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Sample records for cardiac adrenergic innervation

  1. Scintigraphic assessment of regional cardiac adrenergic innervation

    SciTech Connect

    Dae, M.W.; O'Connell, J.W.; Botvinick, E.H.; Ahearn, T.; Yee, E.; Huberty, J.P.; Mori, H.; Chin, M.C.; Hattner, R.S.; Herre, J.M.

    1989-03-01

    To assess the feasibility of noninvasively imaging the regional distribution of myocardial sympathetic innervation, we evaluated the distribution of sympathetic nerve endings, using 123I metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), and compared this with the distribution of myocardial perfusion, using 201Tl. Twenty dogs were studied: 11 after regional denervation, and nine as controls. Regional denervation was done by left stellate ganglion removal, right stellate ganglion removal, and application of phenol to the epicardial surface. Computer-processed functional maps displayed the relative distribution of MIBG and thallium in multiple projections in vivo and excised heart slices in all animals. In six animals, dual isotope emission computed tomograms were acquired in vivo. Tissue samples taken from innervated and denervated regions of the MIBG images were analyzed for norepinephrine content to validate image findings. Normal controls showed homogeneous and parallel distributions of MIBG and thallium in the major left ventricular mass. In the left stellectomized hearts, MIBG was reduced relative to thallium in the posterior left ventricle; whereas in right stellectomized hearts, reduced MIBG was in the anterior left ventricle. Phenol-painted hearts showed a broad area of decreased MIBG extending beyond the area of phenol application. In both stellectomized and phenol-painted hearts, thallium distribution remained homogeneous and normal. Norepinephrine content was greater in regions showing normal MIBG (550 +/- 223 ng/g) compared with regions showing reduced MIBG (39 +/- 44 ng/g) (p less than 0.001), confirming regional denervation. Combined MIBG-thallium functional maps display the regional distribution of sympathetic innervation.

  2. Scintigraphic assessment of cardiac adrenergic innervation in patients with essential hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Y.; Hamada, M.; Shigematsu, Y.; Sumimoto, T.; Hamamoto, K.; Hiwada, K. )

    1991-01-01

    To assess the regional cardiac adrenergic innervation in patients with essential hypertension (EHT), simultaneous iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123I)MIBG) and thallium-201 (201Tl) myocardial imagings were performed in five patients with EHT, seven patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and seven normal subjects. Short axial images at rest were divided into five segments: anterior, septal, posterior, lateral, and apical segments. Percent regional uptake (%RU) of 201Tl except the septal segment in patients with EHT showed no significant difference. However, the %RU of (123I)MIBG at posterior, lateral, and apical segments was significantly lower than that at anterior and septal segments in EHT. This intraimage heterogeneity of (123I)MIBG was also observed in HCM. These results suggest that there is a difference in regional adrenergic innervation of the left ventricle with myocardial hypertrophy.

  3. [Development of the adrenergic innervation of the atrioventricular valves of certain vertebrates].

    PubMed

    Strinskaia, L A; Leont'eva, G R; Avakian, O M; Govyrin, V A

    1980-01-01

    Adrenergic innervation of the atrioventricular valves in the carp Cyprinus carpo, frog Rana temporaria, tortoise Emys orbicularis, hens and albino rats has been investigated by histochemical glyoxylic technique. It was shown that the adrenergic innervation of cardiac valves becomes more intense and more complex during progressive evolution of cardio-vascular activity. Adrenergic nerves realize the connection between annullus fibrosus, valve, chordal tendineal and papillary muscles. Chromaffin cells of the valve serve as an additional store of catecholamines. A possibility cannot be excluded that these cells supply with biogenic amines the papillary muscles regulating their activity.

  4. Autonomic cardiac innervation: development and adult plasticity.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Wohaib

    2013-01-01

    Autonomic cardiac neurons have a common origin in the neural crest but undergo distinct developmental differentiation as they mature toward their adult phenotype. Progenitor cells respond to repulsive cues during migration, followed by differentiation cues from paracrine sources that promote neurochemistry and differentiation. When autonomic axons start to innervate cardiac tissue, neurotrophic factors from vascular tissue are essential for maintenance of neurons before they reach their targets, upon which target-derived trophic factors take over final maturation, synaptic strength and postnatal survival. Although target-derived neurotrophins have a central role to play in development, alternative sources of neurotrophins may also modulate innervation. Both developing and adult sympathetic neurons express proNGF, and adult parasympathetic cardiac ganglion neurons also synthesize and release NGF. The physiological function of these "non-classical" cardiac sources of neurotrophins remains to be determined, especially in relation to autocrine/paracrine sustenance during development.   Cardiac autonomic nerves are closely spatially associated in cardiac plexuses, ganglia and pacemaker regions and so are sensitive to release of neurotransmitter, neuropeptides and trophic factors from adjacent nerves. As such, in many cardiac pathologies, it is an imbalance within the two arms of the autonomic system that is critical for disease progression. Although this crosstalk between sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves has been well established for adult nerves, it is unclear whether a degree of paracrine regulation occurs across the autonomic limbs during development. Aberrant nerve remodeling is a common occurrence in many adult cardiovascular pathologies, and the mechanisms regulating outgrowth or denervation are disparate. However, autonomic neurons display considerable plasticity in this regard with neurotrophins and inflammatory cytokines having a central regulatory

  5. Multiple innervation of normal and re-innervated parasympathetic neurones in the frog cardiac ganglion.

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, M J; Sargent, P B

    1978-01-01

    1. Multiple innervation of parasympathetic neurones was examined in normal and re-innervated frog cardiac ganglia. The number of synaptic inputs impinging upon individual ganglion cells was determined by recording intracellularly and stimulating the vagosympathetic nerves. 2. In unoperated cardiac ganglia most neurones (93%) received a large, suprathreshold synaptic input. Some ganglion cells received additional, small synaptic inputs. Roughly equal numbers of cells encountered were singly and doubly innervated, and only 8% received more than two inputs. 3. Re-innervation of cardiac ganglion cells began three weeks after bilateral crush of the vagosympathetic nerves. By 7 weeks more than 90% of the ganglion cells were re-innervated. At this stage the pattern of multiple innervation was significantly different than normal: doubly innervated neurones outnumbered singly innervated ones, and 31% of the cells encountered received more than two inputs. This pattern was stable for at least a year. 4. These results indicate that polyneuronal innervation of cardiac ganglion cells is more widespread after re-innervation than it is normally and, furthermore, that synapse elimination does not occur during re-innervation of these cells. Images Plate 1 PMID:212557

  6. Cardiac autonomic innervation of the western pygmy possum (Cercatetus concinnus) and golden bandicoot (Isoodon auratus).

    PubMed

    Zosky, Graeme R; O'Shea, James E

    2017-01-01

    Evidence for a functional ventricular parasympathetic innervation of the mammalian heart between and within taxa remains controversial. We have previously proposed that the presence of a functional parasympathetic innervation of the ventricle was indicative of heterothermy, and is essential for maintaining ventricular stability at low body temperature. However, it is possible that the presence of such an innervation is also representative of the primitive mammalian state. In this study, we aimed to determine whether a functional parasympathetic innervation of the ventricle, that is capable of actively reducing the force of contraction, is present across metatherian mammals. Using in vitro isolated cardiac preparations, we examined evidence for a functional ventricular parasympathetic innervation of the ventricle in two species of metatherian mammal, one heterotherm (Western pygmy possum; Cercatetus concinnus) and one homeotherm (Golden bandicoot; Isoodon auratus), from different families to complement existing data from a heterothermic dasyurid. Both C. concinnus and I. auratus had a potent biphasic response to transmural electrical stimulation in both atrial and ventricular preparations. Both the decrease and increase in the force of contraction in response to stimulation were almost entirely blocked by the cholinergic and adrenergic antagonists, atropine and propranolol, respectively. These observations provide clear evidence for a parasympathetic innervation of the ventricle that is capable of directly influencing the force of contraction across metatherian mammals with different thermoregulatory strategies. While this innervation may facilitate heterothermy, this suggests that the presence of such an innervation pattern is indicative of the primitive mammalian state.

  7. Myocardial perfusion and adrenergic innervation in patients with RBBB and LAfB: the effect of altering the activation sequence with right ventricular apical pacing.

    PubMed

    Simantirakis, Emmanuel N; Prassopoulos, Vasilios K; Marketou, Maria E; Chrysostomakis, Stavros I; Koukouraki, Sophia I; Lekakis, John P; Karkavitsas, Nikolaos S; Vardas, Panos E

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate myocardial perfusion and adrenergic innervation in patients with intraventricular conduction disturbances and to detect any changes caused by alteration of the ventricular activation sequence as a result of right ventricular apical pacing. We studied 15 patients with right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left anterior fascicular block (LAFB), while 15 healthy individuals served as controls. All patients underwent planar and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial imaging after intravenous infusion of 5mCi 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) and a SPECT thallium201 myocardial perfusion study before and 3 months after pacemaker implantation. The heart to mediastinum ratio was calculated during the 123I-MIBG study in order to assess the global cardiac sympathetic activity and was significantly smaller in patients than in controls (P < 0.001). Patients with RBBB and LAFB revealed regional adrenergic innervation defects, mostly in the inferior and posterior walls. After a medium-term pacing period, a redistribution of 123I-MIBG uptake was detected, with aggravation of adrenergic innervation defects in the apical and posterior walls and amelioration in septal and anterior walls. Five patients showed perfusion defects that remained unchanged after pacing. Two others displayed mild myocardial perfusion defects that did not exist before pacing. In conclusion, patients with RBBB and LAFB reveal global and regional disturbances of myocardial adrenergic innervation, which shows redistribution as a result of the altered propagation of the ventricular electrical activation. To a smaller degree these patients reveal myocardial perfusion disturbances in which pacing has a limited medium-term effect.

  8. Adrenergic innervation of the developing chick heart: neural crest ablations to produce sympathetically aneural hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, M.; Stewart, D.

    1984-11-01

    Ablation of various regions of premigratory trunk neural crest which gives rise to the sympathetic trunks was used to remove sympathetic cardiac innervation. Neuronal uptake of (/sup 3/H)-norepinephrine was used as an index of neuronal development in the chick atrium. Following ablation of neural crest over somites 10-15 or 15-20, uptake was significantly decreased in the atrium at 16 and 17 days of development. Ablation of neural crest over somites 5-10 and 20-25 caused no decrease in (/sup 3/H)-norepinephrine uptake. Removal of neural crest over somites 5-25 or 10-20 caused approximately equal depletions of (/sup 3/H)-norepinephrine uptake in the atrium. Cardiac norepinephrine concentration was significantly depressed following ablation of neural crest over somites 5-25 but not over somites 10-20. Light-microscopic and histofluorescent preparations confirmed the absence of sympathetic trunks in the region of the normal origin of the sympathetic cardiac nerves following neural crest ablation over somites 10-20. The neural tube and dorsal root ganglia were damaged in the area of the neural-crest ablation; however, all of these structures were normal cranial and caudal to the lesioned area. Development of most of the embryos as well as the morphology of all of the hearts was normal following the lesion. These results indicate that it is possible to produce sympathetically aneural hearts by neural-crest ablation; however, sympathetic cardiac nerves account for an insignificant amount of cardiac norepinephrine.

  9. The role of cardiac sympathetic innervation and skin thermoreceptors on cardiac responses during heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Umemoto, Yasunori; Kinoshita, Tokio; Kouda, Ken; Ito, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Takeshi; Crandall, Craig G.; Tajima, Fumihiro

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism(s) for the changes in cardiac function during heat stress remain unknown. This study tested two unique hypotheses. First, sympathetic innervation to the heart is required for increases in cardiac systolic function during heat stress. This was accomplished by comparing responses during heat stress between paraplegics versus tetraplegics, with tetraplegics having reduced/absent cardiac sympathetic innervation. Second, stimulation of skin thermoreceptors contributes to cardiovascular adjustments that occur during heat stress in humans. This was accomplished by comparing responses during leg only heating between paraplegic versus able-bodied individuals. Nine healthy able-bodied, nine paraplegics, and eight tetraplegics participated in this study. Lower body (i.e., nonsensed area for para/tetraplegics) was heated until esophageal temperature had increased by ∼1.0°C. Echocardiographic indexes of diastolic and systolic function were performed before and at the end of heat stress. The heat stress increased cardiac output in all groups, but the magnitude of this increase was attenuated in the tetraplegics relative to the able-bodied (1.3 ± 0.4 vs. 2.3 ± 1.0 l/min; P < 0.05). Diastolic function was maintained in all groups. Indexes of left atrial and ventricular systolic function were enhanced in the able-bodied, but did not change in tetraplegics, while these changes in paraplegics were attenuated relative to the able-bodied. These data suggest that the cardiac sympathetic innervation is required to achieve normal increases in cardiac systolic function during heat stress but not required to maintain diastolic function during this exposure. Second, elevated systolic function during heat stress primarily occurs as a result of increases in internal temperature, although stimulation of skin thermoreceptors may contribute. PMID:25795714

  10. [Development of the theory of cardiac innervation during ontogenesis in health and disease].

    PubMed

    Shvalev, V N

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the mediatory stage of prenatal development of cardiac innervation and the phenomenon of early involution of sympathetic nerve plexuses in postnatality, which has been established while analyzing early autopsies by neurohistochemical studies. lmmunocytochemical, luminescence, and ultrastructural techniques have defined changes in the stages of their formation and development of the above early involution. Complex (neurohistochemical and electrophysiological) studies quantified groups of age-related cardiac innervation changes in health. Cardiac rhythm variability was electrophysiologically studied in 43 subjects aged 18-71 years. Cardiac desympathization is shown to develop after 40 years of age. Age-related changes in cardiac regulatory mechanisms should be taken into account on studying visceral systems in coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, and sudden cardiac death, and during cardiac transplantation. Immunohistochemical study has revealed an increase in nitric oxide expression in the human cardiac nervous apparatus.

  11. Vagal cardiac efferent innervation in F344 rats: Effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zixi Jack

    2017-03-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), which is a physiological consequence of obstructive sleep apnea, reduces baroreflex control of heart rate (HR). Previously, we showed that the heart rate (HR) response to electrical stimulation of the vagal efferent nerve was significantly increased following CIH in F344 rats. Since vagal cardiac efferent from the nucleus ambiguus (NA) project to cardiac ganglia and regulate HR, we hypothesized that vagal cardiac efferent innervation of cardiac ganglia is reorganized. Young adult F344 rats were exposed either to room air (RA) or to intermittent hypoxia for 35-50days. Fluorescent tracer DiI was injected into the NA to label vagal efferent innervation of cardiac ganglia which had been counterstained by Fluoro-Gold (FG) injections (i.p). Confocal microscopy was used to examine vagal cardiac efferent axons and terminals in cardiac ganglia. NA axons entered cardiac ganglia and innervated principal neurons (PNs) with robust basket endings in both RA control and CIH animals. In addition, the percentage of PNs which were innervated by DiI-labeled fibers in ganglia was similar. In CIH rats, abnormally large swollen cardiac axon segments and disorganized terminals as well as leaky endings were observed. In general, vagal efferent terminal varicosities around PNs appeared larger and the number of varicosities was significantly increased. Interestingly, some cardiac axons had sprouting-like terminal structures in the cardiac ganglia as well as in cardiac muscle, which had not been found in RA control. Finally, CIH increased the size of PNs and reduced the ratio of nucleus to PN somata. Thus, CIH significantly remodeled the structure of vagal cardiac axons and terminals in cardiac ganglia as well as cardiac PNs.

  12. Cardiac myosin binding protein-C Ser302 phosphorylation regulates cardiac β-adrenergic reserve

    PubMed Central

    Mamidi, Ranganath; Gresham, Kenneth S.; Li, Jiayang; Stelzer, Julian E.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorylation of cardiac myosin binding protein-C (MyBP-C) modulates cardiac contractile function; however, the specific roles of individual serines (Ser) within the M-domain that are targets for β-adrenergic signaling are not known. Recently, we demonstrated that significant accelerations in in vivo pressure development following β-agonist infusion can occur in transgenic (TG) mouse hearts expressing phospho-ablated Ser282 (that is, TGS282A) but not in hearts expressing phospho-ablation of all three serines [that is, Ser273, Ser282, and Ser302 (TG3SA)], suggesting an important modulatory role for other Ser residues. In this regard, there is evidence that Ser302 phosphorylation may be a key contributor to the β-agonist–induced positive inotropic responses in the myocardium, but its precise functional role has not been established. Thus, to determine the in vivo and in vitro functional roles of Ser302 phosphorylation, we generated TG mice expressing nonphosphorylatable Ser302 (that is, TGS302A). Left ventricular pressure-volume measurements revealed that TGS302A mice displayed no accelerations in the rate of systolic pressure rise and an inability to maintain systolic pressure following dobutamine infusion similar to TG3SA mice, implicating Ser302 phosphorylation as a critical regulator of enhanced systolic performance during β-adrenergic stress. Dynamic strain–induced cross-bridge (XB) measurements in skinned myocardium isolated from TGS302A hearts showed that the molecular basis for impaired β-adrenergic–mediated enhancements in systolic function is due to the absence of protein kinase A–mediated accelerations in the rate of cooperative XB recruitment. These results demonstrate that Ser302 phosphorylation regulates cardiac contractile reserve by enhancing contractile responses during β-adrenergic stress. PMID:28345052

  13. Studies on the importance of sympathetic innervation, adrenergic receptors, and a possible local catecholamine production in the development of patellar tendinopathy (tendinosis) in man.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Patrik; Alfredson, Håkan; Forsgren, Sture

    2007-04-01

    Changes in the patterns of production and in the effects of signal substances may be involved in the development of tendinosis, a chronic condition of pain in human tendons. There is no previous information concerning the patterns of sympathetic innervation in the human patellar tendon. In this study, biopsies of normal and tendinosis patellar tendons were investigated with immunohistochemical methods, including the use of antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and neuropeptide Y, and against alpha1-, alpha2A-, and beta1-adrenoreceptors. It was noticed that most of the sympathetic innervation was detected in the walls of the blood vessels entering the tendon through the paratendinous tissue, and that the tendon tissue proper of the normal and tendinosis tendons was very scarcely innervated. Immunoreactions for adrenergic receptors were noticed in nerve fascicles containing both sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers. High levels of these receptors were also detected in the blood vessel walls; alpha1-adrenoreceptor immunoreactions being clearly more pronounced in the tendinosis tendons than in the tendons of controls. Interestingly, immunoreactions for adrenergic receptors and TH were noted for the tendon cells (tenocytes), especially in tendinosis tendons. The findings give a morphological correlate for the occurrence of sympathetically mediated effects in the patellar tendon and autocrine/paracrine catecholamine mechanisms for the tenocytes, particularly, in tendinosis. The observation of adrenergic receptors on tenocytes is interesting, as stimulation of these receptors can lead to cell proliferation, degeneration, and apoptosis, events which are all known to occur in tendinosis. Furthermore, the results imply that a possible source of catecholamine production might be the tenocytes themselves

  14. Radionuclide imaging of cardiac sympathetic innervation in heart failure: unlocking untapped potential.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shuchita; Amanullah, Aman

    2015-03-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with sympathetic overactivity, which contributes to disease progression and arrhythmia development. Cardiac sympathetic innervation imaging can be performed using radiotracers that are taken up in the presynaptic nerve terminal of sympathetic nerves. The commonly used radiotracers are (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-mIBG) for planar and single-photon emission computed tomography imaging, and (11)C-hydroxyephedrine for positron emission tomography imaging. Sympathetic innervation imaging has been used in assessing prognosis, response to treatment, risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death and prediction of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with HF. Other potential applications of these techniques are in patients with chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy, predicting myocardial recovery in patients with left ventricular assist devices, and assessing reinnervation following cardiac transplantation. There is a lack of standardization with respect to technique of (123)I-mIBG imaging that needs to be overcome for the imaging modality to gain popularity in clinical practice.

  15. β-Adrenergic Regulation of Cardiac Progenitor Cell Death Versus Survival and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohsin; Mohsin, Sadia; Avitabile, Daniele; Siddiqi, Sailay; Nguyen, Jonathan; Wallach, Kathleen; Quijada, Pearl; McGregor, Michael; Gude, Natalie; Alvarez, Roberto; Tilley, Douglas G.; Koch, Walter J.; Sussman, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Short-term β-adrenergic stimulation promotes contractility in response to stress but is ultimately detrimental in the failing heart because of accrual of cardiomyocyte death. Endogenous cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) activation may partially offset cardiomyocyte losses, but consequences of long-term β-adrenergic drive on CPC survival and proliferation are unknown. Objective We sought to determine the relationship between β-adrenergic activity and regulation of CPC function. Methods and Results Mouse and human CPCs express only β2 adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) in conjunction with stem cell marker c-kit. Activation of β2-AR signaling promotes proliferation associated with increased AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation, upregulation of cyclin D1, and decreased levels of G protein–coupled receptor kinase 2. Conversely, silencing of β2-AR expression or treatment with β2-antagonist ICI 118, 551 impairs CPC proliferation and survival. β1-AR expression in CPC is induced by differentiation stimuli, sensitizing CPC to isoproterenol-induced cell death that is abrogated by metoprolol. Efficacy of β1-AR blockade by metoprolol to increase CPC survival and proliferation was confirmed in vivo by adoptive transfer of CPC into failing mouse myocardium. Conclusions β-adrenergic stimulation promotes expansion and survival of CPCs through β2-AR, but acquisition of β1-AR on commitment to the myocyte lineage results in loss of CPCs and early myocyte precursors. PMID:23243208

  16. Beta-adrenergic stimulation reverses the IKr–IKs dominant pattern during cardiac action potential

    PubMed Central

    Banyasz, Tamas; Jian, Zhong; Horvath, Balazs; Khabbaz, Shaden; Izu, Leighton T.; Chen-Izu, Ye

    2014-01-01

    β-adrenergic stimulation differentially modulates different K+ channels and thus fine-tunes cardiac action potential (AP) repolarization. However, it remains unclear how the proportion of IKs, IKr, and IK1 current in the same cell would be altered by β-adrenergic stimulation, which would change the relative contribution of individual K+ current to the total repolarization reserve. In this study we used an innovative AP-clamp Sequential Dissection technique to directly record the dynamic –IKs, IKr, IK1– currents during the AP in guinea pig ventricular myocytes under physiologically relevant conditions. Our data provide quantitative measures of the magnitude and time course of IKs, IKr, IK1 currents in the same cell under its own steady-state AP, in a physiological milieu, and with preserved Ca2+ homeostasis. We found that isoproterenol treatment significantly enhanced IKs, moderately increased IK1, but slightly decreased IKr in a dose-dependent manner. The dominance pattern of the K+ currents was IKr>IK1>IKs at the control condition, but reversed to IKradrenergic stimulation. We systematically determined the changes in the relative contribution of IKs, IKr, IK1 to cardiac repolarization during AP at different adrenergic states. In conclusion, the β-adrenergic stimulation fine-tunes the cardiac AP morphology by shifting the power of different K+ currents in a dose-dependent manner. This Knowledge is important for designing anti-arrhythmic drug strategies to treat the hearts exposed to various sympathetic tones. PMID:24535581

  17. Interleukin 1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibit Cardiac Myocyte β -adrenergic Responsiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulick, Tod; Chung, Mina K.; Pieper, Stephen J.; Lange, Louis G.; Schreiner, George F.

    1989-09-01

    Reversible congestive heart failure can accompany cardiac allograft rejection and inflammatory myocarditis, conditions associated with an immune cell infiltrate of the myocardium. To determine whether immune cell secretory products alter cardiac muscle metabolism without cytotoxicity, we cultured cardiac myocytes in the presence of culture supernatants from activated immune cells. We observed that these culture supernatants inhibit β -adrenergic agonist-mediated increases in cultured cardiac myocyte contractility and intracellular cAMP accumulation. The myocyte contractile response to increased extracellular Ca2+ concentration is unaltered by prior exposure to these culture supernatants, as is the increase in myocyte intracellular cAMP concentration in response to stimulation with forskolin, a direct adenyl cyclase activator. Inhibition occurs in the absence of alteration in β -adrenergic receptor density or ligand binding affinity. Suppressive activity is attributable to the macrophage-derived cytokines interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor. Thus, these observations describe a role for defined cytokines in regulating the hormonal responsiveness and function of contractile cells. The effects of interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor on intracellular cAMP accumulation may be a model for immune modulation of other cellular functions dependent upon cyclic nucleotide metabolism. The uncoupling of agonist-occupied receptors from adenyl cyclase suggests that β -receptor or guanine nucleotide binding protein function is altered by the direct or indirect action of cytokines on cardiac muscle cells.

  18. Cardiac Alpha1-Adrenergic Receptors: Novel Aspects of Expression, Signaling Mechanisms, Physiologic Function, and Clinical Importance

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Timothy D.; Jensen, Brian C.; Baker, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenergic receptors (AR) are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that have a crucial role in cardiac physiology in health and disease. Alpha1-ARs signal through Gαq, and signaling through Gq, for example, by endothelin and angiotensin receptors, is thought to be detrimental to the heart. In contrast, cardiac alpha1-ARs mediate important protective and adaptive functions in the heart, although alpha1-ARs are only a minor fraction of total cardiac ARs. Cardiac alpha1-ARs activate pleiotropic downstream signaling to prevent pathologic remodeling in heart failure. Mechanisms defined in animal and cell models include activation of adaptive hypertrophy, prevention of cardiac myocyte death, augmentation of contractility, and induction of ischemic preconditioning. Surprisingly, at the molecular level, alpha1-ARs localize to and signal at the nucleus in cardiac myocytes, and, unlike most GPCRs, activate “inside-out” signaling to cause cardioprotection. Contrary to past opinion, human cardiac alpha1-AR expression is similar to that in the mouse, where alpha1-AR effects are seen most convincingly in knockout models. Human clinical studies show that alpha1-blockade worsens heart failure in hypertension and does not improve outcomes in heart failure, implying a cardioprotective role for human alpha1-ARs. In summary, these findings identify novel functional and mechanistic aspects of cardiac alpha1-AR function and suggest that activation of cardiac alpha1-AR might be a viable therapeutic strategy in heart failure. PMID:24368739

  19. Gender-related differences in β-adrenergic receptor-mediated cardiac remodeling.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Baoling; Liu, Kai; Yang, Chengzhi; Qiao, Yuhui; Li, Zijian

    2016-12-01

    Cardiac remodeling is the pathological basis of various cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we found gender-related differences in β-adrenergic receptor (AR)-mediated pathological cardiac remodeling. Cardiac remodeling model was established by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline (ISO) for 14 days. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and echocardiography were obtained on 7th and 14th days during ISO administration. Myocardial cross-sectional area and the ratio of heart mass to tibia length (HM/TL) were detected to assess cardiac hypertrophy. Picro-Sirius red staining (picric acid + Sirius red F3B) was used to evaluate cardiac fibrosis. Myocardial capillary density was assessed by immunohistochemistry for von Willebrand factor. Further, real-time PCR was used to measure the expression of β1-AR and β2-AR. Results showed that ISO induced cardiac remodeling, the extent of which was different between female and male mice. The extent of increase in cardiac wall thickness, myocardial cross-sectional area, and collagen deposition in females was less than that in males. However, no gender-related difference was observed in HR, MAP, cardiac function, and myocardial capillary density. The distinctive decrease of β2-AR expression, rather than a decrease of β1-AR expression, seemed to result in gender-related differences in cardiac remodeling.

  20. Beta adrenergic receptor blockade of feline myocardium. Cardiac mechanics, energetics, and beta adrenoceptor regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, G; Kent, R L; McGonigle, P; Watanabe, A M

    1986-01-01

    Myocardial oxygen consumption is regulated by interrelated mechanical and inotropic conditions; there is a parallel increase in the aerobic metabolism and inotropic state during beta-adrenergic stimulation under fixed mechanical conditions. In contrast, there is some evidence that beta-blockade may reduce oxygen consumption through effects independent of its influence on mechanical conditions and contractile state, and that prolonged beta-blockade may sensitize the myocardium to beta-adrenergic stimulation. To clarify these two points, the present study examined the relationship of myocardial energetics to mechanics and inotropism during acute beta-blockade and after the withdrawal of long-term beta-blockade, whereupon the basis for any effect observed was sought by characterizing the number, affinity, and affinity states of the beta-receptors as well as the coupling of activated beta-receptors to cyclic AMP generation. Studies of right ventricular papillary muscles from control and chronically beta-blocked cats demonstrated contractile and energetic properties as well as dose-response behavior and inotropic specificity suggestive of an increase in myocardial sensitivity to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation in the latter group. Assays of cardiac beta-adrenoceptors from further groups of control and pretreated cats, both in cardiac tissue and in isolated cardiac muscle cells, failed to define a difference between the two groups either in terms of receptor number and affinity or in terms of the proportion of receptors in the high-affinity state. However, coupling of the activated beta-adrenoceptors to cyclic AMP generation was enhanced in cardiac muscle cells from chronically beta-blocked cats. These data demonstrate that beta-adrenoceptor blockade (a) produces parallel effects on inotropic state and oxygen consumption without an independent effect on either and (b) increases myocardial sensitivity to beta-adrenergic stimulation after beta-blockade withdrawal, not by "up

  1. Beta2-adrenergic signaling affects the phenotype of human cardiac progenitor cells through EMT modulation.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Francesca; Angelini, Francesco; Siciliano, Camilla; Tasciotti, Julia; Mangino, Giorgio; De Falco, Elena; Carnevale, Roberto; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Frati, Giacomo; Chimenti, Isotta

    2017-01-15

    Human cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) offer great promises to cardiac cell therapy for heart failure. Many in vivo studies have shown their therapeutic benefits, paving the way for clinical translation. The 3D model of cardiospheres (CSs) represents a unique niche-like in vitro microenvironment, which includes CPCs and supporting cells. CSs have been shown to form through a process mediated by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). β2-Adrenergic signaling significantly affects stem/progenitor cells activation and mobilization in multiple tissues, and crosstalk between β2-adrenergic signaling and EMT processes has been reported. In the present study, we aimed at investigating the biological response of CSs to β2-adrenergic stimuli, focusing on EMT modulation in the 3D culture system of CSs. We treated human CSs and CS-derived cells (CDCs) with the β2-blocker butoxamine (BUT), using either untreated or β2 agonist (clenbuterol) treated CDCs as control. BUT-treated CS-forming cells displayed increased migration capacity and a significant increase in their CS-forming ability, consistently associated with increased expression of EMT-related genes, such as Snai1. Moreover, long-term BUT-treated CDCs contained a lower percentage of CD90+ cells, and this feature has been previously correlated with higher cardiogenic and therapeutic potential of the CDCs population. In addition, long-term BUT-treated CDCs had an increased ratio of collagen-III/collagen-I gene expression levels, and showed decreased release of inflammatory cytokines, overall supporting a less fibrosis-prone phenotype. In conclusion, β2 adrenergic receptor block positively affected the stemness vs commitment balance within CSs through the modulation of type1-EMT (so called "developmental"). These results further highlight type-1 EMT to be a key process affecting the features of resident cardiac progenitor cells, and mediating their response to the microenvironment.

  2. High‐fat diet induces protein kinase A and G‐protein receptor kinase phosphorylation of β2‐adrenergic receptor and impairs cardiac adrenergic reserve in animal hearts

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuting; Wang, Qingtong; Liu, Yongming; Li, Ning; Xu, Bing; Kim, Sungjin; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan

    2017-01-01

    Key points Patients with diabetes show a blunted cardiac inotropic response to β‐adrenergic stimulation despite normal cardiac contractile reserve.Acute insulin stimulation impairs β‐adrenergically induced contractile function in isolated cardiomyocytes and Langendorff‐perfused hearts.In this study, we aimed to examine the potential effects of hyperinsulinaemia associated with high‐fat diet (HFD) feeding on the cardiac β2‐adrenergic receptor signalling and the impacts on cardiac contractile function.We showed that 8 weeks of HFD feeding leads to reductions in cardiac functional reserve in response to β‐adrenergic stimulation without significant alteration of cardiac structure and function, which is associated with significant changes in β2‐adrenergic receptor phosphorylation at protein kinase A and G‐protein receptor kinase sites in the myocardium.The results suggest that clinical intervention might be applied to subjects in early diabetes without cardiac symptoms to prevent further cardiac complications. Abstract Patients with diabetes display reduced exercise capability and impaired cardiac contractile reserve in response to adrenergic stimulation. We have recently uncovered an insulin receptor and adrenergic receptor signal network in the heart. The aim of this study was to understand the impacts of high‐fat diet (HFD) on the insulin–adrenergic receptor signal network in hearts. After 8 weeks of HFD feeding, mice exhibited diabetes, with elevated insulin and glucose concentrations associated with body weight gain. Mice fed an HFD had normal cardiac structure and function. However, the HFD‐fed mice displayed a significant elevation of phosphorylation of the β2‐adrenergic receptor (β2AR) at both the protein kinase A site serine 261/262 and the G‐protein‐coupled receptor kinase site serine 355/356 and impaired adrenergic reserve when compared with mice fed on normal chow. Isolated myocytes from HFD‐fed mice also displayed a

  3. Identification of the Cardiac Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Protein: Solubilization and Purification by Affinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Lefkowitz, Robert J.; Haber, Edgar; O'Hara, Donald

    1972-01-01

    A protein that binds catecholamines with a specificity parallel to that of their in vivo effects on cardiac contractility (isoproterenol > epinephrine or norepinephrine > dopamine > dihydroxyphenylalanine) was solubilized from a microsomal fraction of canine ventricular myocardium. The binding protein was purified 500 to 800-fold by solubilization and subsequent affinity chromatography with conjugates of norepinephrine linked to agarose beads. Purified β-adrenergic binding protein exists in two forms, corresponding to molecular weights of 40,000 and 160,000. The purified material has a single association constant, 2.3 × 105 liters/mol (as compared to two association constants, 107 and 106 liters/mol, for the binding protein in particulate form) but retains the identical binding specificity for β-adrenergic drugs and antagonists. Images PMID:4507606

  4. Cardiac beta-adrenergic receptors and coronary hemodynamics in the conscious dog during hypoxic hypoxia.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, H. H.; Stone, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    The mechanisms by which acute hypoxia (10% and 5% oxygen) mediates changes in coronary blood flow and cardiac function were investigated in the conscious dog. When the dogs breathed hypoxic gas mixtures through a tracheostomy, both arterial and coronary sinus oxygen tensions were significantly decreased. With 5% oxygen, there were significant increases in heart rate (25%), maximum left ventricular dP/dt (39%), left circumflex coronary artery blood flow (163%), and left ventricular oxygen consumption (52%), which were attenuated by beta-adrenergic blockage with propranolol. When electrical pacing was used to keep the ventricular rate constant during hypoxia, there was no significant difference in coronary blood flow before and after beta blockade. Beta-adrenergic receptor activity in the myocardium participates in the integrated response to hypoxia although it may not cause active vasodilation of the coronary vessels.

  5. ß-adrenoceptor blockers increase cardiac sympathetic innervation by inhibiting autoreceptor suppression of axon growth.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Gwenaëlle L; Bhattacherjee, Aritra; Tague, Sarah E; Hasan, Wohaib; Smith, Peter G

    2010-09-15

    β-Adrenoceptor antagonists are used widely to reduce cardiovascular sympathetic tone, but withdrawal is accompanied by sympathetic hyperactivity. Receptor supersensitivity accounts for some but not all aspects of this withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, we investigated effects of β-blockers on sympathetic innervation. Rats received infusions of adrenergic receptor blockers or saline for 1 week. The nonselective β-blocker propranolol and the β(1)-antagonist metoprolol both increased myocardial sympathetic axon density. At 2 d after propranolol discontinuation, β-receptor sensitivity and responsiveness to isoproterenol were similar to controls. However, tyramine-induced mobilization of norepinephrine stores produced elevated ventricular contractility consistent with enhanced sympathetic neuroeffector properties. In addition, rats undergoing discontinuation showed exaggerated increases in mean arterial pressure in response to air puff or noise startle. In sympathetic neuronal cell cultures, both propranolol and metoprolol increased axon outgrowth but the β(2)-blocker ICI 118551 did not. Norepinephrine synthesis suppression by α-methyl-p-tyrosine also increased sprouting and concurrent dobutamine administration reduced it, confirming that locally synthesized norepinephrine inhibits outgrowth via β(1)-adrenoceptors. Immunohistochemistry revealed β(1)-adrenoceptor protein on sympathetic axon terminations. In rats with coronary artery ligation, propranolol reversed heart failure-induced ventricular myocardial sympathetic axon depletion, but did not affect infarct-associated sympathetic hyperinnervation. We conclude that sympathetic neurons possess β(1)-autoreceptors that negatively regulate axon outgrowth. Chronic β-adrenoceptor blockade disrupts this feedback system, leading to ventricular sympathetic axon proliferation and increased neuroeffector gain, which are likely to contribute to β-blocker withdrawal syndrome.

  6. Restoration of β -Adrenergic Signaling in Failing Cardiac Ventricular Myocytes via Adenoviral-Mediated Gene Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, Shahab A.; Skaer, Christine A.; Kypson, Alan P.; McDonald, Patricia H.; Peppel, Karsten C.; Glower, Donald D.; Lefkowitz, Robert J.; Koch, Walter J.

    1997-10-01

    Cardiovascular gene therapy is a novel approach to the treatment of diseases such as congestive heart failure (CHF). Gene transfer to the heart would allow for the replacement of defective or missing cellular proteins that may improve cardiac performance. Our laboratory has been focusing on the feasibility of restoring β -adrenergic signaling deficiencies that are a characteristic of chronic CHF. We have now studied isolated ventricular myocytes from rabbits that have been chronically paced to produce hemodynamic failure. We document molecular β -adrenergic signaling defects including down-regulation of myocardial β -adrenergic receptors (β -ARs), functional β -AR uncoupling, and an upregulation of the β -AR kinase (β ARK1). Adenoviral-mediated gene transfer of the human β 2-AR or an inhibitor of β ARK1 to these failing myocytes led to the restoration of β -AR signaling. These results demonstrate that defects present in this critical myocardial signaling pathway can be corrected in vitro using genetic modification and raise the possibility of novel inotropic therapies for CHF including the inhibition of β ARK1 activity in the heart.

  7. Cardiac sympathetic nerve stimulation does not attenuate dynamic vagal control of heart rate via alpha-adrenergic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Tadayoshi; Kawada, Toru; Yanagiya, Yusuke; Inagaki, Masashi; Takaki, Hiroshi; Sugimachi, Masaru; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2004-08-01

    Complex sympathovagal interactions govern heart rate (HR). Activation of the postjunctional beta-adrenergic receptors on the sinus nodal cells augments the HR response to vagal stimulation, whereas exogenous activation of the presynaptic alpha-adrenergic receptors on the vagal nerve terminals attenuates vagal control of HR. Whether the alpha-adrenergic mechanism associated with cardiac postganglionic sympathetic nerve activation plays a significant role in modulation of the dynamic vagal control of HR remains unknown. The right vagal nerve was stimulated in seven anesthetized rabbits that had undergone sinoaortic denervation and vagotomy according to a binary white-noise signal (0-10 Hz) for 10 min; subsequently, the transfer function from vagal stimulation to HR was estimated. The effects of beta-adrenergic blockade with propranolol (1 mg/kg i.v.) and the combined effects of beta-adrenergic blockade and tonic cardiac sympathetic nerve stimulation at 5 Hz were examined. The transfer function from vagal stimulation to HR approximated a first-order, low-pass filter with pure delay. beta-Adrenergic blockade decreased the dynamic gain from 6.0 +/- 0.4 to 3.7 +/- 0.6 beats x min(-1) x Hz(-1) (P < 0.01) with no alteration of the corner frequency or pure delay. Under beta-adrenergic blockade conditions, tonic sympathetic stimulation did not further change the dynamic gain (3.8 +/- 0.5 beats x min(-1) x Hz(-1)). In conclusion, cardiac postganglionic sympathetic nerve stimulation did not affect the dynamic HR response to vagal stimulation via the alpha-adrenergic mechanism.

  8. Modeling beta-adrenergic control of cardiac myocyte contractility in silico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saucerman, Jeffrey J.; Brunton, Laurence L.; Michailova, Anushka P.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; McCullough, A. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    The beta-adrenergic signaling pathway regulates cardiac myocyte contractility through a combination of feedforward and feedback mechanisms. We used systems analysis to investigate how the components and topology of this signaling network permit neurohormonal control of excitation-contraction coupling in the rat ventricular myocyte. A kinetic model integrating beta-adrenergic signaling with excitation-contraction coupling was formulated, and each subsystem was validated with independent biochemical and physiological measurements. Model analysis was used to investigate quantitatively the effects of specific molecular perturbations. 3-Fold overexpression of adenylyl cyclase in the model allowed an 85% higher rate of cyclic AMP synthesis than an equivalent overexpression of beta 1-adrenergic receptor, and manipulating the affinity of Gs alpha for adenylyl cyclase was a more potent regulator of cyclic AMP production. The model predicted that less than 40% of adenylyl cyclase molecules may be stimulated under maximal receptor activation, and an experimental protocol is suggested for validating this prediction. The model also predicted that the endogenous heat-stable protein kinase inhibitor may enhance basal cyclic AMP buffering by 68% and increasing the apparent Hill coefficient of protein kinase A activation from 1.0 to 2.0. Finally, phosphorylation of the L-type calcium channel and phospholamban were found sufficient to predict the dominant changes in myocyte contractility, including a 2.6x increase in systolic calcium (inotropy) and a 28% decrease in calcium half-relaxation time (lusitropy). By performing systems analysis, the consequences of molecular perturbations in the beta-adrenergic signaling network may be understood within the context of integrative cellular physiology.

  9. North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) suppresses β-adrenergic-dependent signalling, hypertrophy, and cardiac dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xilan; Gan, Xiaohong Tracey; Rajapurohitam, Venkatesh; Huang, Cathy Xiaoling; Xue, Jenny; Lui, Edmund M K; Karmazyn, Morris

    2016-12-01

    There is increasing evidence for a beneficial effect of ginseng on cardiac pathology. Here, we determined whether North American ginseng can modulate the deleterious effects of the β-adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol on cardiac hypertrophy and function using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Isoproterenol was administered for 2 weeks at either 25 mg/kg per day or 50 mg/kg per day (ISO25 or ISO50) via a subcutaneously implanted osmotic mini-pump to either control rats or those receiving ginseng (0.9 g/L in the drinking water ad libitum). Isoproterenol produced time- and dose-dependent left ventricular dysfunction, although these effects were attenuated by ginseng. Improved cardiac functions were associated with reduced heart masses, as well as prevention in the upregulation of the hypertrophy-related fetal gene expression. Lung masses were similarly attenuated, suggesting reduced pulmonary congestion. In in vitro studies, ginseng (10 μg/mL) completely suppressed the hypertrophic response to 1 μmol/L isoproterenol in terms of myocyte surface area, as well as reduction in the upregulation of fetal gene expression. These effects were associated with attenuation in both protein kinase A and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation. Ginseng attenuates adverse cardiac adrenergic responses and, therefore, may be an effective therapy to reduce hypertrophy and heart failure associated with excessive catecholamine production.

  10. Radiotracers for Cardiac Sympathetic Innervation: Transport Kinetics and Binding Affinities for the Human Norepinephrine Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Raffel, David M.; Chen, Wei; Jung, Yong-Woon; Jang, Keun Sam; Gu, Guie; Cozzi, Nicholas V.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Most radiotracers for imaging of cardiac sympathetic innervation are substrates of the norepinephrine transporter (NET). The goal of this study was to characterize the NET transport kinetics and binding affinities of several sympathetic nerve radiotracers, including [11C]-(−)-meta-hydroxyephedrine, [11C]-(−)-epinephrine, and a series of [11C]-labeled phenethylguanidines under development in our laboratory. For comparison, the NET transport kinetics and binding affinities of some [3H]-labeled biogenic amines were also determined. Methods Transport kinetics studies were performed using rat C6 glioma cells stably transfected with the human norepinephrine transporter (C6-hNET cells). For each radiolabeled NET substrate, saturation transport assays with C6-hNET cells measured the Michaelis-Menten transport constants Km and Vmax for NET transport. Competitive inhibition binding assays with homogenized C6-hNET cells and [3H]mazindol provided estimates of binding affinities (KI) for NET. Results Km, Vmax and KI values were determined for each NET substrate with a high degree of reproducibility. Interestingly, C6-hNET transport rates for ‘tracer concentrations’ of substrate, given by the ratio Vmax/Km, were found to be highly correlated with neuronal transport rates measured previously in isolated rat hearts (r2 = 0.96). This suggests that the transport constants Km and Vmax measured using the C6-hNET cells accurately reflect in vivo transport kinetics. Conclusion The results of these studies show how structural changes in NET substrates influence NET binding and transport constants, providing valuable insights that can be used in the design of new tracers with more optimal kinetics for quantifying regional sympathetic nerve density. PMID:23306137

  11. MiRNA-1/133a Clusters Regulate Adrenergic Control of Cardiac Repolarization

    PubMed Central

    Wystub, Katharina; Bachmann, Angela; Wietelmann, Astrid; Sasse, Philipp; Fleischmann, Bernd K.; Braun, Thomas; Boettger, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The electrical properties of the heart are primarily determined by the activity of ion channels and the activity of these molecules is permanently modulated and adjusted to the physiological needs by adrenergic signaling. miRNAs are known to control the expression of many proteins and to fulfill distinct functions in the mammalian heart, though the in vivo effects of miRNAs on the electrical activity of the heart are poorly characterized. The miRNAs miR-1 and miR-133a are the most abundant miRNAs of the heart and are expressed from two miR-1/133a genomic clusters. Genetic modulation of miR-1/133a cluster expression without concomitant severe disturbance of general cardiomyocyte physiology revealed that these miRNA clusters govern cardiac muscle repolarization. Reduction of miR-1/133a dosage induced a longQT phenotype in mice especially at low heart rates. Longer action potentials in cardiomyocytes are caused by modulation of the impact of β-adrenergic signaling on the activity of the depolarizing L-type calcium channel. Pharmacological intervention to attenuate β-adrenergic signaling or L-type calcium channel activity in vivo abrogated the longQT phenotype that is caused by modulation of miR-1/133a activity. Thus, we identify the miR-1/133a miRNA clusters to be important to prevent a longQT-phenotype in the mammalian heart. PMID:25415383

  12. Dependence of deoxycorticosterone/salt hypertension in the rat on the activity of adrenergic cardiac nerves.

    PubMed

    Bell, C; McLachlan, E M

    1979-08-01

    1. Chronic hypertension was induced in Wistar rats with intact kidneys by subcutaneous implantation of 50 mg of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) in wax and addition of sodium chloride (9 g/l) to the drinking water. 2. The development of DOCA/salt hypertension, as monitored by tail-cuff plethysmography, was prevented by: (a) destruction of the peripheral adrenergic nerves with neonatal administration of guanethidine (80 mg/kg subcutaneously for the first 14 days postnatally); (b) bilateral stellate ganglionectomy; (c) oral administration of the beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists propranolol or atenolol (1 mg day-1 kg-1) during the period of DOCA/salt treatment. 3. The dose of DOCA used was sufficient to inhibit the atrial Uptake2 pathway completely: this process appears to participate in termination of action of neurally released noradrenaline in the heart. 4. It is suggested that this model of DOCA/salt hypertension is due to adrenergic enhancement of cardiac output in the presence of an increased sodium load. The enhancement may be partly due to deficient myocardial inactivation of noradrenaline.

  13. Some membrane properties of the circular muscle of chicken rectum and its non-adrenergic non-cholinergic innervation.

    PubMed

    Komori, S; Ohashi, H

    1988-07-01

    1. Membrane properties and innervation of the circular muscle of chicken rectum were investigated by recording intracellularly electrotonic potentials evoked by passing current, and excitatory and inhibitory junction potentials (EJPs and IJPs) evoked by electrical stimulation of the extrinsic or intrinsic nerves. 2. The membrane potential was -55 +/- 0.6 mV (n = 95). Action potentials of long duration (1.2-4.0 s) discharged spontaneously, or were generated when the membrane depolarization due to either electrotonic potential or EJP reached the threshold. The drug D600 blocked the generation of action potentials. 3. Electrotonic potentials spread fairly well in the longitudinal direction of the muscle fibres but not in the transverse direction. The longitudinal space constant was 1.7 +/- 0.2 mm (n = 10) and the membrane time constant was 205 +/- 21 ms (n = 10). 4. Field stimulation of intramural nerves evoked an EJP followed by a long-lasting IJP (3-12 s in total duration) in most cells, and an EJP alone or an IJP alone in a small number of cells. The EJP and IJP were preserved in the simultaneous presence of atropine and guanethidine, but abolished with tetrodotoxin. 5. Stimulation of Remak's nerve trunk or its branches produced EJPs which were atropine resistant and guanethidine resistant just like the EJP elicited by intramural nerve stimulation. The extrinsic nerve stimulation was ineffective in eliciting IJPs. 6. The EJP amplitude declined in a linear manner as the distance from the stimulating site of intramural nerves was increased. The decline was much greater along the transverse axis than the longitudinal axis of circular muscle fibres. 7. The reversal potential for the EJP was estimated by extrapolation to be about - 15.3 +/- 0.3 mV (n = 7). 8. Apamin did not inhibit the IJP. During the hyperpolarization of a single IJP or summed IJPs, electrotonic potentials remained unchanged or slightly decreased in amplitude.

  14. Purification and molecular characterization of the cardiac beta-adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.A.; Venter, J.C.; Fraser, C.M.

    1986-05-01

    The porcine ventricle cardiac beta-adrenergic receptor (..beta..AR) is predominantly of the ..beta../sub 2/ subtype. Sucrose density gradient purified porcine ventricle membranes exhibit a high ..beta..AR density of 1 pmol per mg and a K/sub d/ for /sup 125/I-iodocyanopindolol of 180 pM. Digitonin solubilized receptor exhibits ligand binding characteristics identical to those of membrane bound receptor. Stability studies indicate that the solubilized cardiac ..beta..AR has a t/sub 1/2/ of 92 hours. Solubilized receptor is stabilized by occupation with antagonists. Isoelectric focusing indicates a pI = 5.0, in agreement with results obtained for both ..beta../sub 1/AR and ..beta../sub 2/AR isolated from other sources. The cardiac ..beta../sub 1/AR has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography and size exclusion HPLC (2 TSK 2000, 1 TSK 3000). Autoradiograms of purified, radioiodinated receptor preparations subjected to SDS-PAGE revealed a single band with an apparent subunit molecular mass (M/sub r/) of 68 kDa. This subunit M/sub r/ was confirmed in membranes photoaffinity labeled with /sup 125/I-iodocyanopindolol diazirine. A single band was specifically labeled, as evidenced by blocking of photoincorporation by (-) and (+) propranolol with typical ..beta..AR stereoselectivity.

  15. Pressor response to intravenous tyramine is a marker of cardiac, but not vascular, adrenergic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meck, Janice V.; Martin, David S.; D'Aunno, Dominick S.; Waters, Wendy W.

    2003-01-01

    Intravenous injections of the indirect sympathetic amine, tyramine, are used as a test of peripheral adrenergic function. The authors measured the time course of increases in ejection fraction, heart rate, systolic and diastolic pressure, popliteal artery flow, and greater saphenous vein diameter before and after an injection of 4.0 mg/m(2) body surface area of tyramine in normal human subjects. The tyramine caused moderate, significant increases in systolic pressure and significant decreases in total peripheral resistance. The earliest changes were a 30% increase in ejection fraction and a 16% increase in systolic pressure, followed by a 60% increase in popliteal artery flow and a later 11% increase in greater saphenous vein diameter. There were no changes in diastolic pressure or heart rate. These results suggest that pressor responses during tyramine injections are primarily due to an inotropic response that increases cardiac output and pressure and causes a reflex decrease in vascular resistance. Thus, tyramine pressor tests are a measure of cardiac, but not vascular, sympathetic function.

  16. Beta-adrenergic stimulation reverses the I Kr-I Ks dominant pattern during cardiac action potential.

    PubMed

    Banyasz, Tamas; Jian, Zhong; Horvath, Balazs; Khabbaz, Shaden; Izu, Leighton T; Chen-Izu, Ye

    2014-11-01

    β-Adrenergic stimulation differentially modulates different K(+) channels and thus fine-tunes cardiac action potential (AP) repolarization. However, it remains unclear how the proportion of I Ks, I Kr, and I K1 currents in the same cell would be altered by β-adrenergic stimulation, which would change the relative contribution of individual K(+) current to the total repolarization reserve. In this study, we used an innovative AP-clamp sequential dissection technique to directly record the dynamic I Ks, I Kr, and I K1 currents during the AP in guinea pig ventricular myocytes under physiologically relevant conditions. Our data provide quantitative measures of the magnitude and time course of I Ks, I Kr, and I K1 currents in the same cell under its own steady-state AP, in a physiological milieu, and with preserved Ca(2+) homeostasis. We found that isoproterenol treatment significantly enhanced I Ks, moderately increased I K1, but slightly decreased I Kr in a dose-dependent manner. The dominance pattern of the K(+) currents was I Kr > I K1 > I Ks at the control condition, but reversed to I Kr < I K1 < I Ks following β-adrenergic stimulation. We systematically determined the changes in the relative contribution of I Ks, I Kr, and I K1 to cardiac repolarization during AP at different adrenergic states. In conclusion, the β-adrenergic stimulation fine-tunes the cardiac AP morphology by shifting the power of different K(+) currents in a dose-dependent manner. This knowledge is important for designing antiarrhythmic drug strategies to treat hearts exposed to various sympathetic tones.

  17. Adrenergic responsiveness is reduced, while baseline cardiac function is preserved in old adult conscious monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, N.; Kiuchi, K.; Shen, Y. T.; Vatner, S. F.; Vatner, D. E.

    1995-01-01

    To examine the physiological deficit to adrenergic stimulation with aging, five younger adult (3 +/- 1 yr old) and nine older adult (17 +/- 1 yr old) healthy monkeys were studied after instrumentation with a left ventricular (LV) pressure gauge, aortic and left atrial catheters, and aortic flow probes to measure cardiac output directly. There were no significant changes in baseline hemodynamics in conscious older monkeys. For example, an index of contractility, the first derivative of LV pressure (LV dP/dt) was similar (3,191 +/- 240, young vs. 3,225 +/- 71 mmHg/s, old) as well as in isovolumic relaxation, tau (24.3 +/- 1.7 ms, young vs. 23.0 +/- 1.0 ms, old) was similar. However, inotropic, lusitropic, and chronotropic responses to isoproterenol (Iso; 0.1 micrograms/kg), norepinephrine (NE; 0.4 micrograms/kg), and forskolin (For; 75 nmol/kg) were significantly (P < 0.05) depressed in older monkeys. For example. Iso increased LV dP/dt by by 146 +/- 14% in younger monkeys and by only 70 +/- 5% in older monkeys. Iso also reduced tau more in younger monkeys (-28 +/- 7%) compared with older monkeys (-13 +/- 3%). Furthermore, peripheral vascular responsiveness to Iso, NE, For, and phenylephrine (PE; 5 micrograms/kg) was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in older monkeys. For example, phenylephrine (5 micrograms/kg) increased total peripheral resistence by 69 +/- 4% in younger monkeys and by only 45 +/- 3% in older monkeys. Thus in older monkeys without associated cardiovascular disease, baseline hemodynamics are preserved, but adrenergic receptor responsiveness is reduced systemically, not just in the heart.

  18. Regional cardiac adrenergic function using I-123 meta-iodobenzylguanidine tomographic imaging after acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    McGhie, A.I.; Corbett, J.R.; Akers, M.S.; Kulkarni, P.; Sills, M.N.; Kremers, M.; Buja, L.M.; Durant-Reville, M.; Parkey, R.W.; Willerson, J.T. )

    1991-02-01

    The effect of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on regional cardiac adrenergic function was studied in 27 patients mean +/- standard deviation 10 +/- 4 days after AMI. Regional adrenergic function was evaluated noninvasively with I-123 meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) using a dedicated 3-detector tomograph. Four hours after its administration, there was reduced MIBG uptake in the region of infarction, 0.38 +/- 0.31 counts/pixel/mCi x 103 compared with 0.60 +/- 0.30 counts/pixel/mCi x 103 and 0.92 +/- 0.35 counts/pixel/mCi x 103 in the zones bordering and distant from the infarct area, respectively, p less than 0.001. In all patients, the area of reduced MIBG uptake after 4 hours was more extensive that the associated thallium-201 perfusion defect with defect scores of 52 +/- 22 and 23 +/- 18%, respectively, p less than 0.001. After anterior wall AMI, the 4-hour MIBG defect score was 70 +/- 13% and the degree of mismatch between myocardial perfusion and MIBG uptake was 30 +/- 9% compared with 39 +/- 17 and 21 +/- 17% after inferior AMI, p less than 0.001 and p = 0.016, respectively. The 4-hour MIBG defect score correlated inversely with the predischarge left ventricular ejection fraction, r = -0.73, p less than 0.001. Patients with ventricular arrhythmia of greater than or equal to 1 ventricular premature complexes per hour, paired ventricular premature complexes or ventricular tachycardia detected during the late hospital phase had higher 4-hour MIBG defect scores, 62.5 +/- 15.0%, than patients with no detectable complex ventricular ectopic activity and a ventricular premature complex frequency of less than 1 per hour, 44.6 +/- 23.4%, p = 0.036.

  19. Phosphoregulation of Cardiac Inotropy via Myosin Binding Protein-C During Increased Pacing Frequency or β1-Adrenergic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Carl W.; Wu, Xin; Liu, Yang; Rosas, Paola C.; Sadayappan, Sakthivel; Hudmon, Andy; Muthuchamy, Mariappan; Powers, Patricia A.; Valdivia, Héctor H.; Moss, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mammalian hearts exhibit positive inotropic responses to β-adrenergic stimulation as a consequence of protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation or as a result of increased beat frequency (the Bowditch effect). Several membrane and myofibrillar proteins are phosphorylated under these conditions, but the relative contributions of these to increased contractility are not known. Phosphorylation of cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) by PKA accelerates the kinetics of force development in permeabilized heart muscle, but its role in vivo is unknown. Such understanding is important, since adrenergic responsiveness of the heart and the Bowditch effect are both depressed in heart failure. Methods and Results The roles of cMyBP-C phosphorylation were studied using mice in which either WT or nonphosphorylatable forms of cMyBP-C [ser273ala, ser282ala, ser302ala: cMyBP-C(t3SA)] were expressed at similar levels on a cMyBP-C null background. Force and [Ca2+]in measurements in isolated papillary muscles showed that the increased force and twitch kinetics due to increased pacing or β1-adrenergic stimulation were nearly absent in cMyBP-C(t3SA) myocardium, even though [Ca2+]intransients under each condition were similar to WT. Biochemical measurements confirmed that PKA phosphorylated ser273, ser282 and ser302 in WT cMyBP-C. In contrast, CaMKIIδ, which is activated by increased pacing, phosphorylated ser302 principally, ser282 to a lesser degree, and ser273 not at all. Conclusions Phosphorylation of cMyBP-C increases the force and kinetics of twitches in living cardiac muscle. Further, cMyBP-C is a principal mediator of increased contractility observed with β-adrenergic stimulation or increased pacing, due to PKA and CaMKIIδ phosphorylations of cMyB-C. PMID:25740838

  20. Adrenergic Repression of the Epigenetic Reader MeCP2 Facilitates Cardiac Adaptation in Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Sandra C.; Gilsbach, Ralf; Preissl, Sebastian; Monroy Ordonez, Elsa Beatriz; Schnick, Tilman; Beetz, Nadine; Lother, Achim; Rommel, Carolin; Ihle, Hannah; Bugger, Heiko; Rühle, Frank; Schrepper, Andrea; Schwarzer, Michael; Heilmann, Claudia; Bönisch, Ulrike; Gupta, Shashi Kumar; Wilpert, Jochen; Kretz, Oliver; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Orth, Joachim; Aktories, Klaus; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Bode, Christoph; Stiller, Brigitte; Krüger, Markus; Thum, Thomas; Doenst, Torsten; Stoll, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: In chronic heart failure, increased adrenergic activation contributes to structural remodeling and altered gene expression. Although adrenergic signaling alters histone modifications, it is unknown, whether it also affects other epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation and its recognition. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism of regulation of the methyl-CpG–binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and its functional significance during cardiac pressure overload and unloading. Methods and Results: MeCP2 was identified as a reversibly repressed gene in mouse hearts after transverse aortic constriction and was normalized after removal of the constriction. Similarly, MeCP2 repression in human failing hearts resolved after unloading by a left ventricular assist device. The cluster miR-212/132 was upregulated after transverse aortic constriction or on activation of α1- and β1-adrenoceptors and miR-212/132 led to repression of MeCP2. Prevention of MeCP2 repression by a cardiomyocyte-specific, doxycycline-regulatable transgenic mouse model aggravated cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and contractile dysfunction after transverse aortic constriction. Ablation of MeCP2 in cardiomyocytes facilitated recovery of failing hearts after reversible transverse aortic constriction. Genome-wide expression analysis, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, and DNA methylation analysis identified mitochondrial genes and their transcriptional regulators as MeCP2 target genes. Coincident with its repression, MeCP2 was removed from its target genes, whereas DNA methylation of MeCP2 target genes remained stable during pressure overload. Conclusions: These data connect adrenergic activation with a microRNA—MeCP2 epigenetic pathway that is important for cardiac adaptation during the development and recovery from heart failure. PMID:26195221

  1. THE EFFECTS OF ADRENERGIC AND ADRENOLYTIC AGENTS ON THE APPEARANCE OF CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS DURING EXPERIMENTAL HYPOTHERMIA,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The object of this study was to compare the influence of the adrenergic drugs epinephrine and norepinephrine and the adrenolytic drug phentolamine on...fibrillation. Phentolamine was without significant effect on heart rate, blood pressure, and terminal temperature.

  2. Exacerbated cardiac fibrosis induced by β-adrenergic activation in old mice due to decreased AMPK activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Song, Yao; Li, Hao; Shen, Qiang; Shen, Jing; An, Xiangbo; Wu, Jimin; Zhang, Jianshu; Wu, Yunong; Xiao, Han; Zhang, Youyi

    2016-11-01

    Senescent hearts exhibit defective responses to β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) over-activation upon stress, leading to more severe pathological cardiac remodelling. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in protecting against ageing-associated cardiac remodelling in mice upon β-AR over-activation. 10-week-old (young) and 18-month-old (old) mice were subcutaneously injected with the β-AR agonist isoproterenol (ISO; 5 mg/kg). More extensive cardiac fibrosis was found in old mice upon ISO exposure than in young mice. Meanwhile, ISO treatment decreased AMPK activity and increased β-arrestin 1, but not β-arrestin 2, expression, and the effects of ISO on AMPK and β-arrestin 1 were greater in old mice than in young mice. Similarly, young AMPKα2-knockout (KO) mice showed more extensive cardiac fibrosis upon ISO exposure than that was observed in age-matched wild-type (WT) littermates. The extent of cardiac fibrosis in WT old mice was similar to that in young KO mice. Additionally, AMPK activities were decreased and β-arrestin 1 expression increased in KO mice. In contrast, the AMPK activator metformin decreased β-arrestin 1 expression and attenuated cardiac fibrosis in both young and old mice upon ISO exposure. In conclusion, more severe cardiac fibrosis is induced by ISO in old mice than in young mice. A decrease in AMPK activity, which further increases β-arrestin 1 expression, is the central mechanism underlying the ageing-related cardiac fibrosis induced by ISO. The AMPK activator metformin is a promising therapeutic agent for treating ageing-related cardiac remodelling upon β-AR over-activation.

  3. The role of adrenergic stimulation in maintaining maximum cardiac performance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during hypoxia, hyperkalemia and acidosis at 10 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Linda M; Obradovich, Shannon; Mouniargi, Janet; Farrell, Anthony P

    2006-07-01

    As rainbow trout approach exhaustion during prolonged exercise, they maintain maximum cardiac output despite the fact their venous blood, which bathes the heart, becomes hypoxic, acidotic and hyperkalemic. Because these factors are individually recognized to have detrimental inotropic and chronotropic effects on cardiac performance, we hypothesized that adrenergic stimulation is critical in maintaining maximum cardiac performance under these collectively adverse conditions in vivo. To test this hypothesis, maximum cardiac performance in the presence and absence of maximal adrenergic stimulation was assessed with in situ rainbow trout hearts using relevant hyperkalemic (5.0 mmol l(-1) K+), acidotic (pH 7.5) and hypoxic challenges. With tonic adrenergic stimulation (5.0 nmol l(-1) adrenaline), hearts produced only 44.8+/-14.6% of their normal maximum cardiac output when exposed under normoxic conditions (20 kPa) to the hyperkalemic, acidotic perfusate, indicating that in vivo there was no refuge from cardiac impairment even if venous blood was fully oxygenated. By contrast, maximum adrenergic stimulation (500 nmol l(-1) adrenaline), fully protected maximum cardiac performance under hyperkalemic and acidotic conditions over a wide range of oxygen availability, from normoxia to 2.0 kPa, a venous oxygen tension close to routine values in vivo. Extending the level of hypoxia to 1.3 kPa resulted in a 43.6+/-2.8% decrease in maximum cardiac output, with hearts failing when tested at 1.0 kPa. Our results suggest that adrenergic stimulation of the trout heart is critical in maintaining maximum performance during prolonged swimming tests, and probably during all forms of exhaustive activity and recovery, when venous blood is hyperkalemic, acidotic and hypoxic.

  4. Comparative anatomy and evolution of the cardiac innervation in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini, e. Geoffroy, 1812).

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Thorington, Richard W; Whatton, James F

    2009-05-01

    The morphology of the autonomic cardiac nervous system (ACNS) was examined in 24 sides of 12 New World monkeys (Platyrrhini) of all four families to document the morphology systematically and to study the evolutionary changes of the ACNS in this primate lineage. We report the following: (1) Although several trivial intra- and inter-specific variations are present, a family-dependent morphology of the ACNS does not exist in New World monkeys. (2) The sympathetic ganglia in New World monkeys consist of the superior cervical, the middle cervical, and the cervicothoracic which is composed of the inferior cervical and first and second thoracic, and the thoracic ganglia starting with the third thoracic. The general cardiac nervous system is the sympathetic middle and inferior cardiac nerves and all parasympathetic vagal cardiac branches. (3) The morphology of the ACNS in the New World monkeys is almost consistent regardless of the number of vertebrae, the cardiac position and deviation (axis), and the great arterial branching pattern of the aortic arch, and it is very similar to that in the Old World monkeys, with only one difference: the superior cervical ganglion in the New World monkeys tends to be relatively smaller, higher, and provides a narrower contribution to the spinal nerves than in the Old World monkeys. The ACNS morphology exhibits significant evolutionary changes within the primate lineage from New and Old World monkeys to humans. The comparative morphology within the lineage is concordant with the phylogeny, suggesting that the primate ACNS preserves its evolutionary history in close alignment with phylogeny.

  5. β-Adrenergic Receptor-Mediated Cardiac Contractility is Inhibited via Vasopressin Type 1A-Receptor-Dependent Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tilley, Douglas G.; Zhu, Weizhong; Myers, Valerie D.; Barr, Larry A.; Gao, Erhe; Li, Xue; Song, Jianliang; Carter, Rhonda L.; Makarewich, Catherine A.; Yu, Daohai; Troupes, Constantine D.; Grisanti, Laurel A.; Coleman, Ryan C.; Koch, Walter J.; Houser, Steven R.; Cheung, Joseph Y.; Feldman, Arthur M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Enhanced arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels are associated with increased mortality during end-stage human heart failure (HF), and cardiac AVP type 1A receptor (V1AR) expression becomes increased. Additionally, mice with cardiac-restricted V1AR overexpression develop cardiomyopathy and decreased β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) responsiveness. This led us to hypothesize that V1AR signaling regulated βAR responsiveness and in doing so contributes to HF development. Methods and Results Transaortic constriction resulted in decreased cardiac function and βAR density and increased cardiac V1AR expression, effects reversed by a V1AR-selective antagonist. Molecularly, V1AR stimulation led to decreased βAR ligand affinity, as well as βAR-induced Ca2+ mobilization and cAMP generation in isolated adult cardiomyocytes, effects recapitulated via ex vivo Langendorff analysis. V1AR-mediated regulation of βAR responsiveness was demonstrated to occur in a previously unrecognized Gq protein-independent/GRK-dependent manner. Conclusions This newly discovered relationship between cardiac V1AR and βAR may be informative for the treatment of patients with acute decompensated HF and elevated AVP. PMID:25205804

  6. Dynamic molecular imaging of cardiac innervation using a dual headpinhole SPECT system

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jicun; Boutchko, Rostyslav; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Reutter, BryanW.; Huesman, Ronald H.; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2008-03-29

    Typically 123I-MIBG is used for the study of innervation andfunction of the sympathetic nervous system in heart failure. The protocolinvolves two studies: first a planar or SPECT scan is performed tomeasure initial uptake of the tracer, followed some 3-4 hours later byanother study measuring the wash-out of the tracer from the heart. A fastwash-out is indicative of a compromised heart. In this work, a dual headpinhole SPECT system was used for imaging the distribution and kineticsof 123I-MIBG in the myocardium of spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) andnormotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. The system geometry was calibratedbased on a nonlinear point projection fitting method using a three-pointsource phantom. The angle variation effect of the parameters was modeledwith a sinusoidal function. A dynamic acquisition was performed byinjecting 123I-MIBG into rats immediately after starting the dataacquisition. The detectors rotated continuously performing a 360o dataacquisition every 90 seconds. We applied the factor analysis (FA)methodand region of interest (ROI) sampling method to obtain time activitycurves (TACs)in the blood pool and myocardium and then appliedtwo-compartment modeling to estimate the kinetic parameters. Since theinitial injection bolus is too fast for obtaining a consistenttomographic data set in the first few minutes of the study, we appliedthe FA method directly to projections during the first rotation. Then thetime active curves for blood and myocardial tissue were obtained from ROIsampling. The method was applied to determine if there were differencesin the kinetics between SHR and WKY rats and requires less time byreplacing the delayed scan at 3-4 hours after injection with a dynamicacquisition over 90 to 120 minutes. The results of a faster washout and asmaller distribution volume of 123IMIBG near the end of life in the SHRmodel of hypertrophic cardiomyopthy may be indicative of a failing heartin late stages of heart failure.

  7. Focal myocardial infarction induces global remodeling of cardiac sympathetic innervation: neural remodeling in a spatial context

    PubMed Central

    Ajijola, Olujimi A.; Yagishita, Daigo; Patel, Krishan J.; Vaseghi, Marmar; Zhou, Wei; Yamakawa, Kentaro; So, Eileen; Lux, Robert L.; Mahajan, Aman

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) induces neural and electrical remodeling at scar border zones. The impact of focal MI on global functional neural remodeling is not well understood. Sympathetic stimulation was performed in swine with anteroapical infarcts (MI; n = 9) and control swine (n = 9). A 56-electrode sock was placed over both ventricles to record electrograms at baseline and during left, right, and bilateral stellate ganglion stimulation. Activation recovery intervals (ARIs) were measured from electrograms. Global and regional ARI shortening, dispersion of repolarization, and activation propagation were assessed before and during sympathetic stimulation. At baseline, mean ARI was shorter in MI hearts than control hearts (365 ± 8 vs. 436 ± 9 ms, P < 0.0001), dispersion of repolarization was greater in MI versus control hearts (734 ± 123 vs. 362 ± 32 ms2, P = 0.02), and the infarcted region in MI hearts showed longer ARIs than noninfarcted regions (406 ± 14 vs. 365 ± 8 ms, P = 0.027). In control animals, percent ARI shortening was greater on anterior than posterior walls during right stellate ganglion stimulation (P = 0.0001), whereas left stellate ganglion stimulation showed the reverse (P = 0.0003). In infarcted animals, this pattern was completely lost. In 50% of the animals studied, sympathetic stimulation, compared with baseline, significantly altered the direction of activation propagation emanating from the intramyocardial scar during pacing. In conclusion, focal distal anterior MI alters regional and global pattern of sympathetic innervation, resulting in shorter ARIs in infarcted hearts, greater repolarization dispersion, and altered activation propagation. These conditions may underlie the mechanisms by which arrhythmias are initiated when sympathetic tone is enhanced. PMID:23893167

  8. Effect of age on upregulation of the cardiac adrenergic beta receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Tumer, N.; Houck, W.T.; Roberts, J.

    1990-03-01

    Radioligand binding studies were performed to determine whether upregulation of postjunctional beta receptors occurs in sympathectomized hearts of aged animals. Fischer 344 rats 6, 12, and 24 months of age (n = 10) were used in these experiments. To produce sympathectomy, rats were injected with 6-hydroxydopamine hydrobromide (6-OHDA; 2 x 50 mg/kg iv) on days 1 and 8; the animals were decapitated on day 15. The depletion of norepinephrine in the heart was about 86% in each age group. 125I-Iodopindolol (IPIN), a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist, was employed to determine the affinity and total number of beta adrenergic receptors in the ventricles of the rat heart. The maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) was significantly elevated by 37%, 48%, and 50% in hearts from sympathectomized 6-, 12-, and 24-month-old rats, respectively. These results indicate that beta receptor mechanisms in older hearts can respond to procedures that cause upregulation of the beta adrenergic receptors.

  9. Increased dependency of cardiac pacemaker activity on extracellular Ca after adrenergic blockade in the frog heart.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Y

    1986-01-01

    The frog sinus venosus shows spontaneous regular pacemaker activity, even in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. When an alpha-adrenergic blocking agent (phentolamine) is applied, the rate of pacemaker activity, height of action potential, rate of slow diastolic depolarization, and the maximum diastolic potential become strongly dependent upon the extracellular Ca2+ concentration.

  10. Synergistic prognostic values of cardiac sympathetic innervation with left ventricular hypertrophy and left atrial size in heart failure patients without reduced left ventricular ejection fraction: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Takahiro; Nakata, Tomoaki; Hashimoto, Akiyoshi; Yuda, Satoshi; Wakabayashi, Takeru; Kouzu, Hidemichi; Kaneko, Naofumi; Hase, Mamoru; Tsuchihashi, Kazufumi; Miura, Tetsuji

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study tested whether cardiac sympathetic innervation assessed by metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) activity has long-term prognostic value in combination with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and left atrial size in heart failure (HF) patients without reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Design A single-centre prospective cohort study. Setting/participants With primary endpoints of cardiac death and rehospitalisation due to HF progression, 178 consecutive symptomatic HF patients with 74% men, mean age of 56 years and mean LVEF of 64.5% were followed up for 80 months. The entry criteria consisted of LVEF more than 50%, completion of predischarge clinical evaluations including cardiac MIBG and echocardiographic studies and at least more than 1-year follow-up when survived. Results Thirty-four patients with cardiac evens had larger left atrial dimension (LAD), increased LV mass index, reduced MIBG activity quantified as heart-to-mediastinum ratio (HMR) than did the others. Multivariable Cox analysis showed that LAD and HMR were significant predictors (HR of 1.080 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.16, p=0.044) and 0.107 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.61, p=0.012, respectively). Thresholds of HMR (1.65) and LAD (37 mm) were closely related to identification of high-risk patients. In particular, HMR was a significant determinant of cardiac events in both patients with and without LV hypertrophy. Reduced HMR with enlarged LAD or LV hypertrophy identified patients at most increased risk; overall log-rank value, 11.5, p=0.0032 for LAD and 17.5, p=0.0002, respectively. Conclusions In HF patients without reduced LV ejection fraction, impairment of cardiac sympathetic innervation is related to cardiac outcomes independently and synergistically with LA size and LV hypertrophy. Cardiac sympathetic innervation assessment can contribute to better risk-stratification in combination with evaluation of LA size and LV mass but is needed to be evaluated for establishing aetiology

  11. Vgl-4, a novel member of the vestigial-like family of transcription cofactors, regulates alpha1-adrenergic activation of gene expression in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiao-Huei; Mullett, Steven J; Stewart, Alexandre F R

    2004-07-16

    Cardiac and skeletal muscle genes are regulated by the transcriptional enhancer factor (TEF-1) family of transcription factors. In skeletal muscle, TEF-1 factors interact with a skeletal muscle-specific cofactor called Vestigial-like 2 (Vgl-2) that is related to the Drosophila protein Vestigial. Here, we characterize Vgl-4, the only member of the Vestigial-like family expressed in the heart. Unlike other members of the Vgl family that have a single TEF-1 interaction domain called the tondu (TDU) motif, Vgl-4 has two TDU motifs in its carboxyl-terminal domain. Like other Vgl factors, Vgl-4 physically interacts with TEF-1 in an immunoprecipitation assay. Vgl-4 functionally interacts with TEF-1 and also with myocyte enhancer factor 2 in a mammalian two-hybrid assay. Overexpression of Vgl-4 in cardiac myocytes interfered with the basal expression and alpha1-adrenergic receptor-dependent activation of a TEF-1-dependent skeletal alpha-actin promoter. In cardiac myocytes cultured in serum and in serum-free medium, a myc-tagged Vgl-4 protein was located in the nucleus and cytoplasm but was exported from the nucleus when cells were treated with alpha1-adrenergic receptor agonist. A chimeric nuclear-retained Vgl-4 protein inhibited alpha1-adrenergic receptor-dependent activation. In contrast, deletion of the TDU motifs of Vgl-4 prevented Vgl-4 nuclear localization, relieved Vgl-4 interference of basal activity, and enhanced alpha1-adrenergic up-regulation of the skeletal alpha-actin promoter. Nuclear export of Vgl-4 is dependent on the nuclear exportin CRM-1. These results suggest that Vgl-4 modulates the activity of TEF-1 factors and counteracts alpha1-adrenergic activation of gene expression in cardiac myocytes.

  12. Cardiomyocyte Circadian Oscillations Are Cell-Autonomous, Amplified by β-Adrenergic Signaling, and Synchronized in Cardiac Ventricle Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, David K.

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks impact vital cardiac parameters such as blood pressure and heart rate, and adverse cardiac events such as myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. In mammals, the central circadian pacemaker, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, synchronizes cellular circadian clocks in the heart and many other tissues throughout the body. Cardiac ventricle explants maintain autonomous contractions and robust circadian oscillations of clock gene expression in culture. In the present study, we examined the relationship between intrinsic myocardial function and circadian rhythms in cultures from mouse heart. We cultured ventricular explants or dispersed cardiomyocytes from neonatal mice expressing a PER2::LUC bioluminescent reporter of circadian clock gene expression. We found that isoproterenol, a β-adrenoceptor agonist known to increase heart rate and contractility, also amplifies PER2 circadian rhythms in ventricular explants. We found robust, cell-autonomous PER2 circadian rhythms in dispersed cardiomyocytes. Single-cell rhythms were initially synchronized in ventricular explants but desynchronized in dispersed cells. In addition, we developed a method for long-term, simultaneous monitoring of clock gene expression, contraction rate, and basal intracellular Ca2+ level in cardiomyocytes using PER2::LUC in combination with GCaMP3, a genetically encoded fluorescent Ca2+ reporter. In contrast to robust PER2 circadian rhythms in cardiomyocytes, we detected no rhythms in contraction rate and only weak rhythms in basal Ca2+ level. In summary, we found that PER2 circadian rhythms of cardiomyocytes are cell-autonomous, amplified by adrenergic signaling, and synchronized by intercellular communication in ventricle explants, but we detected no robust circadian rhythms in contraction rate or basal Ca2+. PMID:27459195

  13. Mechanism of alpha-2 adrenergic modulation of canine cardiac Purkinje action potential.

    PubMed

    Lee, H C; Cai, J J; Arnar, D O; Shibata, E F; Martins, J B

    1996-08-01

    We reported recently that stimulation of postjunctional alpha-2 adrenergic receptors prolongs the action potential durations (APD) of isolated canine Purkinje fibers. With standard microelectrode techniques, we examined the ionic mechanism through which alpha-2 adrenergic stimulation prolonged Purkinje APD, by measuring the effects of inhibitors of the various plateau currents on the alpha-2-mediated prolongation of APD. The alpha-2-specific agonist UK 14,304 (0.1 microM) prolonged the Purkinje APD at 50% repolarization and the APD at 90% repolarization, and these effects were inhibited by yohimbine (0.1 microM). The Purkinje APD at 50% repolarization and the APD at 90% repolarization were prolonged significantly with the transient outward potassium current inhibitor 4-aminopyridine (1 mM), the rapid component of delayed rectifier potassium current inhibitor d-sotalol (10 microM), the slow component of delayed rectifier potassium current inhibitor indapamide (0.1 microM) and the chloride current inhibitor mefenamic acid (10 nM) and were shortened significantly with the calcium current inhibitor nifedipine (0.3 microM). Prolongation of Purkinje APD at 50% repolarization and APD at 90% repolarization by UK 14,304 remained intact in the presence of d-sotalol, indapamide, mefenamic acid and nifedipine. All of these UK 14,304 effects were significantly reversed by yohimbine. Only in the presence of 4-aminopyridine did UK 14,304 fail to prolong Purkinje APD. The phase 1 magnitudes of Purkinje action potentials were also significantly inhibited by UK 14,304. This effect was completely abolished only in the presence of 4-aminopyridine. These results suggest that inhibition of the 4-aminopyridine-sensitive transient outward potassium current is the major ionic mechanism by which alpha-2 adrenergic stimulation prolongs Purkinje APD.

  14. Alpha-1-adrenergic receptors in heart failure: the adaptive arm of the cardiac response to chronic catecholamine stimulation.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Brian C; OʼConnell, Timothy D; Simpson, Paul C

    2014-04-01

    Alpha-1-adrenergic receptors (ARs) are G protein-coupled receptors activated by catecholamines. The alpha-1A and alpha-1B subtypes are expressed in mouse and human myocardium, whereas the alpha-1D protein is found only in coronary arteries. There are far fewer alpha-1-ARs than beta-ARs in the nonfailing heart, but their abundance is maintained or increased in the setting of heart failure, which is characterized by pronounced chronic elevation of catecholamines and beta-AR dysfunction. Decades of evidence from gain and loss-of-function studies in isolated cardiac myocytes and numerous animal models demonstrate important adaptive functions for cardiac alpha-1-ARs to include physiological hypertrophy, positive inotropy, ischemic preconditioning, and protection from cell death. Clinical trial data indicate that blocking alpha-1-ARs is associated with incident heart failure in patients with hypertension. Collectively, these findings suggest that alpha-1-AR activation might mitigate the well-recognized toxic effects of beta-ARs in the hyperadrenergic setting of chronic heart failure. Thus, exogenous cardioselective activation of alpha-1-ARs might represent a novel and viable approach to the treatment of heart failure.

  15. Alpha-1-Adrenergic Receptors in Heart Failure: The Adaptive Arm of the Cardiac Response to Chronic Catecholamine Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Brian C.; O'Connell, Timothy D.; Simpson, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-1-adrenergic receptors are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) activated by catecholamines. The alpha-1A and alpha-1B subtypes are expressed in mouse and human myocardium, whereas the alpha-1D protein is found only in coronary arteries. There are far fewer alpha-1-ARs than beta-ARs in the non-failing heart, but their abundance is maintained or increased in the setting of heart failure, which is characterized by pronounced chronic elevation of catecholamines and b□eta-AR dysfunction. Decades of evidence from gain- and loss-of-function studies in isolated cardiac myocytes and numerous animal models demonstrate important adaptive functions for cardiac alpha-1-ARs, to include physiological hypertrophy, positive inotropy, ischemic preconditioning, and protection from cell death. Clinical trial data indicate that blocking alpha-1-ARs is associated with incident heart failure in patients with hypertension. Collectively, these findings suggest that alpha-1-AR activation might mitigate the well-recognized toxic effects of beta-ARs in the hyperadrenergic setting of chronic heart failure. Thus, exogenous cardioselective activation of alpha-1-ARs might represent a novel and viable approach to the treatment of heart failure. PMID:24145181

  16. GRK2 blockade with βARKct is essential for cardiac β2-adrenergic receptor signaling towards increased contractility

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background β1- and β2–adrenergic receptors (ARs) play distinct roles in the heart, e.g. β1AR is pro-contractile and pro-apoptotic but β2AR anti-apoptotic and only weakly pro-contractile. G protein coupled receptor kinase (GRK)-2 desensitizes and opposes βAR pro-contractile signaling by phosphorylating the receptor and inducing beta-arrestin (βarr) binding. We posited herein that GRK2 blockade might enhance the pro-contractile signaling of the β2AR subtype in the heart. We tested the effects of cardiac-targeted GRK2 inhibition in vivo exclusively on β2AR signaling under normal conditions and in heart failure (HF). Results We crossed β1AR knockout (B1KO) mice with cardiac-specific transgenic mice expressing the βARKct, a known GRK2 inhibitor, and studied the offspring under normal conditions and in post-myocardial infarction (MI). βARKct expression in vivo proved essential for β2AR-dependent contractile function, as β2AR stimulation with isoproterenol fails to increase contractility in either healthy or post-MI B1KO mice and it only does so in the presence of βARKct. The main underlying mechanism for this is blockade of the interaction of phosphodiesterase (PDE) type 4D with the cardiac β2AR, which is normally mediated by the actions of GRK2 and βarrs on the receptor. The molecular “brake” that PDE4D poses on β2AR signaling to contractility stimulation is thus “released”. Regarding the other beneficial functions of cardiac β2AR, βARKct increased overall survival of the post-MI B1KO mice progressing to HF, via a decrease in cardiac apoptosis and an increase in wound healing-associated inflammation early (at 24 hrs) post-MI. However, these effects disappear by 4 weeks post-MI, and, in their place, upregulation of the other major GRK in the heart, GRK5, is observed. Conclusions GRK2 inhibition in vivo with βARKct is absolutely essential for cardiac β2AR pro-contractile signaling and function. In addition, β2AR anti-apoptotic signaling in

  17. AKAP13 Rho-GEF and PKD-Binding Domain Deficient Mice Develop Normally but Have an Abnormal Response to β-Adrenergic-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Spindler, Matthew J.; Burmeister, Brian T.; Huang, Yu; Hsiao, Edward C.; Salomonis, Nathan; Scott, Mark J.; Srivastava, Deepak; Carnegie, Graeme K.; Conklin, Bruce R.

    2013-01-01

    Background A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are scaffolding molecules that coordinate and integrate G-protein signaling events to regulate development, physiology, and disease. One family member, AKAP13, encodes for multiple protein isoforms that contain binding sites for protein kinase A (PKA) and D (PKD) and an active Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Rho-GEF) domain. In mice, AKAP13 is required for development as null embryos die by embryonic day 10.5 with cardiovascular phenotypes. Additionally, the AKAP13 Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains mediate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in cell culture. However, the requirements for the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains during development and cardiac hypertrophy are unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine if these AKAP13 protein domains are required for development, we used gene-trap events to create mutant mice that lacked the Rho-GEF and/or the protein kinase D-binding domains. Surprisingly, heterozygous matings produced mutant mice at Mendelian ratios that had normal viability and fertility. The adult mutant mice also had normal cardiac structure and electrocardiograms. To determine the role of these domains during β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy, we stressed the mice with isoproterenol. We found that heart size was increased similarly in mice lacking the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains and wild-type controls. However, the mutant hearts had abnormal cardiac contractility as measured by fractional shortening and ejection fraction. Conclusions These results indicate that the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains of AKAP13 are not required for mouse development, normal cardiac architecture, or β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophic remodeling. However, these domains regulate aspects of β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:23658642

  18. β-adrenergic Responsiveness in the Type 2 Diabetic Heart: Effects on Cardiac Reserve.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Genevieve A; Wilson, Luke C; Lamberts, Regis R; Majeed, Kamran; Lal, Sudish; Wilkins, Gerard T; Baldi, James C

    2016-12-14

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with reduced cardiac reserve and aerobic capacity. Altered myocardial autonomic nervous regulation has been demonstrated in humans with diabetes (indirectly) and animal models (directly).

  19. Restraint stress exacerbates cardiac and adipose tissue pathology via β-adrenergic signaling in rats with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Natsumi; Nagasawa, Kai; Minagawa, Yuji; Ito, Shogo; Sano, Yusuke; Yamada, Yuichiro; Hattori, Takuya; Watanabe, Shogo; Murohara, Toyoaki; Nagata, Kohzo

    2015-05-15

    Restraint stress stimulates sympathetic nerve activity and can affect adiposity and metabolism. However, the effects of restraint stress on cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in metabolic syndrome (MetS) have remained unclear. We investigated the effects of chronic restraint stress and β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) blockade on cardiac and adipose tissue pathology and metabolic disorders in a rat model of MetS. DahlS.Z-Lepr(fa)/Lepr(fa) (DS/obese) rats, derived from a cross between Dahl salt-sensitive and Zucker rats. Rats were exposed to restraint stress (restraint cage, 2 h/day) for 4 wk from 9 wk of age with or without daily subcutaneous administration of the β-AR blocker propranolol (2 mg/kg). Age-matched homozygous lean littermates of DS/obese rats (DahlS.Z-Lepr(+)/Lepr(+) rats) served as control animals. Chronic restraint stress exacerbated hypertension as well as left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, diastolic dysfunction, and oxidative stress in a manner sensitive to propranolol treatment. Restraint stress attenuated body weight gain in DS/obese rats, and this effect tended to be reversed by propranolol (P = 0.0682). Restraint stress or propranolol did not affect visceral or subcutaneous fat mass. However, restraint stress potentiated cardiac and visceral adipose tissue inflammation in DS/obese rats, and these effects were ameliorated by propranolol. Restraint stress also exacerbated glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and abnormal lipid metabolism in a manner sensitive to propranolol. In addition, restraint stress increased urinary norepinephrine excretion, and propranolol attenuated this effect. Our results thus implicate β-ARs in the exacerbation of cardiac and adipose tissue pathology and abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism induced by restraint stress in this model of MetS.

  20. Tubulin polymerization disrupts cardiac β-adrenergic regulation of late INa

    PubMed Central

    Dybkova, Nataliya; Wagner, Stefan; Backs, Johannes; Hund, Thomas J.; Mohler, Peter J.; Sowa, Thomas; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Maier, Lars S.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The anticancer drug paclitaxel (TXL) that polymerizes microtubules is associated with arrhythmias and sinus node dysfunction. TXL can alter membrane expression of Na channels (NaV1.5) and Na current (INa), but the mechanisms are unknown. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) can be activated by β-adrenergic stimulation and regulates INa gating. We tested whether TXL interferes with isoproterenol (ISO)-induced activation of CaMKII and consequent INa regulation. Methods and results In wild-type mouse myocytes, the addition of ISO (1 µmol/L) resulted in increased CaMKII auto-phosphorylation (western blotting). This increase was completely abolished after pre-treatment with TXL (100 µmol/L, 1.5 h). The mechanism was further investigated in human embryonic kidney cells. TXL inhibited the ISO-induced β-arrestin translocation. Interestingly, both knockdown of β-arrestin2 expression using small interfering RNA and inhibition of exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) blocked the ISO-induced CaMKII auto-phosphorylation similar to TXL. The generation of cAMP, however, was unaltered (Epac1-camps). CaMKII-dependent Na channel function was measured using patch-clamp technique in isolated cardiomyoctes. ISO stimulation failed to induce CaMKII-dependent enhancement of late INa and Na channel inactivation (negative voltage shift in steady-state activation and enhanced intermediate inactivation) after pre-incubation with TXL. Consistent with this, TXL also inhibited ISO-induced CaMKII-specific Na channel phosphorylation (at serine 571 of NaV1.5). Conclusion Pre-incubation with TXL disrupts the ISO-dependent CaMKII activation and consequent Na channel regulation. This may be important for patients receiving TXL treatments, but also relevant for conditions of increased CaMKII expression and enhanced β-adrenergic stimulation like in heart failure. PMID:24812278

  1. Developmental changes in the role of a pertussis toxin sensitive guanine nucleotide binding protein in the rat cardiac alpha sub 1 -adrenergic system

    SciTech Connect

    Han, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    During development, the cardiac alpha{sub 1}-adrenergic chronotropic response changes from positive in the neonate to negative in the adult. This thesis examined the possibility of a developmental change in coupling of a PT-sensitive G-protein to the alpha{sub 1}-adrenergic receptor. Radioligand binding experiments performed with the iodinated alpha{sub 1}-selective radioligand ({sup 125}I)-I-2-({beta}-(4-hydroxphenyl)ethylaminomethyl)tetralone (({sup 125}I)-IBE 2254) demonstrated that the alpha{sub 1}-adrenergic receptor is coupled to a G-protein in both neonatal and adult rat hearts. However, in the neonate the alpha{sub 1}-adrenergic receptor is coupled to a PT-insensitive G-protein, whereas in the adult the alpha{sub 1}-adrenergic receptor is coupled to both a PT-insensitive and a PT-sensitive G-protein. Consistent with the results from binding experiments, PT did not have any effect on the alpha{sub 1}-mediated positive chronotropic response in the neonate, whereas in the adult the alpha{sub 1}-mediated negative chronotropic response was completely converted to a positive one after PT-treatment. This thesis also examined the possibility of an alteration in coupling of the alpha{sub 1}-adrenergic receptor to its effector under certain circumstances such as high potassium (K{sup +}) depolarization in nerve-muscle (NM) co-cultures, a system which has been previously shown to be a convenient in vitro model to study the mature inhibitory alpha{sub 1}-response.

  2. Dynamic mass redistribution analysis of endogenous β-adrenergic receptor signaling in neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Carter, Rhonda L; Grisanti, Laurel A; Yu, Justine E; Repas, Ashley A; Woodall, Meryl; Ibetti, Jessica; Koch, Walter J; Jacobson, Marlene A; Tilley, Douglas G

    2014-02-01

    Label-free systems for the agnostic assessment of cellular responses to receptor stimulation have been shown to provide a sensitive method to dissect receptor signaling. β-adenergic receptors (βAR) are important regulators of normal and pathologic cardiac function and are expressed in cardiomyocytes as well as cardiac fibroblasts, where relatively fewer studies have explored their signaling responses. Using label-free whole cell dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assays we investigated the response patterns to stimulation of endogenous βAR in primary neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts (NRCF). Catecholamine stimulation of the cells induced a negative DMR deflection resulting in a concentration-dependent pharmacological response that was competitively blocked by βAR blockade and non-competitively blocked by irreversible uncoupling of Gs proteins. Pharmacological profiling of subtype-selective βAR agonists and antagonists revealed a dominant role of β2AR in mediating the DMR responses, consistent with the relative expression levels of β2AR and β1AR in NRCF. Additionally, βAR-mediated cAMP generation was assessed via a fluorescence biosensor, revealing similar kinetics between DMR responses and cAMP generation. As such, βAR-dependent DMR responses were enhanced via inhibition of cAMP degradation, as well as dynamin-mediated receptor internalization. Finally, we assessed G protein-independent βAR signaling through epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). While inhibition of EGFR reduced the DMR response to βAR stimulation, our results demonstrate that G protein-dependent signaling produces a majority of the biological response to βAR stimulation in NRCF. Altogether, measurement of DMR responses in primary cardiac fibroblasts provides a sensitive readout for investigating endogenous βAR signaling via both G protein-dependent and -independent pathways.

  3. β-adrenergic effects on cardiac myofilaments and contraction in an integrated rabbit ventricular myocyte model

    PubMed Central

    Negroni, Jorge A.; Morotti, Stefano; Lascano, Elena C.; Gomes, Aldrin V.; Grandi, Eleonora; Puglisi, José L; Bers, Donald M.

    2015-01-01

    A five-state model of myofilament contraction was integrated into a well-established rabbit ventricular myocyte model of ion channels, Ca2+ transporters and kinase signaling to analyze the relative contribution of different phosphorylation targets to the overall mechanical response driven by β-adrenergic stimulation (β-AS). β-AS effect on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ handling, Ca2+, K+ and Cl− currents, and Na+/K+-ATPase properties were included based on experimental data. The inotropic effect on the myofilaments was represented as reduced myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity (XBCa) and titin stiffness, and increased cross-bridge (XB) cycling rate (XBcy). Assuming independent roles of XBCa and XBcy, the model reproduced experimental β-AS responses on action potentials and Ca2+ transient amplitude and kinetics. It also replicated the behavior of force-Ca2+, release-restretch, length-step, stiffness-frequency and force-velocity relationships, and increased force and shortening in isometric and isotonic twitch contractions. The β-AS effect was then switched off from individual targets to analyze their relative impact on contractility. Preventing β-AS effects on L-type Ca2+ channels or phospholamban limited Ca2+ transients and contractile responses in parallel, while blocking phospholemman and K+ channel (IKs) effects enhanced Ca2+ and inotropy. Removal of β-AS effects from XBCa enhanced contractile force while decreasing peak Ca2+ (due to greater Ca2+ buffering), but had less effect on shortening. Conversely, preventing β-AS effects on XBcy preserved Ca2+ transient effects, but blunted inotropy (both isometric force and especially shortening). Removal of titin effects had little impact on contraction. Finally, exclusion of β-AS from XBCa and XBcy while preserving effects on other targets resulted in preserved peak isometric force response (with slower kinetics) but nearly abolished enhanced shortening. β-AS effects on XBCa vs. XBcy have greater impact on isometric

  4. β-adrenergic effects on cardiac myofilaments and contraction in an integrated rabbit ventricular myocyte model.

    PubMed

    Negroni, Jorge A; Morotti, Stefano; Lascano, Elena C; Gomes, Aldrin V; Grandi, Eleonora; Puglisi, José L; Bers, Donald M

    2015-04-01

    A five-state model of myofilament contraction was integrated into a well-established rabbit ventricular myocyte model of ion channels, Ca(2+) transporters and kinase signaling to analyze the relative contribution of different phosphorylation targets to the overall mechanical response driven by β-adrenergic stimulation (β-AS). β-AS effect on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) handling, Ca(2+), K(+) and Cl(-) currents, and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase properties was included based on experimental data. The inotropic effect on the myofilaments was represented as reduced myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity (XBCa) and titin stiffness, and increased cross-bridge (XB) cycling rate (XBcy). Assuming independent roles of XBCa and XBcy, the model reproduced experimental β-AS responses on action potentials and Ca(2+) transient amplitude and kinetics. It also replicated the behavior of force-Ca(2+), release-restretch, length-step, stiffness-frequency and force-velocity relationships, and increased force and shortening in isometric and isotonic twitch contractions. The β-AS effect was then switched off from individual targets to analyze their relative impact on contractility. Preventing β-AS effects on L-type Ca(2+) channels or phospholamban limited Ca(2+) transients and contractile responses in parallel, while blocking phospholemman and K(+) channel (IKs) effects enhanced Ca(2+) and inotropy. Removal of β-AS effects from XBCa enhanced contractile force while decreasing peak Ca(2+) (due to greater Ca(2+) buffering), but had less effect on shortening. Conversely, preventing β-AS effects on XBcy preserved Ca(2+) transient effects, but blunted inotropy (both isometric force and especially shortening). Removal of titin effects had little impact on contraction. Finally, exclusion of β-AS from XBCa and XBcy while preserving effects on other targets resulted in preserved peak isometric force response (with slower kinetics) but nearly abolished enhanced shortening. β-AS effects on XBCa and XBcy

  5. Maximal exercise limitation in functionally overreached triathletes: role of cardiac adrenergic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Le Meur, Yann; Louis, Julien; Aubry, Anaël; Guéneron, Jacques; Pichon, Aurélien; Schaal, Karine; Corcuff, Jean-Benoît; Hatem, Stéphane N; Isnard, Richard; Hausswirth, Christophe

    2014-08-01

    Functional overreaching (F-OR) induced by heavy load endurance training programs has been associated with reduced heart rate values both at rest and during exercise. Because this phenomenon may reflect an impairment of cardiac response, this research was conducted to test this hypothesis. Thirty-five experienced male triathletes were tested (11 control and 24 overload subjects) before overloading (Pre), immediately after overloading (Mid), and after a 2-wk taper period (Post). Physiological responses were assessed during an incremental cycling protocol to volitional exhaustion, including catecholamines release, oxygen uptake (V̇o2), arteriovenous O2 difference, cardiac output (Q̇), and systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Twelve subjects of the overload group developed signs of F-OR at Mid (decreased performance with concomitant high perceived fatigue), while 12 others did not [acute fatigue group (AF)]. V̇o2max was reduced only in F-OR subjects at Mid. Lower Q̇ and SBP values with greater arteriovenous O2 difference were reported in F-OR subjects at all exercising intensities, while no significant change was observed in the control and AF groups. A concomitant decrease in epinephrine excretion was reported only in the F-OR group. All values returned to baseline at Post. Following an overload endurance training program leading to F-OR, the cardiac response to exhaustive exercise is transiently impaired, possibly due to reduced epinephrine excretion. This finding is likely to explain the complex process of underperformance syndrome experienced by F-OR endurance athletes during heavy load programs.

  6. Influence of increased adrenergic activity and magnesium depletion on cardiac rhythm in alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed Central

    Denison, H; Jern, S; Jagenburg, R; Wendestam, C; Wallerstedt, S

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the prevalence of arrhythmias in alcoholic men during detoxification and its relation to neuroendocrine activation and electrolyte disturbances. DESIGN--Consecutive case-control study. SETTING--Primary and secondary care, detoxification ward. PATIENTS AND CONTROLS--19 otherwise healthy alcoholic men (DSM-III-R) with withdrawal symptoms necessitating detoxification in hospital. 19 age matched, healthy non-alcoholic men as controls for Holter recordings. INTERVENTIONS--Treatment with chlomethiazole; additional treatment with carbamazepine in patients with previous seizures. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Computer based analyses of mean heart rate and arrhythmias from 24 hour Holter recordings, 24 hour urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline, magnesium retention measured by means of intravenous loading test, and serum concentrations of electrolytes. RESULTS--The 24 hour mean heart rate was higher in the alcoholic men (97.4 beats/minute, 95% confidence interval (CI) 91.2 to 103.6) than in the controls (69.6 beats/minute, 95% CI 65.4 to 73.8, P < 0.001). However, there was no difference in diurnal heart rate variation. The prevalence of premature supraventricular depolarisations was lower in the alcoholic men (P < 0.05). Neither atrial fibrillation nor malignant ventricular arrhythmias occurred. The sinus tachycardia in the alcoholic men correlated with the concomitant urinary excretion of catecholamines (P < 0.05). The mean serum magnesium concentration was 0.78 mmol/l (95% CI 0.73 to 0.83) in the alcoholic men and 0.83 mmol/l (95% CI 0.81 to 0.85) in a reference population of 55 men aged 40. Magnesium depletion (defined as magnesium retention > 30%) was detected in 10 alcoholic men (53%). Three alcoholic men had serum potassium concentrations < or = 3.3 mmol/l on admission. CONCLUSION--Increased adrenergic activity, magnesium depletion, and hypokalaemia are often seen after heavy drinking, but in alcoholic men without clinical heart disease

  7. Cardioprotective Effect of Ulmus wallichiana Planchon in β-Adrenergic Agonist Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Anees A.; Lahiri, Shibani; Mohan, Divya; Valicherla, Guru R.; Gupta, Anand P.; Kumar, Sudhir; Maurya, Rakesh; Bora, Himanshu K.; Hanif, Kashif; Gayen, Jiaur R.

    2016-01-01

    Ulmus wallichiana Planchon (Family: Ulmaceae), a traditional medicinal plant, was used in fracture healing in the folk tradition of Uttarakhand, Himalaya, India. The present study investigated the cardioprotective effect of ethanolic extract (EE) and butanolic fraction (BF) of U. wallichiana in isoprenaline (ISO) induced cardiac hypertrophy in Wistar rats. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by ISO (5 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously) in rats. Treatment was performed by oral administration of EE and BF of U. wallichiana (500 and 50 mg/kg/day). The blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured by non-invasive blood pressure measurement technique. Plasma renin, Ang II, NO, and cGMP level were estimated using an ELISA kit. Angiotensin converting enzyme activity was estimated. BP and HR were significantly increased in ISO group (130.33 ± 1.67 mmHg vs. 111.78 ± 1.62 mmHg, p < 0.001 and 450.51 ± 4.90 beats/min vs. 347.82 ± 6.91 beats/min, respectively, p < 0.001). The BP and HR were significantly reduced (EE: 117.53 ± 2.27 mmHg vs. 130.33 ± 1.67 mmHg, p < 0.001, BF: 119.74 ± 3.32 mmHg vs. 130.33 ± 1.67 mmHg, p < 0.001); HR: (EE: 390.22 ± 8.24 beats/min vs. 450.51 ± 4.90 beats/min, p < 0.001, BF: 345.38 ± 6.79 beats/min vs. 450.51 ± 4.90 beats/min, p < 0.001) after the treatment of EE and BF of U. wallichiana, respectively. Plasma renin, Ang II, ACE activity was decreased and NO, cGMP level were increased. The EE and BF of U. wallichiana down regulated the expression of ANP, BNP, TNF-α, IL-6, MMP9, β1-AR, TGFβ1 and up regulated NOS3, ACE2 and Mas expression level, respectively. Thus, this study demonstrated that U. wallichiana has cardioprotective effect against ISO induced cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:28066255

  8. Adenylyl cyclase type 6 overexpression selectively enhances beta-adrenergic and prostacyclin receptor-mediated inhibition of cardiac fibroblast function because of colocalization in lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqiu; Thangavel, Muthusamy; Sun, Shu Qiang; Kaminsky, Joseph; Mahautmr, Penden; Stitham, Jeremiah; Hwa, John; Ostrom, Rennolds S

    2008-06-01

    Cardiac fibroblasts produce and degrade extracellular matrix and are critical in regulating cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy. Fibroblasts are activated by factors such as transforming growth factor beta and inhibited by agents that elevate 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. cAMP signal generation and response is known to be compartmentalized in many cell types in part through the colocalization of receptors and specific adenylyl cyclase isoforms in lipid rafts and caveolae. The present study sought to define the localization of key G protein-coupled receptors with adenylyl cyclase type 6 (AC6) in lipid rafts of rat cardiac fibroblasts and to determine if this colocalization was functionally relevant. We found that cardiac fibroblasts produce cAMP in response to agonists for beta-adrenergic (isoproterenol), prostaglandin EP2 (butaprost), adenosine (adenosine-5'-N-ethylcarboxamide, NECA), and prostacyclin (beraprost) receptors. Overexpression of AC6 increased cAMP production stimulated by isoproterenol and beraprost but not by butaprost or NECA. A key function of fibroblasts is the production of collagen. Isoproterenol- and beraprostmediated inhibition of collagen synthesis was also enhanced by AC6 overexpression, while inhibition by butaprost and NECA were unaltered. Lipid raft fractions from cardiac fibroblasts contain the preponderance of beta-adrenergic receptors and AC6 but exclude EP2 receptors. While we could not determine the localization of native prostacyclin receptors, we were able to determine that epitope-tagged prostanoid IP receptors (IPR) expressed in COS7 cells did localize, in part, in lipid raft fractions. These findings indicate that IP receptors are expressed in lipid rafts and can activate raft-localized AC isoforms. AC6 is completely compartmentized in lipid raft domains where it is activated solely by coresident G protein-coupled receptors to regulate cardiac fibroblast function.

  9. Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NAADP) and Cyclic ADP-Ribose (cADPR) Mediate Ca2+ Signaling in Cardiac Hypertrophy Induced by β-Adrenergic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Shawl, Asif Iqbal; Im, Soo-Yeul; Nam, Tae-Sik; Lee, Sun-Hwa; Ko, Jae-Ki; Jang, Kyu Yoon; Kim, Donghee; Kim, Uh-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Ca2+ signaling plays a fundamental role in cardiac hypertrophic remodeling, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We investigated the role of Ca2+-mobilizing second messengers, NAADP and cADPR, in the cardiac hypertrophy induced by β-adrenergic stimulation by isoproterenol. Isoproterenol induced an initial Ca2+ transients followed by sustained Ca2+ rises. Inhibition of the cADPR pathway with 8-Br-cADPR abolished only the sustained Ca2+ increase, whereas inhibition of the NAADP pathway with bafilomycin-A1 abolished both rapid and sustained phases of the isoproterenol-mediated signal, indicating that the Ca2+ signal is mediated by a sequential action of NAADP and cADPR. The sequential production of NAADP and cADPR was confirmed biochemically. The isoproterenol-mediated Ca2+ increase and cADPR production, but not NAADP production, were markedly reduced in cardiomyocytes obtained from CD38 knockout mice. CD38 knockout mice were rescued from chronic isoproterenol infusion-induced myocardial hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and decrease in fractional shortening and ejection fraction. Thus, our findings indicate that β-adrenergic stimulation contributes to the development of maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy via Ca2+ signaling mediated by NAADP-synthesizing enzyme and CD38 that produce NAADP and cADPR, respectively. PMID:26959359

  10. 2-Year Natural Decline of Cardiac Sympathetic Innervation in Idiopathic Parkinson Disease Studied with 11C-Hydroxyephedrine PET.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka Kit; Raffel, David M; Bohnen, Nicolaas I; Altinok, Gulcin; Gilman, Sid; Frey, Kirk A

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to detect regional patterns of cardiac sympathetic denervation in idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) using (11)C-hydroxyephedrine ((11)C-HED) PET and determine the denervation rate over 2 y.

  11. Effect of postnatal lead exposure on the development of sympathetic innervation of the heart. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    To determine possible mechanisms for this Pb-induced cardiotoxicity, several neutrochemical parameters indicative of cardiac sympathetic innervation were measured in developing rats. Presynaptic indices of nerve terminal development which were studied included steady-state levels of norepinephrine, neuronal uptake and vesicular storage of /sup 3/H-norepinephrine. Analysis of postsynaptic development was accomplished by quantitating the density of ..beta..-adrenergic receptors and by measuring the activity of adenylate cyclase. Rat pups were exposed to Pb from birth to weaning (21 days) via the milk of dams whose drinking water contained 0.2% Pb acetate. This method and level of Pb treatment had no effect on body or heart weight development, however, it did result in a seven-fold increase in the blood Pb content (70-75 ..mu..g/dl) of the treated pups during the period of exposure. Pb exposure accelerated the development of sympathetic innervation of the heart as detected by significant increases in the vesicular uptake of /sup 3/H-norepinephrine and the steady-state concentration of norepinephrine measured at postnatal day 4. On the other hand, ontogeny of the neutronal uptake of /sup 3/H-norepinephrine in the heart and in the forebrain was not affected by Pb treatment. The apparent premature development of sympathetic innervation induced by Pb treatment was not reflected in significant alterations in either the density or the affinity of ..beta..-adrenergic receptor sites determined by the binding kinetics of /sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol.

  12. Innervating sympathetic neurons regulate heart size and the timing of cardiomyocyte cell cycle withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Kreipke, R E; Birren, S J

    2015-12-01

    Sympathetic drive to the heart is a key modulator of cardiac function and interactions between heart tissue and innervating sympathetic fibres are established early in development. Significant innervation takes place during postnatal heart development, a period when cardiomyocytes undergo a rapid transition from proliferative to hypertrophic growth. The question of whether these innervating sympathetic fibres play a role in regulating the modes of cardiomyocyte growth was investigated using 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to abolish early sympathetic innervation of the heart. Postnatal chemical sympathectomy resulted in rats with smaller hearts, indicating that heart growth is regulated by innervating sympathetic fibres during the postnatal period. In vitro experiments showed that sympathetic interactions resulted in delays in markers of cardiomyocyte maturation, suggesting that changes in the timing of the transition from hyperplastic to hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes could underlie changes in heart size in the sympathectomized animals. There was also an increase in the expression of Meis1, which has been linked to cardiomyocyte cell cycle withdrawal, suggesting that sympathetic signalling suppresses cell cycle withdrawal. This signalling involves β-adrenergic activation, which was necessary for sympathetic regulation of cardiomyocyte proliferation and hypertrophy. The effect of β-adrenergic signalling on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy underwent a developmental transition. While young postnatal cardiomyocytes responded to isoproterenol (isoprenaline) with a decrease in cell size, mature cardiomyocytes showed an increase in cell size in response to the drug. Together, these results suggest that early sympathetic effects on proliferation modulate a key transition between proliferative and hypertrophic growth of the heart and contribute to the sympathetic regulation of adult heart size.

  13. Saturated high-fat diet-induced obesity increases adenylate cyclase of myocardial β-adrenergic system and does not compromise cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Vileigas, Danielle F; de Deus, Adriana F; da Silva, Danielle C T; de Tomasi, Loreta C; de Campos, Dijon H S; Adorni, Caroline S; de Oliveira, Scarlet M; Sant'Ana, Paula G; Okoshi, Katashi; Padovani, Carlos R; Cicogna, Antonio C

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is a worldwide pandemic associated with high incidence of cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms by which the obesity leads cardiac dysfunction are not fully elucidated and few studies have evaluated the relationship between obesity and proteins involved in myocardial β-adrenergic (βA) system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cardiac function and βA pathway components in myocardium of obese rats. Male Wistar rats were distributed into two groups: control (n = 17; standard diet) and obese (n = 17; saturated high-fat diet) fed for 33 weeks. Nutritional profile and comorbidities were assessed. Cardiac structure and function was evaluated by macroscopic postmortem, echocardiographic and isolated papillary muscle analyzes. Myocardial protein expression of β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors, Gαs protein, adenylate cyclase (AC) and protein kinase A (PKA) was performed by Western blot. Cardiac cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and PKA activity were assessed by ELISA Obese rats showed increased adiposity index (P < 0.001) and several comorbidities as hypertension, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia compared with control rats. Echocardiographic assessment revealed increased left atrium diameter (C: 4.98 ± 0.38 vs. Ob: 5.47 ± 0.53, P = 0.024) and posterior wall shortening velocity (C: 37.1 ± 3.6 vs. Ob: 41.8 ± 3.8, P = 0.007) in obese group. Papillary muscle evaluation indicated that baseline data and myocardial responsiveness to isoproterenol stimulation were similar between the groups. Protein expression of myocardial AC was higher in obese group than in the control (C: 1.00 ± 0.21 vs. Ob: 1.25 ± 0.10, P = 0.025), whereas the other components were unchanged. These results suggest that saturated high-fat diet-induced obesity was not effective in triggering cardiac dysfunction and impair the beta-adrenergic signaling.

  14. DNA immunizations with M2 muscarinic and beta1 adrenergic receptor coding plasmids impair cardiac function in mice.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Luis E D; Hernández, Ciria C Q; Mattos, Elisabete C; Brandão, Izaira Tincani; Olivieri, Bianca; Campelo, Roberto P; Araújo-Jorge, Tânia; Silva, Célio Lopes; Campos de Carvalho, Antônio C; Kurtenbach, Eleonora

    2005-05-01

    Autoimmune mediated myocardial damage is likely to be a pathogenic mechanism for acquired dilated cardiomyopathies. Evidence confirms that autoantibodies that bind to M(2) muscarinic (M(2)AChR) and beta(1) adrenergic receptors (beta(1)AR) are present in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and Chagasic patients' sera. To elucidate the role of these antibodies in cardiac functional impairment, we used a murine model immunized with plasmids encoding the M(2)AChR or beta(1)AR via gene-gun bombardment. Anti-M(2)AChR and beta(1)AR antibodies were detected over the course of 37 weeks. These antibodies were directed to the second extracellular loop (el2) of both receptors and the third intracellular loop (il3) of the M(2)AChR. Peak antibody titers from weeks 2 to 5 against M(2)AChR-el2 and beta(1)AR-el2 as well as elevated titers against M(2)AChR-il3 were detected. Anti-M(2)AChR-il3 and anti-beta(1)AR-el2 antibodies were predominant in IgG1 subclass immunoglobulins, suggesting a T-helper-2 biased lymphocyte response. Heart morphology and function was assessed by echocardiography over the course of 42 weeks. Data showed progressive decrease in left ventricular (LV) wall thickness and LV mass that was mostly evident for beta(1)AR-immunized mice albeit a small change in LV dimensions. Fractional shortening was altered and values of 41%, 37% and 48% were observed at week 42 for the M(2)AChR, beta(1)AR and control groups respectively. In support of autonomic deregulation, a twofold increase in M(2)AChR and a similar decrease in beta(1)AR density were observed in radioligand saturation assays for both experimental groups. Histological analysis revealed myofibril disarray and fibrosis, pointing towards remodeling as a consequence of the long-term presence of anti-receptor antibodies.

  15. The effects of a new ultra-short-acting beta-adrenergic blocker, ONO-1101, on cardiac function during and after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Ahmet, I; Fukushima, N; Sawa, Y; Masai, T; Kadoba, K; Kagisaki, K; Chang, J C; Yamaguchi, T; Matsuda, H

    1999-01-01

    The administration of an ultra-short-acting beta-adrenergic antagonist, esmolol, has been introduced as a novel method for beating-heart surgery. In the present study, a new ultra-short-acting beta-blocker, ONO-1101, was administered during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) to investigate its effects on cardiac function and hemodynamics. Nine adult mongrel dogs underwent 60 min of CPB during which they were given either ONO-1101 (ONO group; n = 4) or saline (control group; n = 5). In the ONO group, the hearts became flaccid enough for surgery to be performed without cardiac standstill within 10 min after the commencement of ONO-1101 with significant decreases in the heart rate, the preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW), and the slope of the end-systolic left ventricular pressure-volume relationship (Emax). The mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance also decreased, but were maintained above 50 mmHg during CPB without catecholamine. These indices increased to the control group level 20 min after the discontinuation of ONO-1101. The serum concentration of ONO-1101 decreased from the maximum level of 121 +/- 15 microg/ml soon after infusion to 11 +/- 5 microg/ml within 30 min after discontinuation. These data suggest that ONO-1101 may be useful to enable beating-heart surgery to be performed without aortic cross-clamp as an ultra-short-acting beta-adrenergic blocker.

  16. Caveolae-specific activation loop between CaMKII and L-type Ca(2+) channel aggravates cardiac hypertrophy in α1-adrenergic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Tonegawa, Kota; Otsuka, Wataru; Kumagai, Shohei; Matsunami, Sachi; Hayamizu, Nao; Tanaka, Shota; Moriwaki, Kazumasa; Obana, Masanori; Maeda, Makiko; Asahi, Michio; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Fujio, Yasushi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Activation of CaMKII induces a myriad of biological processes and plays dominant roles in cardiac hypertrophy. Caveolar microdomain contains many calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) targets, including L-type Ca(2+) channel (LTCC) complex, and serves as a signaling platform. The location of CaMKII activation is thought to be critical; however, the roles of CaMKII in caveolae are still elusive due to lack of methodology for the assessment of caveolae-specific activation. Our aim was to develop a novel tool for the specific analysis of CaMKII activation in caveolae and to determine the functional role of caveolar CaMKII in cardiac hypertrophy. To assess the caveolae-specific activation of CaMKII, we generated a fusion protein composed of phospholamban and caveolin-3 (cPLN-Cav3) and GFP fusion protein with caveolin-binding domain fused to CaMKII inhibitory peptide (CBD-GFP-AIP), which inhibits CaMKII activation specifically in caveolae. Caveolae-specific activation of CaMKII was detected using phosphospecific antibody for PLN (Thr(17)). Furthermore, adenoviral overexpression of LTCC β2a-subunit (β2a) in NRCMs showed its constitutive phosphorylation by CaMKII, which induces hypertrophy, and that both phosphorylation and hypertrophy are abolished by CBD-GFP-AIP expression, indicating that β2a phosphorylation occurs specifically in caveolae. Finally, β2a phosphorylation was observed after phenylephrine stimulation in β2a-overexpressing mice, and attenuation of cardiac hypertrophy after chronic phenylephrine stimulation was observed in nonphosphorylated mutant of β2a-overexpressing mice. We developed novel tools for the evaluation and inhibition of caveolae-specific activation of CaMKII. We demonstrated that phosphorylated β2a dominantly localizes to caveolae and induces cardiac hypertrophy after α1-adrenergic stimulation in mice.NEW & NOTEWORTHY While signaling in caveolae is thought to be important in cardiac hypertrophy, direct evidence is missing

  17. Detailed comparative anatomy of the extrinsic cardiac nerve plexus and postnatal reorganization of the cardiac position and innervation in the great apes: orangutans, gorillas, and chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Sato, Fumi

    2012-03-01

    To speculate how the extrinsic cardiac nerve plexus (ECNP) evolves phyletically and ontogenetically within the primate lineage, we conducted a comparative anatomical study of the ECNP, including an imaging examination in the great apes using 20 sides from 11 bodies from three species and a range of postnatal stages from newborns to mature adults. Although the position of the middle cervical ganglion (MG) in the great apes tended to be relatively lower than that in humans, the morphology of the ECNP in adult great apes was almost consistent with that in adult humans but essentially different from that in the lesser apes or gibbons. Therefore, the well-argued anatomical question of when did the MG acquire communicating branches with the spinal cervical nerves and appear constantly in all sympathetic cardiac nerves during primate evolution is clearly considered to be after the great apes and gibbons split. Moreover, a horizontal four-chambered heart and a lifted cardiac apex with a relatively large volume in newborn great apes rapidly changed its position downward, as seen in humans during postnatal growth and was associated with a reduction in the hepatic volume by imaging diagnosis and gross anatomy. In addition, our observation using a range of postnatal stages exhibits that two sympathetic ganglia, the middle cervical and cervicothoracic ganglia, differed between the early and later postnatal stages.

  18. Slowing of shortening velocity of rat cardiac myocytes by adenosine receptor stimulation regardless of beta-adrenergic stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Strang, K T; Mentzer, R M; Moss, R L

    1995-01-01

    1. Single ventricular myocytes were enzymatically isolated, incubated with the A1-purinergic and beta-adrenergic receptor-specific agonists N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) and isoprenaline (Iso), and then rapidly skinned. Ca2+ sensitivity of isometric tension and unloaded shortening velocity (Vo) were measured, and protein kinase A (PKA)-specific phosphorylations of troponin I (TnI) and C-protein were assessed by back-phosphorylation of cell suspensions with [gamma-32P]-ATP. 2. Isoprenaline treatment decreased the Ca2+ sensitivity of isometric tension relative to propranolol-treated controls, as did simultaneous stimulation with Iso and CPA (Iso + CPA). CPA alone had no effect on Ca2+ sensitivity. Vo was greater in Iso-treated cells than in paired controls, while Vo was significantly less than control in both Iso + CPA-treated and CPA-treated cells. 3. Phosphorylation of TnI and C-protein was increased by Iso treatment and also when Iso and CPA were simultaneously applied. CPA alone caused a significant decrease in the phosphorylation state of these two proteins. 4. From these results we conclude that A1-purinergic receptor stimulation does not inhibit beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated phosphorylation of myofilament proteins, nor does it alter the Ca2+ sensitivity of isometric tension at the level of the myofilaments. However, A1-receptor stimulation does decrease Vo at the level of the myofilaments by a mechanism that is independent of beta-adrenergically mediated phosphorylation of TnI and C-protein. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:7473228

  19. Innervation of eccrine sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, V E; Shabadash, S A; Zelikina, T I

    1980-01-01

    In recent years it has been shown on the example of primate skin that in addition to abundant cholinergic innervation, the eccrine glands are also supplied by adrenergic fibers, containing catecholamines. The presence of an adrenergic component of the innervation is demonstrated on the plantar eccrine sweat glands of a number of rodents and the cat by the detection of monoamine oxidase in it. The myelin nerve trunks, the short unmyelinated varicose terminals in direct contact with the secretory cells, as well as the mitochondria of cells of the eccrine sweat glands are rich in monoamine oxidase. Specific and nonspecific cholinesterases are localized in the dense network of nerves in lacing the secretory portions of the glands; individual fibers accompany the excretory ducts. The acetylcholinesterase concentration is lower than the concentration of nonspecific cholinesterase. In rats with chemical sympathectomy, induced by four-week administration of 25 mg/kg guanethidine from the first day of birth, in which 99% of the neurons in the stellate ganglia die, the monoamine oxidase concentration in the myelin nerves and in the mitochondria of the secretory cells drops very sharply, and acetylcholinesterase disappears from the nerves surrounding the glands.

  20. Levels of circulating anti-muscarinic and anti-adrenergic antibodies and their effect on cardiac arrhythmias and dysautonomia in murine models of Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Daliry, Anissa; Pereira, Isabela Resende; Pereira-Junior, Pedro Paulo; Ramos, Isalira Peroba; Vilar-Pereira, Glaucia; Silvares, Raquel Rangel; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli; Campos De Carvalho, Antônio Carlos

    2014-11-01

    SUMMARY Antibodies (Ab) recognizing G-protein coupled receptors, such as β 1 and β 2 adrenergic (anti-β 1-AR and anti-β 2-AR, respectively) and muscarinic cholinergic receptors (anti-M2-CR) may contribute to cardiac damage, however their role in chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy is still controversial. We describe that Trypanosoma cruzi-infected C3H/He mice show increased P and QRS wave duration, and PR and QTc intervals, while the most significant ECG alterations in C57BL/6 are prolonged P wave and PR interval. Echocardiogram analyses show right ventricle dilation in infected animals of both mouse lineages. Analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) in chronically infected C3H/He mice show no alteration of the evaluated parameters, while C57BL/6 infected mice display significantly lower values of HRV components, suggesting autonomic dysfunction. The time-course analysis of anti-β 1-AR, anti-β 2-AR and anti-M2-CR Ab titres in C3H/He infected mice indicate that anti-β 1-AR Ab are detected only in the chronic phase, while anti-β 2-AR and anti-M2-CR are observed in the acute phase, diminish at 60 dpi and increase again in the chronic phase. Chronically infected C57BL/6 mice presented a significant increase in only anti-M2-CR Ab titres. Furthermore, anti-β 1-AR, anti-β 2-AR and anti-M2-CR, exhibit significantly higher prevalence in chronically T. cruzi-infected C3H/He mice when compared with C57BL/6. These observations suggest that T. cruzi infection leads to host-specific cardiac electric alterations.

  1. Beta-adrenergic or parasympathetic inhibition, heart rate and cardiac output during normoxic and acute hypoxic exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Susan R; Bogaard, Harm J; Niizeki, Kyuichi; Yamaya, Yoshiki; Ziegler, Michael G; Wagner, Peter D

    2003-07-15

    Acute hypoxia increases heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (Qt) at a given oxygen consumption (VO2) during submaximal exercise. It is widely believed that the underlying mechanism involves increased sympathetic activation and circulating catecholamines acting on cardiac beta receptors. Recent evidence indicating a continued role for parasympathetic modulation of HR during moderate exercise suggests that increased parasympathetic withdrawal plays a part in the increase in HR and Qt during hypoxic exercise. To test this, we separately blocked the beta-sympathetic and parasympathetic arms of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in six healthy subjects (five male, one female; mean +/- S.E.M. age = 31.7+/-1.6 years, normoxic maximal VO2 (VO2,max)=3.1+/-0.3 l min(-1)) during exercise in conditions of normoxia and acute hypoxia (inspired oxygen fraction=0.125) to VO2,max. Data were collected on different days under the following conditions: (1)control, (2) after 8.0 mg propranolol i.v. and (3) after 0.8 mg glycopyrrolate i.v. Qt was measured using open-circuit acetylene uptake. Hypoxia increased venous [adrenaline] and [noradrenaline] but not [dopamine] at a given VO2 (P<0.05, P<0.01 and P=0.2, respectively). HR/VO2 and Qt/VO2 increased during hypoxia in all three conditions (P<0.05). Unexpectedly, the effects of hypoxia on HR and Qt were not significantly different from control with either beta-sympathetic or parasympathetic inhibition. These data suggest that although acute exposure to hypoxia increases circulating [catecholamines], the effects of hypoxia on HR and Qt do not necessarily require intact cardiac muscarinic and beta receptors. It may be that cardiac alpha receptors play a primary role in elevating HR and Qt during hypoxic exercise, or perhaps offer an alternative mechanism when other ANS pathways are blocked.

  2. Cardiac β2-Adrenergic Receptor Phosphorylation at Ser355/356 Regulates Receptor Internalization and Functional Resensitization.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaofang; Gu, Xuejiang; Zhao, Ru; Zheng, Qingqing; Li, Lan; Yang, Wenbing; Ding, Lu; Xue, Feng; Fan, Junming; Gong, Yongsheng; Wang, Yongyu

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that β2-adrenergic receptors (β2ARs) can be phosphorylated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and protein kinase A (PKA), affecting β2AR internalization and desensitization. However, the exact physiological function of β2ARs in cardiomyocytes is unknown. In this study, we showed that neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes had different contraction and internalization responses to sustained or repeated, transient agonist stimulation. Specifically, short-time stimulation (10 min) with epinephrine or norepinephrine increased the cardiomyocyte contraction rate, reaching a maximum at 5 min, followed by a slow decline. When the agonist was re-added after a 60-min wash-out period, the increase in the cardiomyocyte contraction rate was similar to the initial response. In contrast, when cardiomyocytes were exposed continuously to epinephrine or norepinephrine for 60 min, the second agonist stimulation did not increase the contraction response. These results indicated that continuous β2AR stimulation caused functional desensitization. Phosphorylation of β2ARs at serine (Ser)355/356 GRK phosphorylation sites, but not at Ser345/346 PKA phosphorylation sites increased with continuous epinephrine stimulation for 60 min. Accordingly, β2AR internalization increased. Interestingly, β2AR internalization was blocked by mutations at the GRK phosphorylation sites, but not by mutations at the PKA phosphorylation sites. Furthermore, inhibition of β2AR dephosphorylation by okadaic acid, a phosphatase 2A inhibitor, impaired the recovery of internalized β2ARs and reduced the cardiomyocyte contraction rate in response to epinephrine. Finally, epinephrine treatment induced the physical interaction of β-arrestin with internalized β2ARs in cardiomyocytes. Together, these data revealed the essential role of the Ser355/356 phosphorylation status of β2ARs in regulating receptor internalization and physiological resensitization in neonatal

  3. Immobilization Stress With α2-Adrenergic Stimulation Induces Regional and Transient Reduction of Cardiac Contraction Through Gi Coupling in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Ryohei; Shintani-Ishida, Kaori; Unuma, Kana; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Stress cardiomyopathy is characterized by transient apical hypokinesia related to catecholamine overflow. Recently, excessive epinephrine administration was shown to recapitulate stress cardiomyopathy through β2-adrenoceptor (AR)-inhibitory G protein (Gi) coupling in rats. We aimed to study whether α2-AR and Gi affect cardiac contraction in rats in which emotional stress was evoked using immobilization (IMO). Echocardiography results showed that when male rats were exposed to IMO for 30 minutes and then injected with the α2-AR agonist xylazine (Xy), ejection fraction and the movement of the anterior wall (AW) were suppressed, maximally at 5 minutes post-injection, whereas posterior wall (PW) movement was preserved. At the same time points, the phosphorylation of Ser282 in myosin-binding protein-C (MyBP-C-Ser282) was higher in the PW than in the AW. Pretreatment with the Gi inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) reversed the low contractility and MyBP-C-Ser282 phosphorylation in the AW, but induced lethal heart failure in 3 out of 11 rats. Moreover, at 5 minutes after Xy injection following 30 minutes of IMO, serum epinephrine levels were increased. Thus, in rats exposed to psychological stress, α2-AR stimulation triggered transient hypo-contractility and MyBP-C-Ser282 hypo-phosphorylation in the AW, in association with an epinephrine surge. PTX treatment reversed the AW hypo-contractility and MyBP-C hypo-phosphorylation, but induced acute heart failure. These findings suggest α2AR/Gi-dependent signaling attenuates MyBP-C phosphorylation and contractility in the AW through an epinephrine surge in rats subjected to IMO and α2-AR stimulation. This model can recapitulate stress cardiomyopathy and thereby deepen our understanding of regional cardiac hypo-contractility and prosurvival mechanisms.

  4. Additive competitive interaction of verapamil and quinidine at alpha-adrenergic receptors of isolated cardiac guinea pig myocytes and human platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, A.; Noack, E.

    1988-01-01

    Recent clinical work has questioned the safety of a combined therapy of oral quinidine and intravenenous verapamil, because some patients were reported to react with severe hypotension probably due to drug interactions with vascular alpha-adrenergic receptors. In order to obtain further quantitative information on the underlying mechanism, the authors used the radioligands (/sup 3/H)-prazosin and (/sup 3/H)-yohimbine to perform binding studies on intact cells, with predominantly alpha-1 (isolated myocytes) or alpha-2 subtypes (human platelets) of adrenergic receptors. Their studies confirm that both verapamil and quinidine possess a distinct alpha-adrenergic receptor blocking activity and do not discriminate between the alpha-1 and alpha-2 subtype. Their interaction was competitive and in the presence of both drugs inhibition of radioligand binding was additive. The alpha-adrenergic blockade by verapamil was stereospecific as D-verapamil increased the dissociation constant of the radioligand to a much lesser degree than L-verapamil. The calcium channel blocker nitrendipine, a 1,4-dihydropyridine derivative, did not show any competition up to concentrations of 10 ..mu..mol/l. 26 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  5. [18F]Fluoro-hydroxyphenethylguanidines: Efficient Synthesis and Comparison of Two Structural Isomers as Radiotracers of Cardiac Sympathetic Innervation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong-Woon; Jang, Keun Sam; Gu, Guie; Koeppe, Robert A; Sherman, Phillip S; Quesada, Carole A; Raffel, David M

    2017-03-21

    Fluorine-18 labeled phenethylguanidines are currently under development in our laboratory as radiotracers for quantifying regional cardiac sympathetic nerve density using PET imaging techniques. In this study, we report an efficient synthesis of 18F-hydroxyphenethylguanidines consisting of nucleophilic aromatic [18F]fluorination of a protected diaryliodonium salt precursor followed by a single deprotection step to afford the desired radiolabeled compound. This approach has been shown to reliably produce 4-[18F]fluoro-m-hydroxyphenethylguanidine ([18F]4F-MHPG, [18F]1) and its structural isomer 3-[18F]fluoro-p-hydroxyphenethylguanidine ([18F]3F-PHPG, [18F]2) with good radiochemical yields. Preclinical evaluations of [18F]2 in non-human primates were performed to compare its imaging properties, metabolism, and myocardial kinetics with those obtained previously with [18F]1. The results of these studies have demonstrated that [18F]2 exhibits imaging properties comparable to those of [18F]1. Myocardial tracer kinetic analysis of each tracer provides quantitative metrics of cardiac sympathetic nerve density. Based on these findings, first-in-human PET studies with [18F]1 and [18F]2 are currently in progress to assess their ability to accurately measure regional cardiac sympathetic denervation in patients with heart disease, with the ultimate goal of selecting a lead compound for further clinical development.

  6. Synthesis and bioevaluation of [18F]4-fluoro-m-hydroxyphenethylguanidine ([18F]4F-MHPG): a novel radiotracer for quantitative PET studies of cardiac sympathetic innervation

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Keun Sam; Jung, Yong-Woon; Sherman, Phillip S.; Quesada, Carole A.; Gu, Guie; Raffel, David M.

    2013-01-01

    A new cardiac sympathetic nerve imaging agent, [18F]4-fluoro-m-hydroxyphenethylguanidine ([18F]4F-MHPG), was synthesized and evaluated. The radiosynthetic intermediate [18F]4-fluoro-m-tyramine ([18F]4F-MTA) was prepared and then sequentially reacted with cyanogen bromide and NH4Br/NH4OH to afford [18F]4F-MHPG. Initial bioevaluations of [18F]4F-MHPG (biodistribution studies in rats and kinetic studies in the isolated rat heart) were similar to results previously reported for the carbon-11 labeled analog [11C]4F-MHPG. The neuronal uptake rate of [18F]4F-MHPG into the isolated rat heart was 0.68 ml/min/g wet and its retention time in sympathetic neurons was very long (T1/2 > 13 h). A PET imaging study in a nonhuman primate with [18F]4F-MHPG provided high quality images of the heart, with heart-to-blood ratios at 80–90 min after injection of 5-to-1. These initial kinetic and imaging studies of [18F]4F-MHPG suggest that this radiotracer may allow for more accurate quantification of regional cardiac sympathetic nerve density than is currently possible with existing neuronal imaging agents. PMID:23416009

  7. Present state of alpha- and beta-adrenergic drugs I. The adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Ahlquist, R P

    1976-11-01

    The cardiovascular alpha adrenergic receptors evoke vasoconstriction, the cardiovascular beta receptors evoke vasodilation and cardiac stimulation. All blood vessels have both alpha and beta receptors. In some areas, for example skin and kidney, the alpha receptors predominate. In some vascular beds, for example the nutrient vessels in skeletal muscle, beta receptors predominate. In other beds, such as coronary, visceral, and connective tissue both receptors are active. The cardiovascular effects of adrenergic agonists depend on which receptor they act on. Phenylephrine is specific for alpha receptors. Isoproterenol is specific for beta receptors. Epinephrine and norepinephrine act on both. The real value of knowing the receptor specificity of each agonist is that side effects can more easily be predicted. For example, adrenergic cardiac stimulants are antiasthmatics. Therefore, adrenergic antiasthmatics can produce excessive cardiac stimulation. For the future, agonists that are not only receptor-specific but also tissue-specific will be developed. The first of these in the United States is terbutaline. The rest of the world has in addition a similar drug, salbutamol. No one knows if this drug will be approved for use by American physicians.

  8. Neuronal Na+ Channels Are Integral Components of Pro-arrhythmic Na+/Ca2+ Signaling Nanodomain That Promotes Cardiac Arrhythmias During β-adrenergic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Radwański, Przemysław B.; Ho, Hsiang-Ting; Veeraraghavan, Rengasayee; Brunello, Lucia; Liu, Bin; Belevych, Andriy E.; Unudurthi, Sathya D.; Makara, Michael A.; Priori, Silvia G.; Volpe, Pompeo; Armoundas, Antonis A.; Dillmann, Wolfgang H.; Knollmann, Bjorn C.; Mohler, Peter J.; Hund, Thomas J.; Györke, Sándor

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac arrhythmias are a leading cause of death in the US. Vast majority of these arrhythmias including catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) are associated with increased levels of circulating catecholamines and involve abnormal impulse formation secondary to aberrant Ca2+ and Na+ handling. However, the mechanistic link between β-AR stimulation and the subcellular/molecular arrhythmogenic trigger(s) remains elusive. Methods and Results We performed functional and structural studies to assess Ca2+ and Na+ signaling in ventricular myocyte as well as surface electrocardiograms in mouse models of cardiac calsequestrin (CASQ2)-associated CPVT. We demonstrate that a subpopulation of Na+ channels (neuronal Na+ channels; nNav) that colocalize with RyR2 and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) are a part of the β-AR-mediated arrhythmogenic process. Specifically, augmented Na+ entry via nNav in the settings of genetic defects within the RyR2 complex and enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA)-mediated SR Ca2+ refill is both an essential and a necessary factor for the arrhythmogenesis. Furthermore, we show that augmentation of Na+ entry involves β-AR-mediated activation of CAMKII subsequently leading to nNav augmentation. Importantly, selective pharmacological inhibition as well as silencing of Nav1.6 inhibit myocyte arrhythmic potential and prevent arrhythmias in vivo. Conclusion These data suggest that the arrhythmogenic alteration in Na+/Ca2+ handling evidenced ruing β-AR stimulation results, at least in part, from enhanced Na+ influx through nNav. Therefore, selective inhibition of these channels and Nav1.6 in particular can serve as a potential antiarrhythmic therapy. PMID:27747307

  9. [Efferent innervation of the arteries of human leptomeninx in arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Chertok, V M; Kotsiuba, A E; Babich, E V

    2009-01-01

    Structure of the efferent nerve plexuses (adrenergic, acetylcholinestherase- and cholinacetyltranspherase-positive, NO-dependent), was studied in the arteries of human leptomeninx with different diameters. Material was obtained from the corpses of the healthy people and of the patients with initial stages of arterial hypertension (AH). It was shown that the concentrations of cholinergic and adrenergic nerve fibers and varicosities in axon terminal part, innervating the arteries with the diameters ranging from 450 till 100 microm, were not significantly different. In these arteries, NO-ergic plexuses were also detected. In patients with AH, regardless the arterial diameters, the significant increase (up to 15-20%) of adrenergic nerve fiber and varicosity concentrations was found. The changes in cholinergic nerve fiber concentration were found to depend on the vessel diameter: the significant decrease of these parameter was observed only in arteries with the diameter of 100-200 microm. No significant changes in nerve plexus concentration was noticed in the arteries with greater or smaller diameter. In NO-ergic neural conductors, the enzyme activity decreased only in the large arteries, and remained almost unchanged in the small vascular branches. The changes in the vasomotor innervation described in AH, are interpreted as a vasomotor innervation dysfunction of the leptomeninx arteries that may result in the hemodynamic disturbances.

  10. Blocking the beta-adrenergic system does not affect sweat gland function during heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Ricardo; Jones, Douglas; Hodge, Daniel; Buono, Michael J

    2012-08-16

    The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that the beta-adrenergic innervation of the human eccrine sweat gland facilitates greater sweat production following heat acclimation. Eight healthy subjects (mean ± SD age: 25.1 ± 4.1 years, weight: 79.0 ± 16.1 kg, and VO(2)max: 48.5 ± 8.0 ml/kg/min) underwent active heat acclimation by walking at 40% of their VO(2)max for 8 days (90 min a day) in an environmental chamber (35.3 ± 0.8°C and 40.2 ± 2.1% rH). To test the hypothesis, the adrenergic component of sweat gland innervation was inhibited by continuously administering a 0.5% solution of the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol via iontophoresis to a 5 cm(2) area of one forearm during each 90-min exercise bout. The opposing control forearm underwent iontophoresis with a saline solution. Following heat acclimation, mean sweat rate in the inhibited and control forearm was 0.47 ± 0.30 mg/cm(2)/min and 0.44 ± 0.25mg/cm(2)/min, respectively. Findings of the current study fail to support the hypothesis that adrenergic innervation facilitates human eccrine sweat gland function during heat acclimation, as no significant differences in sweating were observed. In light of the above, the physiological significance of the dual cholinergic and adrenergic innervation of the eccrine sweat gland has yet to be determined.

  11. Impaired alpha1-adrenergic responses in aged rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Montagne, Olivier; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Guenoun, Thierry; Laplace, Monique; Crozatier, Bertrand

    2005-06-01

    To determine age-related changes in the cardiac effect of alpha1-adrenergic stimulation, both cardiomyocyte Ca2+-transient and cardiac protein kinase C (PKC) activity were measured in 3-month- (3MO) and 24-month- (24MO) old Wistar rats. Ca2+ transients obtained under 1 Hz pacing by microfluorimetry of cardiomyocyte loaded with indo-1 (405/480 nm fluorescence ratio) were compared in control conditions (Kreb's solution alone) and after alpha1-adrenergic stimulation (phenylephrine or cirazoline, an alpha1-specific agonist). PKC activity and PKC translocation index (particulate/total activity) were also assayed before and after alpha1-adrenergic stimulation. In 3MO, cirazoline induced a significant increase in Ca2+ transient for a 10(-9) M concentration which returned to control values for larger concentrations. In contrast, in 24MO, we observed a constant negative effect of cirazoline on the Ca2+ transient with a significant decrease at 10(-6) M compared with both baseline and Kreb's solution. Preliminary experiments showed that, in a dose-response curve to phenylephrine, the response of Ca2+ transient was maximal at 10(-7) M. This concentration induced a significant increase in Ca2+ transient in 3MO and a significant decrease in 24MO. The same concentration was chosen to perform PKC activity measurements under alpha1-adrenergic stimulation. In the basal state, PKC particulate activity was higher in 24MO than that in 3MO but was not different in cytosolic fractions; so that the translocation index was higher in 24MO (P < 0.01). After phenylephrine, a translocation of PKC toward the particulate fraction was observed in 3MO but not in 24MO. In conclusion, cardiac alpha1-adrenoceptor response was found to be impaired in aged hearts. The negative effect of alpha1-adrenergic stimulation on Ca2+ transient in cardiomyocytes obtained from old rats can be related to an absence of alpha1-adrenergic-induced PKC translocation.

  12. Innervation of the heart: An invisible grid within a black box.

    PubMed

    Kapa, Suraj; DeSimone, Christopher V; Asirvatham, Samuel J

    2016-04-01

    Autonomic control of cardiovascular function is mediated by a complex interplay between central, peripheral, and innate cardiac components. This interplay is what mediates the normal cardiovascular response to physiologic and pathologic stressors, including blood pressure, cardiac contractile function, and arrhythmias. However, in order to understand how modern therapies directly affecting autonomic function may be harnessed to treat various cardiovascular disease states requires an intimate understanding of anatomic and physiologic features of the innervation of the heart. Thus, in this review, we focus on defining features of the central, peripheral, and cardiac components of cardiac innervation, how each component may contribute to dysregulation of normal cardiac function in various disease states, and how modulation of these components may offer therapeutic options for these diseases.

  13. Adrenergic deficiency leads to impaired electrical conduction and increased arrhythmic potential in the embryonic mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Baker, Candice; Taylor, David G; Osuala, Kingsley; Natarajan, Anupama; Molnar, Peter J; Hickman, James; Alam, Sabikha; Moscato, Brittany; Weinshenker, David; Ebert, Steven N

    2012-07-06

    To determine if adrenergic hormones play a critical role in the functional development of the cardiac pacemaking and conduction system, we employed a mouse model where adrenergic hormone production was blocked due to targeted disruption of the dopamine β-hydroxylase (Dbh) gene. Immunofluorescent histochemical evaluation of the major gap junction protein, connexin 43, revealed that its expression was substantially decreased in adrenergic-deficient (Dbh-/-) relative to adrenergic-competent (Dbh+/+ and Dbh+/-) mouse hearts at embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5), whereas pacemaker and structural protein staining appeared similar. To evaluate cardiac electrical conduction in these hearts, we cultured them on microelectrode arrays (8×8, 200 μm apart). Our results show a significant slowing of atrioventricular conduction in adrenergic-deficient hearts compared to controls (31.4±6.4 vs. 15.4±1.7 ms, respectively, p<0.05). To determine if the absence of adrenergic hormones affected heart rate and rhythm, mouse hearts from adrenergic-competent and deficient embryos were cultured ex vivo at E10.5, and heart rates were measured before and after challenge with the β-adrenergic receptor agonist, isoproterenol (0.5 μM). On average, all hearts showed increased heart rate responses following isoproterenol challenge, but a significant (p<0.05) 225% increase in the arrhythmic index (AI) was observed only in adrenergic-deficient hearts. These results show that adrenergic hormones may influence heart development by stimulating connexin 43 expression, facilitating atrioventricular conduction, and helping to maintain cardiac rhythm during a critical phase of embryonic development.

  14. Cardiovascular regulation by central adrenergic mechanisms and its alteration by hypotensive drugs.

    PubMed

    Haeusler, G

    1975-06-01

    Electrical stimulation of the posterior hypothalamus is followed by an immediate increase in sympathetic nerve activity and rise in blood pressure. Destruction of hypothalamic adrenergic structures by local unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the posterior hypothalamus reduced the blood pressure rise in response to stimulation of the lesioned side. This and numerous other findings indicate an involvement of central adrenergic neurons in the mediation of an increase of sympathetic nerve activity caused by hypothalamic stimulation. However, central adrenergic neurons do not seem to be an integral part of the sympathoexcitatory pathways originating in the posterior hypothalamus but rather facilitate their activation: after almost complete norepinephrine depletion produced by combined treatment with reserpine and alpha-methl-p-tyrosine, hypothalamic stimulation was still followed by an increase in spontaneous sympathetic nerve activity. Stimulation of an alpha-adrenoceptive site, probably located in the lower brain stem, mimics an activation of the baroreceptor reflex. The hypotensive drug, clonidine, stimulates this alpha-adrenoceptive site. In low doses clonidine facilitates the activation of the reflex, and in high doses this drug induces a state which closely resembles a pronounced activation of the reflex. Experiments following depletion of norepinephrine suggest that the central part of the baroreceptor reflex arc does not contain adrenergic neurons. However, these findings are compatible with the view that some neurons within the reflex arc are supplied with alpha-adrenoceptors. For the present it cannot be stated with certainty whether these alpha-adrenoceptors possess an innervation by adrenergic neurons projecting onto the reflex arc. In favor of such an innervation are the obsevations that alpha-methyldopa has its site of action in the lower brain stem and that the integrity of central adrenergic neurons is essential for its hypotensive effect. It

  15. Beta-Adrenergic Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Barisione, Giovanni; Baroffio, Michele; Crimi, Emanuele; Brusasco, Vito

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled β2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) agonists are considered essential bronchodilator drugs in the treatment of bronchial asthma, both as symptoms-relievers and, in combination with inhaled corticosteroids, as disease-controllers. In this article, we first review the basic mechanisms by which the β2-adrenergic system contributes to the control of airway smooth muscle tone. Then, we go on describing the structural characteristics of β2-AR and the molecular basis of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling and mechanisms of its desensitization/ dysfunction. In particular, phosphorylation mediated by protein kinase A and β-adrenergic receptor kinase are examined in detail. Finally, we discuss the pivotal role of inhaled β2-AR agonists in the treatment of asthma and the concerns about their safety that have been recently raised. PMID:27713285

  16. Adrenergic and non-adrenergic control of active skeletal muscle blood flow: implications for blood pressure regulation during exercise.

    PubMed

    Holwerda, Seth W; Restaino, Robert M; Fadel, Paul J

    2015-03-01

    Blood flow to active skeletal muscle increases markedly during dynamic exercise. However, despite the massive capacity of skeletal muscle vasculature to dilate, arterial blood pressure is well maintained. Sympathetic nerve activity is elevated with increased intensity of dynamic exercise, and is essential for redistribution of cardiac output to active skeletal muscle and maintenance of arterial blood pressure. In addition, aside from the sympathetic nervous system, evidence from human studies is now emerging that supports roles for non-adrenergic vasoconstrictor pathways that become active during exercise and contribute to vasoconstriction in active skeletal muscle. Neuropeptide Y and adenosine triphosphate are neurotransmitters that are co-released with norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve terminals capable of producing vasoconstriction. Likewise, plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin, angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) increase during dynamic exercise, particularly at higher intensities. Ang II and ET-1 have both been shown to be important vasoconstrictor pathways for restraint of blood flow in active skeletal muscle and the maintenance of arterial blood pressure during exercise. Indeed, although both adrenergic and non-adrenergic vasoconstriction can be attenuated in exercising muscle with greater intensity of exercise, with the higher volume of blood flow, the active skeletal muscle vasculature remains capable of contributing importantly to the maintenance of blood pressure. In this brief review we provide an update on skeletal muscle blood flow regulation during exercise with an emphasis on adrenergic and non-adrenergic vasoconstrictor pathways and their potential capacity to offset vasodilation and aid in the regulation of blood pressure.

  17. Morphology and innervation of the teleost physostome swim bladders and their functional evolution in non-teleostean lineages.

    PubMed

    Zaccone, Daniele; Sengar, Manvendra; Lauriano, Eugenia R; Pergolizzi, Simona; Macri', Francesco; Salpietro, Lorenza; Favaloro, Angelo; Satora, Leszek; Dabrowski, Konrad; Zaccone, Giacomo

    2012-12-01

    Swim bladders and lungs are homologous structures. Phylogenetically ancient actinopterygian fish such as Cladistians (Polypteriformes), Ginglymods (Lepisosteids) and lungfish have primitive lungs that have evolved in the Paleozoic freshwater earliest gnathostomes as an adaptation to hypoxic stress. Here we investigated the structure and the role of autonomic nerves in the physostome swim bladder of the cyprinid goldfish (Carassius auratus) and the respiratory bladder of lepisosteids: the longnose gar and the spotted gar (Lepisosteus osseus and L. oculatus) to demonstrate that these organs have different innervation patterns that are responsible for controlling different functional aspects. The goldfish swim bladder is a richly innervated organ mainly controlled by cholinergic and adrenergic innervation also involving the presence of non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) neurotransmitters (nNOS, VIP, 5-HT and SP), suggesting a simple model for the regulation of the swim bladder system. The pattern of the autonomic innervation of the trabecular muscle of the Lepisosteus respiratory bladder is basically similar to that of the tetrapod lung with overlapping of both muscle architecture and control nerve patterns. These autonomic control elements do not exist in the bladders of the two species studied since they have very different physiological roles. The ontogenetic origin of the pulmonoid swim bladder (PSB) of garfishes may help understand how the expression of these autonomic control substances in the trabecular muscle is regulated including their interaction with the corpuscular cells in the respiratory epithelium of this bimodal air-breathing fish.

  18. The heart's ‘little brain’ controlling cardiac function in the rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Brack, Kieran E

    2015-01-01

    New Findings •What is the topic of this review? The topic of the review is the intrinsic cardiac nervous system in the rabbit. •What advances does it highlight? The anatomy of rabbit intrinsic ganglia is similar to that of other species, including humans. Immunohistochemistry confirms the presence of cholinergic and adrenergic neurones, with a striking arrangement of neuronal nitric oxide synthase-positive cell bodies. Activation of atrial ganglia produces effects on local and remote regions. Heart disease is a primary cause of mortality in the developed world, and it is well recognized that neural mechanisms play an important role in many cardiac pathologies. The role of extrinsic autonomic nerves has traditionally attracted the most attention. However, there is a rich intrinsic innervation of the heart, including numerous cardiac ganglia (ganglionic plexuses), that has the potential to affect cardiac function independently as well as to influence the actions of the extrinsic nerves. To investigate this, an isolated, perfused, innervated rabbit Langendorff heart preparation was considered the best option. Although ganglionic plexuses have been well described for several species, there was no full description of the anatomy and histochemistry of rabbit hearts. To this end, rabbit intrinsic ganglia were located using acetylcholinesterase histology (n = 33 hearts). This revealed six generalized ganglionic regions, defined as a left neuronal complex above the left pulmonary vein, a right neuronal complex around the base of right cranial vein, three scattered in the dorsal right atrium and a region containing numerous ventricular ganglia located on the conus arteriosus. Using immunohistochemistry, neurons were found to contain choline acetyltransferase or tyrosine hydroxylase and/or neuronal nitric oxide synthase in differing amounts (choline acetyltransferase > tyrosine hydroxylase > neuronal nitric oxide synthase). The function of rabbit intrinsic ganglia

  19. Heart Development, Diseases, and Regeneration - New Approaches From Innervation, Fibroblasts, and Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Ieda, Masaki

    2016-09-23

    It is well known that cardiac function is tightly controlled by neural activity; however, the molecular mechanism of cardiac innervation during development and the relationship with heart disease remain undetermined. My work has revealed the molecular networks that govern cardiac innervation and its critical roles in heart diseases such as silent myocardial ischemia and arrhythmias. Cardiomyocytes proliferate during embryonic development, but lose their proliferative capacity after birth. Cardiac fibroblasts are a major source of cells during fibrosis and induce cardiac hypertrophy after myocardial injury in the adult heart. Despite the importance of fibroblasts in the adult heart, the role of fibroblasts in embryonic heart development was previously not determined. I demonstrated that cardiac fibroblasts play important roles in myocardial growth and cardiomyocyte proliferation during embryonic development, and I identified key paracrine factors and signaling pathways. In contrast to embryonic cardiomyocytes, adult cardiomyocytes have little regenerative capacity, leading to heart failure and high mortality rates after myocardial infarction. Leveraging the knowledge of developmental biology, I identified cardiac reprogramming factors that can directly convert resident cardiac fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes for heart regeneration. These findings greatly improved our understanding of heart development and diseases, and provide a new strategy for heart regenerative therapy. (Circ J 2016; 80: 2081-2088).

  20. Ganglionic adrenergic action modulates ovarian steroids and nitric oxide in prepubertal rat.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Silvia Marcela; Casais, Marilina; Sosa, Zulema; Rastrilla, Ana María

    2006-08-01

    Both peripheral innervation and nitric oxide (NO) participate in ovarian steroidogenesis. The purpose of this work was to analyse the ganglionic adrenergic influence on the ovarian release of steroids and NO and the possible steroids/NO relationship. The experiments were carried out in the ex vivo coeliac ganglion-superior ovarian nerve (SON)-ovary system of prepubertal rats. The coeliac ganglion-SON-ovary system was incubated in Krebs Ringer-bicarbonate buffer in presence of adrenergic agents in the ganglionic compartment. The accumulation of progesterone, androstenedione, oestradiol and NO in the ovarian incubation liquid was measured. Norepinephrine in coeliac ganglion inhibited the liberation of progesterone and increased androstenedione, oestradiol and NO in ovary. The addition of alpha and beta adrenergic antagonists also showed different responses in the liberation of the substances mentioned before, which, from a physiological point of view, reveals the presence of adrenergic receptors in coeliac ganglion. In relation to propranolol, it does not revert the effect of noradrenaline on the liberation of progesterone, which leads us to think that it might also have a "per se" effect on the ganglion, responsible for the ovarian response observed for progesterone. Finally, we can conclude that the ganglionic adrenergic action via SON participates on the regulation of the prepubertal ovary in one of two ways: either increasing the NO, a gaseous neurotransmitter with cytostatic characteristics, to favour the immature follicles to remain dormant or increasing the liberation of androstenedione and oestradiol, the steroids necessary for the beginning of the near first estral cycle.

  1. Neuronal adrenergic and muscular cholinergic contractile hypersensitivity in canine jejunum after extrinsic denervation.

    PubMed

    Balsiger, Bruno M; He, Chong-Liang; Zyromski, Nicholas J; Sarr, Michael G

    2003-01-01

    Extrinsic denervation may be responsible for motor dysfunction after small bowel transplantation. The aim of this study was to examine the role of extrinsic innervation of canine jejunum on contractile activity. An in vitro dose response of cholinergic and adrenergic agonists was evaluated in canine jejunal strips of circular muscle at 0, 2, and 8 weeks in a control group and after jejunoileal extrinsic denervation (EX DEN). Neurons in circular muscle were quantitated by means of immunohistochemical techniques. Adrenergic and cholinergic responses did not differ at any time in the control group. However, at 2 and 8 weeks, extrinsic denervation caused an increased sensitivity to the procontractile effects of the cholinergic agonist bethanechol at the level of the smooth muscle cells, and increased sensitivity to the inhibitory effects of the adrenergic agent norepinephrine mediated at the level of the enteric nervous system. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a reduction in all neurons and a complete lack of adrenergic fibers in the EX DEN group after 2 and 8 weeks. Extrinsic denervation induces enteric neuronal cholinergic and adrenergic smooth muscle hypersensitivity in canine jejunal circular muscle.

  2. Sympathetic innervation of human muscle spindles

    PubMed Central

    Radovanovic, Dina; Peikert, Kevin; Lindström, Mona; Domellöf, Fatima Pedrosa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of sympathetic innervation in human muscle spindles, using antibodies against neuropeptide Y (NPY), NPY receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). A total of 232 muscle spindles were immunohistochemically examined. NPY and NPY receptors were found on the intrafusal fibers, on the blood vessels supplying muscle spindles and on free nerve endings in the periaxial space. TH-immunoreactivity was present mainly in the spindle nerve and vessel. This is, to our knowledge, the first morphological study concerning the sympathetic innervation of the human muscle spindles. The results provide anatomical evidence for direct sympathetic innervation of the intrafusal fibers and show that sympathetic innervation is not restricted to the blood vessels supplying spindles. Knowledge about direct sympathetic innervation of the muscle spindle might expand our understanding of motor and proprioceptive dysfunction under stress conditions, for example, chronic muscle pain syndromes. PMID:25994126

  3. Sympathetic innervation of human muscle spindles.

    PubMed

    Radovanovic, Dina; Peikert, Kevin; Lindström, Mona; Domellöf, Fatima Pedrosa

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of sympathetic innervation in human muscle spindles, using antibodies against neuropeptide Y (NPY), NPY receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). A total of 232 muscle spindles were immunohistochemically examined. NPY and NPY receptors were found on the intrafusal fibers, on the blood vessels supplying muscle spindles and on free nerve endings in the periaxial space. TH-immunoreactivity was present mainly in the spindle nerve and vessel. This is, to our knowledge, the first morphological study concerning the sympathetic innervation of the human muscle spindles. The results provide anatomical evidence for direct sympathetic innervation of the intrafusal fibers and show that sympathetic innervation is not restricted to the blood vessels supplying spindles. Knowledge about direct sympathetic innervation of the muscle spindle might expand our understanding of motor and proprioceptive dysfunction under stress conditions, for example, chronic muscle pain syndromes.

  4. Physiology and pharmacology of the cardiovascular adrenergic system.

    PubMed

    Lymperopoulos, Anastasios

    2013-09-04

    Heart failure (HF), the leading cause of death in the western world, ensues in response to cardiac injury or insult and represents the inability of the heart to adequately pump blood and maintain tissue perfusion. It is characterized by complex interactions of several neurohormonal mechanisms that get activated in the syndrome in order to try and sustain cardiac output in the face of decompensating function. The most prominent among these neurohormonal mechanisms is the adrenergic (or sympathetic) nervous system (ANS), whose activity and outflow are greatly elevated in HF. Acutely, provided that the heart still works properly, this activation of the ANS will promptly restore cardiac function according to the fundamental Frank-Starling law of cardiac function. However, if the cardiac insult persists over time, this law no longer applies and ANS will not be able to sustain cardiac function. This is called decompensated HF, and the hyperactive ANS will continue to "push" the heart to work at a level much higher than the cardiac muscle can handle. From that point on, ANS hyperactivity becomes a major problem in HF, conferring significant toxicity to the failing heart and markedly increasing its morbidity and mortality. The present review discusses the role of the ANS in cardiac physiology and in HF pathophysiology, the mechanisms of regulation of ANS activity and how they go awry in chronic HF, and, finally, the molecular alterations in heart physiology that occur in HF along with their pharmacological and therapeutic implications for the failing heart.

  5. Physiology and pharmacology of the cardiovascular adrenergic system

    PubMed Central

    Lymperopoulos, Anastasios

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF), the leading cause of death in the western world, ensues in response to cardiac injury or insult and represents the inability of the heart to adequately pump blood and maintain tissue perfusion. It is characterized by complex interactions of several neurohormonal mechanisms that get activated in the syndrome in order to try and sustain cardiac output in the face of decompensating function. The most prominent among these neurohormonal mechanisms is the adrenergic (or sympathetic) nervous system (ANS), whose activity and outflow are greatly elevated in HF. Acutely, provided that the heart still works properly, this activation of the ANS will promptly restore cardiac function according to the fundamental Frank-Starling law of cardiac function. However, if the cardiac insult persists over time, this law no longer applies and ANS will not be able to sustain cardiac function. This is called decompensated HF, and the hyperactive ANS will continue to “push” the heart to work at a level much higher than the cardiac muscle can handle. From that point on, ANS hyperactivity becomes a major problem in HF, conferring significant toxicity to the failing heart and markedly increasing its morbidity and mortality. The present review discusses the role of the ANS in cardiac physiology and in HF pathophysiology, the mechanisms of regulation of ANS activity and how they go awry in chronic HF, and, finally, the molecular alterations in heart physiology that occur in HF along with their pharmacological and therapeutic implications for the failing heart. PMID:24027534

  6. β-Adrenergic blockers.

    PubMed

    Frishman, William H; Saunders, Elijah

    2011-09-01

    KEY POINTS AND PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS: •  β-Blockers are appropriate treatment for patients with hypertension and those who have concomitant ischemic heart disease, heart failure, obstructive cardiomyopathy, or certain arrhythmias. •  β-Blockers can be used in combination with other antihypertensive drugs to achieve maximal blood pressure control. Labetalol can be used in hypertensive emergencies and urgencies. •  β-Blockers may be useful in patients having hyperkinetic circulation (palpitations, tachycardia, hypertension, and anxiety), migraine headache, and essential tremor. •  β-Blockers are highly heterogeneous with respect to various pharmacologic effects: degree of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity, membrane-stabilizing activity, β(1) selectivity, α(1) -adrenergic-blocking effect, tissue solubility, routes of systemic elimination, potencies and duration of action, and specific effects may be important in the selection of a drug for clinical use. •  β-Blocker usage to reduce perioperative ischemia and cardiovascular complications may not benefit as many patients as was once hoped and may actually cause harm in some individuals. Currently the best evidence supports β-blocker use in two patient groups: patients undergoing vascular surgery with known ischemic heart disease or multiple risk factors for it and for patients already receiving β-blockers for known cardiovascular conditions.

  7. Inhibitory action of gamma-aminobutyric acid on the excitatory but not inhibitory innervation of the rat anococcygeus muscle.

    PubMed

    Hughes, P R; Morgan, P F; Stone, T W

    1982-12-01

    1 The effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), ethylenediamine, 3-aminopropane sulphonic acid and (+/-)-baclofen have been examined on the responses to stimulation of the adrenergic excitatory and non-adrenergic non-cholinergic inhibitory innervation of the rat anococcygeus muscle in vitro. 2 GABA produced a dose-related depression of the contractile responses to field stimulation. Ethylenediamine and baclofen also depressed the contractile responses, though they were less potent than GABA. 3-Aminopropane sulphonic acid was almost inactive. The inhibitory action of GABA was not modified by phentolamine, propranolol or bicuculline methylbromide. 3 GABA did not affect the contractile responses of the anococcygeus muscle to noradrenaline, phenylephrine or carbachol in untreated muscles or those treated with 6-hydroxydopamine in vitro. 4 In preparations in which tone was raised by continuous perfusion with carbachol in the presence of phentolamine, field stimulation relaxed the muscle. GABA had no effect on this inhibitory response, and did not itself produce any relaxation. 5 It is concluded that GABA exerts a presynaptic inhibitory action on the excitatory adrenergic but not on the inhibitory innervation of the anococcygeus muscle, and that the GABA receptor involved exhibits properties of the previously described GABAB site.

  8. Evidence for dopaminergic vasodilator innervation of the canine paw pad.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, C.; Lang, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    1 In chloralose-anaesthetized dogs pretreated with guanethidine and pancuronium, electrical stimulation (0.2 to 5 Hz) of the peripheral end of the cut tibial nerve caused a frequency-dependent increase in femoral blood flow which was restricted to the paw pads. 2 This neurogenic vasodilatation was not attenuated by atropine, mepyramine plus burimamide, indomethacin or propranolol. It was, however, attenuated in a dose-dependent manner by intra-arterial administration of the dopamine receptor antagonist, ergometrine (0.05 to 0.5 mg). 3 The effect of ergometrine could not be explained by non-specific effects on axonal conduction or transmission or by vasospasm of the blood vessels of the paw-pads. 4 In dogs with intact tibial nerves, a pharmacologically similar dilator response localized to the paw-pads could be elicited by electrical stimulation of loci in the ipsilateral diencephalon and midbrain. This response was not due to inhibition of adrenergic vasomotor tone and was abolished by systemic ganglion blockade or by tibial nerve section as well as by femoral arterial administration of ergometrine. 5 It is suggested that the vasculature of the canine paw pads is innervated by a population of autonomic axons which utilize dopamine or a related substance as a transmitter substance and activation of which causes vasodilation. PMID:40651

  9. Development of Cortical GABAergic Innervation

    PubMed Central

    Jovanovic, Jasmina N.; Thomson, Alex M.

    2011-01-01

    The mature neocortex contains many different classes of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons, distributed, with some degree of selectivity, through six layers, and through many different regions. Some of the events in the early lives of these neurones that may determine their ultimate destination, their maturation and their selective innervation of targets appropriate for each subtype, are discussed. Both time and place of birth influence the class of interneuron that an early post-mitotic interneuronal precursor will become, driven by the selective expression of different combinations of transcription factors in different regions of their birth places in the ganglionic eminence and ventricular zone. The long distance migration of these precursors along tangential routes in marginal, subventricular, and intermediate zones and their final radial movement, into the developing cortex, is regulated by chemical cues, both attractant and repellent. Once they arrive at their final destination, they must integrate into the developing circuitry. As they mature within the cortex, their axons grow and branch in highly specific patterns that may be partially determined by the genetic blueprint for each interneuronal class and partly by the environment in which they find themselves. Finally, as each interneuron class begins to form synapses with only certain postsynaptic targets, cell–cell recognition, most probably via protein–protein interactions across the synaptic cleft, facilitate the formation of appropriate synapses. PMID:21808605

  10. Distribution of adrenergic receptors in the enteric nervous system of the guinea pig, mouse, and rat.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Yasmin; Ho, Winnie; Sharkey, Keith A

    2006-04-10

    Adrenergic receptors in the enteric nervous system (ENS) are important in control of the gastrointestinal tract. Here we describe the distribution of adrenergic receptors in the ENS of the ileum and colon of the guinea pig, rat, and mouse by using single- and double-labelling immunohistochemistry. In the myenteric plexus (MP) of the rat and mouse, alpha2a-adrenergic receptors (alpha2a-AR) were widely distributed on neurons and enteric glial cells. alpha2a-AR mainly colocalized with calretinin in the MP, whereas submucosal alpha2a-AR neurons colocalized with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), neuropeptide Y, and calretinin in both species. In the guinea pig ileum, we observed widespread alpha2a-AR immunoreactivity on nerve fibers in the MP and on VIP neurons in the submucosal plexus (SMP). We observed extensive beta1-adrenergic receptor (beta1-AR) expression on neurons and nerve fibers in both the MP and the SMP of all species. Similarly, the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) was expressed on neurons and nerve fibers in the SMP of all species, as well as in the MP of the mouse. In the MP, beta1- and beta2-AR immunoreactivity was localized to several neuronal populations, including calretinin and nitrergic neurons. In the SMP of the guinea pig, beta1- and beta2-AR mainly colocalized with VIP, whereas, in the rat and mouse, beta1- and beta2-AR were distributed among the VIP and calretinin populations. Adrenergic receptors were widely localized on specific neuronal populations in all species studied. The role of glial alpha2a-AR is unknown. These results suggest that sympathetic innervation of the ENS is directed toward both enteric neurons and enteric glia.

  11. Memory Enhancement Induced by Post-Training Intrabasolateral Amygdala Infusions of [beta]-Adrenergic or Muscarinic Agonists Requires Activation of Dopamine Receptors: Involvement of Right, but Not Left, Basolateral Amygdala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaLumiere, Ryan T.; McGaugh, James L.

    2005-01-01

    Previous findings indicate that the noradrenergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic innervations of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) modulate memory consolidation. The current study investigated whether memory enhancement induced by post-training intra-BLA infusions of a [beta]-adrenergic or muscarinic cholinergic agonist requires concurrent activation…

  12. β-Adrenergic receptor signaling and modulation of long-term potentiation in the mammalian hippocampus.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Thomas J; Connor, Steven A; Guglietta, Ryan; Nguyen, Peter V

    2015-09-01

    Encoding new information in the brain requires changes in synaptic strength. Neuromodulatory transmitters can facilitate synaptic plasticity by modifying the actions and expression of specific signaling cascades, transmitter receptors and their associated signaling complexes, genes, and effector proteins. One critical neuromodulator in the mammalian brain is norepinephrine (NE), which regulates multiple brain functions such as attention, perception, arousal, sleep, learning, and memory. The mammalian hippocampus receives noradrenergic innervation and hippocampal neurons express β-adrenergic receptors, which are known to play important roles in gating the induction of long-lasting forms of synaptic potentiation. These forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) are believed to importantly contribute to long-term storage of spatial and contextual memories in the brain. In this review, we highlight the contributions of noradrenergic signaling in general and β-adrenergic receptors in particular, toward modulating hippocampal LTP. We focus on the roles of NE and β-adrenergic receptors in altering the efficacies of specific signaling molecules such as NMDA and AMPA receptors, protein phosphatases, and translation initiation factors. Also, the roles of β-adrenergic receptors in regulating synaptic "tagging" and "capture" of LTP within synaptic networks of the hippocampus are reviewed. Understanding the molecular and cellular bases of noradrenergic signaling will enrich our grasp of how the brain makes new, enduring memories, and may shed light on credible strategies for improving mental health through treatment of specific disorders linked to perturbed memory processing and dysfunctional noradrenergic synaptic transmission.

  13. Cardiac catheterization

    MedlinePlus

    Catheterization - cardiac; Heart catheterization; Angina - cardiac catheterization; CAD - cardiac catheterization; Coronary artery disease - cardiac catheterization; Heart valve - cardiac catheterization; Heart failure - ...

  14. β-Adrenergic response is counteracted by extremely-low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields in beating cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Cornacchione, Marisa; Pellegrini, Manuela; Fassina, Lorenzo; Mognaschi, Maria Evelina; Di Siena, Sara; Gimmelli, Roberto; Ambrosino, Paolo; Soldovieri, Maria Virginia; Taglialatela, Maurizio; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Isidori, Andrea M; Lenzi, Andrea; Naro, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    Proper β-adrenergic signaling is indispensable for modulating heart frequency. Studies on extremely-low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (ELF-PEMF) effects in the heart beat function are contradictory and no definitive conclusions were obtained so far. To investigate the interplay between ELF-PEMF exposure and β-adrenergic signaling, cultures of primary murine neonatal cardiomyocytes and of sinoatrial node were exposed to ELF-PEMF and short and long-term effects were evaluated. The ELF-PEMF generated a variable magnetic induction field of 0-6mT at a frequency of 75Hz. Exposure to 3mT ELF-PEMF induced a decrease of contraction rate, Ca(2+) transients, contraction force, and energy consumption both under basal conditions and after β-adrenergic stimulation in neonatal cardiomyocytes. ELF-PEMF exposure inhibited β-adrenergic response in sinoatrial node (SAN) region. ELF-PEMF specifically modulated β2 adrenergic receptor response and the exposure did not modify the increase of contraction rate after adenylate cyclase stimulation by forskolin. In HEK293T cells transfected with β1 or β2 adrenergic receptors, ELF-PEMF exposure induced a rapid and selective internalization of β2 adrenergic receptor. The β-adrenergic signaling, was reduced trough Gi protein by ELF-PEMF exposure since the phosphorylation level of phospholamban and the PI3K pathway were impaired after isoproterenol stimulation in neonatal cardiomyocytes. Long term effects of ELF-PEMF exposure were assessed in cultures of isolated cardiomyocytes. ELF-PEMF counteracts cell size increase, the generation of binucleated of cardiomyocytes and prevents the up-regulation of hypertrophic markers after β-adrenergic stimulation, indicating an inhibition of cell growth and maturation. These data show that short and long term exposure to ELF-PEMF induces a reduction of cardiac β-adrenergic response at molecular, functional and adaptative levels.

  15. Functional differences between junctional and extrajunctional adrenergic receptor activation in mammalian ventricle

    PubMed Central

    Ajijola, Olujimi A.; Vaseghi, Marmar; Zhou, Wei; Yamakawa, Kentaro; Benharash, Peyman; Hadaya, Joseph; Lux, Robert L.; Mahajan, Aman

    2013-01-01

    Increased cardiac sympathetic activation worsens dispersion of repolarization and is proarrhythmic. The functional differences between intrinsic nerve stimulation and adrenergic receptor activation remain incompletely understood. This study was undertaken to determine the functional differences between efferent cardiac sympathetic nerve stimulation and direct adrenergic receptor activation in porcine ventricles. Female Yorkshire pigs (n = 13) underwent surgical exposure of the heart and stellate ganglia. A 56-electrode sock was placed over the ventricles to record epicardial electrograms. Animals underwent bilateral sympathetic stimulation (BSS) (n = 8) or norepinephrine (NE) administration (n = 5). Activation recovery intervals (ARIs) were measured at each electrode before and during BSS or NE. The degree of ARI shortening during BSS or NE administration was used as a measure of functional nerve or adrenergic receptor density. During BSS, ARI shortening was nonuniform across the epicardium (F value 9.62, P = 0.003), with ARI shortening greatest in the mid-basal lateral right ventricle and least in the midposterior left ventricle (LV) (mean normalized values: 0.9 ± 0.08 vs. 0.56 ± 0.08; P = 0.03). NE administration resulted in greater ARI shortening in the LV apex than basal segments [0.91 ± 0.04 vs. 0.63 ± 0.05 (averaged basal segments); P = 0.003]. Dispersion of ARIs increased in 50% and 60% of the subjects undergoing BSS and NE, respectively, but decreased in the others. There is nonuniform response to cardiac sympathetic activation of both porcine ventricles, which is not fully explained by adrenergic receptor density. Different pools of adrenergic receptors may mediate the cardiac electrophysiological effects of efferent sympathetic nerve activity and circulating catecholamines. PMID:23241324

  16. The Adrenergic Nervous System in Heart Failure: Pathophysiology and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lymperopoulos, Anastasios; Rengo, Giuseppe; Koch, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF), the leading cause of death in the western world, develops when a cardiac injury or insult impairs the ability of the heart to pump blood and maintain tissue perfusion. It is characterized by a complex interplay of several neurohormonal mechanisms that get activated in the syndrome in order to try and sustain cardiac output in the face of decompensating function. Perhaps the most prominent among these neurohormonal mechanisms is the adrenergic (or sympathetic) nervous system (ANS), whose activity and outflow are enormously elevated in HF. Acutely, and if the heart works properly, this activation of the ANS will promptly restore cardiac function. However, if the cardiac insult persists over time, chances are the ANS will not be able to maintain cardiac function, the heart will progress into a state of chronic decompensated HF, and the hyperactive ANS will continue to “push” the heart to work at a level much higher than the cardiac muscle can handle. From that point on, ANS hyperactivity becomes a major problem in HF, conferring significant toxicity to the failing heart and markedly increasing its morbidity and mortality. The present review discusses the role of the ANS in cardiac physiology and in HF pathophysiology, the mechanisms of regulation of ANS activity and how they go awry in chronic HF, methods of measuring ANS activity in HF, the molecular alterations in heart physiology that occur in HF along with their pharmacological and therapeutic implications, and, finally, drugs and other therapeutic modalities used in HF treatment that target or affect the ANS and its effects on the failing heart. PMID:23989716

  17. Effects of ovarian hormones on beta-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors in rat heart

    SciTech Connect

    Klangkalya, B.; Chan, A.

    1988-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo effects of estrogen and progesterone on muscarinic and ..beta..-adrenergic receptors of cardiac tissue were studied in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The binding assay for muscarinic receptors was performed under a nonequilibrium condition; whereas the binding assay for ..beta..-adrenergic receptors, under an equilibrium condition. Estrogenic compounds and progesterone were found to have no effect on the binding of the radioligand, (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol, to ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in vitro. However, progestins but not estrogenic compounds inhibited the binding of the radioligand, (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidinyl benzilate, to muscarinic receptors in vitro, with progesterone as the most potent inhibitor. Progesterone was found to decrease the apparent affinity of muscarinic receptors for (/sup 3/H)(-)QNB in vitro. Daily treatment of OVX rats with estradiol benzoate or progesterone for 4 days had no effect on the muscarinic or ..beta..-adrenergic receptors with respect to the binding affinity and receptor density. However, administrations of these hormones together for 4 days caused an increase in the receptor density of muscarinic receptors without a significant effect on their apparent binding affinity; also these hormones induced a decrease in the binding affinity and an increase in the receptor density of ..beta..-adrenergic receptors.

  18. Effects of adrenergic agents on the expression of zebrafish (Danio rerio) vitellogenin Ao1

    SciTech Connect

    Yin Naida; Jin Xia; He Jiangyan; Yin Zhan

    2009-07-01

    Teleost vitellogenins (VTGs) are large multidomain apolipoproteins, traditionally considered to be estrogen-responsive precursors of the major egg yolk proteins, expressed and synthesized mainly in hepatic tissue. The inducibility of VTGs has made them one of the most frequently used in vivo and in vitro biomarkers of exposure to estrogen-active substances. A significant level of zebrafish vtgAo1, a major estrogen responsive form, has been unexpectedly found in heart tissue in our present studies. Our studies on zebrafish cardiomyopathy, caused by adrenergic agonist treatment, suggest a similar protective function of the cardiac expressed vtgAo1. We hypothesize that its function is to unload surplus intracellular lipids in cardiomyocytes for 'reverse triglyceride transportation' similar to that found in lipid transport proteins in mammals. Our results also demonstrated that zebrafish vtgAo1 mRNA expression in heart can be suppressed by both {alpha}-adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine (PE) and {beta}-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol (ISO). Furthermore, the strong stimulation of zebrafish vtgAo1 expression in plasma induced by the {beta}-adrenergic antagonist, MOXIsylyl, was detected by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). Such stimulation cannot be suppressed by taMOXIfen, an antagonist to estrogen receptors. Thus, our present data indicate that the production of teleost VTG in vivo can be regulated not only by estrogenic agents, but by adrenergic signals as well.

  19. Origins of serotonin innervation of forebrain structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellar, K. J.; Brown, P. A.; Madrid, J.; Bernstein, M.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Mehler, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    The tryptophan hydroxylase activity and high-affinity uptake of (3H) serotonin ((3H)5-HT) were measured in five discrete brain regions of rats following lesions of the dorsal or median raphe nuclei. Dorsal raphe lesions reduced enzyme and uptake activity in the striatum only. Median raphe lesions reduced activities in the hippocampus, septal area, frontal cortex, and, to a lesser extent, in the hypothalamus. These data are consistent with the suggestion that the dorsal and median raphe nuclei are the origins of two separate ascending serotonergic systems - one innervating striatal structures and the other mesolimbic structures, predominantly. In addition, the data suggest that measurements of high-affinity uptake of (3H)5-HT may be a more reliable index of innervation than either 5-HT content or tryptophan hydroxylase activity.

  20. Sympathetic innervation promotes vascular smooth muscle differentiation.

    PubMed

    Damon, Deborah H

    2005-06-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is an important modulator of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) growth and function. Several lines of evidence suggest that the SNS also promotes VSM differentiation. The present study tests this hypothesis. Expression of smooth muscle myosin (SM2) and alpha-actin were assessed by Western analysis as indexes of VSM differentiation. SM2 expression (normalized to alpha-actin) in adult innervated rat femoral and tail arteries was 479 +/- 115% of that in noninnervated carotid arteries. Expression of alpha-actin (normalized to GAPDH or total protein) in 30-day-innervated rat femoral arteries was greater than in corresponding noninnervated femoral arteries from guanethidine-sympathectomized rats. SM2 expression (normalized to alpha-actin) in neonatal femoral arteries grown in vitro for 7 days in the presence of sympathetic ganglia was greater than SM2 expression in corresponding arteries grown in the absence of sympathetic ganglia. In VSM-endothelial cell cultures grown in the presence of dissociated sympathetic neurons, alpha-actin (normalized to GAPDH) was 300 +/- 66% of that in corresponding cultures grown in the absence of neurons. This effect was inhibited by an antibody that neutralized the activity of transforming growth factor-beta2. All of these data indicate that sympathetic innervation increased VSM contractile protein expression and thereby suggest that the SNS promotes and/or maintains VSM differentiation.

  1. Social temperament and lymph node innervation

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Erica K.; Capitanio, John P.; Tarara, Ross P.; Cole, Steve W.

    2008-01-01

    Socially inhibited individuals show increased vulnerability to viral infections, and this has been linked to increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). To determine whether structural alterations in SNS innervation of lymphoid tissue might contribute to these effects, we assayed the density of catecholaminergic nerve fibers in 13 lymph nodes from 7 healthy adult rhesus macaques that showed stable individual differences in propensity to socially affiliate (Sociability). Tissues from Low Sociable animals showed a 2.8-fold greater density of catecholaminergic innervation relative to tissues from High Sociable animals, and this was associated with a 2.3-fold greater expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNA, suggesting a molecular mechanism for observed differences. Low Sociable animals also showed alterations in lymph node expression of the immunoregulatory cytokine genes IFNG and IL4, and lower secondary IgG responses to tetanus vaccination. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that structural differences in lymphoid tissue innervation might potentially contribute to relationships between social temperament and immunobiology. PMID:18068331

  2. Phospholemman and beta-adrenergic stimulation in the heart.

    PubMed

    Wang, JuFang; Gao, Erhe; Song, Jianliang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Li, Jifen; Koch, Walter J; Tucker, Amy L; Philipson, Kenneth D; Chan, Tung O; Feldman, Arthur M; Cheung, Joseph Y

    2010-03-01

    Phosphorylation at serine 68 of phospholemman (PLM) in response to beta-adrenergic stimulation results in simultaneous inhibition of cardiac Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger NCX1 and relief of inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. The role of PLM in mediating beta-adrenergic effects on in vivo cardiac function was investigated with congenic PLM-knockout (KO) mice. Echocardiography showed similar ejection fraction between wild-type (WT) and PLM-KO hearts. Cardiac catheterization demonstrated higher baseline contractility (+dP/dt) but similar relaxation (-dP/dt) in PLM-KO mice. In response to isoproterenol (Iso), maximal +dP/dt was similar but maximal -dP/dt was reduced in PLM-KO mice. Dose-response curves to Iso (0.5-25 ng) for WT and PLM-KO hearts were superimposable. Maximal +dP/dt was reached 1-2 min after Iso addition and declined with time in WT but not PLM-KO hearts. In isolated myocytes paced at 2 Hz. contraction and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) transient amplitudes and [Na(+)](i) reached maximum 2-4 min after Iso addition, followed by decline in WT but not PLM-KO myocytes. Reducing pacing frequency to 0.5 Hz resulted in much smaller increases in [Na(+)](i) and no decline in contraction and [Ca(2+)](i) transient amplitudes with time in Iso-stimulated WT and PLM-KO myocytes. Although baseline Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase current was 41% higher in PLM-KO myocytes because of increased alpha(1)- but not alpha(2)-subunit activity, resting [Na(+)](i) was similar between quiescent WT and PLM-KO myocytes. Iso increased alpha(1)-subunit current (I(alpha1)) by 73% in WT but had no effect in PLM-KO myocytes. Iso did not affect alpha(2)-subunit current (I(alpha2)) in WT and PLM-KO myocytes. In both WT and NCX1-KO hearts, PLM coimmunoprecipitated with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-subunits, indicating that association of PLM with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase did not require NCX1. We conclude that under stressful conditions in which [Na(+)](i) was high, beta-adrenergic agonist

  3. Direct contact between sympathetic neurons and rat cardiac myocytes in vitro increases expression of functional calcium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, S; Barnett, J V; Sen, L; Galper, J B; Smith, T W; Marsh, J D

    1992-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that direct contact between sympathetic neurons and myocytes regulates expression and function of cardiac Ca channels, we prepared cultures of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes with and without sympathetic ganglia. Contractile properties of myocytes were assessed by an optical-video system. Contractility-pCa curves showed a 60% greater increase in contractility for innervated myocytes compared with control cells at 6.3 mM [Ca]0 (n = 8, P less than 0.05). Cells grown in medium conditioned by growth of ganglia and myocytes were indistinguishable physiologically from control cells. [Bay K 8644]-contractility curves revealed a 60 +/- 10% enhancement of the contractility response at 10(-6) M for innervated cells compared with control cells. The increased response to Bay K 8644 was not blocked by alpha- or beta-adrenergic antagonists. Moreover, increased efficacy of Bay K 8644 was maintained for at least 24 h after denervation produced by removal of ganglia from the culture. Dihydropyridine binding sites were assessed with the L channel-specific radioligand 3[H]PN200-110. PN200-110 binding sites were increased by innervation (51 +/- 5 to 108 +/- 20 fmol/mg protein, P less than 0.01), with no change in KD. Peak current-voltage curves were determined by whole-cell voltage clamp techniques for myocytes contacted by a neuron, control myocytes, and myocytes grown in conditioned medium. Current density of L-type Ca channels was significantly higher in innervated myocytes (10.5 +/- 0.4 pA/pF, n = 5) than in control myocytes (5.9 +/- 0.3 pA/pF, n = 8, P less than 0.01) or myocytes grown in conditioned medium (6.2 +/- 0.2 pA/pF, n = 10, P less than 0.01). Thus, physical contact between a sympathetic neuron and previously uninnervated neonatal rat ventricular myocytes increases expression of functional L-type calcium channels as judged by contractile responses to Ca0 and Bay K 8644, as well as by electrophysiological and radioligand binding properties

  4. Management of beta-adrenergic blocker and calcium channel antagonist toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kerns, William

    2007-05-01

    State-of-the-art therapy for beta-adrenergic receptor blocker and calcium channel antagonist toxicity is reviewed in the light of new insights into drug-induced shock. A brief discussion of pathophysiology, including cardiac, hemodynamic, and metabolic effects of cardiac drug toxicity, provides a foundation for understanding the basis of therapy. The major focus of this review is a critical evaluation of antidotal use of calcium, glucagon, catecholamines, insulin-euglycemia, and other novel therapies based on investigational studies and cumulative clinical experience.

  5. Two-photon microscopy of dermal innervation in a human re-innervated model of skin.

    PubMed

    Sevrain, David; Le Grand, Yann; Buhé, Virginie; Jeanmaire, Christine; Pauly, Gilles; Carré, Jean-Luc; Misery, Laurent; Lebonvallet, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    When skin is injured, innervation can be severely disrupted. The subsequent re-innervation processes are poorly understood notably because of the inability to image the full meandering course of nerves with their ramifications and endings from histological slices. In this letter, we report on two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy of entire human skin explants re-innervated by rodent sensory neurons labelled with the styryl dye FM1-43. TPEF imaging of nerve fibres to a depth up to roughly 300 μm within the dermis was demonstrated, allowing three-dimensional reconstruction of the neural tree structure. Endogenous second-harmonic imaging of type I fibrillar collagen was performed in parallel to TPEF imaging using the same nonlinear microscope, revealing the path of the nerves through the dermis.

  6. Alpha-Adrenergic receptors in cerebral microvessels of normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, H.; Wada, A.; Izumi, F.; Magnoni, M.S.; Trabucchi, M.

    1985-03-01

    In rat cerebral microvessels, we characterized alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, using (/sup 3/H)prazosin and (/sup 3/H)-p-amino-clonidine as radioligands. (/sup 3/H)Prazosin binding to the cerebral microvessels was saturable and of high affinity (dissociation constant of 78 pM), with a maximum binding of 48 fmol/mg protein. (/sup 3/H)Prazosin binding reached equilibrium within 15 minutes and was dissociated by the addition of 10 microM phentolamine. The inhibitory effects of isomers of norepinephrine and epinephrine on the binding showed that l-isomers were over 10 times more potent than d-isomers. (/sup 3/H)-p-Amino-clonidine binding to the cerebral microvessels was saturable and of high affinity (K/sub D/ . 0.61 nM) with a B/sub max/ of 73 fmol/mg protein. The binding reached equilibrium within 30 minutes, and was dissociated by the addition of 100 microM l-norepinephrine. l-Isomers of norepinephrine and epinephrine were over 10 times more potent than d-isomers in displacing the binding. Thus, both (/sup 3/H)prazosin and (/sup 3/H)-p-amino-clonidine bindings to the cerebral microvessels were characterized by saturability, high affinity, reversibility, and stereo-specificity. Furthermore, the specificity of both binding sites was pharmacologically evaluated by the inhibitory effects of various adrenergic agonists and antagonists on the bindings. These data indicate the existence of alpha-adrenergic receptors in the cerebral microvessels and are consistent with the hypothesis that the cerebral microcirculation is regulated by adrenergic innervation. Furthermore, the receptors were measured in cerebral microvessels of spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto controls.

  7. Adrenergic signaling elements in the bladder wall of the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Persyn, Sara; Eastham, Jane; De Wachter, Stefan; Gillespie, James

    2016-12-01

    A growing body of work is describing the absence of a significant sympathetic innervation of the detrusor implying little sympathetic regulation of bladder contractility. However, low doses of adrenergic agonists are capable of relaxing the bladder smooth muscle. If these effects underpin a physiological response then the cellular nature and operation of this system are currently unknown. The present immunohistochemistry study was done to explore the existence of alternative adrenergic signaling elements in the rat bladder wall. Using antibodies to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and vesicular mono-amine transporter (vmat), few adrenergic nerves were found in the detrusor although TH immunoreactive (IR) nerves were apparent in the bladder neck. TH-IR and vmat-IR nerves were however abundant surrounding blood vessels. A population of vmat-IR cells was found within the network of interstitial cells that surround the detrusor muscle bundles. These vmat-IR cells were not or only weakly TH-IR. This suggests that these interstitial cells have the capacity to store and release catecholamines that may involve noradrenaline. Cells expressing the β1-adrenoceptor (β1AR-IR) were also detected within the interstitial cell network. Double staining with antibodies to β1AR and vmat suggests that the majority of vmat-IR interstitial cells show β1AR-IR indicative of an autocrine signaling system. In conclusion, a population of interstitial cells has the machinery to store, release and respond to catecholamines. Thus, there might exist a non-neuronal β-adrenergic system operating in the bladder wall possibly linked to one component of motor activity, micro-contractions, a system that may be involved in mechanisms underpinning bladder sensation.

  8. Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blockers in Hypertension: Alive and Well.

    PubMed

    Frishman, William H

    2016-10-27

    βeta-Adrenergic receptor blockers (β-blockers) are an appropriate treatment for patients having systemic hypertension (HTN) who have concomitant ischemic heart disease (IHD), heart failure, obstructive cardiomyopathy, aortic dissection or certain cardiac arrhythmias. β-blockers can be used in combination with other antiHTN drugs to achieve maximal blood pressure control. Labetalol can be used in HTN emergencies and urgencies. β-blockers may be useful in HTN patients having a hyperkinetic circulation (palpitations, tachycardia, HTN, and anxiety), migraine headache, and essential tremor. β-blockers are highly heterogeneous with respect to various pharmacologic properties: degree of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity , membrane stabilizing activity , β1 selectivity, α1-adrenergic blocking effects, tissue solubility, routes of systemic elimination, potencies and duration of action, and specific properties may be important in the selection of a drug for clinical use. β-blocker usage to reduce perioperative myocardial ischemia and cardiovascular (CV) complications may not benefit as many patients as was once hoped, and may actually cause harm in some individuals. Currently the best evidence supports perioperative β-blocker use in two patient groups: patients undergoing vascular surgery with known IHD or multiple risk factors for it, and for those patients already receiving β-blockers for known CV conditions.

  9. Development of neuropeptide Y-mediated heart innervation in rats.

    PubMed

    Masliukov, Petr M; Moiseev, Konstantin; Emanuilov, Andrey I; Anikina, Tatyana A; Zverev, Alexey A; Nozdrachev, Alexandr D

    2016-02-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays a trophic role in the nervous and vascular systems and in cardiac hypertrophy. However, there is no report concerning the expression of NPY and its receptors in the heart during postnatal development. In the current study, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis was used to label NPY, and Y1R, Y2R, and Y5R receptors in the heart tissue and intramural cardiac ganglia from rats of different ages (newborn, 10 days old, 20 days old, 30 days old, 60 days old, 1 year old, and 2 years old).The obtained data suggest age-dependent changes of NPY-mediated heart innervation. The density of NPY-immunoreactive (IR) fibers was the least in newborn animals and increased in the first 20 days of life. In the atria of newborn and 10-day-old rats, NPY-IR fibers were more abundant compared with the ventricles. The vast majority of NPY-IR fibers also contained tyrosine hydroxylase, a key enzyme in catecholamine synthesis.The expression of Y1R increased between 10 and 20 days of life. Faint Y2R immunoreactivity was observed in the atria and ventricles of 20-day-old and older rats. In contrast, the highest level of the expression of Y5R was found in newborn pups comparing with more adult rats. All intramural ganglionic neurons were also Y1R-IR and Y5R-IR and Y2R-negative in all studied animals.Thus, the increasing of density of NPY-containing nerve fibers accompanies changes in relation of different subtypes of NPY receptors in the heart during development.

  10. The Role of Neuromediators and Innervation in Cutaneous Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Mohammed; Baguneid, Mohamed; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2016-06-15

    The skin is densely innervated with an intricate network of cutaneous nerves, neuromediators and specific receptors which influence a variety of physiological and disease processes. There is emerging evidence that cutaneous innervation may play an important role in mediating wound healing. This review aims to comprehensively examine the evidence that signifies the role of innervation during the overlapping stages of cutaneous wound healing. Numerous neuropeptides that are secreted by the sensory and autonomic nerve fibres play an essential part during the distinct phases of wound healing. Delayed wound healing in diabetes and fetal cutaneous regeneration following wounding further highlights the pivotal role skin innervation and its associated neuromediators play in wound healing. Understanding the mechanisms via which cutaneous innervation modulates wound healing in both the adult and fetus will provide opportunities to develop therapeutic devices which could manipulate skin innervation to aid wound healing.

  11. β-Adrenergic Receptor and Insulin Resistance in the Heart.

    PubMed

    Mangmool, Supachoke; Denkaew, Tananat; Parichatikanond, Warisara; Kurose, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance is characterized by the reduced ability of insulin to stimulate tissue uptake and disposal of glucose including cardiac muscle. These conditions accelerate the progression of heart failure and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases. It is noteworthy that some conditions of insulin resistance are characterized by up-regulation of the sympathetic nervous system, resulting in enhanced stimulation of β-adrenergic receptor (βAR). Overstimulation of βARs leads to the development of heart failure and is associated with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in the heart. However, pathological consequences of the cross-talk between the βAR and the insulin sensitivity and the mechanism by which βAR overstimulation promotes insulin resistance remain unclear. This review article examines the hypothesis that βARs overstimulation leads to induction of insulin resistance in the heart.

  12. β-Adrenergic Receptor and Insulin Resistance in the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Mangmool, Supachoke; Denkaew, Tananat; Parichatikanond, Warisara; Kurose, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance is characterized by the reduced ability of insulin to stimulate tissue uptake and disposal of glucose including cardiac muscle. These conditions accelerate the progression of heart failure and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases. It is noteworthy that some conditions of insulin resistance are characterized by up-regulation of the sympathetic nervous system, resulting in enhanced stimulation of β-adrenergic receptor (βAR). Over-stimulation of βARs leads to the development of heart failure and is associated with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in the heart. However, pathological consequences of the cross-talk between the βAR and the insulin sensitivity and the mechanism by which βAR over-stimulation promotes insulin resistance remain unclear. This review article examines the hypothesis that βARs over-stimulation leads to induction of insulin resistance in the heart. PMID:28035081

  13. An Alpha-1A Adrenergic Receptor Agonist Prevents Acute Doxorubicin Cardiomyopathy in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Megan D.; Chan, Trevor; Swigart, Philip M.; Myagmar, Bat-erdene; Dash, Rajesh; Simpson, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors mediate adaptive effects in the heart and cardiac myocytes, and a myocyte survival pathway involving the alpha-1A receptor subtype and ERK activation exists in vitro. However, data in vivo are limited. Here we tested A61603 (N-[5-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl]methanesulfonamide), a selective imidazoline agonist for the alpha-1A. A61603 was the most potent alpha-1-agonist in activating ERK in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. A61603 activated ERK in adult mouse ventricular myocytes and protected the cells from death caused by the anthracycline doxorubicin. A low dose of A61603 (10 ng/kg/d) activated ERK in the mouse heart in vivo, but did not change blood pressure. In male mice, concurrent subcutaneous A61603 infusion at 10 ng/kg/d for 7 days after a single intraperitoneal dose of doxorubicin (25 mg/kg) increased survival, improved cardiac function, heart rate, and cardiac output by echocardiography, and reduced cardiac cell necrosis and apoptosis and myocardial fibrosis. All protective effects were lost in alpha-1A-knockout mice. In female mice, doxorubicin at doses higher than in males (35–40 mg/kg) caused less cardiac toxicity than in males. We conclude that the alpha-1A-selective agonist A61603, via the alpha-1A adrenergic receptor, prevents doxorubicin cardiomyopathy in male mice, supporting the theory that alpha-1A adrenergic receptor agonists have potential as novel heart failure therapies. PMID:28081170

  14. GPCR signaling and cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Capote, Leany A; Mendez Perez, Roberto; Lymperopoulos, Anastasios

    2015-09-15

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as β-adrenergic and angiotensin II receptors, located in the membranes of all three major cardiac cell types, i.e. myocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells, play crucial roles in regulating cardiac function and morphology. Their importance in cardiac physiology and disease is reflected by the fact that, collectively, they represent the direct targets of over a third of the currently approved cardiovascular drugs used in clinical practice. Over the past few decades, advances in elucidation of their structure, function and the signaling pathways they elicit, specifically in the heart, have led to identification of an increasing number of new molecular targets for heart disease therapy. Here, we review these signaling modalities employed by GPCRs known to be expressed in the cardiac myocyte membranes and to directly modulate cardiac contractility. We also highlight drugs and drug classes that directly target these GPCRs to modulate cardiac function, as well as molecules involved in cardiac GPCR signaling that have the potential of becoming novel drug targets for modulation of cardiac function in the future.

  15. Cartography of human diaphragmatic innervation: preliminary data.

    PubMed

    Verin, Eric; Marie, Jean-Paul; Similowski, Thomas

    2011-04-30

    In humans, anatomy indicates that the phrenic nerve mainly arises from the C4 cervical root, with variable C3 and C5 contributions. How this translates into functional innervation is unknown. The diaphragm response to electrical stimulation of C3, C4 and C5 was described in three patients undergoing surgical laryngeal reinnervation with an upper phrenic root (surface chest electrodes at anterior, lateral and posterior sites; oesophageal and gastric pressures (Pes and Pga) to derive transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi)). Anatomically, the phrenic nerve predominantly originated from C4. Phrenic stimulation elicited motor responses at the three sites in the three patients, as did C4 stimulation. It produced Pdi values of 9, 11, and 14cmH(2)O in the three patients, respectively, vs. 9, 9, and 7cmH(2)O for C4. C3 stimulation produced modest Pdi responses, whereas C5 stimulation could produce Pdi responses close to those observed with C4 stimulation. These singular observations confirm the dominance of C4 in diaphragm innervation but suggest than C5 can be of importance.

  16. Visceral nerves: vagal and sympathetic innervation.

    PubMed

    Teff, Karen L

    2008-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system is the primary neural mediator of physiological responses to internal and external stimuli. It is composed of 2 branches: the sympathetic nervous system, which mediates catabolic responses, and the parasympathetic nervous system, composed of the vagus nerve, which regulates anabolic responses. As the vagus nerve innervates most tissues involved in nutrient metabolism, including the stomach, pancreas, and liver, activation of vagal efferent activity has the potential to influence how nutrients are absorbed and metabolized. Vagal efferent activity is initially activated at the onset of food intake by receptors in the oropharyngeal cavity and then during food intake postprandially. Vagal efferent innervation of the pancreas contributes to early-phase insulin release as well as to optimizing postprandial insulin release. In the absence of vagal activation, which occurs when glucose is administered intragastrically, postprandial glucose levels are higher and insulin levels blunted compared with when there is activation of oropharyngeal receptors by food. An induction of vagal efferent activity also occurs during chronic pancreatic B-cell challenge with 48-hour glucose infusions. Under these conditions, the compensatory increase in insulin secretion is partially mediated by an increase in vagal efferent activity. In conclusion, the vagus nerve, part of the parasympathetic nervous system, plays a critical role in the regulation of blood glucose levels and is an often overlooked factor contributing to glucose homeostasis.

  17. The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in β-Adrenergic Signaling in Cardiomyocytes from Mice with the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Llano-Diez, Monica; Sinclair, Jon; Yamada, Takashi; Zong, Mei; Fauconnier, Jeremy; Zhang, Shi-Jin; Katz, Abram; Jardemark, Kent; Westerblad, Håkan; Andersson, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is associated with prolonged stress and hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system and afflicted subjects are prone to develop cardiovascular disease. Under normal conditions, the cardiomyocyte response to acute β-adrenergic stimulation partly depends on increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we investigated the interplay between beta-adrenergic signaling, ROS and cardiac contractility using freshly isolated cardiomyocytes and whole hearts from two mouse models with the metabolic syndrome (high-fat diet and ob/ob mice). We hypothesized that cardiomyocytes of mice with the metabolic syndrome would experience excessive ROS levels that trigger cellular dysfunctions. Fluorescent dyes and confocal microscopy were used to assess mitochondrial ROS production, cellular Ca2+ handling and contractile function in freshly isolated adult cardiomyocytes. Immunofluorescence, western blot and enzyme assay were used to study protein biochemistry. Unexpectedly, our results point towards decreased cardiac ROS signaling in a stable, chronic phase of the metabolic syndrome because: β-adrenergic-induced increases in the amplitude of intracellular Ca2+ signals were insensitive to antioxidant treatment; mitochondrial ROS production showed decreased basal rate and smaller response to β-adrenergic stimulation. Moreover, control hearts and hearts with the metabolic syndrome showed similar basal levels of ROS-mediated protein modification, but only control hearts showed increases after β-adrenergic stimulation. In conclusion, in contrast to the situation in control hearts, the cardiomyocyte response to acute β-adrenergic stimulation does not involve increased mitochondrial ROS production in a stable, chronic phase of the metabolic syndrome. This can be seen as a beneficial adaptation to prevent excessive ROS levels. PMID:27907040

  18. Dual innervation of neonatal Merkel cells in mouse touch domes.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jingwen; Vysochan, Anna; Luo, Wenqin

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell-neurite complexes are specialized mechanosensory end organs that mediate discriminative touch sensation. It is well established that type I slowly adapting (SAI) mechanoreceptors, which express neural filament heavy chain (NFH), innervate Merkel cells. It was previously shown that neurotrophic factor NT3 and its receptor TrkC play crucial roles in controlling touch dome Merkel cell innervation of NFH+ fibers. In addition, nerve fibers expressing another neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK), Ret, innervate touch dome Merkel cells as well. However, the relationship between afferents responsive to NT3/TrkC signaling and those expressing Ret is unclear. It is also controversial if these Ret+ fibers belong to the early or late Ret+ DRG neurons, which are defined based on the co-expression and developmental dependence of TrkA. To address these questions, we genetically traced Ret+ and TrkC+ fibers and analyzed their developmental dependence on TrkA. We found that Merkel cells in neonatal mouse touch domes receive innervation of two types of fibers: one group is Ret+, while the other subset expresses TrkC and NFH. In addition, Ret+ fibers depend on TrkA for their survival and normal innervation whereas NFH+ Merkel cell innervating fibers are almost unaltered in TrkA mutant mice, supporting that Ret+ and NFH+/TrkC+ afferents are two distinct groups. Ret signaling, on the other hand, plays a minor role for the innervation of neonatal touch domes. In contrast, Merkel cells in the glabrous skin are mainly contacted by NFH+/TrkC+ afferents. Taken together, our results suggest that neonatal Merkel cells around hair follicles receive dual innervation while Merkel cells in the glabrous skin are mainly innervated by only SAI mechanoreceptors. In addition, our results suggest that neonatal Ret+ Merkel cell innervating fibers most likely belong to the late but not early Ret+ DRG neurons.

  19. Innervation of the gall bladder and biliary pathways in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Cai, W Q; Gabella, G

    1983-01-01

    The innervation of the gall bladder and the biliary pathways was studied in guinea-pigs by means of histochemical methods for catecholamines and for acetylcholinesterase on whole mount preparations, on cryostat sections and on sections of plastic-embedded tissues. The gall bladder contains on average 367 neurons in a ganglionated plexus which lies at the outer surface of the muscle coat. The overall appearance of this plexus is rather similar to that of the submucosal plexus of the duodenum. From the gall bladder the plexus extends into the cystic duct, the hepatic duct and the common bile duct, but from the middle portion of the common bile duct downwards, it is positioned at or near the inner surface of the muscle coat. Concurrently with the marked increase in muscle thickness in the lower parts of the common bile duct, another ganglionated plexus appears, which is truly intramuscular. The latter plexus is highly developed, lies usually between longitudinal and circular muscle and resembles in appearance the myenteric plexus of the duodenum, with which it is in continuity. Throughout the biliary system, the extent of the ganglionated plexus is roughly related to the extent of the musculature. An exchange of adrenergic fibres between the ganglionated plexus and perivascular nerves is observed in the gall bladder. Another nerve plexus, without ganglia but rich in adrenergic and acetylcholinesterase-positive fibres, lies between the mucosa and the muscle coat. Very few nerve fibres run into the musculature of the gall bladder. On the other hand, in the thick musculature of the lower portion of the common bile duct, several intramuscular nerve fibres are found. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6833124

  20. Serotonergic innervation of the rat testis.

    PubMed

    Campos, M B; Vitale, M L; Calandra, R S; Chiocchio, S R

    1990-03-01

    The presence of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was determined by h.p.l.c. in perchloric extracts of each isolated compartment of the adult rat testis. The testicular capsule, interstitial cells and interstitial fluid contained 5-HT, but 5-HT was not detected in the tubular compartment. In a group of adult rats, one testis was unilaterally denervated, and the contralateral testis used as control. The superior spermatic nerve, arising from the renal plexus, was excised and 1 week after surgery 5-HT content was measured in the capsule and interstitial fluid of both testes. Denervation caused a significant fall (34%) in 5-HT content. These results indicate that at least part of the testicular 5-HT derives from a serotonergic innervation of the gonad.

  1. Indenopyrazole oxime ethers: synthesis and β1-adrenergic blocking activity.

    PubMed

    Angelone, Tommaso; Caruso, Anna; Rochais, Christophe; Caputo, Angela Maria; Cerra, Maria Carmela; Dallemagne, Patrick; Filice, Elisabetta; Genest, David; Pasqua, Teresa; Puoci, Francesco; Saturnino, Carmela; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; El-Kashef, Hussein

    2015-03-06

    This paper reports the synthesis and cardiac activity of new β-blockers derived from (Z/E)-indeno[1,2-c]pyrazol-4(1H)-one oximes (5a,b). The latter compounds were allowed to react with epichlorohydrin, followed by reacting the oxiranyl derivatives formed (6a,b) with some aliphatic amines to give the target compounds (Z/E)-1-phenyl-1H-indeno[1,2-c]pyrazol-4-one O-((2-hydroxy-3-(substituted amino)propyl)oxime (7a-c) and (Z/E)-1-methyl-1H-indeno[1,2-c]pyrazol-4-one O-((2-hydroxy-3-(substituted amino)propyl)oxime (8a-c). These final products 7a-c and 8a-c were evaluated for their ability to modulate the cardiac performance of a prototype mammalian heart. The results showed that, out of these molecules tested, 7b elicits a more potent depressant effect on contractility and relaxation, and competitively antagonizes β1-adrenergic receptors.

  2. Afferent innervation of the utricular macula in pigeons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Si, Xiaohong; Zakir, Mridha Md; Dickman, J. David

    2003-01-01

    Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was used to retrogradely label afferents innervating the utricular macula in adult pigeons. The pigeon utriclar macula consists of a large rectangular-shaped neuroepithelium with a dorsally curved anterior edge and an extended medioposterior tail. The macula could be demarcated into several regions based on cytoarchitectural differences. The striola occupied 30% of the macula and contained a large density of type I hair cells with fewer type II hair cells. Medial and lateral extrastriola zones were located outside the striola and contained only type II hair cells. A six- to eight-cell-wide band of type II hair cells existed near the center of the striola. The reversal line marked by the morphological polarization of hair cells coursed throughout the epithelium, near the peripheral margin, and through the center of the type II band. Calyx afferents innervated type I hair cells with calyceal terminals that contained between 2 and 15 receptor cells. Calyx afferents were located only in the striola region, exclusive of the type II band, had small total fiber innervation areas and low innervation densities. Dimorph afferents innervated both type I and type II hair cells with calyceal and bouton terminals and were primarily located in the striola region. Dimorph afferents had smaller calyceal terminals with few type I hair cells, extended fiber branches with bouton terminals and larger innervation areas. Bouton afferents innervated only type II hair cells in the extrastriola and type II band regions. Bouton afferents innervating the type II band had smaller terminal fields with fewer bouton terminals and smaller innervation areas than fibers located in the extrastriolar zones. Bouton afferents had the most bouton terminals on the longest fibers, the largest innervation areas with the highest innervation densities of all afferents. Among all afferents, smaller terminal innervation fields were observed in the striola and large fields were

  3. Effect of short- and long-term portal hypertension on adrenergic, nitrergic and sensory functioning in rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Esther; Balfagón, Gloria; Revuelta-López, Elena; Aller, Maria-Ángeles; Nava, Maria-Paz; Arias, Jaime; Blanco-Rivero, Javier

    2012-04-01

    In the present study, we analysed possible alterations in adrenergic, nitrergic and sensory functioning in mesenteric arteries from rats at 1 and 21 months after partial portal vein ligation, and the mechanisms involved in these alterations, if any. For this purpose, we analysed the vasoconstrictor response to EFS (electrical field stimulation) and the effect of the α-antagonist phentolamine, the NOS (nitric oxide synthase) inhibitor L-NAME (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) and the CGRP (calcitonin gene-related peptide) receptor antagonist CGRP-(8-37) in mesenteric segments from ST (short-term; 1 month) and LT (long-term; 21 months) SO (sham-operated) and pre-hepatic PH (portal hypertensive) rats. The vasomotor responses to NA (noradrenaline), the NO donor DEA-NO (diethylamine NONOate) and CGRP were analysed. NA, NO and CGRP releases were measured. Phospho-nNOS (neuronal NOS) expression was studied. The vasoconstrictor response to EFS was decreased in STPH animals. Phentolamine decreased this vasoconstrictor response more strongly in SO animals. Both L-NAME and CGRP-(8-37) increased vasoconstrictor response to EFS more strongly in PH than SO segments. PH did not modify vasomotor responses to NA, DEA-NO or CGRP, but it decreased NA release while increasing those of NO and CGRP. Phospho-nNOS expression was increased by PH. In LTPH, no differences were observed in vasoconstrictor response to EFS, vasomotor responses or neurotransmitter release when compared with age-matched SO animals. In conclusion, the mesenteric innervation may participate in the development of the characteristic hyperdynamic circulation observed in STPH through the joint action of decreased adrenergic influence, and increased nitrergic and sensory innervations influences. The participation of each innervation normalizes under conditions of LTPH.

  4. A meta-analysis of the effects of β-adrenergic blockers in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojian; Shen, Chengwu; Zhai, Shujun; Liu, Yukun; Yue, Wen-Wei; Han, Li

    2016-10-01

    Adrenergic β-blockers are drugs that bind to, but do not activate β-adrenergic receptors. Instead they block the actions of β-adrenergic agonists and are used for the treatment of various diseases such as cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, hypertension, headache, migraines, stress, anxiety, prostate cancer, and heart failure. Several meta-analysis studies have shown that β-blockers improve the heart function and reduce the risks of cardiovascular events, rate of mortality, and sudden death through chronic heart failure (CHF) of patients. The present study identified results from recent meta-analyses of β-adrenergic blockers and their usefulness in CHF. Databases including Medline/Embase/Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and PubMed were searched for the periods May, 1985 to March, 2011 and June, 2013 to August, 2015, and a number of studies identified. Results of those studies showed that use of β-blockers was associated with decreased sudden cardiac death in patients with heart failure. However, contradictory results have also been reported. The present meta-analysis aimed to determine the efficacy of β-blockers on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. The results showed that mortality was significantly reduced by β-blocker treatment prior to the surgery of heart failure patients. The results from the meta-analysis studies showed that β-blocker treatment in heart failure patients correlated with a significant decrease in long-term mortality, even in patients that meet one or more exclusion criteria of the MERIT-HF study. In summary, the findings of the current meta-analysis revealed beneficial effects different β-blockers have on patients with heart failure or related heart disease.

  5. Lack of interaction between orexinergic and alpha2-adrenergic neuronal systems in rat cerebrocortical slices.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Kazuyoshi; Kudo, Mihoko; Tose, Ryuji; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Kudo, Tsuyoshi; Kushikata, Tetsuya

    2005-10-14

    Orexinergic and norepinephrinergic alpha2-adrenoceptor expressing neurons contribute to the regulation of the sleep-wakefulness cycle. In the present study, we have examined a possible interaction between orexinergic and alpha2-adrenergic systems in orexin-A (100 nM)- and K+ (25 mM)-evoked norepinephrine release from slices of rat cerebrocortex. In this tissue norepinephrinergic neurons are predominantly innervated via the locus coeruleus. Clonidine concentration-dependently inhibited K+-evoked norepinephrine release with pIC50 (Imax) of 6.44+/-0.38 (48.8+/-6.9%). A selective orexin-1 receptor antagonist, SB-334867 was ineffective. SB-334867 concentration-dependently inhibited orexin A-evoked norepinephrine release with pIC50 (Imax) of 6.05+/-0.14 (86.4+/-5.4%); clonidine (alpha2-agonist) was ineffective. In contrast, yohimbine reversed the inhibitory effects of clonidine (1 microM) on K+-evoked norepinephrine release with pIC50 (Imax) of 6.50+/-0.34 (77.6+/-10.9%); orexin A was ineffective. The present data suggest a lack of interaction between orexinergic and alpha2-adrenergic neurons in rat cerebral cortex.

  6. Fatty old hearts: role of cardiac lipotoxicity in age-related cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Drosatos, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cardiomyopathy accounts for a significant part of heart failure cases. Imbalance of the energetic equilibrium of the heart along with mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired β-adrenergic receptor signaling contributes in the aggravation of cardiac function in the elderly. In this review article, studies that correlate cardiac aging with lipotoxicity are summarized. The involvement of inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, β-adrenergic receptor desensitization, and mitochondrial dysfunction as underlying mechanisms for the lipid-driven age-related cardiomyopathy are presented with the aim to indicate potential therapeutic targets for cardiac aging. PMID:27558317

  7. Afferent innervation patterns of the saccule in pigeons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakir, M.; Huss, D.; Dickman, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    The innervation patterns of vestibular saccular afferents were quantitatively investigated in pigeons using biotinylated dextran amine as a neural tracer and three-dimensional computer reconstruction. Type I hair cells were found throughout a large portion of the macula, with the highest density observed in the striola. Type II hair cells were located throughout the macula, with the highest density in the extrastriola. Three classes of afferent innervation patterns were observed, including calyx, dimorph, and bouton units, with 137 afferents being anatomically reconstructed and used for quantitative comparisons. Calyx afferents were located primarily in the striola, innervated a number of type I hair cells, and had small innervation areas. Most calyx afferent terminal fields were oriented parallel to the anterior-posterior axis and the morphological polarization reversal line. Dimorph afferents were located throughout the macula, contained fewer type I hair cells in a calyceal terminal than calyx afferents and had medium sized innervation areas. Bouton afferents were restricted to the extrastriola, with multi-branching fibers and large innervation areas. Most of the dimorph and bouton afferents had innervation fields that were oriented dorso-ventrally but were parallel to the neighboring reversal line. The organizational morphology of the saccule was found to be distinctly different from that of the avian utricle or lagena otolith organs and appears to represent a receptor organ undergoing evolutionary adaptation toward sensing linear motion in terrestrial and aerial species.

  8. Antibodies to beta-adrenergic receptors disclosing agonist-like properties in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and Chagas' heart disease.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, M B; Chiale, P A; Schejtman, D; Levin, M; Elizari, M V

    1994-04-01

    Recent studies confirm the existence of antibodies (Abs) to beta-adrenoceptors in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and Chagas' heart disease. These Abs can be shown to exert both stimulatory and inhibitory effects, which may play a role in the development of the cardiac abnormalities known to occur in these diseases, including advanced heart failure. The hypothesis is advanced that Chagas' heart disease and some forms of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy may represent, at least partially, a form of "adrenergic cardiomyopathy."

  9. Disruption of cardiac cholinergic neurons enhances susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Jungen, Christiane; Scherschel, Katharina; Eickholt, Christian; Kuklik, Pawel; Klatt, Niklas; Bork, Nadja; Salzbrunn, Tim; Alken, Fares; Angendohr, Stephan; Klene, Christiane; Mester, Janos; Klöcker, Nikolaj; Veldkamp, Marieke W.; Schumacher, Udo; Willems, Stephan; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Meyer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The parasympathetic nervous system plays an important role in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation. Catheter ablation, a minimally invasive procedure deactivating abnormal firing cardiac tissue, is increasingly becoming the therapy of choice for atrial fibrillation. This is inevitably associated with the obliteration of cardiac cholinergic neurons. However, the impact on ventricular electrophysiology is unclear. Here we show that cardiac cholinergic neurons modulate ventricular electrophysiology. Mechanical disruption or pharmacological blockade of parasympathetic innervation shortens ventricular refractory periods, increases the incidence of ventricular arrhythmia and decreases ventricular cAMP levels in murine hearts. Immunohistochemistry confirmed ventricular cholinergic innervation, revealing parasympathetic fibres running from the atria to the ventricles parallel to sympathetic fibres. In humans, catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation, which is accompanied by accidental parasympathetic and concomitant sympathetic denervation, raises the burden of premature ventricular complexes. In summary, our results demonstrate an influence of cardiac cholinergic neurons on the regulation of ventricular function and arrhythmogenesis. PMID:28128201

  10. Beta-Adrenergic blockers as antiarrhythmic and antifibrillatory compounds: an overview.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bramah N

    2005-06-01

    Beta-Adrenergic blockers have a wide spectrum of action for controlling cardiac arrhythmias that is larger than initially thought. Data from the past several decades indicate that, as an antiarrhythmic class, beta-blockers remain among the very few pharmacologic agents that reduce the incidence of sudden cardiac death, prolong survival, and ameliorate symptoms caused by arrhythmias in patients with cardiac disease. As a class of compounds, beta-blockers have a fundamental pharmacologic property that attenuates the effects of competitive adrenergic receptors. However, the net clinical effects of the different beta-receptor blockers may vary quantitatively because of variations in associated intrinsic sympathomimetic agonism and in their intrinsic potency for binding to beta-receptors. These individual compounds also differ in their selectivity for beta(1)- and beta(2)-receptors. Metoprolol is a beta(1)-selective blocker, whereas carvedilol is a nonselective beta(1)- and beta(2)-blocker, an antioxidant, and has a propensity to inhibit alpha(1)-receptors and endothelin. Evolving data from controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials suggest that there are clinically significant differences among this class of drugs. Recent evidence also suggests that the antiarrhythmic actions of certain beta-receptor blockers such as carvedilol and metoprolol extend beyond the ventricular tissue to encompass atrial cells and help maintain sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation, especially in combination with potent antifibrillatory agents such as amiodarone. This introduction provides a current perspective on these newer developments in the understanding of the antiarrhythmic and antifibrillatory actions of beta-blockers.

  11. Development of rat tibia innervation: colocalization of autonomic nerve fiber markers with growth-associated protein 43.

    PubMed

    Gajda, Mariusz; Litwin, Jan A; Tabarowski, Zbigniew; Zagólski, Olaf; Cichocki, Tadeusz; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Adriaensen, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Development of autonomic innervation of the tibia was investigated in rat fetuses on gestational days (GD) 17-21 and in juvenile animals on postnatal days (PD) 1-28. Double immunofluorescence combined with confocal microscopy was applied to study colocalization of neuronal growth- associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and panneuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP) with markers of the autonomic nervous system: neuropeptide Y (NPY) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DbetaH) for adrenergic, as well as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) for cholinergic fibers. The first GAP-43-immunoreactive (GAP-IR) nerve fibers were seen on GD17 in the perichondrium of the proximal epiphysis. Further GAP- and PGP-IR innervation appeared in the perichondrium/periosteum of the diaphysis and in the distal epiphysis (GD19), then in the bone marrow and in the intercondylar eminence (GD21). On PD1, NPY-IR and DbetaH-IR fibers appeared within the diaphyseal periosteum and on PD4 within the bone marrow. From PD14, GAP-43 immunoreactivity of NPY-positive fibers decreased. From PD7 on, NPY-IR fibers were observed in cartilage canals of both epiphyses and in the intercondylar eminence. In secondary ossification centers, NPY-IR fibers were seen from PD10, and in the bone marrow of the epiphyses from PD14. First VIP-IR and VAChT-IR fibers were observed on PD4 within the periosteum, bone marrow and patellar ligament. From PD10 on, VIP-positive fibers were seen in the intercondylar eminence, and from PD14 in secondary ossification centers. GAP-43 proved to be superior to PGP 9.5 as marker of growing nerve fibers, mostly due to its earlier appearance. The presence of specific nerve fibers may suggest possible involvement of autonomic innervation in regulation of bone development.

  12. Morphology and neurochemistry of rabbit iris innervation.

    PubMed

    He, Jiucheng; Bazan, Haydee E P

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to map the entire nerve architecture and sensory neuropeptide content of the rabbit iris. Irises from New Zealand rabbits were stained with antibodies against neuronal-class βIII-tubulin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP), and whole-mount images were acquired to build a two-dimensional view of the iridal nerve architecture. After taking images in time-lapse mode, we observed thick nerves running in the iris stroma close to the anterior epithelia, forming four to five stromal nerve rings from the iris periphery to the pupillary margin and sub-branches that connected with each other, constituting the stromal nerve plexus. In the anterior side, fine divisions derivated from the stromal nerves, forming a nerve network-like structure to innervate the superficial anterior border layer, with the pupillary margin having the densest innervation. In the posterior side, the nerve bundles ran along with the pupil dilator muscle in a radial pattern. The morphology of the iris nerves on both sides changed with pupil size. To obtain the relative content of the neuropeptides in the iris, the specimens were double stained with βIII-tubulin and CGRP or SP antibodies. Relative nerve fiber densities for each fiber population were assessed quantitatively by computer-assisted analysis. On the anterior side, CGRP-positive nerve fibers constituted about 61%, while SP-positive nerves constitute about 30.5%, of the total nerve content, which was expressed as βIII tubulin-positive fibers. In addition, in the anterior stroma of the collarette region, there were non-neuronal cells that were positive for SP. On the posterior side, CGRP-positive nerve fibers were about 69% of total nerve content, while SP constituted only up to 20%. Similarly, in the trigeminal ganglia (TG), the number of CGRP-positive neurons significantly outnumbered those that were positive for SP. Also, all the SP-positive neurons were labeled with CGRP. This is the

  13. Innervation of the atrioventricular and semi-lunar heart valves: a review.

    PubMed

    Borin, Christophe; Vanhercke, Daniel; Weyns, Andre

    2006-08-01

    Heart valves were historically considered passive structures that function through the haemodynamic forces created by the contraction and relaxation of the myocardium. However, research into valvular structures has revealed that heart valves are very complex, specialized structures that contain both smooth muscle cells and nerve fibres. This is particularly true for the atrioventricular valves, which are by far the most well studied to date. The various heart valves have been shown to contract independently during different moments of the heart cycle, suggesting that compensatory adaptation mechanisms exist to mediate the timing and efficacy of heart valve closure. These adaptations occur via different mechanisms, including neural mechanisms that influence the heart valves. Accumulating evidence continues to improve our understanding of the nerve fibres in the heart (adrenergic, cholinergic, etc.). Future studies will no doubt add to this exciting picture. Here, we review the current morphological knowledge of human and animal heart valve innervation, including discussions of the chordae tendineae and the papillary muscles, as well as the differences between the atrioventricular (AV) valves and the semi-lunar (SL) valves.

  14. Cardiac Effects of Attenuating Gsα - Dependent Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Sören; Ochs, Marco M.; Hagenmueller, Marco; Riffel, Johannes H.; Buss, Sebastian J.; Heger, Thomas; Katus, Hugo A.; Hardt, Stefan E.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Inhibition of β-adrenergic signalling plays a key role in treatment of heart failure. Gsα is essential for β-adrenergic signal transduction. In order to reduce side-effects of beta-adrenergic inhibition diminishing β-adrenergic signalling in the heart at the level of Gsα is a promising option. Methods and Results We analyzed the influence of Gsα on regulation of myocardial function and development of cardiac hypertrophy, using a transgenic mouse model (C57BL6/J mice) overexpressing a dominant negative Gsα-mutant under control of the α-MHC-promotor. Cardiac phenotype was characterized in vivo and in vitro and under acute and chronic β-adrenergic stimulation. At rest, Gsα-DN-mice showed bradycardia (602 ± 13 vs. 660 ± 17 bpm, p<0.05) and decreased dp/dtmax (5037 ± 546- vs. 6835 ± 505 mmHg/s, p = 0.02). No significant differences were found regarding ejection fraction, heart weight and cardiomyocyte size. β-blockade by propranolol revealed no baseline differences of hemodynamic parameters between wildtype and Gsα-DN-mice. Acute adrenergic stimulation resulted in decreased β-adrenergic responsiveness in Gsα-DN-mice. Under chronic adrenergic stimulation, wildtype mice developed myocardial hypertrophy associated with increase of LV/BW-ratio by 23% (4.4 ± 0.2 vs. 3.5 ± 0.1 mg/g, p<0.01) and cardiac myocyte size by 24% (14927 ± 442 px vs. 12013 ± 583 px, p<0.001). In contrast, both parameters were unchanged in Gsα-DN-mice after chronic isoproterenol stimulation. Conclusion Overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of Gsα leads to decreased β-adrenergic responsiveness and is protective against isoproterenol-induced hypertrophy. Thus, Gsα-DN-mice provide novel insights into β-adrenergic signal transduction and its modulation in myocardial overload and failure. PMID:26811901

  15. Deletion of CXCR4 in cardiomyocytes exacerbates cardiac dysfunction following isoproterenol administration.

    PubMed

    Wang, E R; Jarrah, A A; Benard, L; Chen, J; Schwarzkopf, M; Hadri, L; Tarzami, S T

    2014-05-01

    Altered alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor signaling is associated with cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and its cognate receptor CXCR4 have been reported to mediate cardioprotection after injury through the mobilization of stem cells into injured tissue. However, little is known regarding whether SDF-1/CXCR4 induces acute protection following pathological hypertrophy and if so, by what molecular mechanism. We have previously reported that CXCR4 physically interacts with the beta-2 adrenergic receptor and modulates its downstream signaling. Here we have shown that CXCR4 expression prevents beta-adrenergic receptor-induced hypertrophy. Cardiac beta-adrenergic receptors were stimulated with the implantation of a subcutaneous osmotic pump administrating isoproterenol and CXCR4 expression was selectively abrogated in cardiomyocytes using Cre-loxP-mediated gene recombination. CXCR4 knockout mice showed worsened fractional shortening and ejection fraction. CXCR4 ablation increased susceptibility to isoproterenol-induced heart failure, by upregulating apoptotic markers and reducing mitochondrial function; cardiac function decreases whereas fibrosis increases. In addition, CXCR4 expression was rescued with the use of cardiotropic adeno-associated viral-9 vectors. CXCR4 gene transfer reduced cardiac apoptotic signaling, improved mitochondrial function and resulted in a recovered cardiac function. Our results represent the first evidence that SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling mediates acute cardioprotection through modulating beta-adrenergic receptor signaling in vivo.

  16. Retinal input regulates the timing of corticogeniculate innervation.

    PubMed

    Seabrook, Tania A; El-Danaf, Rana N; Krahe, Thomas E; Fox, Michael A; Guido, William

    2013-06-12

    Neurons in layer VI of visual cortex represent one of the largest sources of nonretinal input to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and play a major role in modulating the gain of thalamic signal transmission. However, little is known about how and when these descending projections arrive and make functional connections with dLGN cells. Here we used a transgenic mouse to visualize corticogeniculate projections to examine the timing of cortical innervation in dLGN. Corticogeniculate innervation occurred at postnatal ages and was delayed compared with the arrival of retinal afferents. Cortical fibers began to enter dLGN at postnatal day 3 (P3) to P4, a time when retinogeniculate innervation is complete. However, cortical projections did not fully innervate dLGN until eye opening (P12), well after the time when retinal inputs from the two eyes segregate to form nonoverlapping eye-specific domains. In vitro thalamic slice recordings revealed that newly arriving cortical axons form functional connections with dLGN cells. However, adult-like responses that exhibited paired pulse facilitation did not fully emerge until 2 weeks of age. Finally, surgical or genetic elimination of retinal input greatly accelerated the rate of corticogeniculate innervation, with axons invading between P2 and P3 and fully innervating dLGN by P8 to P10. However, recordings in genetically deafferented mice showed that corticogeniculate synapses continued to mature at the same rate as controls. These studies suggest that retinal and cortical innervation of dLGN is highly coordinated and that input from retina plays an important role in regulating the rate of corticogeniculate innervation.

  17. Baroreflex sensitivity is higher during acute psychological stress in healthy subjects under β-adrenergic blockade

    PubMed Central

    Truijen, Jasper; Davis, Shyrin C.A.T.; Stok, Wim J.; Kim, Yu-Sok; van Westerloo, David J.; Levi, Marcel; van der Poll, Tom; Westerhof, Berend E.; Karemaker, John M.; van Lieshout, Johannes J.

    2010-01-01

    Acute psychological stress challenges the cardiovascular system with an increase in BP (blood pressure), HR (heart rate) and reduced BRS (baroreflex sensitivity). β-adrenergic blockade enhances BRS during rest, but its effect on BRS during acute psychological stress is unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that BRS is higher during acute psychological stress in healthy subjects under β-adrenergic blockade. Twenty healthy novice male bungee jumpers were randomized and studied with (PROP, n=10) or without (CTRL, n=10) propranolol. BP and HR responses and BRS [cross-correlation time-domain (BRSTD) and cross-spectral frequency-domain (BRSFD) analysis] were evaluated from 30 min prior up to 2 h after the jump. HR, cardiac output and pulse pressure were lower in the PROP group throughout the study. Prior to the bungee jump, BRS was higher in the PROP group compared with the CTRL group [BRSTD: 28 (24–42) compared with 17 (16–28) ms·mmHg−1, P<0.05; BRSFD: 27 (20–34) compared with 14 (9–19) ms·mmHg−1, P<0.05; values are medians (interquartile range)]. BP declined after the jump in both groups, and post-jump BRS did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, during acute psychological stress, BRS is higher in healthy subjects treated with non-selective β-adrenergic blockade with significantly lower HR but comparable BP. PMID:20828371

  18. Spatial distribution of neurons innervated by chandelier cells.

    PubMed

    Blazquez-Llorca, Lidia; Woodruff, Alan; Inan, Melis; Anderson, Stewart A; Yuste, Rafael; DeFelipe, Javier; Merchan-Perez, Angel

    2015-09-01

    Chandelier (or axo-axonic) cells are a distinct group of GABAergic interneurons that innervate the axon initial segments of pyramidal cells and are thus thought to have an important role in controlling the activity of cortical circuits. To examine the circuit connectivity of chandelier cells (ChCs), we made use of a genetic targeting strategy to label neocortical ChCs in upper layers of juvenile mouse neocortex. We filled individual ChCs with biocytin in living brain slices and reconstructed their axonal arbors from serial semi-thin sections. We also reconstructed the cell somata of pyramidal neurons that were located inside the ChC axonal trees and determined the percentage of pyramidal neurons whose axon initial segments were innervated by ChC terminals. We found that the total percentage of pyramidal neurons that were innervated by a single labeled ChC was 18-22 %. Sholl analysis showed that this percentage peaked at 22-35 % for distances between 30 and 60 µm from the ChC soma, decreasing to lower percentages with increasing distances. We also studied the three-dimensional spatial distribution of the innervated neurons inside the ChC axonal arbor using spatial statistical analysis tools. We found that innervated pyramidal neurons are not distributed at random, but show a clustered distribution, with pockets where almost all cells are innervated and other regions within the ChC axonal tree that receive little or no innervation. Thus, individual ChCs may exert a strong, widespread influence on their local pyramidal neighbors in a spatially heterogeneous fashion.

  19. Immunomodulation Stimulates the Innervation of Engineered Tooth Organ

    PubMed Central

    Kökten, Tunay; Bécavin, Thibault; Keller, Laetitia; Weickert, Jean-Luc; Kuchler-Bopp, Sabine; Lesot, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    The sensory innervation of the dental mesenchyme is essential for tooth function and protection. Sensory innervation of the dental pulp is mediated by axons originating from the trigeminal ganglia and is strictly regulated in time. Teeth can develop from cultured re-associations between dissociated dental epithelial and mesenchymal cells from Embryonic Day 14 mouse molars, after implantation under the skin of adult ICR mice. In these conditions however, the innervation of the dental mesenchyme did not occur spontaneously. In order to go further with this question, complementary experimental approaches were designed. Cultured cell re-associations were implanted together with trigeminal ganglia for one or two weeks. Although axonal growth was regularly observed extending from the trigeminal ganglia to all around the forming teeth, the presence of axons in the dental mesenchyme was detected in less than 2.5% of samples after two weeks, demonstrating a specific impairment of their entering the dental mesenchyme. In clinical context, immunosuppressive therapy using cyclosporin A was found to accelerate the innervation of transplanted tissues. Indeed, when cultured cell re-associations and trigeminal ganglia were co-implanted in cyclosporin A-treated ICR mice, nerve fibers were detected in the dental pulp, even reaching odontoblasts after one week. However, cyclosporin A shows multiple effects, including direct ones on nerve growth. To test whether there may be a direct functional relationship between immunomodulation and innervation, cell re-associations and trigeminal ganglia were co-implanted in immunocompromised Nude mice. In these conditions as well, the innervation of the dental mesenchyme was observed already after one week of implantation, but axons reached the odontoblast layer after two weeks only. This study demonstrated that immunodepression per se does stimulate the innervation of the dental mesenchyme. PMID:24465840

  20. Innervation changes induced by inflammation of the rat thoracolumbar fascia.

    PubMed

    Hoheisel, U; Rosner, J; Mense, S

    2015-08-06

    Recently, the fascia innervation has become an important issue, particularly the existence of nociceptive fibers. Fascia can be a source of pain in several disorders such as fasciitis and non-specific low back pain. However, nothing is known about possible changes of the fascia innervation under pathological circumstances. This question is important, because theoretically pain from the fascia cannot only be due to increased nociceptor discharges, but also to a denser innervation of the fascia by nociceptive endings. In this histological study, an inflammation was induced in the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) of rats and the innervation by various fiber types compared between the inflamed and intact TLF. Although the TLF is generally considered to have proprioceptive functions, no corpuscular proprioceptors (Pacini and Ruffini corpuscles) were found. To obtain quantitative data, the length of fibers and free nerve endings were determined in the three layers of the rat TLF: inner layer (IL, adjacent to the multifidus muscle), middle layer (ML) and outer layer (OL). The main results were that the overall innervation density showed little change; however, there were significant changes in some of the layers. The innervation density was significantly decreased in the OL, but this change was partly compensated for by an increase in the IL. The density of substance P (SP)-positive - presumably nociceptive - fibers was significantly increased. In contrast, the postganglionic sympathetic fibers were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the inflamed TLF showed an increase of presumably nociceptive fibers, which may explain the pain from a pathologically altered fascia. The meaning of the decreased innervation by sympathetic fibers is obscure at present. The lack of proprioceptive corpuscular receptors within the TLF does not preclude its role as a proprioceptive structure, because some of the free nerve endings may function as proprioceptors.

  1. Neuroprotection by Alpha 2-Adrenergic Agonists in Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yonghua; Kimelberg, Harold K.

    2005-01-01

    Ischemic brain injury is implicated in the pathophysiology of stroke and brain trauma, which are among the top killers worldwide, and intensive studies have been performed to reduce neural cell death after cerebral ischemia. Alpha 2-adrenergic agonists have been shown to improve the histomorphological and neurological outcome after cerebral ischemic injury when administered during ischemia, and recent studies have provided considerable evidence that alpha 2-adrenergic agonists can protect the brain from ischemia/reperfusion injury. Thus, alpha 2-adrenergic agonists are promising potential drugs in preventing cerebral ischemic injury, but the mechanisms by which alpha 2-adrenergic agonists exert their neuroprotective effect are unclear. Activation of both the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor and imidazoline receptor may be involved. This mini review examines the recent progress in alpha 2-adrenergic agonists - induced neuroprotection and its proposed mechanisms in cerebral ischemic injury. PMID:18369397

  2. Cardiac catheterization - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Catheterization - cardiac - discharge; Heart catheterization - discharge: Catheterization - cardiac; Heart catheterization; Angina - cardiac catheterization discharge; CAD - cardiac catheterization discharge; Coronary artery disease - cardiac catheterization ...

  3. Promoting bioengineered tooth innervation using nanostructured and hybrid scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Kuchler-Bopp, S; Larrea, A; Petry, L; Idoux-Gillet, Y; Sebastian, V; Ferrandon, A; Schwinté, P; Arruebo, M; Benkirane-Jessel, N

    2017-03-01

    The innervation of teeth mediated by axons originating from the trigeminal ganglia is essential for their function and protection. Immunosuppressive therapy using Cyclosporine A (CsA) was found to accelerate the innervation of transplanted tissues and particularly that of bioengineered teeth. To avoid the CsA side effects, we report in this study the preparation of CsA loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles, their embedding on polycaprolactone (PCL)-based scaffolds and their possible use as templates for the innervation of bioengineered teeth. This PCL scaffold, approved by the FDA and capable of mimicking the extracellular matrix, was obtained by electrospinning and decorated with CsA-loaded PLGA nanoparticles to allow a local sustained action of this immunosuppressive drug. Dental re-associations were co-implanted with a trigeminal ganglion on functionalized scaffolds containing PLGA and PLGA/cyclosporine in adult ICR mice during 2weeks. Histological analyses showed that the designed scaffolds did not alter the teeth development after in vivo implantation. The study of the innervation of the dental re-associations by indirect immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), showed that 88.4% of the regenerated teeth were innervated when using the CsA-loaded PLGA scaffold. The development of active implants thus allows their potential use in the context of dental engineering.

  4. Sex differences in alpha-adrenergic support of blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Judith A M; Joyner, Michael J; Charkoudian, Nisha; Wallin, B Gunnar; Hart, Emma C

    2010-08-01

    We tested whether the inter-individual variability in alpha-adrenergic support of blood pressure plays a critical role in the sex differences in tonic support of blood pressure by the autonomic nervous system. Blockade of the alpha-adrenergic receptors was achieved via phentolamine and showed a smaller (P < 0.05) decrease in blood pressure in women compared to men, implying that alpha-adrenergic support of blood pressure is less in women than in men.

  5. [Genetic polymorphism of beta-adrenergic receptors and mortality in ischemic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Jaillon, Patrice; Simon, Tabassome

    2007-01-01

    The genetic polymorphism of beta-2 adrenergic receptors (B2AR) could play a major role in the prognostic of patients with a coronary heart disease. Two recent epidemiological studies could support this hypothesis. In 597 patients treated by a beta-blocker and followed for 3 years after a myocardial infarction or an acute coronary syndrome, the death rate was 5.4 times higher in homozygous Arg 16 and Gln 27 B2AR genotypes than in heterozygous or homozygous Gly 16 and Glu 27 B2AR genotypes. The beta-1 adrenergic receptor (B1AR) genetic polymorphism did not modify mortality. In a second study, in a prospective cohort of 5249 patients aged > or =65 years, the incidence of sudden cardiac death was 1.56 times higher in patients with homozygous Gln 27 B2AR than in heterozygous or homozygous Glu 27 B2AR genotype. This result was confirmed by a case-control study (155 cases of sudden cardiac death versus 144 control subjects). These data suggest that B2AR genetic polymorphism should be systematically studied in clinical trials in myocardial ischemia, with or without congestive heart failure.

  6. The Lesser Palatine Nerve Innervates the Levator Veli Palatini Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Yoshitaka; Kawai, Katsuya; Yamada, Shigehito; Suzuki, Shigehiko

    2016-01-01

    Summary: When the lesser palatine nerve (LPN) is supposed to be a branch of the trigeminal nerve and innervate sensation of the soft palate, whether the LPN contains motor fibers is unclear. In this study, we monitored the electromyogram of the levator veli palatini (LVP) muscle on stimulating the LPN during palatoplasty in 3 patients. The electromyogram of the muscles showed the myogenic potential induced by electrostimulation of the LPN. Taken together with the finding from our previous anatomical study that the motor fibers come from the facial nerve, this result supports the double innervation theory of the LVP, which posits that both the pharyngeal plexus and the facial nerve innervate it. Identifying and preserving the LPN during palatoplasty might improve postoperative speech results. PMID:27757354

  7. Release of acetylcholine by chick embryo heart before innervation

    PubMed Central

    Coraboeuf, E.; Le Douarin, G.; Obrecht-Coutris, G.

    1970-01-01

    1. In chick embryo hearts, 3-day-old and not yet innervated, repetitive direct stimulation causes a transitory inhibition of the spontaneous rhythm. 2. The degree of post-stimulation inhibition depends on the frequency and duration of the artificial stimulation and on the concentration of K and Ca ions in the extracellular solution. 3. After treatment with atropine (10-5 g/ml.) post-stimulation inhibition is no longer observed. The spontaneous rhythm is accelerated by atropine. The findings therefore suggest that an ACh-like substance is released from the non-innervated embryonic heart during activity. 4. By use of the dorsal muscle of the leech for biological assay the liberation of an ACh-like substance from the non-innervated embryonic heart was confirmed. ImagesPlate 1 PMID:5498489

  8. Cardiac cAMP: production, hydrolysis, modulation and detection

    PubMed Central

    Boularan, Cédric; Gales, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP) modulates a broad range of biological processes including the regulation of cardiac myocyte contractile function where it constitutes the main second messenger for β-adrenergic receptors' signaling to fulfill positive chronotropic, inotropic and lusitropic effects. A growing number of studies pinpoint the role of spatial organization of the cAMP signaling as an essential mechanism to regulate cAMP outcomes in cardiac physiology. Here, we will briefly discuss the complexity of cAMP synthesis and degradation in the cardiac context, describe the way to detect it and review the main pharmacological arsenal to modulate its availability. PMID:26483685

  9. Degeneration and regeneration of perivascular innervation in arterial grafts.

    PubMed

    Heikki, Penttilä; Timo, Waris; Nureddin, Ashammakhi; Sampsa, Vanhatalo

    2004-07-01

    Because the understanding of postoperative changes in arterial graft innervation is limited, this study was performed to characterize neuronal degeneration and regeneration events immunohistochemically in femoral arterial grafts transplanted to carotid arteries in rats. Specimens taken 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, 1 month, 3 months, and 5 months after surgery were assessed for vasoactive intestinal peptide, neurofilaments, growth-associated protein 43, tyrosine hydroxylase, and nitric oxide synthase isoenzymes. During neuronal degeneration, vasoactive intestinal peptide disappeared within 1 day, transmitter-synthesizing enzymes (nitric oxide synthase and tyrosine hydroxylase) had vanished by day 7, and neurofilaments (cytoskeletal markers) had essentially disappeared after 1 week. In the regeneration phase, the most robust axonal growth, as visualized by growth-associated protein 43, was observed at 1 month, followed by a gradual increase in neurotransmitter markers at 1 and 3 months, whereas the neurofilaments increased gradually up to the end of the 5-month observation period. Reinnervation proceeded from the proximal carotid (host) trunk distally to the graft. Axonal re-growth occurred mainly in arterial adventitia. Innervation density, as visually assessed, was denser in the graft than in the host. These findings suggest that 1) the main sequence of degeneration and regeneration follows that reported in other models of neuronal degeneration; 2) reinnervation of the arterial grafts comes mainly from the host arteries; and 3) the innervation density in the graft may differ from that in the host, which may suggest target-derived regulation of innervation. The latter finding may have clinical implications. It suggests that for a good outcome it would be beneficial to choose a sparsely innervated graft rather than a densely innervated one.

  10. The innervation of the muscle spindle: a personal history.

    PubMed

    Banks, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    I present a brief review of current understanding of the innervation of the mammalian muscle spindle, from a personal historical perspective. The review begins with comparative studies on the numbers of spindle afferents and considers how their relative abundance may best be assessed. This is followed by an examination of the distribution and some functional properties of the motor innervation. The primary ending is the subject of the final section, in particular, I look at what can be learned from serial sectioning and volumetric reconstruction, and present new results on a model and simulations concerning sensory terminal deformation during stretch.

  11. The pineal gland: A model for adrenergic modulation of ubiquitin ligases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenjun; Reiter, Russel J.

    2017-01-01

    responsive, in vitro, to treatment with a cyclic AMP analog, and norepinephrine. All previously described 24-hour rhythms in the pineal require an intact sympathetic input from the superior cervical ganglia. Conclusions The Hartley dataset thus provides evidence that the pineal gland is a highly useful model for studying adrenergically dependent mechanisms regulating variations in ubiquitin ligases, ubiquitin conjugases, and deubiquitinases, mechanisms that may be physiologically relevant not only in the pineal gland, but in all adrenergically innervated tissue. PMID:28212404

  12. Adrenergic stimulation sensitizes TRPV1 through upregulation of cystathionine β-synthetase in a rat model of visceral hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liyan; Zhao, Liting; Qu, Ruobing; Zhu, Hong-Yan; Wang, Yongmeng; Jiang, Xinghong; Xu, Guang-Yin

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pain in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is poorly understood and treatment remains difficult. The present study was designed to investigate roles of adrenergic signaling and the endogenous hydrogen sulfide producing enzyme cystathionine β-synthetase (CBS) in a previously validated rat model of IBS induced by neonatal colonic inflammation (NCI). Here we showed that NCI-induced visceral hypersensitivity (VH) was significantly attenuated by β2 subunit inhibitor but not by β1 or β3 or α subunit inhibitor. NCI markedly elevated plasma norepinephrine (NE) concentration without alteration in expression of β2 subunit receptors in dorsal root ganglion (DRGs) innervating the colon. In addition, NCI markedly enhanced TRPV1 and CBS expression in the colon DRGs. CBS inhibitor AOAA reversed the upregulation of TRPV1 in NCI rats. In vitro experiments showed that incubation of DRG cells with NE markedly enhanced expression of TRPV1, which was reversed by application of AOAA. Incubation of DRG cells with the H2S donor NaHS greatly enhanced TRPV1 expression. Collectively, these data suggest that activation of adrenergic signaling by NCI sensitizes TRPV1 channel activity, which is likely mediated by upregulation of CBS expression in peripheral sensory neurons, thus contributing to chronic visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:26527188

  13. Sympathetic Nervous System Control of Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Oxidative Stress in Liver through α-Adrenergic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jung-Chun; Peng, Yi-Jen; Wang, Shih-Yu; Young, Ton-Ho; Salter, Donald M.; Lee, Herng-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In addition to being the primary organ involved in redox cycling, the liver is one of the most highly innervated tissues in mammals. The interaction between hepatocytes and sympathetic, parasympathetic, and peptidergic nerve fibers through a variety of neurotransmitters and signaling pathways is recognized as being important in the regulation of hepatocyte function, liver regeneration, and hepatic fibrosis. However, less is known regarding the role of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in modulating the hepatic response to oxidative stress. Our aim was to investigate the role of the SNS in healthy and oxidatively stressed liver parenchyma. Mice treated with 6-hydroxydopamine hydrobromide were used to realize chemical sympathectomy. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) injection was used to induce oxidative liver injury. Sympathectomized animals were protected from CCl4 induced hepatic lipid peroxidation-mediated cytotoxicity and genotoxicity as assessed by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal levels, morphological features of cell damage, and DNA oxidative damage. Furthermore, sympathectomy modulated hepatic inflammatory response induced by CCl4-mediated lipid peroxidation. CCl4 induced lipid peroxidation and hepatotoxicity were suppressed by administration of an α-adrenergic antagonist. We conclude that the SNS provides a permissive microenvironment for hepatic oxidative stress indicating the possibility that targeting the hepatic α-adrenergic signaling could be a viable strategy for improving outcomes in patients with acute hepatic injury. PMID:26798417

  14. Chronic stress accelerates pancreatic cancer growth and invasion: a critical role for beta-adrenergic signaling in the pancreatic microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Kim-Fuchs, Corina; Le, Caroline P; Pimentel, Matthew A; Shackleford, David; Ferrari, Davide; Angst, Eliane; Hollande, Frédéric; Sloan, Erica K

    2014-08-01

    Pancreatic cancer cells intimately interact with a complex microenvironment that influences pancreatic cancer progression. The pancreas is innervated by fibers of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and pancreatic cancer cells have receptors for SNS neurotransmitters which suggests that pancreatic cancer may be sensitive to neural signaling. In vitro and non-orthotopic in vivo studies showed that neural signaling modulates tumour cell behavior. However the effect of SNS signaling on tumor progression within the pancreatic microenvironment has not previously been investigated. To address this, we used in vivo optical imaging to non-invasively track growth and dissemination of primary pancreatic cancer using an orthotopic mouse model that replicates the complex interaction between pancreatic tumor cells and their microenvironment. Stress-induced neural activation increased primary tumor growth and tumor cell dissemination to normal adjacent pancreas. These effects were associated with increased expression of invasion genes by tumor cells and pancreatic stromal cells. Pharmacological activation of β-adrenergic signaling induced similar effects to chronic stress, and pharmacological β-blockade reversed the effects of chronic stress on pancreatic cancer progression. These findings indicate that neural β-adrenergic signaling regulates pancreatic cancer progression and suggest β-blockade as a novel strategy to complement existing therapies for pancreatic cancer.

  15. [Mivazerol and other benzylimidazoles with alpha-2 adrenergic properties].

    PubMed

    Cossement, E; Geerts, J P; Michel, P; Motte, G; Noyer, M

    1994-01-01

    4-Benzyl-imidazole compounds derived from Salbutanol are evaluated for potential adrenergic activities. The prevalent property of a series of new bioisosteres of catecholamines either of the saligenol-(ucb LO61) or benzamide-(Mivazerol) type is a selective alpha-adrenergic agonism, at the presynaptic level. The present study stresses the structural features responsible for the alpha-2-agonistic property.

  16. [The adrenergic mechanisms are involved in the pulmonary hemodynamics changes following experimental myocardial ischemia in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Evlakhov, V I; Poiasov, I Z

    2012-05-01

    In acute experiments in anesthetized rabbits the changes of the pulmonary hemodynamics following myocardial ischemia in the region of the descendent left coronary artery were studied in control animals and after the blockade of alpha-adrenoreceptors by phentolamine or N-cholinoreceptors of autonomic ganglia by hexamethonium. Following myocardial ischemia in control animals the pulmonary artery pressure and flow decreased, the pulmonary vascular resistance was elevated not significantly, the cardiac output decreased more than pulmonary artery flow. Following myocardial ischemia after the blockade of alpha-adrenoreceptors the pulmonary artery flow and cardiac output decreased in the same level and the pulmonary vascular resistance was decreased. In these conditions the pulmonary artery pressure decreased more than in control animals, meanwhile the pulmonary artery flow was decreased in the same level as in the last case. Following myocardial ischemia after the blockade of N-cholinoreceptors the pulmonary hemodynamics changes were the same as they were following myocardial ischemia in the control rabbits, the cardiac output decreased more than pulmonary artery flow. The disbalance of the cardiac output and pulmonary artery flow changes in the case of myocardial ischemia was caused by the pulmonary vessel reactions following activations of the humoral adrenergic mechanisms.

  17. Targeted disruption of the mouse beta1-adrenergic receptor gene: developmental and cardiovascular effects.

    PubMed Central

    Rohrer, D K; Desai, K H; Jasper, J R; Stevens, M E; Regula, D P; Barsh, G S; Bernstein, D; Kobilka, B K

    1996-01-01

    At least three distinct beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) subtypes exist in mammals. These receptors modulate a wide variety of processes, from development and behavior, to cardiac function, metabolism, and smooth muscle tone. To understand the roles that individual beta-AR subtypes play in these processes, we have used the technique of gene targeting to create homozygous beta 1-AR null mutants (beta 1-AR -/-) in mice. The majority of beta 1-AR -/- mice die prenatally, and the penetrance of lethality shows strain dependence. Beta l-AR -/- mice that do survive to adulthood appear normal, but lack the chronotropic and inotropic responses seen in wild-type mice when beta-AR agonists such as isoproterenol are administered. Moreover, this lack of responsiveness is accompanied by markedly reduced stimulation of adenylate cyclase in cardiac membranes from beta 1-AR -/- mice. These findings occur despite persistent cardiac beta 2-AR expression, demonstrating the importance of beta 1-ARs for proper mouse development and cardiac function, while highlighting functional differences between beta-AR subtypes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8693001

  18. Mild metabolic acidosis impairs the β-adrenergic response in isolated human failing myocardium

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Pronounced extracellular acidosis reduces both cardiac contractility and the β-adrenergic response. In the past, this was shown in some studies using animal models. However, few data exist regarding how the human end-stage failing myocardium, in which compensatory mechanisms are exhausted, reacts to acute mild metabolic acidosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mild metabolic acidosis on contractility and the β-adrenergic response of isolated trabeculae from human end-stage failing hearts. Methods Intact isometrically twitching trabeculae isolated from patients with end-stage heart failure were exposed to mild metabolic acidosis (pH 7.20). Trabeculae were stimulated at increasing frequencies and finally exposed to increasing concentrations of isoproterenol (0 to 1 × 10-6 M). Results A mild metabolic acidosis caused a depression in twitch-force amplitude of 26% (12.1 ± 1.9 to 9.0 ± 1.5 mN/mm2; n = 12; P < 0.01) as compared with pH 7.40. Force-frequency relation measurements yielded no further significant differences of twitch force. At the maximal isoproterenol concentration, the force amplitude was comparable in each of the two groups (pH 7.40 versus pH 7.20). However, the half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) was significantly increased in the acidosis group, with an EC50 of 5.834 × 10-8 M (confidence interval (CI), 3.48 × 10-8 to 9.779 × 10-8; n = 9), compared with the control group, which had an EC50 of 1.056 × 10-8 M (CI, 2.626 × 10-9 to 4.243 × 10-8; n = 10; P < 0.05), indicating an impaired β-adrenergic force response. Conclusions Our data show that mild metabolic acidosis reduces cardiac contractility and significantly impairs the β-adrenergic force response in human failing myocardium. Thus, our results could contribute to the still-controversial discussion about the therapy regimen of acidosis in patients with critical heart failure. PMID:22889236

  19. Functional Reconstruction of Sarcoma Defects Utilising Innervated Free Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Grinsell, Damien; Di Bella, Claudia; Choong, Peter F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Soft-tissue reconstruction following preoperative radiotherapy and wide resection of soft tissue sarcoma remains a challenge. Pedicled and free tissue transfers are an essential part of limb sparing surgery. We report 22 cases of sarcoma treated with radiotherapy and wide excision followed by one-stage innervated free or pedicled musculocutaneous flap transfers. The resection involved the upper limb in 3 cases, the lower limb in 17, and the abdominal wall in 2. The flaps used for the reconstruction were mainly latissimus dorsi and gracilis. The range of motion was restored fully in 14 patients. The muscle strength of the compartment reconstructed was of grades 4 and 5 in all patients except one. The overall function was excellent in all the cases with functional scores of 71.2% in the upper limb and 84% in the lower limb. The only 2 major complications were flap necrosis, both revised with another flap, one of which was innervated with restoration of function. Innervated flaps are valuable alternatives for reconstruction after sarcoma resection in the extremity and in the abdominal wall. The excellent functional results are encouraging, and we believe that innervated muscle reconstruction should be encouraged in the treatment of sarcoma after radiotherapy and wide resection. PMID:22969309

  20. The EGFR Is Required for Proper Innervation to the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Maklad, Adel; Nicolai, Jodi R.; Bichsel, Kyle J.; Evenson, Jackie E.; Lee, Tang-Cheng; Threadgill, David W.; Hansen, Laura A.

    2008-01-01

    EGFR family members are essential for proper peripheral nervous system development. A role for EGFR itself in peripheral nervous system development in vivo, however, has not been reported. We investigated whether EGFR is required for cutaneous innervation using Egfr null and skin-targeted Egfr mutant mice. Neuronal markers; including PGP9.5, GAP-43, acetylated tubulin, and neurofilaments; revealed that Egfr null dorsal skin was hyperinnervated with a disorganized pattern of innervation. In addition, receptor subtypes such as lanceolate endings were disorganized and immature. To determine whether the hyperinnervation phenotype resulted from a target-derived effect of loss of EGFR, mice lacking EGFR expression in the cutaneous epithelium were examined. These mice retained other aspects of the cutaneous Egfr null phenotype but exhibited normal innervation. The sensory deficits in Egfr null dorsal skin were not associated with any abnormality in the morphology or density of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons or Schwann cells. However, explant and dissociated cell cultures of DRG revealed more extensive branching in Egfr null cultures. These data demonstrate that EGFR is required for proper cutaneous innervation during development and suggest that it limits axonal outgrowth and branching in a DRG-autonomous manner. PMID:18830272

  1. Adrenergic urticaria: review of the literature and proposed mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Sara R; Mandrell, Joshua; Eilers, David

    2014-04-01

    Adrenergic urticaria is a rare type of stress-induced physical urticaria characterized by transient outbreaks of red papules surrounded by halos of hypopigmented, vasoconstricted skin. First described in 1985, there are 10 reported cases of adrenergic urticaria in the English-language medical literature. Episodes are caused by various triggers, including emotional upset, coffee, and chocolate, during which serum catecholamines and IgE are elevated, whereas histamine and serotonin levels remain within normal limits. The precise mechanisms leading to the pathogenesis of adrenergic urticaria have yet to be elucidated. Diagnosis can be made by intradermal injection of epinephrine or norepinephrine, which reproduces the characteristic rash, or by clinical observation. Trigger avoidance and oral propranolol are currently the best known treatments for adrenergic urticaria. Nonspecific therapies, including tranquilizers and antihistamines, may also ease symptoms. This article explores the pathophysiology of adrenergic urticaria and proposes a mechanism by which propranolol treats the condition.

  2. Epinephrine administration increases neural impulses propagated along the vagus nerve: Role of peripheral beta-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, T; Williams, C L

    2006-03-01

    A significant number of animal and human studies demonstrate that memories for new experiences are encoded more effectively under environmental or laboratory conditions which elevate peripheral concentrations of the hormone epinephrine and in turn, induce emotional arousal. Although this phenomenon has been replicated across several learning paradigms, understanding of how this arousal related hormone affects memory processing remains obscure because epinephrine does not freely enter into the central circulation to produce any direct effects on the brain. This study examined whether epinephrine's actions on the CNS may be mediated by the initial activation of peripheral vagal fibers that project to the brain. The vagus was selected as a candidate for this role since it is densely embedded with beta-adrenergic receptors and the peripheral endings of this nerve innervate a broad spectrum of sensory organs that are directly affected by epinephrine release. Electrophysiological recordings of cervical vagal activity was measured over 110 min in urethane-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats given saline, epinephrine (0.3 mg/kg), the peripherally acting beta-adrenergic antagonist sotalol (2.0 mg/kg), or a combination of sotalol followed 15 min later by an injection of epinephrine. Epinephrine produced a significant increase in vagal nerve firing 10 min post-injection (p < .05) relative to controls and neural impulses recorded from the vagus remained significantly elevated for the remaining 55 min collection period. The excitatory actions of epinephrine were not observed in groups given an identical dose of the hormone after peripheral beta-adrenergic receptor blockade with sotalol. These findings demonstrate that neural discharge in vagal afferent fibers is increased by elevations in peripheral concentrations of epinephrine and the significance of these findings in understanding how epinephrine modulates brain limbic structures to encode and store new information into memory

  3. Eph/ephrin interactions modulate vascular sympathetic innervation.

    PubMed

    Damon, Deborah H; teRiele, Jaclyn A; Marko, Stephen B

    2010-12-08

    Ephs and ephrins are membrane-bound proteins that interact to modulate axon growth and neuronal function. We tested the hypothesis that eph/ephrin interactions affected the growth and function of vascular sympathetic innervation. Using RT-PCR analyses, we detected both classes of ephs (A and B) and both classes of ephrins (A and B) in sympathetic ganglia from neonatal and adult rats. Both classes of ephs (A and B) and both classes of ephrins (A and B) bound to the cell bodies and neurites of dissociated postganglionic sympathetic neurons. Messenger RNAs encoding for both classes of ephs (A and B) and both classes of ephrins (A and B) were also detected in sympathetically innervated arteries from neonatal and adult rats. These data suggest that ephrins/ephs on nerve fibers of postganglionic sympathetic neurons could interact with ephs/ephrins on cells in innervated arteries. We found that ephA4 reduced reinnervation of denervated femoral arteries. Reinnervation in the presence of ephA4-Fc (38.9±6.6%) was significantly less than that in the presence of IgG-Fc (62±10%; n=5; p<0.05; one-tailed unpaired t-test). These data indicate that eph/ephrin interactions modulated the growth of vascular sympathetic innervation. We also found that ephA4 increased basal release of norepinephrine from nerve terminals of isolated tail arteries. These data indicate that eph/ephrin interactions affect the growth and function of vascular sympathetic innervation.

  4. Roles of innervation in developing and regenerating orofacial tissues.

    PubMed

    Pagella, Pierfrancesco; Jiménez-Rojo, Lucia; Mitsiadis, Thimios A

    2014-06-01

    The head is innervated by 12 cranial nerves (I-XII) that regulate its sensory and motor functions. Cranial nerves are composed of sensory, motor, or mixed neuronal populations. Sensory neurons perceive generally somatic sensations such as pressure, pain, and temperature. These neurons are also involved in smell, vision, taste, and hearing. Motor neurons ensure the motility of all muscles and glands. Innervation plays an essential role in the development of the various orofacial structures during embryogenesis. Hypoplastic cranial nerves often lead to abnormal development of their target organs and tissues. For example, Möbius syndrome is a congenital disease characterized by defective innervation (i.e., abducens (VI) and facial (VII) nerves), deafness, tooth anomalies, and cleft palate. Hence, it is obvious that the peripheral nervous system is needed for both development and function of orofacial structures. Nerves have a limited capacity to regenerate. However, neural stem cells, which could be used as sources for neural tissue maintenance and repair, have been found in adult neuronal tissues. Similarly, various adult stem cell populations have been isolated from almost all organs of the human body. Stem cells are tightly regulated by their microenvironment, the stem cell niche. Deregulation of adult stem cell behavior results in the development of pathologies such as tumor formation or early tissue senescence. It is thus essential to understand the factors that regulate the functions and maintenance of stem cells. Yet, the potential importance of innervation in the regulation of stem cells and/or their niches in most organs and tissues is largely unexplored. This review focuses on the potential role of innervation in the development and homeostasis of orofacial structures and discusses its possible association with stem cell populations during tissue repair.

  5. Adrenergic regulation of innate immunity: a review

    PubMed Central

    Scanzano, Angela; Cosentino, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system has a major role in the brain-immune cross-talk, but few information exist on the sympathoadrenergic regulation of innate immune system. The aim of this review is to summarize available knowledge regarding the sympathetic modulation of the innate immune response, providing a rational background for the possible repurposing of adrenergic drugs as immunomodulating agents. The cells of immune system express adrenoceptors (AR), which represent the target for noradrenaline and adrenaline. In human neutrophils, adrenaline and noradrenaline inhibit migration, CD11b/CD18 expression, and oxidative metabolism, possibly through β-AR, although the role of α1- and α2-AR requires further investigation. Natural Killer express β-AR, which are usually inhibitory. Monocytes express β-AR and their activation is usually antiinflammatory. On murine Dentritic cells (DC), β-AR mediate sympathetic influence on DC-T cells interactions. In human DC β2-AR may affect Th1/2 differentiation of CD4+ T cells. In microglia and in astrocytes, β2-AR dysregulation may contribute to neuroinflammation in autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease. In conclusion, extensive evidence supports a critical role for adrenergic mechanisms in the regulation of innate immunity, in peripheral tissues as well as in the CNS. Sympathoadrenergic pathways in the innate immune system may represent novel antiinflammatory and immunomodulating targets with significant therapeutic potential. PMID:26321956

  6. Phosphoinositide metabolism and adrenergic receptors in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, E.P.; Ritchie, T.; de Vellis, J.

    1986-03-01

    Agonist-induced phosphoinositide (PI) breakdown functions as a signal generating system. Diacylglycerol, one breakdown product of phosphotidylinositol-4,5-diphosphate hydrolysis, can stimulate protein kinase C, whereas inositol triphosphate, the other product, has been proposed to be a second messenger for Ca/sup + +/ mobilization. Using purified astrocyte cultures from neonatal rat brain, the effects of adrenergic agonists and antagonists at 10/sup -5/ M were measured on PI breakdown. Astrocytes grown in culture were prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)inositol, and basal (/sup 3/H) inositol phosphate (IP/sub 1/) accumulation was measured in the presence of Li/sup +/. Epinephrine > norepinephrine (NE) were the most active stimulants of IP/sub 1/ production. The ..cap alpha../sub 1/ adrenoreceptor blockers, phentolamine and phenoxybenzamine, added alone had no effect on IP/sub 1/ production was reduced below basal levels. Propranolol partially blocked the effects of NE. Clonidine and isoproterenol, separately added, reduced IP/sub 1/ below basal levels and when added together diminished IP/sub 1/ accumulation even further. The role of adrenergic stimulation in the production of c-AMP.

  7. beta. -Adrenergic stimulation of brown adipocyte proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Geloeen, A.; Collet, A.J.; Guay, G.; Bukowiecki, L.J. Laboratoire de Thermoregulation et Metabolisme Energetique, Lyon )

    1988-01-01

    The mechanisms of brown adipose tissue (BAT) growth were studied by quantitative photonic radioautography using tritiated thymidine to follow mitotic activity. To identify the nature of the adrenergic pathways mediating brown adipocyte proliferation and differentiation, the effects of cold exposure (4 days at 4{degree}C) on BAT growth were compared with those induced by treating rats at 25{degree}C with norepinephrine (a mixed agonist), isoproterenol (a {beta}-agonist), and phenylephrine (an {alpha}-agonist). Norepinephrine mimicked the effects of cold exposure, not only on the mitotic activity, but also on the distribution of the labeling among the various cellular types. Isoproterenol entirely reproduced the effects of norepinephrine both on the labeling index and on the cellular type labeling frequency. These results demonstrate that norepinephrine triggers a coordinated proliferation of brown adipocytes and endothelial cells in warm-exposed rats that is similar to that observed after cold exposure. They also suggest that cold exposure stimulates BAT growth by increasing the release of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerves and that the neurohormone activates mitoses in BAT precursor cells via {beta}-adrenergic pathways.

  8. Chemistry, physiology, and pharmacology of β-adrenergic mechanisms in the heart. Why are β-blocker antiarrhythmics superior?

    PubMed

    Szentmiklosi, A József; Szentandrássy, Norbert; Hegyi, Bence; Horvath, Balázs; Magyar, János; Bányász, Tamás; Nanasi, Peter P

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors in the heart is the most effective endogenous way to increase the mechanical performance of cardiac tissues to meet the requirements of a fight-or-flight situation or stress. On the other hand, sustained activation of cardiac β-receptors initiates maladaptive remodeling of the myocardium leading to cardiomyopathies and heart failure. Since both acute and chronic stimulation of β-adrenoceptors are arrhythmogenic, the application of β-receptor blockers exerts effective antiarrhytmic actions at both short and long time scale. Compared to other classes of antiarrhythmic agents, β-blockers are the class of antiarrhythmics that was shown to decrease mortality in postinfarct patients. Chemical, physiological, and pharmacological properties of the β-adrenoceptor related signaling, the role of β-1, β-2, and β-3 receptor subtypes, consequences of acute and long term β-adrenergic stimulation and the underlying proarrhythmic mechanisms, including the changes in cardiac ion currents and Ca(2+) handling, are reviewed in this paper together with the clinical relevance of cardioprotective β-blocking therapy.

  9. Cardiac Fibroblasts Regulate Sympathetic Nerve Sprouting and Neurocardiac Synapse Stability

    PubMed Central

    Mias, Céline; Coatrieux, Christelle; Denis, Colette; Genet, Gaël; Seguelas, Marie-Hélène; Laplace, Nathalie; Rouzaud-Laborde, Charlotte; Calise, Denis; Parini, Angelo; Cussac, Daniel; Pathak, Atul; Sénard, Jean-Michel; Galés, Céline

    2013-01-01

    Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) plays a key role in cardiac homeostasis and its deregulations always associate with bad clinical outcomes. To date, little is known about molecular mechanisms regulating cardiac sympathetic innervation. The aim of the study was to determine the role of fibroblasts in heart sympathetic innervation. RT-qPCR and western-blots analysis performed in cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts isolated from healthy adult rat hearts revealed that Pro-Nerve growth factor (NGF) and pro-differentiating mature NGF were the most abundant neurotrophins expressed in cardiac fibroblasts while barely detectable in cardiomyocytes. When cultured with cardiac fibroblasts or fibroblast-conditioned medium, PC12 cells differentiated into/sympathetic-like neurons expressing axonal marker Tau-1 at neurites in contact with cardiomyocytes. This was prevented by anti-NGF blocking antibodies suggesting a paracrine action of NGF secreted by fibroblasts. When co-cultured with cardiomyocytes to mimic neurocardiac synapse, differentiated PC12 cells exhibited enhanced norepinephrine secretion as quantified by HPLC compared to PC12 cultured alone while co-culture with fibroblasts had no effect. However, when supplemented to PC12-cardiomyocytes co-culture, fibroblasts allowed long-term survival of the neurocardiac synapse. Activated fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) isolated from myocardial infarction rat hearts exhibited significantly higher mature NGF expression than normal fibroblasts and also promoted PC12 cells differentiation. Within the ischemic area lacking cardiomyocytes and neurocardiac synapses, tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity was increased and associated with local anarchical and immature sympathetic hyperinnervation but tissue norepinephrine content was similar to that of normal cardiac tissue, suggesting depressed sympathetic function. Collectively, these findings demonstrate for the first time that fibroblasts are essential for the setting of cardiac sympathetic

  10. The structural basis for agonist and partial agonist action on a β(1)-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Warne, Tony; Moukhametzianov, Rouslan; Baker, Jillian G; Nehmé, Rony; Edwards, Patricia C; Leslie, Andrew G W; Schertler, Gebhard F X; Tate, Christopher G

    2011-01-13

    β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that activate intracellular G proteins upon binding catecholamine agonist ligands such as adrenaline and noradrenaline. Synthetic ligands have been developed that either activate or inhibit βARs for the treatment of asthma, hypertension or cardiac dysfunction. These ligands are classified as either full agonists, partial agonists or antagonists, depending on whether the cellular response is similar to that of the native ligand, reduced or inhibited, respectively. However, the structural basis for these different ligand efficacies is unknown. Here we present four crystal structures of the thermostabilized turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) β(1)-adrenergic receptor (β(1)AR-m23) bound to the full agonists carmoterol and isoprenaline and the partial agonists salbutamol and dobutamine. In each case, agonist binding induces a 1 Å contraction of the catecholamine-binding pocket relative to the antagonist bound receptor. Full agonists can form hydrogen bonds with two conserved serine residues in transmembrane helix 5 (Ser(5.42) and Ser(5.46)), but partial agonists only interact with Ser(5.42) (superscripts refer to Ballesteros-Weinstein numbering). The structures provide an understanding of the pharmacological differences between different ligand classes, illuminating how GPCRs function and providing a solid foundation for the structure-based design of novel ligands with predictable efficacies.

  11. Beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity, autonomic balance and serotonergic activity in practitioners of Transcendental Meditation

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the acute autonomic effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program (TM) and resolve the conflict arising from discrepant neurochemical and psychophysiological data. Three experimental investigations were performed. The first examined beta{sub 2}-adrenergic receptors (AR's) on peripheral blood lymphocytes, via (I{sup 125})iodocyanopindolol binding, in 10 male mediating and 10 age matched non-meditating control subjects, to test the hypothesis that the long-term practice of TM and the TM Sidhi Program (TMSP) reduces end organ sensitivity to adrenergic agonists. The second investigated respiratory sinus arrhythmia (an indirect measure of cardiac Parasympathetic Nervous System tone), and skin resistance (a measure of Sympathetic Nervous System tone) during periods of spontaneous respiratory apneusis, a phenomenon occurring during TM that is known to mark the subjective experience of transcending. The third was within subject investigation of the acute effects of the TMSP on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity. Platelet 5-HT was assayed by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, plasma prolactin (PL) and lutenizing hormone (LH) by radioimmunoassay, tryptophan by spectrofluorimetry, and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP, a modulator of 5-HT uptake) by radial immunodiffusion assay.

  12. Structure and innervation of extraocular muscles of Carassius.

    PubMed Central

    Davey, D F; Mark, R F; Marotte, L R; Proske, U

    1975-01-01

    The extraocular muscles of the carp Carassius contain two types of muscle fibre. Large white fibres have ribbon-shaped peripheral myofibrils and triads located at the Z line. Small red fibres, rich in mitochondria, have polygonal-shaped myofibrils and triads at the A-I junction. Silver- and cholinesterase-stained preparations show that the large fibres are innervated by axons which spiral around them and exhibit intense cholinesterase activity over long distances. Axons supplying small muscle fibres run across bundles of fibres, making one contact with each fibre. By electron microscopy the nerve endings on each fibre type appear identical, both having a smooth post-junctional muscle membrane. The differences in structure and innervation pattern of the two fibre types are discussed in relation to their possible functional roles. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:1184453

  13. The ischiourethralis muscle of the rat: anatomy, innervation, and function.

    PubMed

    Dail, W G; Sachs, B D

    1991-02-01

    The ischiourethralis (IU), a striated perineal muscle presumed to be involved in sexual reflexes, was studied in the rat. The paired muscle arises from the penile crus and the penile bulb and unites in a raphe over the deep dorsal vein of the penis. Retrograde tracing studies show that the muscle is innervated by neurons in the dorsolateral nucleus of the lumbar spinal cord, a pudendal nerve motor nucleus which also innervates the ischiocavernosus muscle. Excision of the IU muscle did not interfere with the ability of males to display normal copulatory behavior, nor did it affect significantly the number and intensity of reflexive erections. It nevertheless remains possible that the IU may contribute to intense glans erection by compressing the deep dorsal vein.

  14. Innervation regulates synaptic ribbons in lateral line mechanosensory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Suli, Arminda; Pujol, Remy; Cunningham, Dale E; Hailey, Dale W; Prendergast, Andrew; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W

    2016-06-01

    Failure to form proper synapses in mechanosensory hair cells, the sensory cells responsible for hearing and balance, leads to deafness and balance disorders. Ribbons are electron-dense structures that tether synaptic vesicles to the presynaptic zone of mechanosensory hair cells where they are juxtaposed with the post-synaptic endings of afferent fibers. They are initially formed throughout the cytoplasm, and, as cells mature, ribbons translocate to the basolateral membrane of hair cells to form functional synapses. We have examined the effect of post-synaptic elements on ribbon formation and maintenance in the zebrafish lateral line system by observing mutants that lack hair cell innervation, wild-type larvae whose nerves have been transected and ribbons in regenerating hair cells. Our results demonstrate that innervation is not required for initial ribbon formation but suggest that it is crucial for regulating the number, size and localization of ribbons in maturing hair cells, and for ribbon maintenance at the mature synapse.

  15. TNFα reverse signaling promotes sympathetic axon growth and target innervation

    PubMed Central

    Kisiswa, Lilian; Osório, Catarina; Erice, Clara; Vizard, Thomas; Wyatt, Sean; Davies, Alun M

    2013-01-01

    Reverse signaling via members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily is increasingly recognized among cells of the immune system where it controls multiple aspects of immune function. Here we document TNFα reverse signaling in the nervous system for the first time and show that it plays a crucial role in establishing sympathetic innervation. During postnatal development, sympathetic axons express TNFα as they grow and branch in their target tissues which in turn express TNFR1. In culture, soluble forms of TNFR1 act directly on postnatal sympathetic axons to promote growth and branching by a mechanism that depends on membrane integrated TNFα and downstream MEK/ERK activation. Sympathetic innervation density is significantly reduced in several tissues in postnatal and adult mice lacking either TNFα or TNFR1. These findings reveal that target-derived TNFR1 acts as a reverse signaling ligand for membrane-integrated TNFα to promote sympathetic axon growth and branching. PMID:23749144

  16. Cardiac Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Birnie, David; Ha, Andrew C T; Gula, Lorne J; Chakrabarti, Santabhanu; Beanlands, Rob S B; Nery, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Studies suggest clinically manifest cardiac involvement occurs in 5% of patients with pulmonary/systemic sarcoidosis. The principal manifestations of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) are conduction abnormalities, ventricular arrhythmias, and heart failure. Data indicate that an 20% to 25% of patients with pulmonary/systemic sarcoidosis have asymptomatic (clinically silent) cardiac involvement. An international guideline for the diagnosis and management of CS recommends that patients be screened for cardiac involvement. Most studies suggest a benign prognosis for patients with clinically silent CS. Immunosuppression therapy is advocated for clinically manifest CS. Device therapy, with implantable cardioverter defibrillators, is recommended for some patients.

  17. Adrenergic receptors in human fetal liver membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Falkay, G.; Kovacs, L. )

    1990-01-01

    The adrenergic receptor binding capacities in human fetal and adult livers were measured to investigate the mechanism of the reduced alpha-1 adrenoreceptor response of the liver associated with a reciprocal increase in beta-adrenoreceptor activity in a number of conditions. Alpha-1 and beta-adrenoreceptor density were determined using {sup 3}H-prazosin and {sup 3}H-dihydroalprenolol, respectively, as radioligand. Heterogeneous populations of beta-adrenoreceptors were found in fetal liver contrast to adult. Decreased alpha-1 and increased beta-receptor density were found which may relate to a decreased level in cellular differentiation. These findings may be important for the investigation of perinatal hypoglycemia of newborns after treatment of premature labor with beta-mimetics. This is the first demonstration of differences in the ratio of alpha-1 and beta-adrenoceptors in human fetal liver.

  18. Sympathetic innervation of the ileocecal junction in horses.

    PubMed

    Russo, D; Bombardi, C; Grandis, A; Furness, J B; Spadari, A; Bernardini, C; Chiocchetti, R

    2010-10-01

    The distribution and chemical phenotypes of sympathetic and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons innervating the equine ileocecal junction (ICJ) were studied by combining retrograde tracing and immunohistochemistry. Immunoreactivity (IR) for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) was investigated. Sympathetic neurons projecting to the ICJ were distributed within the celiac (CG), cranial mesenteric (CranMG), and caudal mesenteric (CaudMG) ganglia, as well as in the last ganglia of the thoracic sympathetic chain and in the splanchnic ganglia. In the CG and CranMG 91 +/- 8% and 93 +/- 12% of the neurons innervating the ICJ expressed TH- and DBH-IR, respectively. In the CaudMG 90 +/- 15% and 94 +/- 5% of ICJ innervating neurons were TH- and DBH-IR, respectively. Sympathetic (TH-IR) fibers innervated the myenteric and submucosal ganglia, ileal blood vessels, and the muscle layers. They were more concentrated at the ICJ level and were also seen encircling myenteric plexus (MP) and submucosal plexus (SMP) descending neurons that were retrogradely labeled from the ICJ. Among the few retrogradely labeled DRG neurons, nNOS-, CGRP-, and SP-IR nerve cells were observed. Dense networks of CGRP-, nNOS-, and SP-IR varicosities were seen around retrogradely labeled prevertebral ganglia neurons. The CGRP-IR fibers are probably the endings of neurons projecting from the intestine to the prevertebral ganglia. These findings indicate that this crucial region of the intestinal tract is strongly influenced by the sympathetic system and that sensory information of visceral origin influences the sympathetic control of the ICJ.

  19. Adrenergic Polymorphism and the Human Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Fangwen; Zhang, Lian; Wessel, Jennifer; Zhang, Kuixing; Wen, Gen; Kennedy, Brian P.; Rana, Brinda K.; Das, Madhusudan; Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L.; Smith, Douglas W.; Cadman, Peter E.; Salem, Rany M.; Mahata, Sushil K.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Taupenot, Laurent; Ziegler, Michael G.; O’Connor, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis. Does common genetic variation at human TH alter autonomic activity and predispose to cardiovascular disease? We undertook systematic polymorphism discovery at the TH locus, and then tested variants for contributions to sympathetic function and blood pressure. We resequenced 80 ethnically diverse individuals across the TH locus. One hundred seventy-two twin pairs were evaluated for sympathetic traits, including catecholamine production and environmental (cold) stress responses. To evaluate hypertension, we genotyped subjects selected from the most extreme diastolic blood pressure percentiles in the population. Human TH promoter haplotype/reporter plasmids were transfected into chromaffin cells. Forty-nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one tetranucleotide repeat were discovered, but coding region polymorphism did not account for common phenotypic variation. A block of linkage disequilibrium spanned four common variants in the proximal promoter. Catecholamine secretory traits were significantly heritable, as were stress-induced blood pressure changes. In the TH promoter, significant associations were found for urinary catecholamine excretion, as well as blood pressure response to stress. TH promoter haplotype #2 (TGGG) showed pleiotropy, increasing both norepinephrine excretion and blood pressure during stress. In hypertension, a case–control study (1266 subjects, 53% women) established the effect of C-824T in determination of blood pressure. We conclude that human catecholamine secretory traits are heritable, displaying joint genetic determination (pleiotropy) with autonomic activity and finally with blood pressure in the population. Catecholamine secretion is influenced by genetic variation in the adrenergic pathway encoding catecholamine synthesis, especially at the classically rate-limiting step, TH. The results suggest novel pathophysiological links between a key

  20. Ovarian innervation develops before initiation of folliculogenesis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S; Gibney, J A; Ojeda, S R

    1992-10-01

    Sympathetic neurotransmitters have been shown to be present in the ovary of the rat during early postnatal development and to affect steroidogenesis before the ovary becomes responsive to gonadotropins, and before the first primordial follicles are formed. This study was undertaken to determine if development of the ovarian innervation is an event that antedates the initiation of folliculogenesis in the rat, Rattus norvegicus. Serial sections of postnatal ovaries revealed a negligible frequency of follicles 24 h after birth (about 1 primordial follicle per ovary). Twelve hours later there were about 500 follicles per ovary, a number that more than doubled to about 1300 during the subsequent 12 h, indicating that an explosive period of follicular differentiation occurs between the end of postnatal days 1 and 2. Electron microscopy demonstrated that before birth the ovaries are already innervated by fibers containing clear and dense-core vesicles. Immunohistochemistry performed on either fetal (day 19) or newborn (less than 15h after birth) ovaries showed the presence of catecholaminergic nerves, identified by their content of immunoreactive tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis. While some of these fibers innervate blood vessels, others are associated with primordial ovarian cells, thereby suggesting their participation in non-vascular functions. Since prefollicular ovaries are insensitive to gonadotropins, the results suggest that the developing ovary becomes subjected to direct neurogenic influences before it acquires responsiveness to gonadotropins.

  1. β-Adrenergic receptor antagonism in mice: a model for pediatric heart disease.

    PubMed

    Sucharov, Carmen C; Hijmans, Jamie G; Sobus, Rebecca D; Melhado, William F A; Miyamoto, Shelley D; Stauffer, Brian L

    2013-10-01

    Children with heart failure are treated with similar medical therapy as adults with heart failure. In contrast to adults with heart failure, these treatment regiments are not associated with improved outcomes in children. Recent studies have demonstrated age-related pathophysiological differences in the molecular mechanisms of heart failure between children and adults. There are no animal models of pediatric cardiomyopathy to allow mechanistic studies. The purpose of the current experiments was to develop a mouse model of pediatric heart disease and test whether the influence of β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) antagonism could be modeled in this system. We hypothesized that isoproterenol treatment of young mice would provide a model system of cardiac pathology, and that nonselective β-AR blockade would provide benefit in adult, but not young, mice, similar to clinical trial data. We found that isoproterenol treatment (through osmotic minipump implantation) of young and adult mice produced similar degrees of cardiac hypertrophy and recapitulated several age-related molecular abnormalities in human heart failure, including phospholamban phosphorylation and β-AR expression. We also found that nonselective β-AR blockade effectively prevented pathological cardiac growth and collagen expression in the adult but not young mice, and that selective β1-AR blockade was effective in both young and adult isoproterenol-treated mice. In conclusion, we have developed the first model system for β-AR-mediated pediatric heart disease. Furthermore, we have generated novel data suggesting beneficial effects of selective β1-AR blockade in the pediatric heart.

  2. Beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists and chronic heart failure in children

    PubMed Central

    Filippo, Sylvie Di

    2007-01-01

    Chronic congestive heart failure (HF) occurs in infants and children as a result of systemic ventricle incompetence. Neurohormonal activation is thought to be the main consequence of cardiac pump failure and cause of further worsening. Several large multicenter randomized trials have demonstrated that beta-adrenergic blocking agents can improve ventricular ejection fraction, symptoms, and survival in adults with chronic congestive HF. Current literature about pediatric HF is very scarce. The only large, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled pediatric trial failed to demonstrate any beneficial effect of beta-blockers in infants and children with chronic HF. Other small-size reports showed significant improvement in ejection fraction and/or clinical outcomes. The HF pediatric population is characterized by wide heterogeneicity regarding causes, underlying cardiac disease, drug pharmacokinetics, and interactions, which may account for divergences. Further large-scale studies are needed to elucidate the optimal use (indications and dosages) of beta-blockers in the management of HF in children, with particular attention to the underlying cardiac disease. PMID:18473008

  3. Pharmacologic specificity of alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Petrash, A.; Bylund, D.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have defined alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes in human and rat tissues using prazosin as a subtype selective drug. Prazosin has a lower affinity (250 nM) at alpha-2A receptor and a higher affinity (5 nM) at alpha-2B receptors. In order to determine if other adrenergic drugs are selective for one or the other subtypes, the authors performed (/sup 3/H)yohimbine inhibition experiments with various adrenergic drugs in tissues containing alpha-2A, alpha-2B or both subtypes. Oxymetazoline, WB4101 and yohimbine were found to be 80-, 20- and 10-fold more potent at alpha-2A receptors than at alpha-2B receptors. Phentolamine, adazoxan, (+)- and (-)-mianserin, clonidine, (+)-butaclamol, (-)- and (+)-norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and thioridazine were found to have equal affinities for the two subtypes. These results further validate the subdivision of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors into alpha-2A and alpha-2B subtypes.

  4. Exercise Testing, Training, and Beta-Adrenergic Blockade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmore, Jack H.

    1988-01-01

    This article summarizes the current knowledge on the effects of beta-adrenergic blocking drugs, used widely for treatment of cardiovascular diseases, on exercise performance, training benefits, and exercise prescription. (IAH)

  5. Selective innervation of fast and slow muscle regions during early chick neuromuscular development.

    PubMed

    Rafuse, V F; Milner, L D; Landmesser, L T

    1996-11-01

    The electrical properties of adult motoneurons are well matched to the contractile properties of the fast or slow muscle fibers that they innervate. How this precise matching occurs developmentally is not known. To investigate whether motoneurons exhibit selectivity in innervating discrete muscle regions, containing either fast or slow muscle fibers during early neuromuscular development, we caused embryonic chick hindlimb muscles to become innervated by segmentally inappropriate motoneurons. We used the in vitro spinal cord-hindlimb preparation to identify electrophysiologically the pools of foreign motoneurons innervating the posterior iliotibialis (pITIB), an all-fast muscle, and the iliofibularis (IFIB), a partitioned muscle containing discrete fast and slow regions. The results showed that the pITIB and the fast region of the IFIB were exclusively innervated by motoneurons that normally supply fast muscles. In contrast, the slow region of the IFIB was always innervated by motoneuron pools that normally supply slow muscles. Some experimental IFIB muscles lacked a fast region and were innervated solely by "slow" motoneurons. In addition, the intramuscular nerve branching patterns were always appropriate to the fast-slow nature of the muscle (region) innervated. The selective innervation was found early in the motoneuron death period, and we found no evidence that motoneurons grew into appropriate muscle regions, but failed to form functional contacts. Together, these results support the hypothesis that different classes of motoneurons exhibit molecular differences that allow them to project selectively to, and innervate, muscle fibers of the appropriate type during early neuromuscular development.

  6. Thalamocortical Innervation Pattern in Mouse Auditory and Visual Cortex: Laminar and Cell-Type Specificity.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xu-Ying; Zingg, Brian; Mesik, Lukas; Xiao, Zhongju; Zhang, Li I; Tao, Huizhong W

    2016-06-01

    Despite many previous studies, the functional innervation pattern of thalamic axons and their target specificity remains to be investigated thoroughly. Here, in primary auditory cortical slices, we examined thalamic innervation patterns for excitatory and different types of inhibitory neurons across laminae, by optogenetically stimulating axons from the medial geniculate body. We found that excitatory cells and parvalbumin (PV)-expressing inhibitory neurons across layer 2/3 (L2/3) to L6 are directly innervated by thalamic projections, with the strongest innervation occurring in L4. The innervation of PV neurons is stronger than that of excitatory neurons in the same layer, with a relatively constant ratio between their innervation strengths across layers. For somatostatin and vasoactive intestinal peptide inhibitory neurons, essentially only L4 neurons were innervated by thalamic axons and the innervation was much weaker compared with excitatory and PV cells. In addition, more than half of inhibitory neurons in L1 were innervated, relatively strongly, by thalamic axons. Similar innervation patterns were also observed in the primary visual cortex. Thus, thalamic information can be processed independently and differentially by different cortical layers, in addition to the generally thought hierarchical processing starting from L4. This parallel processing is likely shaped by feedforward inhibition from PV neurons in each individual lamina, and may extend the computation power of sensory cortices.

  7. Mapping genetic variants associated with beta-adrenergic responses in inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Hersch, Micha; Peter, Bastian; Kang, Hyun Min; Schüpfer, Fanny; Abriel, Hugues; Pedrazzini, Thierry; Eskin, Eleazar; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bergmann, Sven; Maurer, Fabienne

    2012-01-01

    β-blockers and β-agonists are primarily used to treat cardiovascular diseases. Inter-individual variability in response to both drug classes is well recognized, yet the identity and relative contribution of the genetic players involved are poorly understood. This work is the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) addressing the values and susceptibility of cardiovascular-related traits to a selective β(1)-blocker, Atenolol (ate), and a β-agonist, Isoproterenol (iso). The phenotypic dataset consisted of 27 highly heritable traits, each measured across 22 inbred mouse strains and four pharmacological conditions. The genotypic panel comprised 79922 informative SNPs of the mouse HapMap resource. Associations were mapped by Efficient Mixed Model Association (EMMA), a method that corrects for the population structure and genetic relatedness of the various strains. A total of 205 separate genome-wide scans were analyzed. The most significant hits include three candidate loci related to cardiac and body weight, three loci for electrocardiographic (ECG) values, two loci for the susceptibility of atrial weight index to iso, four loci for the susceptibility of systolic blood pressure (SBP) to perturbations of the β-adrenergic system, and one locus for the responsiveness of QTc (p<10(-8)). An additional 60 loci were suggestive for one or the other of the 27 traits, while 46 others were suggestive for one or the other drug effects (p<10(-6)). Most hits tagged unexpected regions, yet at least two loci for the susceptibility of SBP to β-adrenergic drugs pointed at members of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Loci for cardiac-related traits were preferentially enriched in genes expressed in the heart, while 23% of the testable loci were replicated with datasets of the Mouse Phenome Database (MPD). Altogether these data and validation tests indicate that the mapped loci are relevant to the traits and responses studied.

  8. Regulation of cardiac C-protein phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic responses were addressed by studying subcellular changes in protein phosphorylation, cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity and protein phosphatase activity in frog hearts. B-adrenergic agonists increased and muscarinic cholinergic agonists decreased (/sup 32/P)phosphate incorporation into C-protein, a thick filament component. Regulation of protein phosphatase activity by Iso and methacholine (MCh) was assayed using extracts of drug treated frog hearts and (/sup 32/P)phospho-C-protein as substrate. Total phosphatase activity decreased 21% in extracts from hearts perfused with 0.1 ..mu..M Iso and 17% in hearts exposed to Iso plus 1 ..mu..M methacholine. This decrease reflected decreased phosphatase-2A activity. No changes in total phosphatase activity were measurable in broken cells treated with Iso or MCh. The results suggest adrenergic stimulation changes contractile activity in frog hearts by activating cAMP-dependent protein kinase associated with particulate cellular elements and inactivating soluble protein phosphatase-2A. This is the first demonstration of coordinated regulation of these enzymes by B-adrenergic agonists favoring phosphorylation of effector proteins. Coordinated regulation by methacholine in the presence of Iso was not observed.

  9. The surdo-cardiac syndrome and therapeutic observations

    PubMed Central

    Olley, P. M.; Fowler, R. S.

    1970-01-01

    First recognized in 1957, the surdo-cardiac syndrome includes congenital deafness, prolonged QT interval, and a high incidence of syncope and sudden death. Haemodynamic studies in two patients were normal except for an abnormal wave during left ventricular diastole probably related to abnormal left ventricular relaxation. The syncopal attacks are based on cardiac arrhythmias: both ventricular fibrillation and asystole may occur. Abnormal adrenergic stimulation of the heart is probably responsible. Propranolol appears to be effective in preventing the syncopal attacks. Artificial pacemaking provoked ventricular fibrillation in one patient and seems contraindicated. Images PMID:5433307

  10. The innervation of the adrenal gland. IV. Innervation of the rat adrenal medulla from birth to old age. A descriptive and quantitative morphometric and biochemical study of the innervation of chromaffin cells and adrenal medullary neurons in Wistar rats.

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, A; Coupland, R E

    1990-01-01

    The innervation of the adrenal medulla has been investigated in normal Wistar rats from birth to old age and ultrastructural findings compared with biochemical markers of the cholinergic innervation of the adrenal gland and catecholamine storage. Morphological evidence of the immaturity of the innervation during the first postnatal week is provided and using quantitative morphometry the innervation of chromaffin cells is shown to reach a mean total of 5.4 synapses per chromaffin cell during the period 26 days to 12 weeks of age. The variation in contents of synaptic profiles is discussed in the light of recent work that demonstrates a major sensory as well as visceral efferent innervation of the gland. Adrenal medullary neurons usually occur in closely packed groups, intimately associated with Schwann cells. Axodendritic and axosomatic synapses on these neurons are described and the likely origin of axonal processes innervating the neurons discussed. In old age the density of innervation remains the same as in young adult animals even though the medulla shows evidence of hyperplasia and hypertrophy of individual chromaffin cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 PMID:2384334

  11. Adrenergic receptor control mechanism for growth hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Blackard, W G; Heidingsfelder, S A

    1968-06-01

    The influence of catecholamines on growth hormone secretion has been difficult to establish previously, possibly because of the suppressive effect of the induced hyperglycemia on growth hormone concentrations. In this study, an adrenergic receptor control mechanism for human growth hormone (HGH) secretion was uncovered by studying the effects of alpha and beta receptor blockade on insulin-induced growth hormone elevations in volunteer subjects. Alpha adrenergic blockade with phentolamine during insulin hypoglycemia, 0.1 U/kg, inhibited growth hormon elevations to 30-50% of values in the same subjects during insulin hypoglycemia without adrenergic blockade. More complete inhibition by phentolamine could not be demonstrated at a lower dose of insulin (0.05 U/kg). Beta adrenergic blockade with propranolol during insulin hypoglycemia significantly enhanced HGH concentrations in paired experiments. The inhibiting effect of alpha adrenergic receptor blockade on HGH concentrations could not be attributed to differences in blood glucose or free fatty acid values; however, more prolonged hypoglycemia and lower plasma free fatty acid values may have been a factor in the greater HGH concentrations observed during beta blockade. In the absence of insulin induced hypoglycemia, neither alpha nor beta adrenergic receptor blockade had a detectable effect on HGH concentrations. Theophylline, an inhibitor of cyclic 3'5'-AMP phosphodiesterase activity, also failed to alter plasma HGH concentrations. These studies demonstrate a stimulatory effect of alpha receptors and a possible inhibitory effect of beta receptors on growth hormone secretion.

  12. β-Adrenergic stimulation activates protein kinase Cε and induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Cai, Hongyan; Liu, Hua; Guo, Tao

    2015-06-01

    The cardiac adrenergic signaling pathway is important in the induction of cardiac hypertrophy. The cardiac adrenergic pathway involves two main branches, phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC) and the adenylate cyclase (cAMPase)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathways. It is hypothesized that PLC/PKC and cAMPase/PKA are activated by the α‑adrenergic receptor (αAR) and the β‑adrenergic receptor (βAR), respectively. Previous studies have demonstrated that exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), a guanine exchange factor, activates phospholipase Cε. It is possible that there are βAR‑activated PKC pathways mediated by Epac and PLC. In the present study, the role of Epac and PLC in βAR activated PKC pathways in cardiomyocytes was investigated. It was found that PKCε activation and translocation were induced by the βAR agonist, isoproterenol (Iso). Epac agonist 8‑CPT‑2'OMe‑cAMP also enhanced PKCε activation. βAR stimulation activated PKCε in the cardiomyocytes and was regulated by Epac. Iso‑induced change in PKCε was not affected in the cardiomyocytes, which were infected with adenovirus coding rabbit muscle cAMP‑dependent protein kinase inhibitor. However, Iso‑induced PKCε activation was inhibited by the PLC inhibitor, U73122. The results suggested that Iso‑induced PKCε activation was independent of PKA, but was regulated by PLC. To further investigate the downstream signal target of PKCε activation, the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (pERK)1/2 and the levels of ERK phosphorylation was analyzed. The results revealed that Iso‑induced PKCε activation led to an increase in the expression of pERK1/2. ERK phosphorylation was inhibited by the PKCε inhibitor peptide. Taken together, these data demonstrated that the βAR is able to activate PKCε dependent on Epac and PLC, but independent of PKA.

  13. β Adrenergic Receptor Kinase C-Terminal Peptide Gene-Therapy Improves β2-Adrenergic Receptor-Dependent Neoangiogenesis after Hindlimb Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Cannavo, Alessandro; Liccardo, Daniela; Lymperopoulos, Anastasios; Gambino, Giuseppina; D'Amico, Maria Loreta; Rengo, Franco; Koch, Walter J; Leosco, Dario; Ferrara, Nicola; Rengo, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    After hindlimb ischemia (HI), increased catecholamine levels within the ischemic muscle can cause dysregulation of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) signaling, leading to reduced revascularization. Indeed, in vivo β2AR overexpression via gene therapy enhances angiogenesis in a rat model of HI. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a key regulator of βAR signaling, and β adrenergic receptor kinase C-terminal peptide (βARKct), a peptide inhibitor of GRK2, has been shown to prevent βAR down-regulation and to protect cardiac myocytes and stem cells from ischemic injury through restoration of β2AR protective signaling (i.e., protein kinase B/endothelial nitric oxide synthase). Herein, we tested the potential therapeutic effects of adenoviral-mediated βARKct gene transfer in an experimental model of HI and its effects on βAR signaling and on endothelial cell (EC) function in vitro. Accordingly, in this study, we surgically induced HI in rats by femoral artery resection (FAR). Fifteen days of ischemia resulted in significant βAR down-regulation that was paralleled by an approximately 2-fold increase in GRK2 levels in the ischemic muscle. Importantly, in vivo gene transfer of the βARKct in the hindlimb of rats at the time of FAR resulted in a marked improvement of hindlimb perfusion, with increased capillary and βAR density in the ischemic muscle, compared with control groups. The effect of βARKct expression was also assessed in vitro in cultured ECs. Interestingly, ECs expressing the βARKct fenoterol, a β2AR-agonist, induced enhanced β2AR proangiogenic signaling and increased EC function. Our results suggest that βARKct gene therapy and subsequent GRK2 inhibition promotes angiogenesis in a model of HI by preventing ischemia-induced β2AR down-regulation.

  14. Carbamazepine alone and in combination with doxycycline attenuates isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Errami, Mounir; Tassa, Amina T; Galindo, Cristi L; Skinner, Michael A.; Hill, Joseph A; Garner, Harold R

    2010-01-01

    β-adrenergic signaling is involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy (CH), justifying the use of β-blockers as a therapy to minimize and postpone the consequences of this disease. Evidence suggests that adenylate cyclase, a downstream effector of the β-adrenergic pathway, might be a therapeutic target. We examined the effects of the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ), an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase. In a murine cardiac hypertrophy model, carbamazepine significantly attenuates isoproteronol (ISO)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Carbamazepine also has an effect in transverse aortic banding induced cardiac hypertrophy (TAB) (P=0.07). When carbamazepine was given in combination with the antibiotic doxycycline (DOX), which inhibits matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), therapeutic outcome measured by heart weight-to-body weight and heart weight-to-tibia length ratios was improved compared to either drug alone. Additionally, the combination therapy resulted in an increase in the survival rate over a 56-day period compared to that of untreated mice with cardiac hypertrophy or either drug used alone. Moreover, in support of a role for carbamaze -pine as a β-adrenergic antagonist via cAMP inhibition, a lower heart rate and a lower level of the activated phosphorylated form of the cAMP Response Element-Binding (CREB) were observed in heart extracts from mice treated with carbamazepine. Gene expression analysis identified 19 genes whose expression is significantly altered in treated animals and might be responsible for the added benefit provided by the combination therapy. These results suggest that carbamazepine acts as a β-adrenergic antagonist. Carbamazepine and doxycycline are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as drugs that might complement medications for cardiac hypertrophy or serve as an alternative therapy to traditional β-blockers. Furthermore, these agents reproducibly impact the expression of genes that may serve as additional

  15. Carbamazepine alone and in combination with doxycycline attenuates isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Errami, Mounir; Tassa, Amina T; Galindo, Cristi L; Skinner, Michael A; Hill, Joseph A; Garner, Harold R

    2010-06-23

    β-adrenergic signaling is involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy (CH), justifying the use of β-blockers as a therapy to minimize and postpone the consequences of this disease. Evidence suggests that adenylate cyclase, a downstream effector of the β-adrenergic pathway, might be a therapeutic target. We examined the effects of the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ), an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase. In a murine cardiac hypertrophy model, carbamazepine significantly attenuates isoproteronol (ISO)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Carbamazepine also has an effect in transverse aortic banding induced cardiac hypertrophy (TAB) (P=0.07). When carbamazepine was given in combination with the antibiotic doxycycline (DOX), which inhibits matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), therapeutic outcome measured by heart weight-to-body weight and heart weight-to-tibia length ratios was improved compared to either drug alone. Additionally, the combination therapy resulted in an increase in the survival rate over a 56-day period compared to that of untreated mice with cardiac hypertrophy or either drug used alone. Moreover, in support of a role for carbamaze -pine as a β-adrenergic antagonist via cAMP inhibition, a lower heart rate and a lower level of the activated phosphorylated form of the cAMP Response Element-Binding (CREB) were observed in heart extracts from mice treated with carbamazepine. Gene expression analysis identified 19 genes whose expression is significantly altered in treated animals and might be responsible for the added benefit provided by the combination therapy. These results suggest that carbamazepine acts as a β-adrenergic antagonist. Carbamazepine and doxycycline are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as drugs that might complement medications for cardiac hypertrophy or serve as an alternative therapy to traditional β-blockers. Furthermore, these agents reproducibly impact the expression of genes that may serve as additional

  16. Contrasting effects of presynaptic alpha2-adrenergic autoinhibition and pharmacologic augmentation of presynaptic inhibition on sympathetic heart rate control.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Tadayoshi; Kawada, Toru; Yanagiya, Yusuke; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Kamiya, Atsunori; Mizuno, Masaki; Takaki, Hiroshi; Sunagawa, Kenji; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2008-11-01

    Presynaptic alpha2-adrenergic receptors are known to exert feedback inhibition on norepinephrine release from the sympathetic nerve terminals. To elucidate the dynamic characteristics of the inhibition, we stimulated the right cardiac sympathetic nerve according to a binary white noise signal while measuring heart rate (HR) in anesthetized rabbits (n = 6). We estimated the transfer function from cardiac sympathetic nerve stimulation to HR and the corresponding step response of HR, with and without the blockade of presynaptic inhibition by yohimbine (1 mg/kg followed by 0.1 mg.kg(-1).h(-1) iv). We also examined the effect of the alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonist clonidine (0.3 and 1.5 mg.kg(-1).h(-1) iv) in different rabbits (n = 5). Yohimbine increased the maximum step response (from 7.2 +/- 0.8 to 12.2 +/- 1.7 beats/min, means +/- SE, P < 0.05) without significantly affecting the initial slope (0.93 +/- 0.23 vs. 0.94 +/- 0.22 beats.min(-1).s(-1)). Higher dose but not lower dose clonidine significantly decreased the maximum step response (from 6.3 +/- 0.8 to 6.8 +/- 1.0 and 2.8 +/- 0.5 beats/min, P < 0.05) and also reduced the initial slope (from 0.56 +/- 0.07 to 0.51 +/- 0.04 and 0.22 +/- 0.06 beats.min(-1).s(-1), P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that presynaptic alpha2-adrenergic autoinhibition limits the maximum response without significantly compromising the rapidity of effector response. In contrast, pharmacologic augmentation of the presynaptic inhibition not only attenuates the maximum response but also results in a sluggish effector response.

  17. Disruption of ROCK1 gene attenuates cardiac dilation and improves contractile function in pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianjian; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Summers, Lelia J; Dorn, Gerald W; Wei, Lei

    2008-03-01

    The development of left ventricular cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in response to increased hemodynamic load and neurohormonal stress is initially a compensatory response. However, persistent stress eventually leads to dilated heart failure, which is a common cause of heart failure in human hypertensive and valvular heart disease. We have recently reported that Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) homozygous knockout mice exhibited reduced cardiac fibrosis and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, while displaying a preserved compensatory hypertrophic response to pressure overload. In this study, we have tested the effects of ROCK1 deficiency on cardiac hypertrophy, dilation, and dysfunction. We have shown that ROCK1 deletion attenuated left ventricular dilation and contractile dysfunction, but not hypertrophy, in a transgenic model of Galphaq overexpression-induced hypertrophy which represents a well-characterized and highly relevant genetic mouse model of pathological hypertrophy. Although the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was not affected, ROCK1 deletion in Galphaq mice resulted in a concentric hypertrophic phenotype associated with reduced induction of hypertrophic markers indicating that ROCK1 deletion could favorably modify hypertrophy without inhibiting it. Furthermore, ROCK1 deletion also improved contractile response to beta-adrenergic stimulation in Galphaq transgenic mice. Consistent with this observation, ROCK1 deletion prevented down-regulation of type V/VI adenylyl cyclase expression, which is associated with the impaired beta-adrenergic signaling in Galphaq mice. The present study establishes for the first time a role for ROCK1 in cardiac dilation and contractile dysfunction.

  18. Cardiac Cephalgia

    PubMed Central

    Wassef, Nancy; Ali, Ali Turab; Katsanevaki, Alexia-Zacharoula; Nishtar, Salman

    2014-01-01

    Although most of the patients presenting with ischemic heart disease have chest pains, there are other rare presenting symptoms like cardiac cephalgia. In this report, we present a case of acute coronary syndrome with an only presentation of exertional headache. It was postulated as acute presentation of coronary artery disease, due to previous history of similar presentation associated with some chest pains with previous left coronary artery stenting. We present an unusual case with cardiac cephalgia in a young patient under the age of 50 which was not reported at that age before. There are four suggested mechanisms for this cardiac presentation. PMID:28352454

  19. Adrenergic receptor and catecholamine distribution in rat cerebral cortex: binding studies with [3H]prazosin, [3H]idazoxan and [3H]dihydroalprenolol.

    PubMed

    Diop, L; Brière, R; Grondin, L; Reader, T A

    1987-02-03

    The tritiated adrenergic antagonists [3H]dihydroalprenolol ([3H]DHA; beta-receptors), [3H]prazosin ([3H]PRZ; alpha 1-receptors), and [3H]idazoxan ([3H]IDA; alpha 2-receptors) were used to determine the distribution of these sites in 5 defined areas of the adult rat cerebral cortex. The highest density of [3H]PRZ binding was found in the prefrontal cortex, with a lower and homogeneous distribution for the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal areas. The [3H]IDA binding sites were fairly uniform for all areas, except for the temporal cortex where it was very dense. In contrast, beta-adrenoceptors labelled by [3H]DHA were very homogeneous for all the regions examined. The functional significance of the distribution of alpha 1, alpha 2 and beta-adrenoceptors is discussed in relation to the catecholamine innervation and monoamine contents measured by high performance liquid chromatography.

  20. Evidence that antidromically stimulated vagal afferents activate inhibitory neurones innervating guinea-pig trachealis.

    PubMed Central

    Canning, B J; Undem, B J

    1994-01-01

    1. We recently described a capsaicin-sensitive vagal pathway mediating non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxations of an isolated, innervated rostral guinea-pig tracheal preparation. These afferent fibres are carried by the superior laryngeal nerves and relaxations elicited by their activation are insensitive to autonomic ganglion blockers such as hexamethonium. In the present study this vagal relaxant pathway was further characterized. 2. Relaxations of the trachealis elicited by electrical stimulation of capsaicin-sensitive vagal afferents were mimicked by bath application of capsaicin. Relaxations elicited by both methods were abolished when the tissue between the trachea and the adjacent oesophagus was disrupted. Indeed, separating the trachea from the oesophagus uncovered a contractile effect of capsaicin administration on the trachealis. 3. Capsaicin-induced, oesophagus-dependent relaxations of the trachealis were blocked by pretreatment with the fast sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX). By contrast, capsaicin-induced contractions of the trachealis (obtained in the absence of the oesophagus) were unaffected by tetrodotoxin. 4. Substance P, neurokinin A (NKA) and neurokinin B (NKB) also elicited NANC relaxations of precontracted trachealis that were abolished by separating the trachea from the oesophagus or by TTX pretreatment. Like capsaicin, the tachykinins elicited only contractions of the trachealis following TTX pretreatment or separation of the trachea from the adjacent oesophagus. 5. Relaxations elicited by stimulation of the capsaicin-sensitive nerves were unaffected by a concentration of the tachykinin NK2 receptor-selective antagonist, SR 48968, that is selective for NK2 receptor blockade and were not mimicked by the NK2 receptor-selective agonist [beta-Ala8]-NKA(4-10). This suggests that NK2 receptors are not responsible for these relaxations. By contrast, the NK3 receptor-selective agonist, senktide analogue, and the NK1 receptor

  1. Dopaminergic innervation of interneurons in the rat basolateral amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Pinard, Courtney R.; Muller, Jay F.; Mascagni, Franco; McDonald, Alexander J.

    2008-01-01

    The basolateral nuclear complex of the amygdala (BLC) receives a dense dopaminergic innervation that plays a critical role in the formation of emotional memory. Dopamine has been shown to influence the activity of BLC GABAergic interneurons, which differentially control the activity of pyramidal cells. However, little is known about how dopaminergic inputs interface with different interneuronal subpopulations in this region. To address this question, dual-labeling immunohistochemical techniques were used at the light and electron microscopic levels to examine inputs from tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH+) dopaminergic terminals to two different interneuronal populations in the rat basolateral nucleus labeled using antibodies to parvalbumin (PV) or calretinin (CR). The basolateral nucleus exhibited a dense innervation by TH+ axons. Partial serial section reconstruction of TH+ terminals found that at least 43–50% of these terminals formed synaptic junctions in the basolateral nucleus. All of the synapses examined were symmetrical. In both TH/PV and TH/CR preparations the main targets of TH+ terminals were spines and distal dendrites of unlabeled cells. In sections dual-labeled for TH/PV 59% of the contacts of TH+ terminals with PV+ neurons were synapses, whereas in sections dual-labeled for TH/CR only 13% of the contacts of TH+ terminals with CR+ cells were synapses. In separate preparations examined in complete serial sections for TH+ basket-like innervation of PV+ perikarya, most (76.2%) of TH+ terminal contacts with PV+ perikarya were synapses. These findings suggest that PV+ interneurons, but not CR+ interneurons, are prominent synaptic targets of dopaminergic terminals in the BLC. PMID:18948174

  2. Hypoxia sensing through β-adrenergic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Hoi I.; Asosingh, Kewal; Stephens, Olivia R.; Queisser, Kimberly A.; Xu, Weiling; Willard, Belinda; Hu, Bo; Dermawan, Josephine Kam Tai; Stark, George R.; Naga Prasad, Sathyamangla V.; Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2016-01-01

    Life-sustaining responses to low oxygen, or hypoxia, depend on signal transduction by HIFs, but the underlying mechanisms by which cells sense hypoxia are not completely understood. Based on prior studies suggesting a link between the β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) and hypoxia responses, we hypothesized that the β-AR mediates hypoxia sensing and is necessary for HIF-1α accumulation. Beta blocker treatment of mice suppressed hypoxia induction of renal HIF-1α accumulation, erythropoietin production, and erythropoiesis in vivo. Likewise, beta blocker treatment of primary human endothelial cells in vitro decreased hypoxia-mediated HIF-1α accumulation and binding to target genes and the downstream hypoxia-inducible gene expression. In mechanistic studies, cAMP-activated PKA and/or GPCR kinases (GRK), which both participate in β-AR signal transduction, were investigated. Direct activation of cAMP/PKA pathways did not induce HIF-1α accumulation, and inhibition of PKA did not blunt HIF-1α induction by hypoxia. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of GRK, or expression of a GRK phosphorylation–deficient β-AR mutant in cells, blocked hypoxia-mediated HIF-1α accumulation. Mass spectrometry–based quantitative analyses revealed a hypoxia-mediated β-AR phosphorylation barcode that was different from the classical agonist phosphorylation barcode. These findings indicate that the β-AR is fundamental to the molecular and physiological responses to hypoxia. PMID:28018974

  3. Localization of motoneurons innervating individual abdominal muscles of the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Alan D.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a systematic investigation of the innervation of the cat's individual abdominal muscles. The segmental distribution of the different motor pools was determined by using electrical microstimulation of the ventral horn to produce visible localized muscle twitches and by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase injected into individual muscles. The segmental distribution of each motor pool was as follows: rectus abdominis, T4-L3; external oblique, T6-L3; transverse abdominis, T9-L3; and internal oblique, T13-L3.

  4. Effects of cholinergic and beta-adrenergic blockade on orthostatic tolerance in healthy subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Sather, T. M.

    2000-01-01

    Cardiovascular responses during a graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) protocol were compared before and after atropine and propranolol administration to test the hypothesis that both sympathetic and parasympathetic control of cardio-acceleration are associated with syncopal predisposition to orthostatic stress in healthy subjects. Eleven men were categorized into two groups having high (HT, N = 6) or low (LT, N = 5) tolerance based on their total time before the onset of presyncopal symptoms. HT and LT groups were similar in physical characteristics, fitness, and baseline cardiovascular measurements. Atropine treatment had no effect on LBNP tolerance or mean arterial pressure at presyncope, despite an atropine-induced increase in heart rate. Propranolol treatment reduced (p<0.05) LBNP tolerance in both groups. Diminished LBNP tolerance after propranolol administration was associated with reductions in cardiac output, whereas increase in systemic peripheral resistance from baseline to presyncope was unaffected by propranolol. Reduction in cardiac output and LBNP tolerance after beta blockade reflected a chronotropic effect because lower LBNP tolerance for the HT (-50%) and LT (-39%) groups was associated with dramatic reductions (p <0.05) in the magnitude of LBNP-induced tachycardia without significant effects on stroke volume at presyncope. Absence of an atropine-induced difference in cardiac output and systemic peripheral resistance between HT and LT groups failed to support the notion that cardiac vagal withdrawal represents a predominant mechanism that could account for differences in orthostatic tolerance. Because a reduction in LBNP tolerance in both HT and LT groups after propranolol treatment was most closely associated with reduced tachycardia, the data suggest that a primary autonomically mediated mechanism for maintenance of mean arterial pressure and orthostatic tolerance in healthy subjects is beta adrenergic-induced tachycardia.

  5. The Alpha-1A Adrenergic Receptor in the Rabbit Heart

    PubMed Central

    Myagmar, Bat-Erdene; Swigart, Philip M.; Baker, Anthony J.; Simpson, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    The alpha-1A-adrenergic receptor (AR) subtype is associated with cardioprotective signaling in the mouse and human heart. The rabbit is useful for cardiac disease modeling, but data on the alpha-1A in the rabbit heart are limited. Our objective was to test for expression and function of the alpha-1A in rabbit heart. By quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qPCR) on mRNA from ventricular myocardium of adult male New Zealand White rabbits, the alpha-1B was 99% of total alpha-1-AR mRNA, with <1% alpha-1A and alpha-1D, whereas alpha-1A mRNA was over 50% of total in brain and liver. Saturation radioligand binding identified ~4 fmol total alpha-1-ARs per mg myocardial protein, with 17% alpha-1A by competition with the selective antagonist 5-methylurapidil. The alpha-1D was not detected by competition with BMY-7378, indicating that 83% of alpha-1-ARs were alpha-1B. In isolated left ventricle and right ventricle, the selective alpha-1A agonist A61603 stimulated a negative inotropic effect, versus a positive inotropic effect with the nonselective alpha-1-agonist phenylephrine and the beta-agonist isoproterenol. Blood pressure assay in conscious rabbits using an indwelling aortic telemeter showed that A61603 by bolus intravenous dosing increased mean arterial pressure by 20 mm Hg at 0.14 μg/kg, 10-fold lower than norepinephrine, and chronic A61603 infusion by iPRECIO programmable micro Infusion pump did not increase BP at 22 μg/kg/d. A myocardial slice model useful in human myocardium and an anthracycline cardiotoxicity model useful in mouse were both problematic in rabbit. We conclude that alpha-1A mRNA is very low in rabbit heart, but the receptor is present by binding and mediates a negative inotropic response. Expression and function of the alpha-1A in rabbit heart differ from mouse and human, but the vasopressor response is similar to mouse. PMID:27258143

  6. Nuclear cardiac

    SciTech Connect

    Slutsky, R.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear medicine and cardiology has continued to produce a surfeit of interesting, illuminating, and important reports involving the analysis of cardiac function, perfusion, and metabolism. To simplify the presentation, this review is broken down into three major subheadings: analysis of myocardial perfusion; imaging of the recent myocardial infarction; and the evaluation of myocardial function. There appears to be an increasingly important relationship between cardiology, particularly cardiac physiology, and nuclear imaging techniques. (KRM)

  7. Cardiac cameras.

    PubMed

    Travin, Mark I

    2011-05-01

    Cardiac imaging with radiotracers plays an important role in patient evaluation, and the development of suitable imaging instruments has been crucial. While initially performed with the rectilinear scanner that slowly transmitted, in a row-by-row fashion, cardiac count distributions onto various printing media, the Anger scintillation camera allowed electronic determination of tracer energies and of the distribution of radioactive counts in 2D space. Increased sophistication of cardiac cameras and development of powerful computers to analyze, display, and quantify data has been essential to making radionuclide cardiac imaging a key component of the cardiac work-up. Newer processing algorithms and solid state cameras, fundamentally different from the Anger camera, show promise to provide higher counting efficiency and resolution, leading to better image quality, more patient comfort and potentially lower radiation exposure. While the focus has been on myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography, increased use of positron emission tomography is broadening the field to include molecular imaging of the myocardium and of the coronary vasculature. Further advances may require integrating cardiac nuclear cameras with other imaging devices, ie, hybrid imaging cameras. The goal is to image the heart and its physiological processes as accurately as possible, to prevent and cure disease processes.

  8. Adrenal medullary regulation of rat renal cortical adrenergic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaresan, P.R.; Guarnaccia, M.M.; Izzo, J.L. Jr. )

    1987-11-01

    The role of the adrenal medulla in the regulation of renal cortical adrenergic receptors was investigated in renal cortical particular fractions from control rats and rats 6 wk after adrenal demedullation. The specific binding of ({sup 3}H)prazosin, ({sup 3}H)rauwolscine, and ({sup 125}I)iodocyanopindolol were used to quantitate {alpha}{sub 1}-, {alpha}{sub 2}-, and {beta}-adrenergic receptors, respectively. Adrenal demedullation increased the concentration of all three groups of renal adrenergic receptors; maximal number of binding sites (B{sub max}, per milligram membrane protein) for {alpha}{sub 1}-, and {alpha}{sub 2}-, and {beta}-adrenergic receptors were increased by 22, 18.5, and 25%, respectively. No differences were found in the equilibrium dissociation constants (K{sub D}) for any of the radioligands. Plasma corticosterone and plasma and renal norepinephrine levels were unchanged, whereas plasma epinephrine was decreased 72% by adrenal demedullation, renal cortical epinephrine was not detectable in control or demedullated animals. The results suggest that, in the physiological state, the adrenal medulla modulates the number of renal cortical adrenergic receptors, presumably through the actions of a circulating factor such as epinephrine.

  9. [Microscopic innervation and vascularization of the tongue. General study].

    PubMed

    Fuentes, A; Sanchiz, O

    1992-01-01

    Our study deals with 23 prenatal human tongues, and a comparative study was carried out on one neonatal tongue and a few human and animal postnatal tongues. Sagittal and coronal sections were stained with various techniques. After the 7th week, the development of the nerves and their relationships with the neighboring structures can be observed. There are very few capillaries making up the superficial vascular network under the epithelium. The vessels whose walls are beginning to develop include the future red blood cells with their basophilic nuclei. During the whole process of evolution, there is a tight correlation between the collagen fibers and the neighboring structures. The innervation and vascularization--the latter with changes in the vascular walls--progressively increase. A short time before birth, the nerve fibers include their characteristic components, except for the Schmidt-Lantermann fissures. A considerable innervation advances towards the papillae, and anterior and posterior nerve networks enter the papillae, whose connective tissue includes groups of corpuscles on serial sections.

  10. Ancestry of motor innervation to pectoral fin and forelimb

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Leung-Hang; Gilland, Edwin; Bass, Andrew H.; Baker, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Motor innervation to the tetrapod forelimb and fish pectoral fin is assumed to share a conserved spinal cord origin, despite major structural and functional innovations of the appendage during the vertebrate water-to-land transition. In this paper, we present anatomical and embryological evidence showing that pectoral motoneurons also originate in the hindbrain among ray-finned fish. New and previous data for lobe-finned fish, a group that includes tetrapods, and more basal cartilaginous fish showed pectoral innervation that was consistent with a hindbrain-spinal origin of motoneurons. Together, these findings support a hindbrain–spinal phenotype as the ancestral vertebrate condition that originated as a postural adaptation for pectoral control of head orientation. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that Hox gene modules were shared in fish and tetrapod pectoral systems. We propose that evolutionary shifts in Hox gene expression along the body axis provided a transcriptional mechanism allowing eventual decoupling of pectoral motoneurons from the hindbrain much like their target appendage gained independence from the head. PMID:20975699

  11. Differential serotonergic innervation of the amygdala in bonobos and chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Barger, Nicole; Taglialatela, Jared P.; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; Hof, Patrick R.; Hopkins, William D.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2016-01-01

    Humans’ closest living relatives are bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), yet these great ape species differ considerably from each other in terms of social behavior. Bonobos are more tolerant of conspecifics in competitive contexts and often use sexual behavior to mediate social interactions. Chimpanzees more frequently employ aggression during conflicts and actively patrol territories between communities. Regulation of emotional responses is facilitated by the amygdala, which also modulates social decision-making, memory and attention. Amygdala responsiveness is further regulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. We hypothesized that the amygdala of bonobos and chimpanzees would differ in its neuroanatomical organization and serotonergic innervation. We measured volumes of regions and the length density of serotonin transporter-containing axons in the whole amygdala and its lateral, basal, accessory basal and central nuclei. Results showed that accessory basal nucleus volume was larger in chimpanzees than in bonobos. Of particular note, the amygdala of bonobos had more than twice the density of serotonergic axons than chimpanzees, with the most pronounced differences in the basal and central nuclei. These findings suggest that variation in serotonergic innervation of the amygdala may contribute to mediating the remarkable differences in social behavior exhibited by bonobos and chimpanzees. PMID:26475872

  12. Patterns of innervation of the lacrimal gland with clinical application.

    PubMed

    Scott, Gabriel; Balsiger, Heather; Kluckman, Matthew; Fan, Jerry; Gest, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Parasympathetic stimulation of the lacrimal gland is responsible for tear production, and this innervation originates from fibers conveyed in the facial nerve. After synapse in the pterygopalatine ganglion, postsynaptic parasympathetic fibers travel within the zygomatic and zygomaticotemporal nerves (ZTN) into the orbit. As described in most anatomy texts, ZTN communicates with the lacrimal nerve (LN) posterior to the gland and then secretomotor fibers enter the gland. This study was performed to gain a better understanding of the innervation of the lacrimal gland. Seventeen cadaver heads were bisected for a total of 34 sides, which then underwent dissection of the superolateral orbital region to observe the course for the LN and ZTN. Three variations of the course of the LN and ZTN were found. In 20 (60.6%) dissections it was documented that the ZTN entered directly into the lacrimal gland with no communication with the LN. In 12 (36.4%) of the bisected heads, ZTN had both a direct connection into the gland and a communicating branch with the LN. In only one (3.0%) bisected head, ZTN communicated with the LN before entering the gland as it is commonly described in anatomy texts. Our study reveals that the ZTN usually takes a different course than is classically described in most anatomy textbooks. A greater understanding of the typical course these nerves take may help surgeons identify them more easily and avoid damaging them.

  13. Na/K-ATPase--an integral player in the adrenergic fight-or-flight response.

    PubMed

    Bers, Donald M; Despa, Sanda

    2009-05-01

    During activation of the sympathetic nervous system, cardiac performance is increased as part of the fight-or-flight stress response. The increase in contractility with sympathetic stimulation is an orchestrated combination of intrinsic inotropic, lusitropic, and chronotropic effects, mediated in part by activation of beta-adrenergic receptors and protein kinase A. This causes phosphorylation of several Ca cycling proteins in cardiac myocytes (increasing Ca entry via L-type Ca channels, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca pumping, and the dissociation rate of Ca from the myofilaments). Here, we discuss how stimulation of the Na/K-ATPase, mediated by phosphorylation of phospholemman (a small sarcolemmal protein that associates with and modulates Na/K-ATPase), is an additional important player in the sympathetic fight-or-flight response. Enhancement of Na/K- ATPase activity limits the rise in [Na](i) caused by the higher level of Na influx and by doing so limits the rise in cellular and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca load by favoring Ca extrusion via the Na/Ca exchanger. Thus, phospholemman-mediated activation of the Na/K-ATPase may prevent Ca overload and triggered arrhythmias during stress.

  14. Targeting β3-Adrenergic Receptors in the Heart: Selective Agonism and β-Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Cannavo, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Cardiac diseases, such as heart failure, remain leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with myocardial infarction as the most common etiology. HF is characterized by β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) dysregulation that is primarily due to the upregulation of G protein–coupled receptor kinases that leads to overdesensitization of β1 and β2ARs, and this clinically manifests as a loss of inotropic reserve. Interestingly, the “minor” βAR isoform, the β3AR, found in the heart, lacks G protein–coupled receptor kinases recognition sites, and is not subject to desensitization, and as a consequence of this, in human failing myocardium, the levels of this receptor remain unchanged or are even increased. In different preclinical studies, it has been shown that β3ARs can activate different signaling pathways that can protect the heart. The clinical relevance of this is also supported by the effects of β-blockers which are well known for their proangiogenic and cardioprotective effects, and data are emerging showing that these are mediated, at least in part, by enhancement of β3AR activity. In this regard, targeting of β3ARs could represent a novel potential strategy to improve cardiac metabolism, function, and remodeling. PMID:28170359

  15. Adrenergic β2-receptors mediates visceral hypersensitivity induced by heterotypic intermittent stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunhua; Rui, Yun-Yun; Zhou, Yuan-Yuan; Ju, Zhong; Zhang, Hong-Hong; Hu, Chuang-Ying; Xiao, Ying; Xu, Guang-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Chronic visceral pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been difficult to treat effectively partially because its pathophysiology is not fully understood. Recent studies show that norepinephrine (NE) plays an important role in the development of visceral hypersensitivity. In this study, we designed to investigate the role of adrenergic signaling in visceral hypersensitivity induced by heterotypical intermittent stress (HIS). Abdominal withdrawal reflex scores (AWRs) used as visceral sensitivity were determined by measuring the visceromoter responses to colorectal distension. Colon-specific dorsal root ganglia neurons (DRGs) were labeled by injection of DiI into the colon wall and were acutely dissociated for whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Blood plasma level of NE was measured using radioimmunoassay kits. The expression of β2-adrenoceptors was measured by western blotting. We showed that HIS-induced visceral hypersensitivity was attenuated by systemic administration of a β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, in a dose-dependent manner, but not by a α-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine. Using specific β-adrenoceptor antagonists, HIS-induced visceral hypersensitivity was alleviated by β2 adrenoceptor antagonist but not by β1- or β3-adrenoceptor antagonist. Administration of a selective β2-adrenoceptor antagonist also normalized hyperexcitability of colon-innervating DRG neurons of HIS rats. Furthermore, administration of β-adrenoceptor antagonist suppressed sustained potassium current density (IK) without any alteration of fast-inactivating potassium current density (IA). Conversely, administration of NE enhanced the neuronal excitability and produced visceral hypersensitivity in healthy control rats, and blocked by β2-adrenoceptor antagonists. In addition, HIS significantly enhanced the NE concentration in the blood plasma but did not change the expression of β2-adrenoceptor in DRGs and the muscularis externa of the colon. The

  16. Human myometrial adrenergic receptors during pregnancy: identification of the alpha-adrenergic receptor by (/sup 3/H) dihydroergocryptine binding

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, M.M.; Hayashida, D.; Roberts, J.M.

    1985-07-15

    The radioactive alpha-adrenergic antagonist (/sup 3/H) dihydroergocryptine binds to particulate preparations of term pregnant human myometrium in a manner compatible with binding to the alpha-adrenergic receptor (alpha-receptor). (/sup 3/H) Dihydroergocryptine binds with high affinity (KD = 2 nmol/L and low capacity (receptor concentration = 100 fmol/mg of protein). Adrenergic agonists compete for (/sup 3/H) dihydroergocryptine binding sites stereo-selectively ((-)-norepinephrine is 100 times as potent as (+)-norepinephrine) and in a manner compatible with alpha-adrenergic potencies (epinephrine approximately equal to norepinephrine much greater than isoproterenol). Studies in which prazosin, an alpha 1-antagonist, and yohimbine, and alpha 2-antagonist, competed for (/sup 3/H) dihydroergocryptine binding sites in human myometrium indicated that approximately 70% are alpha 2-receptors and that 30% are alpha 1-receptors. (/sup 3/H) dihydroergocryptine binding to human myometrial membrane particulate provides an important tool with which to study the molecular mechanisms of uterine alpha-adrenergic response.

  17. beta-Adrenergic receptor modulation of wound repair.

    PubMed

    Pullar, Christine E; Manabat-Hidalgo, Catherine G; Bolaji, Ranti S; Isseroff, R Rivkah

    2008-08-01

    Adrenergic receptors and their downstream effector molecules are expressed in all cell types in the skin, and it is only recently that functionality of the catecholamine agonist activated signaling in the cutaneous repair process has been revealed. In addition to responding to systemic elevations in catecholamines (as in stress situations) or to pharmacologically administered adrenergic agonists, epidermal keratinocytes themselves can synthesize catecholamine ligands. They also respond to these systemic or self-generated agonists via receptor mediated signaling, resulting in altered migration, and changes in wound re-epithelialization. Endothelial cells, inflammatory cells, dermal fibroblasts, and mesenchymal stem cells, all cells that contribute to the wound repair process, express multiple subtypes of adrenergic receptors and exhibit responses that can be either contribute or impair healing-and occasionally, depending on the species and assay conditions, results can be conflicting. There is still much to be uncovered regarding how this self-contained autocrine and paracrine signaling system contributes to cutaneous wound repair.

  18. Genetic manipulation of beta-adrenergic signalling in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Davidson, M J; Koch, W J

    2001-09-01

    Heart failure (HF) represents one of the leading causes for hospitalization in developed nations. Despite advances in the management of coronary artery disease, no significant improvements in prognosis have been achieved for HF over the last several decades. Heart failure itself represents a final common endpoint for several disease entities, including hypertension, coronary artery disease, and cardiomyopathy. However, certain biochemical features remain common to the failing myocardium. Foremost amongst these are alterations in the beta-adrenergic receptor signalling cascade. Recent advances in transgenic and gene therapy techniques have presented novel therapeutic strategies for the management of HF via enhancement of beta-adrenergic signalling. In this review, we will discuss the biochemical changes that accompany HF as well as corresponding therapeutic strategies. We will then review the evidence from transgenic mouse work supporting the use of adrenergic receptor augmentation in the failing heart and more recent in vivo applications of gene therapy directed at reversing or preventing HF.

  19. Cardiac Arrest during Gamete Release in Chum Salmon Regulated by the Parasympathetic Nerve System

    PubMed Central

    Makiguchi, Yuya; Nagata, Shinya; Kojima, Takahito; Ichimura, Masaki; Konno, Yoshifumi; Murata, Hideki; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac arrest caused by startling stimuli, such as visual and vibration stimuli, has been reported in some animals and could be considered as an extraordinary case of bradycardia and defined as reversible missed heart beats. Variability of the heart rate is established as a balance between an autonomic system, namely cholinergic vagus inhibition, and excitatory adrenergic stimulation of neural and hormonal action in teleost. However, the cardiac arrest and its regulating nervous mechanism remain poorly understood. We show, by using electrocardiogram (ECG) data loggers, that cardiac arrest occurs in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) at the moment of gamete release for 7.39±1.61 s in females and for 5.20±0.97 s in males. The increase in heart rate during spawning behavior relative to the background rate during the resting period suggests that cardiac arrest is a characteristic physiological phenomenon of the extraordinarily high heart rate during spawning behavior. The ECG morphological analysis showed a peaked and tall T-wave adjacent to the cardiac arrest, indicating an increase in potassium permeability in cardiac muscle cells, which would function to retard the cardiac action potential. Pharmacological studies showed that the cardiac arrest was abolished by injection of atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, revealing that the cardiac arrest is a reflex response of the parasympathetic nerve system, although injection of sotalol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, did not affect the cardiac arrest. We conclude that cardiac arrest during gamete release in spawning release in spawning chum salmon is a physiological reflex response controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system. This cardiac arrest represents a response to the gaping behavior that occurs at the moment of gamete release. PMID:19543389

  20. Cardiac arrest during gamete release in chum salmon regulated by the parasympathetic nerve system.

    PubMed

    Makiguchi, Yuya; Nagata, Shinya; Kojima, Takahito; Ichimura, Masaki; Konno, Yoshifumi; Murata, Hideki; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2009-06-19

    Cardiac arrest caused by startling stimuli, such as visual and vibration stimuli, has been reported in some animals and could be considered as an extraordinary case of bradycardia and defined as reversible missed heart beats. Variability of the heart rate is established as a balance between an autonomic system, namely cholinergic vagus inhibition, and excitatory adrenergic stimulation of neural and hormonal action in teleost. However, the cardiac arrest and its regulating nervous mechanism remain poorly understood. We show, by using electrocardiogram (ECG) data loggers, that cardiac arrest occurs in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) at the moment of gamete release for 7.39+/-1.61 s in females and for 5.20+/-0.97 s in males. The increase in heart rate during spawning behavior relative to the background rate during the resting period suggests that cardiac arrest is a characteristic physiological phenomenon of the extraordinarily high heart rate during spawning behavior. The ECG morphological analysis showed a peaked and tall T-wave adjacent to the cardiac arrest, indicating an increase in potassium permeability in cardiac muscle cells, which would function to retard the cardiac action potential. Pharmacological studies showed that the cardiac arrest was abolished by injection of atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, revealing that the cardiac arrest is a reflex response of the parasympathetic nerve system, although injection of sotalol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, did not affect the cardiac arrest. We conclude that cardiac arrest during gamete release in spawning release in spawning chum salmon is a physiological reflex response controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system. This cardiac arrest represents a response to the gaping behavior that occurs at the moment of gamete release.

  1. Neo-innervation of a bioengineered intestinal smooth muscle construct around chitosan scaffold.

    PubMed

    Zakhem, Elie; Raghavan, Shreya; Bitar, Khalil N

    2014-02-01

    Neuromuscular disorders of the gut result in disturbances in gastrointestinal transit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the neo-innervation of smooth muscle in an attempt to restore lost innervation. We have previously shown the potential use of composite chitosan scaffolds as support for intestinal smooth muscle constructs. However, the constructs lacked neuronal component. Here, we bioengineered innervated colonic smooth muscle constructs using rabbit colon smooth muscle and enteric neural progenitor cells. We also bioengineered smooth muscle only tissue constructs using colonic smooth muscle cells. The constructs were placed next to each other around tubular chitosan scaffolds and left in culture. Real time force generation conducted on the intrinsically innervated smooth muscle constructs showed differentiated functional neurons. The bioengineered smooth muscle only constructs became neo-innervated. The neo-innervation results were confirmed by immunostaining assays. Chitosan supported (1) the differentiation of neural progenitor cells in the constructs and (2) the neo-innervation of non-innervated smooth muscle around the same scaffold.

  2. Dexmedetomidine for Refractory Adrenergic Crisis in Familial Dysautonomia

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Ryan C.; Palma, Jose-Alberto; Spalink, Christy L.; Altshuler, Diana; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Fridman, David; Papadopoulos, John; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adrenergic crises are a cardinal feature of familial dysautonomia (FD). Traditionally, adrenergic crisis have been treated with the sympatholytic agent clonidine or with benzodiazepines, which can cause excessive sedation and respiratory depression. Dexmedetomidine is an α2A-adrenergic agonist with greater selectivity and shorter half-life than clonidine. We aimed to evaluate the preliminary effectiveness and safety of intravenous dexmedetomidine in the treatment of refractory adrenergic crisis in patients with FD. Methods Retrospective chart review of patients with genetically confirmed FD who received intravenous dexmedetomidine for refractory adrenergic crises. The primary outcome was preliminary effectiveness of dexmedetomidine defined as change in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) 1-hour after the initiation of dexmedetomidine. Secondary outcomes included incidence of adverse events related to dexmedetomidine, hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, and hemodynamic parameters 12-hours after dexmedetomidine cessation. Results Nine patients over 14 admissions were included in the final analysis. At 1-hour after the initiation of dexmedetomidine, systolic BP decreased from 160±7 to 122±7 mmHg (p=0.0005), diastolic BP decreased from 103±6 to 65±8 (p=0.0003), and HR decreased from 112±4 to 100±5 bpm (p=0.0047). The median total adverse events during dexmedetomidine infusion was 1 per admission. Median hospital length of stay was 9 days (IQR, 3 – 11 days) and median ICU length of stay was 7 days (IQR, 3 – 11 days). Conclusions Intravenous dexmedetomidine is safe in patients with FD and appears to be effective to treat refractory adrenergic crisis. Dexmedetomidine may be considered in FD patients who do not respond to conventional clonidine and benzodiazepine pharmacotherapy. PMID:27752785

  3. Adrenergic receptors on cerebral microvessels in control and Parkinsonian subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Cash, R.; Lasbennes, F.; Sercombe, R.; Seylaz, J.; Agid, Y.

    1985-08-12

    The binding of adrenergic ligands (/sup 3/H-prazosin, /sup 3/H-clonidine, /sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol) was studied on a preparation of cerebral microvessels in the prefrontal cortex and putamen of control and Parkinsonian subjects. The adrenergic receptor density in microvessels of control patients was less than 0.5% and 3.3% respectively of the total binding. A significant decrease in the number of alpha-1 binding sites was observed on microvessels in the putamen of patients with Parkinson's disease. 22 references, 2 tables.

  4. Mechanisms of alpha 1-adrenergic vascular desensitization in conscious dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiuchi, K.; Vatner, D. E.; Uemura, N.; Bigaud, M.; Hasebe, N.; Hempel, D. M.; Graham, R. M.; Vatner, S. F.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of alpha 1-adrenergic vascular desensitization, osmotic minipumps containing either saline (n = 9) or amidephrine mesylate (AMD) (n = 9), a selective alpha 1-adrenergic receptor agonist, were implanted subcutaneously in dogs with chronically implanted arterial and right atrial pressure catheters and aortic flow probes. After chronic alpha 1-adrenergic receptor stimulation, significant physiological desensitization to acute AMD challenges was observed, i.e., pressor and vasoconstrictor responses to the alpha 1-adrenergic agonist were significantly depressed (p < 0.01) compared with responses in the same dogs studied in the conscious state before pump implantation. However, physiological desensitization to acute challenges of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) (0.1 micrograms/kg per minute) in the presence of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade was not observed for either mean arterial pressure (MAP) (30 +/- 7 versus 28 +/- 5 mm Hg) or total peripheral resistance (TPR) (29.8 +/- 4.9 versus 28.9 +/- 7.3 mm Hg/l per minute). In the presence of beta-adrenergic receptor plus ganglionic blockade after AMD pump implantation, physiological desensitization to NE was unmasked since the control responses to NE (0.1 micrograms/kg per minute) before the AMD pumps were now greater (p < 0.01) than after chronic AMD administration for both MAP (66 +/- 5 versus 32 +/- 2 mm Hg) and TPR (42.6 +/- 10.3 versus 23.9 +/- 4.4 mm Hg/l per minute). In the presence of beta-adrenergic receptor, ganglionic, plus NE-uptake blockade after AMD pump implantation, desensitization was even more apparent, since NE (0.1 micrograms/kg per minute) induced even greater differences in MAP (33 +/- 5 versus 109 +/- 6 mm Hg) and TPR (28.1 +/- 1.8 versus 111.8 +/- 14.7 mm Hg/l per minute). The maximal force of contraction induced by NE in the presence or absence of endothelium was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in vitro in mesenteric artery rings from AMD pump dogs

  5. Constitutive glycogen synthase kinase-3α/β activity protects against chronic β-adrenergic remodelling of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Ian G.; Nishino, Yasuhiro; Clark, James E.; Murdoch, Colin; Walker, Simon J.; Makowski, Marcus R.; Botnar, Rene M.; Redwood, Simon R.; Shah, Ajay M.; Marber, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) signalling is implicated in the growth of the heart during development and in response to stress. However, its precise role remains unclear. We set out to characterize developmental growth and response to chronic isoproterenol (ISO) stress in knockin (KI) mice lacking the critical N-terminal serines, 21 of GSK-3α and 9 of GSK-3β respectively, required for inactivation by upstream kinases. Methods and results Between 5 and 15 weeks, KI mice grew more rapidly, but normalized heart weight and contractile performance were similar to wild-type (WT) mice. Isolated hearts of both genotypes responded comparably to acute ISO infusion with increases in heart rate and contractility. In WT mice, chronic subcutaneous ISO infusion over 14 days resulted in cardiac hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and impaired contractility, accompanied by foetal gene reactivation. These effects were all significantly attenuated in KI mice. Indeed, ISO-treated KI hearts demonstrated reversible physiological remodelling traits with increased stroke volume and a preserved contractile response to acute adrenergic stimulation. Furthermore, simultaneous pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3 in KI mice treated with chronic subcutaneous ISO recapitulated the adverse remodelling phenotype seen in WT hearts. Conclusion Expression of inactivation-resistant GSK-3α/β does not affect eutrophic myocardial growth but protects against pathological hypertrophy induced by chronic adrenergic stimulation, maintaining cardiac function and attenuating interstitial fibrosis. Accordingly, strategies to prevent phosphorylation of Ser-21/9, and consequent inactivation of GSK-3α/β, may enable a sustained cardiac response to chronic β-agonist stimulation while preventing pathological remodelling. PMID:20299330

  6. In situ three-dimensional reconstruction of mouse heart sympathetic innervation by two-photon excitation fluorescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Kim; Tao, Wen; Sun, Hongli; Soonpaa, Mark H.; Rubart, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Sympathetic nerve wiring in the mammalian heart has remained largely unexplored. Resolving the wiring diagram of the cardiac sympathetic network would help establish the structural underpinnings of neurocardiac coupling. New Method We used two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy, combined with a computer-assisted 3-D tracking algorithm, to map the local sympathetic circuits in living hearts from adult transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in peripheral adrenergic neurons. Results Quantitative co-localization analyses confirmed that the intramyocardial EGFP distribution recapitulated the anatomy of the sympathetic arbor. In the left ventricular subepicardium of the uninjured heart, the sympathetic network was composed of multiple subarbors, exhibiting variable branching and looping topology. Axonal branches did not overlap with each other within their respective parental subarbor nor with neurites of annexed subarbors. The sympathetic network in the border zone of a 2-week-old myocardial infarction was characterized by substantive rewiring, which included spatially heterogeneous loss and gain of sympathetic fibers and formation of multiple, predominately nested, axon loops of widely variable circumference and geometry. Comparison with Existing Methods In contrast to mechanical tissue sectioning methods that may involve deformation of tissue and uncertainty in registration across sections, our approach preserves continuity of structure, which allows tracing of neurites over distances, and thus enables derivation of the three-dimensional and topological morphology of cardiac sympathetic nerves. Conclusions Our assay should be of general utility to unravel the mechanisms governing sympathetic axon spacing during development and disease. PMID:24056230

  7. Neurohumoral indicators of efficacy radiofrequency cardiac denervation

    SciTech Connect

    Evtushenko, A. V. Evtushenko, V. V.; Saushkina, Yu. V.; Gusakova, A. M.; Suslova, T. E.; Dymbrylova, O. N.; Smyshlyaev, K. A.; Kurlov, I. O.; Lishmanov, Yu. B.; Anfinogenova, Ya. D.; Sergeevichev, D. S.; Bykov, A. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.; Kistenev, Yu. V.; Lotkov, A. I.; Pokushalov, E. A.

    2015-11-17

    In this study, we compared pre- and postoperative parameters of the cardiac sympathetic innervation. The aim of the study was to examine the approaches to evaluating the quality of radiofrequency (RF)-induced cardiac denervation by using non-invasive and laboratory methods. The study included 32 people with long-lasting persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the objectives of the study: group 1 (main) - 21 patients with mitral valve diseases, which simultaneously with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) AF carried out on the effects of the paraganglionic nervous plexuses by C. Pappone (2004) and N. Doll (2008) schemes. The second group (control) contained 11 patients with heart diseases in sinus rhythm (the RF denervation not been performed). All patients, who underwent surgical treatment, were received examination of cardiac sympathetic tone by using {sup 123}I-MIBG. All of them made blood analysis from ascending aorta and coronary sinus to determine the level of norepinephrine and its metabolites before and after cardiac denervation. Data of radionuclide examination are correlating with laboratory data.

  8. Neurohumoral indicators of efficacy radiofrequency cardiac denervation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtushenko, A. V.; Evtushenko, V. V.; Saushkina, Yu. V.; Lishmanov, Yu. B.; Pokushalov, E. A.; Sergeevichev, D. S.; Gusakova, A. M.; Suslova, T. E.; Dymbrylova, O. N.; Bykov, A. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.; Kistenev, Yu. V.; Anfinogenova, Ya. D.; Smyshlyaev, K. A.; Lotkov, A. I.; Kurlov, I. O.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we compared pre- and postoperative parameters of the cardiac sympathetic innervation. The aim of the study was to examine the approaches to evaluating the quality of radiofrequency (RF)-induced cardiac denervation by using non-invasive and laboratory methods. The study included 32 people with long-lasting persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the objectives of the study: group 1 (main) - 21 patients with mitral valve diseases, which simultaneously with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) AF carried out on the effects of the paraganglionic nervous plexuses by C. Pappone (2004) and N. Doll (2008) schemes. The second group (control) contained 11 patients with heart diseases in sinus rhythm (the RF denervation not been performed). All patients, who underwent surgical treatment, were received examination of cardiac sympathetic tone by using 123I-MIBG. All of them made blood analysis from ascending aorta and coronary sinus to determine the level of norepinephrine and its metabolites before and after cardiac denervation. Data of radionuclide examination are correlating with laboratory data.

  9. Pathological hypertrophy reverses β2-adrenergic receptor-induced angiogenesis in mouse heart

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi; Jennings, Nicole L; Sim, Kenneth; Chang, Lisa; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Kiriazis, Helen; Lee, Ying Ying; Nguyen, My-Nhan; Woodcock, Elizabeth A; Zhang, You-Yi; El-Osta, Assam; Dart, Anthony M; Du, Xiao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    β-adrenergic activation and angiogenesis are pivotal for myocardial function but the link between both events remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the cardiac angiogenesis profile in a mouse model with cardiomyocyte-restricted overexpression of β2-adrenoceptors (β2-TG), and the effect of cardiac pressure overload. β2-TG mice had heightened cardiac angiogenesis, which was essential for maintenance of the hypercontractile phenotype seen in this model. Relative to controls, cardiomyocytes of β2-TGs showed upregulated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), heightened phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive-element-binding protein (CREB), and increased recruitment of phospho-CREB, CREB-binding protein (CBP), and p300 to the VEGF promoter. However, when hearts were subjected to pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC), angiogenic signaling in β2-TGs was inhibited within 1 week after TAC. β2-TG hearts, but not controls, exposed to pressure overload for 1–2 weeks showed significant increases from baseline in phosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKIIδ) and protein expression of p53, reduction in CREB phosphorylation, and reduced abundance of phospho-CREB, p300 and CBP recruited to the CREB-responsive element (CRE) site of VEGF promoter. These changes were associated with reduction in both VEGF expression and capillary density. While non-TG mice with TAC developed compensatory hypertrophy, (2-TGs exhibited exaggerated hypertrophic growth at week-1 post-TAC, followed by LV dilatation and reduced fractional shortening measured by serial echocardiography. In conclusion, angiogenesis was enhanced by the cardiomyocyte (2AR/CREB/VEGF signaling pathway. Pressure overload rapidly inhibited this signaling, likely as a consequence of activated CaMKII and p53, leading to impaired angiogenesis and functional decompensation. PMID:25780088

  10. Sudomotor innervation in transthyretin amyloid neuropathy: Pathology and functional correlates

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cho‐Min; Chiang, Hao‐Hua; Luo, Kai‐Ren; Kan, Hung‐Wei; Yang, Naomi Chu‐Chiao; Chiang, Hao; Lin, Whei‐Min; Lai, Shu‐Mei; Lee, Ming‐Jen; Shun, Chia‐Tung; Hsieh, Sung‐Tsang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Autonomic neuropathy is a major component of familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) due to mutated transthyretin, with sudomotor failure as a common manifestation. This study aimed to investigate the pathology and clinical significance of sudomotor denervation. Methods Skin biopsies were performed on the distal leg of FAP patients with a follow‐up duration of 3.8 ± 1.6 years. Sudomotor innervation was stained with 2 markers: protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), a general neuronal marker, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a sudomotor nerve functional marker, followed by quantitation according to sweat gland innervation index (SGII) for PGP 9.5 (SGIIPGP 9.5) and VIP (SGIIVIP). Results There were 28 patients (25 men) with Ala97Ser transthyretin and late onset (59.9 ± 6.0 years) disabling neuropathy. Autonomic symptoms were present in 22 patients (78.6%) at the time of skin biopsy. The SGIIPGP 9.5 and SGIIVIP of FAP patients were significantly lower than those of age‐ and gender‐matched controls. The reduction of SGIIVIP was more severe than that of SGIIPGP 9.5 (p = 0.002). Patients with orthostatic hypotension or absent sympathetic skin response at palms were associated with lower SGIIPGP 9.5 (p = 0.019 and 0.002, respectively). SGIIPGP 9.5 was negatively correlated with the disability grade at the time of skin biopsy (p = 0.004), and was positively correlated with the interval from the time of skin biopsy to the time of wheelchair usage (p = 0.029). Interpretation This study documented the pathological evidence of sudomotor denervation in FAP. SGIIPGP 9.5 was functionally correlated with autonomic symptoms, autonomic tests, ambulation status, and progression of disability. Ann Neurol 2015;78:272℃283 PMID:25973863

  11. Cardiac Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your risk of future heart problems, and to improve your health and quality of life. Cardiac rehabilitation programs increase ... exercise routine at home or at a local gym. You may also continue to ... health concerns. Education about nutrition, lifestyle and weight loss ...

  12. Sympathetic restraint of respiratory sinus arrhythmia: implications for vagal-cardiac tone assessment in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. A.; Myers, C. W.; Halliwill, J. R.; Seidel, H.; Eckberg, D. L.

    2001-01-01

    Clinicians and experimentalists routinely estimate vagal-cardiac nerve traffic from respiratory sinus arrhythmia. However, evidence suggests that sympathetic mechanisms may also modulate respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Our study examined modulation of respiratory sinus arrhythmia by sympathetic outflow. We measured R-R interval spectral power in 10 volunteers that breathed sequentially at 13 frequencies, from 15 to 3 breaths/min, before and after beta-adrenergic blockade. We fitted changes of respiratory frequency R-R interval spectral power with a damped oscillator model: frequency-dependent oscillations with a resonant frequency, generated by driving forces and modified by damping influences. beta-Adrenergic blockade enhanced respiratory sinus arrhythmia at all frequencies (at some, fourfold). The damped oscillator model fit experimental data well (39 of 40 ramps; r = 0.86 +/- 0.02). beta-Adrenergic blockade increased respiratory sinus arrhythmia by amplifying respiration-related driving forces (P < 0.05), without altering resonant frequency or damping influences. Both spectral power data and the damped oscillator model indicate that cardiac sympathetic outflow markedly reduces heart period oscillations at all frequencies. This challenges the notion that respiratory sinus arrhythmia is mediated simply by vagal-cardiac nerve activity. These results have important implications for clinical and experimental estimation of human vagal cardiac tone.

  13. Sympathetic nervous system promotes hepatocarcinogenesis by modulating inflammation through activation of alpha1-adrenergic receptors of Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Huan, Hong-Bo; Wen, Xu-Dong; Chen, Xue-Jiao; Wu, Lin; Wu, Li-Li; Zhang, Liang; Yang, Da-Peng; Zhang, Xia; Bie, Ping; Qian, Cheng; Xia, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is known to play a significant role in tumor initiation and metastasis. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) frequently occurs in cirrhotic livers after chronic inflammation, and the SNS is hyperactive in advanced liver cirrhosis. However, it remains unclear whether the SNS promotes hepatocarcinogenesis by modulating chronic liver inflammation. In this study, a retrospective pathological analysis and quantification of sympathetic nerve fiber densities (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH(+)) in HCC patients, and diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats were performed. Our data showed that high density of sympathetic nerve fibers and α1-adrenergic receptors (ARs) of Kupffer cells (KCs) were associated with a poor prognosis of HCC. Sympathetic denervation or blocking of α1-ARs decreased DEN-induced HCC incidence and tumor development. In addition, synergistic effects of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) in hepatocarcinogenesis were observed. The suppression of the SNS reduced IL-6 and TGF-β expression, which suppressed hepatocarcinogenesis, and KCs play a key role in this process. After the ablation of KCs, IL-6 and TGF-β expression and the development of HCC were inhibited. This study demonstrates that sympathetic innervation is crucial for hepatocarcinogenesis and that the SNS promotes hepatocarcinogenesis by activating α1-ARs of KCs to boost the activation of KCs and to maintain the inflammatory microenvironment. These results indicate that sympathetic denervation or α1-ARs blockage may represent novel treatment approaches for HCC.

  14. Management of facial erythema of rosacea: what is the role of topical α-adrenergic receptor agonist therapy?

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2013-12-01

    Several more recent advances have led to a better understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in rosacea and therapeutic modalities used for treatment. Although the clinical features may vary among patients, there are some unifying mechanisms that appear to relate to the more common presentations of rosacea. Both neurovascular dysregulation and augmented immune detection and response appear to play central roles that lead to many of the signs and symptoms of rosacea. Diffuse central facial erythema is a very common finding that intensifies during flares and persists to varying degrees between flares. This background of facial redness occurs secondary to vasodilation and fixed vascular changes that develop over time. Physical modalities are commonly used to treat the erythema that persists as a result of fixed changes in superficial cutaneous vasculature that do not remit after treatment with agents whose mechanisms are active primarily against some of the inflammatory processes operative in rosacea (ie metronidazole, azelaic acid, tetracyclines). As enlarged superficial cutaneous vessels that contribute to the fixed background facial redness of rosacea remain vasoactive to sympathetic nervous system innervation, topical α-adrenergic receptor agonists, namely brimonidine and oxymetazoline, are currently under evaluation for the treatment of facial erythema of rosacea. This article focuses on the clinical differentiation of facial erythema of rosacea and its management.

  15. Muscle plasticity and β₂-adrenergic receptors: adaptive responses of β₂-adrenergic receptor expression to muscle hypertrophy and atrophy.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shogo; Shirato, Ken; Tachiyashiki, Kaoru; Imaizumi, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the functional roles of β₂-adrenergic receptors in skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy as well as the adaptive responses of β₂-adrenergic receptor expression to anabolic and catabolic conditions. β₂-Adrenergic receptor stimulation using anabolic drugs increases muscle mass by promoting muscle protein synthesis and/or attenuating protein degradation. These effects are prevented by the downregulation of the receptor. Endurance training improves oxidative performance partly by increasing β₂-adrenergic receptor density in exercise-recruited slow-twitch muscles. However, excessive stimulation of β₂-adrenergic receptors negates their beneficial effects. Although the preventive effects of β₂-adrenergic receptor stimulation on atrophy induced by muscle disuse and catabolic hormones or drugs are observed, these catabolic conditions decrease β₂-adrenergic receptor expression in slow-twitch muscles. These findings present evidence against the use of β₂-adrenergic agonists in therapy for muscle wasting and weakness. Thus, β₂-adrenergic receptors in the skeletal muscles play an important physiological role in the regulation of protein and energy balance.

  16. Adrenergic and cromolyn sodium modulation of ECL cell histamine secretion.

    PubMed

    Lawton, G P; Tang, L H; Miu, K; Gilligan, C J; Absood, A; Modlin, I M

    1995-01-01

    The histamine secreting enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell is now recognized as the principal regulator of gastric acid secretion. Histamine is not only a primary modulator of acid secretion, but may be of relevance in gastritis and as a mitogen in gastric neoplasia. Study of the ECL cell has been limited since no pure preparation was available. We therefore developed a pure isolated ECL cell preparation with a purity of 90-95% as determined by total histamine content and chromogranin immunofluorescence. Trypan blue exclusion demonstrated > 95% viability. While gastrin and acetylcholine are known modulators of acid secretion, the role of adrenergic neurotransmitters has not been clearly delineated. The purpose of this study was to examine adrenergic modulation of ECL cell histamine release. To further define the inhibitory mechanisms of histamine secretion, we evaluated the mast cell histamine inhibitor sodium cromoglycate. Histamine secretion was determined by radioimmunoassay. Basal secretion was 0.6 +/- 0.2 nmol/10(3) cells. Gastrin stimulated histamine secretion with an EC50 of 3 x 10(-10) M. Octopamine (alpha-adrenergic agonist) (10(-11)-10(-4) M) failed to stimulate histamine secretion. Isoproterenol (beta-adrenergic agonist) stimulated histamine secretion (EC50, 6 x 10(-8) M) and was inhibited by propranolol (IC50 5 x 10(-10) M).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Repeated effects of asenapine on adrenergic and cholinergic muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong Kee; Wong, Erik H F; Henry, Brian; Shahid, Mohammed; Tarazi, Frank I

    2010-04-01

    Adrenergic (alpha1 and alpha2) and cholinergic muscarinic (M1-M5) receptor binding in rat forebrain was quantified after 4 wk of twice-daily subcutaneous administration of asenapine or vehicle. Asenapine (0.03, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg) produced increases in [3H]prazosin binding to alpha1-adrenergic receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC: 30%, 39%, 57%) and dorsolateral frontal cortex (DFC: 27%, 37%, 53%) and increased [3H]RX821002 binding to alpha2-adrenergic receptors in mPFC (36%, 43%, 50%) and DFC (41%, 44%, 52%). Despite showing no appreciable affinity for muscarinic receptors, asenapine produced regionally selective increases in binding of [3H]QNB to M1-M5 receptors in mPFC (26%, 31%, 43%), DFC (27%, 34%, 41%), and hippocampal CA1 (40%, 44%, 42%) and CA3 (25%, 52%, 48%) regions. These regionally selective effects of asenapine on adrenergic and cholinergic muscarinic receptor subtypes may contribute to its beneficial clinical effects in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  18. Use of ß-adrenergic agonists in hybrid catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) is a potent ß-adrenergic agonist that has been used in some species of fish to improve growth performance and dress out characteristics. While this metabolic modifier has been shown to have positive effects on growth of fish, little research has focused on the mechani...

  19. Molecular characterization of an. alpha. sub 2B -adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.K.; Dewan Zeng; D'Angelo, D.D.; Tucker, A.L.; Zhihong Lu; Barber, C.M.; Lynch, K.R. )

    1990-02-26

    {alpha}{sub 2}-Adrenergic receptors comprise a heterogeneous population based on pharmacologic and molecular evidence. The authors have isolated a cDNA clone (pRNG{alpha}2) encoding a previously undescribed third subtype of an {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor from a rat kidney cDNA library. The library was screened with an oligonucleotide encoding a highly conserved region found in all biogenic amine receptors described to date. The deduced amino acid sequence displays many features of G-protein coupled receptors with exception of the absence of the consensus N-linked glycosylation site at the amino terminus. Membranes prepared from COS-1 cells transfected with pRNG{alpha}2 display high affinity and saturable binding to {sup 3}H-rauwolscine (K{sub d}=2 nM).Competition curve data analysis shows that pRNG{alpha}2 protein binds to a variety of adrenergic drugs with the following rank order of potency: yohimbine {ge} cholorpromazine > prazosin {ge} clonidine > norepinephrine {ge} oxymetazoline. pRNG{alpha}2 RNA accumulates in both adult rat kidney and rat neonatal lung (predominant species is 4.0 kb). They conclude that pRNG{alpha}2 likely represents a cDNA for the {alpha}{sub 2B}-adrenergic receptor.

  20. The adrenergic-neurone blocking action of some coumaran compounds

    PubMed Central

    Fielden, R.; Roe, A. M.; Willey, G. L.

    1964-01-01

    Ethyldimethyl(7-methylcoumaran-3-yl)ammonium iodide (SK&F 90,109) and its guanidine analogue [N-(7-methylcoumaran-3-yl)guanidine nitrate] (SK&F 90,238) abolish the effects of adrenergic nerve stimulation in cats, as do xylocholine and bretylium. SK&F 90,109 has slight sympathomimetic actions; these are less marked than in SK&F 90,238. Large doses of SK&F 90,109 have an action, dependent on local noradrenaline stores, that delays the appearance of adrenergic-neurone blockade in conscious cats. Responses to adrenaline are, in general, enhanced by each drug, but SK&F 90,238 transiently antagonizes tachycardia induced by adrenaline and isoprenaline. Both drugs inhibit the release of noradrenaline from the spleen during splenic nerve stimulation, but the release of catechol amines from the adrenal glands, in response to electrical or chemical stimulation, is unimpaired. In contrast to the prolonged adrenergic-neurone blocking action, any inhibition of the effects of cholinergic nerve stimulation is transient. Large intravenous doses produce neuromuscular blockade. The compounds have a slight central depressant action. In contrast to reserpine and guanethidine the noradrenaline content of rat hearts is not appreciably lowered 24 hr after a single dose of either drug. Unlike xylocholine they are not local anaesthetics. Related compounds also block the effects of adrenergic-nerve stimulation. The possible modes of action of these drugs are discussed. PMID:14256809

  1. cap alpha. -2 adrenergic receptor: a radiohistochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Unnerstall, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    ..cap alpha..-2 adrenergic agents have been shown to influence blood pressure, heart rate and other physiological and behavioral functions through interactions with adrenergic pathways within the central nervous system. Pharmacologically relevant ..cap alpha..-1 adrenergic receptors were biochemically characterized and radiohistochemically analyzed in intact tissue sections of the rat and human central nervous system. The anatomical distribution of the ..cap alpha..-2 receptors, labeled with the agonist (/sup 3/H)para-aminoclonidine, verified the concept that ..cap alpha..-2 receptors are closely associated with adrenergic nerve terminals and that ..cap alpha..-2 agents can influence autonomic and endocrine function through an action in the central nervous system. Since ..cap alpha..-2 agonists can influence sympathetic outflow, ..cap alpha..-2 binding sites were closely analyzed in the intermediolateral cell column of the thoracic spinal cord. The transport of putative presynaptic ..cap alpha..-2 binding sites in the rat sciatic nerve was analyzed by light microscopic radiohistochemical techniques. Finally, in intact tissue section of the rat central nervous system, the biochemical characteristics of (/sup 3/H)rauwolscine binding were analyzed. Data were also shown which indicates that the synthetic ..cap alpha..-2 antagonist (/sup 3/H)RX781094 also binds to ..cap alpha..-2 receptors with high-affinity. Further, the distribution of (/sup 3/H)RX781094 binding sites in the rat central nervous system was identical to the distribution seen when using (/sup 3/H)para-aminoclonidine.

  2. Adrenergic receptor subtypes in the cerebral circulation of newborn piglets

    SciTech Connect

    Wagerle, L.C.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptor subtype mediating cerebral vasoconstriction during sympathetic nerve stimulation in the newborn piglet. The effect of ..cap alpha../sub 1/- and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-antagonists prazosin and yohimbine on the cerebrovascular response to unilateral electrical stimulation (15 Hz, 15 V) of the superior cervical sympathetic trunk was studied in 25 newborn piglets. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with tracer microspheres. Sympathetic stimulation decreased blood flow to the ipsilateral cerebrum hippocampus, choroid plexus, and masseter muscle. ..cap alpha../sub 1/-Adrenergic receptor blockade with prazosin inhibited the sympathetic vasoconstriction in the cerebrum, hippocampus, and masseter muscle and abolished it in the choroid plexus. ..cap alpha../sub s/-Adrenergic receptor blockade with yohimbine had no effect. Following the higher dose of yohimbine, however, blood flow to all brain regions was increased by approximately two-fold, possibly due to enhanced cerebral metabolism. These data demonstrate that vascular ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors mediate vasoconstriction to neuroadrenergic stimulation in cerebral resistance vessels in the newborn piglet.

  3. Motor activity affects adult skeletal muscle re-innervation acting via tyrosine kinase receptors.

    PubMed

    Sartini, Stefano; Bartolini, Fanny; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Betti, Michele; Ciuffoli, Stefano; Lattanzi, Davide; Di Palma, Michael; Cuppini, Riccardo

    2013-05-01

    Recently, muscle expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein under activity control has been reported. BDNF is a neurotrophin known to be involved in axon sprouting in the CNS. Hence, we set out to study the effect of chronic treadmill mid-intensity running on adult rat muscle re-innervation, and to explore the involvement of BDNF and tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) receptors. After nerve crush, muscle re-innervation was evaluated using intracellular recordings, tension recordings, immunostaining and Western blot analyses. An enhanced muscle multiple innervation was found in running rats that was fully reversed to control values blocking Trk receptors or interrupting the running activity. An increase in muscle multiple innervation was also found in sedentary rats treated with a selective TrkB receptor agonist. The expression of TrkB receptors by intramuscular axons was demonstrated, and increased muscle expression of BDNF was found in running animals. The increase in muscle multiple innervation was consistent with the faster muscle re-innervation that we found in running animals. We conclude that, when regenerating axons contact muscle cells, muscle activity progressively increases modulating BDNF and possibly other growth factors, which in turn, acting via Trk receptors, induce axon sprouting to re-innervate skeletal muscle.

  4. Discriminative stimulus properties of clenbuterol: evidence for beta adrenergic involvement.

    PubMed

    McElroy, J F; O'Donnell, J M

    1988-04-01

    Thirty rats were trained to discriminate the centrally acting beta adrenergic agonist clenbuterol (0.1 mg/kg) from saline using a water-reinforced (fixed-ratio 10 schedule) two-lever operant task. Discrimination acquisition required a mean +/- S.E.M. of 42 +/- 7 training sessions (median of 26 training sessions). The clenbuterol stimulus was dose-dependent (ED50 = 0.03 mg/kg) and stereoselective, and had a rapid onset (5 min) and a duration of approximately 1 hr. The beta adrenergic antagonist propranolol fully antagonized the clenbuterol discriminative stimulus (IC50 = 0.18 mg/kg). Other beta adrenergic agonists such as SOM 1122 (ED50 = 0.01 mg/kg), zinterol (ED50 = 0.03 mg/kg), salbutamol (ED50 = 0.23 mg/kg) and prenalterol (ED50 = 1.91 mg/kg) substituted for clenbuterol. The monoamine uptake inhibitor despiramine (ED50 = 2.25 mg/kg), the psychomotor stimulants amphetamine (ED50 = 0.33 mg/kg) and pentylenetetrazol (ED50 = 0.31 mg/kg), and the dopamine receptor antagonists haloperidol (ED50 = 0.08 mg/kg) and chlorpromazine (ED50 = 2.32 mg/kg) similarly substituted for clenbuterol. However, chlordiazepoxide, pentobarbital, fentanyl, cocaine and fenfluramine produced little or no clenbuterol lever selection up to doses that decreased response rate markedly. The ability of SOM 1122, zinterol, salbutamol, despiramine, amphetamine, pentylenetetrazol and haloperiol to substitute for the clenbuterol stimulus was antagonized by prior treatment with propranolol. Taken together, these results suggest that the discriminative stimulus properties of clenbuterol are mediated, at least in part, through an interaction with beta adrenergic receptors. The same drugs also were assayed for in vitro inhibition of [125I]iodopindolol binding to beta adrenergic receptor preparations of rat cerebral cortex and cerebellum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Adrenergic control of lipolysis in women compared with men.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stacy L; Bessesen, Daniel H; Stotz, Sarah; Peelor, Frederick F; Miller, Benjamin F; Horton, Tracy J

    2014-11-01

    Data suggest women are more sensitive to the lipolytic action of epinephrine compared with men while maintaining similar glucoregulatory effects (Horton et al. J Appl Physiol 107: 200-210, 2009). This study aimed to determine the specific adrenergic receptor(s) that may mediate these sex differences. Lean women (n = 14) and men (n = 16) were studied on 4 nonconsecutive days during the following treatment infusions: saline (S: control), epinephrine [E: mixed β-adrenergic (lipolytic) and α2-adrenergic (antilipolytic) stimulation], epinephrine + phentolamine (E + P: mixed β-adrenergic stimulation only), and terbutaline (T: selective β2-adrenergic stimulation). Tracer infusions of glycerol, palmitate, and glucose were administered to determine systemic lipolysis, free fatty acid (FFA) release, and glucose turnover, respectively. Following basal measurements, substrate and hormone concentrations were measured in all subjects over 90 min of treatment and tracer infusion. Women had greater increases in glycerol and FFA concentrations with all three hormone infusions compared with men (P < 0.01). Glycerol and palmitate rate of appearance (Ra) and rate of disappearance (Rd) per kilogram body weight were greater with E infusion in women compared with men (P < 0.05), whereas no sex differences were observed with other treatments. Glucose concentration and kinetics were not different between sexes with any infusion. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that the greater rate of lipolysis in women with infusion of E was likely due to lesser α2 antilipolytic activation. These findings may help explain why women have greater lipolysis and fat oxidation during exercise, a time when epinephrine concentration is elevated.

  6. Inner ear hair cells deteriorate in mice engineered to have no or diminished innervation

    PubMed Central

    Kersigo, Jennifer; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The innervation of the inner ear critically depends on the two neurotrophins Ntf3 and Bdnf. In contrast to this molecularly well-established dependency, evidence regarding the need of innervation for long-term maintenance of inner ear hair cells is inconclusive, due to experimental variability. Mutant mice that lack both neurotrophins could shed light on the long-term consequences of innervation loss on hair cells without introducing experimental variability, but do not survive after birth. Mutant mice with conditional deletion of both neurotrophins lose almost all innervation by postnatal day 10 and show an initially normal development of hair cells by this stage. No innervation remains after 3 weeks and complete loss of all innervation results in near complete loss of outer and many inner hair cells of the organ of Corti within 4 months. Mutants that retain one allele of either neurotrophin have only partial loss of innervation of the organ of Corti and show a longer viability of cochlear hair cells with more profound loss of inner hair cells. By 10 months, hair cells disappear with a base to apex progression, proportional to the residual density of innervation and similar to carboplatin ototoxicity. Similar to reports of hair cell loss after aminoglycoside treatment, blobbing of stereocilia of apparently dying hair cells protrude into the cochlear duct. Denervation of vestibular sensory epithelia for several months also resulted in variable results, ranging from unusual hair cells resembling the aberrations found in the organ of Corti, to near normal hair cells in the canal cristae. Fusion and/or resorption of stereocilia and loss of hair cells follows a pattern reminiscent of Myo6 and Cdc42 null mice. Our data support a role of innervation for long-term maintenance but with a remarkable local variation that needs to be taken into account when attempting regeneration of the organ of Corti. PMID:25852547

  7. Ontogeny of the serotonergic projection to rat neocortex: transient expression of a dense innervation to primary sensory areas

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amato, R.J.; Blue, M.E.; Largent, B.L.; Lynch, D.R.; Ledbetter, D.J.; Molliver, M.E.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-06-01

    The development of serotonergic innervation to rat cerebral cortex was characterized by immunohistochemical localization of serotonin combined with autoradiographic imaging of serotonin-uptake sites. In neonatal rat, a transient, dense, serotonergic innervation appears in all primary sensory areas of cortex. In somatosensory cortex, dense patches of serotonergic innervation are aligned with specialized cellular aggregates called barrels. The dense patches are not apparent after 3 weeks of age, and the serotonergic innervation becomes more uniform in adult neocortex. This precocious neonatal serotonergic innervation may play a transient physiologic role in sensory areas of cortex or may exert a trophic influence on the development of cortical circuitry and thalamocortical connections.

  8. Pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy in iron deficiency anaemia: the role of noradrenaline.

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, M. A.; Carillo, S. V.

    1982-01-01

    This study examined the effect of long-term administration of reserpine, an adrenergic blocking agent, on cardiac hypertrophy in animals with severe iron deficiency anaemia. This condition was induced by feeding rats on an iron-deficient diet for 30 days from the time of weaning. Anaemia was indicated by lowering of blood haemoglobin levels. Reserpine was administered i.p. (0.15 mg/kg body wt) every day during the experiment. Marked cardiac hypertrophy, as indicated by increase heart weight and increased size of cardiac muscle cells, was evidenced in iron-deficient rats, while the heart weights and myocardial cell size of drug-treated anaemic rats were in the normal range. The successful prevention of cardiac hypertrophy in anaemic iron-deficient rats by reserpine administration supports the hypothesis that noradrenaline plays a key role in the cardiac-hypertrophy process in iron deficiency anaemia. PMID:6212077

  9. The lophophore innervation pattern of the inarticulate brachiopod Lingula anatina (Brachiopoda) supports monophyly of Lophophorata.

    PubMed

    Temereva, E N; Malakhov, V V

    2015-01-01

    Lophophore innervation in the brachiopod Lingula anatina has been investigated using immunocytochemistry and laser confocal microscopy. Three prominent nerves, namely, the main brachial nerve, the accessory brachial nerve, and the lower brachial nerve, have been found to extend along each brachium of the lophophore. Tentacle innervation is also described in detail. Comparative analysis revealed homologous nerves in lophophores of brachiopods, phoronids, and bryozoans. Similarities in tentacle innervation in these phyla of invertebrates have been detected. The results obtained confirm lophophore homology in different groups of lophophorates and provide evidence for monophyly of Lophophorata.

  10. Aberrant innervation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle by the transverse cervical nerve: a case report.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, George; Lazaridis, Nikolaos; Spyridakis, Ioannis; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos; Kitsoulis, Panagiotis

    2015-04-01

    Two aberrant rami originating from the right transverse cervical nerve and innervated the midportion of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SM) were detected during routine cadaver dissection. Although SM is commonly innervated by the accessory nerve, as well as by cervical nerves, it is likely to be innervated additionally by other nerves such as hypoglossal nerve, ansa cervicalis, facial or external laryngeal nerve. Some considerations as regards the possible composition of the aberrant rami of the transverse cervical nerve detected in the current study, as well as the relevant literature is discussed.

  11. Antagonism of Nav channels and α1-adrenergic receptors contributes to vascular smooth muscle effects of ranolazine

    PubMed Central

    Virsolvy, Anne; Farah, Charlotte; Pertuit, Nolwenn; Kong, Lingyan; Lacampagne, Alain; Reboul, Cyril; Aimond, Franck; Richard, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Ranolazine is a recently developed drug used for the treatment of patients with chronic stable angina. It is a selective inhibitor of the persistent cardiac Na+ current (INa), and is known to reduce the Na+-dependent Ca2+ overload that occurs in cardiomyocytes during ischemia. Vascular effects of ranolazine, such as vasorelaxation,have been reported and may involve multiple pathways. As voltage-gated Na+ channels (Nav) present in arteries play a role in contraction, we hypothesized that ranolazine could target these channels. We studied the effects of ranolazine in vitro on cultured aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) and ex vivo on rat aortas in conditions known to specifically activate or promote INa. We observed that in the presence of the Nav channel agonist veratridine, ranolazine inhibited INa and intracellular Ca2+ calcium increase in SMC, and arterial vasoconstriction. In arterial SMC, ranolazine inhibited the activity of tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated Nav channels and thus antagonized contraction promoted by low KCl depolarization. Furthermore, the vasorelaxant effects of ranolazine, also observed in human arteries and independent of the endothelium, involved antagonization of the α1-adrenergic receptor. Combined α1-adrenergic antagonization and inhibition of SMCs Nav channels could be involved in the vascular effects of ranolazine. PMID:26655634

  12. Antagonism of Nav channels and α1-adrenergic receptors contributes to vascular smooth muscle effects of ranolazine.

    PubMed

    Virsolvy, Anne; Farah, Charlotte; Pertuit, Nolwenn; Kong, Lingyan; Lacampagne, Alain; Reboul, Cyril; Aimond, Franck; Richard, Sylvain

    2015-12-10

    Ranolazine is a recently developed drug used for the treatment of patients with chronic stable angina. It is a selective inhibitor of the persistent cardiac Na(+) current (INa), and is known to reduce the Na(+)-dependent Ca(2+) overload that occurs in cardiomyocytes during ischemia. Vascular effects of ranolazine, such as vasorelaxation,have been reported and may involve multiple pathways. As voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Nav) present in arteries play a role in contraction, we hypothesized that ranolazine could target these channels. We studied the effects of ranolazine in vitro on cultured aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) and ex vivo on rat aortas in conditions known to specifically activate or promote INa. We observed that in the presence of the Nav channel agonist veratridine, ranolazine inhibited INa and intracellular Ca(2+) calcium increase in SMC, and arterial vasoconstriction. In arterial SMC, ranolazine inhibited the activity of tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated Nav channels and thus antagonized contraction promoted by low KCl depolarization. Furthermore, the vasorelaxant effects of ranolazine, also observed in human arteries and independent of the endothelium, involved antagonization of the α1-adrenergic receptor. Combined α1-adrenergic antagonization and inhibition of SMCs Nav channels could be involved in the vascular effects of ranolazine.

  13. Cardiac optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Optogenetics is an emerging technology for optical interrogation and control of biological function with high specificity and high spatiotemporal resolution. Mammalian cells and tissues can be sensitized to respond to light by a relatively simple and well-tolerated genetic modification using microbial opsins (light-gated ion channels and pumps). These can achieve fast and specific excitatory or inhibitory response, offering distinct advantages over traditional pharmacological or electrical means of perturbation. Since the first demonstrations of utility in mammalian cells (neurons) in 2005, optogenetics has spurred immense research activity and has inspired numerous applications for dissection of neural circuitry and understanding of brain function in health and disease, applications ranging from in vitro to work in behaving animals. Only recently (since 2010), the field has extended to cardiac applications with less than a dozen publications to date. In consideration of the early phase of work on cardiac optogenetics and the impact of the technique in understanding another excitable tissue, the brain, this review is largely a perspective of possibilities in the heart. It covers the basic principles of operation of light-sensitive ion channels and pumps, the available tools and ongoing efforts in optimizing them, overview of neuroscience use, as well as cardiac-specific questions of implementation and ideas for best use of this emerging technology in the heart. PMID:23457014

  14. Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Weisse, Allen B.

    2011-01-01

    Well into the first decades of the 20th century, medical opinion held that any surgical attempts to treat heart disease were not only misguided, but unethical. Despite such reservations, innovative surgeons showed that heart wounds could be successfully repaired. Then, extracardiac procedures were performed to correct patent ductus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, and tetralogy of Fallot. Direct surgery on the heart was accomplished with closed commissurotomy for mitral stenosis. The introduction of the heart-lung machine and cardiopulmonary bypass enabled the surgical treatment of other congenital and acquired heart diseases. Advances in aortic surgery paralleled these successes. The development of coronary artery bypass grafting greatly aided the treatment of coronary heart disease. Cardiac transplantation, attempts to use the total artificial heart, and the application of ventricular assist devices have brought us to the present day. Although progress in the field of cardiovascular surgery appears to have slowed when compared with the halcyon times of the past, substantial challenges still face cardiac surgeons. It can only be hoped that sufficient resources and incentive can carry the triumphs of the 20th century into the 21st. This review covers past developments and future opportunities in cardiac surgery. PMID:22163121

  15. Alpha 2-adrenergic receptor turnover in adipose tissue and kidney: irreversible blockade of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors by benextramine

    SciTech Connect

    Taouis, M.; Berlan, M.; Lafontan, M.

    1987-01-01

    The recovery of post- and extrasynaptic alpha 2-adrenergic receptor-binding sites was studied in vivo in male golden hamsters after treatment with an irreversible alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist benextramine, a tetramine disulfide that possesses a high affinity for alpha 2-binding sites. The kidney alpha 2-adrenergic receptor number was measured with (/sup 3/H)yohimbine, whereas (/sup 3/H)clonidine was used for fat cell and brain membrane alpha 2-binding site identification. Benextramine treatment of fat cell, kidney, and brain membranes reduced or completely suppressed, in an irreversible manner, (/sup 3/H) clonidine and (/sup 3/H)yohimbine binding without modifying adenosine (A1-receptor) and beta-adrenergic receptor sites. This irreversible binding was also found 1 and 2 hr after intraperitoneal administration of benextramine to the hamsters. Although it bound irreversibly to peripheral and central alpha 2-adrenergic receptors on isolated membranes, benextramine was unable to cross the blood-brain barrier of the hamster at the concentrations used (10-20 mg/kg). After the irreversible blockade, alpha 2-binding sites reappeared in kidney and adipose tissue following a monoexponential time course. Recovery of binding sites was more rapid in kidney than in adipose tissue; the half-lives of the receptor were 31 and 46 hr, respectively in the tissues. The rates of receptor production were 1.5 and 1.8 fmol/mg of protein/hr in kidney and adipose tissue. Reappearance of alpha 2-binding sites was associated with a rapid recovery of function (antilipolytic potencies of alpha 2-agonists) in fat cells inasmuch as occupancy of 15% of (/sup 3/H)clonidine-binding sites was sufficient to promote 40% inhibition of lipolysis. Benextramine is a useful tool to estimate turnover of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors under normal and pathological situations.

  16. Alterations in mystacial pad innervation in the aged rat.

    PubMed

    Fundin, B T; Bergman, E; Ulfhake, B

    1997-11-01

    It is well established that sensory perception becomes impaired with advancing age and that, in parallel, dystrophy and degeneration of axons occur in sensory pathways. In this study, the impact of aging was examined in the mystacial pad, which receives a large variety of sensory nerve endings organized in a highly predictable pattern. Mystacial pad specimens from aged (30 months old) and young adult (2-3 months old) female Sprague-Dawley rats were processed, in parallel, for immunohistochemical analyses with antibodies against human neuronal cytoplasmic protein (protein gene product 9.5), transmitter enzymes, and several neuropeptides. Several changes in cutaneous innervation including both degenerative and regenerative processes were evident in the aged rat: (1) the Merkel endings and lanceolate endings that emanate from large-caliber afferents in the whisker follicles were reduced and showed signs of degeneration. Furthermore, a reduction of piloneural complexes at the intervibrissal hairs were evident, but only in aged rats that showed more severe behavioral sensorimotor disturbances. In contrast, Ruffini endings as well as mechanoreceptors emanating from medium-caliber axons, i.e., transverse lanceolate and reticular endings, appeared normal. (2) A reduction was evident among two sets of unmyelinated epidermal endings; however, the epidermal innervation affiliated with the intervibrissal hairs appeared normal in the aged rat. (3) A loss of sympathetic neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) or tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (IR) and somatosensory Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-IR perivascular axons was paralleled by an increase in presumed parasympathetic NPY/CGRP-IR axons. (4) Two "novel" networks of fine-caliber axons were observed in the outer and inner root sheaths of the whisker follicles in the aged rat. (5) NPY was present in a population of small-caliber, somatosensory CGRP-IR axons in the aged rat. This may represent a de novo synthesis, since

  17. β-adrenergic impact underlies the effect of mood and hedonic instrumentality on effort-related cardiovascular response.

    PubMed

    Silvestrini, Nicolas; Gendolla, Guido H E

    2011-05-01

    After habituation, participants were first induced into negative vs. positive moods and performed then an attention task with either low vs. high hedonic instrumentality of success. In the high-instrumentality condition participants expected to see a funny movie after success and an unpleasant movie after failure; in the low-instrumentality condition participants expected an unpleasant movie after success and a pleasant movie after failure. Effort-related cardiovascular response (ICG, blood pressure) was assessed during mood inductions and task performance. As predicted by the mood-behavior-model (Gendolla, 2000), responses of cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) and systolic blood pressure were stronger in the high-instrumentality/negative-mood condition than in the other three cells. Here the high hedonic instrumentality of success justified the high effort that was perceived as necessary in a negative mood. Moreover, the PEP effects indicate that cardiovascular response was driven by beta-adrenergic impact on the heart rather than by vascular adjustments.

  18. Effect of chronic, extrinsic denervation on functional NANC innervation with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and substance P in longitudinal muscle of rat jejunum1

    PubMed Central

    KASPAREK, M. S.; FATIMA, J.; IQBAL, C. W.; DUENES, J. A.; SARR, M. G.

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal denervation contributes to enteric motor dysfunction after intestinal transplantation [small bowel transplantation (SBT)]. Our aim was to determine long-term effects of extrinsic denervation on functional non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic innervation with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and substance P. Contractile activity of jejunal longitudinal muscle from six age-matched, naïve control rats (NC) and eight rats 1 year after syngeneic SBT were studied in tissue chambers. Spontaneous contractile activity did not differ between groups. Exogenous VIP inhibited contractile activity dose-dependently in both groups, greater in NC than in SBT. The VIP antagonist ([D-p-Cl-Phe6,Leu17]-VIP) and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NG-nitro arginine prevented inhibition by exogenous VIP and electrical field stimulation (EFS) in both groups. Exogenous substance P increased contractile activity dose-dependently, greater in NC than in SBT. The substance P antagonist ([D-Pro2,D-Trp7,9]-substance P) inhibited effects of exogenous substance P and increased the EFS-induced inhibitory response. Immunohistofluorescence showed staining for tyrosine hydroxylase in the jejunoileum 1 year after SBT suggesting sympathetic reinnervation. In rat jejunal longitudinal muscle after chronic denervation, response to exogenous VIP and substance P is decreased, while endogenous release of both neurotransmitters is preserved. These alterations in excitatory and inhibitory pathways occur despite extrinsic reinnervation and might contribute to enteric motor dysfunction after SBT. PMID:17971029

  19. Catecholamime Interactions with the Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipp, Robert Carl

    The cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is a Ca2+ ion channel found in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), an intracellular membranous Ca2+ storage system. It is well known that a destabilization of RyR2 can lead to a Ca2+ flux out of the SR, which results in an overload of intracellular Ca2+; this can also lead to arrhythmias and heart failure. The catecholamines play a large role in the regulation of RyR2; stimulation of the beta-adrenergic receptor on the cell membrane can lead to a hyperphosphorylation of RyR2, making it more leaky to Ca2+. We have previously shown that strong electron donors will inhibit RyR2. It is hypothesized that the catecholamines, sharing a similar structure with other proven inhibitors of RyR2, will also inhibit RyR2. Here we confirm this hypothesis and show for the first time that the catecholamines, isoproterenol and epinephrine, act as strong electron donors and inhibit RyR2 activity at the single channel level. This data suggests that the catecholamines can influence RyR2 activity at two levels. This offers promising insight into the potential development of a new class of drugs to treat heart failure and arrhythmia; ones that can both prevent the hyperphosphorylation of RyR2 by blocking the beta-adrenergic receptor, but can also directly inhibit the release of Ca2+ from RyR2.

  20. The effect of the transplanted pineal gland on the sympathetic innervation of the rat sublingual gland.

    PubMed

    Chanthaphavong, R S; Murphy, S M; Anderson, C R

    2004-08-01

    We investigated the effect of the pineal on sympathetic neurons that normally innervate the sublingual gland of the rat. When the pineal gland was transplanted into the sublingual gland, it remained as a distinct mass that was innervated by sympathetic axons. Injection of the retrograde tracer, Fast Blue, into the sublingual gland labelled sympathetic neurons in the ipsilateral superior cervical ganglion (SCG). Thirty per cent of all neurons labelled retrogradely by Fast Blue injection into transplanted pineal glands were immunoreactive for both neuropeptide Y (NPY) and calbindin. This combination is characteristic of sympathetic neurons innervating the pineal gland in its normal location, but not the sympathetic vasoconstrictor neurons normally innervating the sublingual gland. This, and our previous study in which the pineal gland was shown to similarly influence the phenotype of salivary secretomotor neurons, suggests that a range of different functional classes of sympathetic neuron are able to change their phenotype in response to signals released by the pineal gland.

  1. GAD67-mediated GABA synthesis and signaling regulate inhibitory synaptic innervation in the visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyaya, Bidisha; Di Cristo, Graziella; Wu, Cai Zhi; Knott, Graham; Kuhlman, Sandra; Fu, Yu; Palmiter, Richard D; Huang, Z Josh

    2007-06-21

    The development of GABAergic inhibitory circuits is shaped by neural activity, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we demonstrate a novel function of GABA in regulating GABAergic innervation in the adolescent brain, when GABA is mainly known as an inhibitory transmitter. Conditional knockdown of the rate-limiting synthetic enzyme GAD67 in basket interneurons in adolescent visual cortex resulted in cell autonomous deficits in axon branching, perisomatic synapse formation around pyramidal neurons, and complexity of the innervation fields; the same manipulation had little influence on the subsequent maintenance of perisomatic synapses. These effects of GABA deficiency were rescued by suppressing GABA reuptake and by GABA receptor agonists. Germline knockdown of GAD67 but not GAD65 showed similar deficits, suggesting a specific role of GAD67 in the maturation of perisomatic innervation. Since intracellular GABA levels are modulated by neuronal activity, our results implicate GAD67-mediated GABA synthesis in activity-dependent regulation of inhibitory innervation patterns.

  2. Divergent Hox Coding and Evasion of Retinoid Signaling Specifies Motor Neurons Innervating Digit Muscles.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Alana I; Dasen, Jeremy S; Jessell, Thomas M

    2017-02-22

    The establishment of spinal motor neuron subclass diversity is achieved through developmental programs that are aligned with the organization of muscle targets in the limb. The evolutionary emergence of digits represents a specialized adaptation of limb morphology, yet it remains unclear how the specification of digit-innervating motor neuron subtypes parallels the elaboration of digits. We show that digit-innervating motor neurons can be defined by selective gene markers and distinguished from other LMC neurons by the expression of a variant Hox gene repertoire and by the failure to express a key enzyme involved in retinoic acid synthesis. This divergent developmental program is sufficient to induce the specification of digit-innervating motor neurons, emphasizing the specialized status of digit control in the evolution of skilled motor behaviors. Our findings suggest that the emergence of digits in the limb is matched by distinct mechanisms for specifying motor neurons that innervate digit muscles.

  3. Excitatory and inhibitory enteric innervation of horse lower esophageal sphincter.

    PubMed

    Chiocchetti, R; Giancola, F; Mazzoni, M; Sorteni, C; Romagnoli, N; Pietra, M

    2015-06-01

    The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) is a specialized, thickened muscle region with a high resting tone mediated by myogenic and neurogenic mechanisms. During swallowing or belching, the LES undergoes strong inhibitory innervation. In the horse, the LES seems to be organized as a "one-way" structure, enabling only the oral-anal progression of food. We characterized the esophageal and gastric pericardial inhibitory and excitatory intramural neurons immunoreactive (IR) for the enzymes neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and choline acetyltransferase. Large percentages of myenteric plexus (MP) and submucosal (SMP) plexus nNOS-IR neurons were observed in the esophagus (72 ± 9 and 69 ± 8 %, respectively) and stomach (57 ± 17 and 45 ± 3 %, respectively). In the esophagus, cholinergic MP and SMP neurons were 29 ± 14 and 65 ± 24 vs. 36 ± 8 and 38 ± 20 % in the stomach, respectively. The high percentage of nitrergic inhibitory motor neurons observed in the caudal esophagus reinforces the role of the enteric nervous system in the horse LES relaxation. These findings might allow an evaluation of whether selective groups of enteric neurons are involved in horse neurological disorders such as megaesophagus, equine dysautonomia, and white lethal foal syndrome.

  4. Role of GPR55 during Axon Growth and Target Innervation

    PubMed Central

    Cherif, Hosni; Argaw, Anteneh; Cécyre, Bruno; Bouchard, Alex; Gagnon, Jonathan; Javadi, Pasha; Desgent, Sébastien; Mackie, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Guidance molecules regulate the navigation of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) projections toward targets in the visual thalamus. In this study, we demonstrate that the G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is expressed in the retina during development, and regulates growth cone (GC) morphology and axon growth. In vitro, neurons obtained from gpr55 knock-out (gpr55-/-) mouse embryos have smaller GCs, less GC filopodia, and have a decreased outgrowth compared with gpr55+/+ neurons. When gpr55+/+ neurons were treated with GPR55 agonists, lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) and O-1602, we observed a chemo-attractive effect and an increase in GC size and filopodia number. In contrast, cannabidiol (CBD) decreased the GC size and filopodia number inducing chemo-repulsion. In absence of the receptor (gpr55-/-), no pharmacologic effects of the GPR55 ligands were observed. In vivo, compared to their wild-type (WT) littermates, gpr55-/- mice revealed a decreased branching in the dorsal terminal nucleus (DTN) and a lower level of eye-specific segregation of retinal projections in the superior colliculus (SC) and in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). Moreover, a single intraocular injection of LPI increased branching in the DTN, whereas treatment with CBD, an antagonist of GPR55, decreased it. These results indicate that GPR55 modulates the growth rate and the targets innervation of retinal projections and highlight, for the first time, an important role of GPR55 in axon refinement during development. PMID:26730399

  5. The vagal innervation of the gut and immune homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Matteoli, Gianluca; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2013-08-01

    The central nervous system interacts dynamically with the immune system to modulate inflammation through humoral and neural pathways. Recently, in animal models of sepsis, the vagus nerve (VN) has been proposed to play a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response, also referred to as the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. The VN, through release of acetylcholine, dampens immune cell activation by interacting with α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Recent evidence suggests that the vagal innervation of the gastrointestinal tract also plays a major role controlling intestinal immune activation. Indeed, VN electrical stimulation potently reduces intestinal inflammation restoring intestinal homeostasis, whereas vagotomy has the reverse effect. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding concerning the mechanisms and effects involved in the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the gastrointestinal tract. Deeper investigation on this counter-regulatory neuroimmune mechanism will provide new insights in the cross-talk between the nervous and immune system leading to the identification of new therapeutic targets to treat intestinal immune disease.

  6. Anatomical study on the innervation of the elbow capsule☆

    PubMed Central

    Cavalheiro, Cristina Schmitt; Filho, Mauro Razuk; Rozas, João; Wey, João; de Andrade, Antonio Marcos; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To put forward an anatomical description of the innervation of the elbow capsule, illustrated through morphological analysis on dissections. Methods Thirty elbows from fresh fixed adult cadavers aged 32–74 years, of both sexes, were dissected. Results Among the dissected arms, we observed that the median nerve did not have any branches in two arms, while it had one branch in five arms, two branches in two arms, three branches in ten arms, four branches in nine arms and five branches in two arms. The radial nerve did not have any branches in two arms, while it had one branch in two arms, two branches in nine arms, three branches in ten arms, four branches in five arms and five branches in two arms. The ulnar nerve did not have any branches in three arms, while it had one branch in six arms, two branches in four arms, three branches in five arms, four branches in seven arms, five branches in four arms and six branches in one arm. Conclusions We observed branches of the radial, ulnar and medial nerves in the elbow joint, and a close relationship between their capsular and motor branches. PMID:27218079

  7. Cytoarchitecture and saccular innervation of nucleus y in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Frederickson, C J; Trune, D R

    1986-10-15

    The cytoarchitecture and saccular innervation of the mouse nucleus y were investigated by using Golgi, Nissl, and myelin stains and anterograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase. Nucleus y was found to be a compact group of cells in a small fiber-free region dorsal to the restiform body. Qualitative and morphometric analyses showed that most (75%) of the nucleus y neurons could not be reliably subdivided into morphologic subgroups, but varied continuously in soma size (15-25 microns), shape (fusiform to stellate), and number of dendrites (two to four), and had sparsely branched dendrites with an average of 3 to 4 spines per 10 microns of length. Three groups of cells that were identified morphometrically accounted for 10% (type I: large stellate cells), 9% (type II: long-dendrite cells), and 6% (type III: elongated soma cells) of the y neurons. Vestibular nerve axons transporting horseradish peroxidase after injury at their origin in the saccular neuroepithelium were found to form a dense terminal meshwork that was virtually co-extensive with the cytoarchitectonic boundaries of nucleus y. Nucleus y was distinguished from the overlying infracerebellar nucleus on the basis of anatomical, cytoarchitectural, and hodological features.

  8. Comparative morphology, cytochemistry and innervation of chromaffin tissue in vertebrates.

    PubMed Central

    Scheuermann, D W

    1993-01-01

    Chromaffin cells were observed singly or in clusters in the heart and sympathetic cord of 2 genera of dipnoan fish, Protopterus and Lepidosiren. They were invariably found in close association with the autonomic sympathetic nervous system and at sites where chromaffin cells or their precursors are situated in mammals during ontogenetic development. X-ray microanalysis demonstrated that they contained a primary catecholamine which was identified microspectrofluorometrically as dopamine. The chromaffin cells were innervated by efferent axons with typical preganglionic sympathetic terminals which were acetylcholinesterase-positive. Although the general morphology and cytochemistry agree with those of developing intra-adrenal chromaffin cells in mammals, the morphological characteristics implicate them as active secretory gland cells. The dopamine transmitter phenotype seems to be determined by the maintenance throughout life of the separate and distant location of steroidogenic interrenal tissue from suprarenal elements. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 14 PMID:8300420

  9. Identification of autonomic neuronal chains innervating gingiva and lip.

    PubMed

    Szabó, E; Csáki, Á; Boldogkői, Zs; Tóth, Zs; Köves, K

    2015-07-01

    The major goals of this present study were 1) to further clarify which parasympathetic ganglion sends postganglionic fibers to the lower gingiva and lip that may be involved in the inflammatory processes besides the local factors; 2) to separately examine the central pathways regulating sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation; and 3) to examine the distribution of central premotor neurons on both sides. A retrogradely transported green fluorescent protein conjugated pseudorabies virus was injected into the lower gingiva and lip of intact and sympathectomized adult female rats. Some animals received virus in the adrenal medulla which receive only preganglionic sympathetic fibers to separately clarify the sympathetic nature of premotor neurons. After 72-120h of survival and perfusion, the corresponding thoracic part of the spinal cord, brainstem, hypothalamus, cervical, otic, submandibular and trigeminal ganglia were harvested. Frozen sections were investigated under a confocal microscope. Green fluorescence indicated the presence of the virus. The postganglionic sympathetic neurons related to both organs are located in the three cervical ganglia, the preganglionic neurons in the lateral horn of the spinal cord on ipsilateral side; premotor neurons were found in the ventrolateral medulla, locus ceruleus, gigantocellular and paraventricular nucleus and perifornical region in nearly the same number on both sides. The parasympathetic postganglionic neurons related to the gingiva are present in the otic and related to the lip are present in the otic and submandibular ganglia and the preganglionic neurons are in the salivatory nuclei. Third order neurons were found in the gigantocellular reticular and hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei and perifornical area.

  10. Hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells selectively innervate aspiny interneurons.

    PubMed

    Wittner, Lucia; Henze, Darrell A; Záborszky, László; Buzsáki, György

    2006-09-01

    The specific connectivity among principal cells and interneurons determines the flow of activity in neuronal networks. To elucidate the connections between hippocampal principal cells and various classes of interneurons, CA3 pyramidal cells were intracellularly labelled with biocytin in anaesthetized rats and the three-dimensional distribution of their axon collaterals was reconstructed. The sections were double-stained for substance P receptor (SPR)- or metabotropic glutamate receptor 1alpha (mGluR-1alpha)-immunoreactivity to investigate interneuron targets of the CA3 pyramidal cells. SPR-containing interneurons represent a large portion of the GABAergic population, including spiny and aspiny classes. Axon terminals of CA3 pyramidal cells contacted SPR-positive interneuron dendrites in the hilus and in all hippocampal strata in both CA3 and CA1 regions (7.16% of all boutons). The majority of axons formed single contacts (87.5%), but multiple contacts (up to six) on single target neurons were also found. CA3 pyramidal cell axon collaterals innervated several types of morphologically different aspiny SPR-positive interneurons. In contrast, spiny SPR-interneurons or mGluR-1alpha-positive interneurons in the hilus, CA3 and CA1 regions were rarely contacted by the filled pyramidal cells. These findings indicate a strong target selection of CA3 pyramidal cells favouring the activation of aspiny classes of interneurons.

  11. Innervation pattern of polycystic ovaries in the women.

    PubMed

    Wojtkiewicz, Joanna; Jana, Barbara; Kozłowska, Anna; Crayton, Robert; Majewski, Mariusz; Zalecki, Michał; Baranowski, Włodzimierz; Radziszewski, Piotr

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the changes in both the distribution pattern and density of nerve fibers containing dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), substance P (SP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM), galanin (GAL) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the human polycystic ovaries. In the polycystic ovaries, when compared to the immunoreactions pattern observed in the control gonads, following changes were revealed: (1) an increase in the number of DβH-, VAChT-, VIP- or GAL-immunoreactive (IR) nerve fibers within the stroma as well as in the number of DβH-IR fibers near primordial follicles and medullar veins and venules; (2) a reduction in the number of nerve fibers containing nNOS, CGRP, SOM, PACAP within the stroma and in the numbers of CGRP-IR fibers around arteries; (3) an appearance of SP- and GAL-IR fibers around medullar and cortical arteries, arterioles, veins and venules, with except of GAL-IR fibers supplying medullar veins; and (4) the lack of nNOS-IR nerve fibers near primordial follicles and VIP-IR nerves around medullar arteries and arterioles. In conclusion, our results suggest that the changes in the innervation pattern of the polycystic ovaries in human may play an important role in the pathogenesis and/or course of this disorder.

  12. Motor and sensory re-innervation of the lung and heart after re-anastomosis of the cervical vagus nerve in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bregeon, Fabienne; Alliez, Jean Roch; Héry, Géraldine; Marqueste, Tanguy; Ravailhe, Sylvie; Jammes, Yves

    2007-01-01

    There is no study in the literature dealing with re-innervation of the cardiopulmonary vagus nerve after its transection followed by re-anastomosis. In the present study, we explored the bronchomotor, heart rate and respiratory responses in rats at 2, 3 and 6 months after re-anastomosis of one cervical vagus trunk. The conduction velocity of A, B and C waves was calculated in the compound vagal action potential. We searched for afferent vagal activities in phase with pulmonary inflation to assess the persistence of pulmonary stretch receptor (PSR) discharge in re-innervated lungs. In each animal, data from the stimulation or recording of one re-anastomosed vagus nerve were compared with those obtained in the contra-lateral intact one. Two and three months after surgery, the conduction velocities of A and B waves decreased, but recovery of conduction velocity was complete at 6 months. By contrast, the conduction velocity of the C wave did not change until 6 months, when it was doubled. The PSR activity was present in 50% of re-anastomosed vagus nerves at 2 and 3 months and in 75% at 6 months. Respiratory inhibition evoked by vagal stimulation was significantly weaker from the re-anastomosed than intact nerve at 2 but not 3 months. Vagal stimulation did not elicit cardiac slowing or bronchoconstriction 6 months after re-anastomosis. Our study demonstrates the capacity of pulmonary vagal sensory neurones to regenerate after axotomy followed by re-anastomosis, and the failure of the vagal efferents to re-innervate both the lungs and heart. PMID:17430986

  13. Sternocleidomastoid muscle additionally innervated by the facial nerve: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cvetko, Erika

    2015-01-01

    An aberrant nerve branch from the facial nerve, additionally to the accessory nerve and cervical rami C2 and C3, was observed innervating the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle in a 75-year-old male cadaver. We consider that the anomaly occurred as the result of a fusion of the muscular compartment from the digastric and SCM muscles during development. The aberrant innervation may be the source of the misinterpretation of electromyographic findings.

  14. [Cardiac arrest in newborn of mother treated with labetalol].

    PubMed

    Sala, X; Monsalve, C; Comas, C; Botet, F; Nalda, M A

    1993-01-01

    The use of beta-adrenergic antagonists for the control of high blood pressure associated to pregnancy is frequent. Their use is related with the appearance of undesirable effects of the fetus. The case of neonatal cardiac arrest attributed, to the administration of labetalol to the mother is presented. The high transplacentary passage, the different pharmacokinetics of the drug in the newborn and the clinical evolution of the patient suggests its involvement. It is concluded that labetalol may cause severe undesirable effects in newborns and fetal heart rate of the mother and neonate should be monitored upon use of this drug.

  15. About Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More About Cardiac Arrest Updated:Mar 10,2017 What is cardiac arrest? Cardiac arrest is the abrupt loss of heart function in a person who may or may not have diagnosed heart ...

  16. Dense and overlapping innervation of pyramidal neurons by neocortical chandelier cells

    PubMed Central

    Inan, Melis; Blázquez-Llorca, Lidia; Merchán-Perez, Angel; Anderson, Stewart A.; DeFelipe, Javier; Yuste, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Chandelier (or axo-axonic) cells are a distinct group of GABAergic interneurons that innervate the axon initial segments of pyramidal cells and thus could have an important role controlling the activity of cortical circuits. To understand their connectivity we labeled upper layers chandelier cells (ChCs) from mouse neocortex with a genetic strategy and studied how their axons contact local populations of pyramidal neurons, using immunohistochemical detection of axon initial segments. We studied ChCs located in the border of layers 1 and 2 from primary somatosensory cortex and find that practically all ChC axon terminals contact axon initial segments with an average of 3–5 boutons per cartridge. By measuring the number of putative synapses in initial segments we estimate that each pyramidal neuron is innervated, on average, by at least 4 ChCs. Additionally, each individual ChC contacts 35–50% of pyramidal neurons within its axonal arbor, with pockets of high innervation density. Finally, we find that ChC axons seems to have a conserved innervation pattern at different postnatal ages (P18–90), with only relatively small lateral expansions of their arbor and increases in the total number of their cartridges during the developmental period analyzed. We conclude that ChCs innervate neighboring pyramidal neurons in a dense and overlapping manner, an innervation pattern which could enable ChCs exert a widespread influence on their local circuits. PMID:23365230

  17. The naris muscles in tiger salamander. II. Innervation as revealed by enzyme histochemistry and immunocytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Wirsig-Wiechmann, Celeste R; Ebadifar, Bahareh

    2002-06-01

    The naris muscles control the aperature of the external naris in tiger salamanders, Ambystoma tigrinum, and may contribute to glandular secretion. Autonomic neurons of the palatine ganglion and possibly neurons associated with the nervus terminalis innervate these muscles. To elucidate the neural control of the naris muscles, neurotransmitters in nerve fibers supplying the naris muscles and in neurons of the palatine ganglion were examined using acetylcholinesterase enzyme histochemistry and immunocytochemistry to visualize possible peptide candidates for muscle innervation. The naris muscles, autonomic neurons, and associated nerve fascicles demonstrated strong acetylcholinesterase labeling, and the muscles were innervated by substance P fibers passing through the palatine ganglion from the trigeminal ganglion. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide-like immunoreactivities were found in secretory cell bodies and/or fibers in the palatine ganglion, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone was found in fiber projection pathways into the muscles. Vasoactive intestinal peptide was found in cell bodies and fibers of the palatine ganglion but appeared to provide a sparse innervation to the naris dilator muscle only. These findings suggest a typical autonomic cholinergic and sensory innervation of the naris muscles with some variations in peptide innervation. The presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in palatine ganglion and naris constrictor muscle suggests a potential modulation of autonomic neurons and perhaps even muscle fibers by this neuropeptide. We hypothesize that this reproductive hormone may modulate the activity of the naris constrictor muscle during reproductively appropriate events in order to provide access of pheromones to the vomeronasal organ.

  18. Innervation of the elbow joint: Is total denervation possible? A cadaveric anatomic study.

    PubMed

    De Kesel, Renata; Van Glabbeek, Francis; Mugenzi, Dominique; De Vos, Joris; Vermeulen, Katrien; Van Renterghem, Debbie; Bortier, Hilde; Schuind, Frédéric

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this anatomical study was to find out if total denervation of the elbow joint is technically feasible. The endbranches of the brachial plexus of eight fresh-frozen upper arm cadavers were dissected with optical loupe magnification. All major nerves of the upper limb (except the axillary and the medial brachial cutaneous nerve) give some terminal articular endbranches to the elbow. The articular endbranches arise from muscular endbranches, cutaneous endbranches, or arise straight from the main nerves of the brachial plexus. A topographic diagram was made of the different nerves innervating the elbow joint. The ulno-posterior part of the elbow is innervated by the ulnar nerve and some branches of medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve. The radial-posterior part of the elbow is innervated exclusively by the radial nerve. The ulno-anterior part of the elbow is innervated by the median nerve and the musculocutaneous nerve. The radio-anterior part of the elbow is innervated by the radial nerve and the musculocutaneous nerve. These elbow innervation findings are relevant to both anatomical and clinical field as they provide evidence that the total denervation of the elbow joint is impossible. Nevertheless, partial denervation, like denervation of the lateral epicondyle or the ulnar part of elbow, is technically possible.

  19. 2D-QSAR and 3D-QSAR/CoMSIA Studies on a Series of (R)-2-((2-(1H-Indol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-1-Phenylethan-1-ol with Human β₃-Adrenergic Activity.

    PubMed

    Apablaza, Gastón; Montoya, Luisa; Morales-Verdejo, Cesar; Mellado, Marco; Cuellar, Mauricio; Lagos, Carlos F; Soto-Delgado, Jorge; Chung, Hery; Pessoa-Mahana, Carlos David; Mella, Jaime

    2017-03-05

    The β₃ adrenergic receptor is raising as an important drug target for the treatment of pathologies such as diabetes, obesity, depression, and cardiac diseases among others. Several attempts to obtain selective and high affinity ligands have been made. Currently, Mirabegron is the only available drug on the market that targets this receptor approved for the treatment of overactive bladder. However, the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in USA and the MHRA (Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency) in UK have made reports of potentially life-threatening side effects associated with the administration of Mirabegron, casting doubts on the continuity of this compound. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to gather information for the rational design and synthesis of new β₃ adrenergic ligands. Herein, we present the first combined 2D-QSAR (two-dimensional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) and 3D-QSAR/CoMSIA (three-dimensional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship/Comparative Molecular Similarity Index Analysis) study on a series of potent β₃ adrenergic agonists of indole-alkylamine structure. We found a series of changes that can be made in the steric, hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor, lipophilicity and molar refractivity properties of the compounds to generate new promising molecules. Finally, based on our analysis, a summary and a regiospecific description of the requirements for improving β₃ adrenergic activity is given.

  20. Interplay between the E2F pathway and β-adrenergic signaling in the pathological hypertrophic response of myocardium.

    PubMed

    Major, Jennifer L; Salih, Maysoon; Tuana, Balwant S

    2015-07-01

    The E2F/Pocket protein (Rb) pathway regulates cell growth, differentiation, and death by modulating gene expression. We previously examined this pathway in the myocardium via manipulation of the unique E2F repressor, E2F6, which is believed to repress gene activity independently of Rb. Mice with targeted expression of E2F6 in postnatal myocardium developed dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) without hypertrophic growth. We assessed the mechanisms of the apparent failure of compensatory hypertrophic growth as well as their response to the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. As early as 2 weeks, E2F6 transgenic (Tg) mice present with dilated thinner left ventricles and significantly reduced ejection fraction and fractional shortening which persists at 6 weeks of age, but with no apparent increase in left ventricle weight: body weight (LVW:BW). E2F6-Tg mice treated with isoproterenol (6.1 mg/kg/day) show double the increase in LVW:BW than their Wt counterparts (32% vs 16%, p-value: 0.007). Western blot analysis revealed the activation of the adrenergic pathway in Tg heart tissue under basal conditions with ~2-fold increase in the level of β2-adrenergic receptors (p-value: 8.9E-05), protein kinase A catalytic subunit (PKA-C) (p-value: 0.0176), activated c-Src tyrosine-protein kinase (p-value: 0.0002), extracellular receptor kinase 2 (ERK2) (p-value: 0.0005), and induction of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 (p-value 0. 0.00001). In contrast, a ~60% decrease in the cardiac growth regulator: AKT1 (p-value 0.0001) and a ~four fold increase in cyclic AMP dependent phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D), the negative regulator of PKA activity, were evident in the myocardium of E2F6-Tg mice. The expression of E2F3 was down-regulated by E2F6, but was restored by isoproterenol. Further, Rb expression was down-regulated in Tg mice in response to isoproterenol implying a net activation of the E2F pathway. Thus the unique regulation of E2F activity by E2F6 renders the myocardium hypersensitive

  1. The alpha(1D)-adrenergic receptor directly regulates arterial blood pressure via vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Akito; Nasa, Yoshihisa; Koshimizu, Takaaki; Shinoura, Hitomi; Oshikawa, Sayuri; Kawai, Takayuki; Sunada, Sachie; Takeo, Satoshi; Tsujimoto, Gozoh

    2002-03-01

    To investigate the physiological role of the alpha(1D)-adrenergic receptor (alpha(1D)-AR) subtype, we created mice lacking the alpha(1D)-AR (alpha(1D)(-/-)) by gene targeting and characterized their cardiovascular function. In alpha(1D)-/- mice, the RT-PCR did not detect any transcript of the alpha(1D)-AR in any tissue examined, and there was no apparent upregulation of other alpha(1)-AR subtypes. Radioligand binding studies showed that alpha(1)-AR binding capacity in the aorta was lost, while that in the heart was unaltered in alpha(1D)-/- mice. Non-anesthetized alpha(1D)-/- mice maintained significantly lower basal systolic and mean arterial blood pressure conditions, relative to wild-type mice, and they showed no significant change in heart rate or in cardiac function, as assessed by echocardiogram. Besides hypotension, the pressor responses to phenylephrine and norepinephrine were decreased by 30-40% in alpha(1D)-/- mice. Furthermore, the contractile response of the aorta and the pressor response of isolated perfused mesenteric arterial beds to alpha(1)-AR stimulation were markedly reduced in alpha(1D)-/- mice. We conclude that the alpha(1D)-AR participates directly in sympathetic regulation of systemic blood pressure by vasoconstriction.

  2. Beta 2-adrenergic receptors are colocalized and coregulated with whisker barrels in rat somatosensory cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Vos, P.; Kaufmann, D.; Hand, P.J.; Wolfe, B.B. )

    1990-07-01

    Autoradiography has been used to visualize independently the subtypes of beta-adrenergic receptors in rat somatosensory cortex. Beta 2-adrenergic receptors, but not beta 1-adrenergic receptors colocalize with whisker barrels in this tissue. Thus, each whisker sends a specific multisynaptic pathway to the somatosensory cortex that can be histochemically visualized and only one subtype of beta-adrenergic receptor is specifically associated with this cortical representation. Additionally, neonatal lesion of any or all of the whisker follicles results in loss of the corresponding barrel(s) as shown by histochemical markers. This loss is paralleled by a similar loss in the organization of beta 2-adrenergic receptors in the somatosensory cortex. Other results indicate that these beta 2-adrenergic receptors are not involved in moment-to-moment signal transmission in this pathway and, additionally, are not involved in a gross way in the development of whisker-barrel array.

  3. Ultraviolet radiation augments epidermal beta-adrenergic adenylate cyclase response

    SciTech Connect

    Iizuka, H.; Kajita, S.; Ohkawara, A.

    1985-05-01

    Pig skin was irradiated in vivo with fluorescent sunlamp tubes (peak emission at 305 nm). A significant increase in epidermal beta-adrenergic adenylate cyclase response was observed as early as 12 h following 1-2 minimum erythema doses (MEDs) UVB exposure, which lasted at least 48 h. The augmentation of adenylate cyclase response was relatively specific to the beta-adrenergic system and there was no significant difference in either adenosine- or histamine-adenylate cyclase response of epidermis. The increased beta-adrenergic adenylate cyclase response was less marked at higher doses of UVB exposure (5 MEDs); in the latter condition, a significant reduction in adenosine- or histamine-adenylate cyclase response was observed. There was no significant difference in either low- or high-Km cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity between control and UVB-treated skin at 1-2 MEDs. These data indicate that the epidermal adenylate cyclase responses are affected in vivo by UVB irradiation, which might be a significant regulatory mechanism of epidermal cyclic AMP systems.

  4. Pharmacophore development for antagonists at α1 adrenergic receptor subtypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremner, J. B.; Coban, B.; Griffith, R.

    1996-12-01

    Many receptors, including α1 adrenergic receptors, have a range of subtypes. This offers possibilities for the development of highly selective antagonists with potentially fewer detrimental effects. Antagonists developed for α1A receptors, for example, would have potential in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. As part of the molecular design process, structural features necessary for the selective affinity for α1A and α1B adrenergic receptors have been investigated. The molecular modelling software (particularly the Apex module) of Molecular Simulations, Inc. was used to develop pharmacophore models for these two subtypes. Low-energy conformations of a set of known antagonists were used as input, together with a classification of the receptor affinity data. The biophores proposed by the program were evaluated and pharmacophores were proposed. The pharmacophore models were validated by testing the fit of known antagonists, not included in the training set. The critical structural feature for selectivity between the α1A and α1B adrenergic receptor sites is the distance between the basic nitrogen atom and the centre of an aromatic ring system. This will be exploited in the design and synthesis of structurally new selective antagonists for these sites.

  5. Regional myocardial downregulation of the inhibitory guanosine triphosphate-binding protein (Gi alpha 2) and beta-adrenergic receptors in a porcine model of chronic episodic myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, H K; Roth, D A; McKirnan, M D; Ping, P

    1993-01-01

    Regional myocardial ischemia is associated with increased levels of adenosine and norepinephrine, factors that may alter activation of the beta-adrenergic receptor (beta AR)-G protein-adenylyl cyclase pathway in the heart. We have used the ameroid constrictor model to determine whether alterations in myocardial signal transduction through the beta AR-G protein-adenylyl cyclase pathway occur in the setting of chronic episodes of reversible ischemia. Pigs were instrumented with ameroid occluders placed around the left circumflex coronary artery. 5 wk later, after ameroid closure, flow and function were normal in the ischemic bed, but flow (P = 0.001) and function (P < 0.03) were abnormal when metabolic demands were increased. The ischemic bed showed a reduction in myocardial beta AR number (P < 0.005). Despite regional downregulation of myocardial beta AR number, adenylyl cyclase activity was similar in the ischemic and control beds. Quantitative immunoblotting showed that the cardiac inhibitory GTP-binding protein, Gi alpha 2, was decreased in the ischemic bed (P = 0.02). In contrast, the cardiac stimulatory GTP-binding protein, Gs alpha, was increased in endocardial sections from the ischemic bed (P = < 0.05). Decreased Gi alpha 2 content was associated with decreased inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. Reduced Gi alpha 2 content, in conjunction with increased Gs alpha content in the endocardium, may provide a means by which adrenergic activation is maintained in the setting of chronic episodic myocardial ischemia. Images PMID:8254020

  6. Adrenergic regulation of gluconeogenesis: possible involvement of two mechanisms of signal transduction in alpha 1-adrenergic action.

    PubMed Central

    García-Sáinz, J A; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M

    1985-01-01

    We have previously suggested that the effects of alpha 1-adrenergic agents on hepatocyte metabolism involve two mechanisms: (i) a calcium-independent insulin-sensitive process that is modulated by glucocorticoids and (ii) a calcium-dependent insulin-insensitive process that is modulated by thyroid hormones. We have studied the effect of epinephrine (plus propranolol) on gluconeogenesis from lactate and dihydroxyacetone. It was observed that the adrenergic stimulation of gluconeogenesis from lactate seemed to occur through both mechanisms, whereas when the substrate was dihydroxyacetone the action took place exclusively through the calcium-independent insulin-sensitive process. This effect was absent in hepatocytes from adrenalectomized rats, suggesting that it is modulated by glucocorticoids. PMID:2995981

  7. Functional changes after prenatal opiate exposure related to opiate receptors' regulated alterations in cholinergic innervation.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Joseph; Huleihel, Rabab; Izrael, Michal; Metsuyanim, Sally; Shahak, Halit; Vatury, Ori; Yaniv, Shiri P

    2003-09-01

    Opioid drugs act primarily on the opiate receptors; they also exert their effect on other innervations resulting in non-opioidergic behavioural deficits. Similarly, opioid neurobehavioural teratogenicity is attested in numerous behaviours and neural processes which hinder the research on the mechanisms involved. Therefore, in order to be able to ascertain the mechanism we have established an animal (mouse) model for the teratogenicity induced by opioid abuse, which focused on behaviours related to specific brain area and innervation. Diacetylmorphine (heroin) and not morphine was applied because heroin exerts a unique action, distinguished from that of morphine. Pregnant mice were exposed to heroin (10 mg/kg per day) and the offspring were tested for behavioural deficits and biochemical alterations related to the septohippocampal cholinergic innervation. Some studies employing the chick embryo were concomitantly added as a control for the confounding indirect variables. Prenatal exposure to heroin in mice induced global hyperactivation both pre- and post-synaptic along the septohippocampal cholinergic innervation, including basal protein kinase C (PKC) activity accompanied by a desensitization of PKC activity in response to cholinergic agonist. Functionally, the heroin-exposed offspring displayed deficits in hippocampus-related behaviours, suggesting deficits in the net output of the septohippocampal cholinergic innervation. Grafting of cholinergic cells to the impaired hippocampus reversed both pre- and post-synaptic hyperactivity, resensitized PKC activity, and restored the associated behaviours to normality. Consistently, correlation studies point to the relative importance of PKC to the behavioural deficits. The chick model, which dealt with imprinting related to a different brain region, confirmed that the effect of heroin is direct. Taken together with studies by others on the effect of prenatal exposure to opioids on the opioidergic innervation and with what

  8. Sensory innervation of the hairy skin (light- and electronmicroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Halata, Z

    1993-07-01

    The sense of touch develops early in phylogeny and is one of the most important senses for the survival of the animal. Touch organs of hairy skin in mammals include the so-called "Haarscheiben" (also Pinkus corpuscles) and all types of hair follicles with their nerve endings. The touch organs of the skin consist of a mechanical transducing component and the sensory component. The epithelium and its derivatives like hair follicles and sebaceous glands are the mechanical transducing component transmitting the mechanical forces like pressure or touch to the second component--the sensory nerve endings. In mammalian hairy skin all sinus and guard hairs and many vellus hairs are touch organs. The sinus hair is a typical example of a touch organ. All mammals except humans are equipped with these highly differentiated touch organs. The hair follicle is almost completely embedded in a blood sinus and equipped with more than 2,000 sensory nerve endings. All sinus and guard hairs are equipped with free nerve endings (nociceptors), Merkel nerve endings (slowly adapting [SA I] mechanoreceptor units-pressure detectors), palisades of lanceolate nerve endings (velocity detectors), and pilo-Ruffini corpuscles (tension receptors). In most of the sinus hairs lamellated corpuscles of Pacini type could be found (rapidly adapting receptors-acceleration detectors). Most vellus hairs are equipped with free and lanceolate nerve endings. Some of the vellus hairs of the upper portion of the body (head, upper extremity) are innervated by Merkel nerve endings. The presence of pilo-Ruffini nerve endings in vellus hairs is very unusual.

  9. Disruption of type 5 adenylyl cyclase prevents β-adrenergic receptor cardiomyopathy: a novel approach to β-adrenergic receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Vatner, Stephen F; Vatner, Dorothy E

    2014-11-15

    β-Adrenergic receptor (β-AR) blockade is widely used to treat heart failure, since the adverse effects of chronic β-AR stimulation are central to the pathogenesis of this disease state. Transgenic (Tg) mice, where β-AR signaling is chronically enhanced by overexpression of cardiac β₂-ARs, is a surrogate for this mechanism, since these mice develop cardiomyopathy as reflected by reduced left ventricular (LV) function, increased fibrosis, apoptosis, and myocyte hypertrophy. We hypothesized that disruption of type 5 adenylyl cyclase (AC5), which is in the β-AR signaling pathway in the heart, but exerts only a minor β-AR blocking effect, could prevent the cardiomyopathy in β₂-AR Tg mice without the negative effects of full β-AR blockade. Accordingly, we mated β₂-AR Tg mice with AC5 knockout (KO) mice. The β₂-AR Tg × AC5 KO bigenic mice prevented the cardiomyopathy as reflected by improved LV ejection fraction, reduced apoptosis, fibrosis, and myocyte size and preserved exercise capacity. The rescue was not simply due to a β-blocking effect of AC5 KO, since neither baseline LV function nor the response to isoproterenol was diminished substantially compared with the negative inotropic effects of β-blockade. However, AC5 disruption in β₂-AR Tg activates the antioxidant, manganese superoxide dismutase, an important mechanism protecting the heart from cardiomyopathy. These results indicate that disruption of AC5 prevents the cardiomyopathy induced by chronically enhanced β-AR signaling in mice with overexpressed β₂-AR, potentially by enhancing resistance to oxidative stress and apoptosis, suggesting a novel, alternative approach to β-AR blockade.

  10. The adrenergic regulation of the cardiovascular system in the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus.

    PubMed

    Galli, Gina L J; Skovgaard, Nini; Abe, Augusto S; Taylor, Edwin W; Wang, Tobias

    2007-11-01

    The present study investigates adrenergic regulation of the systemic and pulmonary circulations of the anaesthetised South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus. Haemodynamic measurements were made following bolus injections of adrenaline and adrenergic antagonists administered through a systemic arterial catheter. Adrenaline caused a marked systemic vasoconstriction that was abolished by phentolamine, indicating this response was mediated through alpha-adrenergic receptors. Injection of phentolamine gave rise to a pronounced vasodilatation (systemic conductance (G(sys)) more than doubled), while injection of propranolol caused a systemic vasoconstriction, pointing to a potent alpha-adrenergic, and a weaker beta-adrenergic tone in the systemic vasculature of Crotalus. Overall, the pulmonary vasculature was far less responsive to adrenergic stimulation than the systemic circulation. Adrenaline caused a small but non-significant pulmonary vasodilatation and there was tendency of reducing this dilatation after either phentolamine or propranolol. Injection of phentolamine increased pulmonary conductance (G(pul)), while injection of propranolol produced a small pulmonary constriction, indicating that alpha-adrenergic and beta-adrenergic receptors contribute to a basal regulation of the pulmonary vasculature. Our results suggest adrenergic regulation of the systemic vasculature, rather than the pulmonary, may be an important factor in the development of intracardiac shunts.

  11. Angiotensin II potentiates α-adrenergic vasoconstriction in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Witman, Melissa A H; McDaniel, John; Fjeldstad, Anette S; Trinity, Joel D; Ives, Stephen J; Conklin, Jamie D; Reese, Van; Runnels, Sean; Morgan, David E; Sander, Mikael; Richardson, Russell S; Wray, D Walter

    2013-03-01

    Aging is characterized by increased sympatho-excitation, expressed through both the α-adrenergic and RAAS (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone) pathways. Although the independent contribution of these two pathways to elevated vasoconstriction with age may be substantial, significant cross-talk exists that could produce potentiating effects. To examine this interaction, 14 subjects (n=8 young, n=6 old) underwent brachial artery catheterization for administration of AngII (angiotensin II; 0.8-25.6 ng/dl per min), NE [noradrenaline (norepinephrine); 2.5-80 ng/dl per min] and AngII with concomitant α-adrenergic antagonism [PHEN (phentolamine); 10 μg/dl per min]. Ultrasound Doppler was utilized to determine blood flow, and therefore vasoconstriction, in both infused and contralateral (control) limbs. Arterial blood pressure was measured directly, and sympathetic nervous system activity was assessed via microneurography and plasma NE analysis. AngII sensitivity was significantly greater in the old, indicated by both greater maximal vasoconstriction (-59±4% in old against -48±3% in young) and a decreased EC50 (half-maximal effective concentration) (1.4±0.2 ng/dl per min in old against 2.6±0.7 μg/dl per min in young), whereas the maximal NE-mediated vasoconstriction was similar between these groups (-58±9% in old and -62±5% in young). AngII also increased venous NE in the old group, but was unchanged in the young group. In the presence of α-adrenergic blockade (PHEN), maximal AngII-mediated vasoconstriction in the old was restored to that of the young (-43±8% in old and -39±6% in young). These findings indicate that, with healthy aging, the increased AngII-mediated vasoconstriction may be attributed, in part, to potentiation of the α-adrenergic pathway, and suggest that cross-talk between the RAAS and adrenergic systems may be an important consideration in therapeutic strategies targeting these two pathways.

  12. Low STAT3 expression sensitizes to toxic effects of β-adrenergic receptor stimulation in peripartum cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Stapel, Britta; Kohlhaas, Michael; Ricke-Hoch, Melanie; Haghikia, Arash; Erschow, Sergej; Knuuti, Juhani; Silvola, Johanna M. U.; Roivainen, Anne; Saraste, Antti; Nickel, Alexander G.; Saar, Jasmin A.; Sieve, Irina; Pietzsch, Stefan; Müller, Mirco; Bogeski, Ivan; Kappl, Reinhard; Jauhiainen, Matti; Thackeray, James T.; Scherr, Michaela; Bengel, Frank M.; Hagl, Christian; Tudorache, Igor; Bauersachs, Johann

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims The benefit of the β1-adrenergic receptor (β1-AR) agonist dobutamine for treatment of acute heart failure in peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is controversial. Cardiac STAT3 expression is reduced in PPCM patients. Mice carrying a cardiomyocyte-restricted deletion of STAT3 (CKO) develop PPCM. We hypothesized that STAT3-dependent signalling networks may influence the response to β-AR agonist treatment in PPCM patients and analysed this hypothesis in CKO mice. Methods and results Follow-up analyses in 27 patients with severe PPCM (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤25%) revealed that 19 of 20 patients not obtaining dobutamine improved cardiac function. All seven patients obtaining dobutamine received heart transplantation (n = 4) or left ventricular assist devices (n = 3). They displayed diminished myocardial triglyceride, pyruvate, and lactate content compared with non-failing controls. The β-AR agonist isoproterenol (Iso) induced heart failure with high mortality in postpartum female, in non-pregnant female and in male CKO, but not in wild-type mice. Iso induced heart failure and high mortality in CKO mice by impairing fatty acid and glucose uptake, thereby generating a metabolic deficit. The latter was governed by disturbed STAT3-dependent signalling networks, microRNA-199a-5p, microRNA-7a-5p, insulin/glucose transporter-4, and neuregulin/ErbB signalling. The resulting cardiac energy depletion and oxidative stress promoted dysfunction and cardiomyocyte loss inducing irreversible heart failure, which could be attenuated by the β1-AR blocker metoprolol or glucose-uptake-promoting drugs perhexiline and etomoxir. Conclusions Iso impairs glucose uptake, induces energy depletion, oxidative stress, dysfunction, and death in STAT3-deficient cardiomyocytes mainly via β1-AR stimulation. These cellular alterations may underlie the dobutamine-induced irreversible heart failure progression in PPCM patients who frequently display reduced cardiac STAT3

  13. Regulation of β-adrenergic control of heart rate by GTP-cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) and tetrahydrobiopterin

    PubMed Central

    Adlam, David; Herring, Neil; Douglas, Gillian; De Bono, Joseph P.; Li, Dan; Danson, Edward J.; Tatham, Amy; Lu, Cheih-Ju; Jennings, Katie A.; Cragg, Stephanie J.; Casadei, Barbara; Paterson, David J.; Channon, Keith M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Clinical markers of cardiac autonomic function, such as heart rate and response to exercise, are important predictors of cardiovascular risk. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a required cofactor for enzymes with roles in cardiac autonomic function, including tyrosine hydroxylase and nitric oxide synthase. Synthesis of BH4 is regulated by GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH), encoded by GCH1. Recent clinical studies report associations between GCH1 variants and increased heart rate, but the mechanistic importance of GCH1 and BH4 in autonomic function remains unclear. We investigate the effect of BH4 deficiency on the autonomic regulation of heart rate in the hph-1 mouse model of BH4 deficiency. Methods and results In the hph-1 mouse, reduced cardiac GCH1 expression, GTPCH enzymatic activity, and BH4 were associated with increased resting heart rate; blood pressure was not different. Exercise training decreased resting heart rate, but hph-1 mice retained a relative tachycardia. Vagal nerve stimulation in vitro induced bradycardia equally in hph-1 and wild-type mice both before and after exercise training. Direct atrial responses to carbamylcholine were equal. In contrast, propranolol treatment normalized the resting tachycardia in vivo. Stellate ganglion stimulation and isoproterenol but not forskolin application in vitro induced a greater tachycardic response in hph-1 mice. β1-adrenoceptor protein was increased as was the cAMP response to isoproterenol stimulation. Conclusion Reduced GCH1 expression and BH4 deficiency cause tachycardia through enhanced β-adrenergic sensitivity, with no effect on vagal function. GCH1 expression and BH4 are novel determinants of cardiac autonomic regulation that may have important roles in cardiovascular pathophysiology. PMID:22241166

  14. Role of postsynaptic alpha-adrenergic receptors in the beta-adrenergic stimulation of melatonin production in the Syrian hamster pineal gland in organ culture.

    PubMed

    Santana, C; Guerrero, J M; Reiter, R J; Menendez-Pelaez, A

    1989-01-01

    The role played by postsynaptic alpha-adrenergic receptors in the stimulation of pineal melatonin production was investigated in the Syrian hamster. The studies were conducted using organ cultured pineal glands collected from both anatomically intact and superior cervical ganglionectomized hamsters. Results obtained indicate that phenylephrine, an alpha-adrenergic agonist, by itself has no effect in promoting melatonin production; however, it potentiates the stimulatory effects of isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic agonist, on pineal melatonin production in nonoperated hamsters. Similar observations were obtained with pineal glands whose presynaptic terminals were removed by prior superior cervical ganglionectomy. However, a longer incubation time was required (4-6 hours vs. 2 hours) with pineal glands taken from ganglionectomized animals. Apparently, beta-adrenergic activation is an absolute requirement to stimulate pineal melatonin production, and an alpha-adrenergic receptor mechanism potentiates beta-adrenergic activation. In addition, the findings obtained with denervated pineal glands suggest that the regulation of pineal melatonin production by both alpha- and beta-adrenergic mechanisms is through receptors located on postsynaptic structures.

  15. Involvement of catecholaminergic neurons in motor innervation of striated muscle in the mouse esophagus.

    PubMed

    van der Keylen, Piet; Garreis, Fabian; Steigleder, Ruth; Sommer, Daniel; Neuhuber, Winfried L; Wörl, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Enteric co-innervation is a peculiar innervation pattern of striated esophageal musculature. Both anatomical and functional data on enteric co-innervation related to various transmitters have been collected in different species, although its function remains enigmatic. However, it is unclear whether catecholaminergic components are involved in such a co-innervation. Thus, we examined to identify catecholaminergic neuronal elements and clarify their relationship to other innervation components in the esophagus, using immunohistochemistry with antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), α-bungarotoxin (α-BT) and PCR with primers for amplification of cDNA encoding TH and dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH). TH-positive nerve fibers were abundant throughout the myenteric plexus and localized on about 14% of α-BT-labelled motor endplates differing from VAChT-positive vagal nerve terminals. TH-positive perikarya represented a subpopulation of only about 2.8% of all PGP 9.5-positive myenteric neurons. Analysis of mRNA showed both TH and DBH transcripts in the mouse esophagus. As ChAT-positive neurons in the compact formation of the nucleus ambiguus were negative for TH, the TH-positive nerve varicosities on motor endplates are presumably of enteric origin, although a sympathetic origin cannot be excluded. In the medulla oblongata, the cholinergic ambiguus neurons were densely supplied with TH-positive varicosities. Thus, catecholamines may modulate vagal motor innervation of esophageal-striated muscles not only at the peripheral level via enteric co-innervation but also at the central level via projections to the nucleus ambiguus. As Parkinson's disease, with a loss of central dopaminergic neurons, also affects the enteric nervous system and dysphagia is prevalent in patients with this disease, investigation of intrinsic catecholamines in the esophagus may

  16. Succinate dehydrogenase activity and soma size of motoneurons innervating different portions of the rat tibialis anterior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishihara, A.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1995-01-01

    The spatial distribution, soma size and oxidative enzyme activity of gamma and alpha motoneurons innervating muscle fibres in the deep (away from the surface of the muscle) and superficial (close to the surface of the muscle) portions of the tibialis anterior in normal rats were determined. The deep portion had a higher percentage of high oxidative fibres than the superficial portion of the muscle. Motoneurons were labelled by retrograde neuronal transport of fluorescent tracers: Fast Blue and Nuclear Yellow were injected into the deep portion and Nuclear Yellow into the superficial portion of the muscle. Therefore, motoneurons innervating the deep portion were identified by both a blue fluorescent cytoplasm and a golden-yellow fluorescent nucleus, while motoneurons innervating the superficial portion were identified by only a golden-yellow fluorescent nucleus. After staining for succinate dehydrogenase activity on the same section used for the identification of the motoneurons, soma size and succinate dehydrogenase activity of the motoneurons were measured. The gamma and alpha motoneurons innervating both the deep and superficial portions were located primarily at L4 and were intermingled within the same region of the dorsolateral portion of the ventral horn in the spinal cord. Mean soma size was similar for either gamma or alpha motoneurons in the two portions of the muscle. The alpha motoneurons innervating the superficial portion had a lower mean succinate dehydrogenase activity than those innervating the deep portion of the muscle. An inverse relationship between soma size and succinate dehydrogenase activity of alpha, but not gamma, motoneurons innervating both the deep and superficial portions was observed. Based on three-dimensional reconstructions within the spinal cord, there were no apparent differences in the spatial distribution of the motoneurons, either gamma or alpha, associated with the deep and superficial compartments of the muscle. The data

  17. Asymmetric sympathetic output: The dorsomedial hypothalamus as a potential link between emotional stress and cardiac arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Marco Antônio Peliky; Filho, Marcelo Limborço; Santos Machado, Natália L; de Paula, Cristiane Amorim; Souza Cordeiro, Letícia M; Xavier, Carlos Henrique; Marins, Fernanda Ribeiro; Henderson, Luke; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2017-01-17

    The autonomic response to emotional stress, while involving several target organs, includes an important increase in sympathetic drive to the heart. There is ample evidence that cardiac sympathetic innervation is lateralized, and asymmetric autonomic output to the heart during stress is postulated to be a causal factor that precipitates cardiac arrhythmias. Recent animal studies provided a new picture of the central pathways involved in the cardiac sympathetic response evoked by emotional stress, pointing out a key role for the region of dorsomedial hypothalamus. However, how much of this information can be extrapolated to humans? Analysis of human functional imaging data at rest or during emotional stress shows some consistency with the components that integrate these pathways, and attention must be given to the asymmetric activation of subcortical sites. In this short review, we will discuss related findings in humans and animals, aiming to understand the neurogenic background for the origin of emotional stress-induced cardiac arrhythmias.

  18. Taste Bud-Derived BDNF Is Required to Maintain Normal Amounts of Innervation to Adult Taste Buds.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingbin; Ohman-Gault, Lisa; Ma, Liqun; Krimm, Robin F

    2015-01-01

    Gustatory neurons transmit chemical information from taste receptor cells, which reside in taste buds in the oral cavity, to the brain. As adult taste receptor cells are renewed at a constant rate, nerve fibers must reconnect with new taste receptor cells as they arise. Therefore, the maintenance of gustatory innervation to the taste bud is an active process. Understanding how this process is regulated is a fundamental concern of gustatory system biology. We speculated that because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for taste bud innervation during development, it might function to maintain innervation during adulthood. If so, taste buds should lose innervation when Bdnf is deleted in adult mice. To test this idea, we first removed Bdnf from all cells in adulthood using transgenic mice with inducible CreERT2 under the control of the Ubiquitin promoter. When Bdnf was removed, approximately one-half of the innervation to taste buds was lost, and taste buds became smaller because of the loss of taste bud cells. Individual taste buds varied in the amount of innervation each lost, and those that lost the most innervation also lost the most taste bud cells. We then tested the idea that that the taste bud was the source of this BDNF by reducing Bdnf levels specifically in the lingual epithelium and taste buds. Taste buds were confirmed as the source of BDNF regulating innervation. We conclude that BDNF expressed in taste receptor cells is required to maintain normal levels of innervation in adulthood.

  19. The impact of beta-adrenergic blockade on daily rhythms of melatonin and body temperature of golden spiny mice Acomys russatus.

    PubMed

    Haim, A; Zisapel, N

    1997-01-01

    Beta-adrenergic stimulation induces melatonin synthesis and non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) in rodents. The golden spiny mouse, Acomys russatus is a nocturnal species capable of diurnal activity when coexisting with its congenitor the common spiny mouse A. cahirinus. We have investigated the impact of beta-adrenergic blockade on 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (6-SMT--a metabolite and index of melatonin production) and body temperature (Tb) daily rhythms in male A. russatus. Mice were acclimated to an ambient temperature (Ta) of 28 degrees C, under two photoperiod regimes (16L:8D; 8L:16D). The daily rhythms of Tb and urinary 6-SMT were measured for a period of 30 h at intervals of 4 h. Propranolol (4.5 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered one hour before lights went off (i.e. when beta blockade does not affect NST in this species) and both variables were measured for another 30 h. The beta blocker markedly augmented melatonin output of A. russatus under both photoperiod regimes. The elevation in melatonin secretion was accompanied with an increase in Tb of only 16L:8D-acclimated mice (i.e. shorten duration of melatonin peak). However, in 8L:16D-acclimated mice, a phase advance of about 4 h was noted in 6-SMT daily rhythm. These results indicate that the role of sympathetic innervation in regulation of melatonin synthesis in A. russatus differs from that in the rat. In addition, these data are compatible with the hyperthermic action of melatonin in this species. Therefore, it is suggested that in A. russatus, other neural pathways are involved in its pineal regulation.

  20. Modulation of the release of ( sup 3 H)norepinephrine from the base and body of the rat urinary bladder by endogenous adrenergic and cholinergic mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Somogyi, G.T.; de Groat, W.C. )

    1990-10-01

    Modulation of (3H)NE release was studied in rat urinary bladder strips prelabeled with (3H)NE. (3H)NE uptake occurred in strips from the bladder base and body, but was very prominent in the base where the noradrenergic innervation is most dense. Electrical field stimulation markedly increased (3H)NE outflow from the superfused tissue. The quantity of (3H)NE release was approximately equal during three consecutive periods of stimulation. Activation of presynaptic muscarinic receptors by 1.0 microM oxotremorine reduced (3H)NE release to 46% of the control. Atropine (1 microM) blocked the effect of oxotremorine and increased the release to 147% of predrug control levels. Activation of presynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors by 1 microM clonidine reduced (3H)NE release to 55% of control. Yohimbine blocked the action of clonidine and increased the release to 148% of control. The release of (3H)NE from the bladder base and body was increased by both 1 microM atropine (to 167% and 174% of control, respectively) and 1 microM yohimbine (to 286% and 425% of control, respectively). Atropine and yohimbine administered in combination had similar facilitatory effects as when administered alone. We conclude that the release of (3H)NE from adrenergic nerve endings in electrically stimulated bladder strips is modulated via endogenous transmitters acting on both muscarinic and alpha-2 adrenergic presynaptic receptors and that the latter provide the most prominent control.

  1. Topographical projections of segmental nerves to the frog glutaeus muscle during loss of polyneuronal innervation.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M; Lavidis, N

    1986-06-01

    The development of synaptic connexions to the frog (Limnodynastes tasmaniansis) glutaeus muscle from segmental nerves 8 and 9 was determined using glycogen depletion, contraction and electrophysiological methods between stages 54 and 60 (Nieuwkoop & Faber, 1975). There was no change in the number of muscle cells in the glutaeus from stage 55 onwards; the maturation of muscle cells was most advanced at the point of nerve entry on the ventral surface of the glutaeus and least advanced at the dorsal surface. Electrophysiological determination of the segmental innervation of the dorsal surface of the muscle in low calcium (0.5 mM) indicated that the muscle was almost uniquely innervated by nerve 8 at stage 54. Weak nerve 9 terminals were detected at stage 54 only if the calcium concentration was raised to 6.0 mM. Innervation by nerve 9 was first detected in low calcium at stage 55. There was then a progressive decrease in the innervation of the glutaeus muscle by nerve 8 in regions apposed to the iliofibularis muscle, until stage 59 when this part of the glutaeus was almost completely innervated by nerve 9. Glycogen depletion of muscle fibres following tetanic stimulation of either segmental nerve confirmed that the region of the glutaeus muscle apposed by the iliofibularis becomes progressively innervated by nerve 9 during development. Contraction studies of the segmental innervation of the glutaeus muscle in normal calcium (2 mM) indicated that the muscle was predominantly innervated by nerve 8 at stage 54. There was then a progressive increase in the number of nerve 9 motor units up to stage 56. The size of individual motor units declined for both nerves 8 and 9 until stage 59, when the average motor unit size was about 9% of the muscle. It is suggested that the decline in the innervation by nerve 8 of the side of the glutaeus muscle apposing the iliofibularis muscle is due to this region of the muscle selectively favouring synapse formation by nerve 9 over nerve 8.

  2. Adrenergic Receptor Polymorphism and Maximal Exercise Capacity after Orthotopic Heart Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Feliciano, Helene; Martin, David; Regamey, Julien; Tozzi, Piergiorgio; Meyer, Philippe; Hullin, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Background Maximal exercise capacity after heart transplantion (HTx) is reduced to the 50–70% level of healthy controls when assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) despite of normal left ventricular function of the donor heart. This study investigates the role of donor heart β1 and β2- adrenergic receptor (AR) polymorphisms for maximal exercise capacity after orthotopic HTx. Methods CPET measured peak VO2 as outcome parameter for maximal exercise in HTx recipients ≥9 months and ≤4 years post-transplant (n = 41; mean peak VO2: 57±15% of predicted value). Donor hearts were genotyped for polymorphisms of the β1-AR (Ser49Gly, Arg389Gly) and the β2-AR (Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu). Circumferential shortening of the left ventricle was measured using magnetic resonance based CSPAMM tagging. Results Peak VO2 was higher in donor hearts expressing the β1-Ser49Ser alleles when compared with β1-Gly49 carriers (60±15% vs. 47±10% of the predicted value; p = 0.015), and by trend in cardiac allografts with the β1-AR Gly389Gly vs. β1-Arg389 (61±15% vs. 54±14%, p = 0.093). Peak VO2 was highest for the haplotype Ser49Ser-Gly389, and decreased progressively for Ser49Ser-Arg389Arg > 49Gly-389Gly > 49Gly-Arg389Arg (adjusted R2 = 0.56, p = 0.003). Peak VO2 was not different for the tested β2-AR polymorphisms. Independent predictors of peak VO2 (adjusted R2 = 0.55) were β1-AR Ser49Gly SNP (p = 0.005), heart rate increase (p = 0.016), and peak systolic blood pressure (p = 0.031). Left ventricular (LV) motion kinetics as measured by cardiac MRI CSPAMM tagging at rest was not different between carriers and non-carriers of the β1-AR Gly49allele. Conclusion Similar LV cardiac motion kinetics at rest in donor hearts carrying either β1-AR Gly49 or β1-Ser49Ser variant suggests exercise-induced desensitization and down-regulation of the β1-AR Gly49 variant as relevant pathomechanism for reduced peak VO2 in β1-AR Gly49 carriers. PMID:27669015

  3. Beta-adrenergic-regulated phosphorylation of the skeletal muscle Ca(V)1.1 channel in the fight-or-flight response.

    PubMed

    Emrick, Michelle A; Sadilek, Martin; Konoki, Keiichi; Catterall, William A

    2010-10-26

    Ca(V)1 channels initiate excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal and cardiac muscle. During the fight-or-flight response, epinephrine released by the adrenal medulla and norepinephrine released from sympathetic nerves increase muscle contractility by activation of the β-adrenergic receptor/cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathway and up-regulation of Ca(V)1 channels in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Although the physiological mechanism of this pathway is well defined, the molecular mechanism and the sites of protein phosphorylation required for Ca(V)1 channel regulation are unknown. To identify the regulatory sites of phosphorylation under physiologically relevant conditions, Ca(V)1.1 channels were purified from skeletal muscle and sites of phosphorylation on the α1 subunit were identified by mass spectrometry. Two phosphorylation sites were identified in the proximal C-terminal domain, serine 1575 (S1575) and threonine 1579 (T1579), which are conserved in cardiac Ca(V)1.2 channels (S1700 and T1704, respectively). In vitro phosphorylation revealed that Ca(V)1.1-S1575 is a substrate for both cAMP-dependent protein kinase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, whereas Ca(V)1.1-T1579 is a substrate for casein kinase 2. Treatment of rabbits with isoproterenol to activate β-adrenergic receptors increased phosphorylation of S1575 in skeletal muscle Ca(V)1.1 channels in vivo, and treatment with propranolol to inhibit β-adrenergic receptors reduced phosphorylation. As S1575 and T1579 in Ca(V)1.1 channels and their homologs in Ca(V)1.2 channels are located at a key regulatory interface between the distal and proximal C-terminal domains, it is likely that phosphorylation of these sites in skeletal and cardiac muscle is directly involved in calcium channel regulation in response to the sympathetic nervous system in the fight-or-flight response.

  4. Increased Atrial β-Adrenergic Receptors and GRK-2 Gene Expression Can Play a Fundamental Role in Heart Failure After Repair of Congenital Heart Disease with Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcela Silva; Carmona, Fabio; Vicente, Walter V A; Manso, Paulo H; Mata, Karina M; Celes, Mara Rúbia; Campos, Erica C; Ramos, Simone G

    2017-02-18

    Surgeries to correct congenital heart diseases are increasing in Brazil and worldwide. However, even with the advances in surgical techniques and perfusion, some cases, especially the more complex ones, can develop heart failure and death. A retrospective study of patients who underwent surgery for correction of congenital heart diseases with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in a university tertiary-care hospital that died, showed infarction in different stages of evolution and scattered microcalcifications in the myocardium, even without coronary obstruction. CPB is a process routinely used during cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease. However, CPB has been related to increased endogenous catecholamines that can lead to major injuries in cardiomyocytes. The mechanisms involved are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the alterations induced in the β-adrenergic receptors and GRK-2 present in atrial cardiomyocytes of infants with congenital heart disease undergoing surgical repair with CPB and correlate the alterations with functional and biochemical markers of ischemia/myocardial injury. The study consisted of right atrial biopsies of infants undergoing surgical correction in HC-FMRPUSP. Thirty-three cases were selected. Atrial biopsies were obtained at the beginning of CPB (group G1) and at the end of CPB (group G2). Real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence analysis were conducted to evaluate the expression of β1, β2-adrenergic receptors, and GRK-2 in atrial myocardium. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography and biochemical analysis (N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP), lactate, and cardiac troponin I). We observed an increase in serum lactate, NT-proBNP, and troponin I at the end of CPB indicating tissue hypoxia/ischemia. Even without major clinical consequences in cardiac function, these alterations were followed by a significant increase in gene expression of β1 and β2 receptors and

  5. Somatotopy of the neurons innervating the cricothyroid, posterior cricoarytenoid, and thyroarytenoid muscles of the rat's larynx.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Morato, Ignacio; Pascual-Font, Arán; Ramírez, Carlos; Matarranz-Echeverría, Jorge; McHanwell, Stephen; Vázquez, Teresa; Sañudo, Jose R; Valderrama-Canales, Francisco J

    2013-03-01

    Neurons innervating the intrinsic muscles of the larynx are located within the nucleus ambiguus but the precise distribution of the neurons for each muscle is still a matter for debate. The purpose of this study was to finely determine the position and the number of the neurons innervating the intrinsic laryngeal muscles cricothyroid, posterior cricoarytenoid, and thyroarytenoid in the rat. The study was carried out in a total of 28 Sprague Dawley rats. The B subunit of the cholera toxin was employed as a retrograde tracer to determine the locations, within the nucleus ambiguus, of the neurons of these intrinsic laryngeal muscles following intramuscular injection. The labelled neurons were found ipsilaterally in the nucleus ambiguus grouped in discrete populations with reproducible rostrocaudal and dorsoventral locations among the sample of animals. Neurons innervating the cricothyroid muscle were located the most rostral of the three populations, neurons innervating the posterior cricoarytenoid were found more caudal, though there was a region of rostrocaudal overlap between these two populations. The most caudal were the neurons innervating the thyroarytenoid muscle, presenting a variable degree of overlap with the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle. The mean number (±SD) of labelled neurons was found to be 41 ± 9 for the cricothyroid, 39 ± 10 for the posterior cricoarytenoid and 33 ± 12 for the thyroarytenoid.

  6. Langerhans Cells Regulate Cutaneous Innervation Density and Mechanical Sensitivity in Mouse Footpad

    PubMed Central

    Doss, Argenia L. N.; Smith, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Langerhans cells are epidermal dendritic cells responsible for antigen presentation during an immune response. Langerhans cells associate intimately with epidermal sensory axons. While there is evidence that Langerhans cells may produce neurotrophic factors, a role in regulating cutaneous innervation has not been established. We used genetically engineered mice in which the diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor is targeted to Langerhans cells (Lang-DTR mice) to assess sensory axon-dendritic cell interactions. Diphtheria toxin administration to wild type mice did not affect epidermal structure, Langerhans cell content, or innervation density. A DT administration regimen supramaximal for completely ablating epidermal Langerhans cells in Lang-DTR mice reduced PGP 9.5–immunoreactive total innervation and calcitonin gene related peptide–immunoreactive peptidergic nociceptor innervation. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that epidermal gene expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor was unchanged, but nerve growth factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor mRNAs were reduced. Behavioral testing showed that, while thermal sensitivity was unaffected, mice depleted of Langerhans cells displayed mechanical hypersensitivity. These findings provide evidence that Langerhans cells play an important role in determining cutaneous sensory innervation density and mechanical sensitivity. This may involve alterations in neurotrophin production by Langerhans or other epidermal cells, which in turn may affect mechanical sensitivity directly or as a result of neuropathic changes. PMID:24970748

  7. Parasympathetic innervation of the initial segments of the large intestine in cats.

    PubMed

    Dorofeeva, A A; Panteleev, S S; Makarov, F N

    2008-11-01

    The locations and morphometric characteristics of efferent parasympathetic neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve and the cruciform parasympathetic nucleus of the spinal cord, innervating the area of the ileocecal sphincter and the ascending and transverse segments of the colon, were studied. Horseradish peroxidase solution was injected beneath the serous membranes of these parts of the intestine in urethane-anesthetized cats. After 48 h, animals were subjected to transcardiac perfusion with a fixative mixture and sections of the medulla oblongata and spinal cord were prepared and processed by the Mesulam method. The results showed that all these parts of the large intestine received parasympathetic innervation from neurons in the ventrolateral part of the dorsal motor nucleus, which were uniform in terms of their morphometric characteristics. The number of neurons of this group sending axons to the ileocecal area was greater than the number of neurons innervating the ascending colon. A second group of neurons, which were smaller cells, was located in the same part of the nucleus and innervated the transverse colon. The transverse colon also received innervation from neurons in the cruciform parasympathetic nucleus of the spinal cord.

  8. Cortical serotonin and norepinephrine denervation in parkinsonism: preferential loss of the beaded serotonin innervation.

    PubMed

    Nayyar, Tultul; Bubser, Michael; Ferguson, Marcus C; Neely, M Diana; Shawn Goodwin, J; Montine, Thomas J; Deutch, Ariel Y; Ansah, Twum A

    2009-07-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) is marked by prominent motor symptoms that reflect striatal dopamine insufficiency. However, non-motor symptoms, including depression, are common in PD. It has been suggested that these changes reflect pathological involvement of non-dopaminergic systems. We examined regional changes in serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) systems in mice treated with two different 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment paradigms, at survival times of 3 or 16 weeks after the last MPTP injection. MPTP caused a decrease in striatal dopamine concentration, the magnitude of which depended on the treatment regimen and survival interval after MPTP treatment. There was significant involvement of other subcortical areas receiving a dopamine innervation, but no consistent changes in 5-HT or NE levels in subcortical sites. In contrast, we observed an enduring decrease in 5-HT and NE concentrations in both the somatosensory cortex and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). Immunohistochemical studies also revealed a decrease in the density of PFC NE and 5-HT axons. The decrease in the cortical serotonergic innervation preferentially involved the thick beaded but not smooth fine 5-HT axons. Similar changes in the 5-HT innervation of post-mortem samples of the PFC from idiopathic PD cases were seen. Our findings point to a major loss of the 5-HT and NE innervations of the cortex in MPTP-induced parkinsonism, and suggest that loss of the beaded cortical 5-HT innervation is associated with a predisposition to the development of depression in PD.

  9. Analysis and measurement of the sympathetic and sensory innervation of white and brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Cheryl H; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Ehlen, J Christopher; Bartness, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Here, we provide a detailed account of how to denervate white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT) and how to measure sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity to these and other tissues neurochemically. The brain controls many of the functions of WAT and BAT via the SNS innervation of the tissues, especially lipolysis and thermogenesis, respectively. There is no clearly demonstrated parasympathetic innervation of WAT or the major interscapular BAT (IBAT) depot. WAT and BAT communicate with the brain neurally via sensory nerves. We detail the surgical denervation (eliminating both innervations) of several WAT pads and IBAT. We also detail more selective chemical denervation of the SNS innervation via intra-WAT/IBAT 6-hydroxy-dopamine (a catecholaminergic neurotoxin) injections and selective chemical sensory denervation via intra-WAT/IBAT capsaicin (a sensory nerve neurotoxin) injections. Verifications of the denervations are provided (HPLC-EC detection for SNS, ELIA for calcitonin gene-related peptide (proven sensory nerve marker)). Finally, assessment of the SNS drive to WAT/BAT or other tissues is described using the alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine method combined with HPLC-EC, a direct neurochemical measure of SNS activity. These methods have proven useful for us and for other investigators interested in innervation of adipose tissues. The chemical denervation approach has been extended to nonadipose tissues as well.

  10. Pattern of sensory innervation of the perineal skin in the female rat.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Yolanda; Zempoalteca, René; Angelica Lucio, Rosa; Pacheco, Pablo; Hudson, Robyn; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita

    2004-10-22

    Here we describe the nerves innervating the perineal skin together with their sensory fields in the adult female rat. Electrophysiological recording showed that the lumbosacral and L6-S1 trunks, in part by way of the sacral plexus, transmit sensory information from the perineal skin via four nerves: the viscerocutaneous branch of the pelvic nerve innervating the skin at the midline between the vaginal opening and anus, the sensory branch of the pudendal nerve innervating the clitoral sheath, the distal perineal branch of the pudendal nerve innervating a broad area of skin adjacent to the vaginal opening and anus, and the proximal perineal branch of the sacral plexus innervating a broad area of skin adjacent to the clitoris and vaginal opening. The sensory fields of three of these nerves overlapped to some degree: the viscerocutaneous branch of the pelvic and the distal perineal branch of the pudendal nerves at the midline skin between the vaginal opening and the anus, and the distal perineal branch of the pudendal nerve and the proximal perineal branch of the sacral plexus at the skin lateral to the vaginal opening. Such overlap might provide a safeguard helping to ensure that somatosensory input from the perineal region important for triggering reproductive and nonreproductive reflexes reaches the CNS.

  11. Innervation is required for sense organ development in the lateral line system of adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wada, Hironori; Dambly-Chaudière, Christine; Kawakami, Koichi; Ghysen, Alain

    2013-04-02

    Superficial mechanosensory organs (neuromasts) distributed over the head and body of fishes and amphibians form the "lateral line" system. During zebrafish adulthood, each neuromast of the body (posterior lateral line system, or PLL) produces "accessory" neuromasts that remain tightly clustered, thereby increasing the total number of PLL neuromasts by a factor of more than 10. This expansion is achieved by a budding process and is accompanied by branches of the afferent nerve that innervates the founder neuromast. Here we show that innervation is essential for the budding process, in complete contrast with the development of the embryonic PLL, where innervation is entirely dispensable. To obtain insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie the budding process, we focused on the terminal system that develops at the posterior tip of the body and on the caudal fin. In this subset of PLL neuromasts, bud neuromasts form in a reproducible sequence over a few days, much faster than for other PLL neuromasts. We show that wingless/int (Wnt) signaling takes place during, and is required for, the budding process. We also show that the Wnt activator R-spondin is expressed by the axons that innervate budding neuromasts. We propose that the axon triggers Wnt signaling, which itself is involved in the proliferative phase that leads to bud formation. Finally, we show that innervation is required not only for budding, but also for long-term maintenance of all PLL neuromasts.

  12. Adrenergic Response to Maximum Exercise of Trained Road Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Janikowska, Grażyna; Kochańska - Dziurowicz, Aleksandra; Żebrowska, Aleksandra; Bijak, Aleksandra; Kimsa, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate adrenergic responses in the peripheral blood of trained road cyclists at rest, at maximal intensity of incremental bicycle exercise test, and during 15 minutes of recovery, as well as the relationship between them. Competitive male road cyclists, in the pre-competitive phase of a season, mean age 21.7 ± 6.4 years, and BMI 20.7 ± 0.8 kg·m−2, performed an incremental test on a bicycle ergometer with unloaded cycling for 5 min, then increased the load to 40 W every 3 min, up to maximal exercise intensity. The plasma catecholamine concentrations (epinephrine, norepinephrine) and oxygen uptake were estimated. The expression of 132 genes related to the adrenergic system in leukocytes was measured. A statistically significant increase in plasma epinephrine concentration (p < 0.01) was observed in response to exercise. The mean of maximal oxygen uptake was 65.7 ± 5.5 ml·kg−1·min−1. The RGS2 gene expression was highest regardless of the test phase for all athletes. The effort had a statistically significant influence on ADRB2 and RAB2A expression. In addition, the RAB2A, ADM and HSPB1 expression level increased during recovery. We can conclude that plasma epinephrine concentration and genes related to the adrenergic system such as ADM, ADRB2, CCL3, GPRASP1, HSPB1, RAB2A, RGS2 and ROCK1 seem to have an influence on the response to high-intensity exercise in trained cyclists. PMID:25031678

  13. Antagonism of Lateral Amygdala Alpha1-Adrenergic Receptors Facilitates Fear Conditioning and Long-Term Potentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazzaro, Stephanie C.; Hou, Mian; Cunha, Catarina; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Cain, Christopher K.

    2010-01-01

    Norepinephrine receptors have been studied in emotion, memory, and attention. However, the role of alpha1-adrenergic receptors in fear conditioning, a major model of emotional learning, is poorly understood. We examined the effect of terazosin, an alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, on cued fear conditioning. Systemic or intra-lateral amygdala…

  14. Mapping Neuronal Activation and the Influence of Adrenergic Signaling during Contextual Memory Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wei-Ping; Guzowski, John F.; Thomas, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    We recently described a critical role for adrenergic signaling in the hippocampus during contextual and spatial memory retrieval. To determine which neurons are activated by contextual memory retrieval and its sequelae in the presence and absence of adrenergic signaling, transcriptional imaging for the immediate-early gene "Arc" was used in…

  15. Exceptional CO₂ tolerance in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) is associated with protection of maximum cardiac performance during hypercapnia in situ.

    PubMed

    Baker, Daniel W; Hanson, Linda M; Farrell, Anthony P; Brauner, Colin J

    2011-01-01

    White sturgeon rank among the most CO₂-tolerant fish species examined to date. We investigated whether this exceptional CO₂ tolerance extended to the heart, an organ generally viewed as acidosis intolerant. Maximum cardiac output (Q(max)) and maximum cardiac power output (PO(max)) were assessed using a working, perfused, in situ heart preparation. Exposure to a Pco₂ of 3 kPa for 20 min had no significant effect on maximum cardiac performance, while exposure to 6-kPa Pco₂ reduced heart rate, Q(max), PO(max), and rate of ventricular force generation (F(O)) by 23%, 28%, 26%, and 18%, respectively; however, full recovery was observed in all these parameters upon return to control conditions. These modest impairments during exposure to 6-kPa Pco₂ were associated with partially compensated intracellular ventricular acidosis. Maximum adrenergic stimulation (500 nmol L⁻¹ adrenaline) during 6-kPa Pco₂ protected maximum cardiac performance via increased inotropy (force of contraction) without affecting heart rate. Exposure to higher CO₂ levels associated with morbidity in vivo (i.e., 8-kPa Pco₂) induced arrhythmia and a reduction in stroke volume during power assessment. Clearly, white sturgeon hearts are able to increase cardiac performance during severe hypercapnia that is lethal to other fishes. Future work focusing on atypical aspects of sturgeon cardiac function, including the lack of chronotropic response to adrenergic stimulation during hypercapnia, is warranted.

  16. Cardiac xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    DiSesa, V J

    1997-12-01

    Heart failure is an important medical and public health problem. Although medical therapy is effective for many people, the only definitive therapy is heart transplantation, which is limited severely by the number of donors. Mechanical devices presently are used as "bridges" to transplantation. Their widespread use may solve the donor shortage problem, but at present, mechanical devices are limited by problems related to blood clotting, power supply, and foreign body infection. Cardiac xenotransplantation using animal donors is a potential biologic solution to the donor organ shortage. The immune response, consisting of hyperacute rejection, acute vascular rejection, and cellular rejection, currently prevents clinical xenotransplantation. Advances in the solution of these problems have been made using conventional immunosuppressive drugs and newer agents whose use is based on an understanding of important steps in xenoimmunity. The most exciting approaches use tools of molecular biology to create genetically engineered donors and to induce states of donor and recipient bone marrow chimerism and tolerance in xenogeneic organ recipients. The successful future strategy may use a combination of a genetically engineered donor and a chimeric recipient with or without nonspecific immunosuppressive drugs.

  17. A Case of Adrenergic Urticaria Associated with Vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Caroline; Kaya, Gürkan

    2016-01-01

    Adrenergic urticaria is a rare form of urticaria, induced by a stress-induced concomitant release of epinephrine and norepinephrine. Here we describe the case of a 60-year-old female patient presenting with disseminated erythematous papules surrounded by a white halo and vitiligo lesions on the hands, arms, and feet. Histological examination of one of the erythematous papules showed a dermal inflammatory infiltrate composed of lymphocytes and eosinophils of perivascular and interstitial localization. After 2 weeks of treatment with antihistamines, the lesions disappeared completely. PMID:28232908

  18. Increased alpha-adrenergic responsiveness in idiopathic Raynaud's disease.

    PubMed

    Freedman, R R; Sabharal, S C; Desai, N; Wenig, P; Mayes, M

    1989-01-01

    In our study of 28 patients with idiopathic Raynaud's disease, the patients had significantly greater digital blood flow responses to intraarterial phenylephrine and clonidine than did normal control subjects. There were no group differences in finger blood flow responses to body heating, reflex cooling, digital ischemia, or to intraarterial tyramine or isoproterenol. There were also no group differences in blood pressure or heart rate during any procedure. These results suggest that patients with idiopathic Raynaud's disease have increased peripheral vascular alpha-adrenergic receptor sensitivity and/or density compared with normal persons.

  19. Cellular interactions uncouple beta-adrenergic receptors from adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Ciment, G; de Vellis, J

    1978-11-17

    C6 glioma cells and B104 neuroblastoma cells both possess adenylate cyclase activity, but only C6 cells have beta-adrenergic receptors. However, when cocultured with B104 cells, C6 cells show a marked decrease in their ability to accumulate adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate upon stimulation with beta receptor agonists. Since both beta receptors and cholera toxin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activities are present in C6/B104 cocultures, we conclude that the beta receptor/adenylate cyclase transduction mechanism in cocultured C6 cells is uncoupled.

  20. Nanofibers implant functionalized by neural growth factor as a strategy to innervate a bioengineered tooth.

    PubMed

    Eap, Sandy; Bécavin, Thibault; Keller, Laetitia; Kökten, Tunay; Fioretti, Florence; Weickert, Jean-Luc; Deveaux, Etienne; Benkirane-Jessel, Nadia; Kuchler-Bopp, Sabine

    2014-03-01

    Current strategies for jaw reconstruction require multiple procedures, to repair the bone defect, to offer sufficient support, and to place the tooth implant. The entire procedure can be painful and time-consuming, and the desired functional repair can be achieved only when both steps are successful. The ability to engineer combined tooth and bone constructs, which would grow in a coordinated fashion with the surrounding tissues, could potentially improve the clinical outcomes and also reduce patient suffering. A unique nanofibrous and active implant for bone-tooth unit regeneration and also the innervation of this bioengineered tooth are demonstrated. A nanofibrous polycaprolactone membrane is functionalized with neural growth factor, along with dental germ, and tooth innervation follows. Such innervation allows complete functionality and tissue homeostasis of the tooth, such as dentinal sensitivity, odontoblast function, masticatory forces, and blood flow.

  1. Brain Ischemia Suppresses Immunity in the Periphery and Brain via Different Neurogenic Innervations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Jin, Wei-Na; Liu, Yaou; Shi, Kaibin; Sun, Haoran; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Chao; Gonzales, Rayna J; Sheth, Kevin N; La Cava, Antonio; Shi, Fu-Dong

    2017-03-21

    Brain ischemia inhibits immune function systemically, with resulting infectious complications. Whether in stroke different immune alterations occur in brain and periphery and whether analogous mechanisms operate in these compartments remains unclear. Here we show that in patients with ischemic stroke and in mice subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion, natural killer (NK) cells display remarkably distinct temporal and transcriptome profiles in the brain as compared to the periphery. The activation of catecholaminergic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis leads to splenic atrophy and contraction of NK cell numbers in the periphery through a modulated expression of SOCS3, whereas cholinergic innervation-mediated suppression of NK cell responses in the brain involves RUNX3. Importantly, pharmacological or genetic ablation of innervation preserved NK cell function and restrained post-stroke infection. Thus, brain ischemia compromises NK cell-mediated immune defenses through mechanisms that differ in the brain versus the periphery, and targeted inhibition of neurogenic innervation limits post-stroke infection.

  2. A Common Polymorphism of the Human Cardiac Sodium Channel Alpha Subunit (SCN5A) Gene Is Associated with Sudden Cardiac Death in Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marcsa, Boglárka; Dénes, Réka; Vörös, Krisztina; Rácz, Gergely; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Rónai, Zsolt; Törő, Klára; Keszler, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac death remains one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Recent research has shed light on pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cardiac death, and several genetic variants in novel candidate genes have been identified as risk factors. However, the vast majority of studies performed so far investigated genetic associations with specific forms of cardiac death only (sudden, arrhythmogenic, ischemic etc.). The aim of the present investigation was to find a genetic marker that can be used as a general, powerful predictor of cardiac death risk. To this end, a case-control association study was performed on a heterogeneous cohort of cardiac death victims (n=360) and age-matched controls (n=300). Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from five candidate genes (beta2 adrenergic receptor, nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein, ryanodine receptor 2, sodium channel type V alpha subunit and transforming growth factor-beta receptor 2) that had previously been shown to associate with certain forms of cardiac death were genotyped using sequence-specific real-time PCR probes. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the CC genotype of the rs11720524 polymorphism in the SCN5A gene encoding a subunit of the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel occurred more frequently in the highly heterogeneous cardiac death cohort compared to the control population (p=0.019, odds ratio: 1.351). A detailed subgroup analysis uncovered that this effect was due to an association of this variant with cardiac death in chronic ischemic heart disease (p=0.012, odds ratio = 1.455). None of the other investigated polymorphisms showed association with cardiac death in this context. In conclusion, our results shed light on the role of this non-coding polymorphism in cardiac death in ischemic cardiomyopathy. Functional studies are needed to explore the pathophysiological background of this association. PMID:26146998

  3. A Common Polymorphism of the Human Cardiac Sodium Channel Alpha Subunit (SCN5A) Gene Is Associated with Sudden Cardiac Death in Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Marcsa, Boglárka; Dénes, Réka; Vörös, Krisztina; Rácz, Gergely; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Rónai, Zsolt; Törő, Klára; Keszler, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac death remains one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Recent research has shed light on pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cardiac death, and several genetic variants in novel candidate genes have been identified as risk factors. However, the vast majority of studies performed so far investigated genetic associations with specific forms of cardiac death only (sudden, arrhythmogenic, ischemic etc.). The aim of the present investigation was to find a genetic marker that can be used as a general, powerful predictor of cardiac death risk. To this end, a case-control association study was performed on a heterogeneous cohort of cardiac death victims (n=360) and age-matched controls (n=300). Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from five candidate genes (beta2 adrenergic receptor, nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein, ryanodine receptor 2, sodium channel type V alpha subunit and transforming growth factor-beta receptor 2) that had previously been shown to associate with certain forms of cardiac death were genotyped using sequence-specific real-time PCR probes. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the CC genotype of the rs11720524 polymorphism in the SCN5A gene encoding a subunit of the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel occurred more frequently in the highly heterogeneous cardiac death cohort compared to the control population (p=0.019, odds ratio: 1.351). A detailed subgroup analysis uncovered that this effect was due to an association of this variant with cardiac death in chronic ischemic heart disease (p=0.012, odds ratio = 1.455). None of the other investigated polymorphisms showed association with cardiac death in this context. In conclusion, our results shed light on the role of this non-coding polymorphism in cardiac death in ischemic cardiomyopathy. Functional studies are needed to explore the pathophysiological background of this association.

  4. Developmental and diurnal dynamics of Pax4 expression in the mammalian pineal gland: nocturnal down-regulation is mediated by adrenergic-cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate signaling.

    PubMed

    Rath, Martin F; Bailey, Michael J; Kim, Jong-So; Ho, Anthony K; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Coon, Steven L; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C

    2009-02-01

    Pax4 is a homeobox gene that is known to be involved in embryonic development of the endocrine pancreas. In this tissue, Pax4 counters the effects of the related protein, Pax6. Pax6 is essential for development of the pineal gland. In this study we report that Pax4 is strongly expressed in the pineal gland and retina of the rat. Pineal Pax4 transcripts are low in the fetus and increase postnatally; Pax6 exhibits an inverse pattern of expression, being more strongly expressed in the fetus. In the adult the abundance of Pax4 mRNA exhibits a diurnal rhythm in the pineal gland with maximal levels occurring late during the light period. Sympathetic denervation of the pineal gland by superior cervical ganglionectomy prevents the nocturnal decrease in pineal Pax4 mRNA. At night the pineal gland is adrenergically stimulated by release of norepinephrine from the sympathetic innervation; here, we found that treatment with adrenergic agonists suppresses pineal Pax4 expression in vivo and in vitro. This suppression appears to be mediated by cAMP, a second messenger of norepinephrine in the pineal gland, based on the observation that treatment with a cAMP mimic reduces pineal Pax4 mRNA levels. These findings suggest that the nocturnal decrease in pineal Pax4 mRNA is controlled by the sympathetic neural pathway that controls pineal function acting via an adrenergic-cAMP mechanism. The daily changes in Pax4 expression may influence gene expression in the pineal gland.

  5. The adductor part of the adductor magnus is innervated by both obturator and sciatic nerves.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Megumi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Ito, Hajime; Fujimiya, Mineko; Uchiyama, Eiichi

    2014-07-01

    The hip adductor group, innervated predominantly by the obturator nerve, occupies a large volume of the lower limb. However, case reports of patients with obturator nerve palsy or denervation have described no more than minimal gait disturbance. Those facts are surprising, given the architectural characteristics of the hip adductors. Our aim was to investigate which regions of the adductor magnus are innervated by the obturator nerve and by which sciatic nerve and to consider the clinical implications. Twenty-one lower limbs were examined from 21 formalin-fixed cadavers, 18 males and 3 females. The adductor magnus was dissected and was divided into four parts (AM1-AM4) based on the locations of the perforating arteries and the adductor hiatus. AM1 was supplied solely by the obturator nerve. AM2, AM3, and AM4 received innervation from both the posterior branch of the obturator nerve and the tibial nerve portion of the sciatic nerve in 2 (9.5%), 20 (95.2%), and 6 (28.6%) of the cadavers, respectively. The double innervation in more than 90% of the AM3s is especially noteworthy. Generally, AM1-AM3 corresponds to the adductor part, traditionally characterized as innervated by the obturator nerve, and AM4 corresponds to the hamstrings part, innervated by the sciatic nerve. Here, we showed that the sciatic nerve supplies not only the hamstrings part but also the adductor part. These two nerves spread more widely than has generally been believed, which could have practical implications for the assessment and treatment of motor disability.

  6. Establishment of left-right asymmetric innervation in the lancelet oral region.

    PubMed

    Kaji, T; Aizawa, S; Uemura, M; Yasui, K

    2001-07-09

    Lancelets (amphioxus) exhibit a remarkable asymmetric development in the anterior body region, which is reflected in the peripheral nervous system even at adulthood. Not all of the anterior nerves are involved, but the left third to fifth nerves are clearly asymmetric. To trace the developmental process responsible for asymmetric innervation, the peripheral nerves in the anterior region were studied in pre- and mid-metamorphic larvae, 1-cm-long juveniles, and in adults by using whole-mount immunostaining. The mouth changes in size and location during larval life before moving ventrally and, in conjunction with this change, nerves in the oral region are also modified. The left second nerve initially innervates the oral region, but this connection is secondarily lost. As the mouth expands and shifts posteriorly, the left fifth to ninth nerves join the left third and fourth in the innervation of the oral region. The left third to sixth nerves anastomose with the oral nerve ring, which encircles the mouth on the left side. In the juveniles and adults, there are two nerve plexuses that run parallel to the margin of the oral hood. The innermost of these, the "inner oral-hood nerve plexus", is asymmetrically connected with the left third to fifth nerves on both sides. The other, the "outer oral-hood nerve plexus", is ipsilaterally connected with the third to seventh nerves on both sides. The velar nerve ring is also innervated asymmetrically by the left fourth and fifth nerves. From these observations, we suggest that the oral nerve ring is the precursor of both the inner oral-hood nerve plexus and the velar nerve ring, and that the asymmetric innervation retained in adult lancelets is related to the early anastomosis of the left nerves with the oral nerve ring. We also show that, contrary to the persistent asymmetric innervation, the axonal patterns of the anterior peripheral nervous system in developing lancelets can change.

  7. Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells, airway innervation, and smooth muscle are altered in Cftr null mice.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jie; Luk, Catherine; Kent, Geraldine; Cutz, Ernest; Yeger, Herman

    2006-09-01

    The amine- and peptide-producing pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNEC) are widely distributed within the airway mucosa of mammalian lung as solitary cells and innervated clusters, neuroepithelial bodies (NEB), which function as airway O2 sensors. These cells express Cftr and hence could play a role in the pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. We performed confocal microscopy and morphometric analysis on lung sections from Cftr-/- (null), Cftr+/+, and Cftr+/- (control) mice at developmental stages E20, P5, P9, and P30 to determine the distribution, frequency, and innervation of PNEC/NEB, innervation and cell mass of airway smooth muscle, and neuromuscular junctions using synaptic vesicle protein 2, smooth muscle actin, and synaptophysin markers, respectively. The mean number of PNEC/NEB in Cftr-/- mice was significantly reduced compared with control mice at E20, whereas comparable or increased numbers were observed postnatally. NEB cells in Cftr null mice showed a significant reduction in intracorpuscular nerve endings compared with control mice, which is consistent with an intrinsic abnormality of the PNEC system. The airways of Cftr-/- mice showed reduced density (approximately 20-30%) of smooth muscle innervation, decreased mean airway smooth muscle mass (approximately 35%), and reduced density (approximately 20%) of nerve endings compared with control mice. We conclude that the airways of Cftr-/- mice exhibit heretofore unappreciated structural alterations affecting cellular and neural components of the PNEC system and airway smooth muscle and its innervation resulting in blunted O2 sensing and reduced airway tonus. Cftr could play a role in the development of the PNEC system, lung innervation, and airway smooth muscle.

  8. Epac1-dependent phospholamban phosphorylation mediates the cardiac response to stresses

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, Satoshi; Fujita, Takayuki; Cai, Wenqian; Jin, Meihua; Namekata, Iyuki; Mototani, Yasumasa; Jin, Huiling; Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Tsuneoka, Yayoi; Kurotani, Reiko; Suita, Kenji; Kawakami, Yuko; Hamaguchi, Shogo; Abe, Takaya; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Tsunematsu, Takashi; Bai, Yunzhe; Suzuki, Sayaka; Hidaka, Yuko; Umemura, Masanari; Ichikawa, Yasuhiro; Yokoyama, Utako; Sato, Motohiko; Ishikawa, Fumio; Izumi-Nakaseko, Hiroko; Adachi-Akahane, Satomi; Tanaka, Hikaru; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    PKA phosphorylates multiple molecules involved in calcium (Ca2+) handling in cardiac myocytes and is considered to be the predominant regulator of β-adrenergic receptor–mediated enhancement of cardiac contractility; however, recent identification of exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC), which is independently activated by cAMP, has challenged this paradigm. Mice lacking Epac1 (Epac1 KO) exhibited decreased cardiac contractility with reduced phospholamban (PLN) phosphorylation at serine-16, the major PKA-mediated phosphorylation site. In Epac1 KO mice, intracellular Ca2+ storage and the magnitude of Ca2+ movement were decreased; however, PKA expression remained unchanged, and activation of PKA with isoproterenol improved cardiac contractility. In contrast, direct activation of EPAC in cardiomyocytes led to increased PLN phosphorylation at serine-16, which was dependent on PLC and PKCε. Importantly, Epac1 deletion protected the heart from various stresses, while Epac2 deletion was not protective. Compared with WT mice, aortic banding induced a similar degree of cardiac hypertrophy in Epac1 KO; however, lack of Epac1 prevented subsequent cardiac dysfunction as a result of decreased cardiac myocyte apoptosis and fibrosis. Similarly, Epac1 KO animals showed resistance to isoproterenol- and aging-induced cardiomyopathy and attenuation of arrhythmogenic activity. These data support Epac1 as an important regulator of PKA-independent PLN phosphorylation and indicate that Epac1 regulates cardiac responsiveness to various stresses. PMID:24892712

  9. Organization of the innervation of the oesophagus and stomach in chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger, Molina).

    PubMed

    Nowak, Elżbieta

    2013-01-01

    Using the histochemical and histological techniques the morphology and topography of the autonomic plexuses of the oesophagus and stomach in chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger) was investigated. AChE-positive and adrenergic structures in the myenteric and submucosal plexus were observed. According to the results the cholinergic structures were formed by the different in shape network meshes, various size of the neurons agglomerations and nerve fibres. Adrenergic fibres were found. Density of these structures varied in different parts of the investigated organs. This study is the first attempt to localize the intramural autonomic plexuses in this species.

  10. Regional brain distribution of noradrenaline uptake sites, and of alpha1-alpha2- and beta-adrenergic receptors in PCD mutant mice: a quantitative autoradiographic study.

    PubMed

    Strazielle, C; Lalonde, R; Hébert, C; Reader, T A

    1999-01-01

    The mouse "Purkinje cell degeneration" (pcd) is characterized by a primary loss of Purkinje cells, as well as by retrograde and secondary partial degeneration of cerebellar granule cells and inferior olivary neurons; this neurological mutant can be considered as an animal model of human degenerative ataxia. To determine the consequences of this cerebellar pathology on the noradrenergic system, noradrenaline transporters as well as alpha1-, alpha2- and beta-adrenergic receptors were evaluated by quantitative ligand binding autoradiography in adult control and pcd mice using, respectively, [3H]nisoxetine, [3H]prazosin, [3H]idazoxan and [3H]CGP12177. In cerebellar cortex and deep nuclei of pcd mutants, [3H]nisoxetine labelling of noradrenaline transporters was higher than in control mice. However, when binding densities were corrected by surface area, they remained unchanged in the cerebellar cortex but associated with 25% and 40% lower levels of labelling of alpha1 and beta receptors, as well as a very important increase (275%) of alpha2 receptors. In deep cerebellar nuclei, surface corrections did not reveal any changes either in transporter or in receptor densities. Higher densities of [3H]nisoxetine labelling were found in several regions related with the cerebellum, namely inferior olive, inferior colliculus, vestibular, reticular, pontine, raphe and red nuclei, as well as in primary motor and sensory cerebral cortex; they may reflect an increased noradrenergic innervation related to motor adjustments for the cerebellar dysfunction. Increased [3H]nisoxetine labelling was also measured in vegetative brainstem regions and in dorsal hypothalamus, implying altered autonomic functions and possible compensation in pcd mutants. Other changes found in extracerebellar regions affected by the mutation, such as thalamus and the olfactory system implicated both noradrenaline transporters and adrenergic receptors. In contrast to the important alterations of the noradrenergic

  11. Deficient Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Innervation in the Sweat Glands of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz-Erian, Peter; Dey, Richard D.; Flux, Marinus; Said, Sami I.

    1985-09-01

    The innervation of acini and ducts of eccrine sweat glands by immunoreactive, vasoactive intestinal peptide--containing nerve fibers was sharply reduced in seven patients with cystic fibrosis compared to eight normal subjects. The decrease in innervation by this neuropeptide, which has been shown to promote blood flow and the movement of water and chloride across epithelial surfaces in other systems, may be a basic mechanism for the decreased water content and relative impermeability of the epithelium to chloride and other ions that characterize cystic fibrosis.

  12. Three-dimensional analysis of vestibular efferent neurons innervating semicircular canals of the gerbil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purcell, I. M.; Perachio, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    Anterograde labeling techniques were used to examine peripheral innervation patterns of vestibular efferent neurons in the crista ampullares of the gerbil. Vestibular efferent neurons were labeled by extracellular injections of biocytin or biotinylated dextran amine into the contralateral or ipsilateral dorsal subgroup of efferent cell bodies (group e) located dorsolateral to the facial nerve genu. Anterogradely labeled efferent terminal field varicosities consist mainly of boutons en passant with fewer of the terminal type. The bouton swellings are located predominately in apposition to the basolateral borders of the afferent calyces and type II hair cells, but several boutons were identified close to the hair cell apical border on both types. Three-dimensional reconstruction and morphological analysis of the terminal fields from these cells located in the sensory neuroepithelium of the anterior, horizontal, and posterior cristae were performed. We show that efferent neurons densely innervate each end organ in widespread terminal fields. Subepithelial bifurcations of parent axons were minimal, with extensive collateralization occurring after the axons penetrated the basement membrane of the neuroepithelium. Axonal branching ranged between the 6th and 27th orders and terminal field collecting area far exceeds that of the peripheral terminals of primary afferent neurons. The terminal fields of the efferent neurons display three morphologically heterogeneous types: central, peripheral, and planum. All cell types possess terminal fields displaying a high degree of anisotropy with orientations typically parallel to or within +/-45 degrees of the longitudinal axis if the crista. Terminal fields of the central and planum zones predominately project medially toward the transverse axis from the more laterally located penetration of the basement membrane by the parent axon. Peripheral zone terminal fields extend predominately toward the planum semilunatum. The innervation

  13. The β3-adrenergic receptor is dispensable for browning of adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jasper M A; Wouters, René T F; Boulet, Nathalie; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan; Petrovic, Natasa

    2017-02-21

    Brown and brite/beige adipocytes are attractive therapeutic targets to treat metabolic diseases. To maximally utilize their functional potential, further understanding is required about their identities and their functional differences. Recent studies with β3-adrenergic receptor knockout mice reported that brite/beige adipocytes, but not classical brown adipocytes, require the β3-adrenergic receptor for cold-induced transcriptional activation of thermogenic genes. We aimed to further characterize this requirement of the β3-adrenergic receptor as a functional distinction between classical brown and brite/beige adipocytes. However, when comparing wild-type and β3-adrenergic receptor knockout mice, we observed no differences in cold-induced thermogenic gene expression (Ucp1, Pgc1a, Dio2 and Cidea) in brown or white (brite/beige) adipose tissues. Irrespective of the duration of the cold exposure or the sex of the mice, we observed no effect of the absence of the β3-adrenergic receptor. Experiments with the β3-adrenergic receptor agonist CL-316,243 verified the functional absence of β3-adrenergic signaling in these knockout mice. The β3-adrenergic receptor knockout model in the present study was maintained on a FVB/N background, whereas earlier reports used C57BL/6 and 129Sv mice. Thus, our data imply background-dependent differences in adrenergic signaling mechanisms in response to cold exposure. Nonetheless, the present data indicate that the β3-adrenergic receptor is dispensable for cold-induced transcriptional activation in both classical brown and, as opposed to earlier studies, brite/beige cells. This should be taken into account in the increasing number of studies on the induction of browning and their extrapolation to human physiology.

  14. Direct evidence for a β1-adrenergic receptor–directed autoimmune attack as a cause of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Roland; Boivin, Valérie; Hein, Lutz; Triebel, Sven; Angermann, Christiane E.; Ertl, Georg; Lohse, Martin J.

    2004-01-01

    Today, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) represents the main cause of severe heart failure and disability in younger adults and thus is a challenge for public health. About 30% of DCM cases are genetic in origin; however, the large majority of cases are sporadic, and a viral or immune pathogenesis is suspected. Following the established postulates for pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, here we provide direct evidence that an autoimmune attack directed against the cardiac β1-adrenergic receptor may play a causal role in DCM. First, we immunized inbred rats against the second extracellular β1-receptor loop (β1-ECII; 100% sequence identity between human and rat) every month. All these rats developed first, receptor-stimulating anti–β1-ECII Ab’s and then, after 9 months, progressive severe left ventricular dilatation and dysfunction. Second, we transferred sera from anti–β1-ECII–positive and Ab-negative animals every month to healthy rats of the same strain. Strikingly, all anti–β1-ECII–transferred rats also developed a similar cardiomyopathic phenotype within a similar time frame, underlining the pathogenic potential of these receptor Ab’s. As a consequence, β1-adrenergic receptor–targeted autoimmune DCM should now be categorized with other known receptor Ab-mediated autoimmune diseases, such as Graves disease or myasthenia gravis. Although carried out in an experimental animal model, our findings should further encourage the development of therapeutic strategies that combat harmful anti–β1-ECII in receptor Ab–positive DCM patients. PMID:15146239

  15. β1-Adrenergic and M2 Muscarinic Autoantibodies and Thyroid Hormone Facilitate Induction of Atrial Fibrillation in Male Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongliang; Murphy, Taylor; Zhang, Ling; Huang, Bing; Veitla, Vineet; Scherlag, Benjamin J; Kem, David C; Yu, Xichun

    2016-01-01

    Activating autoantibodies to the β1-adrenergic and M2 muscarinic receptors are present in a very high percentage of patients with Graves' disease and atrial fibrillation (AF). The objective of this study was to develop a reproducible animal model and thereby to examine the impact of these endocrine-like autoantibodies alone and with thyroid hormone on induction of thyroid-associated atrial tachyarrhythmias. Five New Zealand white rabbits were coimmunized with peptides from the second extracellular loops of the β1-adrenergic and M2 muscarinic receptors to produce both sympathomimetic and parasympathomimetic antibodies. A catheter-based electrophysiological study was performed on anesthetized rabbits before and after immunization and subsequent treatment with thyroid hormone. Antibody expression facilitated the induction of sustained sinus, junctional and atrial tachycardias, but not AF. Addition of excessive thyroid hormone resulted in induced sustained AF in all animals. AF induction was blocked acutely by the neutralization of these antibodies with immunogenic peptides despite continued hyperthyroidism. The measured atrial effective refractory period as one parameter of AF propensity shortened significantly after immunization and was acutely reversed by peptide neutralization. No further decrease in the effective refractory period was observed after the addition of thyroid hormone, suggesting other cardiac effects of thyroid hormone may contribute to its role in AF induction. This study demonstrates autonomic autoantibodies and thyroid hormone potentiate the vulnerability of the heart to AF, which can be reversed by decoy peptide therapy. These data help fulfill Witebsky's postulates for an increased autoimmune/endocrine basis for Graves' hyperthyroidism and AF.

  16. The inotropic effect of nitric oxide on mammalian papillary muscle is dependent on the level of beta1-adrenergic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Reading, S A; Barclay, J K

    2002-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide has a positive inotropic effect on mammalian cardiac muscle contractility and that this effect sums with the positive inotropic effect of beta1-adrenergic agonists when both are present. Feline right ventricular papillary muscles were stimulated to contract isometrically at 0.2 Hz in Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer (KREBS) gassed with 95% O2 and 5% CO2 (26 degrees C; pH 7.34). The nitric oxide (NO) donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP, 10(-5) M), and the membrane permeable cGMP analog 8-bromoguanosine-3',5'-cyclophosphate sodium (Br-cGMP, 10(-5) M), significantly increased developed force by 13.3+/-1.5% (n = 11) and 7.8+/-2.8% (n = 7), respectively. SNAP, at 10(-5) M, significantly increased the force developed by papillary muscle treated with 10(-11) M or 10(-9) M dobutamine hydrochloride (a beta1-adrenergic agonist) (n = 25, 11.3+/-2.9% and 10.0+/-3.6%, respectively) when compared with the addition of KREBS (n = 27, 2.6+/-0.9% and 5.5+/-0.9%), but the increase was less than predicted by the sum of inotropic effects of SNAP and dobutamine. SNAP at 10(-5) M did not change developed force in muscles treated with 10(-7) M dobutamine but it significantly decreased developed force in muscles challenged with 10(-5) M dobutamine (n = 18, 29.3+/-5.0%) when compared with KREBS (n = 10, 41.5+/-6.8%). Similarly, 10(-4) M 8-bromo-adenosine cyclic 3',5'-hydrogen phosphate monosodium (a membrane permeable cAMP analog) increased developed force 14.9+/-3.3% and the addition of 10(-5) M Br-cGMP to those muscles significantly reduced developed force by 3.5%+/-1.1% (n = 7). Thus, the positive inotropic effect of NO decreased and ultimately became an attenuation as the level of beta1-adrenergic stimulation increased due at least in part, to an interaction between the cAMP and cGMP second messenger pathways.

  17. From syncitium to regulated pump: a cardiac muscle cellular update

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to present a basic overview of some key teaching concepts that should be considered for inclusion in an six- to eight-lecture introductory block on the regulation of cardiac performance for graduate students. Within the context of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling, this review incorporates information on Ca2+ microdomains and local control theory, with particular emphasis on the role of Ca2+ sparks as a key regulatory component of ventricular myocyte contraction dynamics. Recent information pertaining to local Ca2+ cycling in sinoatrial nodal cells (SANCs) as a mechanism underlying cardiac automaticity is also presented as part of the recently described coupled-clock pacemaker system. The details of this regulation are emerging; however, the notion that the sequestration and release of Ca2+ from internal stores in SANCs (similar to that observed in ventricular myocytes) regulates the rhythmic excitation of the heart (i.e., membrane ion channels) is an important advancement in this area. The regulatory role of cardiac adrenergic receptors on cardiac rate and function is also included, and fundamental concepts related to intracellular signaling are discussed. An important point of emphasis is that whole organ cardiac dynamics can be traced back to cellular events regulating intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and, as such, provides an important conceptual framework from which students can begin to think about whole organ physiology in health and disease. Greater synchrony of Ca2+-regulatory mechanisms between ventricular and pacemaker cells should enhance student comprehension of complex regulatory phenomenon in cardiac muscle. PMID:21385997

  18. Bioisosteric phentolamine analogs as potent alpha-adrenergic antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seoung-Soo; Bavadekar, Supriya A; Lee, Sang-Il; Patil, Popat N; Lalchandani, S G; Feller, Dennis R; Miller, Duane D

    2005-11-01

    The synthesis and biological evaluation of a new series of bioisosteric phentolamine analogs are described. Replacement of the carbon next to the imidazoline ring of phentolamine with a nitrogen atom provides compounds (2, 3) that are about 1.6 times and 4.1 times more potent functionally than phentolamine on rat alpha1-adrenergic receptors, respectively. In receptor binding assays, the affinities of phentolamine and its bioisosteric analogs were determined on the human embryonic kidney (HEK) and Chinese Hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines expressing the human alpha1- and alpha2-AR subtypes, respectively. Analogs 2 and 3, both, displayed higher binding affinities at the alpha2- versus the alpha1-ARs, affinities being the least at the alpha1B-AR. Binding affinities of the methoxy ether analog 2 were greater than those of the phenolic analog 3 at all six alpha-AR subtypes. One of the nitrogen atoms in the imidazoline ring of phentolamine was replaced with an oxygen atom to give compounds 4 and 5, resulting in a 2-substituted oxazoline ring. The low functional antagonist activity on rat aorta, and binding potencies of these two compounds on human alpha1A- and alpha2A-AR subtypes indicate that a basic functional group is important for optimum binding to the alpha1- and alpha2A-adrenergic receptors.

  19. The Principles of Ligand Specificity on beta-2-adrenergic receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chan, H. C. Stephen; Filipek, Slawomir; Yuan, Shuguang

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are recognized as one of the largest families of membrane proteins. Despite sharing a characteristic seven-transmembrane topology, G protein-coupled receptors regulate a wide range of cellular signaling pathways in response to various physical and chemical stimuli, and prevail as an important target for drug discovery. Notably, the recent progress in crystallographic methods led to a breakthrough in elucidating the structures of membrane proteins. The structures of β2-adrenergic receptor bound with a variety of ligands provide atomic details of the binding modes of agonists, antagonists and inverse agonists. In this study, we selected four representative molecules from each functional class of ligands and investigated their impacts on β2-adrenergic receptor through a total of 12 × 100 ns molecular dynamics simulations. From the obtained trajectories, we generated molecular fingerprints exemplifying propensities of protein-ligand interactions. For each functional class of compounds, we characterized and compared the fluctuation of the protein backbone, the volumes in the intracellular pockets, the water densities in the receptors, the domain interaction networks as well as the movements of transmembrane helices. We discovered that each class of ligands exhibits a distinct mode of interactions with mainly TM5 and TM6, altering the shape and eventually the state of the receptor. Our findings provide insightful prospective into GPCR targeted structure-based drug discoveries. PMID:27703221

  20. Structural analysis of beta-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Kerlavage, A.R.; Fraser, C.M.; Venter, J.C.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have recently cloned the gene encoding the human brain beta-adrenergic receptor. Beta-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors have also been cloned from other tissues. In order to correlate the primary structures of these receptors with their function, they have undertaken detailed mapping of their functionally important sites. Purified guinea pig lung beta receptor was radioiodinated and digested with trypsin. The resultant peptides were resolved by reverse phase HPLC into nine peaks containing /sup 125/I, corresponding exactly with the predicted number of tyrosine containing peptides in the beta receptor. Hamster lung beta receptor was labeled with (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol diazarine ((/sup 125/I)CYPD) and partially purified by SDS-PAGE. The (/sup 125/I)CYPD-labeled receptor was extracted from the gel, digested with either trypsin or CNBr and the digests were resolved by reverse phase HPLC. The tryptic digest contained one (/sup 125/I)CYPD-labeled peak and the CNBr digest contained two. Rat brain muscarinic receptor was specifically labeled with (/sup 3/H)-propylbenzilyl-choline mustard ((/sup 3/H)PrBCM) and partially purified by SDS-PABE. The (/sup 3/H)PrBCM-labeled receptor was extracted from the gel and digested with CNBr. The resultant HPLC profile revealed a single (/sup 3/H)PrBCM-labeled peak. These data yield information on the location of functional sites within the primary sequences of these receptors.

  1. Thromboxane agonist (U46619) potentiates norepinephrine efflux from adrenergic nerves

    SciTech Connect

    Trachte, G.J.

    1986-05-01

    The effect of the synthetic thromboxane/prostaglandin (PG) H2 agonist U46619 on the electrically stimulated rabbit isolated vas deferens was examined to test for thromboxane influences on adrenergic nerves. U46619 effects on force generation, (/sup 3/H) norepinephrine release and norepinephrine-induced contractions were assessed to determine the mechanism of action. U46619 maximally enhanced adrenergic force generation 135 +/- 24% at a concentration of 100 nM. U46619 potentiated maximal contractile effects of exogenously administered norepinephrine 16 +/- 4% and augmented (/sup 3/H)norepinephrine release from electrically stimulated preparations 142 +/- 44%. A competitive thromboxane/PGH2 receptor antagonist, SQ29548, significantly shifted the concentration-response curve for U46619 to the right in a concentration-dependent manner and blocked U46619-induced tritium release. Thus, U46619 appears to potentiate neurotransmitter release by interacting with thromboxane/PGH2 receptors. Because SQ29548 did not prevent the potentiation of norepinephrine contractions by U46619, the postjunctional effect may be independent of thromboxane/PGH2 receptors. We interpret these results to be indicative of both pre- and postjunctional sites of action of U46619. The physiological importance of these thromboxane effects is unknown currently.

  2. Adrenergic mechanisms in oxygen chemoreception in the cat aortic body.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, E; Lahiri, S; Mokashi, A; Matsumoto, S; McGregor, K H

    1986-03-01

    Sixteen cats were studied to test the hypothesis that oxygen chemoreception in the cat aortic body is dependent on the beta-adrenergic mechanism. The chemoreceptor activity was measured from a few aortic chemoreceptor afferents in each cat, anesthetized with alpha-chloralose (60 mg X kg-1). Three types of experiments were conducted. Aortic chemoreceptor responses to steady-state hypoxia (PaO2 range, 100-30 Torr) were measured (a) before and during intravenous infusion of the beta-receptor agonist, isoproterenol (0.5 micrograms X kg-1) in nine spontaneously breathing cats, and (b) before and after intravenous injection of the beta-receptor antagonist, propranolol (1 mg X kg-1) in seven cats which were paralyzed and artificially ventilated. In the third category (c) the stimulatory effect of hypotension on aortic chemoreceptor activity was measured in six of the seven cats in group (b) before and after propranolol injection. Isoproterenol infusion only moderately stimulated aortic chemoreceptor activity. This stimulation was blocked by propranolol. However, propranolol did not attenuate aortic chemoreceptor responses to hypoxia or to hypotension. We conclude that the beta-receptor adrenergic mechanism does not mediate oxygen chemoreception in the cat aortic body.

  3. Distribution of beta-adrenergic receptors on human lymphocyte subpopulations.

    PubMed Central

    Pochet, R; Delespesse, G; Gausset, P W; Collet, H

    1979-01-01

    A technique is described allowing the quantification and the characterization of specific beta-adrenergic receptors in intact living human lymphocytes. 125I-Iodohydroxybenzylpindolol, a potent beta-adrenergic antagonist was used to label specific binding sites on unfractionated lymphoid cells and on purified subpopulations of T (F1 and F2) and B cells. F1 and F2 were obtained by filtration through nylon wool column as previously described (Delespesse et al., 1976), they differ in their response to mitogens, and in their interactions with adherent cells and B cells. 125I-HYP binding to unfractionated lymphocytes was a saturable, stereospecific and rapid process with a dissociation constant of 2.5 10(-10) M and a binding capacity of 400--600 sites/cell. Bindings on unfractionated lymphocytes, purified B cells and T cells of the F2 fraction were similar. No detectable binding was noted on T cells from the F1 fraction. Enriched T cells obtained by a rosetting technique displayed 200 receptors/cell. PMID:43789

  4. Enzyme induction and β-adrenergic receptor blocking drugs

    PubMed Central

    Branch, R. A.; Herman, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    1 All β-adrenergic receptor blockers that require metabolism prior to elimination are potentially subject to drug interactions due to enzyme induction. However, data is only available in man for propranolol, metoprolol and alprenolol. 2 Cross-sectional population studies suggest that environmental factors, such as smoking in the young, are able to influence the oral clearance of propranolol. 3 Long-term studies comparing within-subject clearances of metoprolol, alprenolol and propranolol before and after rifampicin and pentobarbitone, indicate that oral clearance is increased by 50%-500%. 4 Inducing agents can influence intrinsic clearance, liver blood flow, and protein binding in addition to drug metabolising ability, indicating that changes in pharmacokinetic disposition may be complex. 5 Enzyme induction exhibits both dose and time dependency relationships. 6 The maximal extent of enzyme induction is similar between subjects. The range of intersubject variation in drug metabolism is similar before and after induction. 7 The reduction in steady-state β-adrenergic receptor drug concentration following enzyme induction is sufficiently large that an altered pharmacodynamic response would be expected if no dosage modification is made. PMID:6146342

  5. Myocardial adrenergic responsiveness after lethal and nonlethal doses of endotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, R.E.; Lang, C.H.; McDonough, K.H.

    1987-02-01

    A dose-dependent impairment of intrinsic myocardial performance has been observed following in vivo administration of endotoxin. The present study reports a dose-dependent increase in plasma catecholamines following endotoxin (ET) that may impair ..beta..-adrenergic responsiveness. Hearts were removed from pentobarbital-anesthetized rats 4 h after a bolus injection of saline or ET and were studied as isolated cell preparations following collagenase digestion. Responsiveness of isoproterenol-stimulated adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation in myocytes prepared from hearts of animals injected with 10 and 100 ..mu..g ET was decreased when compared with control rats and was significantly blunted in myocytes prepared from animals receiving 1000 ..mu..g ET. Similar sensitivities of the cAMP system existed, as judged by similar half-maximum effective concentration values. cAMP accumulation in the presence of 1 ..mu..M forskolin was depressed in myocytes from the 1000-..mu..g ET animals; ..beta..-adrenergic receptor density was decreased 25% in myocytes from high-dose ET animals when compared with control animals. This was accompanied by a nonsignificant reduction in the affinity of binding sites for (+/-)(/sup 3/H)CGP 12177. The blunted myocyte hormonal responsiveness following ET challenge appears to be related to the decreased activity of the adenylate cyclase that may be attributed to alterations in both receptor density and in the adenylate cyclase itself.

  6. Agonist photoaffinity label for the. beta. -adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Resek, J.F.; Ruoho, A.E.

    1987-05-01

    An iodinated photosensitive derivative of norepinephrine, N-(p-azido-m-iodophenethylamidoisobutyryl)norepinephrine (NAIN), has been synthesized and characterized. Carrier-free radioiodinated NAIN ((/sup 125/I)-NAIN) was used at 1-2 x 10/sup -9/ M to photoaffinity label the ..beta..-adrenergic receptor in guinea pig lung membranes. SDS-PAGE analysis of (-)-alprenolol (10/sup -5/M) protectable (/sup 125/I)-NAIN labeling showed the same molecular weight polypeptide (65 kDa) that was specifically derivatized with the antagonist photolabel, (/sup 125/I)-IABP. Specific labeling of the ..beta..-adrenergic receptor with (/sup 125/I)-NAIN was dependent on the presence of MgCl/sub 2/ and the absence of guanyl nucleotide. GTP..gamma..S (10/sup -4/ M) abolished specific receptor labeling by (/sup 125/I)-NAIN. N-ethylmaleimide (2 mm) in the presence of (/sup 125/I)-NAIN protected against the guanyl nucleotide effect. These data are consistent with photolabeling by (/sup 125/I)-NAIN while the agonist, receptor, and GTP binding protein are in a high affinity complex.

  7. The rush to adrenaline: drugs in sport acting on the beta-adrenergic system.

    PubMed

    Davis, E; Loiacono, R; Summers, R J

    2008-06-01

    Athletes attempt to improve performance with drugs that act on the beta-adrenergic system directly or indirectly. Of three beta-adrenoceptor (AR) subtypes, the beta(2)-AR is the main target in sport; they have bronchodilator and anabolic actions and enhance anti-inflammatory actions of corticosteroids. Although demonstrable in animal experiments and humans, there is little evidence that these properties can significantly improve performance in trained athletes. Their actions may also be compromised by receptor desensitization and by common, naturally occurring receptor mutations (polymorphisms) that can influence receptor signalling and desensitization properties in individuals. Indirectly acting agents affect release and reuptake of noradrenaline and adrenaline, thereby influencing all AR subtypes including the three beta-ARs. These agents can have potent psychostimulant effects that provide an illusion of better performance that does not usually translate into improvement in practice. Amphetamines and cocaine also have considerable potential for cardiac damage. beta-AR antagonists (beta-blockers) are used in sports that require steadiness and accuracy, such as archery and shooting, where their ability to reduce heart rate and muscle tremor may improve performance. They have a deleterious effect in endurance sports because they reduce physical performance and maximum exercise load. Recent studies have identified that many beta-AR antagonists not only block the actions of agonists but also activate other (mitogen-activated PK) signalling pathways influencing cell growth and fate. The concept that many compounds previously regarded as 'blockers' may express their own spectrum of pharmacological properties has potentially far-reaching consequences for the use of drugs both therapeutically and illicitly.

  8. Cardiac tamponade (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cardiac tamponade is a condition involving compression of the heart caused by blood or fluid accumulation in the space ... they cannot adequately fill or pump blood. Cardiac tamponade is an emergency condition that requires hospitalization.

  9. Cardiac conduction system

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals to the heart muscle causing it to contract. The main components ... the cardiac conduction system's electrical activity in the heart.

  10. Sudden Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... from American Heart Association Aneurysms and Dissections Angina Arrhythmia Bundle Branch Block Cardiomyopathy Carotid Artery Disease Chronic ... terms: SCA, sudden cardiac death (SCD), sudden death, arrhythmias, ... ventricular fibrillation, defibrillator, automatic cardiac defibrillator ( ...

  11. What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Treatments + Tests What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation? A cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) program takes place in a hospital or ... special help in making lifestyle changes. During your rehabilitation program you’ll… • Have a medical evaluation to ...

  12. Excitatory drive onto dopaminergic neurons in the rostral linear nucleus is enhanced by norepinephrine in an α1 adrenergic receptor-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Williams, Megan A; Li, Chia; Kash, Thomas L; Matthews, Robert T; Winder, Danny G

    2014-11-01

    Dopaminergic innervation of the extended amygdala regulates anxiety-like behavior and stress responsivity. A portion of this dopamine input arises from dopamine neurons located in the ventral lateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) and rostral (RLi) and caudal linear nuclei of the raphe (CLi). These neurons receive substantial norepinephrine input, which may prime them for involvement in stress responses. Using a mouse line that expresses eGFP under control of the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter, we explored the physiology and responsiveness to norepinephrine of these neurons. We find that RLi dopamine neurons differ from VTA dopamine neurons with respect to membrane resistance, capacitance and the hyperpolarization-activated current, Ih. Further, we found that norepinephrine increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) on RLi dopamine neurons. This effect was mediated through the α1 adrenergic receptor (AR), as the actions of norepinephrine were mimicked by the α1-AR agonist methoxamine and blocked by the α1-AR antagonist prazosin. This action of norepinephrine on sEPSCs was transient, as it did not persist in the presence of prazosin. Methoxamine also increased the frequency of miniature EPSCs, indicating that the α1-AR action on glutamatergic transmission likely has a presynaptic mechanism. There was also a modest decrease in sEPSC frequency with the application of the α2-AR agonist UK-14,304. These studies illustrate a potential mechanism through which norepinephrine could recruit the activity of this population of dopaminergic neurons.

  13. Transgenic overexpression of ribonucleotide reductase improves cardiac performance

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowski, Sarah G.; Kolwicz, Stephen C.; Korte, Frederick Steven; Luo, Zhaoxiong; Robinson-Hamm, Jacqueline N.; Page, Jennifer L.; Brozovich, Frank; Weiss, Robert S.; Tian, Rong; Murry, Charles E.; Regnier, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that cardiac myosin can use 2-deoxy-ATP (dATP) as an energy substrate, that it enhances contraction and relaxation with minimal effect on calcium-handling properties in vitro, and that contractile enhancement occurs with only minor elevation of cellular [dATP]. Here, we report the effect of chronically enhanced dATP concentration on cardiac function using a transgenic mouse that overexpresses the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (TgRR), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in de novo deoxyribonucleotide biosynthesis. Hearts from TgRR mice had elevated left ventricular systolic function compared with wild-type (WT) mice, both in vivo and in vitro, without signs of hypertrophy or altered diastolic function. Isolated cardiomyocytes from TgRR mice had enhanced contraction and relaxation, with no change in Ca2+ transients, suggesting targeted improvement of myofilament function. TgRR hearts had normal ATP and only slightly decreased phosphocreatine levels by 31P NMR spectroscopy, and they maintained rate responsiveness to dobutamine challenge. These data demonstrate long-term (at least 5-mo) elevation of cardiac [dATP] results in sustained elevation of basal left ventricular performance, with maintained β-adrenergic responsiveness and energetic reserves. Combined with results from previous studies, we conclude that this occurs primarily via enhanced myofilament activation and contraction, with similar or faster ability to relax. The data are sufficiently compelling to consider elevated cardiac [dATP] as a therapeutic option to treat systolic dysfunction. PMID:23530224

  14. The role of α-adrenergic receptors in mediating beat-by-beat sympathetic vascular transduction in the forearm of resting man.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Seth T; Holwerda, Seth W; Credeur, Daniel P; Zuidema, Mozow Y; Medley, John H; Dyke, Peter C; Wray, D Walter; Davis, Michael J; Fadel, Paul J

    2013-07-15

    Sympathetic vascular transduction is commonly understood to act as a basic relay mechanism, but under basal conditions, competing dilatory signals may interact with and alter the ability of sympathetic activity to decrease vascular conductance. Thus, we determined the extent to which spontaneous bursts of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) mediate decreases in forearm vascular conductance (FVC) and the contribution of local α-adrenergic receptor-mediated pathways to the observed FVC responses. In 19 young men, MSNA (microneurography), arterial blood pressure and brachial artery blood flow (duplex Doppler ultrasound) were continuously measured during supine rest. These measures were also recorded in seven men during intra-arterial infusions of normal saline, phentolamine (PHEN) and PHEN with angiotensin II (PHEN+ANG). The latter was used to control for increases in resting blood flow with α-adrenergic blockade. Spike-triggered averaging was used to characterize beat-by-beat changes in FVC for 15 cardiac cycles following each MSNA burst and a peak response was calculated. Following MSNA bursts, FVC initially increased by +3.3 ± 0.3% (P = 0.016) and then robustly decreased to a nadir of -5.8 ± 1.6% (P < 0.001). The magnitude of vasoconstriction appeared graded with the number of consecutive MSNA bursts; while individual burst size only had a mild influence. Neither PHEN nor PHEN+ANG infusions affected the initial rise in FVC, but both infusions significantly attenuated the subsequent decrease in FVC (-2.1 ± 0.7% and -0.7 ± 0.8%, respectively; P < 0.001 vs. normal saline). These findings indicate that spontaneous MSNA bursts evoke robust beat-by-beat decreases in FVC that are exclusively mediated via α-adrenergic receptors.

  15. Modeling of the adrenergic response of the human IKs current (hKCNQ1/hKCNE1) stably expressed in HEK-293 cells.

    PubMed

    Imredy, John P; Penniman, Jacob R; Dech, Spencer J; Irving, Winston D; Salata, Joseph J

    2008-11-01

    Stable coexpression of human (h)KCNQ1 and hKCNE1 in human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells reconstitutes a nativelike slowly activating delayed rectifier K+ current (HEK-I(Ks)), allowing beta-adrenergic modulation of the current by stimulation of endogenous receptors in the host cell line. HEK-I(Ks) was enhanced two- to fourfold by isoproterenol (EC50 = 13 nM), forskolin (10 microM), or 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (50 microM), indicating an intact cAMP-dependent ion channel-regulating pathway analogous to the PKA-dependent regulation observed in native cardiac myocytes. Activation kinetics of HEK-I(Ks) were accurately fit with a novel modified second-order Hodgkin-Huxley (H-H) gating model incorporating a fast and a slow gate, each independent of each other in scale and adrenergic response, or a "heterodimer" model. Macroscopically, beta-adrenergic enhancement shifted the current activation threshold to more negative potentials and accelerated activation kinetics while leaving deactivation kinetics relatively unaffected. Modeling of the current response using the H-H model indicated that observed changes in gating could be explained by modulation of the opening rate of the fast gate. Under control conditions at nearly physiological temperatures (35 degrees C), rate-dependent accumulation of HEK-I(Ks) was observed only at pulse frequencies exceeding 3 Hz. Rate-dependent accumulation of I(Ks) at high pulsing rate had two phases, an initial staircaselike effect followed by a slower, incremental accumulation phase. These phases are readily interpreted in the context of a heterodimeric H-H model with two independent gates with differing closing rates. In the presence of isoproterenol after normalizing for its tonic effects, rate-dependent accumulation of HEK-I(Ks) appeared at lower pulse frequencies and was slightly enhanced (approximately 25%) over control.

  16. The Golgi apparatus is a functionally distinct Ca2+ store regulated by PKA and Epac branches of the β1-adrenergic signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhaokang.; Kirton, Hannah M.; MacDougall, David A.; Boyle, John P.; Deuchars, James; Frater, Brenda; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Hardy, Matthew E.; White, Edward; Calaghan, Sarah C.; Peers, Chris; Steele, Derek S.

    2016-01-01

    Ca2+ release from the Golgi apparatus regulates key functions of the organelle, including vesicle trafficking. However, the signaling pathways that control this form of Ca2+ release are poorly understood and evidence of discrete Golgi Ca2+ release events is lacking. Here, we identified the Golgi apparatus as the source of prolonged Ca2+ release events that originate from the nuclear ‘poles’ of primary cardiac cells. Once initiated, Golgi Ca2+ release was unaffected by global depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+, and disruption of the Golgi apparatus abolished Golgi Ca2+ release without affecting sarcoplasmic reticulum function, suggesting functional and anatomical independence of Golgi and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores. Maximal activation of β1-adrenoceptors had only a small stimulating effect on Golgi Ca2+ release. However, inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3 or 4, or downregulation of PDE 3 and 4 in heart failure markedly potentiated β1-adrenergic stimulation of Golgi Ca2+ release, consistent with compartmentalization of cAMP signaling within the Golgi apparatus microenvironment. β1-adrenergic stimulation of Golgi Ca2+ release involved activation of both Epac and PKA signaling pathways and CaMKII. Interventions that stimulated Golgi Ca2+ release induced trafficking of vascular growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1) from the Golgi apparatus to the surface membrane. These data establish the Golgi apparatus as a juxtanuclear focal point for Ca2+ and β1-adrenergic signaling, which functions independently from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the global Ca2+ transients that underlie the primary contractile function of the cell. PMID:26462734

  17. Contractile properties of early human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes: beta-adrenergic stimulation induces positive chronotropy and lusitropy but not inotropy.

    PubMed

    Pillekamp, Frank; Haustein, Moritz; Khalil, Markus; Emmelheinz, Markus; Nazzal, Rewa; Adelmann, Roland; Nguemo, Filomain; Rubenchyk, Olga; Pfannkuche, Kurt; Matzkies, Matthias; Reppel, Michael; Bloch, Wilhelm; Brockmeier, Konrad; Hescheler, Juergen

    2012-08-10

    Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) provide the unique opportunity to study the very early development of the human heart. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of calcium and beta-adrenergic stimulation on the contractile properties of early hESC-CMs. Beating clusters containing hESC-CMs were co-cultured in vitro with noncontractile slices of neonatal murine ventricles. After 5-7 days, when beating clusters had integrated morphologically into the damaged tissue, isometric force measurements were performed during spontaneous beating as well as during electrical field stimulation. Spontaneous beating stopped when extracellular calcium ([Ca²⁺](ec)) was removed or after administration of the Ca²⁺ channel blocker nifedipine. During field stimulation at a constant rate, the developed force increased with incremental concentrations of [Ca²⁺](ec). During spontaneous beating, rising [Ca²⁺](ec) increased beating rate and developed force up to a [Ca²⁺](ec) of 2.5 mM. When [Ca²⁺](ec) was increased further, spontaneous beating rate decreased, whereas the developed force continued to increase. The beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol induced a dose-dependent increase of the frequency of spontaneous beating; however, it did not significantly change the developed force during spontaneous contractions or during electrical stimulation at a constant rate. Force developed by early hESC-CMs depends on [Ca²⁺](ec) and on the L-type Ca²⁺ channel. The lack of an inotropic reaction despite a pronounced chronotropic response after beta-adrenergic stimulation most likely indicates immaturity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. For cell-replacement strategies, further maturation of cardiac cells has to be achieved either in vitro before or in vivo after transplantation.

  18. The role of Sema3–Npn-1 signaling during diaphragm innervation and muscle development

    PubMed Central

    Huettl, Rosa-Eva; Hanuschick, Philipp; Amend, Anna-Lena; Alberton, Paolo; Aszodi, Attila; Huber, Andrea B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Correct innervation of the main respiratory muscle in mammals, namely the thoracic diaphragm, is a crucial pre-requisite for the functionality of this muscle and the viability of the entire organism. Systemic impairment of Sema3A–Npn-1 (Npn-1 is also known as NRP1) signaling causes excessive branching of phrenic nerves in the diaphragm and into the central tendon region, where the majority of misguided axons innervate ectopic musculature. To elucidate whether these ectopic muscles are a result of misguidance of myoblast precursors due to the loss of Sema3A–Npn-1 signaling, we conditionally ablated Npn-1 in somatic motor neurons, which led to a similar phenotype of phrenic nerve defasciculation and, intriguingly, also formation of innervated ectopic muscles. We therefore hypothesize that ectopic myocyte fusion is caused by additional factors released by misprojecting growth cones. Slit2 and its Robo receptors are expressed by phrenic motor axons and migrating myoblasts, respectively, during innervation of the diaphragm. In vitro analyses revealed a chemoattractant effect of Slit2 on primary diaphragm myoblasts. Thus, we postulate that factors released by motor neuron growth cones have an influence on the migration properties of myoblasts during establishment of the diaphragm. PMID:27466379

  19. The naris muscles in tiger salamander. I. Potential functions and innervation as revealed by biocytin tracing.

    PubMed

    Wirsig-Wiechmann, Celeste R; Holliday, Katherine R

    2002-06-01

    The naris constrictor muscle, along with naris dilator and naris accessory muscles, controls the opening and closing of the external naris in tiger salamanders. It has been hypothesized that contraction of the naris constrictor muscle also causes the external nasal gland to secrete its contents inside the lateral wall of the external naris opening. This location is just rostral to vomeronasal organ and thus secretion in this region may be important for access of odorous compounds to vomeronasal organ. Little is known about the innervation of the naris muscles. To elucidate the neural control of these muscles, their innervation was examined using retrograde tract tracing with biocytin. Following application of biocytin to the naris constrictor muscle, labeling was observed in a ventral axonal plexus of the palatine nerve and numerous neuronal cell bodies distributed along this peripheral nerve plexus and within the main portion of the palatine ganglion. If the naris accessory and/or dilator muscles were also exposed to the tracer, the lateral-most branch of the palatine nerve and its associated neural cell bodies were labeled. To confirm the functional innervation of the muscles by the palatine nerve, the nerve was cut and the contraction of the muscles was eliminated. These findings demonstrate that the muscles controlling the external naris are under the control of palatine ganglion neurons. We hypothesize that this innervation of the naris constrictor muscle controls both muscle contraction and glandular secretion that may facilitate access of chemosensory substances to the vomeronasal organ.

  20. The development of functional innervation in the hind limb of the chick embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Landmesser, L; Morris, D G

    1975-01-01

    1. The development of functional motor innervation was studied in the hind limb of chick embryos from Stages 25 to 43 by observing contraction of individual muscles and by recording the resultant tension when individual spinal nerves were electrically stimulated. 2. At later developmental stages (35-43) a given muscle always received functional innervation from specific spinal nerves. This pattern, with respect to the craniocaudal position of motoneurones, was similar to those described for amphibians and mammals. 3. The observed pattern was similar throughout development from the time that movement could first be elicited at Stages 27-28. There was no indication that motoneurones form initial synapses with inappropriate muscles. 4. Recordings from muscle nerves during excitation of individual spinal nerves gave results similar to the tension recordings, showing that even at early developmental stages muscle nerves did not contain substantial numbers of inappropriate axons. 5. Most limb muscles or primitive muscle masses became functionally innervated at the same time with no clearly defined proximo-distal sequence of limb innervation. 6. It appears that chick motoneurones are initially specified with respect to their peripheral destination and grow out selectively to synapse with appropriate muscles from the outset. PMID:1177095

  1. GAD67-mediated GABA Synthesis and Signaling Regulate Inhibitory Synaptic Innervation in the Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyaya, Bidisha; Di Cristo, Graziella; Wu, Cai Zhi; Knott, Graham; Kuhlman, Sandra; Fu, Yu; Palmiter, Richard D.; Huang, Z. Josh

    2007-01-01

    The development of GABAergic inhibitory circuits is shaped by neural activity, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. we demonstrate a novel function of GABA in regulating GABAergic innervation in the adolescent brain, when GABA is mainly known as an inhibitory transmitter. Conditional knockdown of the rate-limiting synthetic enzyme GAD67 in basket interneurons in adolescent visual cortex resulted in cell autonomous deficits in axon branching, perisomatic synapse formation around pyramidal neurons, and complexity of the innervation fields; the same manipulation had little influence on the subsequent maintenance of perisomatic synapses. These effects of GABA deficiency were rescued by suppressing GABA re-uptake and by GABA receptor agonists. Germ-line knockdown of GAD67 but not GAD65 showed similar deficits, suggesting a specific role of GAD67 in the maturation of perisomatic innervation. Since intracellular GABA levels are modulated by neuronal activity, our results implicate GAD67-mediated GABA synthesis in activity-dependent regulation of inhibitory innervation patterns. PMID:17582330

  2. Innervation patterns of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) mystacial follicle-sinus complexes

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Christopher D.; Rozas, Kelly; Kot, Brian; Gill, Verena A.

    2014-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are the most recent group of mammals to return to the sea, and may exemplify divergent somatosensory tactile systems among mammals. Therefore, we quantified the mystacial vibrissal array of sea otters and histologically processed follicle-sinus complexes (F - SCs) to test the hypotheses that the number of myelinated axons per F - SC is greater than that found for terrestrial mammalian vibrissae and that their organization and microstructure converge with those of pinniped vibrissae. A mean of 120.5 vibrissae were arranged rostrally on a broad, blunt muzzle in 7–8 rows and 9–13 columns. The F-SCs of sea otters are tripartite in their organization and similar in microstructure to pinnipeds rather than terrestrial species. Each F-SC was innervated by a mean 1339 ± 408.3 axons. Innervation to the entire mystacial vibrissal array was estimated at 161,313 axons. Our data support the hypothesis that the disproportionate expansion of the coronal gyrus in somatosensory cortex of sea otters is related to the high innervation investment of the mystacial vibrissal array, and that quantifying innervation investment is a good proxy for tactile sensitivity. We predict that the tactile performance of sea otter mystacial vibrissae is comparable to that of harbor seals, sea lions and walruses. PMID:25400554

  3. Estrogen and female reproductive tract innervation: cellular and molecular mechanisms of autonomic neuroplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Brauer, M. Mónica; Smith, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    The female reproductive tract undergoes remarkable functional and structural changes associated with cycling, conception and pregnancy, and it is likely advantageous to both individual and species to alter relationships between reproductive tissues and innervation. For several decades, it has been appreciated that the mammalian uterus undergoes massive sympathetic axon depletion in late pregnancy, possibly representing an adaptation to promote smooth muscle quiescence and sustained blood flow. Innervation to other structures such as cervix and vagina also undergo pregnancy-related changes in innervation that may facilitate parturition. These tissues provide highly tractable models for examining cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying peripheral nervous system plasticity. Studies show that estrogen elicits rapid degeneration of sympathetic terminal axons in myometrium, which regenerate under low-estrogen conditions. Degeneration is mediated by the target tissue: under estrogen's influence, the myometrium produces proteins repulsive to sympathetic axons including BDNF, neurotrimin, semaphorins, and pro-NGF, and extracellular matrix components are remodeled. Interestingly, nerve depletion does not involve diminished levels of classical sympathetic neurotrophins that promote axon growth. Estrogen also affects sympathetic neuron neurotrophin receptor expression in ways that appear to favor pro-degenerative effects of the target tissue. In contrast to the uterus, estrogen depletes vaginal autonomic and nociceptive axons, with the latter driven in part by estrogen-induced suppression BMP4 synthesis. These findings illustrate that hormonally mediated physiological plasticity is a highly complex phenomenon involving multiple, predominantly repulsive target-derived factors acting in concert to achieve rapid and selective reductions in innervation. PMID:25530517

  4. Serotonergic innervation of the auditory brainstem of the Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Hurley, L M; Thompson, A M

    2001-06-18

    Anatomical and electrophysiological evidence suggests that serotonin alters the processing of sound in the auditory brainstem of many mammalian species. The Mexican free-tailed bat is a hearing specialist, like other microchiropteran bats. At the same time, many aspects of its auditory brainstem are similar to those in other mammals. This dichotomy raises an interesting question regarding the serotonergic innervation of the bat auditory brainstem: Is the serotonergic input to the auditory brainstem similar in bats and other mammals, or are there specializations in the serotonergic innervation of bats that may be related to their exceptional hearing capabilities? To address this question, we immunocytochemically labeled serotonergic fibers in the brainstem of the Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis. We found many similarities in the pattern of serotonergic innervation of the auditory brainstem in Tadarida compared with other mammals, but we also found two striking differences. Similarities to staining patterns in other mammals included a higher density of serotonergic fibers in the dorsal cochlear nucleus and in granule cell regions than in the ventral cochlear nucleus, a high density of fibers in some periolivary nuclei of the superior olive, and a higher density of fibers in peripheral regions of the inferior colliculus compared with its core. The two novel features of serotonergic innervation in Tadarida were a high density of fibers in the fusiform layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus relative to surrounding layers and a relatively high density of serotonergic fibers in the low-frequency regions of the lateral and medial superior olive.

  5. Patterns of peripheral innervation of the tongue and hyobranchial apparatus in caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    Wake, M H

    1992-04-01

    The innervation of the musculature of the tongue and the hyobranchial apparatus of caecilians has long been assumed to be simple and to exhibit little interspecific variation. A study of 14 genera representing all six families of caecilians demonstrates that general patterns of innervation by the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves are similar across taxa but that the composition of the "hypoglossal" nerve is highly variable. Probably in all caecilians, spinal nerves 1 and 2 contribute to the hypoglossal. In addition, in certain taxa, an "occipital," the vagus, and/or spinal 3 appear to contribute fibers to the composition of the hypoglossal nerve. These patterns, the lengths of fusion of the contributing elements, and the branching patterns of the hypoglossal are assessed according to the currently accepted hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships of caecilians, and of amphibians. An hypothesis is proposed that limblessness and a simple tongue, with concomitant reduced complexity of innervation of muscles associated with limbs and the tongue, has released a constraint on pattern of innervation. As a consequence, a greater diversity and, in several taxa, greater complexity of neuroanatomical associations of nerve roots to form the hypoglossal are expressed.

  6. Changes in the cholinergic innervation pattern of porcine ovaries with cysts induced by dexamethasone administration.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, A; Majewski, M; Jana, B

    2014-09-01

    We revealed earlier that induction of ovarian cysts in gilts by dexamethasone phosphate disodium salt (DXM) administration from the follicular phase of the estrous cycle (EC) changed the cholinergic innervation of the gonad. In the present study, the innervation of porcine ovaries by vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)-, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)- and somatostatin (SOM)-immunoreactive (IR) fibres, after induction of cystic changes from the middle luteal phase of the EC, was determined. The cystic changes were induced by DXM injections from days 7 to 21 of the EC, and 11 days later, the ovaries were collected. In the cystic ovaries, VAChT-, nNOS- and SOM-IR fibres were found around cysts and small tertiary follicles; nNOS-IR and also VAChT-IR fibres were observed near secondary follicles and veins; and VAChT- and nNOS-IR fibres were not found around cortical arteries. The number of VIP-IR fibres increased near the cysts and within the ground plexus, while the number of VAChT-IR fibres decreased within the medullar part of this structure. Thus, our study showed changes in the cholinergic innervation pattern of the porcine cystic ovaries induced from the middle phase of the cycle and confirmed that cystic ovary innervation depends partly on the phase of the EC in which the induction of cysts was started.

  7. T-Tubular Electrical Defects Contribute to Blunted β-Adrenergic Response in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Crocini, Claudia; Coppini, Raffaele; Ferrantini, Cecilia; Yan, Ping; Loew, Leslie M.; Poggesi, Corrado; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Pavone, Francesco S.; Sacconi, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of the β-adrenergic signalling, structural remodelling, and electrical failure of T-tubules are hallmarks of heart failure (HF). Here, we assess the effect of β-adrenoceptor activation on local Ca2+ release in electrically coupled and uncoupled T-tubules in ventricular myocytes from HF rats. We employ an ultrafast random access multi-photon (RAMP) microscope to simultaneously record action potentials and Ca2+ transients from multiple T-tubules in ventricular cardiomyocytes from a HF rat model of coronary ligation compared to sham-operated rats as a control. We confirmed that β-adrenergic stimulation increases the frequency of Ca2+ sparks, reduces Ca2+ transient variability, and hastens the decay of Ca2+ transients: all these effects are similarly exerted by β-adrenergic stimulation in control and HF cardiomyocytes. Conversely, β-adrenergic stimulation in HF cells accelerates a Ca2+ rise exclusively in the proximity of T-tubules that regularly conduct the action potential. The delayed Ca2+ rise found at T-tubules that fail to conduct the action potential is instead not affected by β-adrenergic signalling. Taken together, these findings indicate that HF cells globally respond to β-adrenergic stimulation, except at T-tubules that fail to conduct action potentials, where the blunted effect of the β-adrenergic signalling may be directly caused by the lack of electrical activity. PMID:27598150

  8. MOOD STATES, SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY, AND IN VIVO β-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR FUNCTION IN A NORMAL POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bum-Hee; Kang, Eun-Ho; Ziegler, Michael G.; Mills, Paul J.; Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mood states and β-adrenergic receptor function in a normal population. We also examined if sympathetic nervous system activity is related to mood states or β-adrenergic receptor function. Sixty-two participants aged 25–50 years were enrolled in this study. Mood states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). β-adrenergic receptor function was determined using the chronotropic 25 dose isoproterenol infusion test. Level of sympathetic nervous system activity was estimated from 24-hr urine norepinephrine excretion. Higher tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and anger-hostility were related to decreased β-adrenergic receptor sensitivity (i.e., higher chronotropic 25 dose values), but tension-anxiety was the only remaining independent predictor of β-adrenergic receptor function after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Urinary norepinephrine excretion was unrelated to either mood states or β-adrenergic receptor function. These findings replicate previous reports that anxiety is related to decreased (i.e., desensitized) β-adrenergic receptor sensitivity, even after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index. PMID:17583588

  9. Phospholipase D1 is involved in α1-adrenergic contraction of murine vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Jörg W; Loga, Florian; Stegner, David; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Hofmann, Franz

    2014-03-01

    α1-Adrenergic stimulation increases blood vessel tone in mammals. This process involves a number of intracellular signaling pathways that include signaling via phospholipase C, diacylglycerol (DAG), and protein kinase C. So far, it is not certain whether signaling via phospholipase D (PLD) and PLD-derived DAG is involved in this process. We asked whether PLD participates in the α1-adrenergic-mediated signaling in vascular smooth muscle. α1-Adrenergic-induced contraction was assessed by myography of isolated aortic rings and by pressure recordings using the hindlimb perfusion model in mice. The effects of the PLD inhibitor 1-butanol (IC50 0.15 vol%) and the inactive congener 2-butanol were comparatively studied. Inhibition of PLD by 1-butanol reduced specifically the α1-adrenergic-induced contraction and the α1-adrenergic-induced pressure increase by 10 and 40% of the maximum, respectively. 1-Butanol did not influence the aortic contractions induced by high extracellular potassium, by the thromboxane analog U46619, or by a phorbol ester. The effects of 1-butanol were absent in mice that lack PLD1 (Pld1(-/-) mice) or that selectively lack the CaV1.2 channel in smooth muscle (sm-CaV1.2(-/-) mice) but still present in the heterozygous control mice. α1-Adrenergic contraction of vascular smooth muscle involves activation of PLD1, which controls a portion of the α1-adrenergic-induced CaV1.2 channel activity.

  10. Peripheral innervation patterns of vestibular nerve afferents in the bullfrog utriculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.; Schuff, N. R.

    1994-01-01

    Vestibular nerve afferents innervating the bullfrog utriculus differ in their response dynamics and sensitivity to natural stimulation. They also supply hair cells that differ markedly in hair bundle morphology. To examine the peripheral innervation patterns of individual utricular afferents more closely, afferent fibers were labeled by the extracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the vestibular nerve after sectioning the vestibular nerve medial to Scarpa's ganglion to allow the degeneration of sympathetic and efferent fibers. The peripheral arborizations of individual afferents were then correlated with the diameters of their parent axons, the regions of the macula they innervate, and the number and type of hair cells they supply. The utriculus is divided by the striola, a narrow zone of distinctive morphology, into media and lateral parts. Utiricular afferents were classified as striolar or extrastriolar according to the epithelial entrance of their parent axons and the location of their terminal fields. In general, striolar afferents had thicker parent axons, fewer subepithelial bifurcations, larger terminal fields, and more synaptic endings than afferents in extrstriolar regions. Afferents in a juxtastriolar zone, immediately adjacent to the medial striola, had innervation patterns transitional between those in the striola and more peripheral parts of the medial extrastriola. moast afferents innervated only a single macular zone. The terminal fields of striolar afferents, with the notable exception of a few afferents with thin parent axons, were generally confined to one side of the striola. Hair cells in the bullfrog utriculus have perviously been classified into four types based on hair bundle morphology. Afferents in the extrastriolar and juxtastriolar zones largely or exclusively innervated Type B hair cells, the predominant hair cell type in the utricular macula. Striolar afferents supplied a mixture of four hair cell types, but largely

  11. Cardiac MyBP-C regulates the rate and force of contraction in mammalian myocardium Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein C

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Richard L.; Fitzsimons, Daniel P.; Ralphe, J. Carter

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is a thick filament-associated protein that appears to contribute to the regulation of cardiac contraction through interactions with either myosin or actin or both. Several studies over the past several years have suggested that the interactions of cMyBP-C with its binding partners vary with its phosphorylation state, binding predominantly to myosin when dephosphorylated and to actin when it is phosphorylated by PKA or other kinases. Here, we summarize evidence suggesting that phosphorylation of cMyBP-C is a key regulator of the kinetics and amplitude of cardiac contraction during β-adrenergic stimulation and increased stimulus frequency. We propose a model for these effects via a phosphorylation-dependent regulation of the kinetics and extent of cooperative recruitment of cross-bridges to the thin filament – phosphorylation of cMyBP-C accelerates cross-bridge binding to actin, thereby accelerating recruitment and increasing the amplitude of the cardiac twitch. In contrast, enhanced lusitropy as a result of phosphorylation appears to be due to a direct effect of phosphorylation to accelerate cross-bridge detachment rate. Depression or elimination of one or both of these processes in a disease such as end-stage heart failure appears to contribute to the systolic and diastolic dysfunction that characterizes the disease. PMID:25552695

  12. The central adrenergic system. An immunofluorescence study of the location of cell bodies and their efferent connections in the rat utilizing dopamine-beta-hydroxylase as a marker.

    PubMed

    Swanson, L W; Hartman, B K

    1975-10-15

    mesencephalon and in the zona incerta and substantia innominata in the diencephalon. At the level of the septal area separate bundles reach the cortex dorsally over the genu of the corpus calosum via the medial septal-diagonal band nuclei and the lateral septum and ventrally between the olfactory tubercle and caudate-putamen. In the medulla and pons adrenergic fibers undoubtedly course in both directions. Anterior to the most rostral pontine cell bodies, however, all fibers presumably ascend. Along the course of the bundle distinct branches emerge to innervate circumscribed terminal fields. In addition, certain regions of the brain such as the reticular formation and pontine gray receive diffuse DBH innervation derived from less clearly defined pathways. A small number of areas in the brain contain little or no detectable DBH. These include the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus, olfactory tubercle, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, pretectal area, third, fourth and sixth cranial verve nuclei, and the trapezoid body nucleus.

  13. Egr3-dependent muscle spindle stretch receptor intrafusal muscle fiber differentiation and fusimotor innervation homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Fernandes, Michelle; Tourtellotte, Warren G

    2015-04-08

    Muscle stretch proprioceptors (muscle spindles) are required for stretch reflexes and locomotor control. Proprioception abnormalities are observed in many human neuropathies, but the mechanisms involved in establishing and maintaining muscle spindle innervation and function are still poorly understood. During skeletal muscle development, sensory (Ia-afferent) innervation induces contacted myotubes to transform into intrafusal muscle fibers that form the stretch receptor core. The transcriptional regulator Egr3 is induced in Ia-afferent contacted myotubes by Neuregulin1 (Nrg1)/ErbB receptor signaling and it has an essential role in spindle morphogenesis and function. Because Egr3 is widely expressed during development and has a pleiotropic function, whether Egr3 functions primarily in skeletal muscle, Ia-afferent neurons, or in Schwann cells that myelinate Ia-afferent axons remains unresolved. In the present studies, cell-specific ablation of Egr3 in mice showed that it has a skeletal muscle autonomous function in stretch receptor development. Moreover, using genetic tracing, we found that Ia-afferent contacted Egr3-deficient myotubes were induced in normal numbers, but their development was blocked to generate one to two shortened fibers that failed to express some characteristic myosin heavy chain (MyHC) proteins. These "spindle remnants" persisted into adulthood, remained innervated by Ia-afferents, and expressed neurotrophin3 (NT3), which is required for Ia-afferent neuron survival. However, they were not innervated by fusimotor axons and they did not express glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), which is essential for fusimotor neuron survival. These results demonstrate that Egr3 has an essential role in regulating gene expression that promotes normal intrafusal muscle fiber differentiation and fusimotor innervation homeostasis.

  14. Cholinergic innervation of the basal ganglia in humans and other anthropoid primates.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Alexa R; Edler, Melissa K; Erwin, Joseph M; Jacobs, Bob; Hopkins, William D; Hof, Patrick R; Sherwood, Chet C; Raghanti, Mary Ann

    2017-02-01

    Cholinergic innervation of the basal ganglia is important in learning and memory. Striatal cholinergic neurons integrate cognitive and motivational states with behavior. Given these roles, it is not surprising that deficits in cortical cholinergic innervation have been correlated with loss of cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Such evidence suggests the potential significance of subcortical cholinergic innervation in the evolution of the human brain. To compare humans with other closely related primates, the present study quantified axons and interneurons immunoreactive for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in regions of the executive and motor loops of the basal ganglia of humans, great apes, and monkeys. We also compared ChAT-immunoreactive (ir) interneuron morphological types among species within striatal regions. The results indicate that humans and great apes differ from monkeys in having a preponderance of multipolar ChAT-ir interneurons in the caudate nucleus and putamen, whereas monkeys have a more heterogeneous representation of multipolar, bipolar, and unipolar interneurons. Cholinergic innervation, as measured by axon and interneuron densities, did not differ across species in the medial caudate nucleus. Differences were detected in the dorsal caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus but the observed variation did not associate with the phylogenetic structure of the species in the sample. However, combining the present results with previously published data for dopamine revealed a unique pattern of innervation for humans, with higher amounts of dopamine compared with acetylcholine in the striatum. Taken together, these findings indicate a potential evolutionary shift in basal ganglia neurotransmission in humans that may favor increased synaptic plasticity. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:319-332, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. [Involvement of adrenergic mechanisms in developing the nervous syndrome of high pressure and nitrogen narcosis].

    PubMed

    Sledkov, A I; Bernarskii, K V; Shilina, M N

    1996-01-01

    Involvement of the adrenergic mediator system in central mechanisms of hyperbaric nitrogen narcosis or the high pressure nervous syndrome (NSHP) produced by nitrogen or heliox gas mixtures under increased pressure was studied in mice and rabbit experiments with the use of pharmacological substances-analyzers. Accumulated data are indicative of lack of a significant role of the adrenergic system in the NSHP genesis and a protective effect of activation of the central but not peripheric adrenergic mediation in development of the behavioural and electrophysiological symptomatics of nitrogen narcosis. Mechanisms of NSHP and nitrogen narcosis and possible principles of pharmacological correction are under discussion.

  16. Transcriptional Pathways and Potential Therapeutic Targets in the Regulation of Ncx1 Expression in Cardiac Hypertrophy and Failure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mona S.; Chernysh, Olga; Renaud, Ludivine; Kimbrough, Denise; Kasiganesan, Harinath; Mani, Santhosh K.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in cardiac gene expression contribute to the progression of heart failure by affecting cardiomyocyte growth, function, and survival. The Na+ -Ca2+ exchanger gene (Ncx1) is upregulated in hypertrophy and is often found elevated in end-stage heart failure. Studies have shown that the change in its expression contributes to contractile dysfunction. Several transcriptional pathways mediate Ncx1 expression in pathological cardiac remodeling. Both α-adrenergic receptor (α-AR) and β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) signaling can play a role in the regulation of calcium homeostasis in the cardiomyocyte, but chronic activation in periods of cardiac stress contributes to heart failure by mechanisms which include Ncx1 upregulation. Our studies have even demonstrated that NCX1 can directly act as a regulator of “activity-dependent signal transduction” mediating changes in its own expression. Finally, we present evidence that histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases (HATs) act as master regulators of Ncx1 expression. We show that many of the transcription factors regulating Ncx1 expression are important in cardiac development and also in the regulation of many other genes in the so-called fetal gene program, which are activated by pathological stimuli. Importantly, studies have revealed that the transcriptional network regulating Ncx1 expression is also mediating many of the other changes in genetic remodeling contributing to the development of cardiac dysfunction and revealed potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of hypertrophy and failure. PMID:23224875

  17. On the vagal cardiac nerves, with special reference to the early evolution of the head-trunk interface.

    PubMed

    Higashiyama, Hiroki; Hirasawa, Tatsuya; Oisi, Yasuhiro; Sugahara, Fumiaki; Hyodo, Susumu; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-09-01

    The vagus nerve, or the tenth cranial nerve, innervates the heart in addition to other visceral organs, including the posterior visceral arches. In amniotes, the anterior and posterior cardiac branches arise from the branchial and intestinal portions of the vagus nerve to innervate the arterial and venous poles of the heart, respectively. The evolution of this innervation pattern has yet to be elucidated, due mainly to the lack of morphological data on the vagus in basal vertebrates. To investigate this topic, we observed the vagus nerves of the lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum), elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii), and mouse (Mus musculus), focusing on the embryonic patterns of the vagal branches in the venous pole. In the lamprey, no vagus branch was found in the venous pole throughout development, whereas the arterial pole was innervated by a branch from the branchial portion. In contrast, the vagus innervated the arterial and venous poles in the mouse and elephant shark. Based on the morphological patterns of these branches, the venous vagal branches of the mouse and elephant shark appear to belong to the intestinal part of the vagus, implying that the cardiac nerve pattern is conserved among crown gnathostomes. Furthermore, we found a topographical shift of the structures adjacent to the venous pole (i.e., the hypoglossal nerve and pronephros) between the extant gnathostomes and lamprey. Phylogenetically, the lamprey morphology is likely to be the ancestral condition for vertebrates, suggesting that the evolution of the venous branch occurred early in the gnathostome lineage, in parallel with the remodeling of the head-trunk interfacial domain during the acquisition of the neck. J. Morphol. 277:1146-1158, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The transcriptional repressor Nab1 is a specific regulator of pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Monika; Lorenz, Kristina; Maass, Alexander H; Oberdorf-Maass, Silke; Keller, Ursula; Schmitteckert, Eva M; Ivashchenko, Yuri; Lohse, Martin J; Engelhardt, Stefan

    2005-08-01

    Hypertrophy represents the major physiological response of the heart to adapt to chronically enhanced workload, but is also crucial in the development of heart failure. Although we know of numerous inducers of cardiac hypertrophy, little is known about mechanisms that limit cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we describe the transcriptional repressor NAB1 as an endogenous regulator of cardiac growth. We identified NAB1 as being upregulated in both mouse and human heart failure. Nab1 is highly expressed in mammalian cardiac myocytes and it inhibited cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through repression of its targets, transcription factor Egr. Transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of Nab1 showed that Nab1 is a potent inhibitor of cardiac growth in response to pathological stimuli in vivo. Nab1 overexpression suppressed adrenergically induced and pressure overload-induced hypertrophy, whereas physiological growth during development and in response to exercise was not affected. These findings implicate the Nab1-Egr1 axis as a crucial regulator of pathological cardiac growth.

  19. Phosphorylation of Ser1928 mediates the enhanced activity of the L-type Ca2+ channel Cav1.2 by the β2-adrenergic receptor in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hai; Patriarchi, Tommaso; Price, Jennifer L.; Matt, Lucas; Lee, Boram; Nieves-Cintrón, Madeline; Buonarati, Olivia R.; Chowdhury, Dhrubajyoti; Nanou, Evanthia; Nystoriak, Matthew A.; Catterall, William A.; Poomvanicha, Montatip; Hofmann, Franz; Navedo, Manuel F.; Hell, Johannes W.

    2017-01-01

    The L-type Ca2+ channel Cav1.2 controls multiple functions throughout the body including heart rate and neuronal excitability. It is a key mediator of fight-or-flight stress responses triggered by a signaling pathway involving β-adrenergic receptors (βARs), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and protein kinase A (PKA). PKA readily phosphorylates Ser1928 in Cav1.2 in vitro and in vivo, including in rodents and humans. However, S1928A knock-in (KI) mice have normal PKA-mediated L-type channel regulation in the heart, indicating that Ser1928 is not required for regulation of cardiac Cav1.2 by PKA in this tissue. We report that augmentation of L-type currents by PKA in neurons was absent in S1928A KI mice. Furthermore, S1928A KI mice failed to induce long-term potentiation in response to prolonged theta-tetanus (PTT-LTP), a form of synaptic plasticity that requires Cav1.2 and enhancement of its activity by the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR)–cAMP–PKA cascade. Thus, there is an unexpected dichotomy in the control of Cav1.2 by PKA in cardiomyocytes and hippocampal neurons. PMID:28119465

  20. Autonomic control of cardiac action potentials: role of potassium channel kinetics in response to sympathetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Terrenoire, Cecile; Clancy, Colleen E; Cormier, Joseph W; Sampson, Kevin J; Kass, Robert S

    2005-03-18

    I(Ks), the slowly activating component of the delayed rectifier current, plays a major role in repolarization of the cardiac action potential (AP). Genetic mutations in the alpha- (KCNQ1) and beta- (KCNE1) subunits of I(Ks) underlie Long QT Syndrome type 1 and 5 (LQT-1 and LQT-5), respectively, and predispose carriers to the development of polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. beta-adrenergic stimulation increases I(Ks) and results in rate dependent AP shortening, a control system that can be disrupted by some mutations linked to LQT-1 and LQT-5. The mechanisms by which I(Ks) regulates action potential duration (APD) during beta-adrenergic stimulation at different heart rates are not known, nor are the consequences of mutation induced disruption of this regulation. Here we develop a complementary experimental and theoretical approach to address these questions. We reconstituted I(Ks) in CHO cells (ie, KCNQ1 coexpressed with KCNE1 and the adaptator protein Yotiao) and quantitatively examined the effects of beta-adrenergic stimulation on channel kinetics. We then developed theoretical models of I(Ks) in the absence and presence of beta-adrenergic stimulation. We simulated the effects of sympathetic stimulation on channel activation (speeding) and deactivation (slowing) kinetics on the whole cell action potential under different pacing conditions. The model suggests these kinetic effects are critically important in rate-dependent control of action potential duration. We also investigate the effects of two LQT-5 mutations that alter kinetics and impair sympathetic stimulation of I(Ks) and show the likely mechanism by which they lead to tachyarrhythmias and indicate a distinct role of I(KS) kinetics in this electrical dysfunction. The full text of this article is available online at http://circres.ahajournals.org.

  1. The role of the autonomic nervous system in arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Franciosi, Sonia; Perry, Frances K G; Roston, Thomas M; Armstrong, Kathryn R; Claydon, Victoria E; Sanatani, Shubhayan

    2017-03-31

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is complex and plays an important role in cardiac arrhythmia pathogenesis. A deeper understanding of the anatomy and development of the ANS has shed light on its involvement in cardiac arrhythmias. Alterations in levels of Sema-3a and NGF, both growth factors involved in innervation patterning during development of the ANS, leads to cardiac arrhythmias. Dysregulation of the ANS, including polymorphisms in genes involved in ANS development, have been implicated in sudden infant death syndrome. Disruptions in the sympathetic and/or parasympathetic systems of the ANS can lead to cardiac arrhythmias and can vary depending on the type of arrhythmia. Simultaneous stimulation of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems is thought to lead to atrial fibrillation whereas increased sympathetic stimulation is thought to lead to ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia. In inherited arrhythmia syndromes, such as Long QT and Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia, sympathetic system stimulation is thought to lead to ventricular tachycardia, subsequent arrhythmias, and in severe cases, cardiac death. On the other hand, arrhythmic events in Brugada Syndrome have been associated with periods of high parasympathetic tone. Increasing evidence suggests that modulation of the ANS as a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias is safe and effective. Further studies investigating the involvement of the ANS in arrhythmia pathogenesis and its modulation for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias is warranted.

  2. Cardiac ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Birgit T; McDermott, Jeff S

    2015-01-01

    Ion channels are critical for all aspects of cardiac function, including rhythmicity and contractility. Consequently, ion channels are key targets for therapeutics aimed at cardiac pathophysiologies such as atrial fibrillation or angina. At the same time, off-target interactions of drugs with cardiac ion channels can be the cause of unwanted side effects. This manuscript aims to review the physiology and pharmacology of key cardiac ion channels. The intent is to highlight recent developments for therapeutic development, as well as elucidate potential mechanisms for drug-induced cardiac side effects, rather than present an in-depth review of each channel subtype. PMID:26556552

  3. Molecular basis of cardiac potassium channel stimulation by protein kinase A.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, X Y; Morielli, A D; Peralta, E G

    1994-01-01

    Cardiac beta-adrenergic receptors accelerate heart rate by modulating ionic currents through a pathway involving cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). Previous studies have focused on the regulation of Ca2+ channels by PKA; however, due to the heterogeneity of K+ channels expressed within the heart, little is known about the mechanism by which PKA modulates individual K+ channels. Here we report that PKA strongly enhanced the activity of a cloned delayed rectifier K+ channel that is normally expressed in cardiac atria. This effect required a single PKA consensus phosphorylation site located near the amino terminus of the channel protein. Furthermore, patch clamp analysis revealed that PKA phosphorylation increased the open time that single channels spend in higher conductance states. These studies provide evidence that hormonal modulation of a cardiac K+ channel involves direct phosphorylation by PKA. PMID:8290574

  4. Evidence for adrenergic control of transcellular calcium distribution in liver.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, C E; Dawson, A P; Pryor, J S

    1985-01-01

    Free Ca2+ concentration and 45Ca flux were measured in the perfusate and bile of the perfused rat liver. With a perfusate Ca2+ concentration of 1 mM, the bile concentration was 0.35 mM. The ratio of 45Ca in bile to that in blood increased from 0.3 to 0.6 over 90 min of perfusion. Both verapamil and adrenaline (via alpha-adrenergic receptors) increased the 45Ca bile/perfusate ratio to 0.8. Adrenaline infusion increased the bile Ca2+ concentration to 0.8 mM. This decreased to 0.35 mM after the infusion was stopped. PMID:4062875

  5. Refractory case of adrenergic urticaria successfully treated with clotiazepam.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Yukari; Gokita, Mari; Fukunaga, Atsushi; Nishigori, Chikako

    2015-06-01

    Adrenergic urticaria (AU) is a rare type of stress-induced physical urticaria characterized by widespread pruritic urticarial papules. Diagnosis can be made by i.d. injection of adrenaline or noradrenaline, which produces the characteristic rash. Although the lesions of AU typically respond to beta-blockers such as propranolol, the therapeutic options for AU are limited. Here, we report a case of AU that was resistant to beta-blockers and successfully treated with clotiazepam. The clinical picture of AU resembles that of cholinergic urticaria (CU), however, positive noradrenaline test and negative acetylcholine skin test were useful for the differential diagnosis of AU and CU. Although his symptoms were resistant to several therapeutic methods including olopatadine (H1 antagonist), lafutidine (H2 antagonist) and propranolol, the severity and frequency of his attacks and his subjective symptoms were reduced by oral clotiazepam, an anxiolytic benzodiazepine. Dermatologists should be aware that anxiolytic benzodiazepines may be a therapeutic option in AU.

  6. Constitutive phosphorylation of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chang, Audrey N; Battiprolu, Pavan K; Cowley, Patrick M; Chen, Guohua; Gerard, Robert D; Pinto, Jose R; Hill, Joseph A; Baker, Anthony J; Kamm, Kristine E; Stull, James T

    2015-04-24

    In beating hearts, phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) at a single site to 0.45 mol of phosphate/mol by cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK) increases Ca(2+) sensitivity of myofilament contraction necessary for normal cardiac performance. Reduction of RLC phosphorylation in conditional cMLCK knock-out mice caused cardiac dilation and loss of cardiac performance by 1 week, as shown by increased left ventricular internal diameter at end-diastole and decreased fractional shortening. Decreased RLC phosphorylation by conventional or conditional cMLCK gene ablation did not affect troponin-I or myosin-binding protein-C phosphorylation in vivo. The extent of RLC phosphorylation was not changed by prolonged infusion of dobutamine or treatment with a β-adrenergic antagonist, suggesting that RLC is constitutively phosphorylated to maintain cardiac performance. Biochemical studies with myofilaments showed that RLC phosphorylation up to 90% was a random process. RLC is slowly dephosphorylated in both noncontracting hearts and isolated cardiac myocytes from adult mice. Electrically paced ventricular trabeculae restored RLC phosphorylation, which was increased to 0.91 mol of phosphate/mol of RLC with inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). The two RLCs in each myosin appear to be readily available for phosphorylation by a soluble cMLCK, but MLCP activity limits the amount of constitutive RLC phosphorylation. MLCP with its regulatory subunit MYPT2 bound tightly to myofilaments was constitutively phosphorylated in beating hearts at a site that inhibits MLCP activity. Thus, the constitutive RLC phosphorylation is limited physiologically by low cMLCK activity in balance with low MLCP activity.

  7. Controlled Cardiac Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenglin; Liu, Ying; Wang, Ge

    2006-01-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has been a hot topic for years because of the clinical importance of cardiac diseases and the rapid evolution of CT systems. In this paper, we propose a novel strategy for controlled cardiac CT that may effectively reduce image artifacts due to cardiac and respiratory motions. Our approach is radically different from existing ones and is based on controlling the X-ray source rotation velocity and powering status in reference to the cardiac motion. We theoretically show that by such a control-based intervention the data acquisition process can be optimized for cardiac CT in the cases of periodic and quasiperiodic cardiac motions. Specifically, we formulate the corresponding coordination/control schemes for either exact or approximate matches between the ideal and actual source positions, and report representative simulation results that support our analytic findings. PMID:23165017

  8. Expression of muscle-gene-specific isozymes of phosphorylase and creatine kinase in innervated cultured human muscle

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Isozymes of creatine kinase and glycogen phosphorylase are excellent markers of skeletal muscle maturation. In adult innervated muscle only the muscle-gene-specific isozymes are present, whereas aneurally cultured human muscle has predominantly the fetal pattern of isozymes. We have studied the isozyme pattern of human muscle cultured in monolayer and innervated by rat embryo spinal cord explants for 20-42 d. In this culture system, large groups of innervated muscle fibers close to the ventral part of the spinal cord explant continuously contracted. The contractions were reversibly blocked by 1 mM d- tubocurarine. In those innervated fibers, the total activity and the muscle-gene-specific isozymes of both enzymes increased significantly. The amount of muscle-gene-specific isozymes directly correlated with the duration of innervation. Control noninnervated muscle fibers from the same dishes as the innervated fibers remained biochemically immature. This study demonstrated that de novo innervation of human muscle cultured in monolayer exerts a time-related maturational influence that is not mediated by a diffusable neural factor. PMID:3771644

  9. Interactions between adrenergic systems, anaesthetic and TRH analogue induced analeptic effects on VBT transmission.

    PubMed

    Clarke, K A; Djouhri, L

    1991-09-01

    Previous behavioural and electrophysiological studies have indicated an antinarcotic action of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and its analogues in antagonizing the action of CNS depressant drugs, including baclofen and a variety of anesthetics. While beta-adrenergic receptors are implicated in the level of anaesthesia/arousal, whether the analeptic action of TRH involves adrenergic systems for its expression is uncertain. The object of the present experiments, therefore, was to examine interactions between adrenergic systems and the anti-anaesthetic effects of TRH analogue CG3703. It was found that pretreatment with the beta-block (+/-)propranolol did not abolish or reduce the ability of CG3703 to antagonize urethane-induced depression of VBT transmission. These results suggest therefore, that beta-adrenergic systems are unlikely to be involved in the anti-anaesthetic effect of the tripeptide.

  10. Alpha 2 adrenergic receptors in hyperplastic human prostate: identification and characterization using (/sup 3/H) rauwolscine

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, E.; Lepor, H.

    1986-05-01

    (/sup 3/H)Rauwolscine ((/sup 3/H)Ra), a selective ligand for the alpha 2 adrenergic receptor, was used to identify and characterize alpha 2 adrenergic receptors in prostate glands of men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)Ra to prostatic tissue homogenates was rapid and readily reversible by addition of excess unlabelled phentolamine. Scatchard analysis of saturation experiments demonstrates a single, saturable class of high affinity binding sites (Bmax = 0.31 +/- 0.04 fmol./microgram. DNA, Kd = 0.9 +/- 0.11 nM.). The relative potency of alpha adrenergic drugs (clonidine, alpha-methylnorepinephrine and prazosin) in competing for (/sup 3/H)Ra binding sites was consistent with the order predicted for an alpha 2 subtype. The role of alpha 2 adrenergic receptors in normal prostatic function and in men with bladder outlet obstruction secondary to BPH requires further investigation.

  11. Opioid Facilitation of β-Adrenergic Blockade: A New Pharmacological Condition?

    PubMed Central

    Vamecq, Joseph; Mention-Mulliez, Karine; Leclerc, Francis; Dobbelaere, Dries

    2015-01-01

    Recently, propranolol was suggested to prevent hyperlactatemia in a child with hypovolemic shock through β-adrenergic blockade. Though it is a known inhibitor of glycolysis, propranolol, outside this observation, has never been reported to fully protect against lactate overproduction. On the other hand, literature evidence exists for a cross-talk between β-adrenergic receptors (protein targets of propranolol) and δ-opioid receptor. In this literature context, it is hypothesized here that anti-diarrheic racecadotril (a pro-drug of thiorphan, an inhibitor of enkephalinases), which, in the cited observation, was co-administered with propranolol, might have facilitated the β-blocker-driven inhibition of glycolysis and resulting lactate production. The opioid-facilitated β-adrenergic blockade would be essentially additivity or even synergism putatively existing between antagonism of β-adrenergic receptors and agonism of δ-opioid receptor in lowering cellular cAMP and dependent functions. PMID:26426025

  12. Beta-Adrenergic Blockade Therapy for Autonomic Dysfunction is Less Effective for Elderly Patients with Heart Failure and Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Shimamoto, Ken; Kawana, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Heart rate variability (HRV) has been reported to be an independent predictor of all-cause and sudden cardiac death in patients with heart failure. In the aging heart, however, both autonomic and cardiac functions appear to be altered. We assessed the relationship between aging and responsiveness of HRV and ventricular remodeling to beta-adrenergic blockade therapy in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). METHODS Twenty-eight clinically stable patients with chronic heart failure, sinus rhythm, and left ventricular ejection fraction <50% as confirmed by echocardiography were included. At baseline and after carvedilol treatment, 24-hour ambulatory Holter monitor recording was used to analyze HRV indices by the maximum entropy method. Changes in these parameters were compared among three age groups. RESULTS HR decreased in all groups after carvedilol treatment, but was still highest in the youngest group despite the same treatment doses. Time and frequency domain variables improved. The response of time domain variables (the standard deviation of all normal sinus to normal sinus [NN] intervals and the standard deviation of the averages of NN intervals in all 5-minute or 30-minute segments) to carvedilol therapy significantly decreased with increasing age. Ventricular reverse remodeling induced by carvedilol therapy significantly decreased with increasing age. Increases in time domain variables and a low-frequency domain moderately correlated with left ventricular reverse remodeling. CONCLUSION Beta-adrenergic blockade therapy improved HRV variables and ventricular remodeling in HFREF patients; however, the response tended to be milder in the elderly. HRV improvement was associated with ventricular reverse remodeling. PMID:26483614

  13. [Modifying effect of incorporated 137Cs on the mechanism of adrenergic control of myocardial contraction].

    PubMed

    Lobanok, L M; Bulanova, K Ia; Gerasimovich, N V; Sineleva, M V; Miliutin, A A

    1994-01-01

    Incorporated 137Cs (absorbed dose of 0.26 Gy) causes decrease of myocardial's contractile function and inotropic response to beta-adrenagonists effect, isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity and beta-adrenoreceptors affinity. Adrenergic effects, mediated by alpha-adrenergic structures on heart contractile function, on the contrary, become stronger, that is due to the increase of the receptors' density on sarcolemma surface.

  14. Stimulating endogenous cardiac repair

    PubMed Central

    Finan, Amanda; Richard, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration, a combination of these approaches could ameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation of multiple cellular players. PMID:26484341

  15. Estradiol alters the chemosensitive cardiac afferent reflex in female rats by augmenting sympathoinhibition and attenuating sympathoexcitation.

    PubMed

    Pinkham, Maximilian I; Barrett, Carolyn J

    2015-06-01

    The chemosensitive cardiac vagal and sympathetic afferent reflexes are implicated in driving pathophysiological changes in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in cardiovascular disease states. This study investigated the impact of sex and ovarian hormones on the chemosensitive cardiac afferent reflex. Experiments were performed in anaesthetized, sinoaortic baroreceptor denervated male, female and ovariectomized female (OVX) Wistar rats with either intact cardiac innervation or bilateral vagotomy. To investigate the chemosensitive cardiac afferent reflexes renal SNA, heart rate (HR) and arterial pressure (AP) were recorded before and following application of capsaicin onto the epicardial surface of the left ventricle. Compared to males, ovary-intact females displayed similar cardiac afferent reflex mediated changes in renal SNA albeit with a reduced maximum sympathetic reflex driven increase in renal SNA. In females, ovariectomy significantly attenuated the cardiac vagal afferent reflex mediated inhibition of renal SNA (renal SNA decreased 2 ± 17% in OVX versus -50 ± 4% in ovary-intact females, P < 0.05) and augmented cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex mediated sympathoexcitation (renal SNA increased 91 ± 11% in OVX vs 62 ± 9% in ovary-intact females, P < 0.05) so that overall increases in reflex driven sympathoexcitation were significantly enhanced. Chronic estradiol replacement, but not progesterone replacement, begun at time of ovariectomy restored cardiac afferent reflex responses to be similar as ovary-intact females. Vagal denervation eliminated all group differences. The current findings show ovariectomy in female rats, mimicking menopause in women, results in greater chemosensitive cardiac afferent reflex driven sympathoexcitation and does so, at least partly, via the loss of estradiols actions on the cardiac vagal afferent reflex pathway.

  16. The effect of adrenergic agonists and antagonists on cysteine-proteinase inhibitor (cystatin) in rat saliva.

    PubMed

    Bedi, G S

    1991-01-01

    The effect of a number of adrenergic agonists and antagonists on the induction of rat salivary cystatin was investigated. A highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay was used to determine cystatin in rat whole saliva. Treatment for 10 consecutive days with a non-specific beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol, or the beta 1-adrenergic agonists dobutamine or methoxyphenamine, resulted in the induction of the salivary cystatin. Induction was also found in rats treated for 10 days with arterenol. Only trace quantities of cystatin could be detected in saliva of rats treated with the beta 2-adrenergic agonists terbutaline or salbutamol. When isoproterenol was injected concomitantly with the mixed beta-antagonist propranolol or the beta 1-adrenergic antagonists metaprolol, proctocol or atenolol the production of cystatin was totally suppressed. However, the beta 2-antagonist, ICI 118551, produced only a partial reduction in salivary cystatin induction elicited by isoproterenol. The findings suggest that the induction of salivary cystatin is regulated, in part, by beta 1-adrenergic receptor stimulation.

  17. Photoaffinity labeling the. beta. -adrenergic receptor with an iodoazido derivative of norepinephrine

    SciTech Connect

    Resek, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The {beta}-adrenergic receptor is an integral membrane protein coupled to adenylate cyclase by the guanine nucleotide binding protein, Gs. Agonist binding to the receptor results in coupling the receptor to Gs, increased adenylate cyclase activity, and receptor desensitization. In contrast, antagonists bind but do not activate the receptor or result in desensitization. To study the structure and regulation of the {beta}-adrenergic receptor in the membrane, it is useful to develop ligands which covalently label the binding site. In this thesis the synthesis and characterization of the first agonist photolabel for the {beta}-adrenergic receptor is presented. The agonist photoaffinity label, N-(p-azido-m-iodophenethylamidoisobutyl)-norepinephrine (NAIN), was synthesized in non-radioactive and radioactive carrier-free forms with {sup 125}I (2,200 Ci/mmole). NAIN was chemically characterized by TLC mobility, melting point, NMR, IR, and Mass Spectroscopy. NAIN was shown to be competitive with the {beta}-adrenergic ligand ({sup 125}I)-ICYP in several membranes containing {beta}-adrenergic receptors. Binding data indicated that NAIN coupled the receptor to Gs and had an affinity for the receptor which was similar to isoproterenol. NAIN stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in guinea pig lung and S49 WT mouse lymphoma cell membranes with a K{sub act} and V max similar to isoproterenol while in frog erythrocyte ghosts, NAIN produced 77% of the maximally stimulated adenylate cyclase activity of isoproterenol. These data show that NAIN is an agonist for the {beta}-adrenergic receptor.

  18. Characterization of beta-adrenergic receptors through the replicative life span of IMR-90 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpace, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Beta-adrenergic receptor number and receptor affinity for isoproterenol were assessed at various in vitro ages of the human diploid fibroblast cell line IMR-90. From population doubling level (PDL) 33 to 44, there was a positive correlation between beta-adrenergic receptor density and PDL. Beta-adrenergic receptors, assessed by Scatchard analysis of (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICYP) binding, increased from 15 fmol/mg protein at PDL 33 to 36 fmol/mg protein at PDL 44. In contrast, from PDL 44 to 59, there was a negative correlation between beta-adrenergic receptor density and PDL. Receptor density declined to 12 fmol/mg protein at PDL 59. When the density of beta-adrenergic receptors was expressed as receptor per cell, the findings were similar. Receptor agonist affinity for isoproterenol was determined from Hill plots of (/sup 125/I)-ICYP competition with isoproterenol. There was no change in the dissociation constant for isoproterenol with in vitro age. In humans, serum norepinephrine concentrations increase with age. This increase in serum norepinephrine may be partially responsible for the decreased beta-adrenergic receptor-agonist affinity observed with age in human lymphocytes and rat heart and lung. The present findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the decreases in receptor agonist affinity in rat and man with age are secondary to increases in catecholamine concentrations.

  19. Modulation of. beta. -adrenergic response in rat brain astrocytes by serum and hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D.K.; Morrison, R.S.; de Vellis, J.

    1985-01-01

    Purified astrocyte cultures from neonatal rat cerebrum respond to isoproterenol, a ..beta..-adrenergic agonist, with a transient rise in cAMP production. This astroglial property was regulated by serum, a chemically defined medium (serum-free medium plus hydrocortisone, putrescine, prostaglandin F/sub 2/, insulin, and fibroblast growth factor) and epidermal growth factor. Compared to astrocytes grown in serum-supplemented medium, astrocytes grown in the chemically defined medium were nonresponsive to isoproterenol stimulation, and this difference did not appear to be due to selection of a subpopulation of cells by either medium. The data suggest that a decreased ..beta..-adrenergic receptor number and an increased degradation of cAMP may account for the reduced response to ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation. The nonresponsive state of astrocytes in the defined medium was reversible when the medium was replaced with serum-supplemented medium. An active substance(s) in serum was responsible for restoring the responsiveness of astrocytes. Each of the five components of the defined medium had little effect by itself; however, together they acted synergistically to desensitize astrocytes to ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, epidermal growth factor, a potent mitogen for astrocytes, was very competent by itself in reducing the cAMP response of astrocytes to ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation. Thus purified astrocytes grown in the chemically defined medium appear to be a good model for the study of hormonal interactions and of serum factors which may modulate the ..beta..-adrenergic response.

  20. Beta-adrenergic receptors of lymphocytes in children with allergic respiratory diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Bittera, I.; Gyurkovits, K.; Falkay, G.; Eck, E.; Koltai, M.

    1988-01-01

    The beta-adrenergic receptor binding sites on peripheral lymphocytes in children with bronchial asthma (n = 16) and seasonal allergic rhinitis (n = 8) were examined in comparison with normal controls (n = 18) by means of /sup 124/I-cyanopindolol. The number of beta-adrenergic receptors was significantly lower in the asthmatic group (858 +/- 460/lymphocyte) than in the controls (1564 +/- 983/lymphocyte). The value (1891 +/- 1502/lymphocyte in children with allergic rhinitis was slightly higher than that in healthy controls. Of the 24 patients suffering from allergic diseases of the lower or upper airways, the bronchial histamine provocation test was performed in 21; 16 gave positive results, while 5 were negative. No difference in beta-adrenergic receptor count was found between the histamine-positive and negative patients. Neither was there any correlation between the number of beta-adrenergic receptors and the high (16/24) and low (8/24) serum IgE concentrations found in allergic patients. The significant decrease in beta-adrenergic receptor count in asthmatic children lends support to Szentivanyi's concept. Further qualitative and quantitative analysis of lymphocyte beta-adrenergic receptors may provide an individual approach to the treatment of bronchial asthma with beta-sympathomimetic drugs.

  1. beta. -adrenergic relaxation of smooth muscle: differences between cells and tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Scheid, C.R.

    1987-09-01

    The present studies were carried out in an attempt to resolve the controversy about the Na/sup +/ dependence of ..beta..-adrenergic relaxation in smooth muscle. Previous studies on isolated smooth muscle cells from the toad stomach had suggested that at least some of the actions of ..beta..-adrenergic agents, including a stimulatory effect on /sup 45/Ca efflux, were dependent on the presence of a normal transmembrane Na/sup +/ gradient. Studies by other investigators using tissues derived from mammalian sources had suggested that the relaxing effect of ..beta..-adrenergic agents was Na/sup +/ independent. Uncertainty remained as to whether these discrepancies reflected differences between cells and tissues or differences between species. Thus, in the present studies, the authors utilized both tissues and cells from the same source, the stomach muscle of the toad Bufo marinus, and assessed the Na/sup +/ dependence of ..beta..-adrenergic relaxation. They found that elimination of a normal Na/sup +/ gradient abolished ..beta..-adrenergic relaxation of isolated cells. In tissues, however, similar manipulations had no effect on relaxation. The reasons for this discrepancy are unclear but do not appear to be attributable to changes in smooth muscle function following enzymatic dispersion. Thus the controversy concerning the mechanisms of ..beta..-adrenergic relaxation may reflect inherent differences between tissues and cells.

  2. Developmental changes of beta-adrenergic receptor-linked adenylate cyclase of rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, M.S.; Boland, S.R.; Schmidt, S.J.

    1985-06-01

    beta-Adrenergic agonist-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity and binding of the beta-adrenergic antagonist(-)-(/sup 125/I)iodopindolol were studied in rat liver during development of male Fischer 344 rats ages 6-60 days. In liver homogenates maximum adenylate cyclase response to beta-adrenergic agonist (10(-5) M isoproterenol or epinephrine) decreased by 73% (P less than 0.01) between 6 and 60 days, with most of the decrease (56%; P less than 0.01) occurring by 20 days. beta-adrenergic receptor density (Bmax) showed a corresponding decrease of 66% (P less than 0.01) by 20 days without subsequent change. Binding characteristics of stereospecificity, pharmacological specificity, saturability with time, and reversibility were unchanged with age. GTP-, fluoride-, forskolin-, and Mn2+-stimulated adenylate cyclase activities also decreased during development, suggesting a decrease of activity of the catalytic component and/or guanine nucleotide regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. These results indicate that the developmental decrease of beta-adrenergic agonist-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity may result from decreased numbers of beta-adrenergic receptors. Developmental alterations of nonreceptor components of the enzyme may also contribute to changes of catecholamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase.

  3. Elevated level of. beta. -adrenergic receptors in hepatocytes from regenerating rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Sandnes, D.; Sand, T.E.; Sager, G.; Broenstad, G.O.; Refsnes, M.R.; Gladhaug, I.P.; Jacobsen, S.; Christoffersen, T.

    1986-01-01

    Hepatocytes from regenerating rat liver show an enhanced epinephrine-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity and cAMP response, which may be involved in triggering of the cell proliferation. We have determined adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase activity in hepatocytes isolated at various time points after partial hepatectomy. The number of ..beta..-adrenergic receptors, measured by binding of (/sup 125/I)iodocyanopindolol ((/sup 125/I)CYP) to a particulate fraction prepared from isolated hepatocytes, increased rapidly after partial hepatectomy as compared with sham-operated or untreated controls. The maximal increase, which was observed at 48 h, was between 5- and 6-fold (from approx.1800 to approx.10,500 sites per cell). Thereafter, the number of ..beta..- adrenergic receptors decreased gradually. Competition experiments indicated ..beta../sub 2/-type receptors. Parallelism was found between the change in the number of ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors and the isoproterenol-responsive adenylate cyclase activity. The number of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors, determined by binding of (/sup 3/H)prazosin, was transiently lowered by about 35% at 18-24 h. with no significant change in K/sub d/. Although the results of this study do not exclude the possibility of post-receptor events, they suggest that the increased number of..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors is a major factor responsible for the enhanced catecholamine-responsive adenylate cyclase activity in regenerating liver.

  4. Effect of β-adrenergic antagonists on in-hospital mortality after ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Christopher; Alaigh, Vivek; Fortunato, Gil; Staff, Ilene; Sansing, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Background Ischemic stroke accounts for 85–90% of all strokes and currently has very limited therapeutic options. Recent studies of β-adrenergic antagonists suggest they may have neuroprotective effects that lead to improved functional outcomes in rodent models of ischemic stroke, however there is limited data in patients. We aimed to determine whether there was an improvement in mortality rates among patients who were taking β-blockers during the acute phase of their ischemic stroke. Methods A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database of ischemic stroke patients was performed. Patients who were on β-adrenergic antagonists both at home and during the first three days of hospitalization were compared to patients who were not on β-adrenergic antagonists to determine the association with patient mortality rates. Results The study included a patient population of 2804 patients. In univariate analysis, use of β-adrenergic antagonists was associated with older age, atrial fibrillation, hypertension and more severe initial stroke presentation. Despite this, multivariable analysis revealed a reduction in in-hospital mortality among patients who were treated with β-adrenergic antagonists (odds ratio 0.657; 95% confidence interval 0.655–0.658). Conclusions The continuation of home β-adrenergic antagonist medication during the first three days of hospitalization after an ischemic stroke is associated with a decrease in patient mortality. This supports the work done in rodent models suggesting neuroprotective effects of β-blockers after ischemic stroke. PMID:26163891

  5. Postnatal treatment of rats with adrenergic receptor agonists or antagonists influences differentiation of sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Jarzab, B; Sickmöller, P M; Geerlings, H; Döhler, K D

    1987-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possible role of the adrenergic system in development and differentiation of neural centers controlling sexual behavior in adulthood. For this purpose normal and androgenized female rats were treated with the alpha 1-receptor antagonist prazosin, the alpha 2-receptor agonist clonidine, or the alpha 2-receptor antagonist yohimbine-HCl throughout the first week of life. In adulthood all animals were ovariectomized and, after appropriate hormone-priming, they were tested for the capacity to display female and male sexual behavior patterns. Alteration of adrenergic transmission during the critical postnatal period for sexual differentiation of neural centers resulted in significant changes in the capacity to express female lordosis behavior in adulthood. In nonandrogenized animals clonidine significantly reduced the capacity for lordosis behavior. In androgenized animals clonidine had the opposite effect; it attenuated the inhibitory effect of testosterone propionate (TP) on differentiation of lordosis behavior. Prazosin, which was without effect in nonandrogenized animals, also attenuated the inhibitory effect of TP on differentiation of lordosis behavior. Yohimbine was without effect in androgenized and nonandrogenized animals. There was no influence of any of the adrenergic drugs on differentiation of male sexual behavior. In conclusion, differentiation of lordosis behavior seems to be mediated or modulated via adrenergic transmission. The defeminizing effect of testosterone postnatally on the differentiation of lordosis behavior seems to be expressed via alpha 1-adrenergic transmission, and diminished adrenergic activity during the postnatal period seems to protect the developing brain against this effect of testosterone.

  6. Adrenergically mediated intrapancreatic control of the glucagon response to glucopenia in the isolated rat pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Hisatomi, A; Maruyama, H; Orci, L; Vasko, M; Unger, R H

    1985-01-01

    Alpha adrenergic blockade with phentolamine (10 microM) reduces the glucagon response to severe glucopenia (from 150 to 25 mg/dl) to 22% of the control values in the isolated perfused rat pancreas. Propranolol (10 microM) had no significant effect. Neither alpha nor beta adrenergic blockade reduced the magnitude of glucopenic suppression of insulin secretion, but phentolamine increased insulin levels before and during glucopenia. The pattern of somatostatin secretion in these experiments resembled that of insulin. Depletion of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve endings by pretreatment with 6-hydroxydopamine lowered the pancreatic norepinephrine content to less than 20% of control values and reduced the glucagon response to glucopenia to 69% of the controls. Combined alpha and beta adrenergic blockade during less severe glucopenia (from 120 to 60 mg/dl) reduced the glucagon response to 21% of controls. However, slight glucopenia (from 100 to 80 mg/dl), which elicited only 11% increase in glucagon in the control experiments, was not altered significantly by combined alpha and beta adrenergic blockade. Morphologic studies of adrenergic nerve terminals labeled with [3H]norepinephrine revealed associations with alpha cells. It is concluded that in the isolated rat pancreas adrenergic mediation accounts for most of the glucagon but not insulin response to glucopenia. It is controlled within the pancreas itself, possibly through a direct enhancement by glucopenia of norepinephrine release from nerve endings. Images PMID:2857731

  7. Kinetics of cardiac muscle contraction and relaxation are linked and determined by properties of the cardiac sarcomere

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The regulation of myocardial contraction and relaxation kinetics is currently incompletely understood. When the amplitude of contraction is increased via the Frank-Starling mechanism, the kinetics of the contraction slow down, but when the amplitude of contraction is increased with either an increase in heart rate or via β-adrenergic stimulation, the kinetics speed up. It is also unknown how physiological mechanisms affect the kinetics of contraction versus those of relaxation. We investigated contraction-relaxation coupling in isolated trabeculae from the mouse and rat and stimulated them to contract at various temperatures, frequencies, preloads, and in the absence and presence of β-adrenergic stimulation. In each muscle at least 16 different conditions were assessed, and the correlation coefficient of the speed of contraction and relaxation was very close (generally >0.98). Moreover, in all but one of the analyzed murine strains, the ratio of the minimum rate of the derivative of force development (dF/dt) over maximum dF/dt was not significantly different. Only in trabeculae isolated from myosin-binding protein-C mutant mice was this ratio significantly lower (0.61 ± 0.07 vs. 0.84 ± 0.02 in 11 other strains of mice). Within each strain, this ratio was unaffected by modulation of length, frequency, or β-adrenergic stimulation. Rat trabeculae showed identical results; the balance between kinetics of contraction and relaxation was generally constant (0.85 ± 0.04). Because of the great variety in underlying excitation-contraction coupling in the assessed strains, we concluded that contraction-relation coupling is a property residing in the cardiac sarcomere. PMID:20656885

  8. Severe hypoglycemia-induced lethal cardiac arrhythmias are mediated by sympathoadrenal activation.

    PubMed

    Reno, Candace M; Daphna-Iken, Dorit; Chen, Y Stefanie; VanderWeele, Jennifer; Jethi, Krishan; Fisher, Simon J

    2013-10-01

    For people with insulin-treated diabetes, severe hypoglycemia can be lethal, though potential mechanisms involved are poorly understood. To investigate how severe hypoglycemia can be fatal, hyperinsulinemic, severe hypoglycemic (10-15 mg/dL) clamps were performed in Sprague-Dawley rats with simultaneous electrocardiogram monitoring. With goals of reducing hypoglycemia-induced mortality, the hypotheses tested were that: 1) antecedent glycemic control impacts mortality associated with severe hypoglycemia; 2) with limitation of hypokalemia, potassium supplementation could limit hypoglycemia-associated deaths; 3) with prevention of central neuroglycopenia, brain glucose infusion could prevent hypoglycemia-associated arrhythmias and deaths; and 4) with limitation of sympathoadrenal activation, adrenergic blockers could prevent hypoglycemia-induced arrhythmic deaths. Severe hypoglycemia-induced mortality was noted to be worsened by diabetes, but recurrent antecedent hypoglycemia markedly improved the ability to survive an episode of severe hypoglycemia. Potassium supplementation tended to reduce mortality. Severe hypoglycemia caused numerous cardiac arrhythmias including premature ventricular contractions, tachycardia, and high-degree heart block. Intracerebroventricular glucose infusion reduced severe hypoglycemia-induced arrhythmias and overall mortality. β-Adrenergic blockade markedly reduced cardiac arrhythmias and completely abrogated deaths due to severe hypoglycemia. Under conditions studied, sudden deaths caused by insulin-induced severe hypoglycemia were mediated by lethal cardiac arrhythmias triggered by brain neuroglycopenia and the marked sympathoadrenal response.

  9. NEURON SPECIFIC α-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN HUMAN CEREBELLUM: IMPLICATIONS FOR EMERGING CEREBELLAR ROLES IN NEUROLOGIC DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    SCHAMBRA, U. B.; MACKENSEN, G. B.; STAFFORD-SMITH, M.; HAINES, D. E.; SCHWINN, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent data suggest novel functional roles for cerebellar involvement in a number of neurologic diseases. Function of cerebellar neurons is known to be modulated by norepinephrine and adrenergic receptors. The distribution of adrenergic receptor subtypes has been described in experimental animals, but corroboration of such studies in the human cerebellum, necessary for drug treatment, is still lacking. In the present work we studied cell-specific localizations of α1 adrenergic receptor subtype mRNA (α1a, α1b, α1d), and α2 adrenergic receptor subtype mRNA (α2a, α2b, α2c) by in situ hybridization on cryostat sections of human cerebellum (cortical layers and dentate nucleus). We observed unique neuron-specific α1 adrenergic receptor and α2 adrenergic receptor subtype distribution in human cerebellum. The cerebellar cortex expresses mRNA encoding all six α adrenergic receptor subtypes, whereas dentate nucleus neurons express all subtype mRNAs, except α2a adrenergic receptor mRNA. All Purkinje cells label strongly for α2a and α2b adrenergic receptor mRNA. Additionally, Purkinje cells of the anterior lobe vermis (lobules I to V) and uvula/tonsil (lobules IX/HIX) express α1a and α2c subtypes, and Purkinje cells in the ansiform lobule (lobule HVII) and uvula/tonsil express α1b and α2c adrenergic receptor subtypes. Basket cells show a strong signal for α1a, moderate signal for α2a and light label for α2b adrenergic receptor mRNA. In stellate cells, besides a strong label of α2a adrenergic receptor mRNA in all and moderate label of α2b message in select stellate cells, the inner stellate cells are also moderately positive for α1b adrenergic receptor mRNA. Granule and Golgi cells express high levels of α2a and α2b adrenergic receptor mRNAs. These data contribute new information regarding specific location of adrenergic receptor subtypes in human cerebellar neurons. We discuss our observations in terms of possible modulatory roles of adrenergic

  10. Arrhythmia and cardiac defects are a feature of spinal muscular atrophy model mice.

    PubMed

    Heier, Christopher R; Satta, Rosalba; Lutz, Cathleen; DiDonato, Christine J

    2010-10-15

    Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality. Traditionally, SMA has been described as a motor neuron disease; however, there is a growing body of evidence that arrhythmia and/or cardiomyopathy may present in SMA patients at an increased frequency. Here, we ask whether SMA model mice possess such phenotypes. We find SMA mice suffer from severe bradyarrhythmia characterized by progressive heart block and impaired ventricular depolarization. Echocardiography further confirms functional cardiac deficits in SMA mice. Additional investigations show evidence of both sympathetic innervation defects and dilated cardiomyopathy at late stages of disease. Based upon these data, we propose a model in which decreased sympathetic innervation causes autonomic imbalance. Such imbalance would be characterized by a relative increase in the level of vagal tone controlling heart rate, which is consistent with bradyarrhythmia and progressive heart block. Finally, treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A, a drug known to benefit phenotypes of SMA model mice, produces prolonged maturation of the SMA heartbeat and an increase in cardiac size. Treated mice maintain measures of motor function throughout extended survival though they ultimately reach death endpoints in association with a progression of bradyarrhythmia. These data represent the novel identification of cardiac arrhythmia as an early and progressive feature of murine SMA while providing several new, quantitative indices of mouse health. Together with clinical cases that report similar symptoms, this reveals a new area of investigation that will be important to address as we move SMA therapeutics towards clinical success.

  11. Distribution of beta-adrenergic receptors in failing human myocardium. Implications for mechanisms of down-regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Murphree, S.S.; Saffitz, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    The density of beta-adrenergic receptors is reduced in crude membranes prepared from failing human myocardium. We used quantitative autoradiography of radioligand binding sites in intact tissue slices to determine whether the total tissue content of receptors is reduced and to characterize the transmural distribution of receptors in cardiac myocytes and the coronary vasculature in hearts obtained from nine cardiac transplant patients with severe congestive failure. Binding of (125Iodo)cyanopindolol to transmural slices of human myocardium was rapid, saturable, stereoselective, and displaceable by agonists and antagonists with an appropriate rank order of potency. Binding isotherms in four normal and nine failing ventricles showed a significant reduction in the total tissue content of beta-receptors in failing myocardium (38.3 +/- 2.0 fmol/mg protein) compared with normal tissue (52.4 +/- 1.7 fmol/mg protein, p = 0.038). In the normal ventricles, the greatest receptor density was observed autoradiographically in myocytic regions of the subendocardium. Receptor density of the coronary arterioles was approximately 70% of that in adjacent myocytic regions. The density of binding sites in both myocytic regions and arterioles was diminished in all regions of the failing ventricles, but down-regulation was due primarily to a selective reduction of beta-receptors of subendocardial myocytes (63 +/- 5% of subepicardial receptor density vs. 115 +/- 6% in controls, p less than 0.0001). These observations indicate that down-regulation occurs nonuniformly in the transmural distribution and thus is likely not related simply to elevated circulating catecholamine levels.

  12. Acute β-Adrenergic Activation Triggers Nuclear Import of Histone Deacetylase 5 and Delays Gq-induced Transcriptional Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Wei Jenny; Lee, Linda; Yu, David; Dao, Khanha; Bossuyt, Julie; Bers, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    During hemodynamic stress, catecholamines and neurohumoral stimuli may induce co-activation of Gq-coupled receptors and β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR), leading to cardiac remodeling. Dynamic regulation of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5), a transcriptional repressor, is crucial during stress signaling due to its role in epigenetic control of fetal gene markers. Little is known about its regulation during acute and chronic β-AR stimulation and its cross-interaction with Gq signaling in adult cardiac myocytes. Here, we evaluate the potential cross-talk between Gq-driven and β-AR mediated signaling at the level of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HDAC5. We show the translocation of GFP-tagged wild type HDAC5 or mutants (S279A and S279D) in response to β-AR or Gq agonists. Isoproterenol (ISO) or PKA activation results in strong nuclear accumulation of HDAC5 in contrast to nuclear export driven by Ca2+-calmodulin protein kinase II and protein kinase D. Moreover, nuclear accumulation of HDAC5 under acute ISO/PKA signaling is dependent on phosphorylation of Ser-279 and can block subsequent Gq-mediated nuclear HDAC5 export. Intriguingly, the attenuation of Gq-induced export is abolished after chronic PKA activation, yet nuclear HDAC5 remains elevated. Last, the effect of chronic β-AR signaling on HDAC5 translocation was examined in adult myocytes from a rabbit model of heart failure, where ISO-induced nuclear import is ablated, but Gq-agonist mediated export is preserved. Acute β-AR/PKA activation protects against hypertrophic signaling by delaying Gq-mediated transcriptional activation. This serves as a key physiological control switch before allowing genetic reprogramming via HDAC5 nuclear export during more severe stress, such as heart failure. PMID:23161540

  13. Functional effects of distinct innervation styles of pyramidal cells by fast spiking cortical interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Yoshiyuki; Kondo, Satoru; Nomura, Masaki; Hatada, Sayuri; Yamaguchi, Noboru; Mohamed, Alsayed A; Karube, Fuyuki; Lübke, Joachim; Kawaguchi, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitory interneurons target precise membrane regions on pyramidal cells, but differences in their functional effects on somata, dendrites and spines remain unclear. We analyzed inhibitory synaptic events induced by cortical, fast-spiking (FS) basket cells which innervate dendritic shafts and spines as well as pyramidal cell somata. Serial electron micrograph (EMg) reconstructions showed that somatic synapses were larger than dendritic contacts. Simulations with precise anatomical and physiological data reveal functional differences between different innervation styles. FS cell soma-targeting synapses initiate a strong, global inhibition, those on shafts inhibit more restricted dendritic zones, while synapses on spines may mediate a strictly local veto. Thus, FS cell synapses of different sizes and sites provide functionally diverse forms of pyramidal cell inhibition. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07919.001 PMID:26142457

  14. Development of sympathetic innervation to proximal and distal arteries of the rat mesentery.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, C E; Hirst, G D; van Helden, D F

    1983-01-01

    The changes which occur during the post-natal development of sympathetic innervation to proximal and distal arteries of the rat mesentery have been examined using intracellular recording and histochemical techniques. In the youngest animals examined, single perivascular stimuli initiated slow depolarizing potentials which were not calcium-dependent. After day 4, single stimuli failed to initiate membrane potential changes in a proportion of preparations. This stage coincided with the period of extensive ramification of sympathetic nerve fibres over the surface of the arterioles. From day 9 onwards, membrane potential changes were again initiated by single stimuli in the distal arteries. These responses were distinct from those recorded from the younger animals and in many ways resembled excitatory junction potentials recorded from the arteries of mature animals. There was a gradient in the development of the innervation to the arteries of the rat mesentery, with that to the distal vessels maturing earlier than that to the more proximal vessels. PMID:6875954

  15. Is fast fiber innervation responsible for increased acetylcholinesterase activity in reinnervating soleus muscles?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misulis, K. E.; Dettbarn, W. D.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was conducted as to whether the predominantly slow SOL, which is low in AChE activity, is initially reinnervated by axons that originally innervated fast muscle fibers with high AChE activity, such as those of the EDL. Local denervation of the SOL in the guinea pig was performed because this muscle is composed solely of slow (type I) fibers; thereby virtually eliminating the possibility of homologous muscle fast fiber innervation. The overshoot in this preparation was qualitatively similar to that seen with distal denervation in the guinea pig and local and distal denervation in the rat. Thus, initial fast fiber innvervation is not responsible for the patterns of change in AChE activity seen with reinnervation in the SOL. It is concluded that the neural control of AChe is different in these two muscles and may reflect specific differences in the characteristics of AChE regulation in fast and slow muscle.

  16. Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 Modulates Basal and β-Adrenergic-Stimulated Contractility by Rapid and Reversible Redox-Dependent S-Nitrosylation of the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Vielma, Alejandra Z.; León, Luisa; Fernández, Ignacio C.; González, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    S-nitrosylation of several Ca2+ regulating proteins in response to β-adrenergic stimulation was recently described in the heart; however the specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoform and signaling pathways responsible for this modification have not been elucidated. NOS-1 activity increases inotropism, therefore, we tested whether β-adrenergic stimulation induces NOS-1-dependent S-nitrosylation of total proteins, the ryanodine receptor (RyR2), SERCA2 and the L-Type Ca2+ channel (LTCC). In the isolated rat heart, isoproterenol (10 nM, 3-min) increased S-nitrosylation of total cardiac proteins (+46±14%) and RyR2 (+146±77%), without affecting S-nitrosylation of SERCA2 and LTCC. Selective NOS-1 blockade with S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline (SMTC) and Nω-propyl-l-arginine decreased basal contractility and relaxation (−25–30%) and basal S-nitrosylation of total proteins (−25–60%), RyR2, SERCA2 and LTCC (−60–75%). NOS-1 inhibition reduced (−25–40%) the inotropic response and protein S-nitrosylation induced by isoproterenol, particularly that of RyR2 (−85±7%). Tempol, a superoxide scavenger, mimicked the effects of NOS-1 inhibition on inotropism and protein S-nitrosylation; whereas selective NOS-3 inhibitor L-N5-(1-Iminoethyl)ornithine had no effect. Inhibition of NOS-1 did not affect phospholamban phosphorylation, but reduced its oligomerization. Attenuation of contractility was abolished by PKA blockade and unaffected by guanylate cyclase inhibition. Additionally, in isolated mouse cardiomyocytes, NOS-1 inhibition or removal reduced the Ca2+-transient amplitude and sarcomere shortening induced by isoproterenol or by direct PKA activation. We conclude that 1) normal cardiac performance requires basal NOS-1 activity and S-nitrosylation of the calcium-cycling machinery; 2) β-adrenergic stimulation induces rapid and reversible NOS-1 dependent, PKA and ROS-dependent, S-nitrosylation of RyR2 and other proteins, accounting for about one third of its

  17. Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 Modulates Basal and β-Adrenergic-Stimulated Contractility by Rapid and Reversible Redox-Dependent S-Nitrosylation of the Heart.

    PubMed

    Vielma, Alejandra Z; León, Luisa; Fernández, Ignacio C; González, Daniel R; Boric, Mauricio P

    2016-01-01

    S-nitrosylation of several Ca2+ regulating proteins in response to β-adrenergic stimulation was recently described in the heart; however the specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoform and signaling pathways responsible for this modification have not been elucidated. NOS-1 activity increases inotropism, therefore, we tested whether β-adrenergic stimulation induces NOS-1-dependent S-nitrosylation of total proteins, the ryanodine receptor (RyR2), SERCA2 and the L-Type Ca2+ channel (LTCC). In the isolated rat heart, isoproterenol (10 nM, 3-min) increased S-nitrosylation of total cardiac proteins (+46±14%) and RyR2 (+146±77%), without affecting S-nitrosylation of SERCA2 and LTCC. Selective NOS-1 blockade with S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline (SMTC) and Nω-propyl-l-arginine decreased basal contractility and relaxation (-25-30%) and basal S-nitrosylation of total proteins (-25-60%), RyR2, SERCA2 and LTCC (-60-75%). NOS-1 inhibition reduced (-25-40%) the inotropic response and protein S-nitrosylation induced by isoproterenol, particularly that of RyR2 (-85±7%). Tempol, a superoxide scavenger, mimicked the effects of NOS-1 inhibition on inotropism and protein S-nitrosylation; whereas selective NOS-3 inhibitor L-N5-(1-Iminoethyl)ornithine had no effect. Inhibition of NOS-1 did not affect phospholamban phosphorylation, but reduced its oligomerization. Attenuation of contractility was abolished by PKA blockade and unaffected by guanylate cyclase inhibition. Additionally, in isolated mouse cardiomyocytes, NOS-1 inhibition or removal reduced the Ca2+-transient amplitude and sarcomere shortening induced by isoproterenol or by direct PKA activation. We conclude that 1) normal cardiac performance requires basal NOS-1 activity and S-nitrosylation of the calcium-cycling machinery; 2) β-adrenergic stimulation induces rapid and reversible NOS-1 dependent, PKA and ROS-dependent, S-nitrosylation of RyR2 and other proteins, accounting for about one third of its inotropic effect.

  18. Real-time optical recording of β1-adrenergic receptor activation reveals supersensitivity of the Arg389 variant to carvedilol

    PubMed Central

    Rochais, Francesca; Vilardaga, Jean-Pierre; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Bünemann, Moritz; Lohse, Martin J.; Engelhardt, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Antagonists of β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) have become a main therapeutic regimen for the treatment of heart failure even though the mechanisms of their beneficial effects are still poorly understood. Here, we used fluorescent resonance energy transfer–based (FRET-based) approaches to directly monitor activation of the β1-AR and downstream signaling. While the commonly used β-AR antagonists metoprolol, bisoprolol, and carvedilol displayed varying degrees of inverse agonism on the Gly389 variant of the receptor (i.e., actively switching off the β1-AR), surprisingly, only carvedilol showed very specific and marked inverse agonist effects on the more frequent Arg389 variant. These specific effects of carvedilol on the Arg389 variant of the β1-AR were also seen for control of beating frequency in rat cardiac myocytes expressing the 2 receptor variants. This FRET sensor permitted direct observation of activation of the β1-AR in living cells in real time. It revealed that β1-AR variants dramatically differ in their responses to diverse beta blockers, with possible consequences for their clinical use. PMID:17200720

  19. Adrenergic Inhibition with Dexmedetomidine to Treat Stress Cardiomyopathy during Alcohol Withdrawal: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Zachary M.; Alonso, Alvaro; Kennedy, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Stress (Takotsubo) cardiomyopathy is a form of reversible left ventricular dysfunction with a heightened risk of ventricular arrhythmia thought to be caused by high circulating catecholamines. We report a case of stress cardiomyopathy that developed during severe alcohol withdrawal successfully treated with dexmedetomidine. The case involves a 53-year-old man with a significant history of alcohol abuse who presented to a teaching hospital with new-onset seizures. His symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal were initially treated with benzodiazepines, but the patient later developed hypotension, and stress cardiomyopathy was suspected based on ECG and echocardiographic findings. Adjunctive treatment with the alpha-2-adrenergic agonist, dexmedetomidine, was initiated to curtail excessive sympathetic outflow of the withdrawal syndrome, thereby targeting the presumed pathophysiology of the cardiomyopathy. Significant clinical improvement was observed within one day of initiation of dexmedetomidine. These findings are consistent with other reports suggesting that sympathetic dysregulation during alcohol withdrawal produces ideal pathobiology for stress cardiomyopathy and leads to ventricular arrhythmogenicity. Stress cardiomyopathy should be recognized as a complication of alcohol withdrawal that significantly increases cardiac-related mortality. By helping to correct autonomic dysregulation of the withdrawal syndrome, dexmedetomidine may be useful in the treatment of stress-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:27006838

  20. Adrenergic Inhibition with Dexmedetomidine to Treat Stress Cardiomyopathy during Alcohol Withdrawal: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Harris, Zachary M; Alonso, Alvaro; Kennedy, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Stress (Takotsubo) cardiomyopathy is a form of reversible left ventricular dysfunction with a heightened risk of ventricular arrhythmia thought to be caused by high circulating catecholamines. We report a case of stress cardiomyopathy that developed during severe alcohol withdrawal successfully treated with dexmedetomidine. The case involves a 53-year-old man with a significant history of alcohol abuse who presented to a teaching hospital with new-onset seizures. His symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal were initially treated with benzodiazepines, but the patient later developed hypotension, and stress cardiomyopathy was suspected based on ECG and echocardiographic findings. Adjunctive treatment with the alpha-2-adrenergic agonist, dexmedetomidine, was initiated to curtail excessive sympathetic outflow of the withdrawal syndrome, thereby targeting the presumed pathophysiology of the cardiomyopathy. Significant clinical improvement was observed within one day of initiation of dexmedetomidine. These findings are consistent with other reports suggesting that sympathetic dysregulation during alcohol withdrawal produces ideal pathobiology for stress cardiomyopathy and leads to ventricular arrhythmogenicity. Stress cardiomyopathy should be recognized as a complication of alcohol withdrawal that significantly increases cardiac-related mortality. By helping to correct autonomic dysregulation of the withdrawal syndrome, dexmedetomidine may be useful in the treatment of stress-induced cardiomyopathy.

  1. The A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP)-Lbc-signaling complex mediates alpha1 adrenergic receptor-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Appert-Collin, Aline; Cotecchia, Susanna; Nenniger-Tosato, Monique; Pedrazzini, Thierry; Diviani, Dario

    2007-06-12

    In response to various pathological stresses, the heart undergoes a pathological remodeling process that is associated with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Because cardiac hypertrophy can progress to heart failure, a major cause of lethality worldwide, the intracellular signaling pathways that control cardiomyocyte growth have been the subject of intensive investigation. It has been known for more than a decade that the small molecular weight GTPase RhoA is involved in the signaling pathways leading to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Although some of the hypertrophic pathways activated by RhoA have now been identified, the identity of the exchange factors that modulate its activity in cardiomyocytes is currently unknown. In this study, we show that AKAP-Lbc, an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) with an intrinsic Rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity, is critical for activating RhoA and transducing hypertrophic signals downstream of alpha1-adrenergic receptors (ARs). In particular, our results indicate that suppression of AKAP-Lbc expression by infecting rat neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes with lentiviruses encoding AKAP-Lbc-specific short hairpin RNAs strongly reduces both alpha1-AR-mediated RhoA activation and hypertrophic responses. Interestingly, alpha1-ARs promote AKAP-Lbc activation via a pathway that requires the alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein G12. These findings identify AKAP-Lbc as the first Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) involved in the signaling pathways leading to cardiomyocytes hypertrophy.

  2. Phosphorylation sites required for regulation of cardiac calcium channels in the fight-or-flight response.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Westenbroek, Ruth E; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A

    2013-11-26

    L-type Ca(2+) currents conducted by CaV1.2 channels initiate excitation-contraction coupling in the heart. Their activity is increased by β-adrenergic/cAMP signaling via phosphorylation by PKA in the fight-or-flight response, but the sites of regulation are unknown. We describe the functional role of phosphorylation of Ser1700 and Thr1704-sites of phosphorylation by PKA and casein kinase II at the interface between the proximal and distal C-terminal regulatory domains. Mutation of both residues to Ala in STAA mice reduced basal L-type Ca(2+) currents, due to a small decrease in expression and a substantial decrease in functional activity. The increase in L-type Ca(2+) current caused by isoproterenol was markedly reduced at physiological levels of stimulation (3-10 nM). Maximal increases in calcium current at nearly saturating concentrations of isoproterenol (100 nM) were also significantly reduced, but the mutation effects were smaller, suggesting that alternative regulatory mechanisms are engaged at maximal levels of stimulation. The β-adrenergic increase in cell contraction was also diminished. STAA ventricular myocytes exhibited arrhythmic contractions in response to isoproterenol, and up to 20% of STAA cells failed to sustain contractions when stimulated at 1 Hz. STAA mice have reduced exercise capacity, and cardiac hypertrophy is evident at 3 mo. We conclude that phosphorylation of Ser1700 and Thr1704 is essential for regulation of basal activity of CaV1.2 channels and for up-regulation by β-adrenergic signaling at physiological levels of stimulation. Disruption of phosphorylation at those sites leads to impaired cardiac function in vivo, as indicated by reduced exercise capacity and cardiac hypertrophy.

  3. Expression of Sex Steroid Hormone Receptors in Vagal Motor Neurons Innervating the Trachea and Esophagus in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Mukudai, Shigeyuki; Ichi Matsuda, Ken; Bando, Hideki; Takanami, Keiko; Nishio, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Hisa, Yasuo; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The medullary vagal motor nuclei, the nucleus ambiguus (NA) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), innervate the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. We conducted immunohistochemical analysis of expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor α (ERα), in relation to innervation of the trachea and esophagus via vagal motor nuclei in mice. AR and ERα were expressed in the rostral NA and in part of the DMV. Tracing experiments using cholera toxin B subunit demonstrated that neurons of vagal motor nuclei that innervate the trachea and esophagus express AR and ERα. There was no difference in expression of sex steroid hormone receptors between trachea- and esophagus-innervating neurons. These results suggest that sex steroid hormones may act on vagal motor nuclei via their receptors, thereby regulating functions of the trachea and esophagus. PMID:27006520

  4. Branchial arch muscle innervation by the glossopharyngeal (IX) and vagal (X) nerves in tetraodontiformes, with special reference to muscle homologies.

    PubMed

    Nakae, Masanori; Sasaki, Kunio

    2008-06-01

    Branchial arch muscle innervation by the glossopharyngeal (IX) and vagal (X) nerves in 10 tetraodontiform families and five outgroup taxa was examined, with special reference to muscle homologies. Basic innervation patterns and their variations were described for all muscle elements (except gill filament muscles). In the tetraodontids Takifugu poecilonotus and Canthigaster rivulata, diodontid Diodon holocanthus, and molid Mola mola, levator externus 4 was innervated by the 3rd vagal branchial trunk (BX3) in addition to BX2, owing to strong posterior expansion of the muscle. Based on nerve innervation, migrations of the muscle attachment sites (i.e., origins and insertions) were recognized in levator internus 2 (in Mola mola), obliquus dorsalis 3 (in Ostracion immaculatus and Canthigaster rivulata), and obliquus ventralis 2 (in Stephanolepis cirrhifer), muscle topologies not necessarily being indicative of homologies. Embryonic origin of the retractor dorsalis and parallel attainment of the swimbladder muscle within the order were also discussed.

  5. Ephrin-B/EphB signaling is required for normal innervation of lingual gustatory papillae

    PubMed Central

    Treffy, Randall William; Collins, David; Hoshino, Natalia; Ton, Son; Katsevman, Gennadiy Aleksandrovich; Oleksiak, Michael; Runge, Elizabeth Marie; Cho, David; Russo, Matthew; Spec, Andrej; Gomulka, Jennifer; Henkemeyer, Mark; Rochlin, Michael William

    2016-01-01

    The innervation of taste buds is an excellent model system for studying the guidance of axons during targeting because of their discrete nature and the high fidelity of innervation. The pre-gustatory epithelium of fungiform papillae is known to secrete diffusible axon guidance cues such as BDNF and Sema3A that attract and repel, respectively, geniculate ganglion axons during targeting, but diffusible factors alone are unlikely to explain how taste axon terminals are restricted to their territories within the taste bud. Non-diffusible cell surface proteins such as Ephs and ephrins can act as receptors and/or ligands for one another and are known to control axon terminal positioning in several parts of the nervous system, but they have not been studied in the gustatory system. We report that ephrin-B2 linked β-galactosidase staining and immunostaining was present along the dorsal epithelium of the mouse tongue as early as E15.5, but was not detected at E14.5, when axons first enter the epithelium. Ephrin-B1 immunolabeling was barely detected in the epithelium and found at a somewhat higher concentration in the mesenchyme subjacent to the epithelium. EphB1 and EphB2 were detected in lingual sensory afferents in vivo and geniculate neurites in vitro. Ephrin-B1 and ephrin-B2 were similarly effective in repelling or suppressing outgrowth by geniculate neurites in vitro. These in vitro effects were independent of the neurotrophin used to promote outgrowth, but were reduced by elevated levels of laminin. In vivo, mice null for EphB1 and EphB2 exhibited decreased gustatory innervation of fungiform papillae. These data provide evidence that ephrin-B forward signaling is necessary for normal gustatory innervation of the mammalian tongue. PMID:27035151

  6. Semaphorin 3A controls timing and patterning of the dental pulp innervation.

    PubMed

    Moe, Kyaw; Sijaona, Angelina; Shrestha, Anjana; Kettunen, Paivi; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Luukko, Keijo

    2012-12-01

    Timing and patterning of dental pulp innervation are strictly spatio-temporally regulated but it is still not known how they are controlled at molecular level. We analyzed postnatal innervation of the dental pulp in the mandibular first molar of mice deficient for Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) axon repell