu. Three more cycles of chemotherapy along with 50 Gy radiotherapy were given in an adjuvant setting followed by hormone therapy.

  8. Silicon samples grown under reduced melt convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binetti, S.; Gonik, M.; Le Donne, A.; Croel, A.

    2015-05-01

    In any crystallization process, convection rules the formation and distribution of impurities and precipitates. Silicon is actually a well studied material; however the distribution of impurities and their related precipitation processes are still not investigated from the point of view of diffusion and segregation phenomena. In principle, experimentation under microgravity can contribute to a better understanding of the processes occurring during solidification since the chemical segregation and distribution of impurities can be studied under purely diffusive transport conditions. In ground experiments, the effect of a reduced melt convection growth process and its effect on the crystal quality could be studied growing silicon by the Axial Heating Process (AHP). For this purpose, a modified Float Zone (FZ) technique using an additional AHP heater submerged into the melt was applied in this work to grow silicon single crystal. The obtained samples were inspected by resistivity measurements and spectroscopic techniques (PL, FT-IR). The spatial distribution of the dopant along the ingot obtained by local resistivity measurements was compared with a theoretical distribution of dopant. PL measurements confirm the high quality level of the grown ingots and infrared spectroscopy reveals low carbon and oxygen concentration. Such an approach seems to be very promising also for solar grade Si solidification for PV applications.

  9. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  10. Cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gaitan-Gaona, Francisco; Said, Mirra C; Valdes-Rodriguez, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman presented with a 3 cm black, ulcerated nodule located on the skin of the upper abdomen, just below the breast. The lesion was painful to the touch, but the patient reported no other associated symptoms and was otherwise healthy. A 4-mm punch biopsy of the affected skin was obtained and the histological diagnosis was cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma. PMID:27136637

  11. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of trachea.

    PubMed

    Vigg, Ajit; Mantri, Sumant; Vigg, Avanti; Vigg, Arul

    2004-01-01

    A 20-year-old male, presented with cough, haemoptysis, breathlessness and wheezing for the past one month. Contrast enhanced computerised tomographic (CECT), scan of chest and fibreoptic bronchoscopy revealed an endotracheal mass that on histopathological examination showed adenoid cystic carcinoma of trachea. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of chest confirmed involvement of adjacent prevertebral, para-oesophageal and subcarinal lymph nodes rendering the tumour inoperable. PMID:15515830

  12. Renal cell carcinoma in childhood.

    PubMed

    Kabala, J E; Shield, J; Duncan, A

    1992-01-01

    The imaging features of renal cell carcinoma in 4 young patients (age 7 to 14 years) are described. A high proportion (75%) showed calcification on plain radiographs or computed tomography (CT). Both patients who underwent CT showed well defined high density tumours which were also echogenic on ultrasound examination. These findings are significantly different to those most commonly seen on studies of the tumour in adults.

  13. Anaplastic giant cell thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wallin, G; Lundell, G; Tennvall, J

    2004-01-01

    Anaplastic (giant cell) thyroid carcinoma (ATC), is one of the most aggressive malignancies in humans with a median survival time after diagnosis of 3-6 months. Death from ATC was earlier seen because of local growth and suffocation. ATC is uncommon, accounting for less than 5 % of all thyroid carcinomas. The diagnosis can be established by means of multiple fine needle aspiration biopsies, which are neither harmful nor troublesome for the patient. The cytological diagnosis of this high-grade malignant tumour is usually not difficult for a well trained cytologist. The intention to treat patients with ATC is cure, although only few of them survive. The majority of the patients are older than 60 years and treatment must be influenced by their high age. We have by using a combined modality regimen succeeded in achieving local control in most patients. Every effort should be made to control the primary tumour and thereby improve the quality of remaining life and it is important for patients, relatives and the personnel to know that cure is not impossible. Different treatment combinations have been used since 30 years including radiotherapy, cytostatic drugs and surgery, when feasible. In our latest combined regimen, 22 patients were treated with hyper fractionated radiotherapy 1.6Gy x 2 to a total target dose of 46 Gy given preoperatively, 20 mg doxorubicin was administered intravenously once weekly and surgery was carried out 2-3 weeks after the radiotherapy. 17 of these 22 patients were operated upon and none of these 17 patients got a local recurrence. In the future we are awaiting the development of new therapeutic approaches to this aggressive type of carcinoma. Inhibitors of angiogenesis might be useful. Combretastatin has displayed cytotoxicity against ATC cell lines and has had a positive effect on ATC in a patient. Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) genetherapy is also being currently considered for dedifferentiated thyroid carcinomas with the ultimate aim of

  14. Influence of shading on container-grown flowering dogwoods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bare root dogwoods can be successfully grown when transplanted into a container production system. Shade treatments regardless of color or density did have an effect on the plant growth of Cherokee Brave™ and Cherokee Princess dogwood. Plants grown under 50% black and 50% white shade had more heigh...

  15. Systemic regulation of photosynthetic function in field-grown sorghum.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Liu, Yujun; Shi, Lei; Jiang, Chuangdao

    2015-09-01

    The photosynthetic characteristics of developing leaves of plants grown under artificial conditions are, to some extent, regulated systemically by mature leaves; however, whether systemic regulation of photosynthesis occurs in field-grown crops is unclear. To explore this question, we investigated the effects of planting density on growth characteristics, gas exchange, leaf nitrogen concentration and chlorophyll a fluorescence in field-grown sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). Our results showed that close planting resulted in a marked decline in light intensity in lower canopy. Sorghum plants grown at a high planting density had lower net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), and transpiration rate (E) than plants grown at a low planting density. Moreover, in the absence of mineral deficiency, close planting induced a slight increase in leaf nitrogen concentration. The decreased photosynthesis in leaves of the lower canopy at high planting density was caused mainly by the low light. However, newly developed leaves exposed to high light in the upper canopy of plants grown at high planting density also exhibited a distinct decline in photosynthesis relative to plants grown at low planting density. Based on these results, the photosynthetic function of the newly developed leaves in the upper canopy was not determined fully by their own high light environment. Accordingly, we suggest that the photosynthetic function of newly developed leaves in the upper canopy of field-grown sorghum plants is regulated systemically by the lower canopy leaves. The differences in systemic regulation of photosynthesis were also discussed between field conditions and artificial conditions.

  16. 78 FR 28120 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 966 Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Affirmation of interim rule as final rule. SUMMARY: The... locally administers the marketing order which regulates the handling of tomatoes grown in Florida....

  17. Human papillomavirus in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Loke, S L; Ma, L; Wong, M; Srivastava, G; Lo, I; Bird, C C

    1990-01-01

    Thirty seven cases of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma were studied by applying DNA slot blot analysis and in situ hybridisation using type specific probes for HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18. Cases of condyloma accuminata, cervical carcinoma, and laryngeal papilloma were used as controls. Blocks including areas of invasive carcinoma, intraepithelial neoplasia, and normal epithelium were studied in each case. No HPV genome was detectable in any of the oesophageal cases. It is concluded that these types of HPV do not have an association with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Images PMID:2175754

  18. Small cell carcinoma of the bladder

    PubMed Central

    Calado, Bruno Nagel; Maron, Paulo Eduardo Goulart; Vedovato, Bruno César; Barrese, Tomas Zecchini; Fernandes, Roni de Carvalho; Perez, Marjo Deninson Cardenuto

    2015-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is an extremely aggressive and rare tumor. Even though small cell carcinoma most commonly arises from the lungs there are several reports of small cell carcinoma in extrapulmonary sites. Due to its low frequency there is no well-established management for this disease. We report the case of a 61 year-old man with small cell carcinoma of the bladder who underwent radical cystectomy following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We also reviewed the literature for the optimal treatment strategy. PMID:25517085

  19. Neural invasion in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Mori, M; Adachi, Y; Kamakura, T; Ikeda, Y; Maehara, Y; Sugimachi, K

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To determine whether neural invasion in advanced gastric cancer is of clinicopathological significance. METHODS--The study population comprised 121 cases of primary advanced gastric carcinoma. Two paraffin wax embedded blocks taken from the central tissue slice in each primary tumour were used. For definitive recognition of neural invasion, immunostaining for S-100 protein was applied to one slide; the other slide was stained with haematoxylin and eosin. RESULTS--Neural invasion was recognised in 34 of 121 (28%) primary gastric carcinomas. There were significant differences in tumour size, depth of tumour invasion, stage, and curability between patients with and without neural invasion. The five year survival rates of patients with and without neural invasion were 10 and 50%, respectively. Multivariate analysis, however, demonstrated that neural invasion was not an independent prognostic factor. CONCLUSIONS--Neural invasion could be an additional useful factor for providing information about the malignant potential of gastric carcinoma. This may be analogous to vessel permeation which is thought to be important, but is not an independent prognostic factor. Images PMID:7745113

  20. [Current management of hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, I; Féray, C

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the major complication of chronic liver diseases and particularly of cirrhosis whatever its etiology. Once encountered mainly in the endemic countries of hepatitis B and C, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (6/100,000) is parallel to the global development of diabetes, overweight and alcohol consumption. Little progress has been made for this cancer, whose mortality is 100 % at 10 years. Liver transplantation is the only truly curative treatment (survival more than 50 % at 10 years) since it allows the eradication of hepatocellular carcinoma and its essential cause, cirrhotic liver. This is the only possible therapy when liver function is impaired. It has little impact since in the richest countries, less than 10 % of cases can be transplanted. Surgical resection and percutaneous destruction methods (uni- and multipolar radiofrequency, microwave, cryotherapy, electroporation) are the preferred treatments (survival less than 50 % at 5 years) but are only applicable for moderate tumour masses and in the absence of adjuvant therapy, are effective only in the medium term. Most patients received chemoembolization through hepatic artery, whose action is modest. Radiotherapy is widely used in Asia but almost non-existent in Western countries in this indication. Sorafenib is the only effective drug but its impact is modest. Therapies combining two modalities (embolization and radiotherapy; embolization and radiofrequency) seem promising and deserve wider testing. Screening and monitoring of cirrhosis is probably the major measure for potentially curative therapies. PMID:26337474

  1. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, and mimickers: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Todd M; Kovalovsky, Andra O; Velosa, Claudia; Shi, Qiuying; Dai, Qian; Owen, Randall P; Bell, Walter C; Wei, Shi; Althof, Pamela A; Sanmann, Jennifer N; Sweeny, Larissa; Carroll, William R; Siegal, Gene P; Bullock, Martin J; Brandwein-Gensler, Margaret

    2015-08-01

    Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently recognized low-grade salivary carcinoma characterized by a specific ETV6 rearrangement. We describe 14 new MASCs and examine their immunophenotypic and genetic profiles in the context of look-alikes, namely, low-and high-grade salivary duct carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. ETV6 rearrangement, and robust expression of mammaglobin and S100, were demonstrated in 11/11, 14/14, and 12/14 MASCs, respectively. All low-grade salivary duct carcinomas coexpressed S100/mammaglobin (6/6); none harbored ETV6 rearrangements (0/5). Given that S100/mammaglobin coexpression and absence of zymogen granules are features of both MASC and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, these two are best distinguished histologically. The former is predominantly an extraductal neoplasm with bubbly pink cytoplasm, whereas the latter is a distinct intraductal micropapillary and cribriform process. Querying ETV6 gene status may be necessary for difficult cases. No acinic cell carcinoma expressed mammaglobin (0/13) or harbored an ETV6 rearrangement (0/7); only 1/13 acinic cell carcinomas weakly expressed S100. DOG1 expression was limited or absent among all tumor types, except acinic cell carcinoma which expressed DOG1 diffusely in a canalicular pattern. Therefore, histology and immunohistochemistry (mammaglobin, S100, DOG1) suffices in distinguishing acinic cell carcinoma from both MASC and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. HER2 (ERBB2) amplification was detected in only 1/10 acinic cell carcinomas, but none of the MASCs or low-grade salivary duct carcinomas tested. High-grade salivary duct carcinomas frequently expressed mammaglobin (11/18) and harbored HER2 amplifications (13/15); none harbored ETV6 rearrangements (0/12). High-grade salivary duct carcinomas can easily be distinguished from these other entities by histology and HER2 amplification.

  2. Carboxylate metabolism in sugar beet plants grown with excess Zn.

    PubMed

    Sagardoy, R; Morales, F; Rellán-Álvarez, R; Abadía, A; Abadía, J; López-Millán, A F

    2011-05-01

    The effects of Zn excess on carboxylate metabolism were investigated in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants grown hydroponically in a growth chamber. Root extracts of plants grown with 50 or 100μM Zn in the nutrient solution showed increases in several enzymatic activities related to organic acid metabolism, including citrate synthase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, when compared to activities in control root extracts. Root citric and malic acid concentrations increased in plants grown with 100μM Zn, but not in plants grown with 50μM Zn. In the xylem sap, plants grown with 50 and 100μM Zn showed increases in the concentrations of citrate and malate compared to the controls. Leaves of plants grown with 50 or 100μM Zn showed increases in the concentrations of citric and malic acid and in the activities of citrate synthase and fumarase. Leaf isocitrate dehydrogenase increased only in plants grown with 50μM Zn when compared to the controls. In plants grown with 300μM Zn, the only enzyme showing activity increases in root extracts was citrate synthase, whereas the activities of other enzymes decreased compared to the controls, and root citrate concentrations increased. In the 300μM Zn-grown plants, the xylem concentrations of citric and malic acids were higher than those of controls, whereas in leaf extracts the activity of fumarase increased markedly, and the leaf citric acid concentration was higher than in the controls. Based on our data, a metabolic model of the carboxylate metabolism in sugar beet plants grown under Zn excess is proposed.

  3. Immunohistochemical characterization of urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rajcani, J; Kajo, K; Adamkov, M; Moravekova, E; Lauko, L; Felcanova, D; Bencat, M

    2013-01-01

    From the archive of BB Biocyt company, 32 urinary bladder carcinomas (urothelium carcinomas, UC) and 7 cases of chronic cystitis were selected and examined in semiserial sections for the following antigens: 1) cell proliferation marker Ki-67 (expressed in the nuclei), 2) cell cycle regulator p16/INK4a polypeptide (expressed in the cytoplasm and nuclei), 3) urothelium marker p63 (expressed in the nuclei), 4) cytokeratin 7 (CK7). 5) cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and 6) high molecular weight cytokeratin (HMWCK). Invasive urothelium carcinomas showing a high grade dysplasia (invasive HG UC) comprised over the half (20 out of 32) of the investigated tumours. Microinvasion to lamina propria (seen in three HG papillary carcinomas) was regarded as an early infiltration even when the position of muscular layer could not be determined. Classical invasion across the urinary bladder wall and/or to surrounding tissues was found in 17 cases of low-differentiated HG UCs. The rest (9 out of 32 neoplasms) were either non-invasive papillary carcinomas of high (non-invasive HG UC, 5 cases) or low malignant potential (noninvasive LG UC, 4 cases). Finally, 3 cases were papillary urothelium neoplasms of low malignant potential (PUNLMP). HMWCK was present in all invasive tumours, whereas the frequency of other urothelium markers ranged from 65 to 88 %. Nevertheless, at least two markers were expressed in each invasive tumour. Staining for Ki-67 antigen was positive in over 50 % of the nuclei of HG UCs, while in the LG UCs, the frequency of positive Ki-67 staining did not exceed 25 %. In PUNLMP, the positive rate of Ki-67 stained dysplastic cells was below 10 %. The staining for p16 antigen did not correlate with the degree of dysplasia within urothelium tumours. For routine diagnostic, we recommend to combine the Ki-67 staining with detection of HMWCK. In cases of chronic cystitis, which developed urothelial hyperplasia and/or squamous metaplasia, the presence of p63 antigen was a relevant

  4. Different variation behaviors of resistivity for high-temperature-grown and low-temperature-grown p-GaN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Yang; De-Gang, Zhao; De-Sheng, Jiang; Ping, Chen; Zong-Shun, Liu; Jian-Jun, Zhu; Ling-Cong, Le; Xiao-Jing, Li; Xiao-Guang, He; Li-Qun, Zhang; Hui, Yang

    2016-02-01

    Two series of p-GaN films grown at different temperatures are obtained by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). And the different variation behaviors of resistivity with growth condition for high- temperature(HT)-grown and low-temperature(LT)-grown p-GaN films are investigated. It is found that the resistivity of HT-grown p-GaN film is nearly unchanged when the NH3 flow rate or reactor pressure increases. However, it decreases largely for LT-grown p-GaN film. These different variations may be attributed to the fact that carbon impurities are easy to incorporate into p-GaN film when the growth temperature is low. It results in a relatively high carbon concentration in LT-grown p-GaN film compared with HT-grown one. Therefore, carbon concentration is more sensitive to the growth condition in these samples, ultimately, leading to the different variation behaviors of resistivity for HT- and LT-grown ones. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61474110, 61377020, 61376089, 61223005, and 61176126), the National Natural Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars, China (Grant No. 60925017), the One Hundred Person Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Basic Research Project of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20130362).

  5. Carbon Nanotube Microarrays Grown on Nanoflake Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Howard K.; Hauge, Robert H.; Pint, Cary; Pheasant, Sean

    2013-01-01

    This innovation consists of a new composition of matter where single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are grown in aligned arrays from nanostructured flakes that are coated in Fe catalyst. This method of growth of aligned SWNTs, which can yield well over 400 percent SWNT mass per unit substrate mass, exceeds current yields for entangled SWNT growth. In addition, processing can be performed with minimal wet etching treatments, leaving aligned SWNTs with superior properties over those that exist in entangled mats. The alignment of the nanotubes is similar to that achieved in vertically aligned nanotubes, which are called "carpets. " Because these flakes are grown in a state where they are airborne in a reactor, these flakes, after growing SWNTs, are termed "flying carpets. " These flakes are created in a roll-to-roll evaporator system, where three subsequent evaporations are performed on a 100-ft (approx. =30-m) roll of Mylar. The first layer is composed of a water-soluble "release layer, " which can be a material such as NaCl. After depositing NaCl, the second layer involves 40 nm of supporting layer material . either Al2O3 or MgO. The thickness of the layer can be tuned to synthesize flakes that are larger or smaller than those obtained with a 40-nm deposition. Finally, the third layer consists of a thin Fe catalyst layer with a thickness of 0.5 nm. The thickness of this layer ultimately determines the diameter of SWNT growth, and a layer that is too thick will result in the growth of multiwalled carbon nanotubes instead of single-wall nanotubes. However, between a thickness of 0.5 nm to 1 nm, single-walled carbon nanotubes are known to be the primary constituent. After this three-layer deposition process, the Mylar is rolled through a bath of water, which allows catalyst-coated flakes to detach from the Mylar. The flakes are then collected and dried. The method described here for making such flakes is analogous to that which is used to make birefringent ink that is

  6. Cisplatin, Radiation Therapy, and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-02

    Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  7. Diamond films grown from fullerene precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Gruen, D.M.; Zuiker, C.D.; Krauss, A.R.

    1995-07-01

    Fullerene precursors have been shown to result in the growth of diamond films from argon microwave plasmas. In contradistinction to most diamond films grown using conventional methane-hydrogen mixtures, the fullerene-generated films are nanocrystalline and smooth on the nanometer scale. They have recently been shown to have friction coefficients approaching the values of natural diamond. It is clearly important to understand the development of surface morphology during film growth from fullerene precursors and to elucidate the factors leading to surface roughness when hydrogen is present in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) gas mixtures. To achieve these goals, we are measuring surface reflectivity of diamond films growing on silicon substrates over a wide range of plasma processing conditions. A model for the interpretation of the laser interferometric data has been developed, which allows one to determine film growth rate, rms surface roughness, and bulk losses due to scattering and absorption. The rms roughness values determined by reflectivity are in good agreement with atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements. A number of techniques, including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and near-edge x-ray absorption find structure (NEXAFS) measurements, have been used to characterize the films. A mechanism for diamond-film growth involving the C{sub 2} molecule as a growth species will be presented. The mechanism is based on (1) the observation that the optical emission spectra of the fullerene- containing plasmas are dominated by the Swan bands of C{sub 2} and (2) the ability of C{sub 2} to insert directly into C-H and C-C bonds with low activation barriers, as shown by recent theoretical calculations of reactions of C{sub 2} with carbon clusters.

  8. Mixed primary squamous cell carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dong, Su; Song, Xue-Song; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare, and mixed squamous cell and follicular carcinoma is even rarer still, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The simultaneous presentation of three primary cancers of the thyroid has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old female patient presented with complaints of pain and a 2-month history of progressively increased swelling in the anterior region of the neck. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of both lobes indicated the possibility of the presence of a follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy with left-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine was administered. Radioiodine and radiotherapy also were recommended, but the patient did not complete treatment as scheduled. The patient remained alive more than 9 months after operation. The present case report provides an example of the coexistence of multiple distinct malignancies in the thyroid.

  9. NUT midline carcinomas in the thymic region.

    PubMed

    Gökmen-Polar, Yesim; Cano, Oscar D; Kesler, Kenneth A; Loehrer, Patrick J; Badve, Sunil

    2014-12-01

    NUT midline carcinomas (NMCs) are rare tumors described predominantly in the pediatric age group. We recently reported two cases of these tumors occurring in the thymic region. In order to establish the true incidence of these tumors, we examined a large series of thymic carcinomas for morphological features of NUT tumor and further assessed the expression of NUTM1 (also known as NUT) protein by immunohistochemistry. The histological review of slides from 110 cases of thymic carcinoma was undertaken to identify carcinomas with mixed undifferentiated and squamous features that are typically associated with NUT carcinomas. The presenting symptoms, morphological spectrum of tumors and outcome data of patients with these histologies are presented. Immunohistochemistry for NUTM1 was performed on 35 cases of thymic carcinoma with available blocks (3 with these histological features and 32 without these features) to exclude the possibility of midline carcinoma. Tumors from 10 patients had features of mixed small cell undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma (M:F, 1.5:1; age range, 22-79). These patients predominantly presented with advanced disease and had respiratory-related symptoms or chest pain; four had paraneoplastic syndromes. The squamous component in all cases was well differentiated with little or no atypia. The undifferentiated component varied in cell size and lacked characteristic features of small cell carcinoma. All but one patients developed metastases or died within 3 years of diagnosis. NUTM1 expression was seen in two of three tumors with these histological features and in none of the 32 cases without. Mixed small cell undifferentiated carcinomas share histological and immunohistochemical similarity with NMCs and have aggressive clinical course. These tumors are not uncommon and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of carcinomas in the thymic region as novel therapies might be available.

  10. The diagnostic utility of the minimal carcinoma triple stain in breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Ross, Dara S; Liu, Yi-Fang; Pipa, Jennifer; Shin, Sandra J

    2013-01-01

    Pathologists are expected to accurately diagnose increasingly smaller breast carcinomas. Correct classification (ie, lobular vs ductal or in situ vs invasive) directly affects subsequent management, especially when the focus is near a surgical margin or present in a needle core biopsy and is further challenging if the lesion is morphologically ambiguous. We assessed the diagnostic utility of a multiplex, trichromogen immunostain of 3 commonly employed antibodies (CK7, p63, and E-cadherin) developed in our laboratory to evaluate these small lesions. Of the 147 specimens containing minimal (defined as ≤3 mm in size) invasive carcinoma, 81 also contained in situ carcinoma. In each case, the Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain was prepared with a parallel H&E-stained slide. Observations of staining characteristics in the focus of interest were recorded. The Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain was diagnostically useful in all but 1 case. In a case of invasive lobular carcinoma in an excisional biopsy, the Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain stained only the surrounding breast tissue (appropriately) and not the focus of interest. Also, a subset of 29 of 81 excisional biopsies had minimal invasive carcinoma located 2 mm or less from the inked surgical margin, in which in all cases the Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain was fully interpretable despite morphologic distortion due to concomitant cautery artifact and tissue disruption in some cases. The Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain offers an accurate and tissue-conserving method to diagnose small, morphologically problematic foci of breast carcinoma while ideally leaving more tissue for additional adjunctive studies.

  11. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado Filho, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Background Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Objectives Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Methods Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). Results The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. Conclusion The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment.

  12. Monitoring the progression from intraductal carcinoma to invasive ductal carcinoma based on multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan; Fu, Fangmeng; Lian, Yuane; Nie, Yuting; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Jianxin

    2015-09-01

    Intraductal carcinoma is a precancerous lesion of the breast and the immediate precursor of invasive ductal carcinoma. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was used to monitor the progression from intraductal carcinoma to invasive ductal carcinoma, which can improve early detection of precursor lesions and halt progression to invasive neoplastic disease. It was found that MPM has the capability to reveal the qualitative changes in features of cells, structure of basement membranes, and architecture of collagens during the development from intraductal carcinoma to invasive ductal carcinoma, as well as the quantitative alterations in nuclear area, circle length of basement membrane, and collagen density. Combined with intra-fiberoptic ductoscopy or transdermal biopsy needle, MPM has the potential to provide immediate histological diagnosis of tumor progression in the field of breast carcinoma.

  13. Chemotherapy With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-04

    Recurrent Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Neck With Occult Primary; Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic in the Neck With Occult Primary; Stage IV Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVB Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVC Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Tongue Carcinoma; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma to Neck With Occult Primary

  14. Current Aspects on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Markopoulos, Anastasios K

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial neoplasm affecting the oral cavity. This article overviews the essential points of oral squamous cell carcinoma, highlighting its risk and genomic factors, the potential malignant disorders and the therapeutic approaches. It also emphasizes the importance of the early diagnosis. PMID:22930665

  15. Epidermoid carcinoma arising in Warthin's tumor.

    PubMed

    Bolat, Filiz; Kayaselcuk, Fazilet; Erkan, Alper Nabi; Cagici, Can Alper; Bal, Nebil; Tuncer, Ilhan

    2004-01-01

    Warthin's tumor is a well-defined salivary gland neoplasm consisting of benign epithelial and lymphoid components. However, malignant transformation is extremely rare and the differential diagnosis of metastasis from an epidermoid carcinoma in Warthin's tumor is important. We present a case with epidermoid carcinoma arising in Warthin's tumor of parotid gland in a 48-year-old woman, and differential diagnosis is discussed.

  16. [Suprarenal carcinoma of an unusual size].

    PubMed

    Céspedes Mas, S; López de la Torre Casares, M; Gómez Morales, M; Medina Cano, M T; Vílchez Joya, R

    1993-06-01

    Suprarenal carcinoma is an unusual entity, rarely surpassing 4,000 gr. In general, tumors of such big size are not functional. We present a case of a 31-years-old woman with a suprarenal carcinoma weighting 5,200 gr, in which hormonal production was clinically and biochemically demonstrated.

  17. [Lactobacilli and colon carcinoma--A review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shumei; Zhang, Lanwei; Shan, Yujuan

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological studies showed that incidence of colon carcinoma is increased in the world. There are many difficulties to inhibit colon carcinoma because the causes of inducing colon carcinoma were various and interactive each other. Previous evidence supported the balance of the colonic microflora was critical in inhibiting colon carcinoma and the protection by colonic microflora could be improved by ingesting lactobacilli. Therefore, the biological functions and anticancer effects of lactobacilli attract attention of researchers. In this review we discussed the causes of colon carcinoma; the anticancer mechanisms of lactobacilli on the basis of our own studies. Eventually, we summarized the effects of anticancer of different components and metabolic products extracted from lactobacilli. PMID:26562990

  18. Fascin expression in colorectal carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Ozerhan, Ismail Hakki; Ersoz, Nail; Onguru, Onder; Ozturk, Mustafa; Kurt, Bulent; Cetiner, Sadettin

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to investigate the significance of fascin expression in colorectal carcinoma. METHODS This is a retrospective study of 167 consecutive, well-documented cases of primary colorectal adenocarcinoma for which archival material of surgical specimens from primary tumor resections were available. We chose a representative tissue sample block and examined fascin expression by immunohistochemistry using a primary antibody against “fascin”. We calculated the “immunohistochemical score (IHS)” of fascin for each case, which was calculated from the multiplication of scores for the percentage of stained cells and the staining intensity. RESULTS Fascin immunoreactivity was observed in 59 (35.3%) of all cases with strong reactivity in 24 (14.4%), moderate reactivity in 25 (14.9%) and weak reactivity in 10 (6.0%) cases. Strong/moderate immunoreactivities were mostly observed in invasive fronts of the tumors or in both invasive and other areas. Fascin immunoreactivity scores were significantly higher in tumors with lymph node metastasis (p:0.002) and advanced stage presentation (p:0.007). There was no relation between fascin expression and age, gender, depth of invasion, distant metastasis or histological grade (p>0.05). There was a higher and statistically significant correlation between fascin immunoreactivity in the invasive borders of tumors and lymph node metastasis (r:0.747, p:0.005). In stage III/IV tumors, two-year survival was 92.2% in tumors without fascin immunoreactivity, and only 60.0% in tumors with a fascin IHS>10 (p:0.003). CONCLUSION These findings suggest that fascin is heterogeneously expressed in approximately one third of colorectal carcinomas with a significant association with lymph node metastasis, tumor stage and location. Moreover, these results indicate that fascin may have a role in the lymph node metastasis of colorectal carcinomas. PMID:20186299

  19. Auxin Transport Is Required for Hypocotyl Elongation in Light-Grown but Not Dark-Grown Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Philip J.; Hangarter, Roger P.; Estelle, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Many auxin responses are dependent on redistribution and/or polar transport of indoleacetic acid. Polar transport of auxin can be inhibited through the application of phytotropins such as 1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). When Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were grown in the light on medium containing 1.0 μm NPA, hypocotyl and root elongation and gravitropism were strongly inhibited. When grown in darkness, however, NPA disrupted the gravity response but did not affect elongation. The extent of inhibition of hypocotyl elongation by NPA increased in a fluence-rate-dependent manner to a maximum of about 75% inhibition at 50 μmol m−2 s−1 of white light. Plants grown under continuous blue or far-red light showed NPA-induced hypocotyl inhibition similar to that of white-light-grown plants. Plants grown under continuous red light showed less NPA-induced inhibition. Analysis of photoreceptor mutants indicates the involvement of phytochrome and cryptochrome in mediating this NPA response. Hypocotyls of some auxin-resistant mutants had decreased sensitivity to NPA in the light, but etiolated seedlings of these mutants were similar in length to the wild type. These results indicate that light has a significant effect on NPA-induced inhibition in Arabidopsis, and suggest that auxin has a more important role in elongation responses in light-grown than in dark-grown seedlings. PMID:9489005

  20. Transhemangioma Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Pua, Uei

    2012-12-15

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-established treatment modality in the treatment of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [1]. Safe trajectory of the RFA probe is crucial in decreasing collateral tissue damage and unwarranted probe transgression. As a percutaneous technique, however, the trajectory of the needle is sometimes constrained by the available imaging plane. The presence of a hemangioma beside an HCC is uncommon but poses the question of safety related to probe transgression. We hereby describe a case of transhemangioma ablation of a dome HCC.

  1. Oncogenic viruses and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ben Ari, Ziv; Weitzman, Ella; Safran, Michal

    2015-05-01

    About 80% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections especially in the setting of established cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis, making HCC prevention a major goal of antiviral therapy. HCC tumors are highly complex and heterogeneous resulting from the aberrant function of multiple molecular pathways. The roles of HCV or HBV in promoting HCC development are still either directly or indirectly are still speculative, but the evidence for both effects is compelling. In patients with chronic hepatitis viral infection, cirrhosis is not a prerequisite for tumorigenesis.

  2. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed

    Karthiga, Kannan S; Sivapatha Sundharam, B; Manikandan, R

    2006-01-01

    Binkley and Johnson first reported this syndrome in 1951. But it was in 1960, Gorlin-Goltz established the association of basal cell epithelioma, jaw cyst and bifid ribs, a combination which is now frequently known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome as well as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS). NBCCS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and variable expressivity. NBCCS is characterized by variety of cutaneous, dental, osseous, opthalmic, neurologic and sexual abnormalities. One such case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is reported here with good illustrations.

  3. Localized blanching erythema in a patient with vulvar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hau, Jennifer; Diaz, Lucia; Paravar, Taraneh; Chon, Susan

    2012-05-01

    Mammary-like carcinoma arising in the vulva is a rare type of vulvar malignancy. Cutaneous metastasis of vulvar carcinoma is uncommon and the majority of cases have been reported in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. We describe a 69-year-old woman with mammary-like carcinoma of the vulva with cutaneous metastasis presenting as asymptomatic localized blanching erythema.

  4. GATA-3 and FOXA1 expression is useful to differentiate breast carcinoma from other carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Davis, Drew G; Siddiqui, Momin T; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Stevens, Keith; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Cohen, Cynthia; Li, Xiaoxian Bill

    2016-01-01

    GATA-3, a member of the GATA family of zinc-finger DNA binding proteins, and FOXA1, a member of the forkhead transcription factor family, are both associated with estrogen receptor expression. Both GATA-3 and FOXA1 are useful markers for breast carcinoma, but their expression in the different breast cancer subtypes and other neoplasms has not been thoroughly evaluated. We examined the expression of GATA-3 and FOXA1 in estrogen receptor-positive, Her2/neu-positive, and triple-negative breast carcinomas as well as in 10 other common carcinomas, including hepatocellular, colonic, pancreatic, gastric, endometrial (endometrioid), lung, prostatic, renal cell, urothelial, and ovarian serous carcinomas. Primary and metastatic melanomas and mesotheliomas were also evaluated. GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining of estrogen receptor-positive breast carcinomas was seen in 96.6% and 96.2%, respectively. In triple-negative breast carcinomas, GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining was seen in 21.6% and 15.9%, respectively. Among the other tumors, GATA-3 staining was only seen in urothelial carcinoma (70.9%) and FOXA1 staining was only seen in prostatic (87.5%), urothelial (5.1%) carcinomas, and mesotheliomas (40.0%). In conclusion, GATA-3 and FOXA1 are excellent breast carcinoma markers; however, their utility is limited in the triple-negative subtype. The utility of FOXA1 in diagnosing prostatic carcinoma and mesothelioma warrants further investigation.

  5. Comprehensive Cytomorphologic Analysis of Pulmonary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: Comparison to Small Cell Carcinoma and Non-pulmonary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seokhwi; Chu, Jinah; Kim, Hojoong; Han, Joungho

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cytologic diagnosis of pulmonary adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is frequently challenging and differential diagnosis with small cell carcinoma is often difficult. Methods: Eleven cytologically diagnosed cases of pulmonary AdCC were collected and reviewed according to fifteen cytomorphologic characteristics: small cell size, cellular uniformity, coarse chromatin, hyperchromasia, distinct nucleolus, frequent nuclear molding, granular cytoplasm, organoid cluster, sheet formation, irregular border of cluster, hyaline globule, hyaline basement membrane material, individual cell necrosis or apoptotic body, and necrotic background. Twenty cases of small cell carcinoma and fifteen cases of non-pulmonary AdCC were also reviewed for the comparison. Results: Statistically significant differences were identified between pulmonary AdCC and small cell carcinoma in fourteen of the fifteen cytomorphologic criteria (differences in sheet formation were not statistically significant). Cellular uniformity, distinct nucleolus, granular cytoplasm, distinct cell border, organoid cluster, hyaline globule, and hyaline basement membrane material were characteristic features of AdCC. Frequent nuclear molding, individual cell necrosis, and necrotic background were almost exclusively identified in small cell carcinoma. Although coarse chromatin and irregular cluster border were observed in both, they favored the diagnosis of small cell carcinoma. Hyaline globules were more frequently seen in non-pulmonary AdCC cases. Conclusions: Using the fifteen cytomorphologic criteria described by this study, pulmonary AdCC could be successfully distinguished from small cell carcinoma. Such a comprehensive approach to an individual case is recommended for the cytologic diagnosis of pulmonary AdCC. PMID:26477588

  6. Reevaluation and reclassification of resected lung carcinomas originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma using immunohistochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Nitadori, Jun-ichi; Rekhtman, Natasha; Jones, David R; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Travis, William D

    2015-09-01

    Currently, non-small cell lung carcinomas are primarily classified by light microscopy. However, recent studies have shown that poorly differentiated tumors are more accurately classified by immunohistochemistry. In this study, we investigated the use of immunohistochemical analysis in reclassifying lung carcinomas that were originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. Tumor slides and blocks were available for histologic evaluation, and tissue microarrays were constructed from 480 patients with resected lung carcinomas originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma between 1999 and 2009. Immunohistochemical analyses for p40, p63, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1; clones SPT24 and 8G7G3/1), napsin A, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and CD56 were performed. Staining intensity (weak, moderate, or strong) and distribution (focal or diffuse) were also recorded. Of all, 449 (93.5%) patients were confirmed as having squamous cell carcinomas; the cases were mostly diffusely positive for p40 and negative for TTF-1 (8G7G3/1). Twenty cases (4.2%) were reclassified as adenocarcinoma, as they were positive for TTF-1 (8G7G3/1 or SPT24) with either no or focal p40 expression, and all of them were poorly differentiated with squamoid morphology. In addition, 1 case was reclassified as adenosquamous carcinoma, 4 cases as large cell carcinoma, 4 cases as large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and 2 cases as small cell carcinoma. In poorly differentiated non-small cell lung carcinomas, an accurate distinction between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cannot be reliably determined by morphology alone and requires immunohistochemical analysis, even in resected specimens. Our findings suggest that TTF-1 8G7G3/1 may be better suited as the primary antibody in differentiating adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma.

  7. Nanowire LEDs grown directly on flexible metal foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Brelon J.; Sarwar, A. T. M. Golam; Myers, Roberto C.

    2016-04-01

    Using molecular beam epitaxy, self-assembled AlGaN nanowires are grown directly on Ta and Ti foils. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the nanowires are locally textured with the underlying metallic grains. Photoluminescence spectra of GaN nanowires grown on metal foils are comparable to GaN nanowires grown on single crystal Si wafers. Similarly, photoluminescence lifetimes do not vary significantly between these samples. Operational AlGaN light emitting diodes are grown directly on flexible Ta foil with an electroluminescence peak emission of ˜350 nm and a turn-on voltage of ˜5 V. These results pave the way for roll-to-roll manufacturing of solid state optoelectronics.

  8. GaN grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Kong; Meixin, Feng; Jin, Cai; Hui, Wang; Huaibing, Wang; Hui, Yang

    2015-04-01

    High-quality gallium nitride (GaN) film was grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrates (NPSS) and investigated using XRD and SEM. It was found that the optimum thickness of the GaN buffer layer on the NPSS is 15 nm, which is thinner than that on micro-patterned sapphire substrates (MPSS). An interesting phenomenon was observed for GaN film grown on NPSS:GaN mainly grows on the trench regions and little grows on the sidewalls of the patterns at the initial growth stage, which is dramatically different from GaN grown on MPSS. In addition, the electrical and optical properties of LEDs grown on NPSS were characterized. Project supported by the Suzhou Nanojoin Photonics Co., Ltd and the High-Tech Achievements Transformation of Jiangsu Province, China (No.BA2012010).

  9. Nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates

    DOEpatents

    Melechko, Anatoli V.; McKnight, Timothy E.; Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2011-08-23

    Methods, manufactures, machines and compositions are described for nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates. An apparatus, includes a substrate and a nanoreplicant structure coupled to a surface of the substrate.

  10. At last, a medical website designed for grown-ups

    MedlinePlus

    ... At last, a medical website designed for grown-ups Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents For ... U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. For up-to-date health information tailor-made just for ...

  11. Primary esophageal small cell carcinoma with concomitant invasive squamous cell carcinoma or carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Junya; Ohshima, Koichi; Ikeda, Seiyou; Iwashita, Akinori; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2003-11-01

    Esophageal small cell carcinoma (SmCC) is a rarer, more highly aggressive, and more rapidly growing neoplasm than esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC). SmCC and SqCC also differ in terms of chemotherapy of choice, response to therapy, and prognosis. Accordingly, it is important to differentiate the 2 carcinomas. We studied the histology and immunohistochemical profiles of 6 cases of esophageal SmCC to elucidate the correct diagnosis of this tumor. We performed immunohistochemical analysis antibodies against cytokeratins (CKAE1/AE3, CKCAM5.2, CK34betaE12, CK7, CK8, CK10/13, and CK19), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM; CD56), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), chromogranin-A, S-100 protein, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), E-cadherin, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), and p53. In 3 of the 6 SmCCs, heterogeneous components of in situ or invasive SqCC were observed. SqCC was found in the mucosa adjacent to the main SmCC, and the boundary between SmCC and SqCC was distinct, with no transitional features. Staining for NCAM, NSE, and chromogranin-A was positive in SmCCs, but negative in SqCCs. Both SmCCs and SqCCs were positive for CKAE1/AE3, CKCAM5.2, CK8, and EMA, but only SqCCs were positive for CK34betaE12 and CK19. Moreover, SmCCs containing SqCC components were positive for CEA and E-cadherin, whereas SmCCs without SqCC were negative. Our study suggests that NCAM and NSE are useful markers in diagnosing esophageal SmCC, and CK34betaE12 and CK19 are useful for differentiating SqCC components from SmCC.

  12. Neoadjuvant Intravesical Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Bladder Carcinoma Who Are Undergoing Cystectomy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-22

    Bladder Adenocarcinoma; Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Stage I Bladder Cancer; Stage II Bladder Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer

  13. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-30

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  14. Intracellular signaling and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Iakova, Polina; Timchenko, Lubov; Timchenko, Nikolai A

    2011-02-01

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer related death in the world. The recent development of new techniques for the investigations of global change in the gene expression, signaling pathways and wide genome binding has provided novel information for the mechanisms underlying liver cancer progression. Although these studies identified gene expression signatures in hepatocellular carcinoma, the early steps of the development of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) are not well understood. The development of HCC is a multistep process which includes the progressive alterations of gene expression leading to the increased proliferation and to liver cancer. This review summarizes recent progress in the identification of the key steps of the development of HCC with the focus on early events of carcinogenesis and on the role of translational and epigenetic alterations in the development of HCC. Quiescent stage of the liver is supported by several tumor suppressor proteins including p53, Rb and C/EBPα. Studies with chemical models of liver carcinogenesis and with human HCC have shown that the elevation of gankyrin is responsible for the elimination of these three proteins at early steps of carcinogenesis. Later stages of progression of the liver cancer are associated with alterations in many signaling pathways including translation which leads to epigenetic silencing/activation of many genes. Particularly, recent reports suggest a critical role of histone deacetylase 1, HDAC1, in the development of HCC through the interactions with transcription factors such as C/EBP family proteins. PMID:20850540

  15. HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reusser, Nicole M.; Downing, Christopher; Guidry, Jacqueline; Tyring, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies severely affects the immunosuppressed population, particularly HIV-positive patients and organ-transplant recipients. There is growing incidence of HPV-associated anogenital malignancies as well as a decrease in the average age of affected patients, likely related to the rising number of high-risk individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of HPV-related malignancy. Current treatment options for HPV infection and subsequent disease manifestations include imiquimod, retinoids, intralesional bleomycin, and cidofovir; however, primary prevention with HPV vaccination remains the most effective strategy. This review will discuss anogenital lesions in immunocompromised patients, cutaneous warts at nongenital sites, the association of HPV with skin cancer in immunocompromised patients, warts and carcinomas in organ-transplant patients, HIV-positive patients with HPV infections, and the management of cutaneous disease in the immunocompromised patient. PMID:26239127

  16. Treatment for metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bensouda, Y; Kaikani, W; Ahbeddou, N; Rahhali, R; Jabri, M; Mrabti, H; Boussen, H; Errihani, H

    2011-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a specific entity different from head and neck carcinoma. Incidence is higher in South-East Asia and North Africa. Prognosis, especially for locally advanced stages (IIB - IVB) and metastasis, remains poor: more than third of cases will present local and/or metastatic recurrence. Overall 5-year survival for all NPC stages ranges from 50% to 70%. The role of chemotherapy in metastasis is well established, and remains an important palliative treatment, although no randomized trial has been reported comparing the different chemotherapy regimens. As 1(st)-line treatment, platin-based regimens seems optimal; in 2(nd) line and after progression under platins, there is no consensus: monotherapy with drugs such as gemcitabine, capecitabine or taxanes has been the most widely tested, with acceptable results. Future trials should integrate targeted therapy, in the light of overexpression of EGFR1 and C-kit in NPC. The present study presents a review of the literature concerning the various studies of metastatic NPC. PMID:21177151

  17. Defect Density Characterization of Detached-Grown Germanium Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweizer, M.; Cobb, S. D.; Volz, M. P.; Szoke, J.; Szofran, F. R.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several (111)-oriented, Ga-doped germanium crystals were grown in pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) containers by the Bridgman and the detached Bridgman growth techniques. Growth experiments in closed-bottom pBN containers resulted in nearly completely detached-grown crystals, because the gas pressure below the melt can build up to a higher pressure than above the melt. With open-bottom tubes the gas pressure above and below the melt is balanced during the experiment, and thus no additional force supports the detachment. In this case the crystals grew attached to the wall. Etch pit density (EPD) measurements along the axial growth direction indicated a strong improvement of the crystal quality of the detached-grown samples compared to the attached samples. Starting in the seed with an EPD of 6-8 x 10(exp 3)/square cm it decreased in the detached-grown crystals continuously to about 200-500/square cm . No significant radial difference between the EPD on the edge and the middle of the crystal exists. In the attached grown samples the EPD increases up to a value of about 2-4 x 10(exp 4)/square cm (near the edge) and up to 1 x 10(exp 4)/square cm in the middle of the sample. Thus the difference between the detached- and the attached-grown crystals with respect to the EPD is approximately two orders of magnitude.

  18. Enrichment of a squamous carcinoma vaccine.

    PubMed

    O-Sullivan, InSug; Chopra, Amla; Cohen, Edward P

    2007-03-01

    We describe a new vaccination strategy for squamous cell carcinoma. In a mouse model, the vaccine is prepared by transfer of unfractionated DNA-fragments (25 kb) from KLN205 cells, a squamous carcinoma cell line (DBA/2 mouse origin [H-2(d)]) into LM cells, a highly immunogenic mouse fibroblast cell line that expresses allogeneic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-determinants (H-2(k)). The number of vaccine cells can then be expanded for multiple immunizations, as desired. As only a small proportion of the transfected cell population was expected to have incorporated DNA segments that included genes specifying antigens associated with the squamous carcinoma cells, we devised a novel strategy to enrich the vaccine for cells that induced immunity to the squamous carcinoma cells. Twenty-five percent of tumor-bearing mice treated by immunization with the vaccine appeared to have rejected the squamous carcinoma cells; they survived indefinitely (more than 70 days). The therapeutic benefits of the enriched vaccine could be further enhanced by treating the tumor-bearing mice with paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent, followed by immunization with the enriched vaccine. Under these circumstances, 75% of mice with squamous carcinoma appeared to have rejected the squamous carcinoma cells. Toxic effects including the development of autoimmune disease were not detected in tumor-bearing mice receiving the combined therapy.

  19. Gene Expression Patterns in Ovarian Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Schaner, Marci E.; Ross, Douglas T.; Ciaravino, Giuseppe; Sørlie, Therese; Troyanskaya, Olga; Diehn, Maximilian; Wang, Yan C.; Duran, George E.; Sikic, Thomas L.; Caldeira, Sandra; Skomedal, Hanne; Tu, I-Ping; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Johnson, Steven W.; O'Dwyer, Peter J.; Fero, Michael J.; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Robert; van de Rijn, Matt; Teng, Nelson N.; Longacre, Teri A.; Botstein, David; Brown, Patrick O.; Sikic, Branimir I.

    2003-01-01

    We used DNA microarrays to characterize the global gene expression patterns in surface epithelial cancers of the ovary. We identified groups of genes that distinguished the clear cell subtype from other ovarian carcinomas, grade I and II from grade III serous papillary carcinomas, and ovarian from breast carcinomas. Six clear cell carcinomas were distinguished from 36 other ovarian carcinomas (predominantly serous papillary) based on their gene expression patterns. The differences may yield insights into the worse prognosis and therapeutic resistance associated with clear cell carcinomas. A comparison of the gene expression patterns in the ovarian cancers to published data of gene expression in breast cancers revealed a large number of differentially expressed genes. We identified a group of 62 genes that correctly classified all 125 breast and ovarian cancer specimens. Among the best discriminators more highly expressed in the ovarian carcinomas were PAX8 (paired box gene 8), mesothelin, and ephrin-B1 (EFNB1). Although estrogen receptor was expressed in both the ovarian and breast cancers, genes that are coregulated with the estrogen receptor in breast cancers, including GATA-3, LIV-1, and X-box binding protein 1, did not show a similar pattern of coexpression in the ovarian cancers. PMID:12960427

  20. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the head and face.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is an important risk factor for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin. These cancers most commonly affect persons with fair skin and blue eyes who sunburn rather than suntan. However, each of these cancers appears to be associated with a different pattern of UV exposure and to be mediated by different intracellular molecular pathways.Some melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants play a direct role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma apart from their role in determining a cancer-prone pigmentory phenotype (fair skin, red hair, blue eyes) through their interactions with other genes regulating immuno-inflammatory responses, DNA repair or apoptosis.In this short review we focus on the aetiological role of UV in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin, and on some associated biopathological events. PMID:26850723

  1. miR-215 overexpression distinguishes ampullary carcinomas from pancreatic carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong Ho; Park, Sang Jae; Kim, Hark Kyun

    2015-06-01

    Distinguishing ampullary carcinoma from pancreatic carcinoma is important because of their different prognoses. microRNAs are differentially expressed according to the tissue of origin. However, there is rare research on the differential diagnosis between the two types of cancers by microRNA in periampullary cancers. The present study was undertaken to compare microRNA profiles between ampullary and pancreatic carcinomas using microarrays. miR-215 was most significantly overexpressed in ampullary carcinomas; whereas the expressions of miR-134 and miR-214 were significantly lower in ampullary carcinomas than in pancreatic carcinomas. When these discriminatory microRNAs were applied to liver metastases, they were correctly predicted for the tissue of origin. Although this study is limited by small sample size, striking difference in microRNA expression and concordant expression of discriminating microRNAs in primary tumors and metastases suggest that these novel discriminatory microRNAs warrant future validation.

  2. Prevalence of Glomerulopathies in Canine Mammary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of paraneoplastic glomerulopathy, especially associated with carcinoma, are a matter of debate and the causal link between cancer and glomerular diseases remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate renal biopsies of selected bitches with spontaneous mammary gland carcinoma. We hypothesized that dogs with mammary carcinomas would show histologic evidence of glomerular pathology. A prospective study was performed in dogs with naturally occurring mammary carcinoma that were undergoing tumor resection and ovariohysterectomy. We evaluated renal biopsies of 32 bitches with spontaneous mammary gland carcinoma and 11 control dogs without mammary gland neoplasia. Samples were obtained from the left kidney and the biopsy material was divided for light microscopy (LM), immunofluorescence (IF) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Light microscopy abnormalities were identified in 78.1% of dogs with mammary carcinoma (n = 25) and in none of the dogs in the control group. Focal glomerular mesangial matrix expansion was the most common alteration (n = 15, 60.0%), but mesangial cell proliferation (n = 9, 36.0%) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (n = 9, 36.0%), synechiae (n = 7, 28.0%), and globally sclerotic glomeruli (n = 6, 24.0%) were also frequent in dogs with malignancy. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed strong IgM staining was demonstrated in 64.3% (n = 18) of carcinoma dogs. Transmission electron microscopy from dogs with carcinoma revealed slight changes, the most frequent of which was faint sub-endothelial and mesangial deposits of electron-dense material (78%). Mesangial cell interpositioning and segmental effacement of podocyte foot processes were identified in some specimens (45%). Changes in the glomerulus and proteinuria are common in dogs with naturally occurring mammary carcinoma and this condition appears to provide an excellent large animal model for cancer-associated glomerulopathy in humans. PMID:27764139

  3. Diagnosing Lung Carcinomas with Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Lida P.; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Lanuti, Michael; Miller, Alyssa J.; Mark, Eugene J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Lung carcinoma diagnosis on tissue biopsy can be challenging because of insufficient tumor and lack of architectural information. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution imaging modality that visualizes tissue microarchitecture in volumes orders of magnitude larger than biopsy. It has been proposed that OCT could potentially replace tissue biopsy. Objectives: We aim to determine whether OCT could replace histology in diagnosing lung carcinomas. We develop and validate OCT interpretation criteria for common primary lung carcinomas: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and poorly differentiated carcinoma. Methods: A total of 82 ex vivo tumor samples were included in a blinded assessment with 3 independent readers. Readers were trained on the OCT criteria, and applied these criteria to diagnose adenocarcinoma, SCC, or poorly differentiated carcinoma in an OCT validation dataset. After a 7-month period, the readers repeated the training and validation dataset interpretation. An independent pathologist reviewed corresponding histology. Measurements and Main Results: The average accuracy achieved by the readers was 82.6% (range, 73.7–94.7%). The sensitivity and specificity for adenocarcinoma were 80.3% (65.7–91.4%) and 88.6% (80.5–97.6%), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for SCC were 83.3% (70.0–100.0%) and 87.0% (75.0–96.5%), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for poorly differentiated carcinoma were 85.7% (81.0–95.2%) and 97.6% (92.9–100.0%), respectively. Conclusions: Although these results are encouraging, they indicate that OCT cannot replace histology in the diagnosis of lung carcinomas. However, OCT has potential to aid in diagnosing lung carcinomas as a complement to tissue biopsy, particularly when insufficient tissue is available for pathology assessment. PMID:25562183

  4. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: Brazilian survey

    PubMed Central

    Cotrim, Helma P.; Oliveira, Claudia P.; Coelho, Henrique Sérgio M.; Alvares-da-Silva, Mario R.; Nabuco, Leticia; Parise, Edison Roberto; Ivantes, Claúdia; Martinelli, Ana LC; Galizzi-Filho, João; Carrilho, Flair J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The majority of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma have been reported in individuals with cirrhosis due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcoholism, but recently, the prevalence has become increasingly related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis around the world. The study aimed to evaluate the clinical and histophatological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in Brazilians' patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis at the present time. METHODS: Members of the Brazilian Society of Hepatology were invited to complete a survey regarding patients with hepatocellular carcinoma related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Patients with a history of alcohol intake (>20 g/day) and other liver diseases were excluded. Hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis was performed by liver biopsy or imaging methods according to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases' 2011 guidelines. RESULTS: The survey included 110 patients with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease from nine hepatology units in six Brazilian states (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul). The mean age was 67±11 years old, and 65.5% were male. Obesity was observed in 52.7% of the cases; diabetes, in 73.6%; dyslipidemia, in 41.0%; arterial hypertension, in 60%; and metabolic syndrome, in 57.2%. Steatohepatitis without fibrosis was observed in 3.8% of cases; steatohepatitis with fibrosis (grades 1-3), in 27%; and cirrhosis, in 61.5%. Histological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was performed in 47.2% of the patients, with hepatocellular carcinoma without cirrhosis accounting for 7.7%. In total, 58 patients with cirrhosis had their diagnosis by ultrasound confirmed by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Of these, 55% had 1 nodule; 17%, 2 nodules; and 28%, ≥3 nodules. CONCLUSIONS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is a relevant risk factor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with and

  5. Carcinoma of gall bladder presenting as dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhaiah, Deepti Akkihebbal; Premkumar, Jennifer Anne; Moses, Viju; Chacko, Geeta

    2011-01-01

    Cancer-related muscle diseases are usually paraneoplastic disorders. Dermatomyositis (DM) is a type of inflammatory myopathy that is strongly associated with a broad range of malignant disorders. The malignancy can occur before, concomitantly or after the onset of myositis. The malignancies most commonly associated with DM are carcinomas of ovary, lung, stomach, colorectal and pancreas, as well as non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. An association of DM with carcinoma of the gall bladder (GB) is extremely rare with only two previously reported cases in the literature. We report a case of carcinoma of GB with DM as the paraneoplastic manifestation. PMID:21655205

  6. Hepatocellular carcinoma: From diagnosis to treatment.

    PubMed

    Grandhi, Miral Sadaria; Kim, Amy K; Ronnekleiv-Kelly, Sean M; Kamel, Ihab R; Ghasebeh, Mounes A; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2016-06-01

    Primary liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer overall and the second most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for up to 90% of all primary hepatic malignancies and represents a major international health problem. While surgical resection and transplantation are the cornerstone of therapy in early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma, locoregional therapy and sorafenib are beneficial in those with more advanced disease or those who are not surgical candidates. At times, the integration of both surgical and locoregional therapy may be necessary. Hence, hepatocellular carcinoma requires a multidisciplinary approach to determine the most appropriate treatment as well as the timing of various treatments for optimal outcomes. PMID:27312032

  7. [Acinar cell carcinoma of submaxillary gland].

    PubMed

    Comeche, C; Calabuig, C; Barona, R

    1997-01-01

    Although acine cell neoplasms have for a long time been regarded as benign tumors, they are presently considered to represent the carcinomas. These rare tumors mainly affect the parotid glands, and only exceptionally involve other salivary glands. Clinically, acic cell carcinoma present as isolated tumors simulating a pleomorphic adenoma. The diagnosis is histopathological, and complete surgical removal of the tumor is the treatment of choice, with cervical lymphatic voiding and/or postoperative radiotherapy in selected cases. A prolonged patient follow-up is required, for the tumor may recur many years after surgery. We report a case of acinic cell carcinoma in submaxillary gland.

  8. Carcinomas ex monomorphic adenoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Luna, M A; Batsakis, J G; Tortoledo, M E; del Junco, G W

    1989-08-01

    A clinicopathological analysis of eight examples of carcinomas arising from salivary gland monomorphic adenomas, carcinomas ex monomorphic adenoma, is presented. These uncommon to rare neoplasms have a predilection for the parotid glands, are diagnosed about a decade later than their benign precursors, and most often arise from the dermal analogue type of monomorphic adenoma. As judged by follow-up periods of two to 16 years, carcinomas ex monomorphic adenoma are locally aggressive neoplasms with the clinical course marred by recurrences but without regional or distant metastases.

  9. Defect studies in 4H- Silicon Carbide PVT grown bulk crystals, CVD grown epilayers and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrappa, Shayan M.

    Silicon Carbide [SiC] which exists as more than 200 different polytypes is known for superior high temperature and high power applications in comparison to conventional semiconductor materials like Silicon and Germanium. The material finds plethora of applications in a diverse fields due to its unique properties like large energy bandgap, high thermal conductivity and high electric breakdown field. Though inundated with superior properties the potential of this material has not been utilized fully due to impeding factors such as defects especially the crystalline ones which limit their performance greatly. Lots of research has been going on for decades to reduce these defects and there has been subsequent improvement in the quality as the diameter of SiC commercial wafers has reached 150mm from 25mm since its inception. The main focus of this thesis has been to study yield limiting defect structures in conjunction with several leading companies and national labs using advanced characterization tools especially the Synchrotron source. The in depth analysis of SiC has led to development of strategies to reduce or eliminate the density of defects by studying how the defects nucleate, replicate and interact in the material. The strategies discussed to reduce defects were proposed after careful deliberation and analysis of PVT grown bulk crystals and CVD grown epilayers. Following are some of the results of the study: [1] Macrostep overgrowth mechanism in SiC was used to study the deflection of threading defects onto the basal plane resulting in stacking faults. Four types of stacking faults associated with deflection of c/c+a threading defects have been observed to be present in 76mm, 100mm and 150mm diameter wafers. The PVT grown bulk crystals and CVD grown epilayers in study were subjected to contrast studies using synchrotron white beam X-ray topography [SWBXT]. The SWBXT image contrast studies of these stacking faults with comparison of calculated phase shifts for

  10. Nonconventional papillary thyroid carcinomas with pleomorphic tumor giant cells: a diagnostic pitfall with anaplastic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hommell-Fontaine, Juliette; Borda, Angela; Ragage, Florence; Berger, Nicole; Decaussin-Petrucci, Myriam

    2010-06-01

    The presence of pleomorphic tumor giant cells in thyroid carcinomas of follicular cell origin is always worrisome for the pathologist as they first of all refer to anaplastic carcinoma, one of the most aggressive human malignancies. However, non-anaplastic pleomorphic giant cells are well described in other thyroid diseases, most often benign. In this paper, we describe four cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma displaying pleomorphic tumor giant cells with features that differ from those of anaplastic carcinoma. Pleomorphic giant cells were admixed with the underlying thyroid carcinoma and constituted from 5% to 25% of the tumor. Cytologically, they had an abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm with large and irregular nuclei. Compared to pleomorphic giant cells of anaplastic carcinoma, they reproduced the growth pattern of the underlying carcinoma, had a low mitotic index without necrosis or inflammation, and were reactive with thyroglobulin and thyroid-specific transcription factor-1 and strongly and diffusely positive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3. After 16-84 months of follow-up, patients are relapse-free and still alive. These cases show that pleomorphic tumor giant cells arising in papillary thyroid carcinomas do not always represent dedifferentiation and progression to anaplastic carcinoma. Distinction among these processes is critical as their treatment and prognosis are very different.

  11. Nitrogen isotope composition of organically and conventionally grown crops.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Alison S; Kelly, Simon D; Woolfe, Mark

    2007-04-01

    Authentic samples of commercially produced organic and conventionally grown tomatoes, lettuces, and carrots were collected and analyzed for their delta15N composition in order to assemble datasets to establish if there are any systematic differences in nitrogen isotope composition due to the method of production. The tomato and lettuce datasets suggest that the different types of fertilizer commonly used in organic and conventional systems result in differences in the nitrogen isotope composition of these crops. A mean delta15N value of 8.1 per thousand was found for the organically grown tomatoes compared with a mean value of -0.1 per thousand for those grown conventionally. The organically grown lettuces had a mean value of 7.6 per thousand compared with a mean value of 2.9 per thousand for the conventionally grown lettuces. The mean value for organic carrots was not significantly different from the mean value for those grown conventionally. Overlap between the delta15N values of the organic and conventional datasets (for both tomatoes and lettuces) means that it is necessary to employ a statistical methodology to try and classify a randomly analyzed "off the shelf" sample as organic/conventional, and such an approach is demonstrated. Overall, the study suggests that nitrogen isotope analysis could be used to provide useful "intelligence" to help detect the substitution of certain organic crop types with their conventional counterparts. However, delta15N analysis of a "test sample" will not provide unequivocal evidence as to whether synthetic fertilizers have been used on the crop but could, for example, in a situation when there is suspicion that mislabeling of conventionally grown crops as "organic" is occurring, be used to provide supporting evidence. PMID:17341092

  12. Hepatocellular carcinoma: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Lisa P; Deshpande, Vrushak; Pyrsopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rapidly becoming one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide. With a rising rate, it is a prominent source of mortality. Patients with advanced fibrosis, predominantly cirrhosis and hepatitis B are predisposed to developing HCC. Individuals with chronic hepatitis B and C infections are most commonly afflicted. Different therapeutic options, including liver resection, transplantation, systemic and local therapy, must be tailored to each patient. Liver transplantation offers leading results to achieve a cure. The Milan criteria is acknowledged as the model to classify the individuals that meet requirements to undergo transplantation. Mean survival remains suboptimal because of long waiting times and limited donor organ resources. Recent debates involve expansion of these criteria to create options for patients with HCC to increase overall survival. PMID:26609342

  13. Molecular Pathogenesis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Daniel Wai-Hung; Lo, Regina Cheuk-Lam; Chan, Lo-Kong; Ng, Irene Oi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multistep process involving the progressive accumulation of molecular alterations pinpointing different molecular and cellular events. The next-generation sequencing technology is facilitating the global and systematic evaluation of molecular landscapes in HCC. There is emerging evidence supporting the importance of cancer metabolism and tumor microenvironment in providing a favorable and supportive niche to expedite HCC development. Moreover, recent studies have identified distinct surface markers of cancer stem cell (CSC) in HCC, and they also put forward the profound involvement of altered signaling pathways and epigenetic modifications in CSCs, in addition to the concomitant drug resistance and metastasis. Taken together, multiple key genetic and non-genetic factors, as well as liver CSCs, result in the development and progression of HCC. PMID:27781201

  14. [Hepatocellular Carcinoma: therapeutic options 2015].

    PubMed

    Schultheiß, Michael; Bettinger, Dominik; Neeff, Hannes P; Brunner, Thomas B; Thimme, Robert

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a common neoplasm, is rising and the prognosis is poor. Many factors have to be taken into account when deciding on the best mode of therapy, like tumor size and number, liver function, sequelae of portal hypertension or other comorbidities. These factors are reflected in the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification. Resection, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and liver transplantation can be seen as curative therapies for the early and localized HCC. For the intermediate state of the HCC, there are other therapeutic modalities in therapy available: transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT, rarer occasions), off label: stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). At the moment, Sorafenib is the only option in treating advanced stages of HCC. Alternative treatment strategies, like e.g. immunological therapies, are being investigated. PMID:26182255

  15. Cytoreductive surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lau, W Y; Leung, T W; Leung, K L; Ho, S; Leung, N; Chan, M; Lin, J; Li, A K

    1994-06-01

    A prospective study was conducted on 26 patients for cytoreductive surgery of inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma. These patients underwent cytoreduction with liver resection, cryosurgery, microwave tissue coagulation and/or absolute alcohol injection. In-hospital mortality was 7.7%. The symptomatic relief and quality of survival were excellent. The median survival of patients after cytoreduction was 10.0 months and the survival was much better than those of 26 patients matched by sex, age, tumour size, Child-Pugh grading and Karnofsky scores who received systemic chemotherapy during the same period of the study (log rank test, P = 0.0001). There was no statistical difference between the survival curves of those patients who received (19 patients) and those who did not receive (7 patients) additional treatment by chemotherapy or selective internal radiation therapy after cytoreduction. This suggests that the gained survival benefit could have been derived mainly from the cytoreductive surgery rather than the additional treatments.

  16. Hepatocellular carcinoma and industrial epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Braillon, Alain; Dubois, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, the burden of the non viral causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is usually underestimated. Clearly industrial goods, tobacco, alcohol and processed foods are the agents of new epidemics in modern times which far outscore the burden of infectious agents on morbidity and mortality. Smoking, a dose-related contributing factor for HCC, receives too little attention in clinical practice. In France, tobacco, hepatitis B and C virus and alcohol are the main risk factors for HCC mortality (33%, 31% and 26%, respectively). In developing countries, where tobacco consumption is dramatically increasing, this epidemic may soon surpass hepatitis B. Obesity and diabetes are the contributing factors too. The role of industrial processed foods in the increase of the prevalence of obesity and diabetes cannot be ignored. PMID:21734811

  17. Primary carcinoma of renal calyx.

    PubMed

    Williams, Phillip A; Mai, Kien T

    2013-10-01

    Renal calyx carcinoma (RCXC) may mimic collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) or urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the renal pelvis. RCXC is distinguished from CDC and UC of the renal pelvis as having the tumor epicenter in the renal calyx, with limited involvement of the surrounding renal pelvis surface urothelium. In this study, we summarize our experience with this entity. Ten cases of RCXC, including 9 cases with urothelial differentiation (RCXC-UC) and 1 case with salivary gland-type differentiation (RCXC-SC), were identified. Ten consecutive cases of UC were selected for comparison, with extensive renal pelvis involvement and with secondary renal parenchymal invasion. Two cases of collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) were also examined. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on representative tissue blocks for PAX8, PAX2, CK5, CK7, CK20, p63, GATA3, AMACR, RCC, CD10, vimentin, S100, and MSA. The 10 cases of RCXC (M:F=4:6, ages: 62-91 years, mean: 76) presented with renal masses of 3-6cm. Ureteroscopic studies and renal pelvic washings showed atypical/malignant cells in three cases. Seven patients were treated with nephrectomy followed by radiation±chemotherapy, and all cases developed metastases to lymph nodes or liver/lung/bone. In all 7 cases with nephrectomy, there was extensive renal parenchymal involvement with infiltrating borders and diffuse spread along collecting ducts. Six RCXC-UC contained focal squamous differentiation. The RCXC-SC displayed features of adenoid cystic and basaloid features. In situ UC, with or without papillary components, was identified in the calyces in all 7 nephrectomy cases with remaining renal pelvis harboring small tumor burden in 5 cases, and no tumor in another 2 cases. Of the three cases without nephrectomy, no tumor in the renal pelvis could be visualized with endoscopy, however one case was associated with UC of the urinary bladder. Of 10 control UC cases, tumor was limited to the tip of renal papilla in 7 cases, extensive in 3

  18. Tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, YAN-JIE; JU, QIANG; LI, GUAN-CHENG

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. HCC affects approximately one million individuals annually worldwide, with the incidence equal to the mortality rate. In 2008, HCC was listed as the third most lethal cancer. Thus, early diagnosis is crucial for improving the survival rate for patients. α-fetoprotein (AFP) together with iconography and pathology detection are commonly used in the clinical early diagnosis of liver cancer. However, the specificity and sensitivity of AFP used in screening for liver cancer are not satisfactory. Athough the development of molecular biology has led to the identification of new tumor markers, including proteantigens, cytokines, enzymes and isoenzymes, as well as related genes that can be used in the treatment and prognosis of liver cancer, more tumor markers are required for effective early diagnosis of diseases and monitoring of the curative effect. PMID:24649215

  19. Treatment Options by Stage (Adrenocortical Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Childhood Treatment for more information.) Having certain genetic conditions increases the risk of adrenocortical carcinoma. Anything ... can be a sign of disease. CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that makes a series of ...

  20. Paraneoplastic Cough and Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    A case of patient with intractable cough due to renal cell carcinoma is reported. The discussion reviews the literature regarding this unusual paraneoplastic manifestation of renal malignancy. PMID:27445553

  1. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy. PMID:26971503

  2. [Radiotherapy of carcinoma of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Servagi-Vernat, S; Tochet, F

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, and technique of radiotherapy for salivary glands carcinoma are presented, and the contribution of neutrons and carbon ions. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed. PMID:27521038

  3. Treatment Options by Stage (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  5. Paraneoplastic Cough and Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    A case of patient with intractable cough due to renal cell carcinoma is reported. The discussion reviews the literature regarding this unusual paraneoplastic manifestation of renal malignancy. PMID:27445553

  6. [Ionising rays and laryngeal carcinomas (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Martin, G; Glanz, H; Kleinsasser, O

    1979-03-01

    Review of the literature and report of a new care of laryngeal cancer after irradiation of a benign lesion of the neck. These cases obviously become rare since benign lesions are no longer irradiated. Today the risk of inducing a second carcinoma by a successful irradiation of the first tumor becomes more important. A study of 109 patients, irradiated for laryngeal carcinoma and surviving with no evidence of disease for a period of at least 5 years has been performed. 8 of these patients developed a second primary in the previously irradiated area after 7-15 years. These second carcinomas are not rare if one considers that most patients with laryngeal carcinoma are 60-70 years old and therefore the life expectance on an average is low. These facts should be taken into consideration when deciding between surgical or radiation therapy in younger patients with high life expectance.

  7. TCGA analysis of adrenocortical carcinoma - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    In the most comprehensive molecular characterization to date of adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare cancer of the adrenal cortex, researchers extensively analyzed 91 cases for alterations in the tumor genomes.

  8. Sunitinib benefits patients with renal cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Findings from clinical trial patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, a common kidney cancer, show they did not have accelerated tumor growth after treatment with sunitinib, in contrast to some study results in animals.

  9. Precursors and pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lim, D; Oliva, E

    2013-04-01

    The ultimate goal of defining cancer specific precursors is to facilitate early detection and intervention before the development of invasive malignancy. Unlike other malignancies involving the female genital tract such as cervical or endometrial carcinomas, precursor lesions of ovarian carcinomas have not been well characterised, resulting in a failure to develop effective screening programs. Recent clinicopathological and molecular studies have provided new insight into the origin and pathogenesis of ovarian carcinomas. It has been shown that ovarian cancer is comprised of different tumour types differing not only in morphology, but also in pathogenesis, molecular alterations and clinical progression. A dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis has been proposed. Type I tumours which include low grade serous, low grade endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous carcinomas and Brenner tumours, are generally indolent and tend to be genetically stable, although clear cell carcinoma would probably belong to an intermediate category. They demonstrate a step-wise progression from a benign precursor such as a benign to borderline tumour or endometriosis and are characterised by genetic aberrations targeting specific cell signalling pathways. Type II tumours comprise high grade serous, high grade endometrioid, and undifferentiated carcinomas as well as malignant mixed mesodermal tumours. They are clinically aggressive and exhibit high genetic instability with frequent p53 mutations. Mounting evidence suggests that many high grade serous carcinomas originate from the epithelium of the distal fallopian tube, and that serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) represents the putative precursor of these neoplasms. Low grade serous carcinomas arise via transformation of benign and borderline serous tumours, thought to be derived from inclusion cysts originating from the ovarian surface or tubal epithelium. Recently it has been suggested that papillary tubal hyperplasia may be a

  10. Growth and photosynthetic responses of wheat plants grown in space.

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, B C; Brown, C S; Levine, H G; Krikorian, A D

    1996-01-01

    Growth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Super Dwarf) plants grown onboard the space shuttle Discovery for 10 d were examined. Compared to ground control plants, the shoot fresh weight of space-grown seedlings decreased by 25%. Postflight measurements of the O2 evolution/photosynthetic photon flux density response curves of leaf samples revealed that the CO2-saturated photosynthetic rate at saturating light intensities in space-grown plants declined 25% relative to the rate in ground control plants. The relative quantum yield of CO2-saturated photosynthetic O2 evolution measured at limiting light intensities was not significantly affected. In space-grown plants, the light compensation point of the leaves increased by 33%, which likely was due to an increase (27%) in leaf dark-respiration rates. Related experiments with thylakoids isolated from space-grown plants showed that the light-saturated photosynthetic electron transport rate from H2O through photosystems II and I was reduced by 28%. These results demonstrate that photosynthetic functions are affected by the microgravity environment. PMID:8819868

  11. Seedborne fungal contamination: consequences in space-grown wheat.

    PubMed

    Bishop, D L; Levine, H G; Kropp, B R; Anderson, A J

    1997-11-01

    Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses that may promote microbial growth and result in disease symptoms. Wheat (cv. Super Dwarf) recovered from an 8-day mission aboard a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) space shuttle showed disease symptoms, including girdling of leaf sheaths and chlorosis and necrosis of leaf and root tissues. A Neotyphodium species was isolated from the seed and leaf sheaths of symptomatic wheat used in the spaceflight mission. Certain isozymes of a peroxidase unique to extracts from the microgravity-grown plants were observed in extracts from earth-grown Neotyphodium-infected plants but were not present in noninfected wheat. The endophytic fungus was eliminated from the wheat seed by prolonged heat treatment at 50 degrees C followed by washes with water at 50 degrees C. Plants from wheat seed infected with the Neotyphodium endophyte were symptomless when grown under greenhouse conditions, whereas symptoms appeared after only 4 days of growth in closed containers. Disease spread from an infected plant to noninfected plants in closed containers. Dispersion via spores was found on asymptomatic plants at distances of 7 to 18 cm from infected plants. The size and shape of the conidia, mycelia, and phialide-bearing structures and the ability to grow rapidly on carbohydrates, especially xylose, resembled the characteristics of N. chilense, which is pathogenic on orchard grass, Doctylis glomerati. The Neotyphodium wheat isolate caused disease symptoms on other cereals (wheat cv. Malcolm, orchard grass, barley, and maize) grown in closed containers.

  12. Growth and photosynthetic responses of wheat plants grown in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathy, B. C.; Brown, C. S.; Levine, H. G.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    Growth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Super Dwarf) plants grown onboard the space shuttle Discovery for 10 d were examined. Compared to ground control plants, the shoot fresh weight of space-grown seedlings decreased by 25%. Postflight measurements of the O2 evolution/photosynthetic photon flux density response curves of leaf samples revealed that the CO2-saturated photosynthetic rate at saturating light intensities in space-grown plants declined 25% relative to the rate in ground control plants. The relative quantum yield of CO2-saturated photosynthetic O2 evolution measured at limiting light intensities was not significantly affected. In space-grown plants, the light compensation point of the leaves increased by 33%, which likely was due to an increase (27%) in leaf dark-respiration rates. Related experiments with thylakoids isolated from space-grown plants showed that the light-saturated photosynthetic electron transport rate from H2O through photosystems II and I was reduced by 28%. These results demonstrate that photosynthetic functions are affected by the microgravity environment.

  13. Seedborne fungal contamination: consequences in space-grown wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. L.; Levine, H. G.; Kropp, B. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Hood, E. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses that may promote microbial growth and result in disease symptoms. Wheat (cv. Super Dwarf) recovered from an 8-day mission aboard a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) space shuttle showed disease symptoms, including girdling of leaf sheaths and chlorosis and necrosis of leaf and root tissues. A Neotyphodium species was isolated from the seed and leaf sheaths of symptomatic wheat used in the spaceflight mission. Certain isozymes of a peroxidase unique to extracts from the microgravity-grown plants were observed in extracts from earth-grown Neotyphodium-infected plants but were not present in noninfected wheat. The endophytic fungus was eliminated from the wheat seed by prolonged heat treatment at 50 degrees C followed by washes with water at 50 degrees C. Plants from wheat seed infected with the Neotyphodium endophyte were symptomless when grown under greenhouse conditions, whereas symptoms appeared after only 4 days of growth in closed containers. Disease spread from an infected plant to noninfected plants in closed containers. Dispersion via spores was found on asymptomatic plants at distances of 7 to 18 cm from infected plants. The size and shape of the conidia, mycelia, and phialide-bearing structures and the ability to grow rapidly on carbohydrates, especially xylose, resembled the characteristics of N. chilense, which is pathogenic on orchard grass, Doctylis glomerati. The Neotyphodium wheat isolate caused disease symptoms on other cereals (wheat cv. Malcolm, orchard grass, barley, and maize) grown in closed containers.

  14. Growth and photosynthetic responses of wheat plants grown in space.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, B C; Brown, C S; Levine, H G; Krikorian, A D

    1996-03-01

    Growth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Super Dwarf) plants grown onboard the space shuttle Discovery for 10 d were examined. Compared to ground control plants, the shoot fresh weight of space-grown seedlings decreased by 25%. Postflight measurements of the O2 evolution/photosynthetic photon flux density response curves of leaf samples revealed that the CO2-saturated photosynthetic rate at saturating light intensities in space-grown plants declined 25% relative to the rate in ground control plants. The relative quantum yield of CO2-saturated photosynthetic O2 evolution measured at limiting light intensities was not significantly affected. In space-grown plants, the light compensation point of the leaves increased by 33%, which likely was due to an increase (27%) in leaf dark-respiration rates. Related experiments with thylakoids isolated from space-grown plants showed that the light-saturated photosynthetic electron transport rate from H2O through photosystems II and I was reduced by 28%. These results demonstrate that photosynthetic functions are affected by the microgravity environment.

  15. Depsipeptide in Unresectable Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-29

    Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  16. Efficacy and Tolerability of ABT-869 Versus Sorafenib in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-09-07

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma Non-resectable; Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrent; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Liver Diseases; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Digestive System Neoplasms; Carcinoma; Liver Neoplasms; Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Adenocarcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial

  17. Ureterocele urothelial carcinoma: managing a rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Astigueta, Juan Carlos; Abad-Licham, Milagros; Silva, Eloy; Alvarez, Víctor; Piccone, Francis; Cruz, Enrique; Redorta, Joan Palou

    2016-01-01

    It is very uncommon for urothelial carcinoma to develop in an ureterocele. It is generally discovered in an imaging study or in connection with haematuria. We found very few reports in the literature. Here, we report on the case of a 71-year-old male who initially presented with haematuria and low back pain and who then underwent transurethral resection for an intraureterocele tumour. Pathology confirmed urothelial carcinoma. PMID:26913072

  18. [Hypopharyngeal carcinoma and red ear drum].

    PubMed

    Bender, B; Widmann, G; Riechelmann, H; Schmutzhard, J

    2011-04-01

    A 46-year-old male patient with an unresectable hypopharyngeal carcinoma was treated with primary radio-chemotherapy. At follow-up, the patient presented with a red ear drum and combined hearing loss. Because of radiotherapy-induced tubal dysfunction, paracentesis was performed. Biopsy of the polypoid middle ear mucosa revealed petrous bone infiltration of hypopharyngeal carcinoma. MRI studies revealed paracarotideal tumor infiltration to the petrous bone and the middle ear arising from a cervical retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis. PMID:20963385

  19. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Paget’s disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget’s disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget’s disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget’s disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget’s disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget’s disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone.

  20. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael; Burt, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Paget's disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget's disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget's disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget's disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget's disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget's disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone.

  1. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma, Version 2.2015

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Robert I.; Lydiatt, William M.; Ball, Douglas W.; Busaidy, Naifa Lamki; Byrd, David; Callender, Glenda; Dickson, Paxton; Duh, Quan-Yang; Ehya, Hormoz; Haymart, Megan; Hoh, Carl; Hunt, Jason P.; Iagaru, Andrei; Kandeel, Fouad; Kopp, Peter; Lamonica, Dominick M.; McCaffrey, Judith C.; Moley, Jeffrey F.; Parks, Lee; Raeburn, Christopher D.; Ridge, John A.; Ringel, Matthew D.; Scheri, Randall P.; Shah, Jatin P.; Smallridge, Robert C.; Sturgeon, Cord; Wang, Thomas N.; Wirth, Lori J.; Hoffmann, Karin G.; Hughes, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    This selection from the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Thyroid Carcinoma focuses on anaplastic carcinoma because substantial changes were made to the systemic therapy recommendations for the 2015 update. Dosages and frequency of administration are now provided, docetaxel/doxorubicin regimens were added, and single-agent cisplatin was deleted because it is not recommended for patients with advanced or metastatic anaplastic thyroid cancer. PMID:26358798

  2. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael; Burt, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Paget's disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget's disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget's disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget's disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget's disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget's disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone. PMID:27660736

  3. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Paget’s disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget’s disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget’s disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget’s disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget’s disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget’s disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone. PMID:27660736

  4. Primary Intraosseous Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Maxilla.

    PubMed

    Nallamilli, S M; Tatapudi, R; Reddy, R S; Ravikanth, M; Rajesh, N

    2015-06-01

    Primary intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma (PIOC) is an infrequent malignancy of the head and neck that exhibits diverse biological behavior. The rareness of the location for a salivary gland tumor and the clinical and radiographic manifestations, suggestive of an odontogenic lesion often pose a diagnostic challenge. We hereby report such a unique case of central mucoepidermoid carcinoma that presented in an ambiguous manner, developing in the maxilla and intruding into the adjacent vital structures, adding a literature review. PMID:26339097

  5. [Clinical characteristics of the thyroid follicular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Hermosillo, Hugo; Tamez-Peréz, Héctor Eloy; Díaz de León-Gonzaléz, Enrique; Gutiérrez-Hermosillo, Violeta; Avila-Sanchéz, Jair

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: se ha identificado carcinoma folicular en 39 % de los pacientes con nódulos tiroideos cuya citología prequirúrgica ha indicado resultados indeterminados. El propósito de esta investigación fue conocer la prevalencia de esta entidad en un hospital de concentración. Métodos: se buscaron los reportes quirúrgicos con diagnóstico de carcinoma folicular. Se registró tamaño del tumor, sexo y edad del paciente, diagnósticos pre y posquirúrgico y patologías asociadas. Resultados: se diagnosticó carcinoma folicular en 35 pacientes: 30 mujeres (85 %) y cinco hombres (15 %). La edad en los hombres fue de 57 ± 6.6 y de 44 ± 16.9 en las mujeres. Los diagnósticos preoperatorios fueron carcinoma folicular en 14 (40 %), cáncer tiroideo en seis (17.1 %), adenoma folicular en cuatro (11.4 %), bocio en tres (8.5 %), nódulo tiroideo en tres (8.5 %); carcinoma papilar, tumor de tiroides, carcinoma poco diferenciado de tiroides, adenocarcinoma folicular bien diferenciado, cáncer medular en un paciente (2.8 %) cada uno. Las patologías asociadas fueron tiroiditis de Hashimoto y carcinoma papilar contralateral, con dos pacientes cada uno (5.6 %). Conclusiones: la edad de los pacientes y la presentación clínica del carcinoma folicular difirieron de las informadas en otras investigaciones.

  6. Pancreatic carcinoma: results with fast neutron therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, R.; Cohen, L.; Hendrickson, F.; Awschalom, M.; Hrejsa, A.F.; Rosenberg, I.

    1981-02-01

    Results of therapy in 31 of 50 patients who were treated for advanced pancreatic carcinoma at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are presented here. To date, six patients are alive and four are free of disease. Since the main reason for failure was lack of control of primary tumor, the tumor dose has been increased by 15%. Based on our results, a nationwide study has been launched to assess the effectiveness of neutrons vs photons in the treatment of locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma.

  7. Intracystic breast carcinoma: case study and review.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Sadaf; Mood, Narges Izadi

    2010-12-01

    Breast carcinoma is the most common cancer in women, the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women, and the leading cause of death from cancer in women between the ages of 40 and 44. While cystic breast disease is the most frequent cause of benign breast masses, intracystic breast cancers are rare. We present a case of a postmenopausal woman with a large cystic breast carcinoma with its interesting radiologic and cytopathologic findings and review the literature.

  8. GATA3 expression in breast carcinoma: utility in triple-negative, sarcomatoid, and metastatic carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Subhawong, Andrea P; Illei, Peter B; Sharma, Rajni; Halushka, Marc K; Vang, Russell; Fetting, John H; Park, Ben Ho; Argani, Pedram

    2013-07-01

    GATA3 plays an integral role in breast luminal cell differentiation and is implicated in breast cancer progression. GATA3 immunohistochemistry is a useful marker of breast cancer; however, its use in specific subtypes is unclear. Here, we evaluate GATA3 expression in 86 invasive ductal carcinomas including triple-negative, Her-2, and luminal subtypes, in addition to 13 metaplastic carcinomas and in 34 fibroepithelial neoplasms. In addition, we report GATA3 expression in matched primary and metastatic breast carcinomas in 30 patients with known estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Her-2 status, including 5 with ER and/or PR loss from primary to metastasis. Tissue microarrays containing 5 to 10 cores per tumor were stained for GATA3, scored as follows: 0 (0-5%), 1+ (6%-25%), 2+ (26%-50%), 3+ (51%-75%), and 4+ (>75%). GATA3 labeling was seen in 67% (66/99) of primary ductal carcinomas including 43% of triple-negative and 54% of metaplastic carcinomas. In contrast, stromal GATA3 labeling was seen in only 1 fibroepithelial neoplasm. GATA3 labeling was seen in 90% (27/30) of primary breast carcinomas in the paired cohort, including 67% of triple-negative carcinomas. GATA3 labeling was overwhelmingly maintained in paired metastases. Notably, GATA3 was maintained in all "luminal loss" metastases, which showed ER and/or PR loss. In conclusion, GATA3 expression is maintained between matched primary and metastatic carcinomas including ER-negative cases. GATA3 can be particularly useful as a marker for metastatic breast carcinoma, especially triple-negative and metaplastic carcinomas, which lack specific markers of mammary origin. Finally, GATA3 labeling may help distinguish metaplastic carcinoma from malignant phyllodes tumors.

  9. Is local resection sufficient for parathyroid carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Basceken, Salim Ilksen; Genc, Volkan; Ersoz, Siyar; Sevim, Yusuf; Celik, Suleyman Utku; Bayram, Ilknur Kepenekci

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare malignant disease of the parathyroid glands that appears in less than 1% of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. In the literature, the generally recommended treatment is en bloc tumor excision with ipsilateral thyroid lobectomy. Based on our 12 years of experience, we discuss the necessity of performing thyroid lobectomy on parathyroid carcinoma patients. RESULTS: Eleven parathyroid carcinoma cases were included in the study. All operations were performed at the Department of Endocrine Surgery at Ankara University Medical School. Seven of the patients were male (63.6%), and the mean patient age was 48.9 ± 14.0 years. Hyperparathyroidism was the most common indication for surgery (n ϝ 10, 90.9%). Local disease was detected in 5 patients (45.5%), invasive disease was detected in 5 patients (45.5%) and metastatic disease was detected in 1 patient (9.1%). The mean follow-up period was 99.6 ± 42.1 months, and the patients' average disease-free survival was 96.0 ± 49.0 months. During the follow-up period, only 1 patient died of metastatic parathyroid carcinoma. CONCLUSION: Parathyroid carcinoma has a slow-growing natural progression, and regional lymph node metastases are uncommon. Although our study comprised few patients, it nevertheless showed that in selected cases, parathyroid carcinoma could be solely treated with parathyroidectomy. PMID:26017790

  10. Carcinoma of the lung in Lancashire coalminers.

    PubMed

    Rooke, G B; Ward, F G; Dempsey, A N; Dowler, J B; Whitaker, C J

    1979-04-01

    The prevalence at death of carcinoma of the lung in miners and ex-miners has been compared in those with and without pneumoconiosis at necropsy. The prevalence of 11.4% in the group as a whole is no greater than that in the male population in North-west England. Carcinoma of the lung was present in 62 (13.1%) of those without pneumoconiosis and in 52 (9.8%) of those with pneumoconiosis. The mean age at death of those with pneumoconiosis was 71.3 years so that they cannot be said to have died before the age at which they would have developed carcinoma. Those with progressive massive fibrosis whose mean age at death was 72 years had the lowest prevalence of carcinoma of the lung at all ages--8.4%. For reasons stated in the text this is inevitably a biased sample. The number of those without pneumoconiosis is probably lower than the true figure because the deaths of miners and ex-miners in whom there is no suspicion of lung disease may not have been reported to the coroner or to the pneumoconiosis medical panel. There appears to be no positive link between carcinoma of the lung and pneumoconiosis. There is a surprisingly high number of smokers and ex-smokers among these miners, and this appears to have more relevance to the prevalence of carcinoma of the lung than does pneumoconiosis.

  11. Oncocytic mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Jahan-Parwar, B; Huberman, R M; Donovan, D T; Schwartz, M R; Ostrowski, M L

    1999-05-01

    Two parotid mucoepidermoid carcinomas with predominant oncocytic features were initially assessed on frozen section. Because of extensive oncocytic change, it was inferred that the lesions were most likely benign. Permanent sections revealed low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma with prominent oncocytic change (in more than 75% of the neoplasms) in both cases. Review of 48 additional consecutive cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands revealed prominent oncocytic change (accounting for 60% of the neoplasm) in one high-grade lesion. Phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin stains revealed strong granular cytoplasmic staining in the oncocytic elements; immunohistochemical stains for antimitochondrial antibodies also showed intense immunoreactivity in these cells. Oncocytic change is not typically a prominent feature of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands, and to our knowledge, only three such cases have been reported previously. Because most salivary gland lesions with oncocytic change are benign, it is important to distinguish mucoepidermoid carcinoma from other entities that may show prominent oncocytic change. We report three additional examples of this rare lesion, two low-grade tumors and one high-grade tumor, and review our experience with oncocytic change in mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands.

  12. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-μm-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100-270 nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500 nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600 nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies.

  13. Electrochemical fountain pen nanofabrication of vertically grown platinum nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryavanshi, Abhijit P.; Yu, Min-Feng

    2007-03-01

    Local electrochemical deposition of freestanding platinum nanowires was demonstrated with a new approach—electrochemical fountain pen nanofabrication (ec-FPN). The ec-FPN exploits the meniscus formed between an electrolyte-filled nanopipette ('the fountain pen') and a conductive substrate to serve as a confined electrochemical cell for reducing and depositing metal ions. Freestanding Pt nanowires were continuously grown off the substrate by moving the nanopipette away from the substrate while maintaining a stable meniscus between the nanopipette and the nanowire growth front. High quality and high aspect-ratio polycrystalline Pt nanowires with diameter of ~150 nm and length over 30 µm were locally grown with ec-FPN. The ec-FPN technique is shown to be an efficient and clean technique for localized fabrication of a variety of vertically grown metal nanowires and can potentially be used for fabricating freeform 3D nanostructures.

  14. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-μm-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100–270 nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500 nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600 nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies. PMID:26568414

  15. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-μm-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100-270 nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500 nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600 nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies. PMID:26568414

  16. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-11-01

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-μm-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100-270 nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500 nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600 nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies.

  17. 7 CFR 30.44 - Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cigarette and pipe tobacco. (b) Type 92. Foreign-grown flue-cured tobacco. (c) Type 93. Foreign-cured burley tobacco. (d) Type 95. Foreign-grown dark air-cured. (e) Type 96. Foreign-grown fire-cured. (f) Type 99. Other Foreign-grown cigarette and dark tobacco. Reports...

  18. 7 CFR 30.44 - Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cigarette and pipe tobacco. (b) Type 92. Foreign-grown flue-cured tobacco. (c) Type 93. Foreign-cured burley tobacco. (d) Type 95. Foreign-grown dark air-cured. (e) Type 96. Foreign-grown fire-cured. (f) Type 99. Other Foreign-grown cigarette and dark tobacco. Reports...

  19. Shock initiation experiments on ratchet grown PBX 9502

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen, Richard L; Thompson, Darla G; Olinger, Barton W; Deluca, Racci; Bartram, Brian D; Pierce, Timothy H; Sanchez, Nathaniel J

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the shock initiation behavior of PBX 9502 pressed to less than nominal density (nominal density is 1.890 {+-} 0.005 g/cm{sup 3}) with PBX 9502 pressed to nominal density and then ''ratchet grown'' to low density. PBX 9502 is an insensitive plastic bonded explosive consisting of 95 weight % dry-aminated tri-amino-tri-nitro-benzene (TATB) and 5 weight % Kel-F 800 plastic binder. ''Ratchet growth'' - an irreversible increase in specific volume - occurs when an explosive based on TATB is temperature cycled. The design of our study is as follows: PBX 9502, all from the same lot, received the following four treatments. Samples in the first group were pressed to less than nominal density. These were not ratchet grown and used as a baseline. Samples in the second group were pressed to nominal density and then ratchet grown by temperature cycling 30 times between -54 C and +80 C. Samples in the final group were pressed to nominal density and cut into 100 mm by 25.4 mm diameter cylinders. During thermal cycling the cylinders were axially constrained by a 100 psi load. Samples for shock initiation experiments were cut perpendicular (disks) and parallel (slabs) to the axial load. The four sample groups can be summarized with the terms pressed low, ratchet grown/no load, axial load/disks, and axial load/slabs. All samples were shock initiated with nearly identical inputs in plate impact experiments carried out on a gas gun. Wave profiles were measured after propagation through 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm of explosive. Side by side comparison of wave profiles from different samples is used as a measure of relative sensitivity. All reduced density samples were more shock sensitive than nominal density PBX 9502. Differences in shock sensitivity between ratchet grown and pressed to low density PBX 9502 were small, but the low density pressings are slightly more sensitive than the ratchet grown samples.

  20. Increased occurrence of pesticide residues on crops grown in protected environments compared to crops grown in open field conditions.

    PubMed

    Allen, Gina; Halsall, Crispin J; Ukpebor, Justina; Paul, Nigel D; Ridall, Gareth; Wargent, Jason J

    2015-01-01

    Crops grown under plastic-clad structures or in greenhouses may be prone to an increased frequency of pesticide residue detections and higher concentrations of pesticides relative to equivalent crops grown in the open field. To test this we examined pesticide data for crops selected from the quarterly reports (2004-2009) of the UK's Pesticide Residue Committee. Five comparison crop pairs were identified whereby one crop of each pair was assumed to have been grown primarily under some form of physical protection ('protected') and the other grown primarily in open field conditions ('open'). For each pair, the number of detectable pesticide residues and the proportion of crop samples containing pesticides were statistically compared (n=100 s samples for each crop). The mean concentrations of selected photolabile pesticides were also compared. For the crop pairings of cabbage ('open') vs. lettuce ('protected') and 'berries' ('open') vs. strawberries ('protected') there was a significantly higher number of pesticides and proportion of samples with multiple residues for the protected crops. Statistically higher concentrations of pesticides, including cypermethrin, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, boscalid and iprodione were also found in the protected crops compared to the open crops. The evidence here demonstrates that, in general, the protected crops possess a higher number of detectable pesticides compared to analogous crops grown in the open. This may be due to different pesticide-use regimes, but also due to slower rates of pesticide removal in protected systems. The findings of this study raise implications for pesticide management in protected-crop systems.

  1. Increased occurrence of pesticide residues on crops grown in protected environments compared to crops grown in open field conditions.

    PubMed

    Allen, Gina; Halsall, Crispin J; Ukpebor, Justina; Paul, Nigel D; Ridall, Gareth; Wargent, Jason J

    2015-01-01

    Crops grown under plastic-clad structures or in greenhouses may be prone to an increased frequency of pesticide residue detections and higher concentrations of pesticides relative to equivalent crops grown in the open field. To test this we examined pesticide data for crops selected from the quarterly reports (2004-2009) of the UK's Pesticide Residue Committee. Five comparison crop pairs were identified whereby one crop of each pair was assumed to have been grown primarily under some form of physical protection ('protected') and the other grown primarily in open field conditions ('open'). For each pair, the number of detectable pesticide residues and the proportion of crop samples containing pesticides were statistically compared (n=100 s samples for each crop). The mean concentrations of selected photolabile pesticides were also compared. For the crop pairings of cabbage ('open') vs. lettuce ('protected') and 'berries' ('open') vs. strawberries ('protected') there was a significantly higher number of pesticides and proportion of samples with multiple residues for the protected crops. Statistically higher concentrations of pesticides, including cypermethrin, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, boscalid and iprodione were also found in the protected crops compared to the open crops. The evidence here demonstrates that, in general, the protected crops possess a higher number of detectable pesticides compared to analogous crops grown in the open. This may be due to different pesticide-use regimes, but also due to slower rates of pesticide removal in protected systems. The findings of this study raise implications for pesticide management in protected-crop systems. PMID:25465948

  2. Pancreatic mucinous noncystic (colloid) carcinomas and intraductal papillary mucinous carcinomas are usually microsatellite stable.

    PubMed

    Lüttges, Jutta; Beyser, Kurt; Pust, Susanne; Paulus, Anja; Rüschoff, Josef; Klöppel, Günter

    2003-06-01

    Pancreatic mucinous noncystic (colloid) carcinomas (MNCC) differ from the usual ductal adenocarcinomas in their mucin expression profile and share with many extrapancreatic mucinous carcinomas the expression of MUC2. Because mucinous carcinomas are frequently associated with mutations of the DNA mismatch repair genes, causing them to exhibit the so-called mutator phenotype, we decided to investigate whether MNCCs of the pancreas are characterized by microsatellite instability (MSI). Twelve carcinomas with a mucinous phenotype (8 mucinous noncystic carcinomas, 3 intraductal papillary-mucinous carcinomas with an invasive muconodular component, and 1 ductal adenocarcinoma with an extensive mucinous noncystic component) and 11 ductal adenocarcinomas were immunostained with monoclonal antibodies to the mismatch repair gene products hMLH1, hMSH2, and hMSH6. For MSI analysis, DNA was isolated from microdissected tissue, and five primary microsatellites (BAT 25, BAT 26, D5S346, D17S250, and D2S123) were analyzed. MSI was diagnosed in case a novel allele was found, compared with the normal tissue. The criterion for LOH was a 75% signal reduction. All carcinomas tested exhibited nuclear expression of mismatch repair gene products, except for one MNCC that also showed MSI at the molecular level. The data suggest that pancreatic carcinomas with a mucinous phenotype (MUC2+/MUC1-) do not appear to normally exhibit mutations in the mismatch repair genes and therefore differ in their carcinogenesis from those in other organs.

  3. Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Multifocal Synchronous Transformation to Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is a common malignancy to affect the thyroid and is typified by a nonaggressive nature and low rates of mortality. In contrast, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is the most aggressive thyroid malignancy with a mortality rate of nearly 90% and survival typically of only six months after the diagnosis is made. The transformation of papillary thyroid carcinoma to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is well documented in the literature but is uncommon and in most instances is reported as a case report or small series only. Transformation of papillary thyroid carcinoma to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma usually takes place in the thyroid itself or in the adjacent lymph nodes. Only on rare occasions does a transformation occur in a papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasis outside of these locations. In the present case report and subsequent discussion we highlight an unusual case of PTC with transformation to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is shown to involve numerous locations to include near total lung parenchyma obliteration. We also discuss the differential diagnostic challenges when faced with a thyroid malignancy that is negative for thyroglobulin. PMID:27774331

  4. NUT midline carcinomas of the sinonasal tract.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A; Westra, William H

    2012-08-01

    NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a highly lethal tumor defined by translocations involving the NUT gene on chromosome 15q14. NMC involves midline structures including the sinonasal tract, but its overall incidence at this midline site and its full morphologic profile are largely unknown because sinonasal tumors are not routinely tested for the NUT gene translocation. The recent availability of an immunohistochemical probe for the NUT protein now permits a more complete characterization of sinonasal NMCs. The archival files of The Johns Hopkins Hospital Surgical Pathology were searched for all cases of primary sinonasal carcinomas diagnosed from 1995 to 2011. Tissue microarrays were constructed, and NUT immunohistochemical analysis was performed. All NUT-positive cases underwent a more detailed microscopic and immunohistochemical analysis. Among 151 primary sinonasal carcinomas, only 3 (2%) were NUT positive. NUT positivity was detected in 2 of 13 (15%) carcinomas diagnosed as sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma and in 1 of 87 (1%) carcinomas diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. All occurred in men (26, 33, and 48 y of age). The NMCs grew as nests and sheets of cells with a high mitotic rate and extensive necrosis. Two were entirely undifferentiated, and 1 tumor showed abrupt areas of squamous differentiation. Each case had areas of cell spindling, and 2 were heavily infiltrated by neutrophils. Immunohistochemical staining was observed for cytokeratins (3 of 3), epithelial membrane antigen (3 of 3), p63 (2 of 3), CD34 (1 of 3), and synaptophysin (1 of 3). All patients died of the disease (survival time range, 8 to 16 mo; mean, 12 mo) despite combined surgery and chemoradiation. NMC represents a rare form of primary sinonasal carcinoma, but its incidence is significantly increased in those carcinomas that exhibit an undifferentiated component. Indiscriminant analysis for evidence of the NUT translocation is unwarranted. Instead, NUT analysis can be restricted to

  5. [New developments in molecular diagnostics of carcinomas of the salivary glands: "translocation carcinomas"].

    PubMed

    Skálová, Alena; Šteiner, Petr; Vaneček, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the discovery of translocations and the fusion oncogenes that they result in has changed the way diagnoses are made in salivary gland pathology. These genetic aberrations are recurrent; and at the very least serve as powerful diagnostic tools in salivary gland tumors diagnosis and classification. They also show promise as prognostic markers and hopefully as targets of therapy. In this review the 4 carcinomas currently known to harbor translocations will be discussed, namely mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. The discovery and implications of each fusion will be highlighted and how they have helped to reshape the current classification of salivary gland tumors. PMID:27526014

  6. Raf-1 kinase inhibitory protein expression in thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Gou Young; Lim, Sung-Jig; Kim, Youn Wha

    2010-12-01

    Raf-1 kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) has been implicated in several fundamental signal transduction pathways that control cellular growth, differentiation, apoptosis and migration. RKIP is reduced in a variety of human carcinomas, but RKIP expression in thyroid carcinomas has not been analyzed at the protein level. In this study, we examined the immunohistochemical expression of RKIP in various subtypes of thyroid carcinoma. Immunostaining for RKIP was performed on 104 cases of primary thyroid carcinoma (40 papillary, 29 follicular, 11 medullary, 11 poorly differentiated, and 13 anaplastic carcinomas) and 26 cases of nodal metastatic tumor (17 papillary, 4 medullary, and 5 anaplastic carcinomas). Normal thyroid tissue and all cases of follicular, papillary, and medullary carcinomas showed uniform, strong cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for RKIP. With the exception of one case, poorly differentiated carcinomas also revealed strong RKIP expression. In contrast, RKIP expression was completely absent in all anaplastic carcinomas. The transition zone from the differentiated carcinoma component (strong RKIP expression) to the anaplastic carcinoma component (no RKIP expression) demonstrated a completely opposite pattern of RKIP immunoreactivity. This reduction of RKIP expression in anaplastic carcinoma was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Additionally, RKIP expression of nodal metastatic tumors corresponded with that of primary tumors: metastatic papillary and medullary carcinomas showed uniform, strong cytoplasmic RKIP immunoreactivity, in contrast, in metastatic anaplastic carcinomas, RKIP expression was completely absent. RKIP expression is significantly reduced in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma as compared to other subtypes of thyroid carcinoma. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the precise mechanism of RKIP action in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  7. Parvalbumin is constantly expressed in chromophobe renal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Martignoni, G; Pea, M; Chilosi, M; Brunelli, M; Scarpa, A; Colato, C; Tardanico, R; Zamboni, G; Bonetti, F

    2001-08-01

    Chromophobe renal carcinoma is composed of neoplastic cell showing several features similar to those found in the intercalated cells of the collecting ducts. Because the distal nephron expresses calcium-binding proteins playing a role in calcium homeostasis, we reasoned that these proteins could be expressed by chromophobe carcinoma and therefore represent a diagnostic marker. We studied the immunohistochemical expression of different calcium-binding proteins (parvalbumin, calbindin-D28K, and calretinin) in 140 renal tumors, including 75 conventional (clear cell) carcinomas, 32 chromophobe carcinomas, 17 papillary renal cell carcinomas, and 16 oncocytomas. Parvalbumin was strongly positive in all primary chromophobe carcinomas and in one pancreatic metastasis; it was positive in 11 of 16 oncocytomas and absent in conventional (clear cell) and papillary renal cell carcinomas, either primary or metastatic. Calbindin-D28K and calretinin were negative in all tumors, with the exception of two chromophobe carcinomas, four oncocytomas, and two papillary renal cell carcinomas showing inconspicuous calretinin expression. Our data demonstrate that parvalbumin may be a suitable marker for distinguishing primary and metastatic chromophobe carcinoma from conventional (clear cell) and papillary renal cell carcinoma. Moreover, they suggest a relationship between chromophobe renal carcinoma and renal oncocytoma and indicate that chromophobe carcinoma exhibits differentiation toward the collecting-duct phenotype.

  8. Cisplatin and Etoposide or Temozolomide and Capecitabine in Treating Patients With Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Gastrointestinal Tract or Pancreas That Is Metastatic or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-05

    Colorectal Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Esophageal Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Gallbladder Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Gastric Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Pancreatic Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Small Intestinal Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

  9. Familial pancreatic carcinoma in Jews.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Henry T; Deters, Carolyn A; Lynch, Jane F; Brand, Randall E

    2004-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the most fatal of all gastrointestinal cancers, wherein its mortality compares strikingly with its incidence. Unfortunately, 80-90% of PCs are diagnosed in the nonresectable stage. While the lifetime risk of PC in developed countries is approximately 1-3%, it is the fifth most common cause of cancer deaths among both males and females in Western countries. It occurs in excess in Jews. Approximately 5-10% of PC shows familial clustering. Examination of such familial clusters must take into consideration cancers of diverse anatomic sites, such as malignant melanoma in the familial atypical multiple melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome due to the CDKN2A (p16) germline mutation, and combinations of colorectal and endometrial carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, and several other cancers in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), which are due to mismatch repair germline mutations, the most common of which are MSH2 and MLH1 . Other hereditary disorders predisposing to PC include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, due to the STK11 mutation, familial pancreatitis due to the cationic trypsinogen gene, site-specific familial pancreatic cancer which may be due to the 4q32-34 mutation, hereditary breast-ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome that is due to BRCA2 and possibly some families with HBOC that is due to BRCA1 , familial adenomatous polyposis due to the ATP gene, and ataxia telangiectasia due to the ATM germline mutation. This extant heterogeneity mandates that the physician be knowledgeable about these PC-prone syndromes which play such an important role when considering the differential diagnosis of hereditary PC. Unfortunately, there are no PC screening programs with acceptable sensitivity and specificity. However, the gold standard for screening at this time is endoscopic ultrasound. Clearly, there is a great need for the development of novel screening approaches with acceptable sensitivity and specificity. Further research is needed to elucidate those etiologic

  10. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Kew, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the major malignant tumors in the world today. The number of new cases of the tumor increases year by year, and hepatocellular carcinoma almost always runs a fulminant course and carries an especially grave prognosis. It has a low resectability rate and a high recurrence rate after surgical intervention, and responds poorly to anticancer drugs and radiotherapy. Hepatocellular carcinoma does not have a uniform geographical distribution: rather, very high incidences occur in Eastern and Southeastern Asia and in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In these regions and populations, the tumor shows a distinct shift in age distribution toward the younger ages, seen to greatest extent in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In all populations, males are more commonly affected. The most common risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-poor populations with a high incidence of the tumor are chronic hepatitis B virus infection and dietary exposure to the fungal hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1. These two causative agents act either singly or synergistically. Both the viral infection and exposure to the fungus occur from early childhood, and the tumor typically presents at an early age. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-rich countries with a low incidence of the tumor. The infection is acquired in adulthood and hepatocellular carcinoma occurs later than it does with hepatitis B virus-induced tumors. In recent years, obesity and the metabolic syndrome have increased markedly in incidence and importance as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in some resource-rich regions. Chronic alcohol abuse remains an important risk factor for malignant transformation of hepatocytes, frequently in association with alcohol-induced cirrhosis. Excessive iron accumulation in hereditary hemochromatosis and dietary iron overload in the Black African population and membranous obstruction of the inferior cava

  11. Uroplakin II Expression in Breast Carcinomas Showing Apocrine Differentiation: Putting Some Emphasis on Invasive Pleomorphic Lobular Carcinoma as a Potential Mimic of Urothelial Carcinoma at Metastatic Sites

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Shogo; Koda, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Uroplakin II antibody is exclusively specific for urothelial carcinoma. Nonurothelial carcinoma has not been reported to be immunoreactive for uroplakin II. In the present study, we hypothesized that breast carcinoma showing apocrine differentiation, such as invasive pleomorphic lobular carcinoma (IPLC) and apocrine carcinoma (AC), stains positive for uroplakin II. We identified 6 cases of IPLC between 2000 and 2014 by searching a computerized pathological database. We randomly selected 10 cases of each classic invasive lobular carcinoma (cILC) and AC and five cases of apocrine metaplasia (AM) that coexisted in a surgically resected breast carcinoma specimen. Immunohistochemistry was performed for uroplakin II, GATA3, CK7, CK20, and other representative markers positive for urothelial carcinoma. All cases of IPLC, AC, and AM, except those of cILC, showed immunoreactivity for uroplakin II. Poorly differentiated urothelial carcinoma sometimes shows similar morphology to IPLC with the following immunophenotype: CK7+, CK20−, GATA3+, and uroplakin II+. In the present study, this immunophenotype was observed in all the cases of IPLC and AC. Therefore, when studying metastatic, poorly differentiated carcinoma showing the aforementioned immunophenotype, we should consider the possibility of it being IPLC in addition to metastatic urothelial carcinoma.

  12. Hsp90 Inhibitor AT13387 in Treating Patients With Locoregionally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Receiving Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-05

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  13. 75 FR 55944 - Walnuts Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY... decreases the assessment rate established for the California Walnut Board (Board) for the 2010-11 and subsequent marketing years from $0.0177 to $0.0174 per kernelweight pound of assessable walnuts. The...

  14. 78 FR 57101 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY... assessment rate established for the California Walnut Board (Board) for the 2013-14 and subsequent marketing years from $0.0175 to $0.0189 per kernelweight pound of merchantable walnuts. The Board...

  15. Shade periodicity affects growth of container grown dogwoods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Container-grown dogwoods rank third in the US in nursery sales of ornamental trees. However, Dogwoods are a challenging crop to produce in container culture, especially when bare root liners are used as the initial transplant into containers due unacceptable levels of mortality and poor growth. This...

  16. 77 FR 21492 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 966 Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased... ``Act.'' The Department of Agriculture (USDA) is issuing this rule in conformance with Executive Order... would be applicable to all assessable tomatoes beginning on August 1, 2011, and continue until...

  17. Yield performance of cowpea genotypes grown in alkaline soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at soil pH of 7.5 or higher, cowp...

  18. Transgene expression of lilies grown in the greenhouse and outdoors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White plants were transformed with either the bar-uidA fusion gene or the npt II and uidA genes and grown for two seasons in the greenhouse and outdoors in containers. All transgenes were under control of the CaMV 35S promoter. During the first year there was no differ...

  19. Photosynthetic response of field-grown maize to fertilizer N

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While N supply has a large effect on growth and productivity of field-grown maize, its impact on leaf and canopy photosynthesis is less clear. Our objective was to characterize how N supply, and use of N by the maize plant impacts photosynthesis under field conditions. The N supply/N use was altered...

  20. X-ray Characterization of Detached-Grown Germanium Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Schweizer, M.; Raghothamachar, B.; Dudley, M.; Szoke, J.; Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.

    2005-01-01

    Germanium (111)-oriented crystals have been grown by the vertical Bridgman technique, in both detached and attached configurations. Microstructural characterization of these crystals has been performed using synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) and double axis x-ray diffraction. Dislocation densities were measured from x-ray topographs obtained using the reflection geometry. For detached-grown crystals, the dislocation density is 4-6 x 10(exp 4) per square centimeter in the seed region, and decreases in the direction of growth to less than 10(exp 3) per square centimeter, and in some crystals reaches less than 10(exp 2) per square centimeter. For crystals grown in the attached configuration, dislocation densities were on the order of 10(exp 4) per square centimeter in the middle of the crystals, increasing to greater than 10(exp 5) per square centimeter near the edge. The measured dislocation densities are in excellent agreement with etch pit density results. The rocking curve linewidths were relatively insensitive to the dislocation densities. However, broadening and splitting of the rocking curves were observed in the vicinity of subgrain boundaries identified by x-ray topography in some of the attached-grown crystals.

  1. 78 FR 45898 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ...; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This document directs that a referendum be conducted among eligible producers of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia... Vidalia onions produced in the production area. DATES: The referendum will be conducted from September...

  2. 76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 946 Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This document directs that a referendum be conducted among eligible Washington potato growers to determine whether they favor...

  3. 78 FR 77367 - Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 981 Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This document directs that a referendum be conducted among eligible growers of almonds in California to determine whether they...

  4. Yield performance of cowpea plant introductions grown in calcareous soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at a soil pH of 7.5 or higher, co...

  5. Antimicrobial substances from aspen tissue grown in vitro.

    PubMed

    MATHES, M C

    1963-06-01

    Isolated aspen tissue, when grown in vitro for 3 weeks on agar medium, yielded antimicrobial substances which produced inhibitory zones when the culture plates were inoculated with Fusarium roseum, Saccharomyces cervisiae, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Penicillium, roqueforti, Torula utilis, Sarcina lutea, Flavobacterium aquatile, Pullularia pullulans, and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:13933593

  6. 75 FR 9536 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased... increase the assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2010 and subsequent fiscal years from $28.63 to $44.72 per assessable ton of olives handled. The Committee...

  7. 77 FR 51684 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ..., these costs are offset by the benefits derived by the operation of the marketing order. In addition, the... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment...

  8. 77 FR 33104 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... producers. However, these costs would be offset by the benefits derived by the operation of the marketing...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule...

  9. 76 FR 67320 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ..., these costs are offset by the benefits derived by the operation of the marketing order. In addition, the... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment...

  10. 78 FR 77604 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... costs would be offset by the benefits derived from the operation of the marketing order. In addition...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 966 Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This...

  11. 78 FR 77327 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate established for the California Walnut Board (Board) for the 2013-14 and subsequent marketing years from...

  12. 78 FR 24979 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... / Monday, April 29, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing... Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: This rule decreases the... marketing order which regulates the handling of olives grown in California. Assessments upon olive...

  13. 75 FR 22211 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate....63 to $44.72 per assessable ton of olives handled. The Committee locally administers the...

  14. 76 FR 50703 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This... 2011-12 and subsequent marketing years from $0.0174 to $0.0175 per kernelweight pound of...

  15. Structure and growth process of vapor-grown carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koyama, T.; Endo, M.

    1983-01-01

    The structure, effect of heat, and growth process of vapor-grown carbon fibers are investigated. The growth process of the carbon fibers could be divided into three stages; nucleation, elongation, and thickening processes. Also, a multi-layered structure can be produced as well as graphitization.

  16. 78 FR 62959 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 920 Kiwifruit Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural... assessment rate established for the Kiwifruit Administrative Committee (Committee) for the 2013-14 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.035 to $0.025 per 9-kilo volume-fill container or equivalent of...

  17. Localized peribronchial thickening: a CT sign of occult bronchogenic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, W.L. Jr.; Roberts, L. Jr.; McLendon, R.E.; Hill, R.C.

    1985-05-01

    The authors present a case with repeated positive sputum cytologies in which CT proved complementary to nonlocalizing endoscopies by identifying bronchogenic carcinoma as focal specimen provided precise pathologic correlation of the CT findings with a small squamous cell carcinoma.

  18. Diagnostic utility of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta immunoreactivity in endometrial carcinomas: lack of specificity for endometrial clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fadare, Oluwole; Liang, Sharon X

    2012-12-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta (HNF1β) has recently emerged as a relatively sensitive and specific marker for ovarian clear cell carcinoma. The purpose of this study is to assess the diagnostic utility of this marker for endometrial clear cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 75 endometrial tissues using a goat polyclonal antibody raised against a peptide mapping at the C-terminus of human HNF1β protein. The 75 cases included 15 clear cell carcinomas, 20 endometrioid carcinomas, 15 endometrial serous carcinomas/uterine papillary serous carcinomas, 20 cases of normal endometrium, 2 cases of clear cell metaplasia, and 3 cases of Arias Stella reaction. Staining interpretations were based on a semiquantitative scoring system, a 0 to 12+ continuous numerical scale that was derived by multiplying the extent of staining (0 to 4+ scale) by the intensity of staining (0 to 3+ scale) for each case. HNF1β expression was found to be present in a wide spectrum of tissues. Twenty-seven (54%) of the 50 carcinomas displayed at least focal nuclear HNF1β expression, including 11 (73%) of 15, 9 (60%) of 15, and 7 (35%) of 20 clear cell, serous, and endometrioid carcinomas, respectively. The average nuclear staining scores for clear cell carcinomas, endometrioid carcinomas, and serous carcinomas were 5.2, 1.4, and 4.1, respectively. Clear cell carcinomas and endometrioid carcinomas displayed statistically significant differences regarding their nuclear staining scores (P = 0.0027), but clear cell carcinomas and endometrial serous carcinomas did not (P = 0.45). The calculated sensitivity of any nuclear HNF1β expression in classifying a carcinoma as being of the clear cell histotype was 73%, whereas the specificity was 54%. Nineteen of 20 normal endometrium samples displayed at least focal nuclear expression of HNF1β, and this expression was often diffuse. The 5 cases of benign histologic mimics of clear cell carcinomas (Arias Stella reaction and clear

  19. Mucinous carcinoma of the breast is genomically distinct from invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type.

    PubMed

    Lacroix-Triki, Magali; Suarez, Paula H; MacKay, Alan; Lambros, Maryou B; Natrajan, Rachael; Savage, Kay; Geyer, Felipe C; Weigelt, Britta; Ashworth, Alan; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2010-11-01

    Mucinous carcinomas are a rare entity accounting for up to 2% of all breast cancers, which have been shown to display a gene expression profile distinct from that of invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type (IDC-NSTs). Here, we have defined the genomic aberrations that are characteristic of this special type of breast cancer and have investigated whether mucinous carcinomas might constitute a genomic entity distinct from IDC-NSTs. Thirty-five pure and 11 mixed mucinous breast carcinomas were assessed by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, HER2, Ki67, cyclin D1, cortactin, Bcl-2, p53, E-cadherin, basal markers, neuroendocrine markers, and WT1. Fifteen pure mucinous carcinomas and 30 grade- and ER-matched IDC-NSTs were microdissected and subjected to high-resolution microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). In addition, the distinct components of seven mixed mucinous carcinomas were microdissected separately and subjected to aCGH. Pure mucinous carcinomas consistently expressed ER (100%), lacked HER2 expression (97.1%), and showed a relatively low level of genetic instability. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that pure mucinous carcinomas were homogeneous and preferentially clustered together, separately from IDC-NSTs. They less frequently harboured gains of 1q and 16p and losses of 16q and 22q than grade- and ER-matched IDC-NSTs, and no pure mucinous carcinoma displayed concurrent 1q gain and 16q loss, a hallmark genetic feature of low-grade IDC-NSTs. Finally, both components of all but one mixed mucinous carcinoma displayed similar patterns of genetic aberrations and preferentially clustered together with pure mucinous carcinomas on unsupervised clustering analysis. Our results demonstrate that mucinous carcinomas are more homogeneous between themselves at the genetic level than IDC-NSTs. Both components of mixed mucinous tumours are remarkably similar at the

  20. Challenges of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Colagrande, Stefano; Inghilesi, Andrea L; Aburas, Sami; Taliani, Gian G; Nardi, Cosimo; Marra, Fabio

    2016-09-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignancy, resulting as the third cause of death by cancer each year. The management of patients with HCC is complex, as both the tumour stage and any underlying liver disease must be considered conjointly. Although surveillance by imaging, clinical and biochemical parameters is routinely performed, a lot of patients suffering from cirrhosis have an advanced stage HCC at the first diagnosis. Advanced stage HCC includes heterogeneous groups of patients with different clinical condition and radiological features and sorafenib is the only approved treatment according to Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer. Since the introduction of sorafenib in clinical practice, several phase III clinical trials have failed to demonstrate any superiority over sorafenib in the frontline setting. Loco-regional therapies have also been tested as first line treatment, but their role in advanced HCC is still matter of debate. No single agent or combination therapies have been shown to impact outcomes after sorafenib failure. Therefore this review will focus on the range of experimental therapeutics for patients with advanced HCC and highlights the successes and failures of these treatments as well as areas for future development. Specifics such as dose limiting toxicity and safety profile in patients with liver dysfunction related to the underlying chronic liver disease should be considered when developing therapies in HCC. Finally, robust validated and reproducible surrogate end-points as well as predictive biomarkers should be defined in future randomized trials. PMID:27678348

  1. Challenges of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Colagrande, Stefano; Inghilesi, Andrea L; Aburas, Sami; Taliani, Gian G; Nardi, Cosimo; Marra, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignancy, resulting as the third cause of death by cancer each year. The management of patients with HCC is complex, as both the tumour stage and any underlying liver disease must be considered conjointly. Although surveillance by imaging, clinical and biochemical parameters is routinely performed, a lot of patients suffering from cirrhosis have an advanced stage HCC at the first diagnosis. Advanced stage HCC includes heterogeneous groups of patients with different clinical condition and radiological features and sorafenib is the only approved treatment according to Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer. Since the introduction of sorafenib in clinical practice, several phase III clinical trials have failed to demonstrate any superiority over sorafenib in the frontline setting. Loco-regional therapies have also been tested as first line treatment, but their role in advanced HCC is still matter of debate. No single agent or combination therapies have been shown to impact outcomes after sorafenib failure. Therefore this review will focus on the range of experimental therapeutics for patients with advanced HCC and highlights the successes and failures of these treatments as well as areas for future development. Specifics such as dose limiting toxicity and safety profile in patients with liver dysfunction related to the underlying chronic liver disease should be considered when developing therapies in HCC. Finally, robust validated and reproducible surrogate end-points as well as predictive biomarkers should be defined in future randomized trials.

  2. Targeted therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bronte, F; Bronte, G; Cusenza, S; Fiorentino, E; Rolfo, C; Cicero, G; Bronte, E; Di Marco, V; Firenze, A; Angarano, G; Fontana, T; Russo, A

    2014-01-01

    The onset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is related to the development of non-neoplastic liver disease, such as viral infections and cirrhosis. Even though patients with chronic liver diseases undergo clinical surveillance for early diagnosis of HCC, this cancer is often diagnosed in advanced stage. In this case locoregional treatment is not possible and systemic therapies are the best way to control it. Until now sorafenib, a Raf and multi-kinase inhibitor has been the best, choice to treat HCC systemically. It showed a survival benefit in multicenter phase III trials. However the proper patient setting to treat is not well defined, since the results in Child-Pugh B patients are conflicting. To date various new target drugs are under developed and other biological treatments normally indicated in other malignancies are under investigation also for HCC. These strategies aim to target the different biological pathways implicated in HCC development and progression. The target drugs studied in HCC include anti-VEGF and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors. The most important challenge is represented by the best integration of these drugs with standard treatments to achieve improvement in overall survival and quality of life.

  3. Challenges of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Colagrande, Stefano; Inghilesi, Andrea L; Aburas, Sami; Taliani, Gian G; Nardi, Cosimo; Marra, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignancy, resulting as the third cause of death by cancer each year. The management of patients with HCC is complex, as both the tumour stage and any underlying liver disease must be considered conjointly. Although surveillance by imaging, clinical and biochemical parameters is routinely performed, a lot of patients suffering from cirrhosis have an advanced stage HCC at the first diagnosis. Advanced stage HCC includes heterogeneous groups of patients with different clinical condition and radiological features and sorafenib is the only approved treatment according to Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer. Since the introduction of sorafenib in clinical practice, several phase III clinical trials have failed to demonstrate any superiority over sorafenib in the frontline setting. Loco-regional therapies have also been tested as first line treatment, but their role in advanced HCC is still matter of debate. No single agent or combination therapies have been shown to impact outcomes after sorafenib failure. Therefore this review will focus on the range of experimental therapeutics for patients with advanced HCC and highlights the successes and failures of these treatments as well as areas for future development. Specifics such as dose limiting toxicity and safety profile in patients with liver dysfunction related to the underlying chronic liver disease should be considered when developing therapies in HCC. Finally, robust validated and reproducible surrogate end-points as well as predictive biomarkers should be defined in future randomized trials. PMID:27678348

  4. Environmental Exposures and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C virus is a well-established risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it is now clear that certain occupational, environmental, and lifestyle factors also play a role in cancer development. Among these factors are smoking, alcohol consumption, workplace exposure to vinyl chloride, and exposure to polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons and aflatoxins. There is also evidence that several other chemical and infectious agents have a role in inducing HCC in humans. Epidemiologic studies and the use of biomarkers have provided essential data to demonstrate the importance of some of these factors in human risk, while animal studies have suggested that other chemicals may also play a role. Although immunization against hepatitis B virus infection remains the primary method of preventing HCC in regions of the world where this virus is a primary etiologic agent, there is currently no vaccine for hepatitis C virus. Thus, limiting exposure to other known risk factors remains an important mechanism in preventing HCC. PMID:26357611

  5. Everolimus in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y

    2010-08-01

    Everolimus (also known as RAD-001; Afinitor®) is an orally active inhibitor of the intracellular protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency recently approved everolimus for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) on the basis of the results of a randomized phase III clinical trial. In the trial, 10 mg daily everolimus was effective and well tolerated by patients with advanced RCC, whose disease had progressed while under the treatment with sunitinib and/or sorafenib. Everolimus treatment led to 36% of 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate and 31% of 3-month PFS rate. Most of the adverse events were mild to moderate (grade 1-2) in severity. The most frequent grade 3-4 adverse events were stomatitis, fatigue, pneumonitis and infections. Clinical trials on everolimus in combination with sunitinib, sorafenib, imatinib and vatalanib for the treatment of RCC are ongoing. PMID:20830316

  6. Fibrosing mediastinitis mimicking bronchogenic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bayiz, Hulya; Mutluay, Neslihan; Koyuncu, Adem; Demirag, Funda; Dagli, Gulfidan; Berktas, Bahadir; Berkoglu, Mine

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosing mediastinitis is a rare but benign disorder characterized by an excessive fibrotic reaction in the mediastinum which can result in compromise of airways, great vessels, and other mediastinal structures. In this paper we presented a patient with fibrosing mediastinitis mimicking bronchogenic carcinoma. The patient was a 32-year-old diabetic male admitting with cough and hemoptysis. There was a right hilar mass and multiple mediastinal conglomerated lymph nodes on chest computed tomography. Positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) scan demonstrated increased fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake at the right hilar mass lesion and mediastinal lymph nodes. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy showed mucosal distortion of right upper lobe. Pathologic examination of the mucosal biopsy revealed inflammation. Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle and cervical mediastinoscopic lymph node biopsies were undiagnostic. Diagnostic thoracotomy confirmed the diagnosis fibrosing mediastinitis. Administration of six months of systemic corticosteroid and antituberculous therapy was not beneficial. In conclusion, despite being a rare clinical entity, fibrosing mediastinitis should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal mass lesions of unknown etiology. The diagnosis is exceptionally difficult in the presence of atypical radiological findings. The treatment is particularly challenging without any proven effective therapy. PMID:23372962

  7. Multidisciplinary Management of Laryngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, William M. Mancuso, Anthony A.; Hinerman, Russell W.; Malyapa, Robert S.; Werning, John W.; Amdur, Robert J.; Villaret, Douglas B.

    2007-10-01

    The management of head and neck cancer has evolved into a multidisciplinary approach in which patients are evaluated before treatment and decisions depend on prospective multi-institutional trials, as well as retrospective outcome studies. The choice of one or more modalities to use in a given case varies with the tumor site and extent, as exemplified in the treatment of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. The goals of treatment include cure, laryngeal voice preservation, voice quality, optimal swallowing, and minimal xerostomia. Treatment options include transoral laser excision, radiotherapy (both definitive and postoperative), open partial laryngectomy, total laryngectomy, and neck dissection. The likelihood of local control and preservation of laryngeal function is related to tumor volume. Patients who have a relatively high risk of local recurrence undergo follow-up computed tomography scans every 3-4 months for the first 2 years after radiotherapy. Patients with suspicious findings on computed tomography might benefit from fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to differentiate post-radiotherapy changes from tumor.

  8. Localization of metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma with Ga-67

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, F.T.; Anderson, J.H.; Jelinek, J.; Anderson, D.W. )

    1991-02-01

    Data are limited on the localization of Ga-67 in primary or metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma. We report the localization of Ga-67 to pathologically confirmed adrenal cortical carcinoma metastatic to the lung. A review of the literature revealed four patients have previously been reported to have metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma detected on Ga-67 scan. Gallium imaging may be useful in the evaluation of patients with adrenal cortical carcinoma. SPECT imaging should further improve lesion resolution and localization.

  9. Synchronous Renal Cell Carcinoma and Gastrointestinal Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Dafashy, Tamer J.; Ghaffary, Cameron K.; Keyes, Kyle T.; Sonstein, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    While renal cell carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm of the kidney, its simultaneous diagnosis with a gastrointestinal malignancy is a rare, but well reported phenomenon. This discussion focuses on three independent cases in which each patient was diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma and a unique synchronous gastrointestinal malignancy. Case 1 explores the diagnosis and surgical intervention of a 66-year-old male patient synchronously diagnosed with clear cell renal cell carcinoma and a carcinoid tumor of the small bowel. Case 2 describes the diagnosis and surgical intervention of a 61-year-old male found to have clear cell renal cell carcinoma and a mucinous appendiceal neoplasm. Lastly, Case 3 focuses on the interventions and management of a 36-year-old female diagnosed with synchronous clear cell renal carcinoma and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. This case series examines each distinct patient's presentation, discusses the diagnosis, and compares and contrasts the findings while discussing the literature on this topic. PMID:26904353

  10. Palliation of Dysphagia in Carcinoma Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnaiah, Vishnu Prasad Nelamangala; Malage, Somanath; Sreenath, G S; Kotlapati, Sudhakar; Cyriac, Sunu

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma has a special place in gastrointestinal carcinomas because it contains two main types, namely, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Carcinoma esophagus patients require some form of palliation because of locally advanced stage or distant metastasis, where it cannot be subjected to curable treatment with surgery and chemoradiation. Many modalities of palliation of dysphagia are available, but the procedure with least morbidity, mortality, and long-term palliation of dysphagia needs to be chosen for the patient. This study aims to discuss the recent trends in palliation of dysphagia with promising results and the most suitable therapy for palliation of dysphagia in a given patient. A total of 64 articles that were published between years 2005 and 2015 on various modes of palliation of dysphagia in carcinoma esophagus were studied, which were mainly randomized and prospective studies. Through this study, we conclude that stents are the first choice of therapy for palliation, which is safe and cost-effective, and they can be combined with either radiotherapy or chemotherapy for long-term palliation of dysphagia with good quality of life. Radiotherapy can be used as a second-line treatment modality. PMID:27279758

  11. Factors predictive of survival in ampullary carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Howe, J R; Klimstra, D S; Moccia, R D; Conlon, K C; Brennan, M F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the recent Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience with adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater and to identify clinicopathologic factors that have an impact on patient survival. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The prognosis for patients with tumors of the ampulla of Vater is improved relative to other periampullary neoplasms. Identification of independent prognostic factors in ampullary tumors has been limited by small numbers of tumors and a lack of pathologic review. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively for patients presenting with periampullary carcinomas to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between October 15, 1983 and June 30, 1995. The correlation between clinicopathologic variables and survival of ampullary carcinoma was tested by the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards regression. Survival of patients with periampullary adenocarcinomas was compared by the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: In 123 patients presenting with ampullary carcinoma, 101 tumors (82.1%) were resected. Factors significantly correlated with improved survival were resection (p < 0.01), and in resected tumors, negative nodes (p = 0.04) and margins (p = 0.02) independently predicted for improved survival. In periampullary tumors, the highest rates of resection and overall survival (median, 43.6 months) were found in ampullary carcinomas. CONCLUSIONS: Factors predictive of improved survival in ampullary carcinoma include resection, negative margins, and negative nodes. Improved overall survival in ampullary relative to periampullary adenocarcinoma is due in part to a significantly higher rate of resection. Images Figure 1. PMID:9671071

  12. The Emerging Molecular Landscape of Urothelial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Solomon, James P; Hansel, Donna E

    2016-09-01

    Although there have been many recent discoveries in the molecular alterations associated with urothelial carcinoma, current understanding of this disease lags behind many other malignancies. Historically, a two-pathway model had been applied to distinguish low- and high-grade urothelial carcinoma, although significant overlap and increasing complexity of molecular alterations has been recently described. In many cases, mutations in HRAS and FGFR3 that affect the MAPK and PI3K pathways seem to be associated with noninvasive low-grade papillary tumors, whereas mutations in TP53 and RB that affect the G1-S transition of the cell cycle are associated with high-grade in situ and invasive carcinoma. However, recent large-scale analyses have identified overlap in these pathways relative to morphology, and in addition, many other variants in a wide variety of oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes have been identified. New technologies including next-generation sequencing have enabled more detailed analysis of urothelial carcinoma, and several groups have proposed molecular classification systems based on these data, although consensus is elusive. This article reviews the current understanding of alterations affecting oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes associated with urothelial carcinoma, and their application in the context of morphology and classification schema. PMID:27523968

  13. A hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreatic head.

    PubMed

    Stamatova, D; Theilmann, L; Spiegelberg, C

    2016-12-01

    Hepatoid carcinoma (HC) is an extremely rare form of neoplasm. Its cellular structure resembles that of a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To date, only 26 cases of hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas have been reported in the literature. We report the diagnosis of a hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreatic head in a 78-year-old male patient. The tumor was detected incidentally during routine abdominal ultrasound scanning. Laboratory tests did not show any abnormalities except for a monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. After CT, MRI, and laparoscopic biopsy that failed to obtain the diagnosis, the patient underwent a Whipple procedure. The final pathology report described a hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreatic head (pathological T3, N0 (0/10), L0, V0, R0, M0). After the patient recovered, no further therapy was recommended by the tumor board and he was discharged. Regular follow-up was suggested; however, the patient suddenly died of acute coronary artery disease 2 months after surgery. PMID:27488314

  14. The molecular genetics of cervical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lazo, P A

    1999-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma there are three major components, two of them related to the role of human papillomaviruses (HPV). First, the effect of viral E6 and E7 proteins. Second, the integration of viral DNA in chromosomal regions associated with well known tumour phenotypes. Some of these viral integrations occur recurrently at specific chromosomal locations, such as 8q24 and 12q15, both harbouring HPV18 and HPV16. And third, there are other recurrent genetic alterations not linked to HPV. Recurrent losses of heterozygosity (LOH) have been detected in chromosome regions 3p14–22, 4p16, 5p15, 6p21–22, 11q23, 17p13.3 without effect on p53, 18q12–22 and 19q13, all of them suggesting the alteration of putative tumour suppressor genes not yet identified. Recurrent amplification has been mapped to 3q+ arm, with the common region in 3q24–28 in 90% of invasive carcinomas. The mutator phenotype, microsatellite instability, plays a minor role and is detected in only 7% of cervical carcinomas. The development of cervical carcinoma requires the sequential occurrence and selection of several genetic alterations. The identification of the specific genes involved, and their correlation with specific tumour properties and stages could improve the understanding and perhaps the management of cervical carcinoma. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10471054

  15. Palliation of Dysphagia in Carcinoma Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnaiah, Vishnu Prasad Nelamangala; Malage, Somanath; Sreenath, G.S.; Kotlapati, Sudhakar; Cyriac, Sunu

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma has a special place in gastrointestinal carcinomas because it contains two main types, namely, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Carcinoma esophagus patients require some form of palliation because of locally advanced stage or distant metastasis, where it cannot be subjected to curable treatment with surgery and chemoradiation. Many modalities of palliation of dysphagia are available, but the procedure with least morbidity, mortality, and long-term palliation of dysphagia needs to be chosen for the patient. This study aims to discuss the recent trends in palliation of dysphagia with promising results and the most suitable therapy for palliation of dysphagia in a given patient. A total of 64 articles that were published between years 2005 and 2015 on various modes of palliation of dysphagia in carcinoma esophagus were studied, which were mainly randomized and prospective studies. Through this study, we conclude that stents are the first choice of therapy for palliation, which is safe and cost-effective, and they can be combined with either radiotherapy or chemotherapy for long-term palliation of dysphagia with good quality of life. Radiotherapy can be used as a second-line treatment modality. PMID:27279758

  16. Odontogenic carcinoma with dentinoid: a new odontogenic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Neville, Brad W; Tatemoto, Yukihiro; Ogawa, Ikuko; Takata, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Dentinoid is an integral part of some odontogenic tumors. This article describes the clinico-pathological features of three cases of odontogenic carcinomas with dentinoid (OCD). A comparison of these with previously reported cases of dentinoid-producing epithelial odontogenic tumors allowed us to identify another six cases that may be considered as examples of OCD. Six cases occurred in the mandible and three in the maxilla, all developing behind the canines. There was no sex predilection (five men and four women; age range 14-61 years, mean 38.1). Pain or discomfort was mentioned in five cases, four of which showed tooth resorption. All cases appeared initially as well-defined radiolucencies, five of which showed variable amounts of calcified material. Recurrences were recorded in three instances, but no evidence of metastasis has been found. Seven cases were composed predominantly or entirely of clear cells, usually with minimal cellular atypia and variable mitotic activity; however, in all cases there was evidence of tumor infiltration into adjacent tissues, including the presence of perineural invasion in two tumors. Those cases in which no reference was made to the presence of clear cells exhibited evident mitotic activity and cellular pleomorphism. The epithelium in OCD does not produce buds or enamel organ-like structures such as those found in ameloblastic fibro-dentinoma and this tumor does not contain a mesenchyme-like connective tissue resembling dental papilla as observed in several mixed odontogenic tumors. Based on the existing data and the present series of cases, OCD appears to represent a distinct entity. PMID:25409850

  17. Clinicopathological significance of gastric poorly differentiated medullary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Hideaki; Yoshizawa, Tadashi; Morohashi, Satoko; Haga, Toshihiro; Wu, Yunyan; Ota, Rie; Takatsuna, Masafumi; Akasaka, Harue; Hakamada, Kenichi; Kijima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma of solid type is known to show a clinicopathological diversity, but its morphological characteristics have rarely been investigated. In this study, we defined poorly differentiated medullary carcinoma indicating the following three characteristics: (i) more than 90% of the entire tumor were composed of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in a medullary growth, (ii) the tumor exhibited an expansive growth at the tumor margin, and (iii) special types such as an α-fetoprotein-producing carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, and carcinoma with lymphoid stroma were excluded. Based on the definition, we subclassified the poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma of solid type into the two groups: medullary carcinoma and non-medullary carcinoma, and clinicopathologically analyzed 23 cases of medullary carcinomas and 38 cases of non-medullary carcinomas. The medullary carcinomas less frequently displayed lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, and lymph node metastasis, compared with the non-medullary carcinoma (P < 0.001, P = 0.002, and P < 0.001, respectively). The patients with medullary carcinomas significantly showed better disease-free survival (P = 0.017). This is the first study to demonstrate that poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of solid type can be subclassified into tumors with low and high malignant potentials. Gastric poorly differentiated medullary carcinoma is considered to be a novel histological type predicting good patients' prognosis. PMID:27108877

  18. Late metastases of ovarian carcinoma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Friedman, M; Browde, S; Rabin, S; Murray, J; Nissenbaum, M

    1984-02-01

    In cases of ovarian carcinoma distant metastases are rarely discovered before local spread has become evident. This article reports an unusual case in which renal metastases appeared 9 years after the initial diagnosis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. A discussion of the histological features of the tumour and the spread of ovarian carcinoma is included.

  19. Macrofollicular encapsulated papillary thyroid carcinoma--a case report.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Savithri; Niveditha, S R; Geethamani, V; Rangaswamy, R

    2006-01-01

    Macrofollicular encapsulated papillary thyroid carcinoma (MEPC) is a rare variant of papillary carcinoma of thyroid with a favourable clinical course. It could be mistaken for a follicular neoplasm or a hyperplastic nodule. We report cytological and histopathological features of this rare variant of papillary carcinoma in a 22 year old female with brief review of literature.

  20. Bilateral acrometastasis in a case renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vaishya, Raju; Vijay, Vipul; Vaish, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    We present a unique case of bilateral skeletal metastasis below the knee in a patient with renal cell carcinoma. In this rarest of rare cases, bony metastases were the first presentation of a primary tumour. Incidentally, the primary tumour (renal cell carcinoma) involved the solitary kidney of the patient and the same patient also had coexisting carcinoma of the prostate. PMID:25368128

  1. Gene expression signatures differentiate ovarian/peritoneal serous carcinoma from breast carcinoma in effusions.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Ben; Stavnes, Helene Tuft; Holth, Arild; Chen, Xu; Yang, Yanqin; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Tian-Li

    2011-03-01

    Ovarian/primary peritoneal carcinoma and breast carcinoma are the gynaecological cancers that most frequently involve the serosal cavities.With the objective of improving on the limited diagnostic panel currently available for the differential diagnosis of these two malignancies,as well as to define tumour-specific biological targets, we compared their global gene expression patterns. Gene expression profiles of 10 serous ovarian/peritoneal and eight ductal breast carcinoma effusions were analysed using the HumanRef-8 BeadChip from Illumina.Differentially expressed candidate genes were validated using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using all 54,675 genes in the array separated ovarian from breast carcinoma samples. We identified 288 unique probes that were significantly differentially expressed in the two cancers by greater than 3.5-fold, of which 81 and 207 were overexpressed in breast and ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma, respectively. SAM analysis identified 1078 differentially expressed probes with false discovery rate less than 0.05. Genes overexpressed in breast carcinoma included TFF1, TFF3, FOXA1, CA12, GATA3, SDC1, PITX1, TH, EHFD1, EFEMP1, TOB1 and KLF2. Genes overexpressed in ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma included SPON1, RBP1, MFGE8, TM4SF12, MMP7, KLK5/6/7, FOLR1/3,PAX8, APOL2 and NRCAM. The differential expression of 14 genes was validated by quantitative real-time PCR, and differences in 5 gene products were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Expression profiling distinguishes ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma from breast carcinoma and identifies genes that are differentially expressed in these two tumour types. The molecular signatures unique to these cancers may facilitate their differential diagnosis and may provide a molecular basis for therapeutic target discovery.

  2. GATA3 immunohistochemistry expression in histologic subtypes of primary breast carcinoma and metastatic breast carcinoma cytology.

    PubMed

    Deftereos, Georgios; Sanguino Ramirez, Angela M; Silverman, Jan F; Krishnamurti, Uma

    2015-09-01

    GATA3 plays a role in cell proliferation and differentiation in many tissues, including breast, and it has been suggested that GATA3 expression correlates with ER expression. However, little is known on GATA3 expression in various subtypes of breast carcinoma, its utilization in cytology, and on how GATA3 performs in comparison with GCDFP-15 and mammaglobin. Eighty-four histology cases of breast carcinoma of various subtypes, including 28 triple-negative breast carcinomas, along with 20 cytology cases of metastatic breast carcinoma and 12 cytology cases of ER-positive metastatic gynecologic malignancies, were stained for GATA3, GCDFP-15, and mammaglobin. In non-triple-negative breast carcinomas (n=56), GATA3 showed 100% sensitivity, higher than GCDFP-15 (42.8%; P<0.0001) and mammaglobin (58.9%; P<0.0001), whereas staining patterns were similar for all the histologic subtypes examined. Staining scores were determined by multiplying the percentage of cancer cells staining with an intensity score of 1+, 2+, or 3+ (range, 0 to 300). In non-triple-negative carcinomas, GATA3 showed a mean score of 273.7, higher than GCDFP-15 (107.5; P<0.0001) and mammaglobin (147.7; P<0.0001). In triple-negative breast carcinomas (n=28), GATA3 showed a sensitivity of 60.7%, greater than GCDFP-15 (17.9%; P=0.0022) and mammaglobin (7.1%; P<0.0001). These results were consistent irrespective of the subtype examined. In breast carcinoma cytology cases, 100% stained with GATA3, higher than GCDFP-15 (20%; P<0.0001) and mammaglobin (45%; P<0.0001). None of the metastatic endometrial or ovarian carcinomas were positive for GATA3. Although GATA3 expression correlates with ER expression in breast, no correlation is observed in gynecologic malignancies. Thus, in working up ER-positive metastatic malignancies GATA3 demonstrates specificity for breast.

  3. Intracystic Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Breast: A Challenging Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, João; Simões, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 36-year-old woman that presented with a painful mass in the outer quadrants of the left breast that had grown rapidly. Physical examination revealed a well circumscribed elastic mass and breast ultrasound showed a cyst measuring 26 mm with vegetation growing on the inner wall. Microscopic evaluation, after fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), suggested benign lesion. Tumorectomy was performed and the final diagnosis was a pure squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the breast. A simple mastectomy with sentinel node biopsy was performed. The histological study of the specimen revealed residual SCC and the sentinel lymph node was negative. The patient received 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant radiotherapy. Four years later, the patient is free of disease. PMID:27747114

  4. [Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and premalignant skin lesions--how to treat?].

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, Sari; Jeskanen, Leila; Ylitalo, Leea

    2014-01-01

    Increasing exposure to UV radiation is considered the most important etiologic factor of nonmelanoma skin cancers. Consequently, exposed areas such as the scalp and face, are the primary areas for developing non-melanoma skin cancers. Once a patient has presented with one tumor, additional lesions are common. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical picture and biopsy or excision for histopathological analysis. Various non-surgical treatment options have been established. Superficial basal cell carcinoma, superficial carcinoma in situ and all actinic keratoses are preferentially treated non-surgically. Most other basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas should be surgically removed. PMID:24724463

  5. Current management of ductal carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Barth, A; Brenner, R J; Giuliano, A E

    1995-10-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ represents a biologically and histologically heterogeneous group of lesions characterized by the proliferation of neoplastic epithelial cells confined to the ducts of the breast. Before screening mammography, ductal carcinoma in situ was considered uncommon; patients were usually diagnosed by a breast mass or bloody nipple discharge, and their treatment was mastectomy. Today it represents 20% to 30% of mammographically detected breast cancers and 10% to 15% of all diagnosed breast cancers in the United States. The invariable progression of this cancer to invasive breast cancer requiring mastectomy has been challenged, but because most patients have been treated with mastectomy, knowledge about ductal carcinoma in situ is limited and primarily based on retrospective data. Further insight will emerge from randomized prospective studies that are near completion. Currently available data indicate that breast-conserving treatments are valid alternatives to mastectomy for most patients with this disease. PMID:7483593

  6. Carcinoma of the cervix with massive eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Lowe, D G

    1988-04-01

    Massive local eosinophilia of 100 or more eosinophils per high power field was found in 3.2% cases of invasive carcinoma of the cervix. The prevalence, length of history before presentation to surgery and histological features were similar in patients from Great Britain and Malawi, but in both populations the mean age at diagnosis was lower than in patients with cervical carcinomas without tissue eosinophilia. In some of the tumours, the malignant cells were very difficult to find because of the eosinophil infiltrate, and misinterpretation as an inflammatory lesion was possible. In the absence of circulating eosinophilia, cervical carcinomas with massive eosinophilia were found to have a better prognosis than tumours without. Five patients had circulating eosinophilia as well as local tumour eosinophil infiltration, and each of them had extensive tumour spread.

  7. HLA class I expression in bladder carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, T; Pedrajas, G; Cozar, J M; Garrido, A; Vicente, J; Tallada, M; Garrido, F

    2003-10-01

    HLA class I molecules are frequently lost in a large variety of human carcinomas, possibly because of T-cell immune selection of major histocompatibility complex class I deficient tumor variants. We report that this phenomenon is also a frequent event in bladder carcinomas. Of a total of 72 bladder carcinomas, 72% of the tumors had at least one alteration in HLA class I expression. These altered HLA class I phenotypes were classified as total HLA class I loss (25%; phenotype I); HLA-A or/and HLA-B locus-specific loss (12%; phenotype III); and HLA class I allelic loss (35%; phenotype II or IV). Comparison of histopathological parameters with HLA class I expression showed a statistically significant relationship with the degree of differentiation and tumor recurrence.

  8. Unusual cases of carcinoma of palatine tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Boovalli, Mythri M; Kumar, R Praveen; Murthy, V Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    We present two unusual cases of carcinoma of palatine tonsil in elderly patients. Both the cases were initially diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, second case, in addition, showed lung metastasis. On subsequent follow-up, the first case developed cutaneous metastasis in the right frontoparietal region while second case showed granulocytosis as paraneoplastic manifestation. The association of cutaneous metastasis and paraneoplastic granulocytosis with carcinoma of tonsil is rare. Cutaneous metastasis has been described only once in the literature while paraneoplastic granulocytosis is being reported for the first time. Both the conditions need long-term follow-up as they manifest at the extreme edges of the neoplastic process. PMID:26604503

  9. Breast carcinoma in a prepubertal girl.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syed Tausif; Singh, Sudipto Kumar; Mukherjee, Tanmoy; Banerjee, Manju

    2014-04-15

    Breast carcinoma is a very rare disease in children. We present a rare case of breast cancer in an 11-year-old prepubertal girl. Clinically, it was a case of locally advanced breast cancer (T4bN1M0). The core biopsy report showed adenocarcinoma of the not otherwise specified (NOS) variety (oestrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative). Diagnosis was late in this case due to lack of suspicion. A modified radical mastectomy was considered to be adequate treatment. Histologically, it was adenocarcinoma NOS, which is rare in young girls (the secretory type being more common). Incidence, differential diagnoses, investigation and management of breast carcinoma in young girls are discussed. The purpose of reporting this case is to highlight that prevention and early detection of breast carcinoma in children is very important.

  10. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Atar, Yavuz; Topaloglu, Ilhan; Ozcan, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses can be misdiagnosed as primary malignant or benign diseases. A 33-year-old male attended our outpatient clinic complaining of difficulty breathing through the nose, bloody nasal discharge, postnasal drop, snoring, and discharge of phlegm. Endoscopic nasopharyngeal examination showed a vascularized nasopharyngeal mass. Under general anesthesia, multiple punch biopsies were taken from the nasopharynx. Pathologically, the tumor cells had clear cytoplasm and were arranged in a trabecular pattern lined by a layer of endothelial cells. After the initial pathological examination, the pathologist requested more information about the patient's clinical status. A careful history revealed that the patient had undergone left a nephrectomy for a kidney mass diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma 3 years earlier. Subsequently, nasopharyngeal metastatic renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with CD10 and vimentin. Radiotherapy was recommended for treatment. PMID:23924557

  11. [A Case of Composite Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Neuroendocrine Carcinoma in a Patient with Liver Cirrhosis Caused by Chronic Hepatitis B].

    PubMed

    Yun, Eun Young; Kim, Tae Hyo; Lee, Sang Soo; Kim, Hong Jun; Kim, Hyun Jin; Jung, Woon Tae; Lee, Ok Jae; Song, Dae Hyun

    2016-08-25

    Primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (PHNEC) is rare and its origin is not clearly understood. The coexistence of PHNEC and hepaotcellular carcinoma has been reported in only a few cases. We report a rare case of combined PHNEC and hepaotcellular carcinoma in a patient with liver cirrhosis caused by chronic hepatitis B that resulted in aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. PMID:27554219

  12. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s’, RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s’, showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  13. New advances in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Sonia; Herrera, Iván; Irurzun, Javier

    2016-03-28

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of deaths in cirrhotic patients and the third cause of cancer related deaths. Most HCC are associated with well known underlying risk factors, in fact, HCC arise in cirrhotic patients in up to 90% of cases, mainly due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcohol abuse. The worldwide prevention strategies are conducted to avoid the infection of new subjects and to minimize the risk of liver disease progression in infected patients. HCC is a condition which lends itself to surveillance as at-risk individuals can readily be identified. The American and European guidelines recommended implementation of surveillance programs with ultrasound every six months in patient at-risk for developing HCC. The diagnosis of HCC can be based on non-invasive criteria (only in cirrhotic patient) or pathology. Accurately staging patients is essential to oncology practice. The ideal tumour staging system in HCC needs to account for both tumour characteristics and liver function. Treatment allocation is based on several factors: Liver function, size and number of tumours, macrovascular invasion or extrahepatic spread. The recommendations in terms of selection for different treatment strategies must be based on evidence-based data. Resection, liver transplant and interventional radiology treatment are mainstays of HCC therapy and achieve the best outcomes in well-selected candidates. Chemoembolization is the most widely used treatment for unresectable HCC or progression after curative treatment. Finally, in patients with advanced HCC with preserved liver function, sorafenib is the only approved systemic drug that has demonstrated a survival benefit and is the standard of care in this group of patients. PMID:27028578

  14. Primary prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, S Z

    1995-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major cancers in China. Accordingly, the mortality rates in 1990 (per 100,000) were 20.10 in certain cities and 24.32 in certain counties. More than 90% of HCC cases and 70% of controls were infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) (Odds Ratio (OR) = 10-50). In the same group of patients, 8-27% of those with HCC and 0-11% of the healthy controls were also infected with hepatitis C (HCV) (OR = 2.11-17.29). There appears to be some correlation between HBV markers and the OR. The government requires that 85% of infants be immunized with HBV vaccine. In 1992, there were 3 million infants inoculated with HB vaccines. Aflatoxins have been found as contaminants in food, particularly in corn, peanut oil, soya sauce and fermented soya beans. The intake of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by people of ten different villages correlated with HCC mortality rates (r = 0.55; P < 0.05). The concentration of AFB1-albumin adducts is an indicator of individual exposure to aflatoxins. These adducts are higher in hyperendemic HCC areas and cases. Most people have now changed their staple food and eat rice instead of corn. Six large epidemiological studies have confirmed that people who drink pond-ditch water experience higher HCC mortality rates than people who drink deep-well water. Recent research has found that the blue-green algal toxin microcystin (MCYST) was a contaminant of pond-ditch water. MCYST is a strong promoter of HCC and will induce severe intrahepatic haemorrhages and liver necrosis. More than 80% of people in Qidong County have already changed their sources of water from pond-ditches to deep wells. Therefore, a combined strategy of the prevention of hepatitis, control of crops and control of drinking water is advocated for the primary prevention of HCC in China.

  15. New advances in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Sonia; Herrera, Iván; Irurzun, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of deaths in cirrhotic patients and the third cause of cancer related deaths. Most HCC are associated with well known underlying risk factors, in fact, HCC arise in cirrhotic patients in up to 90% of cases, mainly due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcohol abuse. The worldwide prevention strategies are conducted to avoid the infection of new subjects and to minimize the risk of liver disease progression in infected patients. HCC is a condition which lends itself to surveillance as at-risk individuals can readily be identified. The American and European guidelines recommended implementation of surveillance programs with ultrasound every six months in patient at-risk for developing HCC. The diagnosis of HCC can be based on non-invasive criteria (only in cirrhotic patient) or pathology. Accurately staging patients is essential to oncology practice. The ideal tumour staging system in HCC needs to account for both tumour characteristics and liver function. Treatment allocation is based on several factors: Liver function, size and number of tumours, macrovascular invasion or extrahepatic spread. The recommendations in terms of selection for different treatment strategies must be based on evidence-based data. Resection, liver transplant and interventional radiology treatment are mainstays of HCC therapy and achieve the best outcomes in well-selected candidates. Chemoembolization is the most widely used treatment for unresectable HCC or progression after curative treatment. Finally, in patients with advanced HCC with preserved liver function, sorafenib is the only approved systemic drug that has demonstrated a survival benefit and is the standard of care in this group of patients. PMID:27028578

  16. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s', RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s', showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  17. Newer markers for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Jorge A; Lok, Anna S F

    2004-11-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing worldwide; the overall survival of patients with HCC is grim because most patients are diagnosed late, when curative treatment is not possible. Cirrhosis is the strongest risk factor for the development of HCC. HCC surveillance with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and ultrasonography has been recommended for persons with cirrhosis. However, AFP level is insensitive for the early detection of HCC, and ultrasonography is expensive and operator dependent. Clearly, there is a need for novel strategies for the early detection of HCC. The ideal biomarker assay for HCC would be sensitive, specific, noninvasive, reproducible, inexpensive, and acceptable to patients. The Early Detection Research Network of the National Cancer Institute has proposed 5 phases for biomarker validation: preclinical exploratory studies, clinical assay development for disease, retrospective longitudinal study to detect preclinical disease, prospective screening study, and cancer control studies. Several biomarkers, such as des-gamma carboxyprothrombin, lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive AFP, human hepatocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1, are promising, but none of these markers has been validated for clinical use. Limitations of the current literature include inadequate sample size, heterogeneity in biomarker assay methods and result reporting, limited analysis of demographics and cause of liver disease as covariates in the expression of these markers, and a scarcity of longitudinal studies evaluating the ability of biomarkers to detect preclinical disease. There is an urgent need for novel biomarkers for the detection of early HCC; the National Cancer Institute proposal provides a framework for future validation studies. PMID:15508074

  18. Targeted Therapies for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Augusto; Llovet, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike most solid tumors, incidence and mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have increased in the US and Europe in the last decade. Most patients are diagnosed at advanced stages, so there is an urgent need for new systemic therapies. Sorafenib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has demonstrated clinical efficacy in patients with HCC. Studies in patients with lung, breast, or colorectal cancers indicated that the genetic heterogeneity of cancer cells within a tumor affect its response to therapeutics designed to target specific molecules. When tumor progression requires alterations in specific oncogenes (oncogene addiction), drugs that selectively block their products might slow tumor growth. However, no specific oncogene alterations are yet known to be implicated in HCC progression, so it is important to improve our understanding of its molecular pathogenesis. There are currently many clinical trials evaluating TKIs for HCC, including those tested in combination with (e.g., erlotinib) or compared to (e.g., linifanib) sorafenib as a first-line therapy. For patients that do not respond or are intolerant to sorafenib, TKIs such as brivanib, everolimus, and monoclonal antibodies (e.g. ramucirumab) are being tested as second-line therapies. There are early-stage trials investigating the efficacy for up to 60 reagents for HCC. Together, these studies might change the management strategy for HCC, and combination therapies might be developed for patients with advanced HCC. Identification of oncogenes that mediate progression of HCC, and trials that monitor their products as biomarkers, might lead to personalized therapy; reagents that interfere with signaling pathways required for HCC progression might be used to treat selected populations, and thereby maximize the efficacy and cost-benefit. PMID:21406195

  19. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Where are we?

    PubMed Central

    Mazzanti, Roberto; Arena, Umberto; Tassi, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second cause of death due to malignancy in the world, following lung cancer. The geographic distribution of this disease accompanies its principal risk factors: Chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection, alcoholism, aflatoxin B1 intoxication, liver cirrhosis, and some genetic attributes. Recently, type II diabetes has been shown to be a risk factor for HCC together with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Although the risk factors are quite well known and it is possible to diagnose HCC when the tumor is less than 1 cm diameter, it remains elusive at the beginning and treatment is often unsuccessful. Liver transplantation is thus far considered the best treatment for HCC as it cures HCC and the underlying liver disease. Using the Milan criteria, overall survival after liver transplantation for HCC is about 70% after 5 years. Many attempts have been made to go beyond the Milan Criteria and according to recent works reasonably good results have been achieved by using a histochemical marker such as cytokeratine 19 and the so-called “up to seven criteria” to divide patients into categories according to their risk of relapse. In addition to liver transplantation other therapies have been proposed such as resection, tumor ablation by different means, embolization and chemotherapy. An important step in the treatment of advanced HCC has been the introduction of sorafenib, the first oral, systemic drug that has provided significant improvement in survival. Treatment of HCC patients must be multidisciplinary and by using the different approaches discussed in this review it is possible to offer prolonged survival and quite good and sometimes even excellent quality of life to many patients. PMID:26929917

  20. Thyroid carcinoma in patients with Graves' disease: an institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuanzeng; Baloch, Zubair W; LiVolsi, Virginia A

    2015-03-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by diffuse hyperplasia and excessive production of thyroid hormone. The association between thyroid carcinoma and GD is controversial. The prevalence of thyroid carcinoma was investigated in patients with GD who underwent thyroidectomy for thyroid nodular lesions or GD from 1994 to 2013 at our institution. Three hundred and forty-seven patients were placed into two groups: Graves' disease with nodular lesions group (group GN) included 85 patients who had thyroidectomy for nodular lesion, and Graves' disease group (group G) included 262 patients who had thyroidectomy for hyperthyroidism. There were 59 patients with thyroid carcinomas in the 85 patients (69 %) of group GN, including 3 follicular carcinomas (5 %), 1 poorly differentiated carcinoma (2 %), and 55 papillary thyroid carcinomas (93 %). Among the 55 papillary thyroid carcinomas, 19 cases were papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (34 %); and 5 cases of tall cell variant (9 %) were identified. There were 8 cases with lymph node metastasis (14 %), 6 cases with lymphovascular invasion (10 %), and 12 cases with extrathyroidal invasion (20 %). In addition, 24 carcinomas showed multiple foci of tumor (41 %). In contrast, 51 patients (19 %) of 262 patients in group G had carcinoma, including 2 follicular carcinomas (4 %) and 49 papillary thyroid carcinomas (96 %). In the 49 cases of papillary thyroid carcinomas, 47 cases were microcarcinomas (96 %); and 2 cases of tall cell variant (4 %) were found. There were no lymph node metastasis or lymphovascular and extrathyroidal invasion, but 11 cases (22 %) demonstrated multiple carcinoma foci. In conclusion, thyroid nodular lesions in patients with GD should raise a high suspicion of carcinoma, and these lesions are frequently clinically significant tumors. Incidental thyroid carcinomas in patients with GD are not uncommon, but most of them are low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma without lymph node

  1. Ossifying Parotid Carcinoma ex Pleomorphic Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Suresh; Puram, Sidharth V.; Yarlagadda, Bharat; Nosé, Vania; Deschler, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    We present a unique case of an extensively ossified carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) in a 76-year-old man with a five-year history of a slowly growing parotid mass. Fine-needle aspiration of the mass was nondiagnostic. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the lesion revealed a well-circumscribed mass with peripheral calcification. Initial pathological analysis suggested a benign parotid mass, but rigorous decalcification revealed noninvasive CXPA. The patient underwent complete resection of the mass and remained disease-free nine months later. Extensive ossification of a seemingly benign parotid mass may mask areas of carcinoma that may progress if left untreated. PMID:26075129

  2. Therapeutic challenges in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Penticuff, Justin C; Kyprianou, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignancy that in advanced disease, is highly resistant to systemic therapies. Elucidation of the angiogenesis pathways and their intrinsic signaling interactions with the genetic and metabolic disturbances within renal cell carcinoma variants has ushered in the era of “targeted therapies”. Advanced surgical interventions and novel drugs targeting VEGF and mTOR, have improved patient survival and prolonged clinically stable-disease states. This review discusses the current understanding of diagnostic challenges and the mechanism-based clinical evidence on therapeutic management of advanced RCC. PMID:26309897

  3. Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Bidari-Zerehpoosh, Farahnaz; Naghibzadeh, Bijan; Jamali, Elena; Jamali, Moein; Mafi, Amirali; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma represents one of the most common malignant salivary gland tumors. However, the sclerosing morphologic variant is extremely rare with only 23 reported cases in the English-language literature since it was discovered in 1987. Case Report: Herein, we describe another case that was diagnosed in a 25-year-old woman presenting with a posterior auricular mass, as well as a review of the literature, which demonstrates that this is an extremely rare malignancy with no strict protocol for treatment. Conclusion: Pathologists must be aware of recognizing low grade sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma which has metastatic potential and is frequently misdiagnosed as a benign lesion.

  4. Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Bidari-Zerehpoosh, Farahnaz; Naghibzadeh, Bijan; Jamali, Elena; Jamali, Moein; Mafi, Amirali; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma represents one of the most common malignant salivary gland tumors. However, the sclerosing morphologic variant is extremely rare with only 23 reported cases in the English-language literature since it was discovered in 1987. Case Report: Herein, we describe another case that was diagnosed in a 25-year-old woman presenting with a posterior auricular mass, as well as a review of the literature, which demonstrates that this is an extremely rare malignancy with no strict protocol for treatment. Conclusion: Pathologists must be aware of recognizing low grade sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma which has metastatic potential and is frequently misdiagnosed as a benign lesion. PMID:27602340

  5. Cytoreductive nephrectomy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chery, Lisly J; Karam, Jose A; Wood, Christopher G

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma is increasing, with up to one-third of patients presenting with metastatic disease. Combination therapy is used to prolong survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, which carries a poor prognosis. Although two pivotal phase 3 trials have demonstrated the efficacy of immunotherapy after cytoreductive nephrectomy for metastatic disease, for now, targeted therapy has replaced immunotherapy as the preferred systemic treatment in these patients. Two ongoing phase 3 trials are evaluating the role of cytoreductive nephrectomy prior to targeted therapy. Proper patient selection is paramount in achieving successful outcomes. PMID:27673288

  6. Carcinoma in ectopic breast: a cytological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shailaja; Sehgal, Shivali; Rai, Preeti; Agarwal, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic breast carcinoma in the axillary region is rare with an incidence ranging from 0.3-6%. We report a case of infiltrating duct carcinoma in an adult female arising in aberrant breast tissue in the axilla diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. There was history of recent increase in size of the lump which was otherwise present for the past 5 years. This case highlights the role fine needle aspiration cytology can play in the early diagnosis of malignant transformation of lumps.

  7. Synchronous Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Auricular Myxoma

    PubMed Central

    González-Cantú, Yessica M.; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina; Tena-Suck, Martha Lilia; García de la Fuente, Alberto; Mejía-Bañuelos, Rosa María; Díaz Mendoza, Raymundo; Quintanilla-Garza, Samuel; Batisda-Acuña, Yolaester

    2015-01-01

    Synchronic occurrence of benign and malignant tumors is extremely rare. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma represents 1% to 2% of all hepatocarcinomas, while myxomas represent about half of all the cases of primary tumors of the heart. We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with a left atrial myxoma that was surgically removed. Several weeks later, the patient returned to the hospital with abdominal pain. CT scan showed a mass in the left lobe of the liver that was resected and diagnosed as fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. As of this writing, the patient is healthy. PMID:26509093

  8. Synchronous Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Auricular Myxoma.

    PubMed

    González-Cantú, Yessica M; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina; Tena-Suck, Martha Lilia; García de la Fuente, Alberto; Mejía-Bañuelos, Rosa María; Díaz Mendoza, Raymundo; Quintanilla-Garza, Samuel; Batisda-Acuña, Yolaester

    2015-01-01

    Synchronic occurrence of benign and malignant tumors is extremely rare. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma represents 1% to 2% of all hepatocarcinomas, while myxomas represent about half of all the cases of primary tumors of the heart. We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with a left atrial myxoma that was surgically removed. Several weeks later, the patient returned to the hospital with abdominal pain. CT scan showed a mass in the left lobe of the liver that was resected and diagnosed as fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. As of this writing, the patient is healthy.

  9. Carcinoma of the lung complicating lipoid pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Felson, B.; Ralaisomay, G.

    1983-11-01

    The authors have encountered four cases of oil aspiration pneumonia complicated by carcinoma. Each had a clear-cut history of chronic intake of an oily substance, radiographic changes, and histologically documented oil aspiration pneumonia. Lung cancer later appeared in the involved area. A small number of similar cases also have been reported. The implication is that oil aspiration pneumonitis may induce bronchogenic carcinoma, particularly either the alveolar cell or the squamous cell variety. The radiographic diagnosis of the malignant transformation is difficult, and consequently the prognosis is poor.

  10. Colon carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, J.W. Jr.; Carter, M.P.; Berens, S.V.; Long, R.F.; Caplan, G.E.

    1986-09-01

    Metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid gland rarely is encountered in clinical practice; however, autopsy series have shown that it is not a rare occurrence. A case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with metastases to the thyroid is reported. A review of the literature reveals that melanoma, breast, renal, and lung carcinomas are the most frequent tumors to metastasize to the thyroid. Metastatic disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules on radionuclide thyroid scans, particularly in patients with a known primary.

  11. Differential Immunohistochemical Profiles for Distinguishing Prostate Carcinoma and Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Woo Jin; Chung, Arthur Minwoo; Kim, Jee Soon; Han, Ji Heun; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Yeol; Choi, Yeong Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background The pathologic distinction between high-grade prostate adenocarcinoma (PAC) involving the urinary bladder and high-grade urothelial carcinoma (UC) infiltrating the prostate can be difficult. However, making this distinction is clinically important because of the different treatment modalities for these two entities. Methods A total of 249 patient cases (PAC, 111 cases; UC, 138 cases) collected between June 1995 and July 2009 at Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital were studied. An immunohistochemical evaluation of prostatic markers (prostate-specific antigen [PSA], prostate-specific membrane antigen [PSMA], prostate acid phosphatase [PAP], P501s, NKX3.1, and α-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase [AMACR]) and urothelial markers (CK34βE12, p63, thrombomodulin, S100P, and GATA binding protein 3 [GATA3]) was performed using tissue microarrays from each tumor. Results The sensitivities of prostatic markers in PAC were 100% for PSA, 83.8% for PSMA, 91.9% for PAP, 93.7% for P501s, 88.3% for NKX 3.1, and 66.7% for AMACR. However, the urothelial markers CK34βE12, p63, thrombomodulin, S100P, and GATA3 were also positive in 1.8%, 0%, 0%, 3.6%, and 0% of PAC, respectively. The sensitivities of urothelial markers in UC were 75.4% for CK34βE12, 73.9% for p63, 45.7% for thrombomodulin, 22.5% for S100P, and 84.8% for GATA3. Conversely, the prostatic markers PSA, PSMA, PAP, P501s, NKX3.1, and AMACR were also positive in 9.4%, 0.7%, 18.8%, 0.7%, 0%, and 8.7% of UCs, respectively. Conclusions Prostatic and urothelial markers, including PSA, NKX3.1, p63, thrombomodulin, and GATA3 are very useful for differentiating PAC from UC. The optimal combination of prostatic and urothelial markers could improve the ability to differentiate PAC from UC pathologically. PMID:27498545

  12. Unique Transcriptomic Profile of Collecting Duct Carcinomas Relative to Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinomas and other Kidney Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Malouf, Gabriel G; Compérat, Eva; Yao, Hui; Mouawad, Roger; Lindner, Veronique; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Verkarre, Virginie; Leroy, Xavier; Dainese, Linda; Classe, Marion; Descotes, Jean-Luc; Barthelemy, Philippe; Yacoub, Mokrane; Rouprêt, Morgan; Bernhard, Jean-Christophe; Creighton, Chad J; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Su, Xiaoping; Khayat, David

    2016-01-01

    Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is a kidney cancer subtype that is thought to arise from principal cells in distal parts of the collecting ducts. Some studies suggested an overlap of CDC with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), making the pathological diagnosis challenging. Herein, we performed for the first time transcriptome sequencing of CDC and compared them to UTUC and renal cell carcinoma subtypes. We discovered that CDC displays a unique transcriptomic signature among kidney cancer subtypes, with a putative cell of origin in the distal convoluted tubules. Hierarchical unsupervised clustering reveals that the CDC signature is closer to that of other RCC subtypes than to UTUC, which is similar to that of bladder carcinoma. CDC is characterized by a metabolic shift, with impairment of oxidoreductase activity, pyruvate metabolism and the tricarboxlyic acid cycle, as well as an immunogenic response consistent with increased tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, particularly within metastatic cases. In addition, pathways differentially altered between CDC and UTUC point to a basal-like phenotype of CDC in contrast to the luminal-like signature of UTUC. We conclude that CDC harbors a pathognomonic transcriptomic signature characterized by immunogenic and a metabolic aberrations, indicating that targeting these processes might provide therapeutic options for patients. PMID:27484008

  13. Unique Transcriptomic Profile of Collecting Duct Carcinomas Relative to Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinomas and other Kidney Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Malouf, Gabriel G.; Compérat, Eva; Yao, Hui; Mouawad, Roger; Lindner, Veronique; Rioux-leclercq, Nathalie; Verkarre, Virginie; Leroy, Xavier; Dainese, Linda; Classe, Marion; Descotes, Jean-Luc; Barthelemy, Philippe; Yacoub, Mokrane; Rouprêt, Morgan; Bernhard, Jean-Christophe; Creighton, Chad J.; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Su, Xiaoping; Khayat, David

    2016-01-01

    Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is a kidney cancer subtype that is thought to arise from principal cells in distal parts of the collecting ducts. Some studies suggested an overlap of CDC with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), making the pathological diagnosis challenging. Herein, we performed for the first time transcriptome sequencing of CDC and compared them to UTUC and renal cell carcinoma subtypes. We discovered that CDC displays a unique transcriptomic signature among kidney cancer subtypes, with a putative cell of origin in the distal convoluted tubules. Hierarchical unsupervised clustering reveals that the CDC signature is closer to that of other RCC subtypes than to UTUC, which is similar to that of bladder carcinoma. CDC is characterized by a metabolic shift, with impairment of oxidoreductase activity, pyruvate metabolism and the tricarboxlyic acid cycle, as well as an immunogenic response consistent with increased tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, particularly within metastatic cases. In addition, pathways differentially altered between CDC and UTUC point to a basal-like phenotype of CDC in contrast to the luminal-like signature of UTUC. We conclude that CDC harbors a pathognomonic transcriptomic signature characterized by immunogenic and a metabolic aberrations, indicating that targeting these processes might provide therapeutic options for patients. PMID:27484008

  14. Columnar grown copper films on polyimides strained beyond 100%

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jeong-Yun; Lee, Hae-Ryung; Hwan Oh, Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Many flexible electronic devices contain metal films on polymer substrates to satisfy requirements for both electrical conductivity and mechanical durability. Despite numerous trials to date, the stretchability of metal interconnects remains an issue. In this paper, we have demonstrated a stretchable metal interconnect through control of the texture of a copper film with columnar grown grains on a polyimide (PI) substrate. The columnar grown copper films (CGC films) were deposited by regulating radio frequency (RF) sputtering powers. CGC films were able to sustain their electrical conductivity at strains above 100%. Instead of ultimate electrical discontinuity by channel crack propagation, CGC films maintained their conductivity by forming ligament structures, or a ‘conductive net,’ through trapped micro-cracks. XRD, AFM and in situ SEM analysis were used to investigate these stretchable conductors. PMID:26337668

  15. Diffusion-limited aggregates grown on nonuniform substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornette, V.; Centres, P. M.; Ramirez-Pastor, A. J.; Nieto, F.

    2013-12-01

    In the present paper, patterns of diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) grown on nonuniform substrates are investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We consider a nonuniform substrate as the largest percolation cluster of dropped particles with different structures and forms that occupy more than a single site on the lattice. The aggregates are grown on such clusters, in the range the concentration, p, from the percolation threshold, pc up to the jamming coverage, pj. At the percolation threshold, the aggregates are asymmetrical and the branches are relatively few. However, for larger values of p, the patterns change gradually to a pure DLA. Tiny qualitative differences in this behavior are observed for different k sizes. Correspondingly, the fractal dimension of the aggregates increases as p raises in the same range pc≤p≤pj. This behavior is analyzed and discussed in the framework of the existing theoretical approaches.

  16. Inversion domains in GaN grown on sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, L.T.; Northrup, J.E.; OKeefe, M.A.

    1996-10-01

    Planar defects observed in GaN films grown on (0001) sapphire have been identified as inversion domain boundaries (IDBs) by a combination of high resolution transmission electron microscopy, multiple dark field imaging, and convergent beam electron diffraction techniques. Films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), metalorganic vapor deposition (MOCVD), and hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) were investigated and all were found to contain IDBs. The IDBs in the MBE and HVPE films extended from the interface to the film surface and formed columnar domains that ranged in width from 3 to 20 nm in the MBE films and up to 100 nm in the HVPE films. For the films investigated, the MBE films had the highest density, and the MOCVD films had the lowest density of IDBs. The nucleation of inversion domains (IDs) may result from step-related inhomogeneities of the GaN/sapphire interface. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Microprobe analysis of brine shrimp grown on meteorite extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, J.; Mautner, M. N.; Barry, B.; Markwitz, A.

    2007-07-01

    Nuclear microprobe methods have been used to investigate the uptake and distribution of various elements by brine shrimps and their unhatched eggs when grown in extracts of the Murchison and Allende carbonaceous meteorites, which were selected as model space resources. Measurements were carried out using a focussed 2 MeV proton beam raster scanned over the samples in order to obtain the average elemental concentrations. Line scans across the egg and shrimp samples show uptake of elements such as Mg, Ni, S and P which are present in the meteorites. The results confirmed that carbonaceous chondrite materials can provide nutrients, including high levels of the essential nutrient phosphate. The concentrations of these elements varied significantly between shrimp and eggs grown in extracts of the two meteorite types, which can help in identifying optimal growth media. Our results illustrate that nuclear microprobe techniques can determine elemental concentrations in organisms exposed to meteorite derived media and thus help in identifying useful future resources.

  18. Platinum blue staining of cells grown in electrospun scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Mohammed; Millas, Ana Luiza G; Estandarte, Ana Katrina C; Bhella, Gurdeep K; McKean, Robert; Bittencourt, Edison; Robinson, Ian K

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast cells grown in electrospun polymer scaffolds were stained with platinum blue, a heavy metal stain, and imaged using scanning electron microscopy. Good contrast on the cells was achieved compared with samples that were gold sputter coated. The cell morphology could be clearly observed, and the cells could be distinguished from the scaffold fibers. Here we optimized the required concentration of platinum blue for imaging cells grown in scaffolds and show that a higher concentration causes platinum aggregation. Overall, platinum blue is a useful stain for imaging cells because of its enhanced contrast using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In the future it would be useful to investigate cell growth and morphology using three-dimensional imaging methods.

  19. Diffraction study of protein crystals grown in cryoloops and micromounts.

    PubMed

    Berger, Michael A; Decker, Johannes H; Mathews, Irimpan I

    2010-12-01

    Protein crystals are usually grown in hanging or sitting drops and generally get transferred to a loop or micromount for cryocooling and data collection. This paper describes a method for growing crystals on cryoloops for easier manipulation of the crystals for data collection. This study also investigates the steps for the automation of this process and describes the design of a new tray for the method. The diffraction patterns and the structures of three proteins grown by both the new method and the conventional hanging-drop method are compared. The new setup is optimized for the automation of the crystal mounting process. Researchers could prepare nanolitre drops under ordinary laboratory conditions by growing the crystals directly in loops or micromounts. As has been pointed out before, higher levels of supersaturation can be obtained in very small volumes, and the new method may help in the exploration of additional crystallization conditions.

  20. Silicon on glass grown from indium and tin solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansen, Roman; Ehlers, Christian; Teubner, Thomas; Böttcher, Klaus; Gambaryan, Karen; Schmidtbauer, Jan; Boeck, Torsten

    2016-04-01

    A two-step process is used to grow crystalline silicon (c-Si) on glass at low temperatures. In the first step, nanocrystalline seed layers are formed at temperatures in the range of 230 to 400°C by either metal-induced crystallization or by direct deposition on heated substrates. In the second step, c-Si is grown on the seed layer by steady-state liquid phase epitaxy at a temperature range of 580 to 710°C. Microcrystalline Si layers with grain sizes of up to several tens of micrometers are grown from In and Sn solutions. Three-dimensional simulations of heat and convective flow in the crucible have been conducted and give valuable insights into the growth process. The experimental results are promising with regard to the designated use of the material in photovoltaics.

  1. Biodiesel production from indigenous microalgae grown in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Komolafe, Oladapo; Velasquez Orta, Sharon B; Monje-Ramirez, Ignacio; Yáñez Noguez, Isaura; Harvey, Adam P; Orta Ledesma, María T

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a process for producing biodiesel sustainably from microalgae grown in wastewater, whilst significantly reducing the wastewater's nutrients and total coliform. Furthermore, ozone-flotation harvesting of the resultant biomass was investigated, shown to be viable, and resulted in FAMEs of greater oxidation stability. Desmodesmus sp. and two mixed cultures were successfully grown on wastewater. Desmodesmus sp. grew rapidly, to a higher maximum biomass concentration of 0.58 g/L. A native mixed culture dominated by Oscillatoria and Arthrospira, reached 0.45 g/L and exhibited the highest lipid and FAME yield. The FAME obtained from ozone-flotation exhibited the greatest oxidative stability, as the degree of saturation was high. In principle ozone could therefore be used as a combined method of harvesting and reducing FAME unsaturation. During microalgae treatment, the total nitrogen in wastewater was reduced by 55.4-83.9%. More importantly, total coliform removal was as high as 99.8%.

  2. Reproductive Ontogeny of Wheat Grown on the MIR Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Stieber, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    The reproductive ontogeny of 'Super-Dwarf' wheat grown on the space station Mir is chronicled from the vegetative phase through flower development. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition From the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of 'Super Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Filament elongation, which characteristically occurs just prior to anthesis and moves the anthers through the stigmatic branches thus facilitating pollination, did no1 xcur in the flowers of spikes grown on Mir. While development of spikes on tillers typically occurs later :han that of spikes on the main stem, all flowers appear to be arrested at the same developmental point.

  3. Flow pattern defects in Czochralski-grown silicon crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rantamäki, R.; Molarius, J.; Tilli, M.; Tuomi, T.

    1997-01-01

    The radial distribution of grown-in microdefects in eight Czochralski-grown silicon crystals was measured by counting the flow pattern (FP) defects revealed by preferential etching. At the center of the crystal, the FP-defect density increased from 5.2 to 6.7 × 105 1/cm3, when the pulling speed was increased from 0.8 to 1.1 mm/min. The magnitude of this effect was only about half as large, when the pulling speed was increased from 1.1 to 1.3 mm/min. Annealing at 1200 °C for 2 h in argon ambient was found to decrease the FP-defect densities significantly, but less than that in oxygen ambient.

  4. Neural signal registration and analysis of axons grown in microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigareva, Y.; Malishev, E.; Gladkov, A.; Kolpakov, V.; Bukatin, A.; Mukhina, I.; Kazantsev, V.; Pimashkin, A.

    2016-08-01

    Registration of neuronal bioelectrical signals remains one of the main physical tools to study fundamental mechanisms of signal processing in the brain. Neurons generate spiking patterns which propagate through complex map of neural network connectivity. Extracellular recording of isolated axons grown in microchannels provides amplification of the signal for detailed study of spike propagation. In this study we used neuronal hippocampal cultures grown in microfluidic devices combined with microelectrode arrays to investigate a changes of electrical activity during neural network development. We found that after 5 days in vitro after culture plating the spiking activity appears first in microchannels and on the next 2-3 days appears on the electrodes of overall neural network. We conclude that such approach provides a convenient method to study neural signal processing and functional structure development on a single cell and network level of the neuronal culture.

  5. OM-VPE grown materials for high efficiency solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, R.; Cooper, B., III; Ludowise, M.; Borden, P.; Gregory, P.

    1980-01-01

    Organometallic sources are available for all the III-V elements and a variety of dopants; thus it is possible to use the technique to grow a wide variety of semiconductor compounds. AlGaAsSb and AlGaInAs alloys for multijunction monolithic solar cells were grown by OM-VPE. While the effort concentrated on terrestrial applications, the success of OM-VPE grown GaAs/AlGaAs concentrator solar cells (23% at 400 suns) demonstrates that OM-VPE is suitable for growing high efficiency solar cells in large quantities for space applications. In addition, OM-VPE offers the potential for substantial cost reduction of photovoltaic devices with scale up and automation and due to high process yield from reproducible, uniform epitaxial growths with excellent surface morphology.

  6. Magnetic properties of manganese ferrite films grown at atomic scale

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo Xu; Yang, Aria; Yoon, Soack-Dae; Christodoulides, Joe A.; Harris, Vincent G.; Vittoria, Carmine

    2005-05-15

    Manganese ferrite is a partial inverse spinel which, when prepared by conventional growth techniques, has {approx}20% of the Mn{sup 2+} ions on the octahedral sublattice. Here we describe a layer-by-layer growth scheme at atomic scale by which the percentage of Mn{sup 2+} ions on the octahedral sublattice can be artificially controlled. Manganese ferrite films grown by this technique exhibits different degrees of cation inversion when grown on {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}111{r_brace} MgO substrates. It was observed that saturation magnetization varied in a wide range of values depending on chemical composition and oxygen pressure. Although bulk manganese ferrite was low anisotropy magnetic material, uniaxial anisotropy was observed at room temperature in the films deposited on {l_brace}100{r_brace} MgO substrates, and its magnitude and direction sensitively depended on chemical composition and oxygen pressure during deposition.

  7. Magnetic Properties of Manganese Ferrite Films Grown at Atomic Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo,X.; Yang, A.; Yoon, S.; Christodoulides, I.; Harris, V.; Vittoria, C.

    2005-01-01

    Manganese ferrite is a partial inverse spinel which, when prepared by conventional growth techniques, has {approx}20% of the Mn{sup 2+} ions on the octahedral sublattice. Here we describe a layer-by-layer growth scheme at atomic scale by which the percentage of Mn{sup 2+} ions on the octahedral sublattice can be artificially controlled. Manganese ferrite films grown by this technique exhibits different degrees of cation inversion when grown on {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}111{r_brace} MgO substrates. It was observed that saturation magnetization varied in a wide range of values depending on chemical composition and oxygen pressure. Although bulk manganese ferrite was low anisotropy magnetic material, uniaxial anisotropy was observed at room temperature in the films deposited on {l_brace}100{r_brace} MgO substrates, and its magnitude and direction sensitively depended on chemical composition and oxygen pressure during deposition.

  8. Nanophotonic integrated circuits from nanoresonators grown on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Roger; Ng, Kar Wei; Ko, Wai Son; Parekh, Devang; Lu, Fanglu; Tran, Thai-Truong D.; Li, Kun; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

    2014-07-01

    Harnessing light with photonic circuits promises to catalyse powerful new technologies much like electronic circuits have in the past. Analogous to Moore’s law, complexity and functionality of photonic integrated circuits depend on device size and performance scale. Semiconductor nanostructures offer an attractive approach to miniaturize photonics. However, shrinking photonics has come at great cost to performance, and assembling such devices into functional photonic circuits has remained an unfulfilled feat. Here we demonstrate an on-chip optical link constructed from InGaAs nanoresonators grown directly on a silicon substrate. Using nanoresonators, we show a complete toolkit of circuit elements including light emitters, photodetectors and a photovoltaic power supply. Devices operate with gigahertz bandwidths while consuming subpicojoule energy per bit, vastly eclipsing performance of prior nanostructure-based optoelectronics. Additionally, electrically driven stimulated emission from an as-grown nanostructure is presented for the first time. These results reveal a roadmap towards future ultradense nanophotonic integrated circuits.

  9. Nanophotonic integrated circuits from nanoresonators grown on silicon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Roger; Ng, Kar Wei; Ko, Wai Son; Parekh, Devang; Lu, Fanglu; Tran, Thai-Truong D; Li, Kun; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Harnessing light with photonic circuits promises to catalyse powerful new technologies much like electronic circuits have in the past. Analogous to Moore's law, complexity and functionality of photonic integrated circuits depend on device size and performance scale. Semiconductor nanostructures offer an attractive approach to miniaturize photonics. However, shrinking photonics has come at great cost to performance, and assembling such devices into functional photonic circuits has remained an unfulfilled feat. Here we demonstrate an on-chip optical link constructed from InGaAs nanoresonators grown directly on a silicon substrate. Using nanoresonators, we show a complete toolkit of circuit elements including light emitters, photodetectors and a photovoltaic power supply. Devices operate with gigahertz bandwidths while consuming subpicojoule energy per bit, vastly eclipsing performance of prior nanostructure-based optoelectronics. Additionally, electrically driven stimulated emission from an as-grown nanostructure is presented for the first time. These results reveal a roadmap towards future ultradense nanophotonic integrated circuits.

  10. Laser alexandrite crystals grown by horizontal oriented crystallization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurov, V. V.; Tsvetkov, E. G.; Yurkin, A. M.

    2008-05-01

    Comparative studies were performed for alexandrite crystals, Al 2BeO 4:Cr 3+, employed in solid state lasers and grown by the horizontal oriented crystallization (HOC) technique and alexandrite crystals grown by the Czochralski (Cz) method. It was shown that the structural quality and possibilities of generation of stimulated emission HOC-crystals are similar to Cz-crystals, whereas their damage threshold is about three times higher. The obtained results and considerably lower cost price of HOC-alexandrite crystals prove their advantageous application in powerful laser systems, which require large laser rods with a higher resistance to laser beam. It is emphasized that application of HOC technique is promising for growth of laser crystals of other high-temperature oxide compounds.

  11. Lung Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma: ACase Report of Pulmonary Sarcomatoid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fan, Tao; Song, Ying-Jie

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC) is a rare malignant cancer composed of sarcoma and sarcoma-like elements with spindle or giant cell features. We report the case of a 60-year-old male with past medical history of right renal cell carcinoma 2 years earlier. Apulmonary nodule was detected in the left upper lobe, 23 months after nephrectomy. Systemic positron emission tomography-computerized tomography (PET-CT) revealed one high metabolic mass shadow in the left upper lobe. Chest CTscan with contrast revealed a left upper lobe mass (2.9 x 2.5 cm). The case was suspected to be a lung metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. After surgery, the pathology revealed PSC-giant cell carcinoma. The tumor's pathology and treatment methods are discussed. PMID:27376226

  12. A Rare Constellation of Hürthle Cell Thyroid Carcinoma and Parathyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zakerkish, Mehrnoosh; Rajaei, Elham; Dargahi, Mehrdad; Bahadoram, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Separate occurrence of thyroid and parathyroid carcinoma in patients is extremely rare, and to the best of our knowledge, only 7 patients with documented parathyroid and papillary thyroid carcinomas have been described formerly in published reports. We report a patient with an extremely unusual clinical presentation of Hürthle cell carcinoma in thyroid and parathyroid carcinoma. The patient displayed a rare presentation of life-threatening hypercalcaemia after total para-thyroidectomy and failed to respond to standard therapy. Our review of available literature yielded insufficient evidence in managing such. When a patient with thyroid cancer is diagnosed, checking for serum calcium is advised. This is considered a useful method for detecting possible incidental parathyroid lesion and screening the probable concealed parathyroid pathology.

  13. PAX 2: a novel Müllerian marker for serous papillary carcinomas to differentiate from micropapillary breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chivukula, Mamatha; Dabbs, David J; O'Connor, Siobhan; Bhargava, Rohit

    2009-11-01

    Ovarian serous papillary carcinoma, although rarely metastasizing to the breast, is often challenging based on morphology alone, particularly from the micropapillary variant of breast carcinoma. Gross cystic disease fluid protein-15, although a specific marker, can be negative in up to 50% of breast carcinomas. Wilm's tumor gene 1 (WT-1) has been identified as a useful marker to differentiate metastatic ovarian serous papillary carcinoma from primary breast carcinoma; however, it has recently been shown in the micropapillary variant of the primary breast carcinoma making it a less specific marker. PAX 2, a nuclear transcription factor, was recently observed in ovarian serous papillary carcinomas. In this study of 89 breast carcinoma cases, 26 micropapillary carcinoma, and 63 nonmicropapillary carcinoma types were retrieved from our pathology archives, represented on a single tissue microarray (TMA) with a 3-fold redundancy (TMA-1, TMA-2). In addition, whole tissue sections of a variety of benign and neoplastic müllerian tissues were surveyed with the PAX 2 immunostain. All cases were stained with rabbit polyclonal PAX 2 antibody and, in addition, the 5 metastatic ovarian serous carcinoma cases were stained with WT-1 as well for comparison. Only nuclear staining was considered positive. All primary breast carcinomas represented on TMA-1 and TMA-2 were entirely negative for PAX 2 100% (89/89), whereas 100% (5/5) of all metastatic ovarian serous carcinomas showed moderate-to-strong staining. PAX 2 expression was comparable with WT-1 as well in the metastatic ovarian serous carcinoma group. We therefore conclude that PAX 2 is a promising new, sensitive, and specific müllerian immunomarker for ovarian serous carcinomas (primary and metastatic).

  14. Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  15. Glucosinolates in collard greens grown under three soil management practices.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs, β-D-thioglucoside-N-hydroxysulfates) are polar compounds present in varying amounts in members of the Brassicaceae family. They suppress soil-borne pests due to the biofumigant properties of the highly toxic isothiocyanates present in Brassica vegetables. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) assess variation in GSLs concentrations among collard plants grown under three soil management practices: sewage sludge (SS) mixed with native soil, chicken manure (CM) mixed with native soil, and no-mulch (NM) native soil, (2) quantify GSLs concentrations in collard roots, leaves, and stems at harvest for potential use of their crude extracts in plant protection, and (3) assess myrosinase activity in soil amended with CM and SS mixed with native soil. Separation of GSLs was accomplished by adsorption on a DEAE-Sephadex ion exchange resin using disposable pipette tips filled with DEAE, a weak base, with a net positive charge when ionized and exchange anions such as GSLs (hydrophilic plant secondary metabolites). Quantification of total GSLs was based on inactivation of collard endogenous myrosinase and liberation of the glucose moiety from the GSLs molecule by addition of standardized myrosinase and colorimetric determination of the liberated glucose moiety. Across all treatments, SS and CM increased soil organic matter content from 2.2% in native soil to 4.2 and 6.5%, respectively. GSLs concentrations were significantly greater in collard leaves (30.9 µmoles g(-1) fresh weight) compared to roots and stems (7.8 and 1.2 µmoles g(-1) fresh weight), respectively. Leaves of collard grown in soil amended with SS contained the greatest concentrations of GSLs compared to leaves of plants grown in CM and NM treatments. Accordingly, leaves of collard plants grown in soil amended with SS could play a significant role in sustainable agriculture as alternative tools for soil-borne disease management in conventional and organic agriculture. PMID

  16. Glucosinolates in collard greens grown under three soil management practices.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs, β-D-thioglucoside-N-hydroxysulfates) are polar compounds present in varying amounts in members of the Brassicaceae family. They suppress soil-borne pests due to the biofumigant properties of the highly toxic isothiocyanates present in Brassica vegetables. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) assess variation in GSLs concentrations among collard plants grown under three soil management practices: sewage sludge (SS) mixed with native soil, chicken manure (CM) mixed with native soil, and no-mulch (NM) native soil, (2) quantify GSLs concentrations in collard roots, leaves, and stems at harvest for potential use of their crude extracts in plant protection, and (3) assess myrosinase activity in soil amended with CM and SS mixed with native soil. Separation of GSLs was accomplished by adsorption on a DEAE-Sephadex ion exchange resin using disposable pipette tips filled with DEAE, a weak base, with a net positive charge when ionized and exchange anions such as GSLs (hydrophilic plant secondary metabolites). Quantification of total GSLs was based on inactivation of collard endogenous myrosinase and liberation of the glucose moiety from the GSLs molecule by addition of standardized myrosinase and colorimetric determination of the liberated glucose moiety. Across all treatments, SS and CM increased soil organic matter content from 2.2% in native soil to 4.2 and 6.5%, respectively. GSLs concentrations were significantly greater in collard leaves (30.9 µmoles g(-1) fresh weight) compared to roots and stems (7.8 and 1.2 µmoles g(-1) fresh weight), respectively. Leaves of collard grown in soil amended with SS contained the greatest concentrations of GSLs compared to leaves of plants grown in CM and NM treatments. Accordingly, leaves of collard plants grown in soil amended with SS could play a significant role in sustainable agriculture as alternative tools for soil-borne disease management in conventional and organic agriculture.

  17. Nano transfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates

    DOEpatents

    Melechko, Anatoli V.; McKnight, Timothy E.; Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2012-03-27

    Methods, manufactures, machines and compositions are described for nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates. An apparatus, includes a substrate and a nanoconduit material coupled to a surface of the substrate. The substrate defines an aperture and the nanoconduit material defines a nanoconduit that is i) contiguous with the aperture and ii) aligned substantially non-parallel to a plane defined by the surface of the substrate.

  18. Anisotropic magnetothermopower in ferromagnetic thin films grown on macroscopic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayathilaka, P. B.; Belyea, D. D.; Fawcett, T. J.; Miller, Casey W.

    2015-05-01

    We report observing the anisotropic magnetothermopower in a variety of ferromagnetic thin films grown on macroscopic substrates. These measurements were enabled by eliminating spurious signals related to the Anomalous Nernst Effect by butt-mounting the sample to the heat source and sink, and appropriate positioning of electrical contacts to avoid unwanted thermal gradients. This protocol enabled detailed measurements of the magnetothermopower in the transverse and longitudinal configurations. This may enable Spin Seebeck Effect studies in the in-plane geometry.

  19. Melatonin antiproliferative effects require active mitochondrial function in embryonal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Rute; Magalhães-Novais, Silvia; Mesquita, Katia A.; Baldeiras, Ines; Sousa, Isabel S.; Tavares, Ludgero C.; Barbosa, Ines A.; Oliveira, Paulo J.; Vega-Naredo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Although melatonin oncostatic and cytotoxic effects have been described in different types of cancer cells, the specific mechanisms leading to its antitumoral effects and their metabolic context specificity are still not completely understood. Here, we evaluated the effects of melatonin in P19 embryonal carcinoma stem cells (CSCs) and in their differentiated counterparts, cultured in either high glucose medium or in a galactose (glucose-free) medium which leads to glycolytic suppression and increased mitochondrial metabolism. We found that highly glycolytic P19 CSCs were less susceptible to melatonin antitumoral effects while cell populations relying on oxidative metabolism for ATP production were more affected. The observed antiproliferative action of melatonin was associated with an arrest at S-phase, decreased oxygen consumption, down-regulation of BCL-2 expression and an increase in oxidative stress culminating with caspase-3-independent cell death. Interestingly, the combined treatment of melatonin and dichloroacetate had a synergistic effect in cells grown in the galactose medium and resulted in an inhibitory effect in the highly resistant P19 CSCs. Melatonin appears to exert its antiproliferative activity in P19 carcinoma cells through a mitochondrially-mediated action which in turn allows the amplification of the effects of dichloroacetate, even in cells with a more glycolytic phenotype. PMID:26025920

  20. Differential diagnosis of lung carcinoma with three-dimensional quantitative molecular vibrational imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang; Hammoudi, Ahmad A.; Li, Fuhai; Thrall, Michael J.; Cagle, Philip T.; Chen, Yuanxin; Yang, Jian; Xia, Xiaofeng; Fan, Yubo; Massoud, Yehia; Wang, Zhiyong; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2012-06-01

    The advent of molecularly targeted therapies requires effective identification of the various cell types of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). Currently, cell type diagnosis is performed using small biopsies or cytology specimens that are often insufficient for molecular testing after morphologic analysis. Thus, the ability to rapidly recognize different cancer cell types, with minimal tissue consumption, would accelerate diagnosis and preserve tissue samples for subsequent molecular testing in targeted therapy. We report a label-free molecular vibrational imaging framework enabling three-dimensional (3-D) image acquisition and quantitative analysis of cellular structures for identification of NSCLC cell types. This diagnostic imaging system employs superpixel-based 3-D nuclear segmentation for extracting such disease-related features as nuclear shape, volume, and cell-cell distance. These features are used to characterize cancer cell types using machine learning. Using fresh unstained tissue samples derived from cell lines grown in a mouse model, the platform showed greater than 97% accuracy for diagnosis of NSCLC cell types within a few minutes. As an adjunct to subsequent histology tests, our novel system would allow fast delineation of cancer cell types with minimum tissue consumption, potentially facilitating on-the-spot diagnosis, while preserving specimens for additional tests. Furthermore, 3-D measurements of cellular structure permit evaluation closer to the native state of cells, creating an alternative to traditional 2-D histology specimen evaluation, potentially increasing accuracy in diagnosing cell type of lung carcinomas.

  1. Photodynamic therapy of human bladder carcinoma cells in vitro with liposomes as a carrier for protoporphyrindisodiumsalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Karina; Wenderoth, Ulrich K.; Reich, Ella D.; Hautmann, Richard E.

    1995-01-01

    In vitro experiments were performed on human bladder carcinoma cells to evaluate the efficiency of photodynamic activity of protoporphyrindisodiumsalt encapsulated within liposomes. The bladder carcinoma cell line EJ 28, (Tumorba-nk Heidelberg) was grown on DMEM + 10% FCS + 2% Glutamine + 1% Penicillin/Streptomycin as a monolayer culture. In the log phase, cells were trypsinized, counted and inoculated into 35 mm-diameter multiwells at 105 cells/well and allowed to grow for 24 h. The cells were incubated for 1 h with 5, 10, 20 (mu) g/ml protoporphyrindisodiumsalt in liposomes. (DPPC/Cholesterol 7:3). After incubation cells were refed with complete medium and irradiated with 3 and 6 J/cm2. After irradiation, the cells were incubated for 2 days at 37 degree(s)C, then fixed, stained, counted and compared to the control group. Mean survival rates of 7.21%, 2.99%, 1.33% after irradiation with 3 J/cm2 and 4.3%, 1.48% and 0.88% after irradiation with 6 J/cm2 were found. By using a fluorescence microscope, we evaluated the intracellular uptake of protoporphyrindisodiumsalt in liposomes. The vesicular fluorescence pattern exhibited a concentration of photosensitizer in the nuclear membrane and adjacent parts of the cytoplasm as well as in the plasma membrane. By transmission electron microscopy marked changes were observed at the mitochondria with dissolution of the cristae and development of vacuols.

  2. Metastatic brain tumor from urothelial carcinoma of the prostatic urethra

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Kohei; Oda, Masashi; Koyanagi, Masaomi; Saiki, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urothelial carcinoma occurs in the bladder, upper urinary tract, and lower urinary tract, including prostatic urethra. A majority of the reported cases of intracranial metastasis from urothelial carcinoma originates from the bladder and upper urinary tract. Brain metastasis from urothelial carcinoma of the prostatic urethra has not yet been reported in the literature. Case Description: A 72-year-old male presented with a metastatic brain tumor and a 3-year history of urothelial carcinoma of the prostatic urethra treated with cystourethrectomy and chemotherapy with gemcitabine-cisplatin. Pathological diagnosis for tumor removal was compatible with metastatic brain tumor from urothelial carcinoma. Conclusion: Brain metastasis from urothelial carcinoma of the prostatic urethra has not yet been reported in the literature. It is an extremely rare case, however, we should be careful of brain metastasis during follow-up for urothelial carcinoma in the lower urinary tract. PMID:27512612

  3. Induced abnormality in Mir- and Earth grown Super Dwarf wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Stieber, J.; Campbell, W. F.; Salisbury, F. B.; Levinski, M.; Sytchev, V.; Podolsky, I.; Chernova, L.; Pdolsky, I.

    2003-01-01

    Super-dwarf wheat grown on the Mir space station using the Svet "Greenhouse" exhibited morphological, metabolic and reproductive abnormalities compared with Earth-grown wheat. Of prominent importance were the abnormalities associated with reproductive ontogeny and the total absence of seed formation on Mir. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition from the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of 'Super-Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Observation of ruptured anthers from the Mir-grown plants revealed what appeared to be normally developed pollen. These pollen gains, however, contained only one nuclei, while normal viable pollen is tri-nucleate. A potentially important difference in the flight experiment, compared with ground reference studies, was the presence of a high level of atmospheric ethylene (1,200 ppb). Ground studies conducted by exposing 'Super-Dwarf' wheat to ethylene just prior to anthesis resulted in manifestation of the same abnormalities observed in the space flight samples. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  4. Developmental, nutritional and hormonal anomalies of weightlessness-grown wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carman, J. G.; Hole, P.; Salisbury, F. B.; Bingham, G. E.

    2015-07-01

    The behavior of water in weightlessness, as occurs in orbiting spacecraft, presents multiple challenges for plant growth. Soils remain saturated, impeding aeration, and leaf surfaces remain wet, impeding gas exchange. Herein we report developmental and biochemical anomalies of "Super Dwarf" wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown aboard Space Station Mir during the 1996-97 "Greenhouse 2" experiment. Leaves of Mir-grown wheat were hyperhydric, senesced precociously and accumulated aromatic and branched-chain amino acids typical of tissues experiencing oxidative stress. The highest levels of stress-specific amino acids occurred in precociously-senescing leaves. Our results suggest that the leaf ventilation system of the Svet Greenhouse failed to remove sufficient boundary layer water, thus leading to poor gas exchange and onset of oxidative stress. As oxidative stress in plants has been observed in recent space-flight experiments, we recommend that percentage water content in apoplast free-spaces of leaves be used to evaluate leaf ventilation effectiveness. Mir-grown plants also tillered excessively. Crowns and culms of these plants contained low levels of abscisic acid but high levels of cytokinins. High ethylene levels may have suppressed abscisic acid synthesis, thus permitting cytokinins to accumulate and tillering to occur.

  5. Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, G.P.; Sands, K.; Waters, M.; Wixson, B.G.; Dorward-King, E.

    2000-03-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc were quantified in mine wastes and in soils mixed with mine wastes. Metal concentrations were found to be heterogeneous in the wastes. Iceberg lettuce, Cherry Belle radishes, Roma bush beans, and Better Boy tomatoes were cultivated in mine wastes and in waste-amended soils. Lettuce and radishes had 100% survival in the 100% mine waste treatments compared to 0% and 25% survival for tomatoes and beans, respectively. Metal concentrations were determined in plant tissues to determine uptake and distribution of metals in the edible plant parts. Individual soil samples were collected beneath each plant to assess metal content in the immediate plant environment. This analysis verified heterogeneous metal content of the mine wastes. The four plant species effectively accumulated and translocated lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc. Tomato and bean plants contained the four metals mainly in the roots and little was translocated to the fruits. Radish roots accumulated less metals compared to the leaves, whereas lettuce roots and leaves accumulated similar concentrations of the four metals. Lettuce leaves and radish roots accumulated significantly more metals than bean and tomato fruits. This accumulation pattern suggests that consumption of lettuce leaves or radish roots from plants grown in mine wastes would pose greater risks to humans and wildlife than would consumption of beans or tomatoes grown in the same area. The potential risk may be mitigated somewhat in humans, as vegetables grown in mine wastes exhibited stunted growth and chlorosis.

  6. Induced abnormality in Mir- and earth grown super dwarf wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Stieber, J.; Campbell, W. F.; Salisbury, F. B.; Levinski, M.; Sytchev, V.; Pdolsky, I.; Chernova, L.

    Super-dwarf wheat grown on the Mir space station using the Svet ``Greenhouse'' exhibited morphological, metabolic and reproductive abnormalities compared with Earth-grown wheat. Of prominent importance were the abnormalities associated with reproductive ontogeny and the total absence of seed formation on Mir. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition from the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of `Super-Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Observation of ruptured anthers from the Mir-grown plants revealed what appeared to be normally developed pollen. These pollen gains, however, contained only one nuclei, while normal viable pollen is tri-nucleate. A potentially important difference in the flight experiment, compared with ground reference studies, was the presence of a high level of atmospheric ethylene (1,200 ppb). Ground studies conducted by exposing `Super-Dwarf' wheat to ethylene just prior to anthesis resulted in manifestation of the same abnormalities observed in the space flight samples.

  7. Characterization of Graphene Grown Directly on Crystalline Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothwell, Sara L.

    Graphene has become one of the most popular materials under research, particularly since the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics. Many visions posit that graphene electronics will be some of the fastest and smallest circuitry physically feasible, however before this becomes reality the scientific community must gain a firm handle on the creation of semiconducting varieties of graphene. In addition, well understood epitaxial growth of graphene on insulating materials will add to the facility of fabricating all-carbon electronics. This thesis presents experimental work detailing the growth of pristine graphene grown on sapphire (GOS) through the thermal decomposition of acetylene, and the electronic characterization of graphene grown on nitrogen-seeded silicon carbide (NG), a semiconducting variety of graphene grown in collaboration with researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology and Rutgers University. GOS displays turbostratic stacking and characteristics of monolayer graphene as analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Scanning tunneling microscopy characterization of NG illustrates a topography of pleats from 0.5-2 nm tall, 1-4 nm thick, and 1-20 nm long, as well as atomically flat plateaus and other areas of intermixed features. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements across NG features show peaks interpreted as Landau levels induced by strain. Analysis of these Landau levels in coordination with previous characterization concludes that a model employing a bandgap fits best.

  8. Chromosome Conformation of Human Fibroblasts Grown in 3-Dimensional Spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haiming; Comment, Nicholas; Chen, Jie; Ronquist, Scott; Hero, Alfred; Ried, Thomas; Rajapakse, Indika

    2015-01-01

    In the study of interphase chromosome organization, genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) maps are often generated using 2-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures. These 2D cells have morphological deviations from cells that exist in 3-dimensional (3D) tissues in vivo, and may not maintain the same chromosome conformation. We used Hi-C maps to test the extent of differences in chromosome conformation between human fibroblasts grown in 2D cultures and those grown in 3D spheroids. Significant differences in chromosome conformation were found between 2D cells and those grown in spheroids. Intra-chromosomal interactions were generally increased in spheroid cells, with a few exceptions, while inter-chromosomal interactions were generally decreased. Overall, chromosomes located closer to the nuclear periphery had increased intra-chromosomal contacts in spheroid cells, while those located more centrally had decreased interactions. This study highlights the necessity to conduct studies on the topography of the interphase nucleus under conditions that mimic an in vivo environment. PMID:25738643

  9. Cell-mediated destruction of cells grown on artificial capillaries.

    PubMed

    Zwilling, B S; Clayman, D A

    1978-11-01

    This investigation was designed to determine the conditions required to assess cell-mediated destruction of target L-cells grown on artificial capillaries. In control cultures that contained L-cells alone, solid nodules with a diameter of 1 mm as well as dense cellular growth could be visually observed by the 12th day of culture. Alloimmune spleen cells from both immunized and normal C57BL/10 mice were shown to be capable of destroying tritiated thymidine-labeled L-cells growing on artificial capillaries. The destruction of target cells grown as monolayers in capillary culture correlated well with monolayer cultures incubated in 16-mm plastic tissue culture wells. When target cells were grown in capillary culture for 5 days before the addition of effector cells, significant destruction by normal effector cells was not observed until the 15th day of culture whereas that mediated by immune cells was observed by the 7th day. The possible effects of cell-culturing conditions on the kinetics of cell-mediated destruction in capillary chambers are discussed.

  10. Developmental, nutritional and hormonal anomalies of weightlessness-grown wheat.

    PubMed

    Carman, J G; Hole, P; Salisbury, F B; Bingham, G E

    2015-07-01

    The behavior of water in weightlessness, as occurs in orbiting spacecraft, presents multiple challenges for plant growth. Soils remain saturated, impeding aeration, and leaf surfaces remain wet, impeding gas exchange. Herein we report developmental and biochemical anomalies of "Super Dwarf" wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown aboard Space Station Mir during the 1996-97 "Greenhouse 2" experiment. Leaves of Mir-grown wheat were hyperhydric, senesced precociously and accumulated aromatic and branched-chain amino acids typical of tissues experiencing oxidative stress. The highest levels of stress-specific amino acids occurred in precociously-senescing leaves. Our results suggest that the leaf ventilation system of the Svet Greenhouse failed to remove sufficient boundary layer water, thus leading to poor gas exchange and onset of oxidative stress. As oxidative stress in plants has been observed in recent space-flight experiments, we recommend that percentage water content in apoplast free-spaces of leaves be used to evaluate leaf ventilation effectiveness. Mir-grown plants also tillered excessively. Crowns and culms of these plants contained low levels of abscisic acid but high levels of cytokinins. High ethylene levels may have suppressed abscisic acid synthesis, thus permitting cytokinins to accumulate and tillering to occur. PMID:26256629

  11. Occult distal urethral carcinoma presenting as metastatic carcinoma in the inguinal lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Hammer-Hansen, Niels; Høyer, Søren; Jensen, Jørgen Bjerggaard

    2015-02-01

    A 65-year-old man presented with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in the inguinal lymph nodes from an unknown primary tumour. The initial work-up lacked clinical examination of the glans penis, in part due to the patient having phimosis. More than a year after presentation, a primary tumour, located distally on the penis, was diagnosed. A discussion of urethral carcinoma as well as inguinal lymph-node metastasis of unknown primary tumour is presented. PMID:25313619

  12. Mammaglobin and S-100 immunoreactivity in salivary gland carcinomas other than mammary analogue secretory carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kalyani R; Solomon, Isaac H; El-Mofty, Samir K; Lewis, James S; Chernock, Rebecca D

    2013-11-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor that has morphologic features similar to secretory carcinoma of the breast and that also harbors the same ETV6 translocation. Diffuse mammaglobin and S-100 immunoreactivity are used to differentiate MASC from its morphologic mimics, especially acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. However, the combination of mammaglobin and S-100 immunoreactivity has not been well studied in other types of salivary gland carcinomas that may have focal areas reminiscent of MASC. Here we evaluated mammaglobin and S-100 immunoreactivity in 15 cases each of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and also in 2 cases of adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified, and 1 mucinous adenocarcinoma. Cases with significant co-expression of mammaglobin and S-100 (moderate or strong immunoreactivity in >25% of tumor cells) were further analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization using the ETV6 (12p13) break-apart probe. Nine cases (60%) of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma and two (13.3%) of adenoid cystic carcinoma met the criteria for significant co-expression of mammaglobin and S-100. All were negative for the ETV6 translocation by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Although mammaglobin and S-100 positivity was seen in the majority of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas and a minority of adenoid cystic carcinomas, none were positive for the ETV6 translocation characteristic of MASC. This indicates a need for caution in the use of immunohistochemistry for diagnosing MASC, especially in the absence of cytogenetic confirmation.

  13. Pedunculated-type T1 colorectal carcinoma with lung carcinoma metastasis at the deepest invasive portion.

    PubMed

    Asayama, Naoki; Oka, Shiro; Tanaka, Shinji; Hirano, Daiki; Sumimoto, Kyoku; Ninomiya, Yuki; Tamaru, Yuzuru; Shigita, Kenjiro; Hayashi, Nana; Shimamoto, Fumio; Arihiro, Koji; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2016-08-01

    We present a rare case of colorectal T1 carcinoma with metastasis of previous lung carcinoma found at the deepest invasive portion. A 61-year-old man presented with cervical lymphadenopathy 18 years after undergoing surgery for right lung carcinoma [poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma stage IIb (T3N0M0)]. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed enlarged lymph nodes (LNs) in the neck and mediastinal regions. Combined hybrid-F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission-computerized tomography showed increased radionuclide uptake in multiple cervical LNs and mediastinal LNs. LN biopsy revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, suspected to be a metastatic tumor of the lung. Subsequent colonoscopy revealed a pedunculated-type lesion with a depressed area in the ascending colon. We performed polypectomy as total excisional biopsy; this tumor was composed mainly of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, partially mixed with mucinous adenocarcinoma. The pathological findings of the invasive front of the colorectal carcinoma showed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with a morphological pattern similar to that of the previous lung carcinoma. Furthermore, immunohistochemical results for the histological type of the deepest invasive portion of the tissue specimen were positive for thyroid transcription factor-1 but negative for Caudal-type homeobox 2. From these morphological and immunohistochemical findings, the final diagnosis was moderately differentiated lung carcinoma, pTX N3 M1b (LN, colon) Stage IV. PMID:27259703

  14. 78 FR 28149 - Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 929 Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island... history provisions currently prescribed under the cranberry marketing order (order). The order regulates the handling of cranberries grown in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey,...

  15. Case report of the bronchioloalveolar carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Mohammad; Kalantari, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma is a form of adenocarcinoma. Its clinical presentation spans the entire spectrum from asymptomatic solitary pulmonary nodule to full presentation with cough, hemoptysis and dyspnea. Clinical symptoms usually are in correlation with the extent of disease. The case we present here is a patient in late stage of disease with few symptoms regarding to the extent of disease involvement. PMID:25709995

  16. Merkel cell carcinoma with glandular differentiation admixed with sweat gland carcinoma and spindle cell carcinoma: histogenesis of merkel cell carcinoma from hair follicle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Koba, Shinichi; Nagase, Kotaro; Ikeda, Satoshi; Aoki, Shigehisa; Misago, Noriyuki; Narisawa, Yutaka

    2015-03-01

    We describe a unique case of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) with a heterogeneous differentiation exhibiting distinct triphasic phenotypic differentiation features: small cells typical of MCC, sweat gland carcinoma (sweat gland Ca.) with possible decapitation secretion, and spindle cell carcinoma (spindle cell Ca.). The patient was an 84-year-old Japanese woman. We evaluated the present case immunohistochemically with various antibodies. The histological features showed a gradual transition from MCC to sweat gland Ca. and spindle cell Ca. For clarifying the histogenesis, immunophenotypic analysis of the 3 different components of the carcinoma was performed using hair follicle stem cell markers (eg, CK15, CK19, and CD200) that have been identified as biomarkers of human bulge cells. The triphasic components immunohistochemically shared the characteristic feature of CK19 and CD200 expression. We posit that the MCC arose from hair follicle stem cells residing within the bulge area where Merkel cells are preferentially situated. Based on our findings, we recommend adding this rare neoplasm to the expanding morphological spectrum of MCC.

  17. Odontogenic squamous cell carcinoma with osseous metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J H; Jones, J; Speight, P M

    1993-07-01

    Intra-osseous carcinomas of the jaw are rare tumours, thought to arise from residual elements of the odontogenic epithelium. We report an additional case which, unusually, was characterised by marked osseous metaplasia. We propose that the new bone formed around the tumour is the result of an epithelial-mesenchymal interaction between malignant odontogenic epithelium and osteogenic precursor cells in the surrounding stroma.

  18. Prognostic factors for hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence.

    PubMed

    Colecchia, Antonio; Schiumerini, Ramona; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Cescon, Matteo; Taddia, Martina; Marasco, Giovanni; Festi, Davide

    2014-05-28

    The recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, the sixth most common neoplasm and the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, represents an important clinical problem, since it may occur after both surgical and medical treatment. The recurrence rate involves 2 phases: an early phase and a late phase. The early phase usually occurs within 2 years after resection; it is mainly related to local invasion and intrahepatic metastases and, therefore, to the intrinsic biology of the tumor. On the other hand, the late phase occurs more than 2 years after surgery and is mainly related to de novo tumor formation as a consequence of the carcinogenic cirrhotic environment. Since recent studies have reported that early and late recurrences may have different risk factors, it is clinically important to recognize these factors in the individual patient as soon as possible. The aim of this review was, therefore, to identify predicting factors for the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, by means of invasive and non-invasive methods, according to the different therapeutic strategies available. In particular the role of emerging techniques (e.g., transient elastography) and biological features of hepatocellular carcinoma in predicting recurrence have been discussed. In particular, invasive methods were differentiated from non-invasive ones for research purposes, taking into consideration the emerging role of the genetic signature of hepatocellular carcinoma in order to better allocate treatment strategies and surveillance follow-up in patients with this type of tumor.

  19. Impact of Squamous Differentiation in Breast Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pai, Trupti; Shet, Tanuja; Desai, Sangeeta; Patil, Asawari; Nair, Nita; Parmar, Vani; Gupta, Sudeep; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Sarin, Rajiv; Badwe, Rajendra

    2016-09-01

    This study attempted to review the impact of extent of squamous differentiation in 56 infiltrating duct carcinomas (IDC) with squamous differentiation (metaplastic squamous carcinomas [MSC]). Tumors showing 100% squamous elements were labeled as primary squamous carcinomas (PSC; n = 28) and compared with 28 MSC showing lesser squamous components. A clinicopathological comparison revealed that lymphovascular emboli were never seen in any PSC but were noted in 7/28 of other MSC, while perineural invasion was seen only in PSC and not in MSC. Nodal metastasis was significantly more in other MSC as opposed to PSC. Most MSC presented with 2- to 5-cm sized tumors while PSC were 5 to 10 cm in size. PSC showed cystic change while MSC did not. Disease free survival (DFS) for MSC versus PSC was 64% versus 39.8%, while overall survival (OAS) was 72.7% in MSC versus 66.7% in PSC. Tumor stage affected DFS in MSC while none of the factors affected DFS/OAS in PSC. The extent of squamous differentiation affected DFS with best behavior for metaplastic carcinomas showing <40% squamous elements and worse for those with >90% squamous component (P = .024). PSC of breast is an aggressive disease and show distinct clinicopathological features from other MSC, and though the current definition of MSC does not advocate quantifying the squamous element, clearly this affects prognosis. PMID:27076454

  20. [Report on 114 primary vaginal carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Sun, J H; Zhang, W H; Li, A L; Wu, A R

    1987-11-01

    114 patients with primary carcinoma of the vagina were treated in our hospital from 1958 to 1978. It accounted for 0.83% of all gynecological malignant tumors in the same period. The youngest was 26 years of age, the oldest 75. Patients 40-59 years comprised 61.4%. 33% of patients had wedding age under 17. 63.4% had more than 4 pregnancies and 58.4% gave more than 4 births. 89.69% was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma, 7.2% as adenocarcinoma, 2.06% as undifferentiated carcinoma and 1 as embryonic carcinoma. The tumor occurred frequently in the upper third and posterior wall of the vagina (60% and 68%). In this series, there were 21 stage I, 29 stage II, 61 stage III and 3 stage IV lesions. 110 patients were treated by radiotherapy in different schemes. Intracavitary radium or caesium plus 60Co external irradiation by four fields gave better result with a 5 year survival rate of 66.1%. Only 2 out of 12 patients were cured by 60Co rotation alone but if supplemented by intracavitary radium or caesium, the cure rate was increased. The 5 year survival rate was 71.4% for stage I, 62.1% for stage II, 42.6% for stage III and O for stage IV. After the radiotherapy, rectovaginal fistula developed in 1 patient, vesicovaginal fistula in 1. 14% was complicated with rectal bleeding and 8.18% with hematuria. PMID:3452544

  1. Integrated genomic characterization of endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kandoth, Cyriac; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cherniack, Andrew D; Akbani, Rehan; Liu, Yuexin; Shen, Hui; Robertson, A Gordon; Pashtan, Itai; Shen, Ronglai; Benz, Christopher C; Yau, Christina; Laird, Peter W; Ding, Li; Zhang, Wei; Mills, Gordon B; Kucherlapati, Raju; Mardis, Elaine R; Levine, Douglas A

    2013-05-01

    We performed an integrated genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic characterization of 373 endometrial carcinomas using array- and sequencing-based technologies. Uterine serous tumours and ∼25% of high-grade endometrioid tumours had extensive copy number alterations, few DNA methylation changes, low oestrogen receptor/progesterone receptor levels, and frequent TP53 mutations. Most endometrioid tumours had few copy number alterations or TP53 mutations, but frequent mutations in PTEN, CTNNB1, PIK3CA, ARID1A and KRAS and novel mutations in the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex gene ARID5B. A subset of endometrioid tumours that we identified had a markedly increased transversion mutation frequency and newly identified hotspot mutations in POLE. Our results classified endometrial cancers into four categories: POLE ultramutated, microsatellite instability hypermutated, copy-number low, and copy-number high. Uterine serous carcinomas share genomic features with ovarian serous and basal-like breast carcinomas. We demonstrated that the genomic features of endometrial carcinomas permit a reclassification that may affect post-surgical adjuvant treatment for women with aggressive tumours.

  2. Pituitary Carcinoma: Difficult Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Context: Although pituitary tumors are common, pituitary carcinoma is very rare and is only diagnosed when pituitary tumor noncontiguous with the sellar region is demonstrated. Diagnosis is difficult, resulting in delays that may adversely effect outcome that is traditionally poor. Barriers to earlier diagnosis and management strategies for pituitary carcinoma are discussed. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was employed to identify relevant studies, a review of the literature was conducted, and data were summarized and integrated from the author's perspective. Evidence Synthesis: The available data highlight the difficulties in diagnosis and management and practical challenges in conducting clinical trials in this rare condition. They suggest that earlier diagnosis with aggressive multimodal therapy may be advantageous in some cases. Conclusions: Although pituitary carcinoma remains difficult to diagnose and treat, recent developments have led to improved outcomes in selected cases. With broader use of molecular markers, efforts to modify current histopathological criteria for pituitary carcinoma diagnosis may now be possible. This would assist earlier diagnosis and, in combination with targeted therapies, potentially improve long-term survival. PMID:21956419

  3. [Multifocus or recurrent carcinoma adenoides cysticum].

    PubMed

    Wójtowicz, P; Sujkowska, U; Kukwa, A; Sobczyk, G; Misztela, T

    1995-01-01

    Authors present the case of carcinoma adenoides cysticum, which was located in small salivary glands of palatum. After surgical treatment and radiotherapy during 3 years observation of the patient two new ca adenoides cysticum focus were noticed. It can give evidence of cancer multifocus of cancer recurrents.

  4. [Two autopsy cases of primary pituitary carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Negishi, K; Suzuki, T; Masuda, Y; Masugi, Y; Teramoto, A; Ohama, E

    1988-05-01

    We studied two autopsy cases of primary pituitary carcinoma. Case-1. A 45 year old female was admitted on Oct. 4 1978, with a complaint of right homonymous hemianopsia. And diagnosis was pituitary adenoma. Partial removal of pituitary tumor was performed on Oct. 23 1978. She died on Dec. 5 1978 due to bleeding of gastrointestinal tract. Autopsy disclosed a pituitary carcinoma invading the left hypothalamus, mamillary body, optic and V cranial nerves, and mid brain as well as sphenoid bone. No extracranial metastasis was noted. Case-2. A 44 year old female with a history of acromegaly for 6 years was admitted with a complaint of headache on May 8 1976. She was diagnosed as having pituitary adenoma. The subtotal removal of pituitary tumor was performed on May 21 1976 and followed by 4500 rad irradiation. At this time, pathological diagnosis was eosinophilic adenoma. Seven years later, she complained of progressive right hearing disturbance, dysarthria and ataxic gait 1983. The second subtotal removal of pituitary tumor was performed with a diagnosis of recurrence of pituitary adenoma on Oct. 7 1983. After the operation, she complicated sepsis and died on Jan. 14 1984. An autopsy disclosed a pituitary carcinoma from residual pituitary gland, continuously extending to the subarachnoid space of the pons, and invading right cerebello-pontine angle and cerebellum. The histological examination revealed pituitary carcinoma with high pleomorphism and glioblastoma multiform-like feature were within the tumor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma mimicking lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Basoglu, A; Findik, S; Celik, B; Yildiz, L

    2006-06-01

    Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma has rarely been reported and is a benign entity of unknown origin. The chest radiograph reveals multiple and frequently bilateral pulmonary nodules. We describe a patient with pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma who presented with a central mass in the left lung mimicking lung carcinoma. PMID:16755455

  6. Hepatocellular carcinoma and evidence-based surgery

    PubMed Central

    Braillon, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Transplantation cannot be considered the most important therapeutic procedure for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In France, no more than 2% of patients with HCC undergo a transplantation. Randomized controlled trial must assess the benefit to risk ratio of various potentially “curative” treatment procedures (transplantation, resection, radio-frequency ablation). PMID:19908350

  7. Impact of Squamous Differentiation in Breast Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pai, Trupti; Shet, Tanuja; Desai, Sangeeta; Patil, Asawari; Nair, Nita; Parmar, Vani; Gupta, Sudeep; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Sarin, Rajiv; Badwe, Rajendra

    2016-09-01

    This study attempted to review the impact of extent of squamous differentiation in 56 infiltrating duct carcinomas (IDC) with squamous differentiation (metaplastic squamous carcinomas [MSC]). Tumors showing 100% squamous elements were labeled as primary squamous carcinomas (PSC; n = 28) and compared with 28 MSC showing lesser squamous components. A clinicopathological comparison revealed that lymphovascular emboli were never seen in any PSC but were noted in 7/28 of other MSC, while perineural invasion was seen only in PSC and not in MSC. Nodal metastasis was significantly more in other MSC as opposed to PSC. Most MSC presented with 2- to 5-cm sized tumors while PSC were 5 to 10 cm in size. PSC showed cystic change while MSC did not. Disease free survival (DFS) for MSC versus PSC was 64% versus 39.8%, while overall survival (OAS) was 72.7% in MSC versus 66.7% in PSC. Tumor stage affected DFS in MSC while none of the factors affected DFS/OAS in PSC. The extent of squamous differentiation affected DFS with best behavior for metaplastic carcinomas showing <40% squamous elements and worse for those with >90% squamous component (P = .024). PSC of breast is an aggressive disease and show distinct clinicopathological features from other MSC, and though the current definition of MSC does not advocate quantifying the squamous element, clearly this affects prognosis.

  8. Intra-mandibular adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bouaichi, A; Aimad-Eddine, S; Mommers, X-A; Ella, B; Zwetyenga, N

    2014-04-01

    Intra-mandibular localization of adenoid cystic carcinoma is rare. This tumor is characterized by progressive local, regional, and distant aggressiveness. We reviewed the latest data on this rare type of cancer with a small number of reported cases, alack of consensus for its treatment, and its bad prognosis.

  9. Metastatic thyroid carcinoma of the mandibule.

    PubMed

    Erdag, T; Bilgen, C; Ceryan, K

    1999-01-01

    A case of metastatic papillary carcinoma to the mandible is presented. Though relatively rare, metastatic tumours of the mandible should be included in the differential diagnosis of the tumours in the parotid region. For the primary site; being in the cervicofacial region, the thyroid gland must be considered by the head and neck surgeon.

  10. [Thyroglossal cyst and papillary carcinoma. Management proposals].

    PubMed

    Palomino-Martínez, Brisa Denise; Beristain-Hernández, José Luis; Piscil-Salazar, Marco Antonio; Villalpando-Mendoza, César Javier; Velázquez-García, José Arturo

    2014-01-01

    The thyroid descends through the foramen cecum leaving the thyroglossal duct, which disappears between the fifth and the tenth week of pregnancy. The lack of involution of any part of this duct results in thyroglossal cyst formation. Its diagnostic approach is made by cervical ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Approximately 1 % of the thyroglossal cyst formation contains malignant elements, and the most reported primary tumor has been papillary carcinoma. The recommended treatment for these carcinomas is controversial and it has evolved as time goes by. From Sistrunk procedure to neck dissection with total thyroidectomy and complementary therapies, such as iodine ablation and thyroid supplements, yet there is still no consensus as to the type of surgery and postoperative management it should be used to treat this carcinoma. Therapy should be applied according to each specific case, and it should be based on histological diagnosis, the invasive character of the tumor, and the lymph node affectation. In this paper we review the literature published so far with regards to the treatment of this carcinoma.

  11. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor in Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Natalie; Babur, Muhammad; Resch, Julia; Williams, Kaye J.; Brabant, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Intratumoural hypoxia (low oxygen tension) is associated with aggressive disease and poor prognosis. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 is a transcription factor activated by hypoxia that regulates the expression of genes that promote tumour cell survival, progression, metastasis, and resistance to chemo/radiotherapy. In addition to hypoxia, HIF-1 can be activated by growth factor-signalling pathways such as the mitogen-activated protein kinases- (MAPK-) and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinases- (PI3K-) signalling cascades. Mutations in these pathways are common in thyroid carcinoma and lead to enhanced HIF-1 expression and activity. Here, we summarise current data that highlights the potential role of both hypoxia and MAPK/PI3K-induced HIF-1 signalling in thyroid carcinoma progression, metastatic characteristics, and the potential role of HIF-1 in thyroid carcinoma response to radiotherapy. Direct or indirect targeting of HIF-1 using an MAPK or PI3K inhibitor in combination with radiotherapy may be a new potential therapeutic target to improve the therapeutic response of thyroid carcinoma to radiotherapy and reduce metastatic burden. PMID:21765994

  12. Targeting Hsp90 in urothelial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Skotnicki, Kamil; Landas, Steve; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Bourboulia, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma, or transitional cell carcinoma, is the most common urologic malignancy that carries significant morbidity, mortality, recurrence risk and associated health care costs. Despite use of current chemotherapies and immunotherapies, long-term remission in patients with muscle-invasive or metastatic disease remains low, and disease recurrence is common. The molecular chaperone Heat Shock Protein-90 (Hsp90) may offer an ideal treatment target, as it is a critical signaling hub in urothelial carcinoma pathogenesis and potentiates chemoradiation. Preclinical testing with Hsp90 inhibitors has demonstrated reduced proliferation, enhanced apoptosis and synergism with chemotherapies and radiation. Despite promising preclinical data, clinical trials utilizing Hsp90 inhibitors for other malignancies had modest efficacy. Therefore, we propose that Hsp90 inhibition would best serve as an adjuvant treatment in advanced muscle-invasive or metastatic bladder cancers to potentiate other therapies. An overview of bladder cancer biology, current treatments, molecular targeted therapies, and the role for Hsp90 inhibitors in the treatment of urothelial carcinoma is the focus of this review. PMID:25909217

  13. Association of urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis with papillary and medullary thyroid carcinomas. A new sporadic neoplastic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Albores-Saavedra, Jorge; Dorantes-Heredia, Rita; Chablé-Montero, Fredy; Córdova-Ramón, Juan Carlos; Henson, Donald E

    2014-10-01

    We describe 2 adult women (72 and 54 years), 1 with a low-grade noninvasive papillary urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis, who 14 years later developed a papillary carcinoma in 1 thyroid lobe and a medullary carcinoma in the contralateral lobe. Both neoplasms were similar in size and appeared symmetrical. Despite its small size, the medullary carcinoma metastasized in multiple cervical lymph nodes. The second patient had a high-grade invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis that infiltrated the renal parenchyma and metastasized in one of the lungs. Five months later, a papillary carcinoma was discovered in the thyroid gland. The 2 papillary thyroid carcinomas were of the follicular variant. Adjacent to 1 papillary carcinoma, there was a dominant nodule of a colloid and adenomatous goiter. The medullary carcinoma contained stromal amyloid and was immunoreactive for calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen. There was no C-cell hyperplasia (medullary carcinoma in situ). The 2 patients are alive, 1 is living with pulmonary metastasis from the high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Twelve cases of this neoplastic association were registered in the Survey, Epidemiology, and End Results Program from 1980 to 2009. We believe that the combination of these unusual neoplasms in the same patient may represent a new sporadic neoplastic syndrome.

  14. Gallbladder carcinoma: Prognostic factors and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Goetze, Thorsten Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of gallbladder carcinoma is poor, and the overall 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. In early-stage disease, a 5-year survival rate up to 75% can be achieved if stage-adjusted therapy is performed. There is wide geographic variability in the frequency of gallbladder carcinoma, which can only be explained by an interaction between genetic factors and their alteration. Gallstones and chronic cholecystitis are important risk factors in the formation of gallbladder malignancies. Factors such as chronic bacterial infection, primary sclerosing cholangitis, an anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct, and several types of gallbladder polyps are associated with a higher risk of gallbladder cancer. There is also an interesting correlation between risk factors and the histological type of cancer. However, despite theoretical risk factors, only a third of gallbladder carcinomas are recognized preoperatively. In most patients, the tumor is diagnosed by the pathologist after a routine cholecystectomy for a benign disease and is termed ‘‘incidental or occult gallbladder carcinoma’’ (IGBC). A cholecystectomy is performed frequently due to the minimal invasiveness of the laparoscopic technique. Therefore, the postoperative diagnosis of potentially curable early-stage disease is more frequent. A second radical re-resection to complete a radical cholecystectomy is required for several IGBCs. However, the literature and guidelines used in different countries differ regarding the radicality or T-stage criteria for performing a radical cholecystectomy. The NCCN guidelines and data from the German registry (GR), which records the largest number of incidental gallbladder carcinomas in Europe, indicate that carcinomas infiltrating the muscularis propria or beyond require radical surgery. According to GR data and current literature, a wedge resection with a combined dissection of the lymph nodes of the hepatoduodenal ligament is adequate for T1b and T2

  15. Calculator for ovarian carcinoma subtype prediction.

    PubMed

    Kalloger, Steve E; Köbel, Martin; Leung, Samuel; Mehl, Erika; Gao, Dongxia; Marcon, Krista M; Chow, Christine; Clarke, Blaise A; Huntsman, David G; Gilks, C Blake

    2011-04-01

    With the emerging evidence that the five major ovarian carcinoma subtypes (high-grade serous, clear cell, endometrioid, mucinous, and low-grade serous) are distinct disease entities, management of ovarian carcinoma will become subtype specific in the future. In an effort to improve diagnostic accuracy, we set out to determine if an immunohistochemical panel of molecular markers could reproduce consensus subtype assignment. Immunohistochemical expression of 22 biomarkers were examined on tissue microarrays constructed from 322 archival ovarian carcinoma samples from the British Columbia Cancer Agency archives, for the period between 1984 and 2000, and an independent set of 242 cases of ovarian carcinoma from the Gynaecologic Tissue Bank at Vancouver General Hospital from 2001 to 2008. Nominal logistic regression was used to produce a subtype prediction model for each of these sets of cases. These models were then cross-validated against the other cohort, and then both models were further validated in an independent cohort of 81 ovarian carcinoma samples from five different centers. Starting with data for 22 markers, full model fit, backwards, nominal logistic regression identified the same nine markers (CDKN2A, DKK1, HNF1B, MDM2, PGR, TFF3, TP53, VIM, WT1) as being most predictive of ovarian carcinoma subtype in both the archival and tumor bank cohorts. These models were able to predict subtype in the respective cohort in which they were developed with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity (κ statistics of 0.88±0.02 and 0.86±0.04, respectively). When the models were cross-validated (ie using the model developed in one case series to predict subtype in the other series), the prediction equation's performances were reduced (κ statistics of 0.70±0.04 and 0.61±0.04, respectively) due to differences in frequency of expression of some biomarkers in the two case series. Both models were then validated on the independent series of 81 cases, with very good to

  16. Comparative Floral Development of Mir-Grown and Ethylene-Treated, Earth-Grown Super Dwarf Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William F.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Bugbee, Bruce; Klassen, Steven; Naegle, Erin; Strickland, Darren T.; Bingham, Gail E.; Levinskikh, Margarita; Iljina, Galena M.; Veselova, Tatjana D.

    2001-01-01

    To study plant growth in microgravity, we grew Super Dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Svet growth chamber onboard the orbiting Russian space station, Mir, and in identical ground control units at the Institute of BioMedical Problems in Moscow, Russia. Seedling emergence was 56% and 73% in the two root-module compartments on Mir and 75% and 90% on Earth. Growth was vigorous (produced ca. 1 kg dry mass), and individual plants produced 5 to 8 tillers on Mir compared with 3 to 5 on Earth-grown controls. Upon harvest in space and return to Earth, however, all inflorescences of the flight-grown plants were sterile. To ascertain if Super Dwarf wheat responded to the 1.1 to 1.7 micromol/mol atmospheric levels of ethylene measured on the Mir prior to and during flowering, plants on earth were exposed to 0, 1, 3, 10, and 20 micromol/mol of ethylene gas and 1200 micromol/mol CO2 from 7d after emergence to maturity. As in our Mir wheat, plant height, awn length, and the flag leaf were significantly shorter in the ethylene-exposed plants than in controls; inflorescences also exhibited 100% sterility. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination of florets from Mir-grown and ethylene-treated, earth-grown plants showed that development ceased prior to anthesis, and the anthers did not dehisce. Laser scanning confocal microscopic (LSCM) examination of pollen grains from Mir and ethylene-treated plants on earth exhibited zero, one, and occasionally two, but rarely three nuclei; pollen produced in the absence of ethylene was always trinucleate, the normal condition. The scarcity of trinucleate pollen, abrupt cessation of floret development prior to anthesis, and excess tillering in wheat plants on Mir and in ethylene-containing atmospheres on earth build a strong case for the ethylene on Mir as the agent for the induced male sterility and other symptoms, rather than microgravity.

  17. Comparative floral development of Mir-grown and ethylene-treated, earth-grown Super Dwarf wheat.

    PubMed

    Campbell, W F; Salisbury, F B; Bugbee, B; Klassen, S; Naegle, E; Strickland, D T; Bingham, G E; Levinskikh, M; Iljina, G M; Veselova, T D; Sytchev, V N; Podolsky, I; McManus, W R; Bubenheim, D L; Stieber, J; Jahns, G

    2001-08-01

    To study plant growth in microgravity, we grew Super Dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Svet growth chamber onboard the orbiting Russian space station, Mir, and in identical ground control units at the Institute of BioMedical Problems in Moscow, Russia. Seedling emergence was 56% and 73% in the two root-module compartments on Mir and 75% and 90% on earth. Growth was vigorous (produced ca. 1 kg dry mass), and individual plants produced 5 to 8 tillers on Mir compared with 3 to 5 on earth-grown controls. Upon harvest in space and return to earth, however, all inflorescences of the flight-grown plants were sterile. To ascertain if Super Dwarf wheat responded to the 1.1 to 1.7 micromoles mol-1 atmospheric levels of ethylene measured on the Mir prior to and during flowering, plants on earth were exposed to 0, 1, 3, 10, and 20 micromoles mol-1 of ethylene gas and 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2 from 7 d after emergence to maturity. As in our Mir wheat, plant height, awn length, and the flag leaf were significantly shorter in the ethylene-exposed plants than in controls; inflorescences also exhibited 100% sterility. Scanning-electron-microscopic (SEM) examination of florets from Mir-grown and ethylene-treated, earth-grown plants showed that development ceased prior to anthesis, and the anthers did not dehisce. Laser scanning confocal microscopic (LSCM) examination of pollen grains from Mir and ethylene-treated plants on earth exhibited zero, one, and occasionally two, but rarely three nuclei; pollen produced in the absence of ethylene was always trinucleate, the normal condition. The scarcity of trinucleate pollen, abrupt cessation of floret development prior to anthesis, and excess tillering in wheat plants on Mir and in ethylene-containing atmospheres on earth build a strong case for the ethylene on Mir as the agent for the induced male sterility and other symptoms, rather than microgravity.

  18. Gingival Squamous Cell Carcinoma: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Luiz Antonio Guimarães; de Carvalho, Luis Felipe das Chagas e Silva; Salgado, José Antônio Pereira; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant epithelial neoplasm characterized by variable clinical manifestations. When located in the gingiva, this neoplasm may mimic common inflammatory lesions. The aim of this study was to report a case of atypical squamous cell carcinoma, in which the patient had no risk factors for the development of this neoplasm. Methods A 61 year old Caucasian female was seen with a 3 month history of a rapidly growing, painful nodule in the gingiva adjacent to tooth #11. Clinical examination revealed a proliferative lesion in the vestibular marginal gingiva of teeth #11 and #12, presenting with purulent exudation. Thus, in view of the clinical symptoms and differential diagnosis of an infectious granulomatous process and malignant neoplasm, an incisional biopsy was obtained from the lesion. Results The diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma was made and fourteen days after incisional biopsy, healing was found to be unsatisfactory. The patient was referred for treatment consisting of surgical excision of the tumour. A removable partial denture was fabricated for rehabilitation, one month after surgery of the maxilla; the patient was submitted to dissection of the regional lymph nodes and radiotherapy for an additional 3 months. Three years after the end of treatment, the patient continues to be followed-up and does not show any sign of recurrence. Conclusions Gingival squamous cell carcinoma is a condition which chance of cure is higher when carcinomatous lesions are diagnosed and treated early. In this instance dentists play an important role in early detection of gingival squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:24421976

  19. Cixutumumab, Everolimus, and Octreotide Acetate in Treating Patients With Advanced Low to Intermediate Grade Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-14

    Gastrin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Pancreatic Glucagonoma; Pancreatic Insulinoma; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Paraganglioma; Recurrent Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Regional Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Somatostatin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Stage III Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  20. Response of container-grown flowering dogwood cultivars to sun/shade production regime, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering dogwood, Cornus florida, ‘Cherokee Brave™’ and ‘Cherokee Princess’ were grown in #5 nursery containers in an amended 100% bark substrate. Treatments were assigned based on exposure time to a full sun/shade condition during the growing season: 1) plants grown in full sun, 2) plants grown in...

  1. 78 FR 28118 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting and Assessment Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 955 Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting and... the marketing order for Vidalia onions grown in Georgia (order). The order regulates the handling of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia and is administered locally by the Vidalia Onion Committee...

  2. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco §...

  3. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco §...

  4. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

  5. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco §...

  6. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

  7. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco §...

  8. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco §...

  9. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

  10. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

  11. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

  12. Dielectric Spectroscopy Study of ZnSe Grown by Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kokan, J.; Gerhardt, R.; Su, Ching-Hua

    1997-01-01

    The dielectric properties of ZnSe samples grown by physical vapor transport were measured as a function of frequency. Differences can be seen in the dielectric properties of samples grown under different conditions. The spectra of heat treated samples were also acquired and were found to exhibit significant deviations from those of the as grown crystals.

  13. Catalase Activity of Psychrophilic Bacteria Grown at 2 and 30 C1

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Hilmer A.; Ishibashi, Sandra T.; Reid, Ann; Ito, June S.

    1963-01-01

    Catalase activity was measured in resting-cell suspensions of psychrophilic bacteria grown at 2 and at 30 C. Enzyme activity decreased in both cell-suspension types as harvest age increased. At comparable physiological age, cells grown at 2 C had more catalase than cells grown at 30 C. PMID:13959237

  14. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  15. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  16. 76 FR 4254 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 989 Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increased... raisins produced from grapes grown in California. Assessments upon raisin handlers are used by the... CFR part 989), regulating the handling of raisins produced from grapes grown in...

  17. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  18. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  19. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  20. Biological and clinical significance of NAC1 expression in cervical carcinomas: a comparative study between squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yeasmin, Shamima; Nakayama, Kentaro; Rahman, Mohammed Tanjimur; Rahman, Munmun; Ishikawa, Masako; Katagiri, Atsuko; Iida, Kouji; Nakayama, Naomi; Otuski, Yoshiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Satoru; Miyazaki, Kohji

    2012-04-01

    This study examined the biological and clinical significance of NAC1 (nucleus accumbens associated 1) expression in both cervical squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas. Using immunohistochemistry, the frequency of positive NAC1 expression in adenocarcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas (31.0%; 18/58) was significantly higher than that in squamous cell carcinomas (16.2%; 12/74) (P = .043). NAC1 gene amplification was identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 5 (7.2%) of 69 squamous cell carcinomas. NAC1 amplification was not identified in the adenocarcinomas (0%; 0/58). Positive NAC1 expression was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival in squamous cell carcinomas (P < .0001). A multivariate analysis showed that positive NAC1 expression in squamous cell carcinomas was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival after standard radiotherapy (P = .0003). In contrast to squamous cell carcinomas, positive NAC1 expression did not correlate with shorter overall survival in adenocarcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas (P = .317). Profound growth inhibition, increased apoptosis, decreased cell proliferation, and decreased cell migration and invasion were observed in silencing RNA-treated cancer cells with NAC1 overexpression compared with cancer cells without NAC1 expression. NAC1 overexpression stimulated proliferation, migration, and invasion in the cervical cancer cell lines TCS and Hela P3, which normally lack NAC1 expression. These findings indicate that NAC1 overexpression is critical to the growth and survival of cervical carcinomas irrespective of histologic type. Furthermore, they suggest that NAC1 silencing RNA-induced phenotypes depend on the expression status of the targeted cell line. Therefore, cervical carcinoma patients with NAC1 expression may benefit from a targeted therapy irrespective of histologic type.

  1. A Case of Gastric Cancer with Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma Components, and Intramural Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, Keishiro; Kizaki, Junya; Isobe, Taro; Akagi, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 67 Final Diagnosis: Gastric cancer with neuroendocrine carcinoma Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Total gastrectomy • splenectomy with D2 lymph node dissection Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Many neuroendocrine carcinomas exhibit medullary infiltration and expanded proliferation. Differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma is frequently seen in the superficial region in many neuroendocrine carcinoma cases. However, the present case showed non-medullary infiltration and signet ring cell carcinoma in the superficial region, with intramural metastases distributed throughout the whole of the stomach. Case Report: A 67-year-old man was referred to our institution for treatment of gastric cancer. Type IIc-like advanced gastric cancer was detected in the greater curvature of the middle body of the stomach. The patient underwent total gastrectomy, splenectomy with D2 lymph node dissection, and Roux-en-Y reconstruction with curative resection. The tumor was diagnosed as a large-cell endocrine carcinoma of the stomach. A solid growth of signet ring cells was seen in the mucosa and submucosa. Intramural metastases were observed in many other depressed lesions. Large-cell carcinoma invaded the submucosa, mainly in the intramural metastatic site. Metastasis to one lesser curvature lymph node was also seen on histological examination. The final diagnosis was a gastric cancer of type 0–IIc (T4a) [M] (with intramural metastases) at T4aN1H0P0M0 Stage IIIA. This patient has remained alive without recurrence for 72 months after surgery. Conclusions: We recommend close preoperative examination of neuroendocrine carcinoma, taking intramural metastases into consideration. PMID:27102318

  2. A subset of prostatic basal cell carcinomas harbor the MYB rearrangement of adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A; Yonescu, Raluca; Epstein, Jonathan I; Westra, William H

    2015-08-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a basaloid tumor consisting of myoepithelial and ductal cells typically arranged in a cribriform pattern. Adenoid cystic carcinoma is generally regarded as a form of salivary gland carcinoma, but it can arise from sites unassociated with salivary tissue. A rare form of prostate carcinoma exhibits ACC-like features; it is no longer regarded as a true ACC but rather as prostatic basal cell carcinoma (PBCC) and within the spectrum of basaloid prostatic proliferations. True ACCs often harbor MYB translocations resulting in the MYB-NFIB fusion protein. MYB analysis could clarify the true nature of prostatic carcinomas that exhibit ACC features and thus help refine the classification of prostatic basaloid proliferations. Twelve PBCCs were identified from the pathology consultation files of Johns Hopkins Hospital. The histopathologic features were reviewed, and break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization for MYB was performed. All 12 cases exhibited prominent basaloid histology. Four were purely solid, 7 exhibited a cribriform pattern reminiscent of salivary ACC, and 1 had a mixed pattern. The MYB rearrangement was detected in 2 (29%) of 7 ACC-like carcinomas but in none (0%) of the 5 PBCCs with a prominent solid pattern. True ACCs can arise in the prostate as is evidenced by the presence of the characteristic MYB rearrangement. When dealing with malignant basaloid proliferations in the prostate, recommendations to consolidate ACCs with other tumor types may need to be reassessed, particularly in light of the rapidly advancing field of biologic therapy where the identification of tumor-specific genetic alterations presents novel therapeutic targets.

  3. Combined treatment of L1CAM antibodies and cytostatic drugs improve the therapeutic response of pancreatic and ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Heiner; Dieckmann, Chantal; Korniienko, Olena; Moldenhauer, Gerhard; Kiefel, Helena; Salnikov, Alexey; Krüger, Achim; Altevogt, Peter; Sebens, Susanne

    2012-06-01

    The adhesion molecule L1CAM (CD171) accounts for enhanced motility, invasiveness and chemoresistance of tumor cells and represents a novel marker for various tumor entities including pancreatic and ovarian carcinoma. Recently, we showed that L1CAM inhibition increases the apoptotic response of tumor cells towards cytostatic drugs pointing to the potential of L1CAM to serve as a chemosensitizer in anti-cancer therapy. Thus, the present study evaluated the therapeutic potential of combined treatment with L1CAM antibodies and chemotherapeutic drugs in pancreatic and ovarian carcinoma model systems in vivo. Two L1CAM-specific antibodies (L1-14.10 and L1-9.3/2a) exhibiting high binding affinity to the L1CAM expressing pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line Colo357 and the ovarian carcinoma cell line SKOV3ip were used for treatment. The combined therapy of SCID mice with either L1CAM antibody and gemcitabine and paclitaxel, respectively, reduced the growth of subcutaneously grown Colo357 or SKOV3ip tumors more efficiently than treatment with the cytostatic drug alone or in combination with control IgG. This was accompanied by an increased number of apoptotic tumor cells along with an elevated procaspase-8 expression. Furthermore, a lowered activation of NF-κB along with a reduced expression of VEGF and a diminished number of CD31-positive blood vessels were observed in tumors after combined therapy compared to control treatments, while the infiltration of F4/80-positive macrophages increased. Overall, these data provide new insights into the mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of L1CAM-blocking antibodies in vivo and support the suitability of L1CAM as a target for chemosensitization and of L1CAM-interfering antibodies as an appropriate tool to increase the therapeutic response of pancreatic and ovarian carcinoma.

  4. Squamous cell and adenosquamous carcinomas of the gallbladder: clinicopathological analysis of 34 cases identified in 606 carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Roa, Juan C; Tapia, Oscar; Cakir, Asli; Basturk, Olca; Dursun, Nevra; Akdemir, Deniz; Saka, Burcu; Losada, Hector; Bagci, Pelin; Adsay, N Volkan

    2011-08-01

    The information in the literature on squamous cell and adenosquamous carcinomas of the gallbladder is highly limited. In this study, 606 resected invasive gallbladder carcinoma cases were analyzed. Squamous differentiation was identified in 41 cases (7%). Those without any identifiable glandular-type invasive component were classified as pure squamous cell carcinomas (8 cases) and those with the squamous component constituting 25-99% of the tumors were classified as adenosquamous carcinomas (26 cases) and included into the analysis. The remaining 7 that had <25% squamous component were classified as adenocarcinoma with focal squamous change and excluded. The clinicopathological characteristics of adenosquamous carcinoma/squamous cell carcinomas were documented and contrasted with that of ordinary gallbladder adenocarcinomas. The average patient age was 65 years (range 26-81); female/male ratio, 3.8. In only 13%, there was a preoperative clinical suspicion of malignancy. Grossly, 58% presented as thickening and hardening of the wall and 6% were polypoid. In 12%, mucosa adjacent to the tumor revealed squamous metaplasia. All pure squamous cell carcinomas had prominent keratinization. Giant cells and tumor-infiltrating eosinophils were observed in 29 and 51% of the squamous cell carcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas versus 10% (P=0.02) and 6% (P=0.001) in gallbladder adenocarcinomas, respectively. All but three cases had 'advanced' (pT2 and above) carcinomas. Follow-up was available in 31 patients: 25 died of disease (median=5 months, range 0-20), and 6 were alive (median=64 months, range 5-112.5). The survival of patients with squamous cell carcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas was significantly worse than that of gallbladder adenocarcinomas (P=0.003), and this adverse prognosis persisted when compared with stage-matched advanced gallbladder adenocarcinoma cases (median=11.4 months, P=0.01). In conclusion, squamous differentiation was noted in 7% of gallbladder

  5. Annealing to reduce scattering centers in Czochralski-grown beta-BaB2O4.

    PubMed

    Kouta, H; Kuwano, Y

    1999-02-20

    When a visible laser beam passes through beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO), scattered light can be observed along the beam within the crystal. Scattering centers caused by structural defects in Czochralski-grown BBO can be reduced by 95% by annealing at 920 degrees C. In the flux-grown BBO, centers actually increase by the same annealing because the process causes microcracks and/or secondary inclusions. It is shown that annealed Czochralski-grown BBO is superior to flux-grown BBO (annealed or as-grown) in terms of optical loss.

  6. Defects in zinc oxide grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Francis C. C.; Wang, Zilan; Ping Ho, Lok; Younas, M.; Anwand, W.; Wagner, A.; Su, S. C.; Shan, C. X.

    2016-01-01

    ZnO films are grown on c-plane sapphire using the pulsed laser deposition method. Systematic studies on the effects of annealing are performed to understand the thermal evolutions of the defects in the films. Particular attention is paid to the discussions of the ZnO/sapphire interface thermal stability, the Zn-vacancy related defects having different microstructures, the origins of the green luminescence (∼2.4-2.5 eV) and the near band edge (NBE) emission at 3.23 eV.

  7. Inversion domains in AlN grown on (0001) sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Jasinski, J.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Paduano, Q.S.; Weyburne, D.W.

    2003-08-25

    Al-polarity inversion domains formed during AlN layer growth on (0001) sapphire were identified using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). They resemble columnar inversion domains reported for GaN films grown on (0001) sapphire. However, for AlN, these columns have a V-like shape with boundaries that deviate by 2 {+-} 0.5{sup o} from the c-axis. TEM identification of these defects agrees with the post-growth surface morphology as well as with the microstructure revealed by etching in hot aqueous KOH.

  8. Cathodic arc grown niobium films for RF superconducting cavity applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, L.; Cianchi, A.; Lorkiewicz, J.; Tazzari, S.; Langner, J.; Strzyzewski, P.; Sadowski, M.; Andreone, A.; Cifariello, G.; Di Gennaro, E.; Lamura, G.; Russo, R.

    2006-07-01

    Experimental results on the characterization of the linear and non-linear microwave properties of niobium film produced by UHV cathodic arc deposition are presented. Surface impedance Zs as a function of RF field and intermodulation distortion (IMD) measurement have been carried out by using a dielectrically loaded resonant cavity operating at 7 GHz. The experimental data show that these samples have a lower level of intrinsic non-linearities at low temperature and low circulating power in comparison with Nb samples grown by sputtering. These results make UHV cathodic arc deposition a promising technique for the improvement of RF superconducting cavities for particle accelerators.

  9. Low defect, high purity crystalline layers grown by selective deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, A. D. (Inventor); Daud, T.

    1985-01-01

    The purity and perfection of a semiconductor is improved by depositing a patterned mask of a material impervious to impurities of the semiconductor on a surface of a blank. When a layer of semiconductor is grown on the mask, the semiconductor will first grow from the surface portions exposed by the openings in the mask and will bridge the connecting portions of the mask to form a continuous layer having improved purity, since only the portions overlying the openings are exposed to defects and impurities.

  10. Space Grown Insulin Crystals Provide New Data on Diabetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Diabetic patients may someday reduce their insulin injections and lead more normal lives because of new insights gained through irnovative space research in which insulin crystals were grown on the Space Shuttle. Results from a 1994 insulin crystal growth experiment in space are leading to a new understanding of protein insulin. Lack of insulin is the cause of diabetes, a desease that accounts for one-seventh of the nation's health care costs. Dr. Marianna Long, associate director of the Center of Macromolecular Crystallography at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, is a co-investigator on the research. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  11. Space Grown Insulin Crystals Provide New Data on Diabetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Diabetic patients may someday reduce their insulin injections and lead more normal lives because of new insights gained through innovative space research in which insulin crystals were grown on the Space Shuttle. Results from a 1994 insulin crystals growth experiment in space are leading to a new understanding of protein insulin. Lack of insulin is the cause of diabetes, a disease that accounts for one-seventh of the nation's health care costs. Champion Deivanaygam, a researcher at the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography at the University of Alabama in Birmingham, assists in this work. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  12. Trapping cold atoms using surface-grown carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, P. G.; Machluf, S.; Younis, S.; Macaluso, R.; David, T.; Hadad, B.; Japha, Y.; Keil, M.; Joselevich, E.; Folman, R.

    2009-04-01

    We present a feasibility study for loading cold atomic clouds into magnetic traps created by single-wall carbon nanotubes grown directly onto dielectric surfaces. We show that atoms may be captured for experimentally sustainable nanotube currents, generating trapped clouds whose densities and lifetimes are sufficient to enable detection by simple imaging methods. This opens the way for a different type of conductor to be used in atomchips, enabling atom trapping at submicron distances, with implications for both fundamental studies and for technological applications.

  13. Scientists Inspect Plant Grown onboard the ISS in 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Astroculture (tm) unit is growing plants on its second flight on the International Space Station. Dr. Weijia Zhou (left), director of the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, inspects soybeans grown in the plant growth unit aboard ISS in 2002. Coating technology is used inside the miniature plant greenhouse to remove ethylene, a chemical produced by plant leaves that can cause plants to mature too quickly. This same coating technology is used in a new anthrax-killing device. The Space Station experiment is managed by the Space Partnership Development Program at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala.

  14. Antiphase boundaries in epitaxially grown beta-SiC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirouz, P.; Chorey, C. M.; Powell, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    When the surface of beta-SiC, grown epitaxially on (001) silicon by chemical vapor deposition, is chemically etched, boundaries appear which may be observed by optical or scanning electron microscopy. Examination by plan-view and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy shows boundaries in the film which exhibit line or fringe contrast. Convergent beam electron diffraction has been used to show that these boundaries separate domains that are in an antiphase relationship to each other. A model is presented which discusses the formation of these domains from independent nucleation on a stepped substrate surface.

  15. Nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates

    DOEpatents

    Melechko, Anatoli V.; McKnight, Timothy E. , Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2011-05-17

    Methods, manufactures, machines and compositions are described for nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates. A method includes depositing a catalyst particle on a surface of a substrate to define a deterministically located position; growing an aligned elongated nanostructure on the substrate, an end of the aligned elongated nanostructure coupled to the substrate at the deterministically located position; coating the aligned elongated nanostructure with a conduit material; removing a portion of the conduit material to expose the catalyst particle; removing the catalyst particle; and removing the elongated nanostructure to define a nanoconduit.

  16. Origin of residual particles on transferred graphene grown by CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasunishi, Tomohiro; Takabayashi, Yuya; Kishimoto, Shigeru; Kitaura, Ryo; Shinohara, Hisanori; Ohno, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Large-area single-layer graphene can be grown on Cu foil by CVD, but for device applications, the layer must to be transferred onto an insulating substrate. As residual particles are often observed on transferred graphene, we investigated their origin using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). The results show that these residual particles are composed either of silicon or an alloy of a few metals, and hence, likely originate from the quartz tube of the CVD furnace and the impurities contained in the Cu foil.

  17. Atomically flat nickel film grown on synthetic mica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2016-07-01

    We have grown nickel heteroepitaxially on muscovite and synthetic mica in vacuo for use as substrates for scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and graphene formation. We have determined annealing conditions that could generate atomically flat surfaces (with rms surface roughness of less than 1 nm). Owing to accelerated degradation at temperatures above 600 °C, muscovite mica was unsuitable as a substrate at high growth temperatures. Thermally stable synthetic fluorophlogopite mica [KMg3(AlSi3O10)F2], on the other hand, was found to be stable at 800 °C and successfully employed for the formation of atomically flat films.

  18. AC and DC transport currents in melt-grown YBCO

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Z.; Ashworth, S.; Becluz, C.; Scurlock, R.G. )

    1991-03-01

    It has been suggested that the transport J{sub c} in multi-grain samples of bulk YBCO are limited by the intergrain links. This paper reports on preliminary measurements of intergrain currents. The intergrain critical currents in melt grown YBCO do not appear to be as sensitive to the precise crystallographic alignment of adjacent grains a has been reported for thin films. The measured critical current of similar grain boundaries varies widely, between 15000 A/cm{sup 2} and 200A/Cm{sub 2} for adjacent boundaries in the same sample.

  19. Radiation Therapy With or Without Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Who Have Undergone Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-04

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Spindle Cell Variant; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  20. Immunohistochemical and oncogenetic analyses of the esophageal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in comparison with conventional squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Imamhasan, Abdukadir; Mitomi, Hiroyuki; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Takuo; Takahashi, Michiko; Kajiyama, Yoshiaki; Yao, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma. We reviewed 878 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and detected 22 cases (3%) of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. These tumors and stage-matched paired conventional squamous cell carcinomas were investigated for clinicopathologic features and immunoreactivity of cytokeratin subtypes, p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2), β-catenin, and epidermal growth factor receptor. Molecular aberrations in p53, CTNNB1 (the gene encoding β-catenin), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were also determined. Patients with basaloid squamous cell carcinomas demonstrated a 5-year survival rate of 42%, significantly worse than those with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (P<.01). Histologically, solid nests with central necrosis and a cribriform pattern were identified in almost all (≥95%) cases, and ductal differentiation was less frequent (45%) but associated with significantly better survival (P<.05). Compared with conventional squamous cell carcinomas, the basaloid squamous cell carcinomas were less immunoreactive for cytokeratin 14, cytokeratin 903, and membranous β-catenin (P<.01-.001) but more reactive for bcl-2, nuclear β-catenin, epidermal growth factor receptor, and Ki-67 (P<.05-.001). Direct sequencing showed mutations of p53 (36%), EGFR (14%), but not CTNNB1; fluorescent in situ hybridization detected amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (22%). In basaloid squamous cell carcinomas, low-level expression of cytokeratin 14/cytokeratin 903 and mutations of p53 and EGFR had a significant influence on worse survival (P<.05-.001). We conclude that the esophageal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, a neoplasm with particularly aggressive biologic behavior, should be differentiated from conventional squamous cell carcinomas. In this context, immunohistochemical assessment of several markers might provide a useful adjunct diagnostic tool

  1. High-grade endometrial carcinoma: serous and grade 3 endometrioid carcinomas have different immunophenotypes and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alkushi, Abdulmohsen; Köbel, Martin; Kalloger, Steve E; Gilks, C Blake

    2010-07-01

    High-grade endometrial carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors and include grade 3 endometrioid (EC-3), serous (SC), and clear cell carcinomas (CCC). There are conflicting data about the prognosis of these subtypes of high-grade endometrial carcinoma; this may be a result of lack of reproducibility in classifying tumor cell type. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in immunophenotype and outcome in a series of high-grade endometrial carcinomas, focusing on the comparison of EC-3 versus SC. We selected 180 endometrial carcinomas of SC, EC, or CCC type. No mixed carcinomas were included in the study. We chose the following immunohistochemical markers, estrogen receptor (ER), insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3), p16, p53, progesterone receptor (PR), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) as being significantly differentially expressed in endometrial carcinoma subtypes. The tumors were stratified into 4 groups on the basis of their cell type and grade: EC grade 1 or 2, EC-3, SC, and CCC. Univariate survival analysis revealed significant differences in outcome between the 4 groups (P<0.0001), with significantly longer disease-specific survival for grade 1 or 2 EC versus EC-3 (P=0.0001), and EC-3 versus SC (P=0.0003). p16, PTEN, and IMP3 expression was observed more frequently in SC compared with EC-3 (P<0.0001, P=0.021, and P=0.031, respectively). These 3 markers showed the highest sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing between EC-3 and SC, with receiver operating characteristics area under the curve of 0.85, 0.69, and 0.71, respectively. ER and p53 approached but did not reach significance for differential expression in EC-3 versus SC (P=0.055 and P=0.068, respectively). A combination of p16 and PTEN predicts EC-3 versus SC with a sensitivity of 90.0% and specificity of 96.8%. p16 and PTEN can aid in distinguishing between EC-3 and SC of the endometrium, and are superior to ER, PR, and p53 for this purpose. EC-3

  2. 77 FR 24959 - Scientific Information Request on Local Therapies for Unresectable Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Therapies for Unresectable Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and... local, minimally invasive, medical devices for unresectable primary hepatocellular carcinoma (e.g... Comparative Effectiveness Review of Local Therapies for Unresectable Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma,...

  3. Immunotherapy With MK-3475 in Surgically Resectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-18

    Cancer of Head and Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck

  4. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal region is composed of salivary duct carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma components.

    PubMed

    Nakamori, K; Ohuchi, T; Hasegawa, T; Hiratsuka, H

    2009-10-01

    A 73-year-old female presented with an asymptomatic mass in the left buccal region that she had first noticed 4 years earlier. The tumor, which was located in the buccal space, was clinically diagnosed as a salivary gland tumor and treated by excision. Histopathological examination revealed a capsule of connective tissue consisting of three different histopathological neoplastic areas in a large, fibrous, hyalinizing stromal background. The neoplastic lesion contained two malignant and one benign element, with histological characteristics consistent with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) and pleomorphic adenoma (PA). The SCC nests showed no continuity with the buccal mucosa. Both the SCC and SDC nests were surrounded by non-atypical myoepithelial cells, suggesting that both components may have developed from transformation of metaplastic luminal epithelial cells of PA. The tumor was diagnosed as a non-invasive carcinoma (SCC and SDC) ex pleomorphic adenoma (Ca-ex-PA). There was no evidence of recurrence 16 months after operation.

  5. Protein content and enzyme activities in methanol- and acetate-grown Methanosarcina thermophila.

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, P E; DiMarco, A A; Bobik, T A; Cabell, M C; Ferry, J G

    1990-01-01

    The cell extract protein content of acetate- and methanol-grown Methanosarcina thermophila TM-1 was examined by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. More than 100 mutually exclusive spots were present in acetate- and methanol-grown cells. Spots corresponding to acetate kinase, phosphotransacetylase, and the five subunits of the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complex were identified in acetate-grown cells. Activities of formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase, formylmethanofuran:tetrahydromethanopterin formyltransferase, 5,10-methenyltetrahydromethanopterin cyclohydrolase, methylene tetrahydromethanopterin:coenzyme F420 oxidoreductase, formate dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase were examined in acetate- and methanol-grown Methanosarcina thermophila. Levels of formyltransferase in either acetate- or methanol-grown Methanosarcina thermophila were approximately half the levels detected in H2-CO2-grown Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. All other enzyme activities were significantly lower in acetate- and methanol-grown Methanosarcina thermophila. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:2307649

  6. The roles of tumor- and metastasis-promoting carcinoma-associated fibroblasts in human carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Mezawa, Yoshihiro; Orimo, Akira

    2016-09-01

    Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) constitute a substantial proportion of the non-neoplastic mesenchymal cell compartment in various human tumors. These fibroblasts are phenotypically converted from their progenitors via interactions with nearby cancer cells during the course of tumor progression. The resulting CAFs, in turn, support the growth and progression of carcinoma cells. These fibroblasts have a major influence on the hallmarks of carcinoma and promote tumor malignancy through the secretion of tumor-promoting growth factors, cytokines and exosomes, as well as through the remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Coevolution of CAFs and carcinoma cells during tumorigenesis is therefore essential for progression into fully malignant tumors. Recent studies have revealed the molecular mechanisms underlying CAF functions, especially in tumor invasion, metastasis and drug resistance and have highlighted the significant heterogeneity among these cells. In this review, we summarize the impacts of recently identified roles of tumor-promoting CAFs and discuss the therapeutic implications of targeting the heterotypic interactions of these fibroblasts with carcinoma cells. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27506216

  7. Mandibular Destruction Secondary to Invasion by Carcinoma Cuniculatum.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Michael C; Wong, Brian; O'Brien, Michael J; Salama, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Carcinoma cuniculatum is a rare form of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma that is often misdiagnosed. It has a propensity for local invasion and rarely metastasizes. Oral carcinoma cuniculatum is exceedingly rare, with very few reported cases in the English-language literature. Classically, its presentation mimics osteomyelitis or a dental abscess, resulting in misdiagnosis, multiple biopsy examinations, and procedures before a final diagnosis of carcinoma cuniculatum. This case report describes the case of a 71-year-old woman who was referred to the authors' clinic for evaluation of persistent pain and swelling of the mandible. Multiple biopsy examinations were negative for malignancy, and the patient was misdiagnosed with osteomyelitis and dental abscess before obtaining an accurate diagnosis of carcinoma cuniculatum. The aim of this report is to provide a thorough clinical and histopathologic report of carcinoma cuniculatum of the mandible, provide a brief review of the literature, and highlight the difficulties in arriving at this uncommon diagnosis.

  8. Clinical, epidemiological and histopathological prognostic factors in oral squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dragomir, L P; Simionescu, Cristiana; Dăguci, Luminiţa; Searpe, Monica; Dragomir, Manuela

    2010-10-01

    The study that was carried out was comprised of 117 cases of oral squamous carcinomas, selected in two years interval, between 2007-2008. The tumors were diagnosed especially at patients between the ages of 50 and 79 years, 96,6% being over 40 years old. It came out a clear predominance of the male sex in approximatively 90% of the cases. The main localisation was the lower lip and the tongue ( 67,5% ), in approximatively equal proportions ( 35% and 32,5% ). The histopathologically analisys releaved that 37,6% were well differentiated squamous carcinomas, 27,4% were moderately differentiated squamous carcinomas and 35% were poorly differentiated squamous carcinomas. Out of these 3,3% were microcarcinomas, 91,9% were non-metastatic invasive carcinomas and 4,8% were invasive carcinomas with metastatic adenopathy. PMID:24778830

  9. Carcinoma of the Breast With Medullary-like Features

    PubMed Central

    Kleer, Celina G.

    2016-01-01

    This case presentation reviews the histologic distinction between pure medullary carcinoma and breast carcinomas with medullary-like features. This particular case prompts us to analyze the relationship among medullary carcinoma, basal-like breast carcinomas and carcinomas associated with germline BRCA1 mutations. In addition to now well-defined features, such as expression of high-molecular-weight cytokeratins and EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), basal-like tumors have a deficiency or dysfunction of BRCA1. This association in part explains the histologic features of BRCA1-associated breast cancers. Recent studies in our laboratory demonstrate that BRCA1 protein is regulated by a recently described gene, EZH2. These concepts illustrate the important relationships among histopathologic features; genomic profile; single gene abnormalities, such as BRCA1 and EZH2; and growth regulation in this subset of breast carcinomas. PMID:19886718

  10. Clinical, Epidemiological And Histopathological Prognostic Factors In Oral Squamous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dragomir, L.P.; Simionescu, Cristiana; Dăguci, Luminiţa; Şearpe, Monica; Dragomir, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    The study that was carried out was comprised of 117 cases of oral squamous carcinomas, selected in two years interval, between 2007-2008. The tumors were diagnosed especially at patients between the ages of 50 and 79 years, 96,6% being over 40 years old. It came out a clear predominance of the male sex in approximatively 90% of the cases. The main localisation was the lower lip and the tongue ( 67,5% ), in approximatively equal proportions ( 35% and 32,5% ). The histopathologically analisys releaved that 37,6% were well differentiated squamous carcinomas, 27,4% were moderately differentiated squamous carcinomas and 35% were poorly differentiated squamous carcinomas. Out of these 3,3% were microcarcinomas, 91,9% were non-metastatic invasive carcinomas and 4,8% were invasive carcinomas with metastatic adenopathy. PMID:24778830

  11. Medullary carcinoma of the breast: a tumour lacking keratin 19.

    PubMed

    Larsimont, D; Lespagnard, L; Degeyter, M; Heimann, R

    1994-06-01

    The presence of keratin 19 (K19) was searched for by immunostaining in 16 medullary carcinomas, comprising 12 typical and four atypical cases, in 29 undifferentiated high-grade carcinomas (NOS-HG) with conspicuous lymphoid response and in 12 well differentiated low-grade carcinomas (NOS-LG). The medullary carcinomas were all negative whereas 23 of the high-grade and all 12 low-grade carcinomas expressed K19. Staining for K19 could be of value in the differential diagnosis of these tumours. Furthermore, these findings, with other observations, raise the possibility that medullary carcinoma cells could be linked to precursor cells of the terminal duct lobular units because both populations share several characteristics. PMID:7520414

  12. Safety and Tolerability of Everolimus as Second-line Treatment in Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma / Neuroendocrine Carcinoma G3 (WHO 2010) and Neuroendocrine Tumor G3 - an Investigator Initiated Phase II Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-18

    Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma,; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 1 [Well-differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 2 [Moderately Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Tumor, Grade 3 and Disease Progression as Measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1.)

  13. Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland consisting of high-grade salivary duct carcinoma and keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Magaki, Shino D; Bhuta, Sunita; Abemayor, Elliot; Nabili, Vishad; Sepahdari, Ali R; Lai, Chi K

    2015-09-01

    Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is a rare salivary gland malignancy that presents diagnostic difficulties partly because of its wide range of histologic presentations. We report a case of a 77-year-old man, who presented with a 6-year history of a parotid mass that had undergone rapid growth within weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an infiltrative mass in the parotid gland, and the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy result was highly suspicious for carcinoma. Subsequent excision of the tumor demonstrated a poorly differentiated epithelial neoplasm consisting of keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma with regions of both ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive salivary duct carcinoma (SDC). Only focal areas exhibited a benign pleomorphic adenoma component. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a CXPA that consists of both a high-grade SDC and a keratinizing SCC in the parotid gland.

  14. Pulmonar collision tumor: metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Blanco, M; García-Fontán, E; Ríos, J; Rivo, J E; Fernández-Martín, R; Cañizares, M A

    2012-01-01

    We report an extraordinary case of collision tumor consisting of a lung adenocarcinoma and a metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma in a 56 year-old man. He was diagnosed with a pulmonary nodule 11 years after treatment of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right maxillary sinus. A non-small cell carcinoma was observed when a transbronchial biopsy was performed. The other component of the nodule was only diagnosed with pathological examination of the resection specimen. PMID:21802893

  15. Pulmonar collision tumor: metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Blanco, M; García-Fontán, E; Ríos, J; Rivo, J E; Fernández-Martín, R; Cañizares, M A

    2012-01-01

    We report an extraordinary case of collision tumor consisting of a lung adenocarcinoma and a metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma in a 56 year-old man. He was diagnosed with a pulmonary nodule 11 years after treatment of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right maxillary sinus. A non-small cell carcinoma was observed when a transbronchial biopsy was performed. The other component of the nodule was only diagnosed with pathological examination of the resection specimen.

  16. Aggressive Metaplastic Carcinoma of the Breast with Osteoclastic Giant Cells.

    PubMed

    Khong, Kathleen; Zhang, Yanhong; Tomic, Mary; Lindfors, Karen; Aminololama-Shakeri, Shadi

    2015-09-01

    Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast is an uncommon type of malignancy that is aggressive but can mimic other benign breast neoplastic processes on imaging. We present a case of a young female patient who presented with a rapidly progressing metaplastic carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells subtype. There have been only very rare published reports of this pathologic subtype of metaplastic carcinoma containing osteoclastic giant cells.

  17. Aggressive Metaplastic Carcinoma of the Breast with Osteoclastic Giant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Khong, Kathleen; Zhang, Yanhong; Tomic, Mary; Lindfors, Karen; Aminololama-Shakeri, Shadi

    2015-01-01

    Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast is an uncommon type of malignancy that is aggressive but can mimic other benign breast neoplastic processes on imaging. We present a case of a young female patient who presented with a rapidly progressing metaplastic carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells subtype. There have been only very rare published reports of this pathologic subtype of metaplastic carcinoma containing osteoclastic giant cells. PMID:26629304

  18. Rapid onset of cutaneous angiosarcoma after radiotherapy for breast carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Otis, C.N.; Peschel, R.; McKhann, C.; Merino, M.J.; Duray, P.H.

    1986-06-01

    Malignant neoplasms known to develop following external beam radiation include squamous cell carcinoma, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, mixed mullerian tumors, malignant schwannoma, myelogenous leukemia and angiosarcoma. Latency periods of many years characterize the onset of these tumors following the exposure. Cutaneous angiosarcoma following radiotherapy for breast carcinoma has been rarely documented, occurring up to 13 years postirradiation. Two cases of this entity are reported occurring 37 months postradiotherapy at the site of mastectomy performed for mammary duct carcinoma.

  19. Primary hyperparathyroidism secondary to simultaneous bilateral parathyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jimmy J; Mohamed, Hezla; Williams-Smith, Lorraine; Osborne, Ryan; Coker, Joan; Yee, Brian

    2002-06-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare malignancy, and experience with its management is limited. It is generally accepted that surgery is the treatment of choice, and the initial operative intervention might represent the only chance for long-term success. At the time of surgery, a high index of suspicion for carcinoma is vital to performing the appropriate surgical procedures, because frozen-section diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma is notoriously unreliable. In this article, we describe our experience with this rare entity.

  20. Characterization of cellulolytic bacterial cultures grown in different substrates.

    PubMed

    Alshelmani, Mohamed Idris; Loh, Teck Chwen; Foo, Hooi Ling; Lau, Wei Hong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2013-01-01

    Nine aerobic cellulolytic bacterial cultures were obtained from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The objectives of this study were to characterize the cellulolytic bacteria and to determine the optimum moisture ratio required for solid state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC). The bacteria cultures were grown on reconstituted nutrient broth, incubated at 30°C and agitated at 200 rpm. Carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, and mannanase activities were determined using different substrates and after SSF of PKC. The SSF was conducted for 4 and 7 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w) on different PKC concentration-to-moisture ratios: 1 : 0.2, 1 : 0.3, 1 : 0.4, and 1 : 0.5. Results showed that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1067 DSMZ, Bacillus megaterium 9885 ATCC, Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus 10248 DSMZ, and Paenibacillus polymyxa 842 ATCC produced higher enzyme activities as compared to other bacterial cultures grown on different substrates. The cultures mentioned above also produced higher enzyme activities when they were incubated under SSF using PKC as a substrate in different PKC-to-moisture ratios after 4 days of incubation, indicating that these cellulolytic bacteria can be used to degrade and improve the nutrient quality of PKC.

  1. Crystal chemistry of hydrothermally grown ternary alkali rare earth fluorides.

    PubMed

    McMillen, Colin D; Comer, Sara; Fulle, Kyle; Sanjeewa, Liurukara D; Kolis, Joseph W

    2015-12-01

    The structural variations of several alkali metal rare earth fluoride single crystals are summarized. Two different stoichiometric formulations are considered, namely those of ARE2F7 and ARE3F10 (A = K, Rb, Cs; RE = Y, La-Lu), over a wide range of ionic radii of both the alkali and rare earth (RE) ions. Previously reported and several new single-crystal structures are considered. The new single crystals are grown using hydrothermal methods and the structures are compared with literature reports of structures grown from both melts and hydrothermal fluids. The data reported here are combined with the literature data to gain a greater understanding of structural subtleties surrounding these systems. The work underscores the importance of the size of the cations to the observed structure type and also introduces synthetic technique as a contributor to the same. New insights based on single-crystal structure analysis in the work introduce a new disordered structure type in the case of ARE2F7, and examine the trends and boundaries of the ARE3F10 stoichiometry. Such fundamental structural information is useful in understanding the potential applications of these compounds as optical materials. PMID:26634734

  2. Root exudation of phytosiderophores from soil-grown wheat

    PubMed Central

    Oburger, Eva; Gruber, Barbara; Schindlegger, Yvonne; Schenkeveld, Walter D C; Hann, Stephan; Kraemer, Stephan M; Wenzel, Walter W; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, phytosiderophore (PS) release of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Tamaro) grown on a calcareous soil was repeatedly and nondestructively sampled using rhizoboxes combined with a recently developed root exudate collecting tool. As in nutrient solution culture, we observed a distinct diurnal release rhythm; however, the measured PS efflux was c. 50 times lower than PS exudation from the same cultivar grown in zero iron (Fe)-hydroponic culture. Phytosiderophore rhizosphere soil solution concentrations and PS release of the Tamaro cultivar were soil-dependent, suggesting complex interactions of soil characteristics (salinity, trace metal availability) and the physiological status of the plant and the related regulation (amount and timing) of PS release. Our results demonstrate that carbon and energy investment into Fe acquisition under natural growth conditions is significantly smaller than previously derived from zero Fe-hydroponic studies. Based on experimental data, we calculated that during the investigated period (21–47 d after germination), PS release initially exceeded Fe plant uptake 10-fold, but significantly declined after c. 5 wk after germination. Phytosiderophore exudation observed under natural growth conditions is a prerequisite for a more accurate and realistic assessment of Fe mobilization processes in the rhizosphere using both experimental and modeling approaches. PMID:24890330

  3. InSb thin films grown by electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Joginder Rajaram, P.

    2014-04-24

    We have grown InSb thin films on Cu substrates using the electrodeposition technique. The electrochemical bath from which the InSb thin films were grown was made up of a mixture of aqueous solutions of 0.05 M InCl{sub 3} and 0.03M SbCl{sub 3}, 0 .20M citric acid and 0.30M sodium citrate. Citric acid and sodium citrate were used as complexing agents to bring the reduction potential of In and Sb closer to maintain binary growth. The electrodeposited films were characterized by structural, morphological and optical studies. X-ray diffraction studies show that the films are polycrystalline InSb having the zinc blende structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies reveal that the surface of the films is uniformly covered with submicron sized spherical particles. FTIR spectra of InSb thin films show a sharp absorption peak at wave number 1022 cm{sup −1} corresponding to the band gap. Hot probe analysis shows that the InSb thin films have p type conductivity.

  4. Orthodox etching of HVPE-grown GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Weyher, J.L.; Lazar, S.; Macht, L.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Molnar,R.J.; Muller, S.; Nowak, G.; Grzegory, I.

    2006-08-10

    Orthodox etching of HVPE-grown GaN in molten eutectic of KOH + NaOH (E etch) and in hot sulfuric and phosphoric acids (HH etch) is discussed in detail. Three size grades of pits are formed by the preferential E etching at the outcrops of threading dislocations on the Ga-polar surface of GaN. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as the calibration tool it is shown that the largest pits are formed on screw, intermediate on mixed and the smallest on edge dislocations. This sequence of size does not follow the sequence of the Burgers values (and thus the magnitude of the elastic energy) of corresponding dislocations. This discrepancy is explained taking into account the effect of decoration of dislocations, the degree of which is expected to be different depending on the lattice deformation around the dislocations, i.e. on the edge component of the Burgers vector. It is argued that the large scatter of optimal etching temperatures required for revealing all three types of dislocations in HVPE-grown samples from different sources also depends upon the energetic status of dislocations. The role of kinetics for reliability of etching in both etches is discussed and the way of optimization of the etching parameters is shown.

  5. Chirality of electrodeposits grown in a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Mhíocháin, T R Ní; Coey, J M D

    2004-06-01

    Electrodeposits grown around a point cathode in a flat, horizontal electrochemical cell have fractal form. When grown in the presence of a perpendicular applied magnetic field, the deposits develop a spiral structure with chirality which reverses on switching the field direction. These structures are modeled numerically using biased variants of the diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) model. The effects of electric and magnetic fields are modeled successfully by varying the probabilities that a random walker will move in a given direction as a result of a Coulomb force and the Lorentz force-induced flow of electrolyte past the deposit surface. By contrast, a numerical model which considers only the effect of the Lorentz force on individual ions, without reference to the surface of the growing deposit, produces spiral structures with incorrect chirality. The modified DLA model is related to the differential equations for diffusion, migration, and convection. Length scales in the problem are understood by associating the step length of the random walker with the diffusion layer thickness, the lookup radius with the hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness and a point on the numerical deposit with a nucleation center for growth of a crystallite. PMID:15244565

  6. 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone in field-grown onion.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2013-01-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the impact of soil amendments on concentrations of two volatile organic compounds, 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone, in onion bulbs. The soil in five plots was mixed with sewage sludge, five plots were mixed with yard waste compost, five plots were mixed with laying hen manure each at 15 t acre(-1), and five unamended plots that never received soil amendments were used for comparison purposes. Plots (n = 20) were planted with onion, Allium cepa L. var. Super Star-F1 bulbs. Gas chromatographic/mass spetrometric (GC/MS) analyses of mature onion bulbs crude extracts revealed the presence of two major fragment ions that correspond to 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone. Soil amended with yard waste compost enhanced 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone production by 31 and 59%, respectively. Soil amended with chicken manure enhanced 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone production by 28 and 43%, respectively. Concentrations of 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone were lowest in onion bulbs of plants grown in sewage sludge and unamended soil, respectively. The increased concentrations of 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone in onion bulbs may provide a protective character against insect and spider mite attack in field grown onions.

  7. Chemical and microstructural characterization of thermally grown alumina scales

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Richier, C.; Veal, B.W.

    1995-09-01

    An experimental program has been initiated to evaluate the chemical, microstructural, and mechanical integrity of thermally grown oxide scales to establish requirements for improved corrosion performance in terms of composition, structure, and properties. Iron aluminides of several compositions were selected for the study. Oxidation studies were conducted in air and oxygen environments at 1000{degrees}C. The results showed that the scaling kinetics followed a parabolic rate law but that the rates in early stages of oxidation were significantly greater than in later stages; the difference could be attributed to the presence of fast-growing transient iron oxides in the layer during the early stages. Further, scale failure occurred via gross spallation, scale cracking, and nodule formation and was influenced by alloy composition. Auger electron spectroscopy of Ar-exposed specimens of ternary Fe-Cr-Al alloy showed sulfur on the gas/scale side of the interface; the sulfur decreased as the exposure time increased. Raman spectroscopy and ruby fluorescence were used to examine the scale development as a function of oxidation temperature. Ruby-line shift is used to examine phase transformations in alumina and to calculate compressive strains in thermally grown scales.

  8. Heat Capacity Study of Solution Grown Crystals of Isotactic Polystyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Xu,H.; Cebe, P.

    2005-01-01

    We have performed measurements of the specific heat capacity on isotactic polystyrene (iPS) crystals grown from dilute solution. Solution grown crystal (SGC) samples had larger crystal fractions and greatly reduced rigid amorphous fractions compared to their bulk cold-crystallized counterparts. Heat capacity studies were performed from below the glass transition temperature to above the melting temperature by using quasi-isothermal temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) and standard DSC. Two or three endotherms are observed, which represent the melting of crystals. The small rigid amorphous fraction relaxes in a wide temperature range from just above the glass transition temperature to just below the first crystal melting endotherm. As in bulk iPS, 1 multiple reversing melting was found in iPS SGCs, supporting the view that double melting in iPS may be due to dual thermal stability distribution existing along one single lamella.2 The impact of reorganization and annealing on the melt endotherms was also investigated. Annealing occurs as a result of the very slow effective heating rate of the quasi-isothermal measurements compared to standard DSC. The improvement of crystal perfection through annealing causes the reversing melting endotherms to occur at a temperature higher than the endotherms seen in the standard DSC scan.

  9. GaAsP Nanowires Grown by Aerotaxy.

    PubMed

    Metaferia, Wondwosen; Persson, Axel R; Mergenthaler, Kilian; Yang, Fangfang; Zhang, Wei; Yartsev, Arkady; Wallenberg, Reine; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Deppert, Knut; Samuelson, Lars; Magnusson, Martin H

    2016-09-14

    We have grown GaAsP nanowires with high optical and structural quality by Aerotaxy, a new continuous gas phase mass production process to grow III-V semiconductor based nanowires. By varying the PH3/AsH3 ratio and growth temperature, size selected GaAs1-xPx nanowires (80 nm diameter) with pure zinc-blende structure and with direct band gap energies ranging from 1.42 to 1.90 eV (at 300 K), (i.e., 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.43) were grown, which is the energy range needed for creating tandem III-V solar cells on silicon. The phosphorus content in the NWs is shown to be controlled by both growth temperature and input gas phase ratio. The distribution of P in the wires is uniform over the length of the wires and among the wires. This proves the feasibility of growing GaAsP nanowires by Aerotaxy and results indicate that it is a generic process that can be applied to the growth of other III-V semiconductor based ternary nanowires.

  10. Magnesium diffusion profile in GaN grown by MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzarti, Z.; Halidou, I.; Bougrioua, Z.; Boufaden, T.; El Jani, B.

    2008-07-01

    The diffusion of magnesium has been studied in GaN layers grown on sapphire substrate by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor-phase-epitaxy (MOVPE) in a "home-made" reactor. Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to visualise the Mg profiles in two kinds of multi-sublayer GaN structures. One structure was grown with a variable flow of Ga precursor (TMG) and the second one with a variable growth temperature. In both cases, the Mg dopant precursor (Cp 2Mg) flow was kept constant. Using the second Fick's law to fit the experimental SIMS data, we have deduced an increasing then a saturating Mg diffusion coefficient versus the Mg concentration. Mg incorporation was found to get higher for lower growth rate, i.e. when TMG flow is reduced. Furthermore, based on the temperature-related behaviour we have found that the activation energy for Mg diffusion coefficient in GaN was 1.9 eV. It is suggested that Mg diffuses via substitutional sites.

  11. Mechanoresponses of human primary osteoblasts grown on carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Kroustalli, A; Kotsikoris, V; Karamitri, A; Topouzis, S; Deligianni, D

    2015-03-01

    Bone mechanotransduction is strongly influenced by the biomaterial properties. A good understanding of these mechanosensory mechanisms in bone has the potential to provide new strategies in the highly evolving field of bone tissue engineering. The aim of the present investigation was to study the interactive effects of local mechanical stimuli on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/osteoblast interface, using an in vitro model that allows the study of cell growth, attachment and differentiation. Strain was applied at physiological levels [strain magnitudes 500 microstrain (μɛ), at frequency of load application 0.5 Hz]. The effect of mechanical strain and substrate was thus studied by measuring the messenger RNA expression of alkaline phosphatase, vinculin, collagen 1A, and integrins β1, β3, α4, and αv, using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The osteoblasts grown on MWCNTs displayed quick adaptation to the new environment by modulating the expression of key adhesion integrins. Furthermore, the addition of mechanical strain interplayed with the extracellular matrix and was efficiently transduced by cells grown on MWCNTs, providing stronger adhesion and survival. MWCNTs are therefore a material perfectly compatible with osteoblast differentiation, adhesion, and growth, and should be further evaluated, to derive new-generation biomaterial scaffolds for the treatment of skeletal defects which require bone reconstruction.

  12. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour.

    PubMed

    Alves, Ariana Vieira; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Linzmeier, Adelita Maria; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd) is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83%) and lipid (40.45%), with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%), antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae) and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae.

  13. Crystal chemistry of hydrothermally grown ternary alkali rare earth fluorides.

    PubMed

    McMillen, Colin D; Comer, Sara; Fulle, Kyle; Sanjeewa, Liurukara D; Kolis, Joseph W

    2015-12-01

    The structural variations of several alkali metal rare earth fluoride single crystals are summarized. Two different stoichiometric formulations are considered, namely those of ARE2F7 and ARE3F10 (A = K, Rb, Cs; RE = Y, La-Lu), over a wide range of ionic radii of both the alkali and rare earth (RE) ions. Previously reported and several new single-crystal structures are considered. The new single crystals are grown using hydrothermal methods and the structures are compared with literature reports of structures grown from both melts and hydrothermal fluids. The data reported here are combined with the literature data to gain a greater understanding of structural subtleties surrounding these systems. The work underscores the importance of the size of the cations to the observed structure type and also introduces synthetic technique as a contributor to the same. New insights based on single-crystal structure analysis in the work introduce a new disordered structure type in the case of ARE2F7, and examine the trends and boundaries of the ARE3F10 stoichiometry. Such fundamental structural information is useful in understanding the potential applications of these compounds as optical materials.

  14. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Ariana Vieira; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Linzmeier, Adelita Maria; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd) is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83%) and lipid (40.45%), with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%), antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae) and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae. PMID:26974840

  15. GaAsP Nanowires Grown by Aerotaxy.

    PubMed

    Metaferia, Wondwosen; Persson, Axel R; Mergenthaler, Kilian; Yang, Fangfang; Zhang, Wei; Yartsev, Arkady; Wallenberg, Reine; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Deppert, Knut; Samuelson, Lars; Magnusson, Martin H

    2016-09-14

    We have grown GaAsP nanowires with high optical and structural quality by Aerotaxy, a new continuous gas phase mass production process to grow III-V semiconductor based nanowires. By varying the PH3/AsH3 ratio and growth temperature, size selected GaAs1-xPx nanowires (80 nm diameter) with pure zinc-blende structure and with direct band gap energies ranging from 1.42 to 1.90 eV (at 300 K), (i.e., 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.43) were grown, which is the energy range needed for creating tandem III-V solar cells on silicon. The phosphorus content in the NWs is shown to be controlled by both growth temperature and input gas phase ratio. The distribution of P in the wires is uniform over the length of the wires and among the wires. This proves the feasibility of growing GaAsP nanowires by Aerotaxy and results indicate that it is a generic process that can be applied to the growth of other III-V semiconductor based ternary nanowires. PMID:27564139

  16. Gene expression from plants grown on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stimpson, Alexander; Pereira, Rhea; Kiss, John Z.; Correll, Melanie

    Three experiments were performed on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2006 as part of the TROPI experiments. These experiments were performed to study graviTROPIsm and photoTROPIsm responses of Arabidopsis in microgravity (µg). Seedlings were grown with a variety of light and gravitational treatments for approximately five days. The frozen samples were returned to Earth during three space shuttle missions in 2007 and stored at -80° C. Due to the limited amount of plant biomass returned, new protocols were developed to minimize the amount of material needed for RNA extraction as a preparation for microarray analysis. Using these new protocols, RNA was extracted from several sets of seedlings grown in red light followed by blue light with one sample from 1.0g treatment and the other at µg. Using a 2-fold change criterion, microarray (Affymetrix, GeneChip) results showed that 613 genes were upregulated in the µg sample while 757 genes were downregulated. Upregulated genes in response to µg included transcription factors from the WRKY (15 genes), MYB (3) and ZF (8) families as well as those that are involved in auxin responses (10). Downregulated genes also included transcription factors such as MYB (5) and Zinc finger (10) but interestingly only two WRKY family genes were down-regulated during the µg treatment. Studies are underway to compare these results with other samples to identify the genes involved in the gravity and light signal transduction pathways (this project is Supported By: NASA NCC2-1200).

  17. InSb thin films grown by electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Joginder; Rajaram, P.

    2014-04-01

    We have grown InSb thin films on Cu substrates using the electrodeposition technique. The electrochemical bath from which the InSb thin films were grown was made up of a mixture of aqueous solutions of 0.05 M InCl3 and 0.03M SbCl3, 0 .20M citric acid and 0.30M sodium citrate. Citric acid and sodium citrate were used as complexing agents to bring the reduction potential of In and Sb closer to maintain binary growth. The electrodeposited films were characterized by structural, morphological and optical studies. X-ray diffraction studies show that the films are polycrystalline InSb having the zinc blende structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies reveal that the surface of the films is uniformly covered with submicron sized spherical particles. FTIR spectra of InSb thin films show a sharp absorption peak at wave number 1022 cm-1 corresponding to the band gap. Hot probe analysis shows that the InSb thin films have p type conductivity.

  18. InAsP quantum dot lasers grown by MOVPE.

    PubMed

    Karomi, Ivan; Smowton, Peter M; Shutts, Samuel; Krysa, Andrey B; Beanland, Richard

    2015-10-19

    We report on InAsP quantum dot lasers grown by MOVPE for 730-780 nm wavelength emission and compare performance with InP dot samples grown under similar conditions and with similar structures. 1-4 mm long, uncoated facet InAsP dot lasers emit between 760 and 775 nm and 2 mm long lasers with uncoated facets have threshold current density of 260 Acm(-2), compared with 150 Acm(-2) for InP quantum dot samples, which emit at shorter wavelengths, 715-725 nm. Pulsed lasing is demonstrated for InAsP dots up to 380 K with up to 200 mW output power. Measured absorption spectra indicate the addition of Arsenic to the dots has shifted the available transitions to longer wavelengths but also results in a much larger degree of spectral broadening. These spectra and transmission electron microscopy images indicate that the InAsP dots have a much larger degree of inhomogeneous broadening due to dot size variation, both from layer to layer and within a layer.

  19. Biodiesel production from indigenous microalgae grown in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Komolafe, Oladapo; Velasquez Orta, Sharon B; Monje-Ramirez, Ignacio; Yáñez Noguez, Isaura; Harvey, Adam P; Orta Ledesma, María T

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a process for producing biodiesel sustainably from microalgae grown in wastewater, whilst significantly reducing the wastewater's nutrients and total coliform. Furthermore, ozone-flotation harvesting of the resultant biomass was investigated, shown to be viable, and resulted in FAMEs of greater oxidation stability. Desmodesmus sp. and two mixed cultures were successfully grown on wastewater. Desmodesmus sp. grew rapidly, to a higher maximum biomass concentration of 0.58 g/L. A native mixed culture dominated by Oscillatoria and Arthrospira, reached 0.45 g/L and exhibited the highest lipid and FAME yield. The FAME obtained from ozone-flotation exhibited the greatest oxidative stability, as the degree of saturation was high. In principle ozone could therefore be used as a combined method of harvesting and reducing FAME unsaturation. During microalgae treatment, the total nitrogen in wastewater was reduced by 55.4-83.9%. More importantly, total coliform removal was as high as 99.8%. PMID:24412481

  20. Quality characteristics of the radish grown under reduced atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Lanfang H.; Bisbee, Patricia A.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Birmele, Michele N.; Prior, Ronald L.; Perchonok, Michele; Dixon, Mike; Yorio, Neil C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    This study addresses whether reduced atmospheric pressure (hypobaria) affects the quality traits of radish grown under such environments. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb Hybrid II) plants were grown hydroponically in specially designed hypobaric plant growth chambers at three atmospheric pressures; 33, 66, and 96 kPa (control). Oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained constant at 21 and 0.12 kPa, respectively. Plants were harvested at 21 days after planting, with aerial shoots and swollen hypocotyls (edible portion of the radish referred to as the “root” hereafter) separated immediately upon removal from the chambers. Samples were subsequently evaluated for their sensory characteristics (color, taste, overall appearance, and texture), taste-determining factors (glucosinolate and soluble carbohydrate content and myrosinase activity), proximate nutrients (protein, dietary fiber, and carbohydrate) and potential health benefit attributes (antioxidant capacity). In roots of control plants, concentrations of glucosinolate, total soluble sugar, and nitrate, as well as myrosinase activity and total antioxidant capacity (measured as ORACFL), were 2.9, 20, 5.1, 9.4, and 1.9 times greater than the amount in leaves, respectively. There was no significant difference in total antioxidant capacity, sensory characteristics, carbohydrate composition, or proximate nutrient content among the three pressure treatments. However, glucosinolate content in the root and nitrate concentration in the leaf declined as the atmospheric pressure decreased, suggesting perturbation to some nitrogen-related metabolism.