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Sample records for cardiac surgery evaluation

  1. Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Weisse, Allen B.

    2011-01-01

    Well into the first decades of the 20th century, medical opinion held that any surgical attempts to treat heart disease were not only misguided, but unethical. Despite such reservations, innovative surgeons showed that heart wounds could be successfully repaired. Then, extracardiac procedures were performed to correct patent ductus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, and tetralogy of Fallot. Direct surgery on the heart was accomplished with closed commissurotomy for mitral stenosis. The introduction of the heart-lung machine and cardiopulmonary bypass enabled the surgical treatment of other congenital and acquired heart diseases. Advances in aortic surgery paralleled these successes. The development of coronary artery bypass grafting greatly aided the treatment of coronary heart disease. Cardiac transplantation, attempts to use the total artificial heart, and the application of ventricular assist devices have brought us to the present day. Although progress in the field of cardiovascular surgery appears to have slowed when compared with the halcyon times of the past, substantial challenges still face cardiac surgeons. It can only be hoped that sufficient resources and incentive can carry the triumphs of the 20th century into the 21st. This review covers past developments and future opportunities in cardiac surgery. PMID:22163121

  2. [Evaluation of the cardiac risks in non-cardiac surgery in patients with heart failure].

    PubMed

    Pinaud, M

    2002-02-01

    Cardiac insufficiency represents a major risk factor in patients about to undergo non-cardiac surgery. The post-operative mortality is linked to the severity of the pre-operative functional impairment: rising from 4% in NYHA class 1 to 67% in class IV. The operative risk is greater when the cardiac insufficiency is more disabling, the patient is older (> 70 years) and if there is a history of acute pulmonary oedema and a gallop bruit on auscultation. The use of metabolic equivalents (Duke Activity Status Index) is recommended: the functional capacity is defined as excellent if > 7 MET, moderate between 4 and 7, or poor if < 4. A non-invasive evaluation of left ventricular function is necessary in each patient with obvious congestive cardiac insufficiency or poor control under the American consensus, but it is rare that the patient has not already been seen by a cardiologist. The degree of per-operative haemodynamic constraint is linked to the surgical technique and is stratified according to the type of surgical intervention and whether or not it is performed as an emergency. An intervention duration > 5 hours is associated with an increased peri-operative risk of congestive cardiac insufficiency and non-cardiac death. Deaths from a cardiac cause are thus twice as frequent after intra-abdominal, non-cardiac thoracic or aortic surgery and the post-operative cardiac complications are six times more frequent. Numerous studies have attempted to document the impact of different anaesthetic techniques on the prognosis for the population at increased risk of post-operative cardiovascular complications. It is advisable to opt for peripheral nerve blocks. The cardiovascular morbidity and overall mortality do not differ between general anaesthetic, epidural anaesthetic or spinal nerve block. The ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) classification is widely used to determine the overall risk. The ASA class and the age are however too coarse as methods of evaluation for

  3. Current Practice and Recommendation for Presurgical Cardiac Evaluation in Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Padma, Subramanyam; Sundaram, P. Shanmuga

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing major noncardiac surgery justifies guidelines concerning preoperative cardiac evaluation. This is compounded by increasing chances for a volatile perioperative period if the underlying cardiac problems are left uncorrected prior to major noncardiac surgeries. Preoperative cardiac evaluation requires the clinician to assess the patient's probability to have CAD, severity and stability of CAD, placing these in perspective regarding the likelihood of a perioperative cardiac complication based on the planned surgical procedure. Coronary events like new onset ischemia, infarction, or revascularization, induce a high-risk period of 6 weeks, and an intermediate-risk period of 3 months before performing noncardiac surgery. This delay is unwarranted in cases where surgery is the mainstay of treatment. The objective of this review is to offer a comprehensive algorithm in the preoperative assessment of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery and highlight the importance of myocardial perfusion imaging in risk stratifying these patients. PMID:25191106

  4. Combination of European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) and Cardiac Surgery Score (CASUS) to Improve Outcome Prediction in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Doerr, Fabian; Heldwein, Matthias B.; Bayer, Ole; Sabashnikov, Anton; Weymann, Alexander; Dohmen, Pascal M.; Wahlers, Thorsten; Hekmat, Khosro

    2015-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that the combination of a preoperative and a postoperative scoring system would improve the accuracy of mortality prediction and therefore combined the preoperative ‘additive EuroSCORE‘ (European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation) with the postoperative ‘additive CASUS’ (Cardiac Surgery Score) to form the ‘modified CASUS’. Material/Methods We included all consecutive adult patients after cardiac surgery during January 2007 and December 2010 in our prospective study. Our single-centre study was conducted in a German general referral university hospital. The original additive and the ‘modified CASUS’ were tested using calibration and discrimination statistics. We compared the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver characteristic curves (ROC) by DeLong’s method and calculated overall correct classification (OCC) values. Results The mean age among the total of 5207 patients was 67.2±10.9 years. Whilst the ICU mortality was 5.9% we observed a mean length of ICU stay of 4.6±7.0 days. Both models demonstrated excellent discriminatory power (mean AUC of ‘modified CASUS’: ≥0.929; ‘additive CASUS’: ≥0.920), with no significant differences according to DeLong. Neither model showed a significant p-value (<0.05) in calibration. We detected the best OCC during the 2nd day (modified: 96.5%; original: 96.6%). Conclusions Our ‘additive’ and ‘modified’ CASUS are reasonable overall predictors. We could not detect any improvement in the accuracy of mortality prediction in cardiac surgery by combining a preoperative and a postoperative scoring system. A separate calculation of the two individual elements is therefore recommended. PMID:26279053

  5. Combination of European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) and Cardiac Surgery Score (CASUS) to Improve Outcome Prediction in Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Doerr, Fabian; Heldwein, Matthias B; Bayer, Ole; Sabashnikov, Anton; Weymann, Alexander; Dohmen, Pascal M; Wahlers, Thorsten; Hekmat, Khosro

    2015-08-17

    BACKGROUND We hypothesized that the combination of a preoperative and a postoperative scoring system would improve the accuracy of mortality prediction and therefore combined the preoperative 'additive EuroSCORE' (European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation) with the postoperative 'additive CASUS' (Cardiac Surgery Score) to form the 'modified CASUS'. MATERIAL AND METHODS We included all consecutive adult patients after cardiac surgery during January 2007 and December 2010 in our prospective study. Our single-centre study was conducted in a German general referral university hospital. The original additive and the 'modified CASUS' were tested using calibration and discrimination statistics. We compared the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver characteristic curves (ROC) by DeLong's method and calculated overall correct classification (OCC) values. RESULTS The mean age among the total of 5207 patients was 67.2 ± 10.9 years. Whilst the ICU mortality was 5.9% we observed a mean length of ICU stay of 4.6 ± 7.0 days. Both models demonstrated excellent discriminatory power (mean AUC of 'modified CASUS': ≥ 0.929; 'additive CASUS': ≥ 0.920), with no significant differences according to DeLong. Neither model showed a significant p-value (<0.05) in calibration. We detected the best OCC during the 2nd day (modified: 96.5%; original: 96.6%). CONCLUSIONS Our 'additive' and 'modified' CASUS are reasonable overall predictors. We could not detect any improvement in the accuracy of mortality prediction in cardiac surgery by combining a preoperative and a postoperative scoring system. A separate calculation of the two individual elements is therefore recommended.

  6. Mortality prediction in Indian cardiac surgery patients: Validation of European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Prachi; Geeta, Kanithi; Gopinath, Ramachandran; Durga, Padmaja

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Risk Stratification has an important place in cardiac surgery to identify high-risk cases and optimally allocate resources. Hence various risk scoring systems have been tried to predict mortality. The aim of the present study was to validate the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II (EuroSCORE II) in Indian cardiac surgical patients. Methods: After obtaining ethics committee clearance, data on EuroSCORE II variables were collected for all patients >18 years undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), valve surgery and mixed (CABG + valve) procedures between January 2011 and December 2012. Mortality prediction was done using the online calculator from the site www.euroscore.org. The calibration of the EuroSCORE II model was analysed using the Hosmer–Lemeshow test and discrimination was analysed by plotting receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) and calculating area under the curve (AUC). The analysis was done in the total sample, CABG, valve surgery and in mixed procedures. Results: The overall observed mortality was 5.7% in the total sample, 6.6% in CABG, 4.2% in valve surgeries and 10.2% in mixed procedures whereas the predicted mortality was 2.9%, 3.1%, 2.4%, 5.1% in total sample, CABG, valve surgery and mixed procedure, respectively. The significance (P value) of Hosmer–Lemeshow test was 0.292, 0.45, 0.56 and 1 for the total sample, CABG, valve surgery and mixed procedure, respectively, indicating good calibration. The AUC of ROC was 0.76, 0.70, 0.83 and 0.78 for total sample, CABG, valve surgery and mixed procedure, respectively. Conclusion: Mortality of the sample was under-predicted by EuroSCORE II. Calibration of the EuroSCORE II model was good for total sample as well as for all surgical subcategories. Discrimination was good in the total sample and in the mixed procedure population, acceptable in CABG patients and excellent in valve surgeries. PMID:28250485

  7. Cardiac surgery 2015 reviewed.

    PubMed

    Doenst, Torsten; Strüning, Constanze; Moschovas, Alexandros; Gonzalez-Lopez, David; Essa, Yasin; Kirov, Hristo; Diab, Mahmoud; Faerber, Gloria

    2016-10-01

    For the year 2015, almost 19,000 published references can be found in PubMed when entering the search term "cardiac surgery". The last year has been again characterized by lively discussions in the fields where classic cardiac surgery and modern interventional techniques overlap. Lacking evidence in the field of coronary revascularization with either percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery has been added. As in the years before, CABG remains the gold standard for the revascularization of complex stable triple-vessel disease. Plenty of new information has been presented comparing the conventional to transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) demonstrating similar short- and mid-term outcomes at high and low risk, but even a survival advantage with transfemoral TAVI at intermediate risk. In addition, there were many relevant and interesting other contributions from the purely operative arena. This review article will summarize the most pertinent publications in the fields of coronary revascularization, surgical treatment of valve disease, heart failure (i.e., transplantation and ventricular assist devices), and aortic surgery. While the article does not have the expectation of being complete and cannot be free of individual interpretation, it provides a condensed summary that is intended to give the reader "solid ground" for up-to-date decision-making in cardiac surgery.

  8. Revised ESC/ESA Guidelines on non-cardiac surgery: cardiovascular assessment and management. Implications for preoperative clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Guarracino, F; Baldassarri, R; Priebe, H J

    2015-02-01

    Each year, an increasing number of elderly patients with cardiovascular disease undergoing non-cardiac surgery require careful perioperative management to minimize the perioperative risk. Perioperative cardiovascular complications are the strongest predictors of morbidity and mortality after major non-cardiac surgery. A Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) has recently published revised Guidelines on the perioperative cardiovascular management of patients scheduled to undergo non-cardiac surgery, which represent the official position of the ESC and ESA on various aspects of perioperative cardiac care. According to the Guidelines effective perioperative cardiac management includes preoperative risk stratification based on preoperative assessment of functional capacity, type of surgery, cardiac risk factors, and cardiovascular function. The ESC/ESA Guidelines discourage indiscriminate routine preoperative cardiac testing, because it is time- and cost-consuming, resource-limiting, and does not improve perioperative outcome. They rather emphasize the importance of individualized preoperative cardiac evaluation and the cooperation between anesthesiologists and cardiologists. We summarize the relevant changes of the 2014 Guidelines as compared to the previous ones, with particular emphasis on preoperative cardiac testing.

  9. Evaluating the Potential Effect of Melatonin on the post-Cardiac Surgery Sleep Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Dianatkhah, Mehrnoush; Ghaeli, Padideh; Hajhossein Talasaz, Azita; Karimi, Abbasali; Salehiomran, Abbas; Bina, Peyvand; Jalali, Arash; Ghaffary, Saba; Shahmansouri, Nazila; Vejdani, Shaghayegh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postoperative neurological injuries, including cognitive dysfunction, sleep disorder, delirium, and anxiety, are the important consequences of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Evidence has shown that postoperative sleep disturbance is partly due to disturbed melatonin secretion in the perioperative period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin on postoperative sleep disorder in patients undergoing CABG. Method: One hundred forty-five elective CABG patients participated in a randomized double-blind study during the preoperative period. The patients were randomized to receive either 3 mg of melatonin or 10 mg of Oxazepam one hour before sleep time. Each group received the medication from 3 days before surgery until the time of discharge. Sleep quality was evaluated using the Groningen Sleep Quality Score (GSQS), and the incidence of delirium was evaluated by nursing records. Sleep quality and anxiety scores were compared before and after surgery through the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and independent t-test were used to compare the sleep and anxiety scores between the groups. P values ≤ 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Totally, 137 patients at a mean age of 60 years completed the study (76% male). The analysis of the data showed that sleep was significantly disturbed after surgery in both groups. The patients in the Oxazepam group demonstrated significantly higher disturbance in their mean postoperative GSQS score than did their counterparts in the melatonin group (p value < 0.001). A smaller proportion of the participants experienced delirium in the melatonin group (0.06%) than in the Oxazepam group (0.12%); however, this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The result of the present study revealed that melatonin improved sleep in post-cardiac surgery patients more than what was observed with Oxazepam. Therefore, melatonin may be

  10. Evaluation of peripheral muscle strength of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Kelli Maria Souza; de Cerqueira Neto, Manoel Luiz; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; de Santana Filho, Valter Joviniano; da Silva Junior, Walderi Monteiro; Araújo Filho, Amaro Afrânio; Cerqueira, Telma Cristina Fontes; Cacau, Lucas de Assis Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral muscle strength has been little explored in the literature in the context of cardiac rehabilitation. Objective To evaluate the peripheral muscle strength of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Methods This was a longitudinal observational study. The peripheral muscle strength was measured using isometric dynamometry lower limb (knee extensors and flexors) at three different times: preoperatively (M1), the day of discharge (M2) and hospital discharge (M3). Participants received physiotherapy pre and postoperatively during the days of hospitalization during the morning and afternoon. Results Twenty-two patients were evaluated. The values of peripheral muscle strength of knee extensors preoperative found were about 50% lower than those predicted for the healthy population. When comparing muscle strength prior (M1), with the remaining evaluation, found himself in a fall of 29% for the movement of knee extension and 25% for knee flexion in M2 and a decrease of 10% movement for knee extension and 13% for knee flexion in M3 when comparing with M1. Conclusion The values of peripheral muscle strength prior of the study patients were lower than predicted for the healthy population of the same age. After the surgical event this reduction is even more remarkable, being reestablished until the time of discharge, to values close to baseline. PMID:25372909

  11. Leadership in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Rao, Christopher; Patel, Vanash; Ibrahim, Michael; Ahmed, Kamran; Wong, Kathie A; Darzi, Ara; von Segesser, Ludwig K; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2011-06-01

    Despite the efficacy of cardiac surgery, less invasive interventions with more uncertain long-term outcomes are increasingly challenging surgery as first-line treatment for several congenital, degenerative and ischemic cardiac diseases. The specialty must evolve if it is to ensure its future relevance. More importantly, it must evolve to ensure that future patients have access to treatments with proven long-term effectiveness. This cannot be achieved without dynamic leadership; however, our contention is that this is not enough. The demands of a modern surgical career and the importance of the task at hand are such that the serendipitous emergence of traditional charismatic leadership cannot be relied upon to deliver necessary change. We advocate systematic analysis and strategic leadership at a local, national and international level in four key areas: Clinical Care, Research, Education and Training, and Stakeholder Engagement. While we anticipate that exceptional individuals will continue to shape the future of our specialty, the creation of robust structures to deliver collective leadership in these key areas is of paramount importance.

  12. Robotic cardiac surgery in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Toschi, Alisson P.; Pope, Renato B.; Montanhesi, Paola K.; Santos, Ricardo S.; Teruya, Alexandre; Hatanaka, Dina M.; Rusca, Gabriel F.; Fischer, Claudio H.; Vieira, Marcelo C.; Makdisse, Marcia R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Brazil, the largest country and economy in South America, is a major driving force behind the development of new medical technologies in the region. Robotic cardiac surgery (RCS) has been evolving rapidly since 2010, when the first surgery using the DaVinci® robotic system was performed in Latin America. The aim of this article is to evaluate short and mid-term results in patients undergoing robotic cardiac surgery in Brazil. Methods From March 2010 to December 2015, 39 consecutive patients underwent robotic cardiac surgery. Twenty-seven patients were male (69.2%), with the mean age of 51.3±17.9 years. Participants had a mean ejection fraction of 62±5%. The procedures included in this study were mitral valve surgery, surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation, atrial septal defect closure, resection of intra-cardiac tumors, totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass and pericardiectomy. Results The mean time spent on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during RCS was 154.9±94.2 minutes and the mean aortic cross-clamp time was 114.48±75.66 minutes. Thirty-two patients (82%) were extubated in the operating room immediately after surgery. The median intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay was 1 day (ranging from 0 to 25) and the median hospital length of stay was 5 days (ranging from 3 to 25). For each type of procedure, endpoints were individually reported. There were no conversions to sternotomy and no intra-operative complications. Patient follow-up was complete in 100% of the participants, with two early deaths unrelated to the procedures and no re-operations at mid-term. Conclusions Despite the heterogeneity of this series, RCS appears to be feasible, safe and effective when used for the correction of various intra- and extra-cardiac pathologies. Adopting the robotic system has been a challenge in Brazil, where its limited clinical application may be related to the lack of specific training and the high cost of technology. PMID:28203537

  13. Evaluation of Hemoglobin A1c Criteria to Assess Preoperative Diabetes Risk in Cardiac Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saberi, Sima; Zrull, Christina A.; Patil, Preethi V.; Jha, Leena; Kling-Colson, Susan C.; Gandia, Kenia G.; DuBois, Elizabeth C.; Plunkett, Cynthia D.; Bodnar, Tim W.; Pop-Busui, Rodica

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective Hemoglobin A1c (A1C) has recently been recommended for diagnosing diabetes mellitus and diabetes risk (prediabetes). Its performance compared with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h post-glucose load (2HPG) is not well delineated. We compared the performance of A1C with that of FPG and 2HPG in preoperative cardiac surgery patients. Methods Data from 92 patients without a history of diabetes were analyzed. Patients were classified with diabetes or prediabetes using established cutoffs for FPG, 2HPG, and A1C. Sensitivity and specificity of the new A1C criteria were evaluated. Results All patients diagnosed with diabetes by A1C also had impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or diabetes by other criteria. Using FPG as the reference, sensitivity and specificity of A1C for diagnosing diabetes were 50% and 96%, and using 2HPG as the reference they were 25% and 95%. Sensitivity and specificity for identifying prediabetes with FPG as the reference were 51% and 51%, respectively, and with 2HPG were 53% and 51%, respectively. One-third each of patients with prediabetes was identified using FPG, A1C, or both. When testing A1C and FPG concurrently, the sensitivity of diagnosing dysglycemia increased to 93% stipulating one or both tests are abnormal; specificity increased to 100% if both tests were required to be abnormal. Conclusions In patients before cardiac surgery, A1C criteria identified the largest number of patients with diabetes and prediabetes. For diagnosing prediabetes, A1C and FPG were discordant and characterized different groups of patients, therefore altering the distribution of diabetes risk. Simultaneous measurement of FGP and A1C may be a more sensitive and specific tool for identifying high-risk individuals with diabetes and prediabetes. PMID:21854260

  14. Hand-held echocardiography in the setting of pre-operative cardiac evaluation of patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery: results from a randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, Ilaria; Mega, Simona; Goffredo, Costanza; Patti, Giuseppe; Chello, Massimo; Di Sciascio, Germano

    2015-06-01

    Transthoracic echocardiography is not a routine test in the pre-operative cardiac evaluation of patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery but may be considered in those with known heart failure and valvular heart disease or complaining cardiac symptoms. In this setting, hand-held echocardiography (HHE) could find a potential application as an alternative to standard echocardiography in selected patients; however, its utility in this context has not been investigated. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the conclusiveness of HHE compared to standard echocardiography in this subset of patients. 100 patients scheduled for non-cardiac surgery were randomized to receive a standard exam with a Philips Ie33 or a bedside evaluation with a pocket-size imaging device (Opti-Go, Philips Medical System). The primary endpoint was the percentage of satisfactory diagnosis at the end of the examination referred as conclusiveness. Secondary endpoints were the mean duration time and the mean waiting time to perform the exams. No significant difference in terms of conclusiveness between HHE and standard echo was found (86 vs 96%; P = 0.08). Mean duration time of the examinations was 6.1 ± 1.2 min with HHE and 13.1 ± 2.6 min with standard echocardiography (P < 0.001). HHE resulted in a consistent save of waiting time because it was performed the same day of clinical evaluation whereas patients waited 10.1 ± 6.1 days for a standard echocardiography (P < 0.001). This study suggests the potential role of HHE for pre-operative evaluation of selected patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery, since it provided similar information but it was faster and earlier performed compared to standard echocardiography.

  15. Impact of chest X-ray before discharge in asymptomatic children after cardiac surgery--prospective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Daniel; Knirsch, Walter; Niesse, Oliver; Schraner, Thomas; Dave, Hitendu; Kretschmar, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    In many paediatric cardiac units chest radiographs are performed routinely before discharge after cardiac surgery. These radiographs contribute to radiation exposure. To evaluate the diagnostic impact of routine chest X-rays before discharge in children undergoing open heart surgery and to analyze certain risk factors predicting pathologic findings. This was a prospective (6 months) single-centre observational clinical study. One hundred twenty-eight consecutive children undergoing heart surgery underwent biplane chest X-ray at a mean of 13 days after surgery. Pathologic findings on chest X-rays were defined as infiltrate, atelectasis, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, or signs of fluid overload. One hundred nine asymptomatic children were included in the final analysis. Risk factors, such as age, corrective versus palliative surgery, reoperation, sternotomy versus lateral thoracotomy, and relevant pulmonary events during postoperative paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay, were analysed. In only 5.5 % (6 of 109) of these asymptomatic patients were pathologic findings on routine chest X-ray before discharge found. In only three of these cases (50 %), subsequent noninvasive medical intervention (increasing diuretics) was needed. All six patients had relevant pulmonary events during their PICU stay. Risk factor analysis showed only pulmonary complications during PICU stay to be significantly associated (p = 0.005) with pathologic X-ray findings. Routine chest radiographs before discharge after cardiac surgery can be omitted in asymptomatic children with an uneventful and straightforward perioperative course. Chest radiographs before discharge are warrantable if pulmonary complications did occur during their PICU stay, as this is a risk factor for pathologic findings in chest X-rays before discharge.

  16. [Evaluation of pain intensity and vital signs in the cardiac surgery postoperative period].

    PubMed

    Miranda, Adriana de Fátima Alencar; da Silva, Lúcia de Fátima; Caetano, Joselany Áfio; de Sousa, Ana Cláudia; Almeida, Paulo César

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the changes in vital signs of postoperative cardiac surgery patients, according to the referred pain intensity. This descriptive-exploratory study was performed using quantitative analysis to investigate 38 patients submitted to a first dressing change. The analysis of the data, measured before and after performing the nursing procedure, indicated that the manifestation of pain occurred at different levels. The main changes in vital signs referred to blood pressure. In conclusion, there is a relationship between pain intensity and vital signs, and the care that is delivered is indispensible to reestablishing the health state of the postoperative patient.

  17. [Cardiac surgery in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Wiegmann, B; Ismail, I; Haverich, A

    2017-02-01

    Due to the increasing demographic changes and the fact that cardiovascular diseases are still the leading cause of death, the mean chronological age of patients undergoing cardiac surgery is steadily increasing. In 2015, 14.8% of these patients were aged 80 years and older. This meta-analysis reviewed if and under what circumstances elderly patients benefit from cardiac surgical procedures without running the risk of limitations in the quality of life and high rates of morbidity and mortality. Generally, the chronological age was not a risk factor for higher perioperative and postoperative morbidity and mortality but the biological age was the critical factor, in particular the associated comorbidities of patients and the timing of the surgical procedure in the course of the disease. The result is that elective operations resulted in a better outcome than operations in a symptomatic or decompensated stage of a disease. Compared to patients receiving conventional medicinal therapy, elderly patients undergoing cardiac surgery had an improved life expectancy. A significant increase in the quality of life could also be identified and was ultimately comparable to those of younger patients after cardiac surgery; therefore, elderly patients even those over 80 years old benefit in all aspects of cardiac surgery, as long as individually adapted operative techniques are considered.

  18. Pediatric cardiac surgery in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Asou, T; Rachmat, J

    1998-10-01

    Pediatric cardiac surgery in Indonesia first developed thanks to the cooperation of various cardiac centers abroad. The establishment of the 'Harapan Kita' National Cardiac Center in 1985 was one of the most important initial steps. Thereafter, the discipline advanced remarkably in terms of the number of the operations performed and the variety of the diseases treated and, as a result, the surgical outcome also improved. Numerous problems remain to be solved. Only 1% of the children with congenital heart disease are today properly treated in Indonesia. Some of the underlying problems responsible for this situation include a shortage of pediatric cardiac professionals, the lack of the information and education on the part of the patients, and a shortage of funding, both privately and publicly. It would thus be welcome for pediatric cardiac surgeons, cardiologists and nurses in Indonesia to learn about congenital heart disease from doctors and nurses in advanced countries in order to improve the outlook at home.

  19. Cardioprotection during cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hausenloy, Derek J.; Boston-Griffiths, Edney; Yellon, Derek M.

    2012-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. For a large number of patients with CHD, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery remains the preferred strategy for coronary revascularization. Over the last 10 years, the number of high-risk patients undergoing CABG surgery has increased significantly, resulting in worse clinical outcomes in this patient group. This appears to be related to the ageing population, increased co-morbidities (such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension, stroke), concomitant valve disease, and advances in percutaneous coronary intervention which have resulted in patients with more complex coronary artery disease undergoing surgery. These high-risk patients are more susceptible to peri-operative myocardial injury and infarction (PMI), a major cause of which is acute global ischaemia/reperfusion injury arising from inadequate myocardial protection during CABG surgery. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are required to protect the heart in this high-risk patient group. In this article, we review the aetiology of PMI during CABG surgery, its diagnosis and clinical significance, and the endogenous and pharmacological therapeutic strategies available for preventing it. By improving cardioprotection during CABG surgery, we may be able to reduce PMI, preserve left ventricular systolic function, and reduce morbidity and mortality in these high-risk patients with CHD. PMID:22440888

  20. Can cardiac surgery cause hypopituitarism?

    PubMed

    Francis, Flverly; Burger, Ines; Poll, Eva Maria; Reineke, Andrea; Strasburger, Christian J; Dohmen, Guido; Gilsbach, Joachim M; Kreitschmann-Andermahr, Ilonka

    2012-03-01

    Apoplexy of pituitary adenomas with subsequent hypopituitarism is a rare but well recognized complication following cardiac surgery. The nature of cardiac on-pump surgery provides a risk of damage to the pituitary because the vascular supply of the pituitary is not included in the cerebral autoregulation. Thus, pituitary tissue may exhibit an increased susceptibility to hypoperfusion, ischemia or intraoperative embolism. After on-pump procedures, patients often present with physical and psychosocial impairments which resemble symptoms of hypopituitarism. Therefore, we analyzed whether on-pump cardiac surgery may cause pituitary dysfunction also in the absence of pre-existing pituitary disease. Twenty-five patients were examined 3-12 months after on-pump cardiac surgery. Basal hormone levels for all four anterior pituitary hormone axes were measured and a short synacthen test and a growth hormone releasing hormone plus arginine (GHRH-ARG)-test were performed. Quality of life (QoL), depression, subjective distress for a specific life event, sleep quality and fatigue were assessed by means of self-rating questionnaires. Hormonal alterations were only slight and no signs of anterior hypopituitarism were found except for an insufficient growth hormone rise in two overweight patients in the GHRH-ARG-test. Psychosocial impairment was pronounced, including symptoms of moderate to severe depression in 9, reduced mental QoL in 8, dysfunctional coping in 6 and pronounced sleep disturbances in 16 patients. Hormone levels did not correlate with psychosocial impairment. On-pump cardiac surgery did not cause relevant hypopituitarism in our sample of patients and does not serve to explain the psychosocial symptoms of these patients.

  1. Neurological complications of cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, David L; Berger, Miles; Mathew, Joseph P; Graffagnino, Carmelo; Milano, Carmelo A; Newman, Mark F

    2014-05-01

    As increasing numbers of elderly people undergo cardiac surgery, neurologists are frequently called upon to assess patients with neurological complications from the procedure. Some complications mandate acute intervention, whereas others need longer term observation and management. A large amount of published literature exists about these complications and guidance on best practice is constantly changing. Similarly, despite technological advances in surgical intervention and modifications in surgical technique to make cardiac procedures safer, these advances often create new avenues for neurological injury. Accordingly, rapid and precise neurological assessment and therapeutic intervention rests on a solid understanding of the evidence base and procedural variables.

  2. Cardiac surgery in Wessex.

    PubMed Central

    Monro, J L; Ross, J K; Manners, J M; Edwards, J C; Lewis, B; Hyde, I; Ogilvie, B C; Keeton, B R; Conway, N; Johnson, A M

    1983-01-01

    The results of 3000 consecutive operations using cardio-pulmonary bypass show that the overall early mortality was 6.1%, dropping from 8.9% in the first 1000 to 4.4% in the third 1000. Operations for valve disease have been the most common, the early mortality for aortic valve replacement being 3.1% and for mitral valve replacement 2.9%. Combined aortic and mitral valve replacement had an early mortality of 4.4%. The number of patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting has increased from 59 in the first 1000 to 292 in the third 1000 operations, with an overall early mortality of 1.3%. Six hundred and ninety seven patients underwent surgery for congenital heart disease with an overall early mortality of 10.9% (7.5% in the last 2000 cases). The patients have been followed up from one to 8.5 years. A high proportion have returned to work and enjoy a normal life. At the time of review, 87% of the 3000 patients were alive. Long waiting times for outpatient and inpatient care indicate underprovision of facilities relative to regional demand. PMID:6402103

  3. Mycobacterium chimaera and cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Stewardson, Andrew J; Stuart, Rhonda L; Cheng, Allen C; Johnson, Paul Dr

    2017-02-20

    There is an ongoing investigation into infections with non-tuberculous mycobacteria associated with contaminated heater-cooler units used in cardiac surgery. The overall risk is low, but surgical site and disseminated infections have been reported, including one possible case in Australia, mainly with surgery involving implantation of prosthetic material. Mycobacterium chimaera infection should be considered in patients who have previously undergone surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and who present with cardiac or disseminated infection or sternal wound infection unresponsive to standard antibiotic therapy. Where cases are suspected, patients should be investigated and managed in consultation with an infectious diseases physician and/or clinical microbiologist. If cases are confirmed or heater-cooler devices are found to be contaminated, details should be reported to the hospital infection control team, the jurisdictional health department, the Therapeutic Goods Administration and the Australian distributor of the affected heater-cooler unit(s). Measures to manage risk should include communicating with relevant hospital departments, ensuring that the manufacturer's updated instructions for use are followed, regular testing of machines, and reviewing the location of machines when in use.

  4. Hemoglobin Drift after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    George, Timothy J.; Beaty, Claude A.; Kilic, Arman; Haggerty, Kara A.; Frank, Steven M.; Savage, William J.; Whitman, Glenn J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Recent literature suggests that a restrictive approach to red blood cell transfusions is associated with improved outcomes in cardiac surgery (CS) patients. Even in the absence of bleeding, intravascular fluid shifts cause hemoglobin levels to drift postoperatively, possibly confounding the decision to transfuse. We undertook this study to define the natural progression of hemoglobin levels in postoperative CS patients. Methods We included all CS patients from 10/10-03/11 who did not receive a postoperative transfusion. Primary stratification was by intraoperative transfusion status. Change in hemoglobin was evaluated relative to the initial postoperative hemoglobin. Maximal drift was defined as the maximum minus the minimum hemoglobin for a given hospitalization. Final drift was defined as the difference between initial and discharge hemoglobin. Results Our final cohort included 199 patients, 71(36%) received an intraoperative transfusion while 128(64%) did not. The average initial and final hemoglobin for all patients were 11.0±1.4g/dL and 9.9±1.3g/dL, respectively, an final drift of 1.1±1.4g/dL. The maximal drift was 1.8±1.1g/dL and was similar regardless of intraoperative transfusion status(p=0.9). Although all patients’ hemoglobin initially dropped, 79% of patients reached a nadir and experienced a mean recovery of 0.7±0.7g/dL by discharge. On multivariable analysis, increasing CPB time was significantly associated with total hemoglobin drift(Coefficient/hour: 0.3[0.1–0.5]g/dL, p=0.02). Conclusions In this first report of hemoglobin drift following CS, although all postoperative patients experienced downward hemoglobin drift, 79% of patients exhibited hemoglobin recovery prior to discharge. Physicians should consider the eventual upward hemoglobin drift prior to administering red cell transfusions. PMID:22609121

  5. AKI Associated with Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Robert H.; Isbell, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 18% of patients undergoing cardiac surgery experience AKI (on the basis of modern standardized definitions of AKI), and approximately 2%–6% will require hemodialysis. The development of AKI after cardiac surgery portends poor short- and long-term prognoses, with those developing RIFLE failure or AKI Network stage III having an almost 2-fold increase in the risk of death. AKI is caused by a variety of factors, including nephrotoxins, hypoxia, mechanical trauma, inflammation, cardiopulmonary bypass, and hemodynamic instability, and it may be affected by the clinician’s choice of fluids and vasoactive agents as well as the transfusion strategy used. The risk of AKI may be ameliorated by avoidance of nephrotoxins, achievement of adequate glucose control preoperatively, and use of goal-directed therapy hemodynamic strategies. Remote ischemic preconditioning is an exciting future strategy, but more work is needed before widespread implementation. Unfortunately, there are no pharmacologic agents known to reduce the risk of AKI or treat established AKI. PMID:25376763

  6. Evaluation of the influence of pulmonary hypertension in ultra-fast-track anesthesia technique in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Paulo Sérgio; Cartacho, Márcio Portugal Trindade; de Castro, Casimiro Cardoso; Salgado Filho, Marcello Fonseca; Brandão, Antônio Carlos Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influence of pulmonary hypertension in the ultra-fast-track anesthesia technique in adult cardiac surgery. Methods A retrospective study. They were included 40 patients divided into two groups: GI (without pulmonary hypertension) and GII (with pulmonary hypertension). Based on data obtained by transthoracic echocardiography. We considered as the absence of pulmonary hypertension: a pulmonary artery systolic pressure (sPAP) <36 mmHg, with tricuspid regurgitation velocity <2.8 m/s and no additional echocardiographic signs of PH, and PH as presence: a sPAP >40 mmHg associated with additional echocardiographic signs of PH. It was established as influence of pulmonary hypertension: the impossibility of extubation in the operating room, the increase in the time interval for extubation and reintubation the first 24 hours postoperatively. Univariate and multivariate analyzes were performed when necessary. Considered significant a P value <0.05. Results The GI was composed of 21 patients and GII for 19. All patients (100%) were extubated in the operating room in a medium time interval of 17.58±8.06 min with a median of 18 min in GII and 17 min in GI. PH did not increase the time interval for extubation (P=0.397). It required reintubation of 2 patients in GII (5% of the total), without statistically significant as compared to GI (P=0.488). Conclusion In this study, pulmonary hypertension did not influence on ultra-fast-track anesthesia in adult cardiac surgery. PMID:27163419

  7. Thallium-201 perfusion imaging with atrial pacing or dipyridamole stress testing for evaluation of cardiac risk prior to nonvascular surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Stratmann, H.G.; Mark, A.L.; Williams, G.A. )

    1990-09-01

    Preoperative assessment of cardiac risk using thallium-201 scintigraphy and atrial pacing (n = 42) or dipyridamole stress testing (n = 35) was performed in 77 patients (mean age 65 +/- 7 years), who subsequently underwent elective nonvascular surgery. All patients were at low cardiac risk by clinical criteria; none could perform exercise stress testing due to physical limitations. ST depression consistent with ischemia occurred in 11 patients during atrial pacing and in 1 patient during dipyridamole stress testing (p less than 0.01). Nine patients had reversible perfusion defects with atrial pacing, and 10 patients with dipyridamole stress testing; fixed defects were present in 15 and 8 patients, respectively. Only one patient (fixed perfusion defect with atrial pacing, left main disease on coronary angiography) underwent preoperative coronary revascularization. Two patients subsequently had postoperative cardiac events. One patient (reversible perfusion defect with dipyridamole stress testing) experienced sudden death after a nonvascular procedure, while a second patient (normal thallium images with dipyridamole testing) had a nonfatal myocardial infarction. In patients having atrial pacing or dipyridamole stress testing, thallium-201 scans that are normal or show only a fixed perfusion defect confirm a low risk of cardiac complications following nonvascular surgery. The presence of a reversible perfusion defect does not preclude a postoperative course free of cardiac complications in patients at low cardiac risk by clinical criteria.

  8. Applications of Computational Modeling in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lik Chuan; Genet, Martin; Dang, Alan B.; Ge, Liang; Guccione, Julius M.; Ratcliffe, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Although computational modeling is common in many areas of science and engineering, only recently have advances in experimental techniques and medical imaging allowed this tool to be applied in cardiac surgery. Despite its infancy in cardiac surgery, computational modeling has been useful in calculating the effects of clinical devices and surgical procedures. In this review, we present several examples that demonstrate the capabilities of computational cardiac modeling in cardiac surgery. Specifically, we demonstrate its ability to simulate surgery, predict myofiber stress and pump function, and quantify changes to regional myocardial material properties. In addition, issues that would need to be resolved in order for computational modeling to play a greater role in cardiac surgery are discussed. PMID:24708036

  9. Perioperative care in elderly cardiac surgery patients

    PubMed Central

    Kiecak, Katarzyna; Urbańska, Ewa; Maciejewski, Tomasz; Kaliś, Robert; Pakosiewicz, Waldemar; Kołodziej, Tadeusz; Knapik, Piotr; Przybylski, Roman; Zembala, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Surgery is an extreme physiological stress for the elderly. Aging is inevitably associated with irreversible and progressive cellular degeneration. Patients above 75 years of age are characterized by impaired responses to operative stress and a very narrow safety margin. Aim To evaluate perioperative complications in patients aged ≥ 75 years who underwent cardiac surgery in comparison to outcomes in younger patients. Material and methods The study was conducted at the Silesian Centre for Heart Diseases in Zabrze in 2009–2014 after a standard of perioperative care in seniors was implemented to reduce complications, in particular to decrease the duration of mechanical ventilation and reduce postoperative delirium. The study group included 1446 patients. Results The mean duration of mechanical ventilation was 13.8 h in patients aged ≥ 75 years and did not differ significantly compared to younger patients. In-hospital mortality among seniors was 3.8%, a value significantly higher than that observed among patients younger than 75 years of age. Patients aged ≥ 75 years undergoing cardiac surgery have significantly more concomitant conditions involving other organs, which affects treatment outcomes (duration of hospital stay, mortality). Conclusions The implementation of a standard of perioperative care in this age group reduced the duration of mechanical ventilation and lowered the rate of postoperative delirium. PMID:28096832

  10. Cardiac, renal, and neurological benefits of preoperative levosimendan administration in patients with right ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension undergoing cardiac surgery: evaluation with two biomarkers neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and neuronal enolase

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero-Orriach, José Luis; Ariza-Villanueva, Daniel; Florez-Vela, Ana; Garrido-Sánchez, Lourdes; Moreno-Cortés, María Isabel; Galán-Ortega, Manuel; Ramírez-Fernández, Alicia; Alcaide Torres, Juan; Fernandez, Concepción Santiago; Navarro Arce, Isabel; Melero-Tejedor, José María; Rubio-Navarro, Manuel; Cruz-Mañas, José

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate if the preoperative administration of levosimendan in patients with right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension, and high perioperative risk would improve cardiac function and would also have a protective effect on renal and neurological functions, assessed using two biomarkers neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (N-GAL) and neuronal enolase. Methods This is an observational study. Twenty-seven high-risk cardiac patients with RV dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension, scheduled for cardiac valve surgery, were prospectively followed after preoperative administration of levosimendan. Levosimendan was administered preoperatively on the day before surgery. All patients were considered high risk of cardiac and perioperative renal complications. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography, renal function by urinary N-GAL levels, and the acute kidney injury scale. Neuronal damage was assessed by neuron-specific enolase levels. Results After surgery, no significant variations were found in mean and SE levels of N-GAL (14.31 [28.34] ng/mL vs 13.41 [38.24] ng/mL), neuron-specific enolase (5.40 [0.41] ng/mL vs 4.32 [0.61] ng/mL), or mean ± SD creatinine (1.06±0.24 mg/dL vs 1.25±0.37 mg/dL at 48 hours). RV dilatation decreased from 4.23±0.7 mm to 3.45±0.6 mm and pulmonary artery pressure from 58±18 mmHg to 42±19 mmHg at 48 hours. Conclusion Preoperative administration of levosimendan has shown a protective role against cardiac, renal, and neurological damage in patients with a high risk of multiple organ dysfunctions undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:27143905

  11. Acute kidney injury after pediatric cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sarvesh Pal

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is a common complication after pediatric cardiac surgery. The definition, staging, risk factors, biomarkers and management of acute kidney injury in children is detailed in the following review article. PMID:27052074

  12. Subperiosteal Orbital Hemorrhage Complicating Cardiac Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Peden, Marc C.; Bhatti, M. Tariq

    2004-09-15

    Subperiosteal orbital hemorrhage (SPOH) following cardiac surgery has not been previously reported. We present a patient who developed diplopia and right eye proptosis immediately after cardiac surgery for a mitral valve repair and coronary artery bypass graft. A computed tomography (CT) study demonstrated a right superior SPOH. The diplopia and proptosis resolved spontaneously within 4 weeks. Follow-up CT showed complete resolution of the SPOH.

  13. Preoperative evaluation of the adult patient undergoing non-cardiac surgery: guidelines from the European Society of Anaesthesiology.

    PubMed

    De Hert, Stefan; Imberger, Georgina; Carlisle, John; Diemunsch, Pierre; Fritsch, Gerhard; Moppett, Iain; Solca, Maurizio; Staender, Sven; Wappler, Frank; Smith, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of these guidelines on the preoperative evaluation of the adult non-cardiac surgery patient is to present recommendations based on available relevant clinical evidence. The ultimate aims of preoperative evaluation are two-fold. First, we aim to identify those patients for whom the perioperative period may constitute an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, aside from the risks associated with the underlying disease. Second, this should help us to design perioperative strategies that aim to reduce additional perioperative risks. Very few well performed randomised studies on the topic are available and many recommendations rely heavily on expert opinion and are adapted specifically to the healthcare systems in individual countries. This report aims to provide an overview of current knowledge on the subject with an assessment of the quality of the evidence in order to allow anaesthetists all over Europe to integrate - wherever possible - this knowledge into daily patient care. The Guidelines Committee of the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) formed a task force with members of subcommittees of scientific subcommittees and individual members of the ESA. Electronic databases were searched from the year 2000 until July 2010 without language restrictions. These searches produced 15 425 abstracts. Relevant systematic reviews with meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional surveys were selected. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network grading system was used to assess the level of evidence and to grade recommendations. The final draft guideline was posted on the ESA website for 4 weeks and the link was sent to all ESA members, individual or national (thus including most European national anaesthesia societies). Comments were collated and the guidelines amended as appropriate. When the final draft was complete, the Guidelines Committee and ESA Board ratified the guidelines.

  14. Ethical Issues in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kavarana, Minoo N.; Sade, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    While ethical behavior has always been part of cardiac surgical practice, ethical deliberation has only recently become an important component of cardiac surgical practice. Issues such as informed consent, conflict of interest, and professional self-regulation, among many others, have increasingly attracted the attention of cardiac surgeons. This review covers several broad topics of interest to cardiac surgeons and cardiologists, and treats several other topics more briefly. There is much uncertainty about what the future holds for cardiac surgical practice, research, and culture, and we discuss the background of ethical issues to serve as a platform for envisioning what is to come. PMID:22642634

  15. Acute respiratory distress syndrome after cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Lisa Q.; Di Franco, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a leading cause of postoperative respiratory failure, with a mortality rate approaching 40% in the general population and 80% in the subset of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The increased risk of ARDS in these patients has traditionally been associated with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), the need for blood product transfusions, large volume shifts, mechanical ventilation and direct surgical insult. Indeed, the impact of ARDS in the cardiac population is substantial, affecting not only survival but also in-hospital length of stay and long-term physical and psychological morbidity. No patient undergoing cardiac surgery can be considered ARDS risk-free. Early identification of those at higher risk is crucial to warrant the adoption of both surgical and non-surgical specific preventative strategies. The present review focuses on epidemiology, risk assessment, pathophysiology, prevention and management of ARDS in the specific setting of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:27867583

  16. Cardiac surgery for Kartagener syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tkebuchava, T; von Segesser, L K; Niederhäuser, U; Bauersfeld, U; Turina, M

    1997-01-01

    Two patients (one girl, one boy) with Kartagener syndrome (situs inversus, bronchiectasis, sinusitis), despite pulmonary problems and associated congenital cardiac anomalies, were operated on at the ages of 4 years and 7 years, respectively. They had had previous palliative treatment at the age of 3 months and 1.3 years, respectively. Both postoperative periods after total correction were without significant complications. Long-term follow-up was available for 9 and 19 years, respectively, with no manifestations of heart insufficiency. Both patients are physically active, and neither requires cardiac medication. Patients with Kartagener syndrome and associated congenital cardiac anomalies can successfully undergo multiple cardiac operations with good long-term outcome.

  17. Blood transfusion and infection after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Keith A; Acker, Michael A; Chang, Helena; Bagiella, Emilia; Smith, Peter K; Iribarne, Alexander; Kron, Irving L; Lackner, Pamela; Argenziano, Michael; Ascheim, Deborah D; Gelijns, Annetine C; Michler, Robert E; Van Patten, Danielle; Puskas, John D; O'Sullivan, Karen; Kliniewski, Dorothy; Jeffries, Neal O; O'Gara, Patrick T; Moskowitz, Alan J; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2013-06-01

    Cardiac surgery is the largest consumer of blood products in medicine; although believed life saving, transfusion carries substantial adverse risks. This study characterizes the relationship between transfusion and risk of major infection after cardiac surgery. In all, 5,158 adults were prospectively enrolled to assess infections after cardiac surgery. The most common procedures were isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery (31%) and isolated valve surgery (30%); 19% were reoperations. Infections were adjudicated by independent infectious disease experts. Multivariable Cox modeling was used to assess the independent effect of blood and platelet transfusions on major infections within 60 ± 5 days of surgery. Red blood cells (RBC) and platelets were transfused in 48% and 31% of patients, respectively. Each RBC unit transfused was associated with a 29% increase in crude risk of major infection (p < 0.001). Among RBC recipients, the most common infections were pneumonia (3.6%) and bloodstream infections (2%). Risk factors for infection included postoperative RBC units transfused, longer duration of surgery, and transplant or ventricular assist device implantation, in addition to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, and elevated preoperative creatinine. Platelet transfusion decreased the risk of infection (p = 0.02). Greater attention to management practices that limit RBC use, including cell salvage, small priming volumes, vacuum-assisted venous return with rapid autologous priming, and ultrafiltration, and preoperative and intraoperative measures to elevate hematocrit could potentially reduce occurrence of major postoperative infections.

  18. [The third wave of cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Riera-Kinkel, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    A review of the history of cardiac surgery around the world is made divided into three stages, the first since the beginning of humanity until 300 years BC; the second moment shows how comes the platform that would give the anatomical and functional bases of the cardiovascular system. This historic moment includes: 1. the description and analysis of the function of blood and its components; 2. the description of the normal and abnormal Anatomy of the human heart and its vessels; 3. the anatomic and functional correlation: Foundation of the deductive thinking, and 4. the anatomic and functional integration with the clinic. Finally, the third wave, which is living today, is the stage of the technological explosion that begins with procedures as thoracoscopic surgery with the concept of reducing surgical trauma through minimum approach surgery. Also the use of robotics to solve some of the alterations in the CC, another is hybrid procedures and finally the use of fetal cardiac surgery.

  19. Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery: Transapical Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Mazilu, Dumitru; Horvath, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    Minimally invasive cardiac surgery is less traumatic and therefore leads to quicker recovery. With the assistance of engineering technologies on devices, imaging, and robotics, in conjunction with surgical technique, minimally invasive cardiac surgery will improve clinical outcomes and expand the cohort of patients that can be treated. We used transapical aortic valve implantation as an example to demonstrate that minimally invasive cardiac surgery can be implemented with the integration of surgical techniques and engineering technologies. Feasibility studies and long-term evaluation results prove that transapical aortic valve implantation under MRI guidance is feasible and practical. We are investigating an MRI compatible robotic surgical system to further assist the surgeon to precisely deliver aortic valve prostheses via a transapical approach. Ex vivo experimentation results indicate that a robotic system can also be employed in in vivo models. PMID:23125924

  20. Choreoathetotic syndrome following cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Bisciglia, Michela; London, Frédéric; Hulin, Jonathan; Peeters, André; Ivanoiu, Adrian; Jeanjean, Anne

    2017-02-01

    Movement disorders following heart surgery are very unusual. Post-pump chorea is mainly a pediatric complication of heart surgery, typically manifesting after a latent period of normality and is usually related with long extracorporeal circulation time and deep hypothermia. We report a 73-year-old woman, without risk factors predisposing to paroxysmal movement disorders, presenting acute choreoathetoid movements 5 days after aortic valvular replacement with normal extracorporeal circulation time and perioperative normothermia.

  1. Postoperative Right Ventricular Failure in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Victor H. Nieto; Franco, Daniel L. Molano; Moreno, Albert A. Valencia; Gambasica, Jose A. Rojas; Nunez, Cristian C. Cortes

    2016-01-01

    Two cases of patients that developed right ventricular failure (RVF) after cardiac valve surgery are presented with a narrative revision of the literature. RVF involves a great challenge due to the severity of this condition; it has a low incidence among non-congenital cardiac surgery patients, is more likely associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary complications related to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and is a cause of acute graft failure and of a higher early mortality in cardiac transplant. The morphologic and hemodynamic characteristics of the right ventricle and some specific factors that breed pulmonary hypertension after cardiac surgery are in favor of the onset of RVF. Due to the possibility of complications after cardiac valve repair or replacement, measures as appropriate hemodynamic monitoring, to manage oxygenation, ventilation, sedation, acid base equilibrium and perfusion goals are a requirement, as well as a normal circulating volume, and the prevention of a disproportionate rise in the afterload, to preserve the free wall of the right ventricle (RV) and the septum’s contribution to the right ventricular global function and geometry. If there is no response to these basic measures, the use of advanced therapy with inotropics, intravenous or inhaled pulmonary vasodilation agents is recommended; the use of mechanical ventricular assistance stands as a last resource. PMID:28197291

  2. Strategies for blood conservation in pediatric cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sarvesh Pal

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac surgery accounts for the majority of blood transfusions in a hospital. Blood transfusion has been associated with complications and major adverse events after cardiac surgery. Compared to adults it is more difficult to avoid blood transfusion in children after cardiac surgery. This article takes into account the challenges and emphasizes on the various strategies that could be implemented, to conserve blood during pediatric cardiac surgery. PMID:27716703

  3. Cardiac surgery: What the future holds?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac surgery has been scrutinized and challenged as no other specialty has. That has brought new ideas and structural frameworks but has also brought uncertainty and scepticism. This report identifies the challenges that the specialty is facing, and suggests solutions and strategies for the future. PMID:21794111

  4. An evaluation of underbody forced-air and resistive heating during hypothermic, on-pump cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Engelen, S; Himpe, D; Borms, S; Berghmans, J; Van Cauwelaert, P; Dalton, J E; Sessler, D I

    2011-02-01

    We conducted a randomised controlled trial to compare the efficacy of underbody forced-air warming (Arizant Healthcare Inc, Eden Prairie, MN, USA) with an underbody resistive heating mattress (Inditherm Patient Warming System, Rotherham, UK) and passive insulation in 129 patients having hypothermic cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were separated from cardiopulmonary bypass at a core temperature of 35 °C and external warming continued until the end of surgery. Before cardiopulmonary bypass, the temperature-vs-time slopes were significantly greater in both active warming groups than in the passive insulation group (p < 0.001 for each). However, the slopes of forced-air and resistive warming did not differ (p = 0.55). After cardiopulmonary bypass, the rate of rewarming was significantly greater with forced-air than with resistive warming or passive insulation (p < 0.001 for each), while resistive warming did not differ from passive insulation (p = 0.14). However, absolute temperature differences among the groups were small.

  5. Evaluation of the preliminary effectiveness of hand massage therapy on postoperative pain of adults in the intensive care unit after cardiac surgery: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Boitor, Mădălina; Martorella, Géraldine; Arbour, Caroline; Michaud, Cécile; Gélinas, Céline

    2015-06-01

    Although many intensive care unit patients experience significant pain, very few studies explored massage to maximize their pain relief. This study aimed to evaluate the preliminary effects of hand massage on pain after cardiac surgery in the adult intensive care unit. A pilot randomized controlled trial was used for this study. The study was conducted in a Canadian medical-surgical intensive care unit. Forty adults who were admitted to the intensive care unit after undergoing elective cardiac surgery in the previous 24 hours participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 21) or control (n = 19) group. The experimental group received a 15-minute hand massage, and the control group received a 15-minute hand-holding without massage. In both groups the intervention was followed by a 30-minute rest period. The interventions were offered on 2-3 occasions within 24 hours after surgery. Pain, muscle tension, and vital signs were assessed. Pain intensity and behavioral scores were decreased for the experimental group. Although hand massage decreased muscle tension, fluctuations in vital signs were not significant. This study supports potential benefits of hand massage for intensive care unit postoperative pain management. Although larger randomized controlled trials are necessary, this low-cost nonpharmacologic intervention can be safely administered.

  6. Acute Kidney Injury Subsequent to Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Robert S.; Herron, Crystal R.; Groom, Robert C.; Brown, Jeremiah R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is a common and underappreciated syndrome that is associated with poor short- and long-term outcomes. AKI after cardiac surgery may be epiphenomenon, a signal for adverse outcomes by virtue of other affected organ systems, and a consequence of multiple factors. Subtle increases in serum creatinine (SCr) postoperatively, once considered inconsequential, have been shown to reflect a kidney injury that likely occurred in the operating room during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and more often in susceptible individuals. The postoperative elevation in SCr is a delayed signal reflecting the intraoperative injury. Preoperative checklists and the conduct of CPB represent opportunities for prevention of AKI. Newer definitions of AKI provide us with an opportunity to scrutinize perioperative processes of care and determine strategies to decrease the incidence of AKI subsequent to cardiac surgery. Recognizing and mitigating risk factors preoperatively and optimizing intraoperative practices may, in the aggregate, decrease the incidence of AKI. This review explores the pathophysiology of AKI and addresses the features of patients who are the most vulnerable to AKI. Preoperative strategies are discussed with particular attention to a readiness for surgery checklist. Intraoperative strategies include minimizing hemodilution and maximizing oxygen delivery with specific suggestions regarding fluid management and plasma preservation. PMID:26390675

  7. Development of Models for Regional Cardiac Surgery Centers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Choon Seon; Park, Nam Hee; Sim, Sung Bo; Yun, Sang Cheol; Ahn, Hye Mi; Kim, Myunghwa; Choi, Ji Suk; Kim, Myo Jeong; Kim, Hyunsu; Chee, Hyun Keun; Oh, Sanggi; Kang, Shinkwang; Lee, Sok-Goo; Shin, Jun Ho; Kim, Keonyeop; Lee, Kun Sei

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to develop the models for regional cardiac surgery centers, which take regional characteristics into consideration, as a policy measure that could alleviate the concentration of cardiac surgery in the metropolitan area and enhance the accessibility for patients who reside in the regions. Methods To develop the models and set standards for the necessary personnel and facilities for the initial management plan, we held workshops, debates, and conference meetings with various experts. Results After partitioning the plan into two parts (the operational autonomy and the functional comprehensiveness), three models were developed: the ‘independent regional cardiac surgery center’ model, the ‘satellite cardiac surgery center within hospitals’ model, and the ‘extended cardiac surgery department within hospitals’ model. Proposals on personnel and facility management for each of the models were also presented. A regional cardiac surgery center model that could be applied to each treatment area was proposed, which was developed based on the anticipated demand for cardiac surgery. The independent model or the satellite model was proposed for Chungcheong, Jeolla, North Gyeongsang, and South Gyeongsang area, where more than 500 cardiac surgeries are performed annually. The extended model was proposed as most effective for the Gangwon and Jeju area, where more than 200 cardiac surgeries are performed annually. Conclusion The operation of regional cardiac surgery centers with high caliber professionals and quality resources such as optimal equipment and facility size, should enhance regional healthcare accessibility and the quality of cardiac surgery in South Korea. PMID:28035295

  8. [Fluid therapy in cardiac surgery. An update].

    PubMed

    Boix, E; Vicente, R; Pérez-Artacho, J

    2014-01-01

    The anesthetist has 2 major tools for optimizing haemodynamics in cardiac surgery: Vasoactive drugs and the intravascular volume. It is necessary to identify which patients would benefit from one or the other therapies for a suitable response to treatment. Hemodynamic monitoring with the different existing parameters (pressure, volumetric static, volumetric functional and echocardiography) allows the management of these patients to be optimized. In this article a review is presented on the most recent and relevant publications, and the different tools available to control the management of the fluid therapy in this context, and to suggest a few guidelines for the haemodynamics monitoring of patients submitted to cardiac surgery. A systematic search has been made in PubMed, limiting the results to the publications over the last five years up to February 2012.

  9. [Role of antithrombin iii in cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Muedra, V; Barettino, D; D'Ocón, P

    2013-11-01

    Coagulation of blood is of multidisciplinary interest. Cardiac surgery produces major changes in the delicate balance between pro-and anti-coagulant serum factors. The role of antithrombin iii has been analysed after finding evidence that associated decreased levels of protein activity to postoperative morbidity and mortality. Supplementing exogenous antithrombin is considered with the aim of optimising outcomes. Its intrinsic anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties have stimulated a growing interest, and suggests new lines of research.

  10. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database: The Driving Force for Improvement in Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Winkley Shroyer, Annie Laurie; Bakaeen, Faisal; Shahian, David M; Carr, Brendan M; Prager, Richard L; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Ferraris, Victor; Edwards, Fred; Grover, Frederick L

    2015-01-01

    Initiated in 1989, the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Adult Cardiac Surgery Database (ACSD) includes more than 1085 participating centers, representing 90%-95% of current US-based adult cardiac surgery hospitals. Since its inception, the primary goal of the STS ACSD has been to use clinical data to track and improve cardiac surgical outcomes. Patients' preoperative risk characteristics, procedure-related processes of care, and clinical outcomes data have been captured and analyzed, with timely risk-adjusted feedback reports to participating providers. In 2006, STS initiated an external audit process to evaluate STS ACSD completeness and accuracy. Given the extremely high inter-rater reliability and completeness rates of STS ACSD, it is widely regarded as the "gold standard" for benchmarking cardiac surgery risk-adjusted outcomes. Over time, STS ACSD has expanded its quality horizons beyond the traditional focus on isolated, risk-adjusted short-term outcomes such as perioperative morbidity and mortality. New quality indicators have evolved including composite measures of key processes of care and outcomes (risk-adjusted morbidity and risk-adjusted mortality), longer-term outcomes, and readmissions. Resource use and patient-reported outcomes would be added in the future. These additional metrics provide a more comprehensive perspective on quality as well as additional end points. Widespread acceptance and use of STS ACSD has led to a cultural transformation within cardiac surgery by providing nationally benchmarked data for internal quality assessment, aiding data-driven quality improvement activities, serving as the basis for a voluntary public reporting program, advancing cardiac surgery care through STS ACSD-based research, and facilitating data-driven informed consent dialogues and alternative treatment-related discussions.

  11. Evaluation of the estimated continuous cardiac output monitoring system in adults and children undergoing kidney transplant surgery: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Terada, Takashi; Maemura, Yumi; Yoshida, Akiko; Muto, Rika; Ochiai, Ryoichi

    2014-02-01

    Evaluation of the estimated continuous cardiac output (esCCO) allows non-invasive and continuous assessment of cardiac output. However, the applicability of this approach in children has not been assessed thus far. We compared the correlation coefficient, bias, standard deviation (SD), and the lower and upper 95 % limits of agreement for esCCO and dye densitography-cardiac output (DDG-CO) measurements by pulse dye densitometry (PDD) in adults and children. On the basis of these assessments, we aimed to examine whether esCCO can be used in pediatric patients. DDG-CO was measured by pulse dye densitometry (PDD) using indocyanine green. Modified-pulse wave transit time, obtained using pulse oximetry and electrocardiography, was used to measure esCCO. Correlations between DDG-CO and esCCO in adults and children were analyzed using regression analysis with the least squares method. Differences between the two correlation coefficients were statistically analyzed using a correlation coefficient test. Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate bias and SD for DDG-CO and esCCO in both adults and children, and 95 % limits of agreement (bias ± 1.96 SD) and percentage error (1.96 SD/mean DDG-CO) were calculated and compared. The average age of the adult patients (n = 10) was 39.3 ± 12.1 years, while the average age of the pediatric patients (n = 7) was 9.4 ± 3.1 years (p < 0.001). For adults, the correlation coefficient was 0.756; bias, -0.258 L/min; SD, 1.583 L/min; lower and upper 95 % limits of agreement for DDG-CO and esCCO, -3.360 and 2.844 L/min, respectively; and percentage error, 42.7 %. For children, the corresponding values were 0.904; -0.270; 0.908; -2.051 and 1.510 L/min, respectively; and 35.7 %. Due to the high percentage error values, we could not establish a correlation between esCCO and DDG-CO. However, the 95 % limits of agreement and percentage error were better in children than in adults. Due to the high percentage error, we could not confirm a correlation

  12. The rebirth of cardiac surgery in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Elnur, Elamin Elawad

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac surgery is nowadays an integral part of a complete national health service. Methods In this paper the rebirth of cardiac surgery in Sudan from 1998 till 2007 is given by means of a literature search, personal interviews and searching hospital records. Results A summary of the initial birth of these services in 1959 till its demise in 1993 is first mentioned to set the stage for the subsequent period of sustainable growth. The surgical workforce and the surgical workload in the latter period is documented and showed that in the period from 1998 to 2007 2,868 open heart operations were done in three centers in Sudan. All these centers are based in Khartoum but they cater for all the country. It is estimated that (with the addition of two centers after the study period) the service provided would need to be quadrupled (by doubling the number of centers to 10 and increasing their capacity so as to cater for the whole country). The case mix of operations done is predominantly valvular comprising 63.2% of the total followed by congenital cardiac cases at 22.8% and then ischaemic at 11.9%. Conclusions The results imply that a big effort has to be done in the primary healthcare sector to try and eradicate rheumatic heart disease which is the main cause of the valvular lesions. PMID:27904841

  13. Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Loubon, Christian; Fernández-Molina, Manuel; Carrascal-Hinojal, Yolanda; Fulquet-Carreras, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) is a well-recognized complication resulting with the higher morbid-mortality after cardiac surgery. In its most severe form, it increases the odds ratio of operative mortality 3–8-fold, length of stay in the Intensive Care Unit and hospital, and costs of care. Early diagnosis is critical for an optimal treatment of this complication. Just as the identification and correction of preoperative risk factors, the use of prophylactic measures during and after surgery to optimize renal function is essential to improve postoperative morbidity and mortality of these patients. Cardiopulmonary bypass produces an increased in tubular damage markers. Their measurement may be the most sensitive means of early detection of AKI because serum creatinine changes occur 48 h to 7 days after the original insult. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 are most promising as an early diagnostic tool. However, the ideal noninvasive, specific, sensitive, reproducible biomarker for the detection of AKI within 24 h is still not found. This article provides a review of the different perspectives of the CSA-AKI, including pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnosis, biomarkers, classification, postoperative management, and treatment. We searched the electronic databases, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE using search terms relevant including pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnosis, biomarkers, classification, postoperative management, and treatment, in order to provide an exhaustive review of the different perspectives of the CSA-AKI. PMID:27716701

  14. Video-assisted thoracoscopic enucleation after congenital cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Hideyuki; Kanzaki, Masato; Isaka, Tamami; Onuki, Takamasa

    2015-01-01

    A 26-year-old man underwent arterial switch surgery for transposition of the great arteries in infancy. During a routine evaluation, a nodule was detected in the left lower lobe on chest computed tomography. The tumor had enlarged at follow-up and he underwent surgical resection. Because of past cardiac surgery, the pericardium was defective; therefore, the heart was exposed to the pleural cavity and severe adhesions surrounding the left lung. We had to encircle the left main pulmonary artery to perform enucleation safely. The tumor was diagnosed as a pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma using permanent pathology results. PMID:26385193

  15. Perioperative Ventilatory Management in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Marc-Olivier; Courteille, Benoît; Guinot, Pierre-Grégoire; Dupont, Hervé; Gérard, Jean-Louis; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Lorne, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Protective ventilation is associated with a lower incidence of pulmonary complications. However, there are few published data on routine pulmonary management in adult cardiac surgery. The present study's primary objective was to survey pulmonary management in this high-risk population, as practiced by anesthesiologists in France. All 460 registered France-based cardiac anesthesiologists were invited (by e-mail) to participate in an online survey in January–February 2015. The survey's questionnaire was designed to assess current practice in pre-, per-, and postoperative pulmonary management. In all, 198 anesthesiologists (43% of those invited) participated in the survey. Other than during the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) per se, 179 anesthesiologists (91% of respondees) [95% confidence interval (CI): 87–95] used a low-tidal-volume approach (6–8 mL/kg), whereas techniques based on positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers vary greatly from 1 anesthesiologist to another. During CPB, 104 (53%) [95% CI: 46–60] anesthesiologists withdrew mechanical ventilation (with disconnection, in some cases) and 97 (49%) [95% CI: 42–56] did not prescribe positive end-expiratory pressure. One hundred sixty-five (83%) [95% CI: 78–88] anesthesiologists stated that a written protocol for peroperative pulmonary management was not available. Twenty (10%) [95% CI: 6–14] and 11 (5%) [95% CI: 2–8] anesthesiologists stated that they did use protocols for ventilator use and recruitment maneuvers, respectively. The preoperative period (pulmonary examinations and prescription of additional assessments) and the postoperative period (extubation, and noninvasive ventilation) periods vary greatly from 1 anesthesiologist to another. The great majority of French cardiac anesthesiologists use a low tidal volume during cardiac surgery (other than during CPB per se). However, pulmonary management procedures varied markedly from 1 anesthesiologist to another

  16. Postoperative atrial fibrillation in non-cardiac and cardiac surgery: an overview.

    PubMed

    Bessissow, A; Khan, J; Devereaux, P J; Alvarez-Garcia, J; Alonso-Coello, P

    2015-06-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is the most common perioperative cardiac arrhythmia. A major risk factor for POAF is advanced age, both in non-cardiac and cardiac surgery. Following non-cardiac surgery, it is important to correct reversible conditions such as electrolytes imbalances to prevent the occurrence of POAF. Management of POAF consists of rate control and therapeutic anticoagulation if POAF persists for > 48 h and CHADS2 score > 2. After cardiac surgery, POAF affects a larger amount of patients. In addition to age, valve surgery carries the greatest risk for new AF. Rate control is the mainstay therapy in these patients. Prediction, prevention, and management of POAF should be further studied.

  17. Anesthetic issues for robotic cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Wendy K.; Walker, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    As innovative technology continues to be developed and is implemented into the realm of cardiac surgery, surgical teams, cardiothoracic anesthesiologists, and health centers are constantly looking for methods to improve patient outcomes and satisfaction. One of the more recent developments in cardiac surgical practice is minimally invasive robotic surgery. Its use has been documented in numerous publications, and its use has proliferated significantly over the past 15 years. The anesthesiology team must continue to develop and perfect special techniques to manage these patients perioperatively including lung isolation techniques and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). This review article of recent scientific data and personal experience serves to explain some of the challenges, which the anesthetic team must manage, including patient and procedural factors, complications from one-lung ventilation (OLV) including hypoxia and hypercapnia, capnothorax, percutaneous cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass, TEE guidance, as well as methods of intraoperative monitoring and analgesia. As existing minimally invasive techniques are perfected, and newer innovations are demonstrated, it is imperative that the cardiothoracic anesthesiologist must improve and maintain skills to guide these patients safely through the robotic procedure. PMID:25566713

  18. Clinical evaluation of the Spiral Pump® after improvements to the original project in patients submitted to cardiac surgeries with cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Dinkhuysen, MD, PhD, Jarbas Jakson; de Andrade, Aron Jose Pazin; Leme, MsC, Juliana; Silva, Cibele; Medina, Claudia Sanches; Pereira, Cristiane Célia; Biscegli, PhD, José Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this paper is to present the results from Spiral Pump clinical trial after design modifications performed at its previous project. This pump applies axial end centrifugal hydraulic effects for blood pumping during cardiopulmonary bypass for patients under cardiac surgery. Methods This study was performed in 52 patients (51% males), between 20 to 80 (67±14.4) years old weighing 53 to 102 (71.7±12.6) kg, mostly under myocardial revascularization surgery (34.6%) and valvular surgery (32.8%). Besides the routine evaluation of the data observed in these cases, we monitored pump rotational speed, blood flow, cardiopulmonary bypass duration, urine free hemoglobin for blood cell trauma analysis (+ to 4+), lactate desidrogenase (UI/L), fibrinogen level (mg/dL) and platelet count (nº/mm3). Results Besides maintaining appropriate blood pressure and metabolic parameters it was also observed that the Free Hemoglobin levels remained normal, with a slight increase after 90 minutes of cardiopulmonary bypass. The Lactate Dehydrogenase showed an increase, with medians varying between 550-770 IU/L, whereas the decrease in Fibrinogen showed medians of 130-100 mg/dl. The number of platelets showed a slight decrease with the medians ranging from 240,000 to 200,000/mm3. No difficulty was observed during perfusion terminations, nor were there any immediate deaths, and all patients except one, were discharged in good condition. CONCLUSION The Spiral Pump, as blood propeller during cardiopulmonary bypass, demonstrated to be reliable and safe, comprising in a good option as original and national product for this kind of application. PMID:25372905

  19. Image-Guided Quantification of Cardioplegia Delivery during Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Soltesz, Edward G.; Laurence, Rita G.; De Grand, Alec M.; Cohn, Lawrence H.; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Frangioni, John V.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Homogenous distribution of cardioplegia delivered to the myocardium has been identified as an important predictor of post-cardiopulmonary bypass ventricular recovery and function. Presently, a method to determine adequate distribution of cardioplegia in patients during cardiac surgery does not exist. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of quantifying cardioplegia delivery using a novel, non-invasive optical method. Such a system would permit instantaneous imaging of jeopardized myocardium and allow immediate, intraoperative corrective measures. Methods We have previously developed a portable, intraoperative near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging system for use in large animal cardiac surgery, which simultaneously displays color video and NIR fluorescent images of the surgical field. By introducing exogenous, non-isotopic NIR fluorophores, specific cardiac functions can be visualized in real-time. Results In a cardiopulmonary bypass porcine model, we demonstrate that the FDA-approved intravascular fluorophore indocyanine green (ICG) permits real-time assessment of cardioplegia delivery. ICG was injected into an aortic root and/or transatrial coronary sinus catheter during delivery of cold crystalloid cardioplegia solution. Segmental distribution was immediately noted at the time of injection. In a subset of animals, simulated coronary occlusions resulted in imaging defects consistent with poor cardioplegia delivery and jeopardized myocardium. Videodensitometric analysis was performed on-line to quantify right and left ventricular (RV, LV) distribution. Conclusions We report the development of a novel, non-invasive, intraoperative technique which can easily and safely provide a visual assessment of cardioplegia delivery (antegrade and/or retrograde) and which offers the potential to quantify the relative segmental distribution during cardiac surgical procedures. ULTRAMINI ABSTRACT Intraoperative near-infrared fluorescence imaging is a

  20. [Preoperative evaluation of adult patients prior to elective, non-cardiac surgery. Joint recommendations of German Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, German Society of Surgery and German Society of Internal Medicine].

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    Evaluation of the patient's medical history and a physical examination are the cornerstones of risk assessment prior to elective surgery and may help to optimize the patient's preoperative medical condition and to guide perioperative management. Whether the performance of additional technical tests (e.g. blood chemistry, ECG, spirometry, chest-x-ray) can contribute to a reduction of perioperative risk is often not very well known or controversial. Similarly, there is considerable uncertainty among anesthesiologists, internists and surgeons with respect to the perioperative management of the patient's long-term medication. Therefore, the German Scientific Societies of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI), Internal Medicine (DGIM) and Surgery (DGCH) have joined to elaborate and publish recommendations on the preoperative evaluation of adult patients prior to elective, non-cardiac and non-lung resection surgery. In the first part the general principles of preoperative evaluation are described (part A). The current concepts for extended evaluation of patients with known or suspected major cardiovascular disease are presented in part B. Finally, the perioperative management of patients' long-term medication is discussed (part C). The concepts proposed in these interdisciplinary recommendations endorsed by the DGAI, DGIM and DGCH provide a common basis for a structured preoperative risk assessment and management. These recommendations aim to ensure that surgical patients undergo a rational preoperative assessment and at the same time to avoid unnecessary, costly and potentially dangerous testing. The joint recommendations reflect the current state-of-the-art knowledge as well as expert opinions because scientific-based evidence is not always available. These recommendations will be subject to regular re-evaluation and updating when new validated evidence becomes available.

  1. Application of Mechanical Ventilation Weaning Predictors After Elective Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Mayara Gabrielle Barbosa e; Borges, Daniel Lago; Costa, Marina de Albuquerque Gonçalves; Baldez, Thiago Eduardo Pereira; da Silva, Luan Nascimento; Oliveira, Rafaella Lima; Ferreira, Teresa de Fátima Ramos; Albuquerque, Renato Adams Matos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test several weaning predictors as determinants of successful extubation after elective cardiac surgery. METHODS The study was conducted at a tertiary hospital with 100 adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery from September to December 2014. We recorded demographic, clinical and surgical data, plus the following predictive indexes: static compliance (Cstat), tidal volume (Vt), respiratory rate (f), f/ Vt ratio, arterial partial oxygen pressure to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2), and the integrative weaning index (IWI). Extubation was considered successful when there was no need for reintubation within 48 hours. Sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (LR+), and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) were used to evaluate each index. RESULTS The majority of the patients were male (60%), with mean age of 55.4±14.9 years and low risk of death (62%), according to InsCor. All of the patients were successfully extubated. Tobin Index presented the highest SE (0.99) and LR+ (0.99), followed by IWI (SE=0.98; LR+ =0.98). Other scores, such as SP, NPV and LR-were nullified due to lack of extubation failure. CONCLUSION All of the weaning predictors tested in this sample of patients submitted to elective cardiac surgery showed high sensitivity, highlighting f/Vt and IWI. PMID:26934398

  2. Levosimendan in Patients with Left Ventricular Dysfunction Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rajendra H; Leimberger, Jeffrey D; van Diepen, Sean; Meza, James; Wang, Alice; Jankowich, Rachael; Harrison, Robert W; Hay, Douglas; Fremes, Stephen; Duncan, Andra; Soltesz, Edward G; Luber, John; Park, Soon; Argenziano, Michael; Murphy, Edward; Marcel, Randy; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitri; Nagpal, Dave; Bozinovski, John; Toller, Wolfgang; Heringlake, Matthias; Goodman, Shaun G; Levy, Jerrold H; Harrington, Robert A; Anstrom, Kevin J; Alexander, John H

    2017-03-19

    Background Levosimendan is an inotropic agent that has been shown in small studies to prevent or treat the low cardiac output syndrome after cardiac surgery. Methods In a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of levosimendan in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or less who were undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous levosimendan (at a dose of 0.2 μg per kilogram of body weight per minute for 1 hour, followed by a dose of 0.1 μg per kilogram per minute for 23 hours) or placebo, with the infusion started before surgery. The two primary end points were a four-component composite of death through day 30, renal-replacement therapy through day 30, perioperative myocardial infarction through day 5, or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device through day 5; and a two-component composite of death through day 30 or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device through day 5. Results A total of 882 patients underwent randomization, 849 of whom received levosimendan or placebo and were included in the modified intention-to-treat population. The four-component primary end point occurred in 105 of 428 patients (24.5%) assigned to receive levosimendan and in 103 of 421 (24.5%) assigned to receive placebo (adjusted odds ratio, 1.00; 99% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 1.54; P=0.98). The two-component primary end point occurred in 56 patients (13.1%) assigned to receive levosimendan and in 48 (11.4%) assigned to receive placebo (adjusted odds ratio, 1.18; 96% CI, 0.76 to 1.82; P=0.45). The rate of adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions Prophylactic levosimendan did not result in a rate of the short-term composite end point of death, renal-replacement therapy, perioperative myocardial infarction, or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device that was lower than the rate

  3. Pediatric cardiac surgery with echocardiographic diagnosis alone.

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Sejung; Kim, Hae Soon; Han, Jae Jin

    2002-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of echocardiography alone and the safety of cardiac surgery using this diagnostic approach were retrospectively assessed in 111 children operated for congenital heart defects (CHD) during a 3.5-yr period ending in October 2001. Preoperative diagnosis was compared with the intraoperative findings obtained by surgical inspection. Perioperative death was defined as death within 30 days postoperatively. Of the patients, 70% were operated on in infancy. Seventy-six percent (84 of 111) underwent surgery after echocardiographic diagnosis alone. A high percentage of patients with patent ductus arteriosus (100%), partial atrioventricular canal (100%), coarctation of the aorta (89%), ventricular septal defect (86%), atrial septal defect (85%), and total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (75%) was operated without prior catheterization. Diagnostic errors occurred in 2.4% (2 of 84) of patients with echocardiography only and in 7.4% of patients with catheterization. No error in either group was related to surgical morbidity or mortality. There were five (6.0%) perioperative deaths in the echocardiography group and two (7.4%) in the catheterization group, with no difference in the mortality between the groups. In conclusion, many patients with CHD can be accurately diagnosed by echocardiography alone, and can safely undergo surgery without catheterization, not increasing the overall risk. PMID:12172039

  4. National Adult Cardiac Surgery Registry: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Uva, Miguel Sousa; Mota, João Carlos

    2003-10-01

    A task force commission was created with the support of the Portuguese Society for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery with the aim of organizing a National Adult Cardiac Surgery Registry, collecting clinical data and types of cardiac surgical procedure performed in Portugal. Selected variables include risk factors, cardiac status, preoperative hemodynamics, surgical procedure, hospital stay and mortality. Information is collected into a database in each institution and sent via the internet to a central database responsible for grouping and data analysis. It is hoped that this National Registry, through standardized data collection, will provide information on cardiac surgery activity in Portugal and its risk adjusted results.

  5. Robotic cardiac valve surgery: transcending the technologic crevasse!

    PubMed

    Felger, J E; Nifong, L W; Chitwood, W R

    2001-03-01

    "The man with a new idea is a crank until the idea succeeds."--Mark Twain. With the profound public stress for minimally invasive surgery that guided General Surgery, Cardiothoracic Surgery has progressed with warranted enthusiasm. The explosion of technological advancements in optics, instrumentation and cardiopulmonary bypass has permitted minimally invasive cardiac procedures to be performed with safety, efficiency, and efficacy. In this chapter, we review the evolution of minimally invasive cardiac valve surgery. The articles of leading minimally invasive valve surgeons, both European and American, are reviewed. The indications for minimally invasive surgery are explained. Furthermore, the present day state of "robotic" mitral valve surgery is described.

  6. Preoperative Optimization of the Heart Failure Patient Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Pichette, Maxime; Liszkowski, Mark; Ducharme, Anique

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure patients who undergo cardiac surgery are exposed to significant perioperative complications and high mortality. We herein review the literature concerning preoperative optimization of these patients. Salient findings are that end-organ dysfunction and medication should be optimized before surgery. Specifically: (1) reversible causes of anemia should be treated and a preoperative hemoglobin level of 100 g/L obtained; (2) renal function and volume status should be optimized; (3) liver function must be carefully evaluated; (4) nutritional status should be assessed and cachexia treated to achieve a preoperative albumin level of at least 30 g/L and a body mass index > 20; and (5) medication adjustments performed, such as withholding inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system before surgery and continuing, but not starting, β-blockers. Levels of natriuretic peptides (brain natriuretic peptide [BNP] and N-terminal proBNP) provide additional prognostic value and therefore should be measured. In addition, individual patient's risk should be objectively assessed using standard formulas such as the EuroSCORE-II or Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk scores, which are simple and validated for various cardiac surgeries, including left ventricular assist device implantation. When patients are identified as high risk, preoperative hemodynamic optimization might be achieved with the insertion of a pulmonary artery catheter and hemodynamic-based tailored therapy. Finally, a prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pump might be considered in certain circumstances to decrease morbidity and even mortality, like in some high risk heart failure patients who undergo cardiac surgery, whereas routine preoperative inotropes are not recommended and should be reserved for patients in shock, except maybe for levosimendan.

  7. Cardiac surgery for a patient with Andersen-Tawil syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Mitsugi; Higaki, Takashi; Seike, Yoshimasa; Yokoyama, Yuichiro

    2010-07-01

    Andersen-Tawil syndrome is an uncommon inherited autosomal disorder characterized by a prolonged QT interval, periodic paralysis, and dysmorphic features. The deleterious effects of cardioplegia on periodic paralysis and cardiac arrhythmia are unknown, and no studies have reported the performance of cardiac surgery in patients with Andersen-Tawil syndrome. We present a case of successful cardiac surgery in a patient with Andersen-Tawil syndrome, without using cardioplegia.

  8. Weight and patients' decision to undergo cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    King-Shier, Kathryn M; LeBlanc, Pamela; Mather, Charles; Sandham, Sarah; Seneviratne, Cydnee; Maitland, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    Obese patients are less likely to have cardiac surgery than normal weight patients. This could be due to physician or patient decision-making. We undertook a qualitative descriptive study to explore the influence of obesity on patients' decision-making to have cardiac surgery. Forty-seven people referred for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery were theoretically sampled. Twelve people had declined cardiac surgery. Participants underwent in-depth interviews aimed at exploring their decision-making process. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Though patients' weight did not play a role in their decision, their relationship with their cardiologist/surgeon, the rapidity and orchestration of the diagnosis and treatment, appraisal of risks and benefits, previous experience with other illness or others who had cardiac surgery, and openness to other alternatives had an impact. It is possible that there is a lack of comfort or acknowledgment by all parties in discussing the influence of weight on CABG surgery risks.

  9. [Management of aortic stenosis in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Labbé, Vincent; Ederhy, Stéphane; Szymkiewicz, Olga; Cohen, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    There is a significant risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with severe aortic stenosis (valve area <1cm(2) or 0.6cm(2)/m(2) body surface area, and maximum jet velocity ≥4m/sec, and mean aortic pressure gradient ≥40mmHg) undergoing non-cardiac surgery, especially in patients with symptoms (dyspnoea, angina, syncope, or heart failure). Before any surgery, clinical assessment should search for signs of aortic stenosis which justifies echocardiographic examination, particularly in the elderly. A systematic rest echocardiography with searching aortic stenosis should be considered in patients undergoing high risk surgery. The key points of pre-operative cardiac risk assessment are: assessment of the severity of aortic stenosis, measurement of the functional capacity, evaluation of the left ventricular systolic function, search of associated coronary artery disease, estimate of the surgical risk of cardiac events, and achievement of risk indices. In symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis, only urgent non-cardiac surgery should be performed under careful haemodynamic monitoring. Aortic valve replacement should be considered before elective non-cardiac surgery. In asymptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis, aortic valve replacement should be considered before non-cardiac high risk surgery. Non-cardiac surgery at low/intermediate risk can be performed provided an adapted anaesthetic technique.

  10. Organism Encumbrance of Cardiac Surgeon During Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Karabdic, Ilirijana Haxhibeqiri; Veljovic, Fikret; Straus, Slavenka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Most everyday activities, performed over a long period leads to performance degradation of skeletal muscles as well as spinal column which is reflected in the reduction of maximum force, reduction of the speed of response, reducing control of the movement etc. Although until now many mathematical models of muscles are developed, very small number takes into account the fatigue, and those models that take into account changes in the characteristics of muscles for extended activities, generally considered tiring under certain conditions. Given that the current models of muscle fatigue under arbitrary conditions of activation and load are very limited, this article presents a new model that includes scale of muscles overload. Material and Methods: There are three female cardiac surgeons working performing these surgeries in operating rooms, and their average anthropometric measures for this population is: a) Weight: 62 kg; b) Height: 166 cm. Age: 45 taken in the calculation within the CATIA software, that entity is entitled to 50% of healthy female population that is able to execute these and similar jobs. During the surgery is investigated the two most common positions: position “1” and “2”. We wish to emphasize that the experiment or surgical procedure lasted for two positions for five hours, with the position “1” lasted 0.5 hours, and position “2” lasted about 4.5 hours. The additional load arm during surgery is about 1.0 kg. Results: The analysis was done in three positions: “Operating position 1”, “Operating position 2 ‘, and each of these positions will be considered in its characteristic segments. These segments are: when the body takes the correct position, but is not yet burdened with external load, then when the surgeon receives the load and the third position when the load is lifted at the end of the position. Calculation of internal energy used on the joints is carried out in the context of software analysis of this

  11. Surgical site infection after cardiac surgery: a simplified surveillance method.

    PubMed

    Lucet, Jean-Christophe

    2006-12-01

    We report the results of a 2-year, 7-center program of surveillance of deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) after cardiac surgery. DSWI was defined as the need for reoperation. Stratification data were abstracted from computerized files. The incidence of DSWI was 2.2% (198 of 8,816 cardiac surgery procedures). The risk factors identified were obesity, age, coronary artery bypass grafting, postoperative mechanical ventilation, and early surgical reexploration. The resource efficiency of this simplified surveillance method is discussed.

  12. Ketamine in adult cardiac surgery and the cardiac surgery Intensive Care Unit: An evidence-based clinical review

    PubMed Central

    Mazzeffi, Michael; Johnson, Kyle; Paciullo, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Ketamine is a unique anesthetic drug that provides analgesia, hypnosis, and amnesia with minimal respiratory and cardiovascular depression. Because of its sympathomimetic properties it would seem to be an excellent choice for patients with depressed ventricular function in cardiac surgery. However, its use has not gained widespread acceptance in adult cardiac surgery patients, perhaps due to its perceived negative psychotropic effects. Despite this limitation, it is receiving renewed interest in the United States as a sedative and analgesic drug for critically ill-patients. In this manuscript, the authors provide an evidence-based clinical review of ketamine use in cardiac surgery patients for intensive care physicians, cardio-thoracic anesthesiologists, and cardio-thoracic surgeons. All MEDLINE indexed clinical trials performed during the last 20 years in adult cardiac surgery patients were included in the review. PMID:25849690

  13. Cardiac and renal protective effects of dexmedetomidine in cardiac surgeries: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, AS; Mahmoud, KM; Kasemy, ZA; Helwa, MA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiac and renal injuries are common insults after cardiac surgeries that contribute to perioperative morbidity and mortality. Dexmedetomidine has been shown to protect several organs against ischemia/reperfusion-(I/R) induced injury. We performed a randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of dexmedetomidine on cardiac and renal I/R injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgeries. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients scheduled for elective cardiac surgeries were randomized to dexmedetomidine group that received a continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine initiated 5 min before cardiopulmonary bypass (1 μg/kg over 15 min, followed by 0.5 μg/kg/h) until 6 h after surgery, whereas the control group received an equivalent volume of physiological saline. Primary outcome measures included myocardial-specific proteins (troponin-I, creatine kinase-MB), urinary-specific kidney proteins (N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, alpha-1-microglobulin, glutathione transferase-pi, glutathione transferase alpha), serum proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta), norepinephrine, and cortisol levels. They were measured within 5 min of starting anesthesia (T0), at the end of surgery (T1), 12 h after surgery (T2), 24 h after surgery (T3), 36 h postoperatively (T4), and 48 h postoperatively (T5). Furthermore, creatinine clearance and serum cystatin C were measured before starting surgery as a baseline, and at days 1, 4, 7 after surgery. Results: Dexmedetomidine reduced cardiac and renal injury as evidenced by lower concentration of myocardial-specific proteins, kidney-specific urinary proteins, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, it caused higher creatinine clearance and lower serum cystatin C. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine provided cardiac and renal protection during cardiac surgery. PMID:27833481

  14. The place of research and the role of academic surgeons in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, M J; Schmid, C; Scheld, H H

    2004-04-01

    The development of the discipline of cardiac surgery was, to a large extent, guided by the vision and research of its pioneers. On the basis of their efforts, all the different areas of cardiac surgery were able to evolve including coronary artery bypass grafting, heart valve surgery, surgery of the aorta, congenital heart surgery, surgery for rhythm disorders including the implantation of pacemakers and defibrillators, and surgical treatment of advanced heart failure (for example, heart transplantations and mechanical circulatory support). The continued existence of cardiac surgery and its role in medicine in general will depend, to a significant extent, on the future research activities of its protagonists. Cardiac surgeon-scientists will play a pivotal role since they combine clinical experience with scientific knowledge and intuition which make them able to direct research to topics which will matter in the future. However, research costs money, and state or national funds will be not sufficient to support research as much as is necessary. Funding from third parties such as industry will increasingly be required. Due to this, however, the cardiac surgeon-scientist faces various challenges such as the evaluation of his skill in acquiring funds, conflicts with current ethical standards, conflicts of interest when receiving money from industry, and, as a result of the tough competition in this field, the temptation to commit fraud. The head of a department of cardiac surgery holds an important function as his initiative is decisive for the development of visions for the future and for the employment of surgeon-scientists who pursue visionary research. It will take the combined efforts of surgeon-scientists and departmental heads not only to maintain but to extend the position of cardiac surgery in medicine and society even further.

  15. Fluid management in cardiac surgery patients: pitfalls, challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Bignami, Elena; Guarnieri, Marcello; Gemma, Marco

    2017-01-17

    Fluid administration is a powerful tool for hemodynamic stabilization as it increases preload and improves cardiac function in fluid-responsive patients. However, there are various types of fluid to choose from. The use of colloids and crystalloids in non-cardiac Intensive Care Units (ICU) has been reported, showing controversial results. Many trials on sepsis in a non-cardiac ICU setting show that colloids, in particular hydroxyethyl starches and gelatins, might have a detrimental effect on kidney function, and on major outcomes such as mortality. Many small randomized clinical trials focusing on coagulation and bleeding show controversial results regarding fluid safety during the perioperative period in cardiac surgery, and in the cardiac ICU. No definitive data are available on the superiority of one fluid compared with another for fluid replacement after cardiac surgery. Only few data are available regarding the impact of fluids on kidney function in the cardiac ICU. On the other hand, there is much evidence showing that fluid administration requires strict protocols and close monitoring. Improved clinical outcomes are evident in protocols for goal-directed therapy. In conclusion, the application of a close monitoring and a pre-defined goal-directed protocol are far more important than the choice of a single fluid. This review examines the available evidence on fluid management in cardiac surgery and in the ICU, and analyzes the key steps of fluid strategy in these settings.

  16. Evaluation of cardiac emboli source

    PubMed Central

    Michels, M.; Meijboom, F.J.; ten Cate, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Background Evaluating the source of cardiac embolism is one of the most frequent reasons for cardiac consultation. Methods In 2003, 99 patients were referred for the evaluation of the source of cardiac emboli. Evaluation included history, physical examination, ECG, transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) with contrast and 24-hour Holter electrocardiography. Results Altogether, 58 men and 41 women were studied. In 32 patients a possible source of the cardiac emboli was found. Two patients were in atrial fibrillation. Of the patients, 16 had a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and six patients a PFO and atrial septum aneurysm (ASA). Two patients had a thrombus in the left atrial appendage and 14 had severe atherosclerosis in the aortic arch. In eight patients we found two possible cardiac sources of embolism. 24-hour Holter recording did not detect any emboligenic arrhythmias. Conclusion A possible cardiac source of embolism was found in 32% of the patients referred. TOE is the ideal tool to visualise the interatrial septum, left atrial appendage and aortic arch. We advise performing a TOE with contrast in young stroke patients and in older patients with a stroke likely to be caused by an embolism of cardiac origin. 24-hour Holter recording did not detect any emboligenic arrhythmias and should only be done in selected cases. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:25696441

  17. Right ventricular dysfunction after cardiac surgery - diagnostic options.

    PubMed

    Grønlykke, Lars; Ravn, Hanne Berg; Gustafsson, Finn; Hassager, Christian; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Nilsson, Jens C

    2017-04-01

    Right ventricular (RV) failure after cardiac surgery is associated with an ominous prognosis. The etiology of RV failure is multifaceted and the ability to recognize RV failure early is paramount in order to initiate timely treatment. The present review focuses on different diagnostic modalities for RV function and discusses the normal versus abnormal findings in RV monitoring after cardiac surgery and the limitations of the applicable diagnostic modalities. There are specific challenges in RV assessment after cardiac surgery due to a loss of longitudinal contraction and a concomitant gain of transverse contraction. Additionally, the image quality of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is often reduced after cardiac surgery. RV function can be assessed with 2D and 3D imaging techniques as well as invasive hemodynamic monitoring. Until proper validation studies have determined accuracy, reproducibility and comparability of the next generation of diagnostic modalities we propose to use simple, but obtainable echocardiographic measurements and ultimately the insertion of a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) in order to diagnose RV failure after cardiac surgery.

  18. Systematic review of near-infrared spectroscopy determined cerebral oxygenation during non-cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Henning B.

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to monitor regional cerebral oxygenation (rScO2) during cardiac surgery but is less established during non-cardiac surgery. This systematic review aimed (i) to determine the non-cardiac surgical procedures that provoke a reduction in rScO2 and (ii) to evaluate whether an intraoperative reduction in rScO2 influences postoperative outcome. The PubMed and Embase database were searched from inception until April 30, 2013 and inclusion criteria were intraoperative NIRS determined rScO2 in adult patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. The type of surgery and number of patients included were recorded. There was included 113 articles and evidence suggests that rScO2 is reduced during thoracic surgery involving single lung ventilation, major abdominal surgery, hip surgery, and laparoscopic surgery with the patient placed in anti-Tredelenburg's position. Shoulder arthroscopy in the beach chair and carotid endarterectomy with clamped internal carotid artery (ICA) also cause pronounced cerebral desaturation. A >20% reduction in rScO2 coincides with indices of regional and global cerebral ischemia during carotid endarterectomy. Following thoracic surgery, major orthopedic, and abdominal surgery the occurrence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) might be related to intraoperative cerebral desaturation. In conclusion, certain non-cardiac surgical procedures is associated with an increased risk for the occurrence of rScO2. Evidence for an association between cerebral desaturation and postoperative outcome parameters other than cognitive dysfunction needs to be established. PMID:24672486

  19. [Embracement and anxiety symptoms in patients before cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Assis, Cinthia Calsinski; Lopes, Juliana de Lima; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antônio; de Barros, Alba Lucia Bottura Leite

    2014-01-01

    This is a randomized clinical trial, aimed to compare the frequency and intensity of symptoms of anxiety in patients of preoperative cardiac surgery who received empathic behavior from nurse or family or those who received no specific type of empathic behavior. The sample consisted of 66 patients in preoperative of cardiac surgery, which were divided in three groups: empathic behavior by nurses, without specific empathic behavior and by family. Anxiety was assessed at two points in time: before and after the intervention. The instrument used was developed and validated by Suriano, comprising 19 defining characteristics of the nursing diagnosis anxiety. It was observed that the reduction of anxiety symptoms was higher in the group receiving empathic behavior of relatives when compared to the other two groups. The results suggested that encouraging the participation of family members can contribute to the reduction of anxiety symptoms in patients in preoperative cardiac surgery.

  20. [Pneumoperitoneum after cardiac surgery. A complete anamnesis is the clue].

    PubMed

    Arnáiz-García, María Elena; González-Santos, Jose María; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; López-Rodríguez, Javier; Dalmau-Sorlí, María José; Bueno-Codoñer, María E; Arévalo-Abascal, Adolfo; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Herein we present the case of an 82 year-old patient undergoing cardiac surgery for mitral valve replacement. Fifteen years earlier, the patient had undergone surgery to replace his aortic valve, so that it was now a cardiac reoperation. Through sternotomy, and release of pericardial adherences, there was an accidental opening of a small portion of the peritoneum, proceeding to repair with simple suture. Postoperatively, the presence of pneumoperitoneum alarmed about the possibility of an intra-abdominal complication but it was subsequently discarded with recent surgical process. Through this article we review what the pneumoperitoneum consist, its causes and management, as well as highlighting possible etiologies sometimes not considered as a recent cardiac surgery, simply because the patient in found in different contexts and we do not think about those possibilities.

  1. Quality measures for congenital and pediatric cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip; Jacobs, Marshall Lewis; Austin, Erle H; Mavroudis, Constantine; Pasquali, Sara K; Lacour-Gayet, Francois G; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Walters, Hal; Bacha, Emile A; Nido, Pedro J Del; Fraser, Charles D; Gaynor, J William; Hirsch, Jennifer C; Morales, David L S; Pourmoghadam, Kamal K; Tweddell, James S; Prager, Richard L; Mayer, John E

    2012-01-01

    This article presents 21 "Quality Measures for Congenital and Pediatric Cardiac Surgery" that were developed and approved by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) and endorsed by the Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society (CHSS). These Quality Measures are organized according to Donabedian's Triad of Structure, Process, and Outcome. It is hoped that these quality measures can aid in congenital and pediatric cardiac surgical quality assessment and quality improvement initiatives.

  2. Therapeutic Interchange of Clevidipine For Sodium Nitroprusside in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Joseph E.; Thomas, Zachariah; Lee, David; Moskowitz, David M.; Nemeth, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Background: Generic price inflation has resulted in rising acquisition costs for sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an agent historically described as the drug of choice for the treatment of perioperative hypertension in cardiac surgery. Purpose: To describe the implementation and cost avoidance achieved by utilizing clevidipine as an alternative to SNP in cardiac surgery patients at a 520-bed community teaching hospital that performs more than 300 cardiac surgeries each year. Methods: A multidisciplinary team inclusive of anesthesiologists, intensivists, pharmacists, and surgeons collaborated to develop a therapeutic interchange for SNP in cardiac surgery patients. Consistent with current guidelines for therapeutic interchange, the goal was to encourage a less expensive alternative that was demonstrated to be at least therapeutically equivalent to SNP based on data derived from clinical trials published in peer-reviewed literature. A comprehensive literature review identified clevidipine as an alternative to SNP for perioperative hypertension in cardiac surgery. Nicardipine was considered as well, but was not chosen as a substitute due to lack of strong evidence and comparative data with SNP. Results: Clevidipine was implemented successfully in our cardiac surgery patients and will result in a net cost avoidance of approximately $300,000 in 2016. This is thought to be driven largely by the difference in acquisition cost between clevidipine and SNP. The operating room in our institution no longer keeps SNP stocked in anesthesia trays as a result of the success of our interchange. No requests have been made to return to the SNP standard. Conclusion: Through effective communication and multidisciplinary collaboration, our institution was able to develop an evidence-based and effective therapeutic interchange program for SNP. PMID:27757002

  3. Persistent left superior vena cava in cardiac congenital surgery.

    PubMed

    Giuliani-Poncini, Cristina; Perez, Marie-Hélène; Cotting, Jacques; Hurni, Michel; Sekarski, Nicole; Pfammatter, Jean-Pierre; Di Bernardo, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Persistent left superior vena cava (LSVC) is a relatively frequent finding in congenital cardiac malformation. The scope of the study was to analyze the timing of diagnosis of persistent LSVC, the timing of diagnosis of associated anomalies of the coronary sinus, and the global impact on morbidity and mortality of persistent LSVC in children with congenital heart disease after cardiac surgery. Retrospective analysis of a cohort of children after cardiac surgery on bypass for congenital heart disease. Three hundred seventy-one patients were included in the study, and their median age was 2.75 years (IQR 0.65-6.63). Forty-seven children had persistent LSVC (12.7 %), and persistent LSVC was identified on echocardiography before surgery in 39 patients (83 %). In three patients (6.4 %) with persistent LSVC, significant inflow obstruction of the left ventricle developed after surgery leading to low output syndrome or secondary pulmonary hypertension. In eight patients (17 %), persistent LSVC was associated with a partially or completely unroofed coronary sinus and in two cases (4 %) with coronary sinus ostial atresia. Duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly shorter in the control group (1.2 vs. 3.0 days, p = 0.04), whereas length of stay in intensive care did not differ. Mortality was also significantly lower in the control group (2.5 vs. 10.6 %, p = 0.004). The results of study show that persistent LSVC in association with congenital cardiac malformation increases the risk of mortality in children with cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass. Recognition of a persistent LSVC and its associated anomalies is mandatory to avoid complications during or after cardiac surgery.

  4. [Anesthesia for non-cardiac surgery in children with congenital heart diseases].

    PubMed

    Frascaroli, G; Fucà, A; Buda, S; Gargiulo, G; Pace, C

    2003-05-01

    The incidence of congenital heart diseases accounts for 8-10 over 1000 liveborn. In Italy about 4000-4500 babies each year are born with congenital heart diseases; 50% of those babies (2000-2200) need cardiac surgery shortly after birth or within the first few months of life. Of the remaining 50%, half undergoes cardiac surgery later on in life and half does not necessitate any surgery; 30% of all cardiac operations consist of palliative procedures and the remaining 70% consist of one-stage corrective procedures. Improvements achieved both in surgical and anesthesiologic techniques, and in cardiopulmonary bypass and myocardial protection, have led to better results in pediatric cardiac surgery, with excellent long term survival rate, even for the more complex variants of congenital heart malformations. Therefore anesthesiologists are now more often required to deal with patients affected by congenital heart defects, for other than cardiac problems. Accurate investigation of patient's clinical history is strongly suggested. Moreover knowledge and familiarity with the modifications of the physiology, occurring in congenital heart disease patients, are mandatory for the choice of the more appropriate anesthesiologic strategy for each patient, in order to optimise the risk-benefits ratio and achieve a less traumatic impact on the cardio-circulatory and respiratory equilibrium. With the aim of achieving better results, interaction between anesthesiologist, cardiologist, pediatrician, surgeon and sometime neonatologist and cardiac surgeon, is strongly recommended in the evaluation of risks, and in decision making of strategies and timing of treatment.

  5. Role of biomarkers in management of complications after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, B; Liang, J; Zhang, Z

    2015-08-01

    The use of cardiopulmonary bypass distinguishes cardiac surgery from other types of surgery. It introduces some serious postoperative complications, such as acute organ dysfunction of the brain, heart, kidney, lungs and infection, which cause significant morbidity and mortality. Prevention and control of these complications are critical in the evolution of cardiac surgery and in the successful outcomes of most operations. Early detection of these complications are clinically important, because many therapeutic interventions are available to prevent these deadly effects today. Many biomarkers have emerged over the past years, which provided superior diagnostic and prognostic information. Some specific biomarkers that can reflect organ dysfunction, may be useful for early detection, diagnostic assessment, risk stratification of these complications, even monitoring the patient's response to therapy. Our expectation is that a cardiac surgery-associated monitoring system should be constructed with multiple biomarkers, which are specific for different postoperative complications. Such system may help physicians and anesthetist to tailor perioperative management, considering individual pathogenesis and prognosis. In this review, we will summarize the newly identified cardiac surgery-associated biomarkers, and discuss their values in diagnosis and prognosis of some serious complications.

  6. Modified ultrafiltration in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Zakkar, Mustafa; Guida, Gustavo; Angelini, Gianni D

    2015-03-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was the impact of modified ultrafiltration on adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery in terms of inflammatory and metabolic changes, blood loss and early clinical outcomes. A total of 155 papers were identified using the search as described below. Of these, six papers presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question as they reported data to reach conclusions regarding the issues of interest for this review. The author, date and country of publication, patient group, study type and weaknesses and relevant outcomes were tabulated. Modified ultrafiltration in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery seems to attenuate the levels of inflammatory molecules associated with surgery, reduces blood loss and blood transfusion and improves cardiac output, index and systemic vascular resistance. However, this was not translated in any reduction in length of stay in intensive care unit or hospital. Most studies were single-centre prospective non-blinded trials that included a small cohort of elective coronary artery bypass grafting patients, which makes it underpowered to provide unbiased evidence regarding clinical outcomes. Properly designed and conducted prospective randomized studies are required to answer whether the beneficial effect of modified ultrafiltration on systemic inflammatory molecules associated with surgery can translate with improvement in clinical outcome.

  7. The impact of anaemia and intravenous iron replacement therapy on outcomes in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Maurice; Klein, Andrew A; Richards, Toby

    2015-02-01

    Anaemia is common in patients with cardiac disease and also in those undergoing cardiac surgery. There is increasing evidence that preoperative anaemia is associated with increased patient morbidity and mortality following surgery. We performed a systematic literature review to assess the impact of anaemia and intravenous (IV) iron supplementation on outcomes in cardiac surgery. Sixteen studies examined preoperative anaemia in detail. One study examined the role of preoperative IV iron administration and a further three, the effect of postoperative iron supplementation on haemoglobin (Hb) levels and the need for transfusion. Preoperative anaemia was associated with higher mortality, more postoperative blood transfusions, longer intensive care unit (ICU) and total hospital stay and also a greater incidence of postoperative cardiovascular events. In the single study that examined preoperative IV iron in combination with erythropoietin treatment, there was decreased blood transfusion, shorter hospital stay and an increase in patient survival. However, this was a small retrospective cohort study, with the observation and treatment groups analysed over different time periods. Postoperative administration of IV iron therapy, either alone or in combination with erythropoietin, was not effective in raising Hb levels or reducing red cell concentrate transfusion. On the basis of currently available evidence, the effect of perioperative administration of IV iron to cardiac surgery patients, alone or in combination with erythropoietin, remains unproven. Well-designed and appropriately powered prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate perioperative iron supplementation in the context of cardiac surgery.

  8. Saccadic Palsy following Cardiac Surgery: Possible Role of Perineuronal Nets

    PubMed Central

    Roeber, Sigrun; Härtig, Wolfgang; Nair, Govind; Reich, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Perineuronal nets (PN) form a specialized extracellular matrix around certain highly active neurons within the central nervous system and may help to stabilize synaptic contacts, promote local ion homeostasis, or play a protective role. Within the ocular motor system, excitatory burst neurons and omnipause neurons are highly active cells that generate rapid eye movements – saccades; both groups of neurons contain the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin and are ensheathed by PN. Experimental lesions of excitatory burst neurons and omnipause neurons cause slowing or complete loss of saccades. Selective palsy of saccades in humans is reported following cardiac surgery, but such cases have shown normal brainstem neuroimaging, with only one clinicopathological study that demonstrated paramedian pontine infarction. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that lesions of PN surrounding these brainstem saccade-related neurons may cause saccadic palsy. Methods Together with four controls we studied the brain of a patient who had developed a permanent selective saccadic palsy following cardiac surgery and died several years later. Sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded brainstem blocks were applied to double-immunoperoxidase staining of parvalbumin and three different components of PN. Triple immunofluorescence labeling for all PN components served as internal controls. Combined immunostaining of parvalbumin and synaptophysin revealed the presence of synapses. Results Excitatory burst neurons and omnipause neurons were preserved and still received synaptic input, but their surrounding PN showed severe loss or fragmentation. Interpretation Our findings support current models and experimental studies of the brainstem saccade-generating neurons and indicate that damage to PN may permanently impair the function of these neurons that the PN ensheathe. How a postulated hypoxic mechanism could selectively damage the PN remains unclear. We propose that the well

  9. Nuclear cardiac ejection fraction and cardiac index in abdominal aortic surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Fiser, W.P.; Thompson, B.W.; Thompson, A.R.; Eason, C.; Read, R.C.

    1983-11-01

    Since atherosclerotic heart disease results in more than half of the perioperative deaths that follow abdominal aortic surgery, a prospective protocol was designed for preoperative evaluation and intraoperative hemodynamic monitoring. Twenty men who were prepared to undergo elective operation for aortoiliac occlusive disease (12 patients) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (eight patients) were evaluated with a cardiac scan and right heart catheterization. The night prior to operation, each patient received volume loading with crystalloid based upon ventricular performance curves. At the time of the operation, all patients were anesthetized with narcotics and nitrous oxide, and hemodynamic parameters were recorded throughout the operation. Aortic crossclamping resulted in a marked depression in CI in all patients. CI remained depressed after unclamping in the majority of patients. There were two perioperative deaths, both from myocardial infarction or failure. Both patients had ejection fractions less than 30% and initial CIs less than 2 L/M2, while the survivors' mean ejection fraction was 63% +/- 1 and their mean CI was 3.2 L/M2 +/- 0.6. The authors conclude that preoperative evaluation of ejection fraction can select those patients at a high risk of cardiac death from abdominal aortic operation. These patients should receive intensive preoperative monitoring with enhancement of ventricular performance.

  10. Cutaneous microangiopathic thrombosis complicated by pyoderma gangrenosum in post-cardiac surgery heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia.

    PubMed

    Luthra, Suvitesh; Theodore, Sanjay; Liava'a, Matthew; Atkinson, Victoria; Tatoulis, James

    2009-08-01

    Thrombotic cutaneous gangrene is a rare complication of heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia after cardiac surgery. We report a case and discuss management issues with cardiopulmonary bypass for cardiac surgery in this condition.

  11. Inpatient cardiac rehabilitation programs’ exercise therapy for patients undergoing cardiac surgery: National Korean Questionnaire Survey

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yong Gon; Jang, Mi Ja; Park, Won Hah; Hong, Kyung Pyo; Sung, Jidong

    2017-01-01

    Inpatient cardiac rehabilitation (ICR) has been commonly conducted after cardiac surgery in many countries, and has been reported a lots of results. However, until now, there is inadequacy of data on the status of ICR in Korea. This study described the current status of exercise therapy in ICR that is performed after cardiac surgery in Korean hospitals. Questionnaires modified by previous studies were sent to the departments of thoracic surgery of 10 hospitals in Korea. Nine replies (response rate 90%) were received. Eight nurses and one physiotherapist completed the questionnaire. Most of the education on wards after cardiac surgery was conducted by nurses. On postoperative day 1, four sites performed sitting on the edge of bed, sit to stand, up to chair, and walking in the ward. Only one site performed that exercise on postoperative day 2. One activity (stairs up and down) was performed on different days at only two sites. Patients received education preoperatively and predischarge for preventing complications and reducing muscle weakness through physical inactivity. The results of the study demonstrate that there are small variations in the general care provided by nurses after cardiac surgery. Based on the results of this research, we recommended that exercise therapy programs have to conduct by exercise specialists like exercise physiologists or physiotherapists for patients in hospitalization period. PMID:28349037

  12. Inpatient cardiac rehabilitation programs' exercise therapy for patients undergoing cardiac surgery: National Korean Questionnaire Survey.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yong Gon; Jang, Mi Ja; Park, Won Hah; Hong, Kyung Pyo; Sung, Jidong

    2017-02-01

    Inpatient cardiac rehabilitation (ICR) has been commonly conducted after cardiac surgery in many countries, and has been reported a lots of results. However, until now, there is inadequacy of data on the status of ICR in Korea. This study described the current status of exercise therapy in ICR that is performed after cardiac surgery in Korean hospitals. Questionnaires modified by previous studies were sent to the departments of thoracic surgery of 10 hospitals in Korea. Nine replies (response rate 90%) were received. Eight nurses and one physiotherapist completed the questionnaire. Most of the education on wards after cardiac surgery was conducted by nurses. On postoperative day 1, four sites performed sitting on the edge of bed, sit to stand, up to chair, and walking in the ward. Only one site performed that exercise on postoperative day 2. One activity (stairs up and down) was performed on different days at only two sites. Patients received education preoperatively and predischarge for preventing complications and reducing muscle weakness through physical inactivity. The results of the study demonstrate that there are small variations in the general care provided by nurses after cardiac surgery. Based on the results of this research, we recommended that exercise therapy programs have to conduct by exercise specialists like exercise physiologists or physiotherapists for patients in hospitalization period.

  13. Cardiac surgery in patients on antiplatelet and antithrombotic agents.

    PubMed

    Woo, Y Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The widespread application of antithrombotic agents carries significant potential for inducing excessive peri-operative hemorrhage during cardiac surgery. Specific surgical and medical strategies can be employed to attenuate this bleeding. These antithrombotic agents and anti-hemorrhagic measures will be reviewed in depth.

  14. Early detection of acute kidney injury after pediatric cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, John Lynn; Devarajan, Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasingly recognized as a common problem in children undergoing cardiac surgery, with well documented increases in morbidity and mortality in both the short and the long term. Traditional approaches to the identification of AKI such as changes in serum creatinine have revealed a large incidence in this population with significant negative impact on clinical outcomes. However, the traditional diagnostic approaches to AKI diagnosis have inherent limitations that may lead to under-diagnosis of this pathologic process. There is a dearth of randomized controlled trials for the prevention and treatment of AKI associated with cardiac surgery, at least in part due to the paucity of early predictive biomarkers. Novel non-invasive biomarkers have ushered in a new era that allows for earlier detection of AKI. With these new diagnostic tools, a more consistent approach can be employed across centers that may facilitate a more accurate representation of the actual prevalence of AKI and more importantly, clinical investigation that may minimize the occurrence of AKI following pediatric cardiac surgery. A thoughtful management approach is necessary to mitigate the effects of AKI after cardiac surgery, which is best accomplished in close collaboration with pediatric nephrologists. Long-term surveillance for improvement in kidney function and potential development of chronic kidney disease should also be a part of the comprehensive management strategy. PMID:27429538

  15. Great Expectations: Perceived Social Support in Couples Experiencing Cardiac Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Sally H.; Monahan, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    Compared patient and spousal perceived support during the cardiac surgery recovery period and explored effects of social support on patient/spouse subjective mood states for 117 couples. Social support buffered the impact of caregiving burden on mood disturbance for caregiving spouses but did not significantly impact physical or mental health…

  16. Tapia's syndrome — a rare complication following cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nalladaru, Zubin; Wessels, Andre; DuPreez, Leon

    2012-01-01

    Tapia's syndrome is a rare complication following cardiac surgery. It includes the extracranial involvement of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the hypoglossal nerve and results in ipsilateral paralysis of the vocal cord and the tongue. It is usually a complication related to anaesthesia and positioning of the head of the patient during surgery. We describe this rare complication which occurred at our institute. A 49-year old man developed Tapia's syndrome after an uneventful coronary artery bypass surgery. He complained of dysphonia, hoarseness of voice and an inability to swallow soon after extubation. The syndrome resolved completely over the following weeks with no neurological deficit. PMID:22108947

  17. [Use of the Zeus robotic surgical system for cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Sawa, Yoshiki; Monta, Osamu; Matsuda, Hikaru

    2004-11-01

    The development of closed chest cardiopulmonary bypass systems has opened the door for totally endoscopic cardiac surgery. We used the robotic surgical system ZEUS for closure of the atrial septal defect (ASD) in three patients. Under one-lung ventilation, Port-Access cardiopulmonary bypass system of the drainage from the right internal jugular vein and the the right femoral vein and the return to the right femoral artery was started after port placement at the forth intercostal space of the right thoracic wall. ASD direct closure was achieved by using robotic surgical system ZEUS under cardiac arrest. The three patients were discharged in 7 days after the operation uneventfully. The robotic surgical system ZEUS can make cardiac surgeries less invasive than ever.

  18. Prediction of cardiac risk in patients undergoing vascular surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Morise, A.P.; McDowell, D.E.; Savrin, R.A.; Goodwin, C.A.; Gabrielle, O.F.; Oliver, F.N.; Nullet, F.R.; Bekheit, S.; Jain, A.C.

    1987-03-01

    In an attempt to determine whether noninvasive cardiac testing could be used to assess cardiac risk in patients undergoing surgery for vascular disease, the authors studied 96 patients. Seventy-seven patients eventually underwent major vascular surgery with 11 (14%) experiencing a significant cardiac complication. Thallium imaging was much more likely to be positive (p less than 0.01) in patients with a cardiac complication; however, there was a significant number of patients with cardiac complications who had a positive history or electrocardiogram for myocardial infarction. When grouped by complication and history of infarction, thallium imaging, if negative, correctly predicted low cardiac risk in the group with a history of infarction. Thallium imaging, however, did not provide a clear separation of risk in those without a history of infarction. Age and coronary angiography, on the other hand, did reveal significant differences within the group without a history of infarction. The resting radionuclide ejection fraction followed a similar pattern to thallium imaging. It is concluded that a positive history of myocardial infarction at any time in the past is the strongest risk predictor in this population and that the predictive value of noninvasive testing is dependent on this factor. Considering these findings, a proposed scheme for assessing risk that will require further validation is presented.

  19. Cardiac ECMO for biventricular hearts after paediatric open heart surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, R R; Macrae, D; Brown, K L; Schindler, M; Smith, E C; Davis, K B; Cohen, G; Tsang, V; Elliott, M; de Leval, M; Gallivan, S; Goldman, A P

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To delineate predictors of hospital survival in a large series of children with biventricular physiology supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) after open heart surgery. Results: 81 children were placed on ECMO after open heart surgery. 58% (47 of 81) were transferred directly from cardiopulmonary bypass to ECMO. Hospital survival was 49% (40 of 81) but there were seven late deaths among these survivors (18%). Factors that improved the odds of survival were initiation of ECMO in theatre (64% survival (30 of 47)) rather than the cardiac intensive care unit (29% survival (10 of 34)) and initiation of ECMO for reactive pulmonary hypertension. Important adverse factors for hospital survival were serious mechanical ECMO circuit problems, renal support, residual lesions, and duration of ECMO. Conclusions: Hospital survival of children with biventricular physiology who require cardiac ECMO is similar to that found in series that include univentricular hearts, suggesting that successful cardiac ECMO is critically dependent on the identification of hearts with reversible ventricular dysfunction. In our experience of postoperative cardiac ECMO, the higher survival of patients cannulated in the operating room than in the cardiac intensive care unit is due to early effective support preventing prolonged hypoperfusion and the avoidance of a catastrophic cardiac arrest. PMID:15084554

  20. The state of robotic cardiac surgery in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Navarra, Emiliano; Noirhomme, Philippe; Gutermann, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Background In the past two decades, the introduction of robotic technology has facilitated minimally invasive cardiac surgery, allowing surgeons to operate endoscopically rather than through a median sternotomy. This approach has facilitated procedures for several structural heart conditions, including mitral valve repair, atrial septal defect closure and multivessel minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting. In this rapidly evolving field, we review the status of robotic cardiac surgery in Europe with a focus on mitral valve surgery and coronary revascularization. Methods Structured searches of MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases were performed from their dates of inception to June 2016. All original studies, except case-reports, were included in this qualitative review. Studies performed in Europe were presented quantitatively. Data provided from Intuitive Surgical Inc. are also presented. Results Fourteen papers on coronary surgery were included in the analysis and reported a mortality rate ranging between 0–1%, revision for bleeding between 2–7%, conversion to a larger incision between 2–15%, and patency rate between 92–98%. The number of procedures ranged between 23 and 170 per year. There were only a small number of published reports for robotic mitral valve surgery from European centers. Conclusions Coronary robotic surgery in Europe has been performed safely and effectively with very few perioperative complications in the last 15 years. On the other hand, mitral surgery has been developed later with increasing applications of this technology only in the last 5–6 years. PMID:28203535

  1. Adhesion barrier reduces postoperative adhesions after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yukihiro; Hirata, Yasutaka; Achiwa, Ikuya; Morishita, Hiroyuki; Soto, Hajime; Kobayahsi, Jotaro

    2012-06-01

    Reoperation in cardiac surgery is associated with increased risk due to surgical adhesions. Application of a bioresorbable material could theoretically reduce adhesions and allow later development of a free dissection plane for cardiac reoperation. Twenty-one patients in whom a bioresorbable hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose adhesion barrier had been applied in a preceding surgery underwent reoperations, while 23 patients underwent reoperations during the same period without a prior adhesion barrier. Blinded observers graded the tenacity of the adhesions from surgical video recordings of the reoperations. No excessive bleeding requiring wound reexploration, mediastinal infection, or other complication attributable to the adhesion barrier occurred. Multiple regression analysis showed that shorter duration of the preceding surgery, non-use of cardiopulmonary bypass in the preceding surgery, and use of the adhesion barrier were significantly associated with less tenacious surgical adhesions. The use of a bioresorbable material in cardiac surgery reduced postoperative adhesions, facilitated reoperation, and did not promote complications. The use of adhesion barrier is recommended in planned staged procedures and those in which future reoperation is likely.

  2. Predictors of in-hospital mortality following redo cardiac surgery: Single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Isa; Cayli, Murat; Gulcan, Oner

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Redo cardiac operations represent one of the main challenges in heart surgery. The purpose of the study was to analyze the predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients undergoing reoperative cardiac surgery by a single surgical team. Methods A total of 1367 patients underwent cardiac surgical procedures and prospectively entered into a computerized database. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the reoperative cardiac surgery (n = 109) and control group (n = 1258). Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate the possible predictors of hospital mortality. Results Mean age was 56 ± 13, and 46% were female in redo group. In-hospital mortality was 4.6 vs. 2.2%, p = 0.11. EuroSCORE (6 vs. 3; p < 0.01), cardiopulmonary bypass time (90 vs. 71 min; p < 0.01), postoperative bleeding (450 vs. 350 ml; p < 0.01), postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) (29 vs. 16%; p < 0.01), and inotropic support (58 vs. 31%; p = 0.001) were significantly different. These variables were entered into uni- and multivariate regression analysis. Postoperative AF (OR1.76, p = 0.007) and EuroSCORE (OR 1.42, p < 0.01) were significant risk factors predicting hospital mortality. Conclusions Reoperative cardiac surgery can be performed under similar risks as primary operations. Postoperative AF and EuroSCORE are predictors of in-hospital mortality for redo cases. PMID:26527452

  3. Neuroprotective Strategies during Cardiac Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Salameh, Aida; Dhein, Stefan; Dähnert, Ingo; Klein, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Aortocoronary bypass or valve surgery usually require cardiac arrest using cardioplegic solutions. Although, in principle, in a number of cases beating heart surgery (so-called off-pump technique) is possible, aortic or valve surgery or correction of congenital heart diseases mostly require cardiopulmonary arrest. During this condition, the heart-lung machine also named cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has to take over the circulation. It is noteworthy that the invention of a machine bypassing the heart and lungs enabled complex cardiac operations, but possible negative effects of the CPB on other organs, especially the brain, cannot be neglected. Thus, neuroprotection during CPB is still a matter of great interest. In this review, we will describe the impact of CPB on the brain and focus on pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies to protect the brain. PMID:27879647

  4. Preoperative risk factors of malnutrition for cardiac surgery patients

    PubMed Central

    Donata, Ringaitienė; Dalia, Gineitytė; Vaidas, Vicka; Tadas, Žvirblis; Jūratė, Šipylaitė; Algimantas, Irnius; Juozas, Ivaškevičius

    2016-01-01

    Background. Malnutrition (MN) is prevalent in cardiac surgery, but there are no specific preoperative risk factors of MN. The aim of this study is to assess the clinically relevant risk factors of MN for cardiac surgery patients. Materials and methods. The nutritional state of the patients was evaluated one day prior to surgery using a bioelectrical impedance analysis phase angle (PA). Two groups of patients were generated according to low PA: malnourished and well nourished. Risk factors of MN were divided into three clinically relevant groups: psychosocial and lifestyle factors, laboratory findings and disease-associated factors. Variables in each different group were entered into separate multivariate logistic regression models. Results. A total of 712 patients were included in the study. The majority of them were 65-year old men after a CABG procedure. Low PA was present in 22.9% (163) of patients. The analysis of disease-related factors of MN revealed the importance of heart functions (NYHA IV class OR: 3.073, CI95%: 1.416–6.668, p = 0.007), valve pathology (OR: 1.825, CI95%: 1.182–2.819, p = 0.007), renal insufficiency (OR: 4.091, CI95%: 1.995–8.389, p < 0.001) and body mass index (OR: 0.928, CI95%: 0.890–0.968, p < 0.001). Laboratory values related to MN were levels of haemoglobin (OR: 0.967, CI95%: 0.951–0.983, p < 0.001) and C-reactive protein (OR: 1.015, CI95%: 1.002–1.028, p = 0.0279). The lifestyle variables that qualified as risk factors concerned the intake of food (OR: 3.030, CI95%: 1.353–6.757, p = 0.007) and mobility (OR: 2.770, CI95%: 1.067–7.194, p = 0.036). Conclusions. MN risk factors comprise three different clinical groups: psychosocial and lifestyle factors, laboratory findings and disease-associated factors. The patients who are most likely to be malnourished are those with valve pathology, severe imparted heart function, insufficient renal function and high inflammatory markers. Also these patients have decreased mobility

  5. Incentive spirometry: its value after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Gale, G D; Sanders, D E

    1980-09-01

    Treatment with intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) and incentive spirometry (I.S.) was compared in 109 patients after heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Assessment was done by measurement of vital capacity, arterial oxygen tension and identification of the radiological signs of atelectasis. All patients were instructed pre-operatively in the treatment which was to be used. Vital capacity, arterial oxygen tension while breathing air for the first three postoperative days and the incidence of atelectasis showed no significant difference between groups. Ten minutes after treatment the arterial oxygen tension fell, but this was only statistically significant after I.P.P.B. At 60 minutes the arterial oxygen tension had returned to pretreatment level in both groups. The use of the incentive spirometer four times daily is no better than I.P.P.B., in preventing atelectasis after open-heart surgery. Possibly incentive spirometer treatment given more frequently may be more effective.

  6. Changes in quality of life associated with surgical risk in elderly patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Romero, Paola Severo; de Souza, Emiliane Nogueira; Rodrigues, Juliane; Moraes, Maria Antonieta

    2015-10-01

    The study aims to verify quality of life of elderly patients submitted to cardiac surgery, and correlating surgical risk to health-related quality of life instrument domains. Prospective cohort study, performed at a cardiology hospital. It included elderly patients who had undergone elective cardiac surgery. Pre- and postoperative quality of life was evaluated by applying the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Old (WHOQOL-OLD) scale and the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. Surgical risk was stratified using the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE). Fifty-four patients, mostly men (64.8%), were included, with a mean age of 69.3 ± 5.7 years. The eight domains of the SF-36 questionnaire, and the four facets presented for the WHOQOL-OLD scale showed improved quality of life 6 months after surgery (P < 0.001). No difference was found in the association of EuroSCORE with the domains of the health-related quality of life instruments. The data showed improved quality of life of elderly people submitted to cardiac surgery, unrelated to surgical risk.

  7. Acute gastrointestinal complications after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Halm, M A

    1996-03-01

    Gastrointestinal problems, with an incidence of about 1%, may complicate the postoperative period after cardiovascular surgery, increasing morbidity, length of stay, and mortality. Several risk factors for the development of these complications, including preexisting conditions; advancing age; surgical procedure, especially valve, combined bypass/valve, emergency, reoperative, and aortic dissection repair; iatrogenic conditions; stress; ischemia; and postpump complications, have been identified in multiple research studies. Ischemia is the most significant of these risk factors after cardiovascular surgery. Mechanisms that have been implicated include longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times and hypoperfusion states, especially if inotropic or intra-aortic balloon pump support is required. These risk factors have been linked to upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding, paralytic ileus, intestinal ischemia, acute diverticulitis, acute cholecystitis, hepatic dysfunction, hyperamylasemia, and acute pancreatitis. Gastrointestinal bleeding accounts for almost half of all complications, followed by hepatic dysfunction, intestinal ischemia, and acute cholecystitis. Identification of these gastrointestinal complications may be difficult because manifestations may be masked by postoperative analgesia or not reported by patients because they are sedated or require prolonged mechanical ventilation. Furthermore, clinical manifestations may be nonspecific and not follow the "classic" clinical picture. Therefore, astute assessment skills are needed to recognize these problems in high-risk patients early in their clinical course. Such early recognition will prompt aggressive medical and/or surgical management and therefore improve patient outcomes for the cardiovascular surgical population.

  8. Myocardial Ischemia Induces SDF-1α Release in Cardiac Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong-Sung; Jacobs, Denise; Emontzpohl, Christoph; Goetzenich, Andreas; Soppert, Josefin; Jarchow, Mareike; Schindler, Lisa; Averdunk, Luisa; Kraemer, Sandra; Marx, Gernot; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Pallua, Norbert; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Simons, David; Stoppe, Christian

    2016-06-01

    In the present observational study, we measured serum levels of the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) in 100 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass at seven distinct time points including preoperative values, myocardial ischemia, reperfusion, and the postoperative course. Myocardial ischemia triggered a marked increase of SDF-1α serum levels whereas cardiac reperfusion had no significant influence. Perioperative SDF-1α serum levels were influenced by patients' characteristics (e.g., age, gender, aspirin intake). In an explorative analysis, we observed an inverse association between SDF-1α serum levels and the incidence of organ dysfunction. In conclusion, time of myocardial ischemia was identified as the key stimulus for a significant upregulation of SDF-1α, indicating its role as a marker of myocardial injury. The inverse association between SDF-1α levels and organ dysfunction association encourages further studies to evaluate its organoprotective properties in cardiac surgery patients.

  9. Same day admission for elective cardiac surgery: how to improve outcome with satisfaction and decrease expenses.

    PubMed

    Silvay, George; Goldberg, Andrew; Gutsche, Jacob T; T Augoustides, John G

    2016-06-01

    Admission on the day of surgery for elective cardiac and non-cardiac surgery has been established as a prevalent, critical practice. This approach realizes medical, logistical, psychological and fiscal benefits, and its success is predicated on an effective outpatient pre-operative evaluation. The establishment of a highly functional pre-operative clinic with a comprehensive set-up and efficient logistical pathways is invaluable. This notion has been expanded in recent years to include the entire peri-operative period and the concept of a 'peri-operative anesthesia/surgical home' is gaining popularity and support. Evaluating patients prior to admission for surgery, anesthesiologists can place themselves at the forefront of reducing unnecessary pre-operative hospital admissions, excess lab tests, unneeded consultations, and ultimately decrease the cancellations on the day of surgery. Furthermore, by taking a leadership role in the pre-operative clinic, anesthesiologists place themselves squarely at the forefront of the burgeoning movement for the peri-operative surgical home and continue to cement the indispensability of the anesthesiologist during the entire peri-operative course. The authors present this review as a follow-up describing the successful implementation of a pre-operative same-day cardiac surgery clinic and offer these experiences over the last 8 years as a guide to helping other anesthesiologists do the same.

  10. Severe antiphospholipid syndrome and cardiac surgery: Perioperative management.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Pankaj Kumar; Khazi, Fayaz Mohammed; Yiu, Patrick; Billing, John Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome is an antiphospholipid antibody-mediated prothrombotic state leading to arterial and venous thrombosis. This condition alters routine in-vitro coagulation tests, making results unreliable. Antiphospholipid syndrome patients requiring cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass present a unique challenge in perioperative anticoagulation management. We describe 3 patients with antiphospholipid syndrome who had successful heart valve surgery at our institution. We have devised an institutional protocol for antiphospholipid syndrome patients, and all 3 patients were managed according to this protocol. An algorithm-based approach is recommended because it improves team work, optimizes treatment, and improves patient outcome.

  11. Hypothermia: its possible role in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Sealy, W C

    1989-05-01

    The current safety of operations on the heart requiring cardiopulmonary bypass occurred because of a series of step-by-step laboratory and clinical investigations that were compromises between the time needed for heart repair and the brain's requirement for oxygen. The first step, so clearly shown in a paper by Bigelow and associates in 1950, was the reduction of the brain's need for oxygen by surface cooling to 28 degrees to 32 degrees C, limited to this level by cardiac and pulmonary failure at levels lower than this. The six to eight minutes of circulatory arrest permitted time for repair of simple defects. This method was rapidly adopted by many surgeons. As low-flow pump oxygenators became available, blood cooling to 10 degrees to 20 degrees C was introduced. This increased the periods of circulatory arrest to 30 to 60 minutes, and also made still longer periods of bypass with the pump oxygenator possible. Hypothermia to reduce oxygen and metabolic requirements is still an important adjunct to bypass, even with the currently used efficient pump oxygenators. It remains the most important component of myocardial preservation, and has made possible the delay needed for transportation between the harvesting and the transplantation of organs.

  12. Prevention of lung injury in cardiac surgery: a review.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert W

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory lung injury is an inevitable consequence of cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The lungs are particularly susceptible to the effects of the systemic inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass. This insult is further exacerbated by a pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion injury after termination of bypass. Older patients and those with pre-existing lung disease will clearly be less tolerant of any lung injury and more likely to develop respiratory failure in the postoperative period. A requirement for prolonged ventilation has implications for morbidity, mortality, and cost of treatment. This review contains a summary of recent interventions and changes of practice that may reduce inflammatory lung injury after cardiac surgery. The review also focuses on a number of general aspects of perioperative management, which may exacerbate such injury, if performed poorly.

  13. Epidemiology and prevention of surgical site infections after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Lepelletier, D; Bourigault, C; Roussel, J C; Lasserre, C; Leclère, B; Corvec, S; Pattier, S; Lepoivre, T; Baron, O; Despins, P

    2013-10-01

    Deep sternal wound infection is the major infectious complication in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate, and a longer hospital stay. The most common causative pathogen involved is Staphylococcus spp. The management of post sternotomy mediastinitis associates surgical revision and antimicrobial therapy with bactericidal activity in blood, soft tissues, and the sternum. The pre-, per-, and postoperative prevention strategies associate controlling the patient's risk factors (diabetes, obesity, respiratory insufficiency), preparing the patient's skin (body hair, preoperative showering, operating site antiseptic treatment), antimicrobial prophylaxis, environmental control of the operating room and medical devices, indications and adequacy of surgical techniques. Recently published scientific data prove the significant impact of decolonization in patients carrying nasal Staphylococcus aureus, on surgical site infection rate, after cardiac surgery.

  14. Cardiac surgery in low birth weight infants: current outcomes.

    PubMed

    Azakie, Anthony; Johnson, Natalie C; Anagnostopoulos, Petros V; Egrie, Glenn D; Lavrsen, Michael J; Sapru, Anil

    2011-03-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is a risk factor for mortality in neonatal and infant heart surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine the contemporary outcomes and risk factors of cardiac surgery in low weight babies. The records of 75 consecutive infants weighing <2.5 kg having heart surgery were reviewed. The median weight was 2100 g (range 800-2500 g) and median age was 11 days (range 2-86 days). Half (n=38) of the infants were premature. Diagnoses included: arch obstruction (n=14), hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) (n=12), tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) or pulmonary atresia (PA)/ventricular septal defect (VSD) (n=11), transposition of the great arteries (TGA) (n=7), total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) (n=5), and other (n=20). There were two early deaths. Follow-up was available on all infants with a median duration of 1320 days (range 6-3055 days). Cumulative Kaplan-Meier survival at one year was 90% [95% confidence interval (CI), 80-95%] and at five years was 88% (95% CI, 77-94%). Overall mortality amongst patients with genetic/chromosomal abnormalities was higher, 28% vs. 5.4% amongst patients without such abnormalities (P=0.008). Age, prematurity, preoperative mechanical ventilation, prostaglandins, non-cardiac organ dysfunction, extra-cardiac malformations, perioperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and type of procedure were not associated with significant differences in mortality. Cardiac surgery in LBW infants can be performed with low early and mid-term mortality. LBW infants with chromosomal/genetic anomalies have a higher risk.

  15. The peripheral cannulation technique in minimally invasive congenital cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Vida, Vladimiro L; Tessari, Chiara; Putzu, Alessandro; Tiberio, Ivo; Guariento, Alvise; Gallo, Michele; Stellin, Giovanni

    2016-08-19

    Congenital minimally invasive cardiac surgery has gained wide acceptance thanks to its favorable outcomes. The introduction of peripheral cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass further reduces surgical trauma by decreasing surgical access and allowing the spectrum of surgical access for the correction of simple congenital heart defects to be widened. Right internal jugular vein percutaneous cannulation, together with the direct surgical cannulation of femoral vessels, proves to be a safe and effective tool in patients with body weight above 15 kg.

  16. Rationale for Implementation of Warm Cardiac Surgery in Pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Durandy, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac surgery was developed thanks to the introduction of hypothermia and cardiopulmonary bypass in the early 1950s. The deep hypothermia protective effect has been essential to circulatory arrest complex cases repair. During the early times of open-heart surgery, a major concern was to decrease mortality and to improve short-term outcomes. Both mortality and morbidity dramatically decreased over a few decades. As a consequence, the drawbacks of deep hypothermia, with or without circulatory arrest, became more and more apparent. The limitation of hypothermia was particularly evident for the brain and regional perfusion was introduced as a response to this problem. Despite a gain in popularity, the results of regional perfusion were not fully convincing. In the 1990s, warm surgery was introduced in adults and proved to be safe and reliable. This option eliminates the deleterious effect of ischemia–reperfusion injuries through a continuous, systemic coronary perfusion with warm oxygenated blood. Intermittent warm blood cardioplegia was introduced later, with impressive results. We were convinced by the easiness, safety, and efficiency of warm surgery and shifted to warm pediatric surgery in a two-step program. This article outlines the limitations of hypothermic protection and the basic reasons that led us to implement pediatric warm surgery. After tens of thousands of cases performed across several centers, this reproducible technique proved a valuable alternative to hypothermic surgery. PMID:27200324

  17. Optimal technique for deep breathing exercises after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Westerdahl, E

    2015-06-01

    Cardiac surgery patients often develop a restrictive pulmonary impairment and gas exchange abnormalities in the early postoperative period. Chest physiotherapy is routinely prescribed in order to reduce or prevent these complications. Besides early mobilization, positioning and shoulder girdle exercises, various breathing exercises have been implemented as a major component of postoperative care. A variety of deep breathing maneuvres are recommended to the spontaneously breathing patient to reduce atelectasis and to improve lung function in the early postoperative period. Different breathing exercises are recommended in different parts of the world, and there is no consensus about the most effective breathing technique after cardiac surgery. Arbitrary instructions are given, and recommendations on performance and duration vary between hospitals. Deep breathing exercises are a major part of this therapy, but scientific evidence for the efficacy has been lacking until recently, and there is a lack of trials describing how postoperative breathing exercises actually should be performed. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of postoperative breathing exercises for patients undergoing cardiac surgery via sternotomy, and to discuss and suggest an optimal technique for the performance of deep breathing exercises.

  18. Predictors of stroke in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Handerson Nunes; Magedanz, Ellen Hettwer; Guaragna, João Carlos Vieira da Costa; dos Santos, Natalia Nunes; Albuquerque, Luciano Cabral; Goldani, Marco Antonio; Petracco, João Batista; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the risk factors related to the development of stroke in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods A historical cohort study. We included 4626 patients aged > 18 years who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery, heart valve replacement surgery alone or heart valve surgery combined with coronary artery bypass grafting between January 1996 and December 2011. The relationship between risk predictors and stroke was assessed by logistic regression model with a significance level of 0.05. Results The incidence of stroke was 3% in the overall sample. After logistic regression, the following risk predictors for stroke were found: age 50-65 years (OR=2.11 - 95% CI 1.05-4.23 - P=0.036) and age >66 years (OR=3.22 - 95% CI 1.6-6.47 - P=0.001), urgent and emergency surgery (OR=2.03 - 95% CI 1.20-3.45 - P=0.008), aortic valve disease (OR=2.32 - 95% CI 1.18-4.56 - P=0.014), history of atrial fibrillation (OR=1.88 - 95% CI 1.05-3.34 - P=0.032), peripheral artery disease (OR=1.81 - 95% CI 1.13-2.92 - P=0.014), history of cerebrovascular disease (OR=3.42 - 95% CI 2.19-5.35 - P<0.001) and cardiopulmonary bypass time > 110 minutes (OR=1.71 - 95% CI 1.16-2.53 - P=0.007). Mortality was 31.9% in the stroke group and 8.5% in the control group (OR=5.06 - 95% CI 3.5-7.33 - P<0.001). Conclusion The study identified the following risk predictors for stroke after cardiac surgery: age, urgent and emergency surgery, aortic valve disease, history of atrial fibrillation, peripheral artery disease, history of cerebrovascular disease and cardiopulmonary bypass time > 110 minutes. PMID:25140462

  19. Cardiac surgery in nonagenarians: pushing the boundary one further decade.

    PubMed

    Easo, Jerry; Hölzl, Philipp P F; Horst, Michael; Dikov, Valentin; Litmathe, Jens; Dapunt, Otto

    2011-01-01

    With increasing age of the general population, the necessity for cardiac surgery in the collective of patients aged 90 and older has been increasing. To aid in the choice of adequate therapy we investigated our experience for the group of nonagenarians undergoing surgical interventions. From 6/2000 to 9/2007, 17 patients aged 90 and older underwent open-heart surgery at our institution. We performed a retrospective data analysis including baseline preoperative clinical status, intra- and postoperative results and the long-term survival in the further postoperative course. We performed cardiac surgical procedures in 17 patients (male/female ratio 6/11), including isolated aortic valve replacement (n = 7), aortic root replacement (n = 2), isolated coronary bypass surgery (n = 4), combined coronary and valve surgery (n = 5), re-operative valve replacement (n = 1) and root replacement with arch repair (n = 1). Emergency procedures were performed in 11.8% (2/17). Mean age was 91.9 ± 1.2 years, ranging 90.1-94.2. Mean follow-up was 3.2 ± 2.2 years. The 30-day mortality was 17.6% (3/17), overall mortality at 42.9 follow-up patient years was 58.8% (10/17). We conclude that cardiac surgery procedures can be performed with therapeutic benefit for selected nonagenarians safely and with acceptable operative risk. After analysis our clinical experience we believe age alone not to be a contraindication for surgical intervention, consideration of the physiologic status of the patient reflects on the postoperative outcome. Survival of the patients investigated that survived the initial 30-day postoperative period was similar to the estimated survival of the equally aged general population in Germany.

  20. Clinical Associations of Early Dysnatremias in Critically Ill Neonates and Infants Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Jon; Phadke, Daniel; Tong, Suhong; Eshelman, Jennifer; Newman, Sarah; Ruzas, Christopher; da Cruz, Eduardo M; Osorio, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Dysnatremias (DN) are common electrolyte disturbances in cardiac critical illness and are known risk factors for adverse outcomes in certain populations. Little information exists on DN in children with cardiac disease admitted to the cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) after undergoing cardiac surgery, either corrective or palliative. The aim was to determine the incidence and adverse outcomes associated with DN in neonates and infants undergoing cardiac surgery. Retrospective cohort and single center study performed at Children's Hospital Colorado from May 2013 to May 2014, in children under 1 year old admitted to the CICU after undergoing surgery for congenital or acquired cardiac disease. 183 subjects were analyzed.

  1. Effectiveness of non-cardiac preoperative testing in non-cardiac elective surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Johansson, T; Fritsch, G; Flamm, M; Hansbauer, B; Bachofner, N; Mann, E; Bock, M; Sönnichsen, A C

    2013-06-01

    Elective surgery is usually preceded by preoperative diagnostics to minimize risk. The results are assumed to elicit preventive measures or even cancellation of surgery. Moreover, physicians perform preoperative tests as a baseline to detect subsequent changes. This systematic review aims to explore whether preoperative testing leads to changes in management or reduces perioperative mortality or morbidity in unselected patients undergoing elective, non-cardiac surgery. We systematically searched all relevant databases from January 2001 to February 2011 for studies investigating the relationship between preoperative diagnostics and perioperative outcome. Our methodology was based on the manual of the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Health Technology Assessment, the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) handbook, and the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews. One hundred and one of the 25 281 publications retrieved met our inclusion criteria. Three test grid studies used a randomized controlled design and 98 studies used an observational design. The test grid studies show that in cataract surgery and ambulatory surgery, there are no significant differences between patients with indicated preoperative testing and no testing regarding perioperative outcome. The observational studies do not provide valid evidence that preoperative testing is beneficial in healthy adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery. There is no evidence derived from high-quality studies that supports routine preoperative testing in healthy adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Testing according to pathological findings in a patient's medical history or physical examination seems justified, although the evidence is scarce. High-quality studies, especially large randomized controlled trials, are needed to explore the effectiveness of indicated preoperative testing.

  2. Cardiac Variables as Main Predictors of Endotracheal Reintubation Rate after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanian, Forouzan; Azarfarin, Rasoul; Aghdaii, Nahid; Faritous, Seyedeh Zahra; Motlagh, Soudabeh Djalali; Panahipour, Abdollah

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reintubation in patients after cardiac surgery is associated with undesirable consequences. The purpose of the present study was to identify variables that could predict reintubation necessity in this group of patients. Methods: We performed a prospective study in 1000 consecutive adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The patients who required reintubation after extubation were compared with patients not requiring reintubation regarding demographic and preoperative clinical variables, including postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality. Results: Postoperatively, 26 (2.6%) of the 1000 patients studied required reintubation due to respiratory, cardiac, or neurological reasons. Advanced age and mainly cardiac variables were determined as univariate intra- and postoperative predictors of reintubation (all p values < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed lower preoperative (p = 0.014; OR = 3.00, 95%CI: 1.25 – 7.21), and postoperative ejection fraction (p = 0.001; OR = 11.10, 95%CI: 3.88 – 31.79), valvular disease (p = 0.043; OR = 1.84, 95%CI: 1.05 – 3.96), arrhythmia (p = 0.006; OR = 3.84, 95%CI: 1.47 – 10.03), and postoperative intra-aortic balloon pump requirement (p = 0.019; OR = 4.20, 95%CI: 1.26 – 14.00) as the independent predictors of reintubation. Conclusions: These findings reveal that cardiac variables are more common and significant predictors of reintubation after cardiac surgery in adult patients than are respiratory variables. The incidence of this complication, reintubation, is low, although it could result in significant postoperative morbidity and mortality. PMID:23646047

  3. [Kidney failure after ectracorporeal circulation in cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Reginier, B; Ledouarin, B; Loisance, D

    1977-01-01

    The renal function of 113 patients undergoing cardiac surgery under ECC was studied. In 32 p. 100 of the cases renal involvement was noted which was moderate in 18 p. 100 of the cases, severe in 10 p. 100 of the cases and anuric in 4 p. 100 of the cases. Valvular surgery was complicated once in every three cases by renal involvement, the repair of congenital malformations once out of every two cases, and coronary surgery in 17 p. 100 of the cases. The fall in renal perfusion represents the essential factor in this renal involvement, which should be avoided by the maintenace during ECC of a high output level and a satisfactory perfusion pressure and by the recovery of correct hemodynamics after the intervention.

  4. Carotid Stenosis in Cardiac Surgery-No Difference in Postoperative Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Schultheis, Molly; Saadat, Siavash; Dombrovskiy, Victor; Frenchu, Kiersten; Kanduri, Jaya; Romero, Joseph; Lemaire, Anthony; Ghaly, Aziz; Bastides, George; Rahimi, Saum; Lee, Leonard

    2016-02-23

    Background Debate over revascularization of asymptomatic carotid stenosis before cardiac surgery is ongoing. In this study, we analyze cardiac surgery outcomes in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis at a single hospital. Methods In this study, 1,781 patients underwent cardiac surgery from January 2012 to June 2013; 1,357 with preoperative screening carotid duplex were included. Patient demographics, comorbidities, degree of stenosis, postoperative complications, and mortality were evaluated. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed. Results Asymptomatic stenosis was found in 403/1,357 patients (29.7%; 355 moderate and 48 severe). Patients with stenosis, compared with those without, were older (71.7 ± 11 vs. 66.3 ± 12 years; p < 0.01). Females were more likely to have stenosis (odd ratio, = 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-2.2); however, patients were predominantly male in both groups. There were no significant differences in the rates of mortality and postoperative complications, including stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA). Postoperative TIA occurred in 3/1,357(0.2%); only one had moderate stenosis. Inhospital stroke occurred in 21/1,357 (1.5%) patients; stroke rates were 2.3% (8/355) with moderate stenosis and 2.1% (1/48) severe stenosis. There were 59/1,357 (4.3%) deaths; patients with stenosis had a mortality rate of 4.2% (17/403); however, no postoperative stroke lead to death. Multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age, gender, race, comorbidities, and postoperative complications did not show an impact of carotid stenosis on postoperative mortality and development of stroke after cardiac surgery. Conclusion This study suggests that patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis undergoing cardiac surgery are not at increased risk of postoperative complications and mortality; thus, prophylactic carotid revascularization may not be indicated.

  5. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in children after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Shaath, Ghassan A; Jijeh, Abdulraouf; Faruqui, Fawaz; Bullard, Lily; Mehmood, Akhter; Kabbani, Mohamed S

    2014-04-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a nosocomially acquired infection that has a significant burden on intensive care units (ICUs). We investigated the incidence of VAP in children after cardiac surgery and its impact on morbidity and mortality. A prospective cross-sectional review was performed in the postoperative cardiac patients in pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU) patients from March 2010 until the end of September 2010. The patients were divided into two groups: the VAP group and the non-VAP group, Demographic data and perioperative risk variables were collected for all patients. One hundred thirty-seven patients were recruited, 65 (48%) female and 72 (52%) male. VAP occurred in 9 patients (6.6%). Average body weights in the VAP and non-VAP groups were 5.9 ± 1.24 and 7.3 ± 0.52 kg, respectively. In our PCICU, the mechanical ventilation (MV) use ratio was 26% with a VAP-density rate of 29/1000 ventilator days. Univariate analyses showed that the risk variables to develop VAP are as follows: prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time, use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN), and prolonged ICU stay (p < 0.002 for all). Thirty-three percent of VAP patients had Gram-negative bacilli (GNB). VAP Patients require more MV hours, longer stay, and more inhaled nitric oxide. Mortality in the VAP group was 11% and in the non-VAP group was 0.7 % (p = 0.28). VAP incidence is high in children after cardiac surgery mainly by GNB. VAP increases with longer CPB time, administration of TPN, and longer PCICU stay. VAP increases morbidity in postoperative cardiac patients.

  6. [Cardiac factors predictive of 10-year survival after coronary surgery].

    PubMed

    Fournial, G; Fourcade, J; Roux, D; Garcia, O; Sauer, M; Glock, Y

    1999-07-01

    Although the predictive factors of postoperative mortality after coronary artery surgery are well known, those predictive of long-term survival have received less attention. This study reviews the outcome of a group of 480 patients between 50 and 65 years of age, operated between 1984 and 1986. The patients were classified in two groups according to the presence or absence of internal mammary artery bypass grafts: Group I (304 patients with saphenous vein bypass grafts alone) and group II (176 patients with an internal mammary artery +/- saphenous vein bypass grafts). The long-term results were assessed according to 3 criteria: isolated cardiac mortality: cardiac mortality associated with a repeat revascularisation procedure and cardiac mortality associated with reoperation or recurrence of angina. Cardiac survival at 10 years was significantly better after internal mammary-LAD bypass: 91.4% (CI 87.1-95.1) than after saphenous vein bypass grafting alone: 79.6% (CI 74.8-84.4) (p = 0.012). Univariate analysis identified the following poor predictive factors: three vessel disease (p = 0.03), preoperative left ventricular dysfunction with an ejection fraction inferior to 45% (p = 0.0001), incomplete revascularisation (p = 0.0003), use of venous bypass graft alone (p < 0.014) and perioperative infarction (p = 0.0254). For each criterion of survival (cardiac isolated or associated with a new revascularisation and/or recurrence of angina), multivariate analysis identified three independent predictive factors of long-term extramortality: not using internal mammary artery-LAD bypass graft, incomplete revascularisation and preoperative hypertension. This study confirms the beneficial effects of internal mammary-LAD artery grafting on long-term survival after coronary artery surgery, and also demonstrates the prejudicial effects of hypertension.

  7. Active Bleeding after Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Observational Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Fellahi, Jean-Luc; Bertet, Héléna; Faucanie, Marie; Amour, Julien; Blanloeil, Yvonnick; Lanquetot, Hervé; Ouattara, Alexandre; Picot, Marie Christine

    2016-01-01

    Main Objectives To estimate the incidence of active bleeding after cardiac surgery (AB) based on a definition directly related on blood flow from chest drainage; to describe the AB characteristics and its management; to identify factors of postoperative complications. Methods AB was defined as a blood loss > 1.5 ml/kg/h for 6 consecutive hours within the first 24 hours or in case of reoperation for hemostasis during the first 12 postoperative hours. The definition was applied in a prospective longitudinal observational study involving 29 French centers; all adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were included over a 3-month period. Perioperative data (including blood product administration) were collected. To study possible variation in clinical practice among centers, patients were classified into two groups according to the AB incidence of the center compared to the overall incidence: “Low incidence” if incidence is lower and “High incidence” if incidence is equal or greater than overall incidence. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors of postoperative complications. Results Among 4,904 patients, 129 experienced AB (2.6%), among them 52 reoperation. Postoperative bleeding loss was 1,000 [820;1,375] ml and 1,680 [1,280;2,300] ml at 6 and 24 hours respectively. Incidence of AB varied between centers (0 to 16%) but was independent of in-centre cardiac surgical experience. Comparisons between groups according to AB incidence showed differences in postoperative management. Body surface area, preoperative creatinine, emergency surgery, postoperative acidosis and red blood cell transfusion were risk factors of postoperative complication. Conclusions A blood loss > 1.5 ml/kg/h for 6 consecutive hours within the first 24 hours or early reoperation for hemostasis seems a relevant definition of AB. This definition, independent of transfusion, adjusted to body weight, may assess real time bleeding occurring

  8. [Metabolic support of the ischemic heart during cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Luna Ortiz, Pastor; Serrano Valdés, Xenia; Rojas Pérez, Eduardo; de Micheli, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    We examine [IBM1] the basic principles and clinical results of the metabolic intervention with glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) solutions in the field of cardiovascular surgery. On the basis of many international publications concerning this subject, and the experience obtained in the operating room of the Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia "Ignacio Chávez", we conclude that the metabolic support wit GIK is a powerful system that provides very useful energy to protect the myocardium during cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. The most recent publications indicate their effects in reducing low output syndromes, due to interventions on the coronary arteries, as well as producing a significant reduction of circulating fatty acids. These effects are produced also in the field of interventional cardiology, where GIK solutions protect the myocardium against damage due to impaired microcirculation. It is evident that these solutions must be utilized in higher concentrations that the initial ones, equal to those employed in laboratory animals. On the other side, it is worthy to remember that it has been always underlined that this treatment represents only a protection for the myocardium. Therefore, its association with other drugs or treatments favoring a good myocardial performance is not contraindicated--on the contrary, it yields better results. The present review presents pharmacological approaches, such as the use of glutamato, aspartate, piruvato, trimetazidina ranolazine and taurine to optimize cardiac energy metabolism, for the management of ischemic heart disease.

  9. Additive Effect on Survival of Anaesthetic Cardiac Protection and Remote Ischemic Preconditioning in Cardiac Surgery: A Bayesian Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zangrillo, Alberto; Musu, Mario; Greco, Teresa; Di Prima, Ambra Licia; Matteazzi, Andrea; Testa, Valentina; Nardelli, Pasquale; Febres, Daniela; Monaco, Fabrizio; Calabrò, Maria Grazia; Ma, Jun; Finco, Gabriele; Landoni, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cardioprotective properties of volatile agents and of remote ischemic preconditioning have survival effects in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. We performed a Bayesian network meta-analysis to confirm the beneficial effects of these strategies on survival in cardiac surgery, to evaluate which is the best strategy and if these strategies have additive or competitive effects. Methods Pertinent studies were independently searched in BioMedCentral, MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register (updated November 2013). A Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed. Four groups of patients were compared: total intravenous anesthesia (with or without remote ischemic preconditioning) and an anesthesia plan including volatile agents (with or without remote ischemic preconditioning). Mortality was the main investigated outcome. Results We identified 55 randomized trials published between 1991 and 2013 and including 6,921 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The use of volatile agents (posterior mean of odds ratio = 0.50, 95% CrI 0.28–0.91) and the combination of volatile agents with remote preconditioning (posterior mean of odds ratio = 0.15, 95% CrI 0.04–0.55) were associated with a reduction in mortality when compared to total intravenous anesthesia. Posterior distribution of the probability of each treatment to be the best one, showed that the association of volatile anesthetic and remote ischemic preconditioning is the best treatment to improve short- and long-term survival after cardiac surgery, suggesting an additive effect of these two strategies. Conclusions In patients undergoing cardiac surgery, the use of volatile anesthetics and the combination of volatile agents with remote preconditioning reduce mortality when compared to TIVA and have additive effects. It is necessary to confirm these results with large, multicenter, randomized, double-blinded trials comparing these different strategies in cardiac and non-cardiac surgery, to

  10. An audit of post-operative nausea and vomiting, following cardiac surgery: scope of the problem.

    PubMed

    Mace, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Post-operative nausea and vomiting is a major problem for patients following cardiac surgery. The literature in this area identifies that there are a number of individual patient and post-operative factors which increase the risk of post-operative nausea and vomiting, including female gender, non-smoker, age, use of opioids, pain and anxiety. An audit involving 200 patients, who had undergone cardiac surgery was implemented to assess/evaluate the incidence of nausea and vomiting for this patient group. Data collected included information relating to nausea and vomiting, pain, consumption of morphine and other individual patient variables. The results suggest that nausea and vomiting, is experienced by a large number of patients after cardiac surgery (67%), with the majority suffering on the first day after surgery. The duration of nausea and vomiting for most is short, but for a significant number (7%) it can last up to one-quarter of their initial post-operative course. The paper discusses key implications for practice arising from this project.

  11. Femoral cannulation: a safe vascular access option for cardiopulmonary bypass in minimally invasive cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Saadat, Siavash; Schultheis, Molly; Azzolini, Anthony; Romero, Joseph; Dombrovskiy, Victor; Odroniec, Karen; Scholz, Peter; Lemaire, Anthony; Batsides, George; Lee, Leonard

    2016-03-01

    Femoral cannulation during cardiopulmonary bypass has become a common approach for many cardiac procedures and serves as an important access option, especially during minimally invasive cardiac surgery. Opponents, however, argue that there is significant risk, including site-specific and overall morbidity, which makes the use of this modality dangerous compared to conventional aortoatrial cannulation techniques. We analyzed our institutional experience to elucidate the safety and efficacy of femoral cannulation. All data were collected from a single hospital's cardiac surgery database. A total of 346 cardiac surgeries were evaluated from September 2012 to September 2013, of which 85/346 (24.6%) utilized a minimally invasive approach. Of the 346 operations performed, 72/346 (20.8%) utilized femoral cannulation while 274/346 (79.2%) used aortoatrial cannulation. Stroke occurred in 1/72 (1.39%) after femoral cannulation, specifically, in a conventional sternotomy patient, while it occurred in 6/274 (2.19%) [p=0.67] after aortoatrial cannulation. When comparing postoperative complications between the femoral cannulation and aortoatrial cannulation groups, the rates of atrial fibrillation [10/72 (13.9%) versus 46/274 (16.8%), p=0.55], renal failure [2/72 (2.78%) versus 11/274 (4.01%), p=0.62], prolonged ventilation time [4/72 (5.56%) versus 27/274 (9.85%), p=0.26] and re-operation for bleeding [3/72 (4.17%) versus 13/274 (4.74%), p=0.84] showed no significant difference. Selective femoral cannulation provides a safe alternative to aortoatrial cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass and is especially important when performing minimally invasive cardiac surgery. When comparing aortoatrial and femoral cannulation, we found no significant difference in the postoperative complication rates and overall mortality.

  12. Simultaneous surgery in patients with both cardiac and noncardiac diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Xiao, Feng; Wang, Jin; Song, Bo; Li, Xi-Hui; Li, Jian; He, Zhi-Song; Zhang, Huan; Yin, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the possibility and feasibility of simultaneous cardiac and noncardiac surgery. Methods From August 2000 to March 2015, 64 patients suffering from cardiac and noncardiac diseases have been treated by simultaneous surgeries. Results Two patients died after operations in hospital; thus, the hospital mortality rate was 3.1%. One patient with coronary heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, and a recurrence of bladder cancer accepted emergency simultaneous coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), bladder cystectomy, and ureterostomy. He died of acute cerebral infarction complicated with multiple organ failure on the 153rd day after operation. The other patient with chronic constrictive pericarditis and right lung cancer underwent pericardial stripping and right lung lower lobectomy, which resulted in multiple organ failure, and the patient died on the tenth day postoperatively. The remaining 62 patients recovered and were discharged. The total operative morbidity was 17.2%: postoperative hemorrhage (n, % [1, 1.6%]), pulmonary infection and hypoxemia (2, 3.1%), hemorrhage of upper digestive tract (1, 1.6%), incisional infection (3, 4.7%), subphrenic abscess (1, 1.6%), and postoperative acute renal failure and hemofiltration (3, 4.7%). Of the 62 patients discharged, 61 patients were followed up. Eleven patients died with 10 months to 10 years during the follow-up. The mean survival time is 116.2±12.4 months. The cumulative survival rate is 50.8%. Conclusion Simultaneous surgeries in patients suffering from both cardiac and noncardiac benign or malignant diseases are safe and possible with satisfactory short-term and long-term survival. PMID:27486311

  13. The impact of cerebral embolization during infant cardiac surgery on neurodevelopmental outcomes at intermediate follow-up.

    PubMed

    Naik, R J; Wagner, J B; Chowdhury, D; Barnes, M l; Wagner, D S; Burson, K C; Eslinger, P J; Clark, J B

    2014-09-01

    Cerebral embolization during pediatric cardiac surgery may be an underappreciated source of subsequent neurodevelopmental impairment. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound is a neuromonitoring tool that can provide intraoperative surveillance for cerebral embolization. We hypothesized that increased cerebral embolic signals detected during infant cardiac surgery would be associated with worse neurodevelopmental outcomes at follow-up. A study group of 24 children who underwent infant cardiac surgery with transcranial Doppler detection of cerebral embolic signals returned at intermediate follow-up for standardized neurodevelopmental assessment. The children were evaluated using two neurocognitive tests and the parents completed two questionnaires regarding observed behavior. Statistical analysis assessed for correlation between the number of cerebral embolic signals at surgery and the results of the neurodevelopmental assessment. Of the 67 test parameters analyzed, five showed a significant association with the number of embolic signals, yet, all in the contrary direction of the clinical hypothesis, likely representing a Type I error. Thus, in this small cohort of patients, the number of cerebral embolic signals detected during infant cardiac surgery was not shown to be associated with worse neurodevelopmental outcomes at intermediate follow-up. A larger study is probably necessary to ascertain the potential influence of cerebral embolic signals on eventual neurologic outcomes in children. The clinical relevance of cerebral embolic signals during pediatric cardiac surgery remains undetermined and deserves further investigation.

  14. Outlier Payments For Cardiac Surgery And Hospital Quality

    PubMed Central

    Baser, Onur; Fan, Zhahoui; Dimick, Justin B.; Staiger, Douglas O.; Birkmeyer, John D.

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, several hospitals in the Tenet system were accused of overbilling Medicare for cardiac surgery. This led to increased scrutiny of so-called outlier payments, which are used to compensate hospitals when actual costs far exceed those anticipated under prospective payment. Since then, the overall proportion of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedures associated with outlier payments has fallen from 13 percent in 2000–02 to 8 percent in 2003–06. Still, there is variation across U.S. hospitals, with some hospitals experiencing much higher rates. These findings imply that there is potential for quality improvement to reduce costs while improving morbidity and mortality. PMID:19597215

  15. Late-presenting complete heart block after pediatric cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nasser, Bana Agha; Mesned, Abdu Rahman; Mohamad, Tagelden; Kabbani, Mohamad S.

    2015-01-01

    Late presenting complete heart block after pediatric cardiac surgery is a rare complication and its management is well defined once the initial diagnosis in made timely and appropriately. In this report we described a child who underwent atrioventricular septal defect repair with a normal sinus rhythm during the postoperative period, as well as during the first 2 years of follow up. She subsequently developed complete heart block with bradycardia that required insertion of a pacemaker. Here we discuss this unusual late-presenting complication, possible risk factors, and management. PMID:26778907

  16. Outcome Reporting in Cardiac Surgery Trials: Systematic Review and Critical Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, Michael; Drudi, Laura; Almohammadi, Mohammad; Langlois, Yves; Noiseux, Nicolas; Perrault, Louis; Piazza, Nicolo; Afilalo, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background There is currently no accepted standard for reporting outcomes following cardiac surgery. The objective of this paper was to systematically review the literature to evaluate the current use and definition of perioperative outcomes reported in cardiac surgery trials. Methods and Results We reviewed 5 prominent medical and surgical journals on Medline from January 1, 2010, to June 30, 2014, for randomized controlled trials involving coronary artery bypass grafting and/or valve surgery. We identified 34 trials meeting inclusion criteria. Sample sizes ranged from 57 to 4752 participants (median 351). Composite end points were used as a primary outcome in 56% (n=19) of the randomized controlled trials and as a secondary outcome in 12% (n=4). There were 14 different composite end points. Mortality at any time (all-cause and/or cardiovascular) was reported as an individual end point or as part of a combined end point in 82% (n=28), myocardial infarction was reported in 68% (n=23), and bleeding was reported in 24% (n=8). Patient-centered outcomes, such as quality of life and functional classification, were reported in 29% (n=10). Definition of clinical events such as myocardial infarction, stroke, renal failure, and bleeding varied considerably among trials, particularly for postoperative myocardial infarction and bleeding, for which 8 different definitions were used for each. Conclusions Outcome reporting in the cardiac surgery literature is heterogeneous, and efforts should be made to standardize the outcomes reported and the definitions used to ascertain them. The development of standardizing outcome reporting is an essential step toward strengthening the process of evidence-based care in cardiac surgery. PMID:26282561

  17. Cardiac Dysrhythmias with General Anesthesia during Dental Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Chandra R.

    1988-01-01

    Dysrhythmias with general anesthesia during dental surgery have been frequently reported. The incidence appears higher in spontaneously breathing patients lightly anesthetized with halothane. Anxiety, sitting posture, hypoxia, Chinese race, and heart disease appear to aggravate the condition. Use of beta blockers or lidocaine prior to anesthesia, intravenous induction, controlled ventilation with muscle relaxants, and use of isoflurane or enflurane in spontaneously breathing patients appear to decrease the incidence. It is stressed that continuous cardiac monitoring should be done in patients undergoing dental surgery under anesthesia in order to detect diagnose and treat any dysrhythmia. The great majority of dysrhythmias disappear either spontaneously or when the stimulus is stopped. In some cases there may be an obvious cause that should be immediately corrected. The need for drug intervention is rare and must be used with great care when used. PMID:3046439

  18. Outcomes of a Combined Approach of Percutaneous Coronary Revascularization and Cardiac Valve Surgery.

    PubMed

    Santana, Orlando; Singla, Sandeep; Mihos, Christos G; Pineda, Andrés M; Stone, Gregg W; Kurlansky, Paul A; George, Isaac; Kirtane, Ajay J; Smith, Craig R; Beohar, Nirat

    A subset of patients requiring coronary revascularization and valve surgery may benefit from a combined approach of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and valve surgery, as opposed to the standard median sternotomy approach of combined coronary artery bypass and valve surgery. To evaluate its potential benefits and limitations, a literature search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid, and the Cochrane library, through March 2016 to identify all studies involving a combined approach of PCI and valve surgery in patients with coronary artery and valvular disease. There were five studies included in the study with a total of 324 patients, of which 75 (23.1%) had a history of previous cardiac surgery. The interval between PCI and surgery ranged from simultaneous intervention to a median of 38 days (interquartile range, 18-65 days). The surgical approach performed consisted of a minimally invasive one or median sternotomy. There were 275 single valve surgery (84.9%) and 49 double-valve surgery (15.1%) with a 30-day mortality ranging from 0% to 5.5%. The 1-year survival ranged from 78% to 96%, and the follow-up period ranged from 1.3 to 5 years. Herein, we present a review of the literature using this technique.

  19. Reduced Right Ventricular Function Predicts Long-Term Cardiac Re-Hospitalization after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Yulia; Chan, Jacqueline; Iskandir, Marina; Gulkarov, Iosif; Tortolani, Anthony; Brener, Sorin J.; Sacchi, Terrence J.; Heitner, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The significance of right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF), independent of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), following isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and valve procedures remains unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the significance of abnormal RVEF by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), independent of LVEF in predicting outcomes of patients undergoing isolated CABG and valve surgery. Methods From 2007 to 2009, 109 consecutive patients (mean age, 66 years; 38% female) were referred for pre-operative CMR. Abnormal RVEF and LVEF were considered <35% and <45%, respectively. Elective primary procedures include CABG (56%) and valve (44%). Thirty-day outcomes were perioperative complications, length of stay, cardiac re-hospitalizations and early mortaility; long-term (> 30 days) outcomes included, cardiac re-hospitalization, worsening congestive heart failure and mortality. Mean clinical follow up was 14 months. Findings Forty-eight patients had reduced RVEF (mean 25%) and 61 patients had normal RVEF (mean 50%) (p<0.001). Fifty-four patients had reduced LVEF (mean 30%) and 55 patients had normal LVEF (mean 59%) (p<0.001). Patients with reduced RVEF had a higher incidence of long-term cardiac re-hospitalization vs. patients with normal RVEF (31% vs.13%, p<0.05). Abnormal RVEF was a predictor for long-term cardiac re-hospitalization (HR 3.01 [CI 1.5-7.9], p<0.03). Reduced LVEF did not influence long-term cardiac re-hospitalization. Conclusion Abnormal RVEF is a stronger predictor for long-term cardiac re-hospitalization than abnormal LVEF in patients undergoing isolated CABG and valve procedures. PMID:26197273

  20. Pulmonary artery catheter entrapment in cardiac surgery: a simple percutaneous solution.

    PubMed

    Divakaran, Vijay; Caldera, Angel; Stephens, Jack; Gonzalez, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary artery catheter entrapment is a reported complication after cardiac surgery from inadvertent suturing of the catheter to the vena-caval wall during surgery. This article reports a simple percutaneous technique to retrieve the trapped catheter.

  1. Is levosimendan effective in paediatric heart failure and post-cardiac surgeries?

    PubMed

    Angadi, Ullas; Westrope, Claire; Chowdhry, Mohammed F

    2013-10-01

    other vasoactive drugs were insufficient to maintain stable haemodynamics. A small sample size was indeed a limitation in all the above studies. Furthermore, it is best used as a rescue drug on a named-patient basis. A small sample size was indeed a limitation in all the above studies. Larger, well-designed trials are required to further evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of levosimendan in paediatric heart failure and post-cardiac surgeries.

  2. Gene therapy during cardiac surgery: role of surgical technique to minimize collateral organ gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Michael G.; Swain, JaBaris D.; Fargnoli, Anthony S.; Bridges, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Effective gene therapy for heart failure has not yet been achieved clinically. The aim of this study is to quantitatively assess the cardiac isolation efficiency of the molecular cardiac surgery with recirculating delivery (MCARD™) and to evaluate its efficacy as a means to limit collateral organ gene expression. 1014 genome copies (GC) of recombinant adeno-associated viral vector 6 encoding green fluorescent protein under control of the cytomegalovirus promoter was delivered to the nine arrested sheep hearts. Blood samples were assessed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT QPCR). Collateral organ gene expression was assessed at four-weeks using immunohistochemical staining. The blood vector GC concentration in the cardiac circuit during complete isolation trended from 9.59±0.73 to 9.05±0.65 (log GC/cm3), and no GC were detectable in the systemic circuit (P<0.001). The washing procedure performed prior to relinquishing the cardiac circuit decreased the systemic blood vector GC concentration >800-fold (P<0.001), consistent with >99% isolation efficiency. Conversely, incomplete isolation resulted in equalization of vector GC concentration in the circuits, leading to robust collateral organ gene expression. MCARD™ is an efficient, clinically translatable myocardial delivery platform for cardiac specific gene therapy. The cardiac surgical techniques utilized are critically important to limit collateral organ gene expression. PMID:20861057

  3. Training and assessment of technical skills and competency in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Lodge, Daniel; Grantcharov, Teodor

    2011-03-01

    The assessment of surgical competency has become a priority for both surgical educators and licensing boards. Surgical educators must incorporate rigorous, reliable, and valid means of assessment into residency programs. Objective evaluation of technical skills has been extensively explored in various surgical specialties, but its role in cardiac surgery has not been well studied and there is limited experience with integration into the educational curricula. Several cardiac and vascular surgery simulation models have been designed and evaluated, ranging from simple low-fidelity models using inert materials to a complex, computer-controlled, high-fidelity simulator using biological tissues to practice entire surgical cases. Most of the available models have not been well validated or integrated into educational curricula. The cardiac surgery simulation tools in development need validation and incorporation into structured, competency-based training curricula. The ongoing development of surgical simulators and educational curricula will enable a transition from the century-old graded responsibility training program to a competency-based program, where trainees must demonstrate technical competence to progress to the next level of training and gain certification and re-certification--ultimately ensuring better and faster technical skill acquisition as well as improved quality of care and patient safety.

  4. Anesthesia for major general surgery in neonates with complex cardiac defects.

    PubMed

    Walker, Amy; Stokes, Monica; Moriarty, Anthony

    2009-02-01

    Centers with large cardiac workloads may be presented with neonates who need major general surgery before correction or palliation of a serious cardiac defect. This is still a rare situation with only three short case reports available in the medical literature (1-3). We have reviewed the anesthetic and analgesic regimens of 18 such neonates who presented to the Birmingham Children's Hospital in the 4-year period 2004-2007. These children require meticulous preoperative evaluation and although it might be anticipated that they would pose a serious challenge to anesthetists, in reality with thorough investigation, preparation, and careful management, they tolerate general anesthesia well. These children may be transferred to centers of specialist pediatric cardiac anesthesia to be benefited from experience obtained there.

  5. Utilisation of Blood Components in Cardiac Surgery: A Single-Centre Retrospective Analysis with Regard to Diagnosis-Related Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Raoul Georg; Rotering, Heinrich; Buddendick, Hubert; Franz, Dominik; Bunzemeier, Holger; Roeder, Norbert; Kwiecien, Robert; Sibrowski, Walter; Scheld, Hans H.; Martens, Sven; Schlenke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    transfused cases was observed compared to the period from 2009 to 2011 before implementation of the PBM initiative (red blood cells p < 0.002; fresh frozen plasma p < 0.0006; platelets p < 0.00006). Conclusion Until now, cardiac surgery comes along with a significant blood supply. By using a case-related data evaluation programme, the consumption of each blood component can be linked to clinical performance groups and, if necessary, to individual patients. Based on the results obtained from this retrospective analysis, prospective studies are underway to begin conducting target / actual performance comparisons to better understand the individual decision-making by the attending physicians with respect to transfusions. PMID:26019702

  6. Sonolysis in Prevention of Brain Infarction During Cardiac Surgery (SONORESCUE)

    PubMed Central

    Školoudík, David; Hurtíková, Eva; Brát, Radim; Herzig, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Here, we examined whether intraoperative sonolysis can alter the risk of new ischemic lesions in the insonated brain artery territory during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or valve surgery. Silent brain ischemic lesions could be detected in as many as two-thirds of patients after CABG or valve surgery. Patients indicated for CABG or valve surgery were allocated randomly to sonolysis (60 patients, 37 males; mean age, 65.3 years) of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) during cardiac surgery and control group (60 patients, 37 males; mean age, 65.3 years). Neurologic examination, cognitive function tests, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were conducted before intervention as well as 24 to 72 hours and 30 days after surgery. New ischemic lesions on control diffusion-weighted MRI in the insonated MCA territory ≥0.5 mL were significantly less frequent in the sonolysis group than in the control group (13.3% vs 26.7%, P = 0.109). The sonolysis group exhibited significantly reduced median volume of new brain ischemic lesions (P = 0.026). Stenosis of the internal carotid artery ≥50% and smoking were independent predictors of new brain ischemic lesions ≥0.5 mL (odds ratio = 5.685 [1.272–25.409], P = 0.023 and 4.698 [1.092–20.208], P = 0.038, respectively). Stroke or transient ischemic attack occurred only in 2 control patients (P = 0.496). No significant differences were found in scores for postintervention cognitive tests (P > 0.05). This study provides class-II evidence that sonolysis during CABG or valve surgery reduces the risk of larger, new ischemic lesions in the brain. www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01591018). PMID:27196464

  7. Mortality after cardiac surgery in patients with liver cirrhosis classified by the Child-Pugh score.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Kirolos A; Hjortnaes, Jesper; Kranenburg, Guido; de Heer, Frederiek; Kluin, Jolanda

    2015-04-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a known risk factor for postoperative mortality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Clinical assessment of liver cirrhosis using the widely accepted Child-Pugh (CP) score is thus vital for evaluation of surgical options and perioperative care. However, detailed mortality rates as a consequence of liver cirrhosis are unclear. This review aimed to stratify the risk of short-term (<30 days) and overall (up to 10 years) mortality after cardiac surgery in patients with liver cirrhosis, classified by the CP score. Thus, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were systematically reviewed by two independent investigators for studies published up to February 2014, in which mortality in cirrhotic patients, classified by the CP classification, undergoing cardiac surgery was evaluated postoperatively. A total of 993 articles were identified. After critical appraisal of 21 articles, 19 were selected for final analysis. Weighted short-term mortality of cirrhotic patients undergoing cardiac surgery was 19.3% [95% confidence interval (CI): 16.4-22.5%]. Across the different CP groups, short-term mortality appeared to be 9.0% (95% CI: 6.6-12.2%), 37.7% (95% CI: 30.8-44.3%) and 52.0% (95% CI: 33.5-70.0%) in Groups A, B and C, respectively. Weighted overall mortality within 1 year was 42.0% (95% CI: 36.0-48.3%) in all cirrhotic patients. Subdivided in groups, overall mortality within that 1 year was 27.2% (95% CI: 20.9-34.7%), 66.2% (95% CI: 54.3-76.3%) and 78.9% (95% CI: 56.1-92.1%) in Groups A, B and C, respectively. In conclusion, short-term mortality is considerably increased in patients with liver cirrhosis CP class B and C. Overall mortality is significantly high in all classes of liver cirrhosis.

  8. Hemoglobin optimization and transfusion strategies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Mahdi; Faraoni, David

    2015-07-26

    Although red blood cells (RBCs) transfusion is sometimes associated with adverse reactions, anemia could also lead to increased morbidity and mortality in high-risk patients. For these reasons, the definition of perioperative strategies that aims to detect and treat preoperative anemia, prevent excessive blood loss, and define "optimal" transfusion algorithms is crucial. Although the treatment with preoperative iron and erythropoietin has been recommended in some specific conditions, several controversies exist regarding the benefit-to-risk balance associated with these treatments. Further studies are needed to better define the indications, dosage, and route of administration for preoperative iron with or without erythropoietin supplementation. Although restrictive transfusion strategies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery have been shown to effectively reduce the incidence and the amount of RBCs transfusion without increase in side effects, some high-risk patients (e.g., symptomatic acute coronary syndrome) could benefit from higher hemoglobin concentrations. Despite all efforts made last decade, a significant amount of work remains to be done to improve hemoglobin optimization and transfusion strategies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

  9. A Historic Case of Cardiac Surgery in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Labib, Smael; Harandou, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    Background. Heart disease is the leading cause of nonobstetric mortality in pregnant women. Because of high risk, medical management represents the first line of treatment. However, when medical treatment fails, cardiac surgery becomes necessary. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old female who underwent successfully cardiac surgery three times within 3 years. At the first time, she had an aortic valve replacement at 25 weeks of gestation after an infectious endocarditis complicated with an ischemic stroke. At 39 weeks of gestation, she had delivered, vaginally, a healthy baby boy weighing 2800 g. In the second time, pregnant again at 30 weeks of gestation, she had a mitral valve replacement with an aortic prosthesis reinforcement after a paraprosthetic regurgitation and a mitral vegetation. A fetal death in utero had occurred; the extraction of the fetus by cesarean section with a tubal ligation was performed after stabilization of the mother. In the third time, she underwent successfully a mitral prosthesis replacement with Bentall's procedure after a mitral prosthesis disinsertion with an abscess of aortic annulus due to new episode of infectious endocarditis. Conclusion. Our patient has assembled almost all poor prognosis factors, which makes her a real historic case, probably never described in the literature. PMID:27803828

  10. MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND MAJOR INFECTIONS AFTER CARDIAC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Gelijns, Annetine C.; Moskowitz, Alan J.; Acker, Michael A.; Argenziano, Michael; Geller, Nancy L.; Puskas, John D.; Perrault, Louis P.; Smith, Peter K.; Kron, Irving L.; Michler, Robert E.; Miller, Marissa A.; Gardner, Timothy J.; Ascheim, Deborah D.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Lackner, Pamela; Goldsmith, Lyn A.; Robichaud, Sophie; Miller, Rachel A.; Rose, Eric A.; Ferguson, T. Bruce; Horvath, Keith A.; Moquete, Ellen G.; Parides, Michael K.; Bagiella, Emilia; O’Gara, Patrick T.; Blackstone, Eugene H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Infections are the most common non-cardiac complication after cardiac surgery, but their incidence across a broad range of operations, as well as the management factors that shape infection risk, remain unknown. Objectives This study prospectively examines the frequency of postoperative infections and associated mortality, and modifiable management practices predictive of infections within 65 days from cardiac surgery. Methods This study enrolled 5,158 patients and analyzed independently adjudicated infections using a competing risk model (with death as the competing event). Results Nearly 5% of patients experienced major infections. Baseline characteristics associated with increased infection risk included chronic lung disease (hazard ratio [HR] 1.66; CI 1.21–2.26), heart failure (HR 1.47; CI 1.11–1.95), and longer surgery (HR 1.31; CI 1.21–1.41). Practices associated with reduced infection risk included prophylaxis with second-generation cephalosporins (HR 0.70; CI 0.52–0.94), whereas postoperative antibiotic duration >48 hours (HR 1.92; CI 1.28–2.88), stress hyperglycemia (HR 1.32; CI 1.01–1.73); intubation time of 24–48 hours (HR 1.49; CI 1.04–2.14); and ventilation >48 hours (HR 2.45; CI 1.66–3.63) were associated with increased risk. HRs for infection were similar with either <24 hours or <48 hours of antibiotic prophylaxis. There was a significant but differential effect of transfusion by surgery type (excluding left ventricular assist device procedures/transplant) (HR 1.13; CI 1.07–1.20). Major infections substantially increased mortality (HR 10.02; CI 6.12, 16.39). Conclusions Major infections dramatically affect survival and readmissions. Second-generation cephalosporins were strongly associated with reduced major infection risk, but optimal duration of antibiotic prophylaxis requires further study. Given practice variations, considerable opportunities exist for improving outcomes and preventing readmissions. PMID:25060372

  11. Ischemic Colitis after Cardiac Surgery: Can We Foresee the Threat?

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Rawa; Farag, Mina; Zaradzki, Marcin; Reissfelder, Christoph; Pianka, Frank; Bruckner, Thomas; Kremer, Jamila; Franz, Maximilian; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Szabo, Gabor; Beller, Carsten J.; Karck, Matthias; Kallenbach, Klaus; Weymann, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ischemic colitis (IC) remains a great threat after cardiac surgery with use of extracorporeal circulation. We aimed to identify predictive risk factors and influence of early catecholamine therapy for this disease. Methods We prospectively collected and analyzed data of 224 patients, who underwent laparotomy due to IC after initial cardiac surgery with use of extracorporeal circulation during 2002 and 2014. For further comparability 58 patients were identified, who underwent bypass surgery, aortic valve replacement or combination of both. Age ±5 years, sex, BMI ± 5, left ventricular function, peripheral arterial disease, diabetes and urgency status were used for match-pair analysis (1:1) to compare outcome and detect predictive risk factors. Highest catecholamine doses during 1 POD were compared for possible predictive potential. Results Patients’ baseline characteristics showed no significant differences. In-hospital mortality of the IC group with a mean age of 71 years (14% female) was significantly higher than the control group with a mean age of 70 (14% female) (67% vs. 16%, p<0.001). Despite significantly longer bypass time in the IC group (133 ± 68 vs. 101 ± 42, p = 0.003), cross-clamp time remained comparable (64 ± 33 vs. 56 ± 25 p = 0.150). The majority of the IC group suffered low-output syndrome (71% vs. 14%, p<0.001) leading to significant higher lactate values within first 24h after operation (55 ± 46 mg/dl vs. 31 ± 30 mg/dl, p = 0.002). Logistic regression revealed elevated lactate values to be significant predictor for colectomy during the postoperative course (HR 1.008, CI 95% 1.003–1.014, p = 0.003). However, Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve calculates a cut-off value for lactate of 22.5 mg/dl (sensitivity 73% and specificity 57%). Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed low-output syndrome (HR 4.301, CI 95% 2.108–8.776, p<0.001) and vasopressin therapy (HR 1.108, CI 95% 1.012–1.213, p = 0.027) significantly

  12. Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiac Risk Assessment and Management for Patients Who Undergo Noncardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Duceppe, Emmanuelle; Parlow, Joel; MacDonald, Paul; Lyons, Kristin; McMullen, Michael; Srinathan, Sadeesh; Graham, Michelle; Tandon, Vikas; Styles, Kim; Bessissow, Amal; Sessler, Daniel I; Bryson, Gregory; Devereaux, P J

    2017-01-01

    The Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines Committee and key Canadian opinion leaders believed there was a need for up to date guidelines that used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system of evidence assessment for patients who undergo noncardiac surgery. Strong recommendations included: 1) measuring brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal fragment of proBNP (NT-proBNP) before surgery to enhance perioperative cardiac risk estimation in patients who are 65 years of age or older, are 45-64 years of age with significant cardiovascular disease, or have a Revised Cardiac Risk Index score ≥ 1; 2) against performing preoperative resting echocardiography, coronary computed tomography angiography, exercise or cardiopulmonary exercise testing, or pharmacological stress echocardiography or radionuclide imaging to enhance perioperative cardiac risk estimation; 3) against the initiation or continuation of acetylsalicylic acid for the prevention of perioperative cardiac events, except in patients with a recent coronary artery stent or who will undergo carotid endarterectomy; 4) against α2 agonist or β-blocker initiation within 24 hours before surgery; 5) withholding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker starting 24 hours before surgery; 6) facilitating smoking cessation before surgery; 7) measuring daily troponin for 48 to 72 hours after surgery in patients with an elevated NT-proBNP/BNP measurement before surgery or if there is no NT-proBNP/BNP measurement before surgery, in those who have a Revised Cardiac Risk Index score ≥1, age 45-64 years with significant cardiovascular disease, or age 65 years or older; and 8) initiating of long-term acetylsalicylic acid and statin therapy in patients who suffer myocardial injury/infarction after surgery.

  13. Acute Mesenteric Ischemia after Cardiac Surgery: An Analysis of 52 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gucu, Arif; Toktas, Faruk; Erdolu, Burak; Ozyazıcıoglu, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a rare but serious complication after cardiac surgery. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the incidence, outcome, and perioperative risk factors of AMI in the patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Methods. From January 2005 to May 2013, all patients who underwent cardiac surgery were screened for participation, and patients with registered gastrointestinal complications were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate analyses were performed. Results. The study included 6013 patients, of which 52 (0.86%) patients suffered from AMI, 35 (67%) of whom died. The control group (150 patients) was randomly chosen from among cases undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Preoperative parameters including age (P = 0.03), renal insufficiency (P = 0.004), peripheral vascular disease (P = 0.04), preoperative inotropic support (P < 0.001), poor left ventricular ejection fraction (P = 0.002), cardiogenic shock (P = 0.003), and preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) support (P = 0.05) revealed significantly higher levels in the AMI group. Among intra- and postoperative parameters, CPB time (P < 0.001), dialysis (P = 0.04), inotropic support (P = 0.007), prolonged ventilator time (P < 0.001), and IABP support (P = 0.007) appeared significantly higher in the AMI group than the control group. Conclusions. Prompt diagnosis and early treatment should be initiated as early as possible in any patient suspected of AMI, leading to dramatic reduction in the mortality rate. PMID:24288499

  14. Structured electronic documentation (SED) cardiac surgery and PowerNote- a pilot project.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Daniel P; Raghu, Sujatha; Waechter, Darcy K

    2005-01-01

    User Specific templates were created through Cerner PowerNote to fit the need for improving the turnaround time for the Operative notes for Cardiac Surgery Patients. This eliminated the lag time of 37.5hours for Intensive Care Unit staff to access the detailed Operative notes on Cardiac surgery patients.

  15. Apoptosis of circulating lymphocytes during pediatric cardiac surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocsi, J.; Pipek, M.; Hambsch, J.; Schneider, P.; Tárnok, A.

    2006-02-01

    There is a constant need for clinical diagnostic systems that enable to predict disease course for preventative medicine. Apoptosis, programmed cell death, is the end point of the cell's response to different induction and leads to changes in the cell morphology that can be rapidly detected by optical systems. We tested whether apoptosis of T-cells in the peripheral blood is useful as predictor and compared different preparation and analytical techniques. Surgical trauma is associated with elevated apoptosis of circulating leukocytes. Increased apoptosis leads to partial removal of immune competent cells and could therefore in part be responsible for reduced immune defence. Cardiovascular surgery with but not without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induces transient immunosuppression. Its effect on T-cell apoptosis has not been shown yet. Flow-cytometric data of blood samples from 107 children (age 3-16 yr.) who underwent cardiac surgery with (78) or without (29) CPB were analysed. Apoptotic T-lymphocytes were detected based on light scatter and surface antigen (CD45/CD3) expression (ClinExpImmunol2000;120:454). Results were compared to staining with CD3 antibodies alone and in the absence of antibodies. T-cell apoptosis rate was comparable when detected with CD45/CD3 or CD3 alone, however not in the absence of CD3. Patients with but not without CPB surgery had elevated lymphocyte apoptosis. T-cell apoptosis increased from 0.47% (baseline) to 0.97% (1 day postoperatively). In CPB patients with complication 1.10% significantly higher (ANOVA p=0.01) comparing to CPB patients without complications. Quantitation of circulating apoptotic cells based on light scatter seems an interesting new parameter for diagnosis. Increased apoptosis of circulating lymphocytes and neutrophils further contributes to the immune suppressive response to surgery with CPB. (Support: MP, Deutsche Herzstiftung, Frankfurt, Germany)

  16. Mending broken hearts: marriage and survival following cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Idler, Ellen L; Boulifard, David A; Contrada, Richard J

    2012-03-01

    Marriage has long been linked to lower risk for adult mortality in population and clinical studies. In a regional sample of patients (n = 569) undergoing cardiac surgery, we compared 5-year hazards of mortality for married persons with those of widowed, separated or divorced, and never married persons using data from medical records and psychosocial interviews. After adjusting for demographics and pre- and postsurgical health, unmarried persons had 1.90 times the hazard of mortality of married persons; the disaggregated widowed, never married, and divorced or separated groups had similar hazards, as did men and women. The adjusted hazard for immediate postsurgical mortality was 3.33; the adjusted hazard for long-term mortality was 1.71, and this was mediated by married persons' lower smoking rates. The findings underscore the role of spouses (both male and female) in caregiving during health crises and the social control of health behaviors.

  17. Are cardiac interventions without onsite surgery worth the risk?

    PubMed Central

    van der Graaf, Y.

    2005-01-01

    There is a considerable decline in the use of CABG for failed PCI and the pressure to perform cardiac interventions in centres without onsite surgery is high. But is it necessary to increase the number of PCI centres in a densely populated country as the Netherlands? Advocates for expansion suggest a better patient outcome, but the evidence is not very solid. Arguments such as transport time are probably quite valid in large countries, but do not pertain to the Netherlands. Increasing the number of PCI centres will inevitably lead to fewer procedures per centre, per cardiologist and more complications and higher mortality. Waiting lists are no longer a relevant issue. Other less altruistic reasons might be the driving force. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is considered a commercially attractive intervention by cardiologists and institutions and seems to be the main motive for extension of the number of PCI centres. PMID:25696419

  18. Public reporting of cardiac surgery performance: Part 2--implementation.

    PubMed

    Shahian, David M; Edwards, Fred H; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Prager, Richard L; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Shewan, Cynthia M; O'Brien, Sean M; Peterson, Eric D; Grover, Frederick L

    2011-09-01

    Appropriate implementation is essential to create a credible public reporting system. Ideally, data should be obtained from an audited clinical data registry, and structure, process, or outcomes metrics may be reported. Composite measures are increasingly used, as are measures of appropriateness, patient satisfaction, functional status, and health-related quality of life. Classification of provider performance should use statistical criteria appropriate to the policy objectives and to the desired balance of sensitivity and specificity. Public reports should use simplified visual or tabular presentation aids that maximize correct interpretation of numerical data. Because of sample size issues, and to emphasize that cardiac surgery requires team-based care, public reporting should generally be focused at the program rather than individual surgeon level. This may also help to mitigate risk aversion, the avoidance of high-risk patients.

  19. Myocardial Oxidative Stress in Infants Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Sznycer-Taub, Nathaniel; Mackie, Stewart; Peng, Yun-Wen; Donohue, Janet; Yu, Sunkyung; Aiyagari, Ranjit; Charpie, John

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease often necessitates a period of myocardial ischemia during cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest, followed by reperfusion after aortic cross-clamp removal. In experimental models, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion is associated with significant oxidative stress and ventricular dysfunction. A prospective observational study was conducted in infants (<1 year) who underwent elective surgical repair of a ventricular septal defect (VSD) or tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Blood samples were drawn following anesthetic induction (baseline) and directly from the coronary sinus at 1, 3, 5, and 10 min following aortic cross-clamp removal. Samples were analyzed for oxidant stress using assays for thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, protein carbonyl, 8-isoprostane, and total antioxidant capacity. For each subject, raw assay data were normalized to individual baseline samples and expressed as fold-change from baseline. Results were compared using a one-sample t test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Sixteen patients (ten with TOF and six with VSD) were enrolled in the study, and there were no major postoperative complications observed. For the entire cohort, there was an immediate, rapid increase in myocardial oxidative stress that was sustained for 10 min following aortic cross-clamp removal in all biomarker assays (all P < 0.01), except total antioxidant capacity. Infant cardiac surgery is associated with a rapid, robust, and time-dependent increase in myocardial oxidant stress as measured from the coronary sinus in vivo. Future studies with larger enrollment are necessary to assess any association between myocardial oxidative stress and early postoperative outcomes.

  20. Current status of cardiac surgery allied health professionals in Asia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Ye, W

    2011-01-01

    More and more allied health professions are getting involved in clinical health care. One estimate reported allied health personnel makes up 60 percent of the total health workforce. In Asia, in the field of cardiothoracic surgery, allied health personnel includes perfusionists, physician assistants, physiotherapist, intensivists, rehabilitation therapists, nutritionists and social workers. They work in collaboration with surgeons to provide a range of diagnostic, technical, therapeutic, cardiac care and support services to the patients and their families.Some allied health professions are more specialized. They must adhere to national training and education standards and their professional scope of practice. For example, the training of perfusionists consists of at least five years of academic in medical schools and another three-year-long clinical training in the hospital. The cardiac intensivists usually are medical doctors with a background in cardiology. They spend 3-4 years rotating in Internal Medicine, Anesthesiology, Emergency Rooms and Intensive Care Units. There have specialized medical societies to grant certified credentials and to provide continuing education. Other allied health professions require no special training or credentials and are trained for their work by the hospitals through on-the-job training. Many young health care providers are getting involved in the allied health personnel projects. They consider this as a career ladder because of the opportunities for advancement within specific fields.

  1. Subject-specific models for image-guided cardiac surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbicki, Marcin; Moore, John; Drangova, Maria; Peters, Terry

    2008-10-01

    Three-dimensional visualization for planning and guidance is still not routinely available for minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS). This can be addressed by providing the surgeon with subject-specific geometric models derived from 3D preoperative images for planning of port locations or to rehearse the procedure. For guidance purposes, these models can also be registered to the subject using intraoperative images. In this paper, we present a method for extracting subject-specific heart geometry from preoperative MR images. The main obstacle we face is the low quality of clinical data in terms of resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and presence of artefacts. Instead of using these images directly, we approach the problem in three steps: (1) generate a high quality template model, (2) register the template with the preoperative data, and (3) animate the result over the cardiac cycle. Validation of this approach showed that dynamic subject-specific models can be generated with a mean error of 3.6 ± 1.1 mm from low resolution target images (6 mm slices). Thus, the models are sufficiently accurate for MICS training and procedure planning. In terms of guidance, we also demonstrate how the resulting models may be adapted to the operating room using intraoperative ultrasound imaging.

  2. Post cardiac surgery vasoplegia is associated with high preoperative copeptin plasma concentration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Post cardiac surgery vasodilatation (PCSV) is possibly related to a vasopressin deficiency that could relate to chronic stimulation of adeno-hypophysis. To assess vasopressin system activation, a perioperative course of copeptin and vasopressin plasma concentrations were studied in consecutive patients operated on for cardiac surgery. Methods Sixty-four consecutive patients scheduled for elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were studied. Hemodynamic, laboratory and clinical data were recorded before and during cardiopulmonary bypass, and at the eighth postoperative hour (H8). At the same time, blood was withdrawn to determine plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin (AVP, radioimmunoassay) and copeptin (immunoluminometric assay). PCSV was defined as mean arterial blood pressure < 60 mmHg with cardiac index ≥ 2.2 l/min/m2, and was treated with norepinephrine to restore mean blood pressure > 60 mmHg. Patients with PCSV were compared with the other patients (controls). Student's t test, Fisher's exact test, or nonparametric tests (Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon) were used when appropriate. Correlation between AVP and copeptin was evaluated and receiver-operator characteristic analysis assessed the utility of preoperative copeptin to distinguish between controls and PCSV patients. Results Patients who experienced PCSV had significantly higher copeptin plasma concentration before cardiopulmonary bypass (P < 0.001) but lower AVP concentrations at H8 (P < 0.01) than controls. PCSV patients had preoperative hyponatremia and decreased left ventricle ejection fraction, and experienced more complex surgery (redo). The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve of preoperative copeptin concentration was 0.86 ± 0.04 (95% confidence interval = 0.78 to 0.94; P < 0.001). The best predictive value for preoperative copeptin plasma concentration was 9.43 pmol/l with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 77%. Conclusions High preoperative

  3. Preoperative Evaluation for Noncardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Steven L

    2016-12-06

    This issue provides a clinical overview of preoperative evaluation for noncardiac surgery, focusing on risk factors, elements of evaluation, medication management, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  4. Gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponge for preventing sternal wound infection after cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Targońska, Sylwia; Stążka, Janusz; Kozioł-Montewka, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of sternal wound infection (SWI) after cardiac surgery ranges from 0.5% to 8% and is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and treatment cost. Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis is not sufficient to fully prevent the contamination of the surgical access site. One of the most effective methods for the prevention of wound infection seems to be the use of gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponge, which is successfully used in abdominal and orthopedic surgery. Surgically implantable topical antibiotics can reduce wound infection in cardiac patients as well, but the efficacy of SWI prevention in cardiac surgery still raises many questions. PMID:26336388

  5. Gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponge for preventing sternal wound infection after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Kozioł, Małgorzata; Targońska, Sylwia; Stążka, Janusz; Kozioł-Montewka, Maria

    2014-03-01

    The frequency of sternal wound infection (SWI) after cardiac surgery ranges from 0.5% to 8% and is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and treatment cost. Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis is not sufficient to fully prevent the contamination of the surgical access site. One of the most effective methods for the prevention of wound infection seems to be the use of gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponge, which is successfully used in abdominal and orthopedic surgery. Surgically implantable topical antibiotics can reduce wound infection in cardiac patients as well, but the efficacy of SWI prevention in cardiac surgery still raises many questions.

  6. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database: 2017 Update on Outcomes and Quality.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Richard S; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Badhwar, Vinay; Paone, Gaetano; Rankin, J Scott; Han, Jane M; McDonald, Donna; Edwards, Fred H; Shahian, David M

    2017-01-01

    Established in 1989, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database is one of the most comprehensive clinical data registries in health care. It is widely regarded as the gold standard for benchmarking risk-adjusted outcomes in cardiac surgery and is the foundation for all quality measurement and improvement activities of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. This is the second in a series of annual reports that summarizes current aggregate national outcomes in cardiac surgery and reviews database-related activities in the areas of quality measurement and performance improvement during the past year.

  7. Milrinone Use is Associated With Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation Following Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Gregory A.; Murray, Katherine T.; Yu, Chang; Byrne, John G.; Greelish, James P.; Petracek, Michael R.; Hoff, Steven J.; Ball, Stephen K.; Brown, Nancy J.; Pretorius, Mias

    2009-01-01

    Background Postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF), a frequent complication following cardiac surgery, causes morbidity and prolongs hospitalization. Inotropic drugs are commonly used perioperatively to support ventricular function. This study tested the hypothesis that the use of inotropic drugs is associated with postoperative AF. Methods and Results We evaluated perioperative risk factors in 232 patients who underwent elective cardiac surgery. All patients were in sinus rhythm at surgery. Sixty-seven (28.9%) patients developed AF a mean of 2.9±2.1 days after surgery. Patients who developed AF stayed in the hospital longer (P<0.001) and were more likely to die (P=0.02). Milrinone use was associated with an increased risk of postoperative AF (58.2% versus 26.1% in non-users, P<0.001). Older age (63.4±10.7 versus 56.7±12.3 years, P<0.001), hypertension (P=0.04), lower preoperative ejection fraction (P=0.03), mitral valve surgery (P=0.02), right ventricular dysfunction (P=0.03), and higher mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) (27.1±9.3 versus 21.8±7.5 mmHg, P=0.001) were also associated with postoperative AF. In multivariable logistic regression, age (P<0.001), ejection fraction (P=0.02), and milrinone use (odds ratio 4.86, 95% CI 2.31-10.25, P<0.001) independently predicted postoperative AF. When data only from patients with pulmonary artery catheters were analyzed and PAP was included in the model, age, milrinone use (odds ratio 4.45, 95% CI 2.01-9.84, P<0.001), and higher PAP (P=0.02) were associated with an increased risk of postoperative AF. Adding other potential confounders or stratifying analysis by mitral valve surgery did not change the association of milrinone use with postoperative AF. Conclusion Milrinone use is an independent risk factor for postoperative AF following elective cardiac surgery. PMID:18824641

  8. Modified Ultrafiltration During Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Postoperative Course of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ziyaeifard, Mohsen; Alizadehasl, Azin; Massoumi, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Context: The use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) provokes the inflammatory responses associated with ischemic/reperfusion injury, hemodilution and other agents. Exposure of blood cells to the bypass circuit surface starts a systemic inflammatory reaction that may causes post-CPB organ dysfunction, particularly in lungs, heart and brain. Evidence Acquisition: We investigated in the MEDLINE, PUBMED, and EMBASE databases and Google scholar for every available article in peer reviewed journals between 1987 and 2013, for related subjects to CPB with conventional or modified ultrafiltration (MUF) in pediatrics cardiac surgery patients. Results: MUF following separation from extracorporeal circulation (ECC) provides well known advantages in children with improvements in the hemodynamic, pulmonary, coagulation and other organs functions. Decrease in blood transfusion, reduction of total body water, and blood loss after surgery, are additional benefits of MUF. Conclusions: Consequently, MUF has been associated with attenuation of morbidity after pediatric cardiac surgery. In this review, we tried to evaluate the current evidence about MUF on the organ performance and its effect on post-CPB morbidity in pediatric patients. PMID:25478538

  9. Mortality Risk After Cardiac Surgery: Application of Inscor in a University Hospital in Brazil's Northeast

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, João Vyctor Silva; Silva, Mayara Gabrielle Barbosa e; Baldez, Thiago Eduardo Pereira; Costa, Marina de Albuquerque Gonçalves; da Silva, Luan Nascimento; Pinheiro, Renata Silva; Fecks, Zullma Sampaio; Borges, Daniel Lago

    2016-01-01

    Objective To apply the InsCor in patients undergoing cardiac surgery in a university hospital in Brazil's northeast. Methods It is a retrospective, quantitative and analytical study, carried out at the University Hospital of the Federal University of Maranhão. InsCor is a remodeling of two risk score models. It evaluates the prediction of mortality through variables such as gender, age, type of surgery or reoperation, exams, and preoperative events. Data from January to December 2015 were collected, using a Physical Therapy Evaluation Form and medical records. Quantitative variables were expressed as mean and standard deviation and qualitative variables as absolute and relative frequencies. Fisher's exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied, considering significant differences when P value was < 0.05. Calibration was performed by Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Results One hundred and forty-eight patients were included. Thirty-six percent were female, with mean age of 54.7±15.8 years and mean body mass index (BMI) equal to 25.6 kg/m2. The most frequent surgery was coronary artery bypass grafting (51.3%). According to InsCor, 73.6% of the patients had low risk, 20.3% medium risk, and only 6.1% high risk. In this sample, 11 (7.4%) patients died. The percentage of death in patients classified as low, medium and high risk was 6.3, 7.1% and 11.1%, respectively. Conclusion InsCor presented easy applicability due to the reduced number of variables analyzed and it showed satisfactory prediction of mortality in this sample of cardiac surgery patients. PMID:27982349

  10. Feeding difficulties in neonates following cardiac surgery: determinants of prolonged feeding-tube use.

    PubMed

    McKean, Elissa B; Kasparian, Nadine A; Batra, Shweta; Sholler, Gary F; Winlaw, David S; Dalby-Payne, Jacqueline

    2017-01-23

    Aim The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence and potential correlates of feeding difficulties in infants who underwent cardiac surgery in the neonatal period and to investigate resource utilisation by infants with feeding difficulties.

  11. Saccadic palsy following cardiac surgery: a review and new hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Eggers, Scott D. Z.; Horn, Anja K. E.; Roeber, Sigrun; Härtig, Wolfgang; Nair, Govind; Reich, Daniel S.; Leigh, R. John

    2014-01-01

    The ocular motor system provides several advantages for studying the brain, including well-defined populations of neurons that contribute to specific eye movements. Generation of rapid eye movements (saccades) depends on excitatory burst neurons (EBNs) and omnipause neurons (OPNs) within the brain stem; both types of cell are highly active. Experimental lesions of EBNs and OPNs cause slowing or complete loss of saccades. We report a patient who developed a permanent, selective saccadic palsy following cardiac surgery. When she died several years later, surprisingly, autopsy showed preservation of EBNs and OPNs. We therefore considered other mechanisms that could explain her saccadic palsy. Recent work has shown that both EBNs and OPNs are ensheathed by perineuronal nets (PNs), which are specialized extracellular matrix structures that may help stabilize synaptic contacts, promote local ion homeostasis, or play a protective role in certain highly active neurons. Here, we review the possibility that damage to PNs, rather than to the neurons they support, could lead to neuronal dysfunction—such as saccadic palsy. We also suggest how future studies could test this hypothesis, which may provide insights into the vulnerability of other active neurons in the nervous system that depend on PNs. PMID:25721480

  12. [Discontinuous warm cardioplegia in pediatric cardiac surgery: preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Durandy, Y; Hulin, S

    2006-02-01

    This article describes the use of warm cardioplegia in paediatric surgery. Warm blood enriched with potassium was injected every 15 minutes during aortic clamping in 770 operations. The efficacy and quality of this technique were assessed by the return of cardiac electrical activity, troponin I levels 12 hours after aortic clamping and the duration of postoperative ventilation in 3 groups of patients: ventricular septal defect under 6 months (N = 82), tetralogy of Fallot under one year (N = 55), simple transposition of the great arteries (N = 42). These results were compared retrospectively with those obtained using cold cardioplegia. The return of sinus rhythm was spontaneous in 99% of cases versus 77% with cold cardioplegia; the troponin I levels were under 10 ng/ml in 46% of cases versus 37% (NS). Patients operated for ventricular septal defect were ventilated 10 +/- 8 hours versus 13 +/- 10 hours with cold cardioplegia (p = 0.02). The children operated for tetralogy of Fallot were ventilated 8 +/- 4 hours versus 14 +/- 7 hours (p = 0.01) and those with simple transposition 56 +/- 71 hours versus 83 +/- 105 hours (NS). Warm cardioplegia, in the authors' experience, was associated with an improved postoperative course. In this group of 770 operations, 646 operated patients had a stay of less than two days in the intensive care unit.

  13. Cognitive behavioral therapy for depression improves pain and perceived control in cardiac surgery patients

    PubMed Central

    Doering, Lynn V; McGuire, Anthony; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Chen, Belinda; Bodán, Rebecca C; Czer, Lawrence S; Irwin, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression after cardiac surgery (CS) is associated with increased pain and decreased sleep quality. While cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) aimed at depression is effective in relieving depressive symptoms after cardiac surgery, little is known about its ability to ameliorate other common postoperative problems that affect recovery and quality of life. Aims The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of CBT for depression on pain severity, pain interference, sleep, and perceived control in patients recovering from CS. Methods Depressed patients recovering from CS were randomized to receive either eight weeks of CBT or usual care. At baseline and post-intervention, patients completed questionnaires for depressive symptoms, pain, sleep, and perceived control. Group comparisons were conducted using t-tests or chi square analysis. Repeated measures analysis was used to assess the effect of the intervention in changes over time. Results The sample (n=53) included 16.9% women and had a mean age of 67.8±9.2 years. CBT for depression increased perceived control (p<0.001) and decreased pain interference (p=0.02) and pain severity (p=0.03). Group effects remained significant (p<0.05) for perceived control and pain interference and a trend was observed for pain severity (p<0.10) after controlling for variables that differed at baseline. There were no group differences in sleep disturbance over time. Conclusions A depression-focused CBT intervention yields benefits in other common postoperative problems, specifically improved perceived control and decreased pain in depressed cardiac surgery patients. PMID:26115954

  14. Multimodal analgesia versus traditional opiate based analgesia after cardiac surgery, a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate if an opiate sparing multimodal regimen of dexamethasone, gabapentin, ibuprofen and paracetamol had better analgesic effect, less side effects and was safe compared to a traditional morphine and paracetamol regimen after cardiac surgery. Methods Open-label, prospective randomized controlled trial. 180 patients undergoing cardiac procedures through median sternotomy, were included in the period march 2007- August 2009. 151 patients were available for analysis. Pain was assessed with the 11-numeric rating scale (11-NRS). Results Patients in the multimodal group demonstrated significantly lower average pain scores from the day of surgery throughout the third postoperative day. Extensive nausea and vomiting, was found in no patient in the multimodal group but in 13 patients in the morphine group, p < 0.001. Postoperative rise in individual creatinine levels demonstrated a non-significant rise in the multimodal group, 33.0±53.4 vs. 19.9±48.5, p = 0.133. Patients in the multimodal group suffered less major in-hospital events in crude numbers: myocardial infarction (MI) (1 vs. 2, p = 0.54), stroke (0 vs. 3, p = 0.075), dialysis (1 vs. 2, p = 0.54), and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding (0 vs. 1, p = 0.31). 30-day mortality was 1 vs. 2, p = 0.54. Conclusions In patients undergoing cardiac surgery, a multimodal regimen offered significantly better analgesia than a traditional opiate regimen. Nausea and vomiting complaints were significantly reduced. No safety issues were observed with the multimodal regimen. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01966172 PMID:24650125

  15. Evidence of Impaired Neurocognitive Functioning in School-Age Children Awaiting Cardiac Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Rijken, Rachel; Hulstijn-Dirkmaat, Gerdine; Kraaimaat, Floris; Nabuurs-Kohrman, Lida; Daniels, Otto; Maassen, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at risk of developing neurocognitive problems. However, as these problems are usually identified after cardiac surgery, it is unclear whether they resulted from the surgery or whether they pre-existed and hence might be explained by complications and events associated with the heart disease…

  16. Genetic basis of keloid formation in wounds after cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Czapla, Norbert; Bińczak-Kuleta, Agnieszka; Safranow, Krzysztof; Jaworska-Kulawczuk, Anna; Gajewska, Dominika; Agata, Karolina; Brykczyński, Miłosz; Bargiel, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Keloid disease is the abnormal formation of scar tissue in genetically predisposed people. Among many genes which may be related to the development of keloids, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is one of the most mentioned. It encodes cytokinin, which is responsible for the production of extracellular matrix and takes part in healing. Any abnormalities which arise during synthesis of the protein as a result of polymorphism or gene mutation may be the cause of healing disorders (scarring of the body); thus it is responsible for the development of keloids. The objective of this study is to determine the single nucleotide polymorphism of the gene TGF-β1, at the position -509(rs1800469)509, to compare the obtained results in the form of three different genotypes within the analysed group (keloids) and within the control group (healthy scars), and to analyse the correlation between obtained genotypes and the occurrence of keloid disease. Seventy-three patients after cardiac surgery with scars on their sternums were examined (22 women and 51 men) in the age group from 38 to 84 years. Two groups of patients were distinguished: 37 with keloids and 36 with healthy scars. DNA taken from patients was analysed and polymorphism C(-509)T of the gene TGF-β1 was determined. On the basis of the study it was found that the allele T in the position −509 of the gene TGF-β1 is associated with a lower risk of keloid formation regardless of age and gender. PMID:26336434

  17. Anesthetic challenges in minimally invasive cardiac surgery: Are we moving in a right direction?

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Vishwas; Jha, Ajay Kumar; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Continuously growing patient's demand, technological innovation, and surgical expertise have led to the widespread popularity of minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS). Patient's demand is being driven by less surgical trauma, reduced scarring, lesser pain, substantially lesser duration of hospital stay, and early return to normal activity. In addition, MICS decreases the incidence of postoperative respiratory dysfunction, chronic pain, chest instability, deep sternal wound infection, bleeding, and atrial fibrillation. Widespread media coverage, competition among surgeons and hospitals, and their associated brand values have further contributed in raising awareness among patients. In this process, surgeons and anesthesiologist have moved from the comfort of traditional wide incision surgeries to more challenging and intensively skilled MICS. A wide variety of cardiac lesions, techniques, and approaches coupled with a significant learning curve have made the anesthesiologist's job a challenging one. Anesthesiologists facilitate in providing optimal surgical settings beginning with lung isolation, confirmation of diagnosis, cannula placement, and cardioplegia delivery. However, the concern remains and it mainly relates to patient safety, prolonged intraoperative duration, and reduced surgical exposure leading to suboptimal treatment. The risk of neurological complications, aortic injury, phrenic nerve palsy, and peripheral vascular thromboembolism can be reduced by proper preoperative evaluation and patient selection. Nevertheless, advancement in surgical instruments, perfusion practices, increasing use of transesophageal echocardiography, and accumulating experience of surgeons and anesthesiologist have somewhat helped in amelioration of these valid concerns. A patient-centric approach and clear communication between the surgeon, anesthesiologist, and perfusionist are vital for the success of MICS. PMID:27397454

  18. [The use of central acting analgesic nefopam in postoperative analgesia in cardiac surgery patients].

    PubMed

    Eremenko, A A; Sorokina, L S; Pavlov, M V

    2013-01-01

    A prospective, randomized, comparative study was conducted. 3 analgesia protocols were used: 1) patient controlled analgesia (PCA) with trimeperidine in combination with a nefopam constant infusion; 2) PCA with trimeperidine in combination with a nefopam bolus; 3) PCA with trimeperidine separately during early postoperative period in cardiac surgery patients. The study included 60 patients agedf rom 40 to 65 years of age (20 patients in each group). The analgesia efficacy was evaluated with a 5-point verbal rating scale (VRS) for pain intensity and inspiratory lung capacity (ILC), measured with incentive spirometer. The safety of nefopam during early postoperative period in cardiac surgery patients was shown. The combination of nefopam and trimeperidine led to a more pronounced analgetic effect. Trimeperidine consumption was significantly lower in nefopam groups than in the group of isolated PCA. Wholly adverse effects were associated with trimeperidine and were dose-related The incidence of nausea, vomiting, dizziness, weakness, bowel paresis was significantly higher in isolated PCA group than in the other two groups.

  19. Physiological effects of nonthyroidal illness syndrome in patients after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Spratt, D I; Frohnauer, M; Cyr-Alves, H; Kramer, R S; Lucas, F L; Morton, J R; Cox, D F; Becker, K; Devlin, J T

    2007-07-01

    In a prospective randomized placebo-controlled study, we assessed potential physiological effects of nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) in acute illness. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery was employed as a prospective model of acute illness and NTIS. Triiodothyronine (T(3)) or placebo was infused for 24 h after surgery, with a T(3) dose selected to maintain postoperative serum T(3) concentrations at preoperative levels. Patients were evaluated before coronary artery bypass graft and during the postoperative period. Cardiovascular function was monitored with Swan-Ganz catheter measurements and ECG. Urinary nitrogen excretion and L-[1-(13)C]leucine flux were used to evaluate protein metabolism. Serum measurements of relevant hormones, iron, and total iron-binding capacity were used to assess effects on sex steroid, growth hormone axis, and iron responses to illness. Cardiovascular function was not affected by T(3) infusion, except for a transient higher cardiac index in the T(3) group 6 h after surgery (3.04 +/- 0.12 for T(3) and 2.53 +/- 0.08 for placebo, P = 0.0016). Protein metabolism was not affected; changes in urinary nitrogen excretion and L-[1-(13)C]leucine flux were equivalent in the two groups (P = 0.35 and P = 0.95, respectively). No differences were observed in changes in testosterone, estrogens, growth hormone, insulin-like growth hormone I, iron, or total iron-binding capacity between T(3) and placebo groups. We conclude that, in the early stages of major illness, the decrease in circulating T(3) concentrations in NTIS has only a minimal transient physiological impact on cardiac function and plays no significant role in protecting against protein catabolism or modulating other endocrine responses or iron responses to illness.

  20. Incidence, Predictors, and Clinical Outcomes of Postoperative Cardiac Tamponade in Patients Undergoing Heart Valve Surgery.

    PubMed

    You, Seng Chan; Shim, Chi Young; Hong, Geu-Ru; Kim, Darae; Cho, In Jeong; Lee, Sak; Chang, Hyuck-Jae; Ha, Jong-Won; Chang, Byung-Chul; Chung, Namsik

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the incidence, predictors, and clinical outcomes of cardiac tamponade after heart valve surgery. A total of 556 patients who underwent heart valve surgery in a single tertiary center between January 2010 and March 2012 were studied. All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) about 5 days after surgery and TTE was repeated regularly. Patients with suspected acute pericardial hemorrhage were excluded. Cardiac tamponade occurred in twenty-four (4.3%) patients and all underwent surgical or percutaneous pericardial drainage. The median time of pericardial drainage after surgery was 17 (interquartile range, IQR, 13-30) days. Infective endocarditis, mechanical valve replacement of aortic or mitral valve, and any amount of pericardial effusion (PE) on the first postoperative TTE were related to the occurrence of cardiac tamponade (all p<0.05). After multivariate adjustment, occurrence of cardiac tamponade was associated with any amount of PE on the first postoperative TTE (hazard ratio, HR, 14.00, p<0.001) and mechanical valve replacement (HR 2.69, p = 0.025). The mean hospital days in patients with cardiac tamponade was higher than those without (34.9 vs. 13.5, p = 0.031). After pericardial drainage, there was no echocardiographic recurrence of significant PE during a median of 34.8 (IQR 14.9-43.7) months after surgery. Cardiac tamponade after heart valve surgery is not uncommon. Patients with any amount of PE at the first postoperative TTE or mechanical valve replacement should receive higher attention with regard to the occurrence of cardiac tamponade. Although it prolongs hospital stay, cardiac tamponade exhibits a benign clinical course without recurrence after timely intervention.

  1. Incidence, Predictors, and Clinical Outcomes of Postoperative Cardiac Tamponade in Patients Undergoing Heart Valve Surgery

    PubMed Central

    You, Seng Chan; Shim, Chi Young; Hong, Geu-Ru; Kim, Darae; Cho, In Jeong; Lee, Sak; Chang, Hyuck-Jae; Ha, Jong-Won; Chang, Byung-Chul; Chung, Namsik

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the incidence, predictors, and clinical outcomes of cardiac tamponade after heart valve surgery. A total of 556 patients who underwent heart valve surgery in a single tertiary center between January 2010 and March 2012 were studied. All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) about 5 days after surgery and TTE was repeated regularly. Patients with suspected acute pericardial hemorrhage were excluded. Cardiac tamponade occurred in twenty-four (4.3%) patients and all underwent surgical or percutaneous pericardial drainage. The median time of pericardial drainage after surgery was 17 (interquartile range, IQR, 13–30) days. Infective endocarditis, mechanical valve replacement of aortic or mitral valve, and any amount of pericardial effusion (PE) on the first postoperative TTE were related to the occurrence of cardiac tamponade (all p<0.05). After multivariate adjustment, occurrence of cardiac tamponade was associated with any amount of PE on the first postoperative TTE (hazard ratio, HR, 14.00, p<0.001) and mechanical valve replacement (HR 2.69, p = 0.025). The mean hospital days in patients with cardiac tamponade was higher than those without (34.9 vs. 13.5, p = 0.031). After pericardial drainage, there was no echocardiographic recurrence of significant PE during a median of 34.8 (IQR 14.9–43.7) months after surgery. Cardiac tamponade after heart valve surgery is not uncommon. Patients with any amount of PE at the first postoperative TTE or mechanical valve replacement should receive higher attention with regard to the occurrence of cardiac tamponade. Although it prolongs hospital stay, cardiac tamponade exhibits a benign clinical course without recurrence after timely intervention. PMID:27855225

  2. Asymptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma in neonates: is surgery indicated?

    PubMed Central

    Etuwewe, B; John, CM; Abdelaziz, M

    2009-01-01

    Background Neonatal Tuberose sclerosis complex may be associated with symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyomas. Cardiac rhabdomyomas are the most common cardiac tumours. The symptoms include haemodynamic instability and life threatening arrhythmias usually requiring early surgical intervention. Results We report a case of a 32 week gestation newborn diagnosed with a right ventricular outflow tract mass and subsequently diagnosed with tuberose sclerosis that needed early surgical intervention. Conclusion While this case needed early intervention, the need for surgical intervention in otherwise asymptomatic cases is debatable as neonatal cardiac rhabdomyomas can spontaneously regress. PMID:22368553

  3. Effects of pulsatile perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass on biochemical markers and kidney function in patients undergoing cardiac surgeries.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh, Alireza; Jafari, Naser; Hasanpour, Mohammad; Sahandifar, Soheil; Ghafari, Masoud; Alaei, Vahed

    2013-01-01

    For several years there is no conclusive guideline on the effectiveness of pulsatile or non-pulsatile perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in patients undergoing cardiac surgeries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of pulsatile versus continuous perfusion on the myocardial release of the cardiac biochemical markers including, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), cardiac creatine kinase (CK-MB), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and also kidney function tests including: blood urea nitrogen test (BUN) and creatinine test (Cr) in patients that underwent both pulsatile and non-pulsatile methods before and after heart surgeries. A total of 80 patients were enrolled in this study, 40 patients in each pulsatile and non-pulsatile group. Venous blood samples were drown from each patient in two groups before operation and after operation at, 24, 48, and 72 h and analyzed separately for CPK, its cardiac isoenzyme (CK-MB), LDH, BUN and Cr. There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to preoperative parameters such as sex, age, and body surface area. Our study shows that the effect of pulsatile perfusion on cardiac and kidney function is better than the non-pulsatile method.

  4. Cangrelor in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: the BRIDGE study.

    PubMed

    Voeltz, Michele D; Manoukian, Steven V

    2013-07-01

    The benefit of long-term dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients with acute coronary syndromes, drug-eluting stents and those at high risk for thromboembolic events has been well established in a number of well-designed randomized controlled studies. Current research in this area has focused on the development of novel antiplatelet agents for clinical use. The BRIDGE trial evaluated the use of cangrelor as a bridge to coronary artery bypass graft surgery in patients receiving extended DAPT. The BRIDGE trial results confirm the efficacy and safety of cangrelor in this population. This study is novel as it attempts to address the lapse in thienopyridine therapy required for many surgical and invasive procedures. The future of antiplatelet agents, particularly cangrelor, must also focus on bridging for high-risk patients undergoing noncoronary artery bypass graft surgical procedures. Overall, the BRIDGE trial represents a significant advance for patients appropriate for long-term DAPT.

  5. Fish Oil and Atrial Fibrillation after Cardiac Surgery: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Wei; Wei, Wei; Lin, Zhiqin; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Yang, Hongxia; Zhang, Tao; Li, Bin; Mi, Shuhua

    2013-01-01

    Background Influence of fish oil supplementation on postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) was inconsistent according to published clinical trials. The aim of the meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of perioperative fish oil supplementation on the incidence of POAF after cardiac surgery. Methods Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library databases were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing perioperative fish oil supplementation for patients undergoing cardiac surgery were identified. Data concerning study design, patient characteristics, and outcomes were extracted. Risk ratio (RR) and weighted mean differences (WMD) were calculated using fixed or random effects models. Results Eight RCTs involving 2687 patients were included. Perioperative supplementation of fish oil did not significantly reduce the incidence of POAF (RR = 0.86, 95%CI 0.71 to 1.03, p = 0.11) or length of hospitalization after surgery (WMD = 0.10 days, 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.67 days, p = 0.75). Fish oil supplementation also did not affect the perioperative mortality, incidence of major bleeding or the length of stay in the intensive care unit. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses indicated mean DHA dose in the supplements may be a potential modifier for the effects of fish oil for POAF. For supplements with DHA >1 g/d, fish oil significantly reduced the incidence of POAF; while it did not for the supplements with a lower dose of DHA. Conclusions Current evidence did not support a preventative role of fish oil for POAF. However, relative amounts of DHA and EPA in fish oil may be important for the prevention of POAF. PMID:24039820

  6. Hemodynamic challenge to early mobilization after cardiac surgery: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Cassina, Tiziano; Putzu, Alessandro; Santambrogio, Luisa; Villa, Michele; Licker, Marc Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background: Active mobilization is a key component in fast-track surgical strategies. Following major surgery, clinicians are often reluctant to mobilize patients arguing that circulatory homeostasis would be impaired as a result of myocardial stunning, fluid shift, and autonomic dysfunction. Aims: We examined the feasibility and safety of a mobilization protocol 12–24 h after elective cardiac surgery. Setting and Design: This observational study was performed in a tertiary nonacademic cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit. Materials and Methods: Over a 6-month period, we prospectively evaluated the hemodynamic response to a two-staged mobilization procedure in 53 consecutive patients. Before, during, and after the mobilization, hemodynamics parameters were recorded, including the central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2), lactate concentrations, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), right atrial pressure (RAP), and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2). Any adverse events were documented. Results: All patients successfully completed the mobilization procedure. Compared with the supine position, mobilization induced significant increases in arterial lactate (34.6% [31.6%, 47.6%], P = 0.0022) along with reduction in RAP (−33% [−21%, −45%], P < 0.0001) and ScvO2 (−7.4% [−5.9%, −9.9%], P = 0.0002), whereas HR and SpO2 were unchanged. Eighteen patients (34%) presented a decrease in MAP > 10% and nine of them (17%) required treatment. Hypotensive patients experienced a greater decrease in ScvO2 (−18 ± 5% vs. −9 ± 4%, P = 0.004) with similar changes in RAP and HR. All hemodynamic parameters, but arterial lactate, recovered baseline values after resuming the horizontal position. Conclusions: Early mobilization after cardiac surgery appears to be a safe procedure as far as it is performed under close hemodynamic and clinical monitoring in an intensive care setting. PMID:27397446

  7. AANA Journal course: Update for nurse anesthetists--Part 4--preoperative cardiac evaluation.

    PubMed

    Halliburton, Bob; Bell, Donald; Preston, John

    2004-10-01

    This AANA Journal course discusses the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) guideline on perioperative cardiovascular evaluation for noncardiac surgery. The intent of the ACC/AHA guideline is to assist clinicians in clinical decision making by describing a range of generally acceptable approaches for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of cardiac diseases. Optimizing the anesthetic management of the cardiac patient undergoing noncardiac surgery is becoming increasingly important: as the percentage of Americans older than 65 years continues to grow, so does the prevalence of cardiac disease in this population. Simply accepting a preoperative cardiology clearance for the cardiac patient undergoing noncardiac surgery provides little information that can be used for risk assessment and management of anesthesia. While national practice patterns vary significantly, there is an important need to standardize cost-effective preoperative cardiac evaluation. By using evidence-based studies, the ACC/AHA guideline delineates methods to objectively categorize cardiovascular risk and use data from the cardiology consultation to refine anesthetic management. Use of the guideline can lead to more efficient evaluation of the noncardiac patient with cardiac disease, which can decrease morbidity, mortality, and cost.

  8. The relief of mitral stenosis. An historic step in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M N

    1996-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in cardiac surgery in the last 50 years. Mitral valve surgery (especially for the relief of mitral stenosis) has paralleled the innovations and trends of cardiac surgery and often has served as the benchmark of the latest procedures and techniques. A chronological survey of mitral valve surgery is presented, with emphasis on parallels to cardiac surgery in general and with highlights of key figures and events that have conclusively altered the surgeon's approach to and success with cardiac dysfunction. A few surgeons promulgated the idea of cardiac surgery in the late 19th century, but mitral valve surgeries were not performed in earnest until Souttar's and Cutler's initial attempts in the 1920s and were not successful on large groups of patients until Bailey and Harken made independent breakthroughs in the 1940s, finally laying to rest the idea of the "inviolable heart." Cardiopulmonary bypass provided cardiac surgeons with the time to implant mechanical and bioprosthetic valves for palliative benefit to patients. The "perfect" valve has yet to be found, but the Starr-Edwards mechanical valve since its inception in 1961 has been one of the most successful and widely used prosthetic valves. Gradual improvement in surgical technique and growing knowledge of valve function enabled the re-emergence of mitral valve repair in the 1980s as the preferred surgical method of treating mitral stenosis. In the last 10 years, mitral valve balloon dilation has provided a nonsurgical technique for relief of stenosis and represents the broader trend towards interventional techniques. Images PMID:8969024

  9. Continuous or discontinuous tranexamic acid effectively inhibits fibrinolysis in children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Roland; Rubatti, Marina; Credico, Carmen; Louvain-Quintard, Virginie; Anerkian, Vregina; Doubine, Sylvie; Vasse, Marc; Grassin-Delyle, Stanislas

    2014-04-01

    Tranexamic acid is given continuously or discontinuously as an anti-fibrinolytic therapy during cardiac surgery, but the effects on fibrinolysis parameters remain poorly investigated. We sought to assess the effects of continuous and discontinuous tranexamic acid on fibrinolysis parameters in children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Children requiring cardiac surgery or repeat surgery by sternotomy with CPB for congenital heart disease were randomized to receive either continuous or discontinuous tranexamic acid. Blood tranexamic acid, D-dimers, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), tPA-plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (tPA-PAI1) complexes, fibrinogen and fibrin monomers were measured and compared to values obtained from children who did not receive tranexamic acid. Tranexamic acid inhibited the CPB-induced increase in D-dimers, with a similar potency between continuous and discontinuous regimens. Time courses for tPA, fibrin monomers, and fibrinogen were also similar for both regimen, and there was a significant difference in tPA-PAI1 complex concentrations at the end of surgery, which may be related to a significantly higher tranexamic acid concentration. Continuous and discontinuous regimen are suitable for an effective inhibition of fibrinolysis in children undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB, but the continuous regimen was previously shown to be more effective to maintain stable tranexamic acid concentrations.

  10. Risk Factors Associated with Cognitive Decline after Cardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nikil; Minhas, Jatinder S.; Chung, Emma M. L.

    2015-01-01

    Modern day cardiac surgery evolved upon the advent of cardiopulmonary bypass machines (CPB) in the 1950s. Following this development, cardiac surgery in recent years has improved significantly. Despite such advances and the introduction of new technologies, neurological sequelae after cardiac surgery still exist. Ischaemic stroke, delirium, and cognitive impairment cause significant morbidity and mortality and unfortunately remain common complications. Postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) is believed to be associated with the presence of new ischaemic lesions originating from emboli entering the cerebral circulation during surgery. Cardiopulmonary bypass was thought to be the reason of POCD, but randomised controlled trials comparing with off-pump surgery show contradictory results. Attention has now turned to the growing evidence that perioperative risk factors, as well as patient-related risk factors, play an important role in early and late POCD. Clearly, identifying the mechanism of POCD is challenging. The purpose of this systematic review is to discuss the literature that has investigated patient and perioperative risk factors to better understand the magnitude of the risk factors associated with POCD after cardiac surgery. PMID:26491558

  11. [Pain scale: implementation for patients in the immediate postoperative period of cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Keller, Clarissa; Paixão, Adriana; Moraes, Maria Antonieta; Rabelo, Eneida Rejane; Goldmeier, Silvia

    2013-06-01

    A clinical intervention study was developed in a hospital specialized in cardiology in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the implementation of the pain scale in post-operative cardiac surgery patients. It was developed in four steps: pre-test on pain, training lecture for nursing staff, and, reapplication of the pre-test at 30 and 60 days. The test consisted of ten questions weighing one point each. Scores > or =7 were determined to represent satisfactory knowledge in using the pain scale. The sample consisted of 57 nursing professionals. The scores ranged from 6.12 +/- 1.65 in the pre-test to 7.73 +/- 1.05 and 8.18 +/- 0.99 after 30 and 60 days, respectively (p<0.005). Pain intensity was correlated to medication standardized by protocol. The training improved the knowledge of the team and the type of analgesia administered in relation to pain intensity.

  12. Low dose aprotinin and low dose tranexamic acid in elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Waldow, Thomas; Krutzsch, Diana; Wils, Michael; Plötze, Katrin; Matschke, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The antifibrinolytic agents aprotinin and tranexamic acid have both been proven to be efficient in reducing postoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients in cardiac surgery. In light of recent safety issues regarding aprotinin, this single-centre study compared efficacy and safety of low dose aprotinin (2 million KIU, pump-prime volume only) and low dose tranexamic acid (1 g, pump-prime volume) in 708 consecutive patients from two prospective registers undergoing elective cardiac procedures with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Incidences of postoperative complications showed no significant differences between groups. Postoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements were significantly lower in aprotinin compared to tranexamic acid patients. Overall, both antifibrinolytic low dose regimens are safe components of perioperative patient management in elective cardiac surgery with CPB. Cardiac procedures requiring longer CPB times might benefit from the administration of low dose aprotinin.

  13. [Important role of a nurse parctitioner-like specialized registered nurse in a cardiac surgery team].

    PubMed

    Izutani, Hironori

    2012-11-01

    Team medical practice by physician, nurse, and other co-medical staffs has been performed and it provides numerous values to the patients. Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare reported that a registered nurse was a key person of medicine. The importance of nurse's role expansion and involving medical cure by a registered nurse was emphasized in the report. Japanese nurse practitioner for a new profession is going to start in near future. In our institute, a specialized registered nurse has joined a cardiac surgery team. She plays an important role of assisting and consulting cardiac physicians for patient cure and care as a member of the surgery team. Cardiac surgery team including specialized registered nurse gives quality surgical results and patient satisfaction.

  14. Sickle cell anaemia and the consequences on the anaesthetic management of cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Mennes, I; Van de Velde, M; Missant, C

    2012-01-01

    A review of the available literature on genetics and pathophysiology of Sickle Cell Anaemia was performed with special emphasis on the intraoperative management during cardiac surgery. Hypoxia, acidosis and hypothermia have been identified as independent sickling provoking factors. Although no official guidelines on transfusion for Sickle Cell patients have been published, useful directives on preoperative transfusion could be derived from available data. Additionally, we bundled and reviewed the published expertise in the management of cardiopulmonary bypass and the necessity of hypothermia during cardiac surgery in Sickle Cell patients. Our conclusion is that the available data in case reports and case series on cardiac surgery in case of Sickle Cell Anaemia suggest a necessary preoperative or on bypass blood transfusion to guarantee an uncomplicated course of cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.

  15. Assessment of pain during rest and during activities in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    de Mello, Larissa Coelho; Rosatti, Silvio Fernando Castro; Hortense, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective to assess the intensity and site of pain after Cardiac Surgery through sternotomy during rest and while performing five activities. Method descriptive study with a prospective cohort design. A total of 48 individuals participated in the study. A Multidimensional Scale for Pain Assessment was used. Results postoperative pain from cardiac surgery was moderate during rest and decreased over time. Pain was also moderate during activities performed on the 1st and 2nd postoperative days and decreased from the 3rd postoperative day, with the exception of coughing, which diminished only on the 6th postoperative day. Coughing, turning over, deep breathing and rest are presented in decreased order of intensity. The region of the sternum was the most frequently reported site of pain. Conclusion the assessment of pain in the individuals who underwent cardiac surgery during rest and during activities is extremely important to adapt management and avoid postoperative complications and delayed surgical recovery. PMID:24553714

  16. Divine Love and Deep Connections: A Long-Term Followup of Patients Surviving Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Amy L.; Hall, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined experiencing divine love as an indicator of affective spiritual growth in a prospective cohort of 200 patients surviving cardiac surgery. These patients previously completed two-wave preoperative interviews when standardized cardiac surgery data were also collected. The information included left ventricular ejection fraction, New York Heart Association Classification, baseline health (physical and mental), optimism, hope, religiousness, prayer coping, religious/spiritual coping, and demographics. We then measured divine love at 900 days postoperatively. Hierarchical linear regression indicated the direct effect of positive religious coping on experiences of divine love, controlling for other key variables. Postoperatively perceived spiritual support was entered at the final step as an explanatory factor, which appeared to mediate the coping effect. None of the other faith factors predicted divine love. Further research regarding divine love and spiritual support may eventually guide clinical attempts to support patients' spiritual growth as an independently relevant outcome of cardiac surgery. PMID:21748012

  17. Excellent results of cardiac surgery in patients with previous liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Filsoufi, Farzan; Rahmanian, Parwis B; Castillo, Javier G; Karlof, Eva; Schiano, Thomas D; Adams, David H

    2007-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases requiring surgical therapy in patients with prior liver transplantation are rare. Little is known about the outcome of patients with liver allograft undergoing cardiac surgery. Herein we report our experience in this patient population with an emphasis on operative outcomes and mid-term survival. Between January 1998 and December 2004, 12 patients (mean +/- standard deviation age 68 +/- 9 years, 7 [58%] male) with previous liver transplantation who underwent cardiac surgery were identified. Main outcome measures were hospital mortality, postoperative complications, allograft function, and long-term survival. There was no in-hospital mortality. Three major complications (25%) occurred, including 1 each (8%) of respiratory failure, renal failure, and biliary leakage. All complications were resolved by the time of discharge. Allograft dysfunction determined by an increase of liver function parameters was noticed in 4 (33%) and recovered before discharge. The average length of stay in intensive care unit was 72 +/- 45 hours, and the mean length of stay in hospital was 22 +/- 17 days. One- and 5-year survival was 91% +/- 8% and 67% +/- 14%, respectively. Cardiac surgery can be performed safely in liver transplant recipients with extremely low mortality and acceptable morbidities. Allograft dysfunction is a common finding, but it is transient, with early functional recovery. Five-year survival of liver recipients undergoing cardiac procedures is similar to that of the general population undergoing cardiac surgery. Our data suggest that these patients should be considered for cardiac surgery in reference centers with expertise in complex cardiac procedures and perioperative management of these highly specific patients.

  18. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database: 2016 Update on Outcomes and Quality.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Richard S; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Badhwar, Vinay; Paone, Gaetano; Rankin, J Scott; Han, Jane M; McDonald, Donna; Shahian, David M

    2016-01-01

    The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Database is one of the longest-standing, largest, and most highly regarded clinical data registries in health care. It serves as the foundation for all quality measurement and improvement activities of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. This report summarizes current aggregate national outcomes in adult cardiac surgery and reviews database-related activities in the areas of quality measurement and performance improvement.

  19. Current approach to diagnosis and treatment of delirium after cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Adam S.; Weiner, Menachem M.; Arora, Rakesh C.; Chung, Insung; Deshpande, Ranjit; Varghese, Robin; Augoustides, John; Ramakrishna, Harish

    2016-01-01

    Delirium after cardiac surgery remains a common occurrence that results in significant short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. It continues to be underdiagnosed given its complex presentation and multifactorial etiology; however, its prevalence is increasing given the aging cardiac surgical population. This review highlights the perioperative risk factors, tools to assist in diagnosing delirium, and current pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapy options. PMID:27052077

  20. Cardiac surgery as a stressor and the response of the vulnerable older adult.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Iva; Arora, Rakesh C; Rudolph, James L

    2017-01-01

    In an aging population, recovery and restoration of function are critical to maintaining independence. Over the past 50years, there have been dramatic improvements made in cardiac surgery processes and outcomes that allow for procedures to be performed on an increasingly older population with the goal of improving function. Although improved function is possible, major surgical procedures are associated with substantial stress, which can severely impact outcomes. Past literature has identified that frail patients, who are vulnerable to the stress of surgery, are more likely to have postoperative major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (OR 4.9, 95% confidence interval 1.6, 14.6). The objective of this manuscript is to examine preoperative frailty in biological, psychological, and social domains using cardiac surgery to induce stress. We systematically searched PubMed for keywords including "cardiac surgery, frailty, and aged" in addition to the biological, psychological, and social keywords. In the biological domain, we examine the association of physiological and physical vulnerabilities, as well as, the impact of comorbidities and inflammation on negative surgical outcomes. In the psychological domain, the impact of cognitive impairment, depression, and anxiety as vulnerabilities were examined. In the social domain, social structure, coping, disparities, and addiction as vulnerabilities are described. Importantly, there is substantial overlap in the domains of vulnerability. While frailty research has largely focused on discrete physical vulnerability criteria, a broader definition of frailty demonstrates that vulnerabilities in biological, psychological, and social domains can limit recovery after the stress of cardiac surgery. Identification of vulnerability in these domains can allow better understanding of the risks of cardiac surgery and tailoring of interventions to improve outcomes.

  1. Monitoring of regional lung ventilation using electrical impedance tomography after cardiac surgery in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Krause, Ulrich; Becker, Kristin; Hahn, Günter; Dittmar, Jörg; Ruschewski, Wolfgang; Paul, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a noninvasive method to monitor regional lung ventilation in infants and children without using radiation. The objective of this prospective study was to determine the value of EIT as an additional monitoring tool to assess regional lung ventilation after pediatric cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease in infants and children. EIT monitoring was performed in a prospective study comprising 30 pediatric patients who were mechanically ventilated after cardiac surgery. Data were analyzed off-line with respect to regional lung ventilation in different clinical situations. EIT data were correlated with respirator settings and arterial carbon dioxide (CO2) partial pressure in the blood. In 29 of 30 patients, regional ventilation of the lung could sufficiently and reliably be monitored by means of EIT. The effects of the transition from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous breathing after extubation on regional lung ventilation were studied. After extubation, a significant decrease of relative impedance changes was evident. In addition, a negative correlation of arterial CO2 partial pressure and relative impedance changes could be shown. EIT was sufficient to discriminate differences of regional lung ventilation in children and adolescents after cardiac surgery. EIT reliably provided additional information on regional lung ventilation in children after cardiac surgery. Neither chest tubes nor pacemaker wires nor the intensive care unit environment interfered with the application of EIT. EIT therefore may be used as an additional real-time monitoring tool in pediatric cardiac intensive care because it is noninvasive.

  2. Teamwork, communication, formula-one racing and the outcomes of cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Merry, Alan F; Weller, Jennifer; Mitchell, Simon J

    2014-03-01

    Most cardiac units achieve excellent results today, but the risk of cardiac surgery is still relatively high, and avoidable harm is common. The story of the Green Lane Cardiothoracic Unit provides an exemplar of excellence, but also illustrates the challenges associated with changes over time and with increases in the size of a unit and the complexity of practice today. The ultimate aim of cardiac surgery should be the best outcomes for (often very sick) patients rather than an undue focus on the prevention of error or adverse events. Measurement is fundamental to improving quality in health care, and the framework of structure, process, and outcome is helpful in considering how best to achieve this. A combination of outcomes (including some indicators of important morbidity) with key measures of process is advocated. There is substantial evidence that failures in teamwork and communication contribute to inefficiency and avoidable harm in cardiac surgery. Minor events are as important as major ones. Six approaches to improving teamwork (and hence outcomes) in cardiac surgery are suggested. These are: 1) subspecialize and replace tribes with teams; 2) sort out the leadership while flattening the gradients of authority; 3) introduce explicit training in effective communication; 4) use checklists, briefings, and debriefings and engage in the process; 5) promote a culture of respect alongside a commitment to excellence and a focus on patients; 6) focus on the performance of the team, not on individuals.

  3. A review of topical hemostatic agents for use in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Barnard, James; Millner, Russell

    2009-10-01

    Postoperative hemorrhage, redo sternotomy for bleeding, and transfusion of blood products are all associated with poorer outcomes in cardiac surgery. Topical hemostatic agents are important adjuncts to reduce blood loss after cardiac surgery and can have a role in reducing both "surgical" and "nonsurgical bleeding." There are many topical hemostatic agents to choose from, and with several new products in this field being approved for use in the last few years, the aim of this review is to appraise these agents and to look at the evidence for their efficacy.

  4. External validation of the Revised Cardiac Risk Index and update of its renal variable to predict 30-day risk of major cardiac complications after non-cardiac surgery: rationale and plan for analyses of the VISION study

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Michael; Devereaux, P J; MacNeil, S Danielle; Lam, Ngan N; Hildebrand, Ainslie M; Acedillo, Rey R; Mrkobrada, Marko; Chow, Clara K; Lee, Vincent W; Thabane, Lehana; Garg, Amit X

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) is a popular classification system to estimate patients' risk of postoperative cardiac complications based on preoperative risk factors. Renal impairment, defined as serum creatinine >2.0 mg/dL (177 µmol/L), is a component of the RCRI. The estimated glomerular filtration rate has become accepted as a more accurate indicator of renal function. We will externally validate the RCRI in a modern cohort of patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery and update its renal component. Methods and analysis The Vascular Events in Non-cardiac Surgery Patients Cohort Evaluation (VISION) study is an international prospective cohort study. In this prespecified secondary analysis of VISION, we will test the risk estimation performance of the RCRI in ∼34 000 participants who underwent elective non-cardiac surgery between 2007 and 2013 from 29 hospitals in 15 countries. Using data from the first 20 000 eligible participants (the derivation set), we will derive an optimal threshold for dichotomising preoperative renal function quantified using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-Epi) glomerular filtration rate estimating equation in a manner that preserves the original structure of the RCRI. We will also develop a continuous risk estimating equation integrating age and CKD-Epi with existing RCRI risk factors. In the remaining (approximately) 14 000 participants, we will compare the risk estimation for cardiac complications of the original RCRI to this modified version. Cardiac complications will include 30-day non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal cardiac arrest and death due to cardiac causes. We have examined an early sample to estimate the number of events and the distribution of predictors and missing data, but have not seen the validation data at the time of writing. Ethics and dissemination The research ethics board at each site approved the VISION protocol prior to recruitment. We will

  5. Revisiting blood transfusion and predictors of outcome in cardiac surgery patients: a concise perspective

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Morales, Carlos E; Stoicea, Nicoleta; Gonzalez-Zacarias, Alicia A; Slawski, Diana; Bhandary, Sujatha P.; Saranteas, Theodosios; Kaminiotis, Eva; Papadimos, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    In the United States, cardiac surgery-related blood transfusion rates reached new highs in 2010, with 34% of patients receiving blood products. Patients undergoing both complex (coronary artery bypass grafting [CABG] plus valve repair or replacement) and non-complex (isolated CABG) cardiac surgeries are likely to have comorbidities such as anemia. Furthermore, the majority of patients undergoing isolated CABG have a history of myocardial infarction. These characteristics may increase the risk of complications and blood transfusion requirement. It becomes difficult to demonstrate the association between transfusions and mortality because of the fact that most patients undergoing cardiac surgery are also critically ill. Transfusion rates remain high despite the advances in perioperative blood conservation, such as the intraoperative use of cell saver in cardiac surgery. Some recent prospective studies have suggested that the use of blood products, even in low-risk patients, may adversely affect clinical outcomes. In light of this information, we reviewed the literature to assess the clinical outcomes in terms of 30-day and 1-year morbidity and mortality in transfused patients who underwent uncomplicated CABG surgery. PMID:28299184

  6. Public Perception of the Concentration of Cardiac and Cerebrovascular Surgery to Metropolitan Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Hoon; Lee, Kun Sei; Jeong, Hyo Seon; Ahn, Hye Mi; Oh, Gyung-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Background This study investigates the perception of the general public regarding the concentration to metropolitan, hospitals of cardiac and cerebrovascular surgeries, and the perceived public need for government policies to resolve this issue. Methods A total of 800 participants were recruited for our telephone interview survey. Quota sampling was performed, adjusting for age and sex, to select by various geographic regions. Sampling with random digit dialing was performed; we called the randomly generated telephone numbers and made three attempts for non-responders before moving on to a different telephone number. Results Our sample population was 818 participants, 401 men (49.0%) and 417 women (51.0%). Our data showed that 85.5% of participants thought that cardiac surgery and neurosurgery patients are concentrated in large hospitals in Seoul. The principle reason for regional patients to want to receive surgery at major hospitals in Seoul was because of poor medical standards associated with regional hospitals (87.7%). We found that a vast majority of participants (97.5%) felt that government policies are needed to even out the clustering of cardiac surgery and neurosurgery patients, and that this clustering may be alleviated if policies that can specifically enhance the quality and the capacity of regional hospitals to carry out surgeries are adopted (98.3%). Conclusion Government policy making must reflect public desiderata, and we suggest that these public health needs may be partially resolved through government-designated cardiac and neurosurgery specialist hospitals in regional areas. PMID:28035297

  7. Variation in Tracheal Reintubations Among Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery Across Washington State Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Nita; Dale, Christopher R.; Benkeser, David C.; Joffe, Aaron M.; Yanez, N. David; Treggiari, Miriam M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients requiring endotracheal reintubation have higher mortality, increased hospital length of stay and costs. To our knowledge, little is known about the variation in reintubation across hospitals among patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Objectives The objectives of this study were to: (1) Examine the variation in reintubations across Washington State hospitals that perform cardiac surgery, and (2) Explore hospital and patient characteristics associated with variation in reintubation. Design Retrospective cohort study Setting All non-federal hospitals performing cardiac surgery in Washington State Participants 15,103 patients undergoing CABG or valvular surgery between January 1, 2008 and September 30, 2011 Measurements and Main Results Patient and hospital characteristics were compared between hospitals that had a reintubation frequency ≥ 5% or < 5%. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare the odds of reintubation across the hospitals. We tested for heterogeneity of odds of reintubation across hospitals by performing a likelihood ratio test on the hospital factor. After adjusting for patient-level characteristics and procedure type, significant heterogeneity in reintubations across hospitals was present (p=0.005). Our exploratory analyses suggested that hospitals with lower reintubations were more likely to have greater acute care days and teaching ICUs. Conclusions After accounting for patient and procedure characteristics, significant heterogeneity in the relative odds of requiring reintubation was present across 16 non-federal hospitals performing cardiac surgery in Washington State. Our findings suggest that greater hospital volume and ICU teaching status are associated with less reintubations. PMID:25802193

  8. Revisiting blood transfusion and predictors of outcome in cardiac surgery patients: a concise perspective.

    PubMed

    Arias-Morales, Carlos E; Stoicea, Nicoleta; Gonzalez-Zacarias, Alicia A; Slawski, Diana; Bhandary, Sujatha P; Saranteas, Theodosios; Kaminiotis, Eva; Papadimos, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    In the United States, cardiac surgery-related blood transfusion rates reached new highs in 2010, with 34% of patients receiving blood products. Patients undergoing both complex (coronary artery bypass grafting [CABG] plus valve repair or replacement) and non-complex (isolated CABG) cardiac surgeries are likely to have comorbidities such as anemia. Furthermore, the majority of patients undergoing isolated CABG have a history of myocardial infarction. These characteristics may increase the risk of complications and blood transfusion requirement. It becomes difficult to demonstrate the association between transfusions and mortality because of the fact that most patients undergoing cardiac surgery are also critically ill. Transfusion rates remain high despite the advances in perioperative blood conservation, such as the intraoperative use of cell saver in cardiac surgery. Some recent prospective studies have suggested that the use of blood products, even in low-risk patients, may adversely affect clinical outcomes. In light of this information, we reviewed the literature to assess the clinical outcomes in terms of 30-day and 1-year morbidity and mortality in transfused patients who underwent uncomplicated CABG surgery.

  9. The role of three-dimensional visualization in robotics-assisted cardiac surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Maria; Trejos, Ana Luisa; Rayman, Reiza; Chu, Michael W. A.; Patel, Rajni; Peters, Terry; Kiaii, Bob

    2012-02-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three-dimensional (3D) versus two-dimensional (2D) visualization on the amount of force applied to mitral valve tissue during robotics-assisted mitral valve annuloplasty, and the time to perform the procedure in an ex vivo animal model. In addition, we examined whether these effects are consistent between novices and experts in robotics-assisted cardiac surgery. Methods: A cardiac surgery test-bed was constructed to measure forces applied by the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) during mitral valve annuloplasty. Both experts and novices completed roboticsassisted mitral valve annuloplasty with 2D and 3D visualization. Results: The mean time for both experts and novices to suture the mitral valve annulus and to tie sutures using 3D visualization was significantly less than that required to suture the mitral valve annulus and to tie sutures using 2D vision (p∠0.01). However, there was no significant difference in the maximum force applied by novices to the mitral valve during suturing (p = 0.3) and suture tying (p = 0.6) using either 2D or 3D visualization. Conclusion: This finding suggests that 3D visualization does not fully compensate for the absence of haptic feedback in robotics-assisted cardiac surgery. Keywords: Robotics-assisted surgery, visualization, cardiac surgery

  10. Prophylactic furosemide infusion decreasing early major postoperative renal dysfunction in on-pump adult cardiac surgery: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Fakhari, Solmaz; Bavil, Fariba Mirzaei; Bilehjani, Eissa; Abolhasani, Sona; Mirinazhad, Moussa; Naghipour, Bahman

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Acute renal dysfunction is a common complication of cardiac surgery. Furosemide is used in prevention, or treatment, of acute renal dysfunction. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of intra- and early postoperative furosemide infusion on preventing acute renal dysfunction in elective adult cardiac surgery. Methods Eighty-one patients, candidates of elective cardiac surgery, were enrolled in this study in either the furosemide (n=41) or placebo (n=40) group. Furosemide (2 mg/h) or 0.9% saline was administered and continued up to 12 hours postoperatively. We measured serum creatinine (Scr) at preoperative and on the second and fifth postoperative days. Then calculated estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at these times. An increase in Scr of >0.5 mg/dL and/or >25%–50%, compared to preoperative values, was considered as acute kidney injury (AKI). In contrast, an increase in Scr by >50% and/or the need for hemodialysis was regarded as acute renal failure (ARF). At the end we compared the AKI or ARF incidence between the two groups. Results On the second and fifth postoperative days, Scr was lower, and the eGFR was higher in the furosemide group. AKI incidence was similar in the two groups (11 vs 12 cases; P-value 0.622); however, ARF rate was lower in furosemide group (1 vs 6 cases; P-value 0.044). During the study period, Scr was more stable in the furosemide group, however in the placebo group, Scr initially increased and then decreased to its preoperative value after a few days. Conclusion This study showed that intra- and early postoperative furosemide infusion has a renal protective effect in adult cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Although this protective effect cannot be discovered in mild renal dysfunctions, it apparently reduces the rate of the more severe renal dysfunctions. A more multidisciplinary strategy may be needed in reducing the milder renal damage. PMID:28176949

  11. Stroke after cardiac surgery in a patient with Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Alyas P; Schwartz, Carl; Singh, Arun K

    2007-01-01

    Patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome have a high incidence of congenital heart disease that requires open-heart surgery. These patients may have gene deletions that affect cholesterol homeostasis, although no previous association has been made with premature atherosclerosis. Herein, we report a case of such a patient, who experienced a stroke after cardiac surgery because of what we believe to be premature intracerebral atherosclerosis.

  12. Effects of remote ischemic preconditioning in high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery (Remote IMPACT): a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Michael; Whitlock, Richard; Garg, Amit X.; Légaré, Jean-François; Duncan, Andra E.; Zimmerman, Robert; Miller, Scott; Fremes, Stephen; Kieser, Teresa; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Chan, Matthew; Ho, Anthony; Nasr, Vivian; Vincent, Jessica; Ali, Imtiaz; Lavi, Ronit; Sessler, Daniel I.; Kramer, Robert; Gardner, Jeff; Syed, Summer; VanHelder, Tomas; Guyatt, Gordon; Rao-Melacini, Purnima; Thabane, Lehana; Devereaux, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Remote ischemic preconditioning is a simple therapy that may reduce cardiac and kidney injury. We undertook a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of this therapy on markers of heart and kidney injury after cardiac surgery. Methods: Patients at high risk of death within 30 days after cardiac surgery were randomly assigned to undergo remote ischemic preconditioning or a sham procedure after induction of anesthesia. The preconditioning therapy was three 5-minute cycles of thigh ischemia, with 5 minutes of reperfusion between cycles. The sham procedure was identical except that ischemia was not induced. The primary outcome was peak creatine kinase–myocardial band (CK-MB) within 24 hours after surgery (expressed as multiples of the upper limit of normal, with log transformation). The secondary outcome was change in creatinine level within 4 days after surgery (expressed as log-transformed micromoles per litre). Patient-important outcomes were assessed up to 6 months after randomization. Results: We randomly assigned 128 patients to remote ischemic preconditioning and 130 to the sham therapy. There were no significant differences in postoperative CK-MB (absolute mean difference 0.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.07 to 0.36) or creatinine (absolute mean difference 0.06, 95% CI −0.10 to 0.23). Other outcomes did not differ significantly for remote ischemic preconditioning relative to the sham therapy: for myocardial infarction, relative risk (RR) 1.35 (95% CI 0.85 to 2.17); for acute kidney injury, RR 1.10 (95% CI 0.68 to 1.78); for stroke, RR 1.02 (95% CI 0.34 to 3.07); and for death, RR 1.47 (95% CI 0.65 to 3.31). Interpretation: Remote ischemic precnditioning did not reduce myocardial or kidney injury during cardiac surgery. This type of therapy is unlikely to substantially improve patient-important outcomes in cardiac surgery. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT01071265. PMID:26668200

  13. Determinants of prolonged intensive care unit stay in patients after cardiac surgery: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Kapadohos, Theodore; Angelopoulos, Epameinondas; Vasileiadis, Ioannis; Nanas, Serafeim; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Karabinis, Andreas; Marathias, Katerina

    2017-01-01

    Background Prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay of patients after cardiac surgery has a major impact on overall cost and resource utilization. The aim of this study was to identify perioperative factors which prolong stay in ICU. Methods All adult patients from a single, specialized cardiac center who were admitted to the ICU after cardiac surgery during a 2-month period were included. Demographic and clinical characteristics, comorbidities, preoperative use of drugs, intraoperative variables, and postoperative course were recorded. Hemodynamic and blood gas measurements were recorded at four time intervals during the first 24 postoperative hours. Routine hematologic and biochemical laboratory results were recorded preoperatively and in the first postoperative hours. Results During the study period 145 adult patients underwent cardiac surgery: 65 (45%) underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery, 38 (26%) valve surgery, 26 (18%) combined surgery and 16 (11%) other types of cardiac operation. Seventy nine (54%) patients had an ICU stay of less than 24 hours. Random forests analysis identified four variables that had a major impact on the length of stay (LOS) in ICU; these variables were subsequently entered in a logistic regression model: preoperative hemoglobin [odds ratio (OR) =0.68], duration of aortic clamping (OR =1.01) and ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to inspired oxygen fraction (PaO2/FiO2) (OR =0.99) and blood glucose during the first four postoperative hours (OR =1.02). ROC curve analysis showed an AUC =0.79, P<0.001, 95% CI: 0.71–0.86. Conclusions Low preoperative hemoglobin, prolonged aortic clamping time and low PaO2/FiO2 ratio and blood glucose measured within the first postoperative hours, were strongly related with prolonged LOS in ICU. PMID:28203408

  14. Cardiac surgery in Germany during 2012: a report on behalf of the German Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Andreas; Funkat, Anne-Kathrin; Lewandowski, Jana; Frie, Michael; Schiller, Wolfgang; Hekmat, Khosro; Gummert, Jan F; Mohr, Friedrich Wilhelm

    2014-02-01

    On the basis of a voluntary registry of the German Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (GSTCVS), data of all cardiac surgical procedures performed in 79 German cardiac surgical units during the year 2012 are presented. In 2012, a total of 98,792 cardiac surgical procedures (ICD and pacemaker procedures excluded) were submitted to the registry. More than 13.8% of the patients were older than 80 years, which is a further increase in comparison to previous years. In-hospital mortality in 42,060 isolated coronary artery bypass grafting procedures (84.6% on-pump and 15.4% off-pump) was 2.9%. In 28,521 isolated valve procedures (including 6,804 catheter-based procedures), an in-hospital mortality of 4.8% was observed. This long-lasting registry of the GSTCVS will continue to be an important tool for quality control and voluntary public reporting by illustrating current facts and developments of cardiac surgery in Germany.

  15. Major cardiac surgery induces an increase in sex steroids in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Heckmann, Matthias; d'Uscio, Claudia H; de Laffolie, Jan; Neuhaeuser, Christoph; Bödeker, Rolf-Hasso; Thul, Josef; Schranz, Dietmar; Frey, Brigitte M

    2014-03-01

    While the neuroprotective benefits of estrogen and progesterone in critical illness are well established, the data regarding the effects of androgens are conflicting. Surgical repair of congenital heart disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, but there are scant data regarding the postoperative metabolism of sex steroids in this setting. The objective of this prospective observational study was to compare the postoperative sex steroid patterns in pediatric patients undergoing major cardiac surgery (MCS) versus those undergoing less intensive non-cardiac surgery. Urinary excretion rates of estrogen, progesterone, and androgen metabolites (μg/mmol creatinine/m(2) body surface area) were determined in 24-h urine samples before and after surgery using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in 29 children undergoing scheduled MCS and in 17 control children undergoing conventional non-cardiac surgery. Eight of the MCS patients had Down's syndrome. There were no significant differences in age, weight, or sex between the groups. Seven patients from the MCS group showed multi-organ dysfunction after surgery. Before surgery, the median concentrations of 17β-estradiol, pregnanediol, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were (control/MCS) 0.1/0.1 (NS), 12.4/11.3 (NS), 4.7/4.4 (NS), and 2.9/1.1 (p=0.02). Postoperatively, the median delta 17β-estradiol, delta pregnanediol, delta DHT, and delta DHEA were (control/MCS) 0.2/6.4 (p=0.0002), -3.2/23.4 (p=0.013), -0.6/3.7 (p=0.0004), and 0.5/4.2 (p=0.004). Postoperative changes did not differ according to sex. We conclude that MCS, but not less intensive non-cardiac surgery, induced a distinct postoperative increase in sex steroid levels. These findings suggest that sex steroids have a role in postoperative metabolism following MCS in prepubertal children.

  16. SvO2 Trigger in Transfusion Strategy After Cardiac Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Undergoing Nonemergent Cardiac Surgery; Central Venous Catheter on the Superior Vena Cava (to Perform ScVO2 Measure); Anemia (<9g/dL) Requiring Blood Transfusion; Hemodynamic and Respiratory Stability; Bleeding Graded as Insignificant, Mild, Moderate of Universal Definition of Perioperative Bleeding

  17. [Neurological disorders after cardiac surgery: Diagnosis of cerebral tumors in the postoperative period].

    PubMed

    López Álvarez, A; Rodríguez Fernández, P; Román Fernández, A; Filgueira Dávila, E; Gálvez Gómez, D; González Monzón, V

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of neurologic disorders in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery is high and usually due to a combination of pre- and intraoperative factors. We present 2 patients with brain tumors diagnosed in the immediate postoperative period after sudden onset of neurologic dysfunction. Image studies yielded clinically useful information in these 2 cases.

  18. Inspiratory Muscle Training and Functional Capacity in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, André Luiz Lisboa; de Melo, Thiago Araújo; Neves, Daniela; Luna, Julianne; Esquivel, Mateus Souza; Guimarães, André Raimundo França; Borges, Daniel Lago; Petto, Jefferson

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cardiac surgery is a highly complex procedure which generates worsening of lung function and decreased inspiratory muscle strength. The inspiratory muscle training becomes effective for muscle strengthening and can improve functional capacity. Objective To investigate the effect of inspiratory muscle training on functional capacity submaximal and inspiratory muscle strength in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods This is a clinical randomized controlled trial with patients undergoing cardiac surgery at Instituto Nobre de Cardiologia. Patients were divided into two groups: control group and training. Preoperatively, were assessed the maximum inspiratory pressure and the distance covered in a 6-minute walk test. From the third postoperative day, the control group was managed according to the routine of the unit while the training group underwent daily protocol of respiratory muscle training until the day of discharge. Results 50 patients, 27 (54%) males were included, with a mean age of 56.7±13.9 years. After the analysis, the training group had significant increase in maximum inspiratory pressure (69.5±14.9 vs. 83.1±19.1 cmH2O, P=0.0073) and 6-minute walk test (422.4±102.8 vs. 502.4±112.8 m, P=0.0031). Conclusion We conclude that inspiratory muscle training was effective in improving functional capacity submaximal and inspiratory muscle strength in this sample of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:27556313

  19. Private Prayer and Optimism in Middle-Aged and Older Patients Awaiting Cardiac Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ai, Amy L.; Peterson, Christopher; Bolling, Steven F.; Koenig, Harold

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the use of private prayer among middle-aged and older patients as a way of coping with cardiac surgery and prayer's relationship to optimism. Design and Methods: The measure of prayer included three aspects: (a) belief in the importance of private prayer, (b) faith in the efficacy of prayer on the basis of previous…

  20. Comparison of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Parasternal Block for Postoperative Pain Management after Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Nilgun Kavrut; Baki, Elif Dogan; Kavakli, Ali Sait; Sahin, Ayca Sultan; Ayoglu, Raif Umut; Karaveli, Arzu; Emmiler, Mustafa; Inanoglu, Kerem; Karsli, Bilge

    2016-01-01

    Background. Parasternal block and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) have been demonstrated to produce effective analgesia and reduce postoperative opioid requirements in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of TENS and parasternal block on early postoperative pain after cardiac surgery. Methods. One hundred twenty patients undergoing cardiac surgery were enrolled in the present randomized, controlled prospective study. Patients were assigned to three treatment groups: parasternal block, intermittent TENS application, or a control group. Results. Pain scores recorded 4 h, 5 h, 6 h, 7 h, and 8 h postoperatively were lower in the parasternal block group than in the TENS and control groups. Total morphine consumption was also lower in the parasternal block group than in the TENS and control groups. It was also significantly lower in the TENS group than in the control group. There were no statistical differences among the groups regarding the extubation time, rescue analgesic medication, length of intensive care unit stay, or length of hospital stay. Conclusions. Parasternal block was more effective than TENS in the management of early postoperative pain and the reduction of opioid requirements in patients who underwent cardiac surgery through median sternotomy. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov number NCT02725229.

  1. Nursing assistance at the hospital discharge after cardiac surgery: integrative review

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Daniela Fraga; Marques, Patrícia Figueiredo

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to analyze the available evidence in the literature on nursing care in the hospital post-cardiac surgery. Data were collected from electronic databases LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, via DeCS thoracic surgery, hospital, nursing care, in the period 2001 to 2011. Ten articles were selected that showed the need to develop a plan of nursing discharge focusing on prevention of complications and coping with physical limitations resulting from heart surgery. Thus, the discharge should be considered from the time of admission, with carefully planned actions involving patient and family. PMID:24598961

  2. Novel hemostatic patch achieves sutureless epicardial wound closure during complex cardiac surgery, a case report.

    PubMed

    Jainandunsing, Jayant S; Al-Ansari, Sali; Woltersom, Bozena D; Scheeren, Thomas W L; Natour, Ehsan

    2015-01-27

    Treatment of damaged cardiac tissue in patients with high bleeding tendency can be very challenging, damaged myocardial tissue has a high rupture risk when being sutured subsequently on-going bleeding is a major risk factor for poor clinical outcome. We present a case demonstrating the feasibility in using a novel haemostatic collagen sponge for the management of a myocardial wound. This report is the first description in cardiac surgery where Hemopatch sponges are used to successfully seal a left ventricle wound. Our patient was diagnosed with endocarditis, had a low pre-operative haemoglobin count and underwent cardiac surgery for multiple valve repairs. The procedure was performed on cardiopulmonary bypass, which meant our patient had to be heparinized. Despite these major risk factors for bleeding Hemopatch managed to contain bleeding and seal the wound, no sutures were needed.

  3. Peri-operative Levosimendan in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: An Overview of the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Shi, William Y; Li, Sheila; Collins, Nicholas; Cottee, David B; Bastian, Bruce C; James, Allen N; Mejia, Ross

    2015-07-01

    Levosimendan, a calcium sensitiser, has recently emerged as a valuable agent in the peri-operative management of cardiac surgery patients. Levosimendan is a calcium-sensitising ionodilator. By binding to cardiac troponin C and reducing its calcium-binding co-efficient, it enhances myofilament responsiveness to calcium and thus enhances myocardial contractility without increasing oxygen demand. Current evidence suggests that levosimendan enhances cardiac function after cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with both normal and reduced left ventricular function. In addition to being used as post-operative rescue therapy for low cardiac output syndrome, a pre-operative levosimendan infusion in high risk patients with poor cardiac function may reduce inotropic requirements, the need for mechanical support, the duration of intensive care admissions as well as post-operative mortality. Indeed, it is these higher-risk patients who may experience a greater degree of benefit. Larger, multicentre randomised trials in cardiac surgery will help to elucidate the full potential of this agent.

  4. Brain responses to cardiac electrical stimulation: a new EEG method for evaluating cardiac sensation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideaki; Hirose, Masanori; Watanabe, Satoshi; Fukuda, Koji; Fukudo, Shin; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Although cardiac sensation, such as palpitation or chest pain, is common and is sometimes a malignant sign of heart diseases, the mechanism by which the human brain responds to afferent signals from the heart remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether electrical stimulation of the heart provokes brain responses in humans. We examined 15 patients (age: 65.4 ± 3.1 years old, 11 males and 4 females) implanted with either a cardiac pacemaker or cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was simultaneously recorded from the vertex during right ventricular pacing at 70-100 beats/min at baseline (1.5 V) and intense (6-8 V) stimulation sessions. We evaluated brain responses to cardiac electrical stimulation by measuring cerebral potentials that were obtained by subtracting the average of 100 EEG waves triggered by cardiac pacing during baseline stimulation from those during the intense stimulation. Intense stimulation of the cardiac pacemaker or CRT device reproducibly induced cardiac sensation in 6 out of the 15 patients; namely, the remaining 9 patients showed no reproducible response. Brain responses were evident by averaging cerebral potentials from all of the 15 patients and those from 6 patients with reproducible cardiac sensation. To the best our knowledge, this is the first report that demonstrates the brain responses to cardiac electrical stimulation in humans. This new method should be useful for examining pathophysiology of cardiac diseases with pathological cardiac sensation, including cardiac anxiety and silent myocardial ischemia.

  5. Cardiac safety in vascular access surgery and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Malik, Jan; Kudlicka, Jaroslav; Tesar, Vladimir; Linhart, Ales

    2015-01-01

    More than 50% of all end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients die from cardiovascular complications. Among them, heart failure and pulmonary hypertension play a major role, and published studies document significantly higher mortality rates in patients with these two states. Arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) and arteriovenous grafts (AVG) are the preferred types of vascular access (VA). However, both AVF and AVG increase cardiac output and in turn could contribute to (the decompensation of) heart failure or pulmonary hypertension. No really safe access flow volume exists, and the ESRD patients' reactions to it vary considerably. We review the mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular consequences of increased cardiac output and available literary data. The link between access flow volume and increased mortality due to pulmonary hypertension or heart failure probably exists, but still has not been directly evidenced. Regular echocardiography is advisable especially in patients with symptoms or with high VA flow (>1,500 ml/min).

  6. Cost-utility analysis of cardiac rehabilitation after conventional heart valve surgery versus usual care.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Tina Birgitte; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe; Berg, Selina Kikkenborg; Sibilitz, Kirstine Lærum; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Kjellberg, Jakob; Doherty, Patrick; Oldridge, Neil; Søgaard, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    Background While cardiac rehabilitation in patients with ischaemic heart disease and heart failure is considered cost-effective, this evidence may not be transferable to heart valve surgery patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the cost-effectiveness of cardiac rehabilitation following heart valve surgery. Design We conducted a cost-utility analysis based on a randomised controlled trial of 147 patients who had undergone heart valve surgery and were followed for 6 months. Methods Patients were randomised to cardiac rehabilitation consisting of 12 weeks of physical exercise training and monthly psycho-educational consultations or to usual care. Costs were measured from a societal perspective and quality-adjusted life years were based on the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D). Estimates were presented as means and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on bootstrapping. Costs and effect differences were presented in a cost-effectiveness plane and were transformed into net benefit and presented in cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Results No statistically significant differences were found in total societal costs (-1609 Euros; 95% CI: -6162 to 2942 Euros) or in quality-adjusted life years (-0.000; 95% CI -0.021 to 0.020) between groups. However, approximately 70% of the cost and effect differences were located below the x-axis in the cost-effectiveness plane, and the cost-effectiveness acceptability curves showed that the probability for cost- effectiveness of cardiac rehabilitation compared to usual care is at minimum 75%, driven by a tendency towards costs savings. Conclusions Cardiac rehabilitation after heart valve surgery may not have improved health-related quality of life in this study, but is likely to be cost-effective for society, outweighing the extra costs of cardiac rehabilitation.

  7. Safety advantage of modified minimally invasive cardiac surgery for pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Keisuke; Matsushita, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Shiori; Tambara, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Taira; Morita, Terumasa; Inaba, Hirotaka; Kuwaki, Kenji; Amano, Atsushi

    2013-03-01

    Minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) using a small surgical incision in children provides less physical stress. However, concern about safety due to the small surgical field has been noted. Recently, the authors developed a modified MICS procedure to extend the surgical field. This report assesses the safety and benefit of this modified procedure by comparing three procedures: the modified MICS (group A), conventional MICS (group B), and traditional open heart surgery (group C). A retrospective analysis was performed with 111 pediatric patients (age, 0-9 years; weight, 5-30 kg) who underwent cardiac surgery for simple cardiac anomaly during the period 1996-2010 at Juntendo University Hospital. The modified MICS method to extend the surgical view has been performed since 2004. A skin incision within 5 cm was made below the nipple line, and the surgical field was easily moved by pulling up or down using a suture or a hemostat. The results showed no differences in terms of gender, age, weight, or aortic cross-clamp time among the groups. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated significant differences in mean time before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), CPB time, operation time, and bleeding. According to the indices, modified MICS was similar to traditional open surgery and shorter time or lower bleeding volume than conventional MICS. No major mortality or morbidity occurred. In conclusion, the modified MICS procedure, which requires no special techniques, was as safe as conventional open heart surgery and even reduced perioperative morbidity.

  8. Risk factors for transient dysfunction of gas exchange after cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Cristiane Delgado Alves; Moreira, Marcos Mello; Lima, Núbia Maria Freire Vieira; de Figueirêdo, Luciana Castilho; Falcão, Antônio Luis Eiras; Petrucci, Orlando; Dragosavac, Desanka

    2015-01-01

    Objective A retrospective cohort study was preformed aiming to verify the presence of transient dysfunction of gas exchange in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery and determine if this disorder is linked to cardiorespiratory events. Methods We included 942 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery and cardiac procedures who were referred to the Intensive Care Unit between June 2007 and November 2011. Results Fifteen patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome (2%), 199 (27.75%) had mild transient dysfunction of gas exchange, 402 (56.1%) had moderate transient dysfunction of gas exchange, and 39 (5.4%) had severe transient dysfunction of gas exchange. Hypertension and cardiogenic shock were associated with the emergence of moderate transient dysfunction of gas exchange postoperatively (P=0.02 and P=0.019, respectively) and were risk factors for this dysfunction (P=0.0023 and P=0.0017, respectively). Diabetes mellitus was also a risk factor for transient dysfunction of gas exchange (P=0.03). Pneumonia was present in 8.9% of cases and correlated with the presence of moderate transient dysfunction of gas exchange (P=0.001). Severe transient dysfunction of gas exchange was associated with patients who had renal replacement therapy (P=0.0005), hemotherapy (P=0.0001), enteral nutrition (P=0.0012), or cardiac arrhythmia (P=0.0451). Conclusion Preoperative hypertension and cardiogenic shock were associated with the occurrence of postoperative transient dysfunction of gas exchange. The preoperative risk factors included hypertension, cardiogenic shock, and diabetes. Postoperatively, pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, renal replacement therapy, hemotherapy, and cardiac arrhythmia were associated with the appearance of some degree of transient dysfunction of gas exchange, which was a risk factor for reintubation, pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and renal replacement therapy in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery and cardiac

  9. The Influence of Perioperative Dexmedetomidine on Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Jun; Qian, Ju; Cheng, Hao; Ji, Fuhai; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of dexmedetomidine may have benefits on the clinical outcomes of cardiac surgery. We conducted a meta-analysis comparing the postoperative complications in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with dexmedetomidine versus other perioperative medications to determine the influence of perioperative dexmedetomidine on cardiac surgery patients. Methods Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing outcomes in patients who underwent cardiac surgery with dexmedetomidine, another medication, or a placebo were retrieved from EMBASE, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Science Citation Index. Results A total of 1702 patients in 14 studies met the selection criteria among 1,535 studies that fit the research strategy. Compared to other medications, dexmedetomidine has combined risk ratios of 0.28 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15, 0.55, P = 0.0002) for ventricular tachycardia, 0.35 (95% CI 0.20, 0.62, P = 0.0004) for postoperative delirium, 0.76 (95% CI 0.55, 1.06, P = 0.11) for atrial fibrillation, 1.08 (95% CI 0.74, 1.57, P = 0.69) for hypotension, and 2.23 (95% CI 1.36, 3.67, P = 0.001) for bradycardia. In addition, dexmedetomidine may reduce the length of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay. Conclusions This meta-analysis revealed that the perioperative use of dexmedetomidine in patients undergoing cardiac surgery can reduce the risk of postoperative ventricular tachycardia and delirium, but may increase the risk of bradycardia. The estimates showed a decreased risk of atrial fibrillation, shorter length of ICU stay and hospitalization, and increased risk of hypotension with dexmedetomidine. PMID:27049318

  10. Predictors of Acute Renal Failure During Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Pediatric Patients After Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lv, Lin; Long, Cun; Liu, Jinping; Hei, Feilong; Ji, Bingyang; Yu, Kun; Hu, Qiang; Hu, Jinxiao; Yuan, Yuan; Gao, Guodong

    2016-05-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is associated with increased mortality in pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The aim of this study was to identify predictors of ARF during ECMO in pediatric patients after cardiac surgery. A retrospective study analyzed 42 children (≤15 years) after cardiac surgery requiring venous-arterial ECMO between December 2008 and December 2014 at Fuwai Hospital. ARF was defined as ≥300% rise in serum creatinine (SCr) concentration from baseline or application of dialysis. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the predictors of ARF during ECMO. A total of 42 children (age, interquartile range [IQR], 13.0 [7.2-29.8] months; weight, IQR, 8.5 [6.7-11.0] kg) after cardiac surgery requiring ECMO were included in this study. The total survival rate was 52.4%, and the incidence of ARF was 40.5%. As the result of univariate analysis, ECMO duration, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, maximum free hemoglobin (FHB) during ECMO, lactate level, and mean blood pressure before initiation of ECMO were entered in multiple logistic regression analysis. In multiple logistic regression analysis, FHB during ECMO (OR 1.136, 95% CI 1.023-1.261) and lactate level before initiation of ECMO (OR 1.602, 95% CI 1.025-2.502) were risk factors for ARF during ECMO after pediatric cardiac surgery. There was a linear correlation between maximum SCr and maximum FHB (Pearson's r = 0.535, P = 0.001). Maximum SCr during ECMO has also a linear correlation with lactate level before initiation of ECMO (Pearson's r = 0.342, P = 0.044). Increased FHB during ECMO and high lactate level before initiation of ECMO were risk factors for ARF during ECMO in pediatric patients after cardiac surgery.

  11. Anesthetic challenges of patients with cardiac comorbidities undergoing major urologic surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The cardiac patient undergoing major urologic surgery is a complex case requiring a great attention by the anesthesiologist. Number of this group of patients having to go through this procedure is constantly increasing, due to prolonged life, increased agressiveness of surgery and increased anesthesia’s safety. The anesthesiologist usually has to deal with several problems of the patient, such as hypertension, chronic heart failure, coronary artery disease, rhythm disturbances, intraoperative hemodymanic changes, intraoperative bleeding, perioperative fluid imbalance, and metabolic disturbances. A cardiac patient undergoing major urologic surgery is a complex case requiring a great attention by the anesthesiologist. The scope of this review article is to present the most frequent issues encountered with this group of patients, and to synthetically discuss the respective strategies and maneuvers during perioperative period, which is the major challenge for the anesthesiologist. PMID:24791166

  12. Blood pressure reduction after gastric bypass surgery is explained by a decrease in cardiac output.

    PubMed

    van Brussel, Peter M; van den Bogaard, Bas; de Weijer, Barbara A; Truijen, Jasper; Krediet, C T Paul; Janssen, Ignace M; van de Laar, Arnold; Kaasjager, Karin; Fliers, Eric; van Lieshout, Johannes J; Serlie, Mireille J; van den Born, Bert-Jan H

    2017-02-01

    Blood pressure (BP) decreases in the first weeks after Roux-and-Y gastric bypass surgery. Yet the pathophysiology of the BP-lowering effects observed after gastric bypass surgery is incompletely understood. We evaluated BP, systemic hemodynamics, and baroreflex sensitivity in 15 obese women[mean age 42 ± 7 standard deviation (SD) yr, body mass index 45 ± 6 kg/m(2)] 2 wk before and 6 wk following Roux-and-Y gastric bypass surgery. Six weeks after gastric bypass surgery, mean body weight decreased by 13 ± 5 kg (10%, P < 0.001). Office BP decreased from 137 ± 10/86 ± 6 to 128 ± 12/81 ± 9 mmHg (P < 0.001, P < 0.01), while daytime ambulatory BP decreased from 128 ± 14/80 ± 9 to 114 ± 10/73 ± 6 mmHg (P = 0.01, P = 0.05), whereas nighttime BP decreased from 111 ± 13/66 ± 7 to 102 ± 9/62 ± 7 mmHg (P = 0.04, P < 0.01). The decrease in BP was associated with a 1.6 ± 1.2 l/min (20%, P < 0.01) decrease in cardiac output (CO), while systemic vascular resistance increased (153 ± 189 dyn·s·cm(-5), 15%, P < 0.01). The maximal ascending slope in systolic blood pressure decreased (192 mmHg/s, 19%, P = 0.01), suggesting a reduction in left ventricular contractility. Baroreflex sensitivity increased from 9.0 [6.4-14.3] to 13.8 [8.5-19.0] ms/mmHg (median [interquartile range]; P < 0.01) and was inversely correlated with the reductions in heart rate (R = -0.64, P = 0.02) and CO (R = -0.61, P = 0.03). In contrast, changes in body weight were not correlated with changes in either BP or CO. The BP reduction following Roux-and-Y gastric bypass surgery is correlated with a decrease in CO independent of changes in body weight. The contribution of heart rate to the reduction in CO together with enhanced baroreflex sensitivity suggests a shift toward increased parasympathetic cardiovascular control.

  13. Cardiopulmonary Bypass Priming Using Autologous Cord Blood in Neonatal Congenital Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun Seok; Cho, Sungkyu; Jang, Woo Sung

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives A blood transfusion is almost inevitable in neonatal cardiac surgery. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of using autologous cord blood for a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) priming as an alternative to an allo-transfusion in neonatal cardiac surgery. Subjects and Methods From January 2012 to December 2014, cord blood had been collected during delivery after informed consent and was stored immediately into a blood bank. Eight neonatal patients had their own cord blood used for CPB priming during cardiac surgery. Results All patients underwent surgery for their complex congenital heart disease. The median age and body weight at surgery was 11 days (from 0 to 21 days) and 3.2 kg (from 2.2 to 3.7 kg). The median amount and hematocrit of collected cord blood was 72.5 mL (from 43 to 105 mL) and 48.7% (from 32.0 to 51.2%). The median preoperative hematocrit of neonates was 36.5% (from 31.0 to 45.0%); the median volume of CPB priming was 130 mL (From 120 to 140 mL). Seven out of eight patients did not need an allo-transfusion in CPB priming and only one neonate used 20 mL of packed red blood cells in CPB priming to obtain the target hematocrit. Conclusion Autologous cord blood can be used for CPB priming as alternative to packed red blood cells in neonatal congenital cardiac surgery in order to reduce allo-transfusion. PMID:27721864

  14. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography: a systematic review of feasibility and impact on diagnosis, management and outcome after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Heiberg, J; El-Ansary, D; Royse, C F; Royse, A G; Alsaddique, A A; Canty, D J

    2016-10-01

    Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography are increasingly used as tools to improve clinical assessment following cardiac surgery. However, most physicians are not trained in echocardiography, and there is no widespread agreement on the feasibility, indications or effect on outcome of transthoracic or transoesophageal echocardiography for patients after cardiac surgery. We performed a systematic review of electronic databases for focused transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography after cardiac surgery which revealed 15 full-text articles. They consistently reported that echocardiography is feasible, whether performed by a novice or expert, and frequently resulted in important changes in diagnosis of cardiac abnormalities and their management. However, most were observational studies and there were no well-designed trials investigating the impact of echocardiography on outcome. We conclude that both transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography are useful following cardiac surgery.

  15. Four-Group Classification Based on Fibrinogen Level and Fibrin Polymerization Associated With Postoperative Bleeding in Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Shingo; Suzuki, Yuji; Sato, Tsunehisa; Kikura, Mutsuhito; Katoh, Takasumi; Sato, Shigehito

    2016-10-01

    Fibrinogen and fibrin formation have a key role in perioperative hemostasis. The aim of this study is to examine the association of postoperative hemostasis with a combined evaluation of the fibrinogen level and fibrin polymerization in cardiac surgery. We retrospectively classified 215 consecutive cardiac surgery patients into 4 groups (Fuji-san classification) that were divided by fibrinogen level <150 mg/dL (ie, hypofibrinogenemia) and fibrinogen thromboelastometry value at 10 minutes with rotational thromboelastometry <6 mm (ie, low fibrin polymerization) at the warming of cardiopulmonary bypass. Four groups resulted; group I, the acceptable range (n = 85); group II, only hypofibrinogenemia (<150 mg/dL, ≥6 mm, n = 63); group III, hypofibrinogenemia and low fibrin polymerization (<150 mg/dL, <6 mm, n = 60); and group IV, only low fibrin polymerization (≥150 mg/dL, <6 mm, n = 7). The risk of chest tube drainage volume greater than 500 mL within the first 24 hours after surgery (with group I as the reference) was increased in group II (odds ratio [OR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-7.4; P < .01) and group III (OR, 8.5; 95% CI, 3.5-21.7; P < .01), and the risk greater than 1000 mL (with group I as the reference) was increased in group III (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.1-17.3; P = .03) and group IV (OR, 23.1; 95% CI, 3.2-201.0; P < .01). Intraoperative blood transfusions were decreased by 24.5%, after stratifying the starting amount of fresh frozen plasma by the 4-group classification in the recent consecutive 65 (30.2%) patients (P < .01). The 4-group classification is associated with postoperative bleeding and may improve the quality of perioperative blood transfusion in cardiac surgery.

  16. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma presenting as paraplegia after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Kin, Hajime; Mukaida, Masayuki; Koizumi, Junichi; Kamada, Takeshi; Mitsunaga, Yoshino; Iwase, Tomoyuki; Ikai, Akio; Okabayashi, Hitoshi

    2016-03-01

    An 86-year-old woman was scheduled to undergo aortic valve replacement and coronary artery bypass graft. On postoperative day 3, she developed sudden-onset neck pain followed by weakness in the right arm. Her symptoms worsened with time, and she developed paraplegia. At 60 h after the first complaint, spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) from C2 to C6 with spinal cord compression was diagnosed from a magnetic resonance image of the cervical region. We decided on conservative therapy because operative recovery was impossible. Delayed diagnosis led to grievous results in the present case. When neurological abnormalities follow neck or back pain after open heart surgery, SSEH must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Further, if it is suspected, early cervical computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging and surgery should be considered.

  17. Preoperative evaluation of cardiac risk by means of atrial pacing and thallium 201 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Stratmann, H.G.; Mark, A.L.; Walter, K.E.; Williams, G.A. )

    1989-10-01

    Atrial pacing and thallium 201 scintigraphy were done in 61 patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease referred for evaluation of cardiac risk before elective vascular surgery. All patients had noncardiac limitations precluding performance of an adequate exercise stress test. Before atrial pacing all were considered to be at low risk of a postoperative cardiac event based on assessment of clinical parameters. Vascular surgery was subsequently performed in 47 patients. In these patients, pacing-induced ST segment depression greater than or equal to 1 mm occurred in 18, a fixed perfusion defect occurred in 11, and a reversible defect occurred in six. Two of the six patients with reversible perfusion defects had preoperative coronary angiography; both had significant coronary artery disease (one or more lesions greater than or equal to 50%). Two patients (one of whom had a reversible perfusion defect) underwent preoperative coronary revascularization and tolerated subsequent vascular surgery well. All other patients received only medical therapy. None of the 47 patients undergoing vascular surgery had a postoperative cardiac event (unstable angina, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, or cardiac death). Of the 14 patients in whom vascular surgery was deferred or canceled, surgery was canceled for noncardiac reasons in seven. Six of these seven patients had a normal perfusion scan; none had a reversible perfusion defect or marked (greater than or equal to 2 mm) ST segment depression. No cardiac event occurred during a 3-month period after atrial pacing in any of these patients. Six of the remaining seven patients had reversible perfusion defects.

  18. Real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation by exhaled ethylene in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Cristescu, Simona M; Kiss, Rudolf; Hekkert, Sacco te Lintel; Dalby, Miles; Harren, Frans J M; Risby, Terence H; Marczin, Nandor

    2014-10-01

    Pulmonary and systemic organ injury produced by oxidative stress including lipid peroxidation is a fundamental tenet of ischemia-reperfusion injury, inflammatory response to cardiac surgery, and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) but is not routinely measured in a surgically relevant time frame. To initiate a paradigm shift toward noninvasive and real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation, we have explored pulmonary excretion and dynamism of exhaled breath ethylene during cardiac surgery to test the hypothesis that surgical technique and ischemia-reperfusion triggers lipid peroxidation. We have employed laser photoacoustic spectroscopy to measure real-time trace concentrations of ethylene from the patient breath and from the CPB machine. Patients undergoing aortic or mitral valve surgery-requiring CPB (n = 15) or off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) (n = 7) were studied. Skin and tissue incision by diathermy caused striking (> 30-fold) increases in exhaled ethylene resulting in elevated levels until CPB. Gaseous ethylene in the CPB circuit was raised upon the establishment of CPB (> 10-fold) and decreased over time. Reperfusion of myocardium and lungs did not appear to enhance ethylene levels significantly. During OPCAB surgery, we have observed increased ethylene in 16 of 30 documented reperfusion events associated with coronary and aortic anastomoses. Therefore, novel real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation in the intraoperative setting provides unparalleled detail of endogenous and surgery-triggered production of ethylene. Diathermy and unprotected regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion are the most significant contributors to increased ethylene.

  19. Real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation by exhaled ethylene in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cristescu, Simona M.; Kiss, Rudolf; te Lintel Hekkert, Sacco; Dalby, Miles; Harren, Frans J. M.; Risby, Terence H.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary and systemic organ injury produced by oxidative stress including lipid peroxidation is a fundamental tenet of ischemia-reperfusion injury, inflammatory response to cardiac surgery, and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) but is not routinely measured in a surgically relevant time frame. To initiate a paradigm shift toward noninvasive and real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation, we have explored pulmonary excretion and dynamism of exhaled breath ethylene during cardiac surgery to test the hypothesis that surgical technique and ischemia-reperfusion triggers lipid peroxidation. We have employed laser photoacoustic spectroscopy to measure real-time trace concentrations of ethylene from the patient breath and from the CPB machine. Patients undergoing aortic or mitral valve surgery-requiring CPB (n = 15) or off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) (n = 7) were studied. Skin and tissue incision by diathermy caused striking (>30-fold) increases in exhaled ethylene resulting in elevated levels until CPB. Gaseous ethylene in the CPB circuit was raised upon the establishment of CPB (>10-fold) and decreased over time. Reperfusion of myocardium and lungs did not appear to enhance ethylene levels significantly. During OPCAB surgery, we have observed increased ethylene in 16 of 30 documented reperfusion events associated with coronary and aortic anastomoses. Therefore, novel real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation in the intraoperative setting provides unparalleled detail of endogenous and surgery-triggered production of ethylene. Diathermy and unprotected regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion are the most significant contributors to increased ethylene. PMID:25128523

  20. Changes in cerebral oxygen saturation and haemoglobin concentration during paediatric cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Suemori, T; Horton, S B; Bottrell, S; Skowno, J J; Davidson, A

    2017-03-01

    Although near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) enables bedside assessment of cerebral oxygenation, it provides little information on the cause of deoxygenation. The authors aimed to investigate the changes in cerebral oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration and their associations during paediatric cardiac surgery in order to elucidate the physiology underlying cerebral deoxygenation. An observational retrospective study on 399 patients who underwent paediatric cardiac surgery was conducted. With use of NIRS, cerebral oxygen saturation as expressed by tissue oxygen index (TOI) before and after surgery, concentration changes in oxygenated haemoglobin (Δ[HbO2]) and deoxygenated haemoglobin (Δ[HHb]) after surgery were studied as were the associations between these values and clinical variables. TOI decreased after surgery (preoperative versus postoperative value, 66.0% [56.9, 71.3] versus 63.2% [54.3, 69.4], median [25th, 75th percentile], P <0.001) and the decrease was greater in higher category groups in the Risk Adjusted Classification for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1). [HHb] increased from its baseline (+1.74 μmol/l [-1.57, +5.84], P <0.001) and the increase was greater in higher risk category groups. On the contrary, there was no evidence for a change in [HbO2] (+0.45 μmol/l [-4.76, +5.30], P=0.42). Cerebral oxygen saturation decreased after paediatric cardiac surgery and the decrease was greater in patients of higher risk groups. The increase in [HHb] was considered to play a predominant role in the cerebral deoxygenation noted, in particular in higher RACHS-1 category groups.

  1. Cerebral oxygenation monitoring in patients with bilateral carotid stenosis undergoing urgent cardiac surgery: Observational case series

    PubMed Central

    Aktuerk, Dincer; Mishra, Pankaj Kumar; Luckraz, Heyman; Garnham, Andrew; Khazi, Fayaz Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with significant bilateral carotid artery stenosis requiring urgent cardiac surgery have an increased risk of stroke and death. The optimal management strategy remains inconclusive, and the available evidence does not support the superiority of one strategy over another. Materials and Methods: A number of noninvasive strategies have been developed for minimizing perioperative stroke including continuous real-time monitoring of cerebral oxygenation with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The number of patients presenting with this combination (bilateral significant carotid stenosis requiring urgent cardiac surgery) in any single institution will be small and hence there is a lack of large randomized studies. Results: This case series describes our early experience with NIRS in a select group of patients with significant bilateral carotid stenosis undergoing urgent cardiac surgery (n = 8). In contrast to other studies, this series is a single surgeon, single center study, where the entire surgery (both distal ends and proximal ends) was performed during single aortic clamp technique, which effectively removes several confounding variables. NIRS monitoring led to the early recognition of decreased cerebral oxygenation, and corrective steps (increased cardiopulmonary bypass flow, increased pCO2, etc.,) were taken. Conclusion: The study shows good clinical outcome with the use of NIRS. This is our “work in progress,” and we aim to conduct a larger study. PMID:26750675

  2. Preoperative Nutritional Status and Clinical Complications in the Postoperative Period of Cardiac Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Luciana de Brito; de Jesus, Natanael Moura Teixeira; Gonçalves, Maiara de Brito; Dias, Lidiane Cristina Gomes; Deiró, Tereza Cristina Bomfim de Jesus

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aims to assess the preoperative nutritional status of patients and the role it plays in the occurrence of clinical complications in the postoperative period of major elective cardiac surgeries. Methods Cross-sectional study comprising 72 patients aged 20 years or older, who underwent elective cardiac surgery. The preoperative nutritional assessment consisted of nutritional screening, anthropometry (including the measurement of the adductor pollicis muscle thickness) and biochemical tests. The patients were monitored for up to 10 days after the surgery in order to control the occurrence of postoperative complications. The R software, version 3.0.2, was used to statistically analyze the data. Results Clinical complications were found in 62.5% (n=42) of the studied samples and complications of non-infectious nature were most often found. Serum albumin appeared to be associated with renal complications (P=0.026) in the nutritional status indicators analyzed herein. The adductor pollicis muscle thickness was associated with infectious complications and presented mean of 9.39±2.32 mm in the non-dominant hand (P=0.030). No significant correlation was found between the other indicators and the clinical complications. Conclusion The adductor pollicis muscle thickness and the serum albumin seemed be associated with clinical complications in the postoperative period of cardiac surgeries. PMID:27982346

  3. Reassessment of Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiangcheng; Wan, Xin; Ji, Xiaobing; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jian; Chen, Wen; Cao, Changchun

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the incidence, risk, or protective factors of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients after cardiac surgery based on the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. Methods A retrospective analysis of 2,575 patients undergoing their first documented cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was conducted. Perioperative variables were collected and analyzed. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used for determining the association between the development of AKI and risk factors. Multiple Cox-proportional hazards modeling was performed to evaluate the impact of AKI on the mortality in the intensive care unit and hospital length of stay. Results Of 2,575 patients, 931 (36%) developed AKI. A total of 30 (1.2%) patients required renal replacement therapy. In the multivariate analysis, mechanical ventilation duration (OR1.446, 95% CI 1.195-1.749, p<0.001), CPB duration of ≥110 min (OR 1.314, 95% CI 1.072-1.611, p=0.009), erythrocytes transfusion (OR 1.078, 95% CI 1.050-1.106, p<0.001), and postoperative body temperature greater than 38℃ within 3 days (OR 1.234, 95% CI 1.018-1.496, p=0.032) were independent risk factors for CSA-AKI, while ulinastatin use was associated with a reduced incidence of CSA-AKI (OR 0.694, 95% CI 0.557-0.881, p=0.006). CSA-AKI was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (adjusted HR: 2.218, 95% CI 1.161-4.238, p=0.016), especially in patients needing renal replacement therapy (adjusted HR: 18.683, 95% CI 8.579-40.684, p<0.001). Conclusion Mechanical ventilation duration, erythrocytes transfusion, and postoperative body temperature above 38℃ within 3 days were considered independent risk factors for CSA-AKI. The use of ulinastatin was associated with a reduced incidence of CSA-AKI. PMID:28154270

  4. Cardiac Defects and Results of Cardiac Surgery in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carotti, Adriano; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Piacentini, Gerardo; Saffirio, Claudia; Di Donato, Roberto M.; Marino, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Specific types and subtypes of cardiac defects have been described in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome as well as in other genetic syndromes. The conotruncal heart defects occurring in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome include tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, truncus arteriosus, interrupted aortic…

  5. Ictal asystole: A rare cardiac manifestation of temporal lobe epilepsy, treated with epilepsy surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ravat, Shreyas Hasmukh; Bhatti, Amit Ashok; Shah, Mansi Viraj; Muzumdar, Dattatraya P.; Ravat, Sangeeta Hasmukh

    2017-01-01

    Seizures are associated with fascinatingly varied cardiac and autonomic manifestations, of which ictal tachycardia is common, and asystole and bradycardia are rare. Ictal asystole (IA), an often unsought autonomic phenomenon, occurs most commonly with temporal followed by frontal lobe seizures. Prolonged IA may lead to cerebral anoxic ischemia. As the mysteries of sudden unexplained death in epilepsy are unraveled, it is quite possible that the key to it lays within these seizure-induced cardiac rhythm abnormalities. We present a case of a young male with temporal lobe epilepsy due to left mesial temporal sclerosis with prolonged IA, which was successfully managed with epilepsy surgery.

  6. Pediatric cardiac surgery in low- and middle-income countries or emerging economies: a continuing challenge.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nguyenvu; Pezzella, A Thomas

    2015-04-01

    A number of recent publications, addresses, seminars, and conferences have addressed the global backlog and increasing incidence of both congenital and acquired cardiac diseases in children, with reference to early and delayed recognition, late referral, availability of and access to services, costs, risks, databases, and early and long-term results and follow-up. A variety of proposals, recommendations, and projects have been outlined and documented. The ultimate goal of these endeavors is to increase the quality and quantity of pediatric cardiac care and surgery worldwide and particularly in underserved areas. A contemporary review of past and present initiatives is presented with a subsequent focus on the more challenging areas.

  7. Is skeletal muscle luxury perfusion the main hemodynamic effect of high-dose insulin in cardiac surgery?

    PubMed

    Lindholm, L; Nilsson, B; Kirnö, K; Sellgren, J; Nilsson, F; Jeppsson, A

    2000-08-01

    Insulin, in combination with glucose and potassium (GIK), can be used in heart surgery to improve hemodynamic performance. This study evaluates the role of skeletal muscle vasodilation in hemodynamic effects of high-dose GIK therapy early after coronary surgery. Thirty-three male patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were included in a prospective, randomized and controlled study. Eleven patients received infusions of mixed amino acids (11.4 g) and insulin solution (225 IU insulin, glucose with the glucose clamp technique, and potassium), 11 patients received infusions of mixed amino acids (11.4 g) and 11 patients served as control subjects. During combined insulin and amino acid infusion, cardiac output increased by 13+/-3% (+0.6+/-0.2 L x min(-1)) and systemic vascular resistance decreased by 24+/-3% (-320+/-46 dyn x s x cm(-5)). The changes differed from those in the control group (CO: -0.2+/-0.1 L x min(-1), p < 0.05; SVR: +136+/-42 dyn x s x cm(-5), p < 0.05). Changes in skeletal muscle perfusion and leg vascular resistance did not differ significantly among the groups. At most, changes in leg blood flow could explain 40% of the changes in cardiac output. Skeletal muscle luxury perfusion is not the main hemodynamic effect of high-dose insulin in the early postoperative period after coronary surgery.

  8. Mediastinitis in pediatric cardiac surgery: Prevention, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Durandy, Yves

    2010-01-01

    In spite of advances in the management of mediastinitis following sternotomy, mediastinitis is still associated with significant morbidity. The prognosis is much better in pediatric surgery compared to adult surgery, but the prolonged hospital stays with intravenous therapy and frequent required dressing changes that occur with several therapeutic approaches are poorly tolerated. Prevention includes nasal decontamination, skin preparation, antibioprophylaxis and air filtration in the operating theater. The expertise of the surgical team is an additional factor that is difficult to assess precisely. Diagnosis is often very simple, being made on the basis of a septic state with wound modification, while retrosternal puncture and CT scan are rarely useful. Treatment of mediastinitis following sternotomy is always a combination of surgical debridement and antibiotic therapy. Continued use of numerous surgical techniques demonstrates that there is no consensus and the best treatment has yet to be determined. However, we suggest that a primary sternal closure is the best surgical option for pediatric patients. We propose a simple technique with high-vacuum Redon’s catheter drainage that allows early mobilization and short term antibiotherapy, which thus decreases physiological and psychological trauma for patients and families. We have demonstrated the efficiency of this technique, which is also cost-effective by decreasing intensive care and hospital stay durations, in a large group of patients. PMID:21179306

  9. Impact of regionalisation of cardiac surgery in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Nobilio, L; Fortuna, D; Vizioli, M; Berti, E; Guastaroba, P; Taroni, F; Grilli, R

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: Assessment of the impact of the regionalisation of cardiac surgery through the organisational form of a hub&spoke model introduced in the year 2000. Design: Case mix adjusted before (1998–1999)—after (2000–2002) comparison of: (a) in-hospital and 30 days mortality rates; (b) proportion of patients timely (within one day) referred for surgery from spoke to hub centres; (c) patients' waiting times to surgery. Setting: Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region with four million residents. Patients: 16 512 patients aged ⩾18 years and referred to cardiac surgery over the period 1998–2002. Main results:Overall, taking into account differences in case mix across the whole study period, the implementation of the regionalisation policy was associated with a 22% reduction (OR: 0.79, 95%CI: 0.66 to 0.93) in in-hospital mortality rate. The corresponding figure for 30 day mortality was 18% (OR: 0.82: 95%CI: 0.69 to 0.98). The individual centres' volume of cases changed over the study period for all hospitals but two, and the biggest reduction in mortality was seen at the centre with the largest increase in caseload. Conclusions: This study provides additional evidence on the benefit of regionalisation of cardiac surgery interventions. The system allowed each centre to reach the minimum caseload required to assure good quality of care. These findings suggest that policies aimed at increasing cooperation rather than competition among health service providers have a positive impact on quality of care. Timely referrals for surgery increased by 21% (95%CI: 1.12 to 1.31), and mean waiting times were reduced by 7.5 average days (95%CI: -10.33 to -4.71). PMID:14729884

  10. Center of Cardiac Surgery Robotic Computerized Telemanipulation as Part of a Comprehensive Approach to Advanced Heart Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Robotic OR Appendix E: Comparison Chart of daVinci Simulator Skill Sets and Training Exercise Activities 1 INTRODUCTION Robotic surgery recently...techniques in endoscopic cardiac bypass surgery is important not only for surgeons and surgical teams just beginning to perform robotic surgery , but also...Director, Robotic Surgery Scott Keith, PhD Faculty, Division of Biostatistics Rebecca O’Shea, MBA Senior Vice President for Clinical

  11. Alveolar recruitment maneuver in refractory hypoxemia and lobar atelectasis after cardiac surgery: A case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective This case report describes an unusual presentation of right upper lobe atelectasis associated with refractory hypoxemia to conventional alveolar recruitment maneuvers in a patient soon after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Method Case-report. Results The alveolar recruitment with PEEP = 40cmH2O improved the patient’s atelectasis and hypoxemia. Conclusion In the present report, the unusual alveolar recruitment maneuver with PEEP 40cmH2O showed to be safe and efficient to reverse refractory hypoxemia and uncommon atelectasis in a patient after cardiac surgery. PMID:22726992

  12. Prevention of cardiac complications in peripheral vascular surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, B.S.

    1986-04-01

    The prevalence of severe coronary artery disease in peripheral vascular patients exceeds 50 per cent. Complications of coronary artery disease are the most common causes of mortality following peripheral vascular operations. To reduce the incidence of cardiac complications, it is first necessary to identify patients at risk through screening tests. Screening methods in current use include risk factor analysis, exercise testing, routine coronary angiography, and dipyridamole thallium-201 scintigraphy. The risk factor approach has the advantage of being widely applicable since it makes use of historical, physical, and electrocardiographic findings that are already familiar to surgeons and anesthesiologists. It is also inexpensive. However, it may overlook the patient who has no symptoms of coronary artery disease, possibly as a result of the sedentary lifestyle imposed by complications of peripheral vascular disease. The electrocardiographically monitored stress test will identify the asymptomatic patient with occult coronary disease and is helpful in predicting operative risk. However, a meaningful test is dependent on the patient's ability to exercise--an activity that is frequently limited by claudication, amputation, or arthritis. Exercise testing also suffers from a lack of sensitivity and specificity when compared with coronary arteriography. Routine preoperative coronary angiography overcomes the exercise limitation of treadmill testing but is not widely applicable as a screening test for reasons of cost and inherent risk. Dipyridamole thallium-201 scanning, on the other hand, is safe and of relatively low cost and does not require exercise.

  13. Cerebral oxygenation monitoring during cardiac bypass surgery in infants with broad band spatially resolved spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soschinski, Jan; Ben Mine, Lofti; Geraskin, Dmitri; Bennink, Gerardus; Kohl-Bareis, Matthias

    2007-07-01

    Neurological impairments following cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) during open heart surgery can result from microembolism and ischaemia. Here we present results from monitoring cerebral haemodynamics during CPB with near infrared spatially resolved broadband spectroscopy. In particular, the study has the objective (a) to monitor oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations (oxy-Hb, deoxy-Hb) and their changes as well as oxygen saturation during CPB surgery and (b) to develop and test algorithms for the calculation of these parameters from broad band spectroscopy. For this purpose a detection system was developed based on an especially designed lens imaging spectrograph with optimised sensitivity of recorded reflectance spectra for wavelengths between 600 and 1000 nm. The high f/#-number of 1:1.2 of the system results in about a factor of 10 higher light throughput combined with a lower astigmatism and crosstalk between channels when compared with a commercial mirror spectrometers (f/# = 1:4). For both hemispheres two independent channels each with three source-detector distances (ρ = 25 . 35 mm) were used resulting in six spectra. The broad band approach allows to investigate the influence of the wavelength range on the calculated haemoglobin concentrations and their changes and oxygen saturation when the attenuation A(λ) and its slope ΔA(λ)/Δρ are evaluated. Furthermore, the different depth sensitivities of these measurement parameters are estimated from Monte Carlo simulations and exploited for an optimization of the cerebral signals. It is demonstrated that the system does record cerebral oxygenation parameters during CPB in infants. In particular, the correlation of haemoglobin concentrations with blood supply (flow, pressure) by the heart-lung machine and the significant decreases in oxygen saturation during cardiac arrest is discussed.

  14. Novel biomarkers for cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury: a skeptical assessment of their role.

    PubMed

    Sidebotham, David

    2012-12-01

    Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and is associated with a high mortality rate. Traditional biomarkers of AKI (creatinine and urea) increase slowly in response to renal injury, are insensitive to mild degrees of AKI, and are influenced by nonrenal factors. There is considerable interest in novel biomarkers of AKI such as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin that increase rapidly after renal injury, detect mild degrees of AKI, and are less subject to nonrenal factors. It has been postulated that the early diagnosis of cardiac surgery-associated AKI using novel biomarkers will result in improved outcomes. However, there is little evidence that interventions started early in the course of evolving AKI enhance renal recovery. Until effective therapies are developed that significantly improve the outcome from AKI, there is little benefit from early diagnosis using novel biomarkers.

  15. Novel endoscope system with plasma flushing for off-pump cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Masamune, Ken; Horiuchi, Tetsuya; Mizutani, Masahiro; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Tsukihara, Hiroyuki; Motomura, Noboru; Takamoto, Shinichi; Liao, Hongen; Dohi, Takeyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a new endoscope for performing simple surgical tasks inside a cardiac atrium/chamber filled with blood, i.e., for performing "off-pump" cardiac surgeries. In general, it is very difficult to observe the inner wall of the vessels containing circulating blood because the light from the endoscope is scattered by the red blood cells. "Plasma flushing" performed using the separator system is developed to observe the inner side of the heart filled with blood and to remove blood cells from the front of the endoscope tip. The system was used in in vitro quantitative measurement of the device performance and in vivo experiments on a swine. In these experiments, we successfully obtained high-resolution images of the interior of the heart during off-pump surgery.

  16. Tranexamic Acid in cardiac surgery and postoperative seizures: a case report series.

    PubMed

    Bell, David; Marasco, Silvana; Almeida, Aubrey; Rowland, Michael

    2010-08-01

    With the recent withdrawal of the antifibrinolytic aprotinin from the market, tranexamic acid (TxA) has become more widely used. This change has led to increasing concern about the side-effect profile of TxA, particularly the incidence of postoperative seizures. In this case series, we describe 7 patients over an 18-month period who had open-chamber cardiac surgery and developed seizures in the postoperative period. This incidence is increased compared with that of a cohort of patients in the previous 36 months who did not receive TxA (0.66% versus 0%; P < .05). The exact mechanism of TxA-induced seizures is thought to be via inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors in neurons. Data from the neurosurgical literature show a well-established link between this antifibrinolytic and seizures. There is now increasing awareness of this association in cardiac surgery, particularly when high TxA doses are used.

  17. A meta-analysis of platelet gel for prevention of sternal wound infections following cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kirmani, Bilal H.; Jones, Siôn G.; Datta, Subir; McLaughlin, Edward K.; Hoschtitzky, Andreas J.

    2017-01-01

    Deep sternal wound infection and bleeding are devastating complications following cardiac surgery, which may be reduced by topical application of autologous platelet gel. Systematic review identified seven comparative studies involving 4,692 patients. Meta-analysis showed significant reductions in all sternal wound infections (odds ratio 3.48 [1.08–11.23], p=0.04) and mediastinitis (odds ratio 2.69 [1.20–6.06], p=0.02) but not bleeding. No adverse events relating to the use of topical platelet-rich plasma were reported. The use of autologous platelet gel in cardiac surgery appears to provide significant reductions in serious sternal wound infections, and its use is unlikely to be associated with significant risk. PMID:27177403

  18. Assessing quality in cardiac surgery: why this is necessary in the twenty-first century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swain, J. A.; Hartz, R. S.

    2000-01-01

    The cost and high-profile nature of coronary surgery means that this is an area of close public scrutiny. As much pioneering work in data collection and risk analyses has been carried out by cardiac surgeons, substantial information exists and the correct interpretation of that data is identified as an important issue. This paper considers the background and history of risk-adjustment in cardiac surgery, the uses of quality data, examines the observed/expected mortality ratio and looks at issues such as cost and reactions to outliers. The conclusion of the study is that the continuation of accurate data collection by the whole operative team and a strong commitment to constantly improving quality is crucial to its meaningful application.

  19. The World Congress of Paediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery: "The Olympics of our profession".

    PubMed

    Hugo-Hamman, Christopher; Jacobs, Jeffery Phillip

    2012-12-01

    The first World Congress of Paediatric Cardiology was held in London, United Kingdom, in 1980, organised by Dr. Jane Somerville and Prof. Fergus Macartney. The idea was that of Jane Somerville, who worked with enormous energy and enthusiasm to bring together paediatric cardiologists and surgeons from around the world. The 2nd World Congress of Paediatric Cardiology took place in New York in 1985, organised by Bill Rashkind, Mary Ellen Engle, and Eugene Doyle. The 3rd World Congress of Paediatric Cardiology was held in Bangkok, Thailand, in 1989, organised by Chompol Vongraprateep. Although cardiac surgeons were heavily involved in these early meetings, a separate World Congress of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery was held in Bergamo, Italy, in 1988, organised by Lucio Parenzan. Thereafter, it was recognised that surgeons and cardiologists working on the same problems and driven by a desire to help children should really rather meet together. A momentous decision was taken to initiate a Joint World Congress of Paediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery. A steering committee was established with membership comprising the main organisers of the four separate previous Congresses, and additional members were recruited in an effort to achieve numerical equality of cardiologists and surgeons and a broad geographical representation. The historic 1st "World Congress of Paediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery" took place in Paris in June, 1993, organised by Jean Kachaner. The next was to be held in Japan, but the catastrophic Kobe earthquake in 1995 forced relocation to Hawaii in 1997. Then followed Toronto, Canada (2001, organised by Bill Williams and Lee Benson), Buenos Aires, Argentina (2005, organised by Horatio Capelli and Guillermo Kreutzer), and most recently Cairns, Australia (2009, organised by Jim Wilkinson). Having visited Europe (1993), Asia-Pacific (1997), North America (2001), South America (2005), and Australia (2009), and reflecting the "African Renaissance", the

  20. Lessons from aviation - the role of checklists in minimally invasive cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S; Adams, C; Cleland, A; Jones, P M; Walsh, G; Kiaii, B

    2016-01-01

    We describe an adverse event during minimally invasive cardiac surgery that resulted in a multi-disciplinary review of intra-operative errors and the creation of a procedural checklist. This checklist aims to prevent errors of omission and communication failures that result in increased morbidity and mortality. We discuss the application of the aviation - led "threats and errors model" to medical practice and the role of checklists and other strategies aimed at reducing medical errors.

  1. Current Practice and Utility of Chromosome Microarray Analysis in Infants Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Jason R.; Kavarana, Minoo N.; Chowdhury, Shahryar M.; Scheurer, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Traditionally, karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used for cytogenetic testing of infants with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac surgery at our institution. Recently, chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) has been performed in lieu of the traditional tests. A standardized approach to cytogenetic testing does not exist in this population. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of CMA based on our current ordering practice. Design We reviewed the records of all infants (< 1 year old) who underwent cardiac surgery at our institution from January 2010 to June 2013. Data included results of all cytogenetic testing performed. Diagnostic yield was calculated as the percentage of significant abnormal results obtained by each test modality. Patients were grouped by classification of congenital heart disease (CHD). Results Two hundred and seventy-five (51%) of 535 infants who underwent cardiac surgery had cytogenetic testing. Of those tested, 154 (56%) had multiple tests performed and at least 18% were redundant or overlapping. The utilization of CMA has increased each year since its implementation. The diagnostic yield for karyotype, FISH and CMA was 10%, 12% and 14% respectively. CMA yield was significantly higher in patients with septal defects (33%, p = 0.01) compared to all other CHD classes. CMA detected abnormalities of unknown clinical significance in 13% of infants tested. Conclusions In our center, redundant cytogenetic testing is frequently performed in infants undergoing cardiac surgery. The utilization of chromosome microarray analysis has increased over time and abnormalities of unknown clinical significance are detected in an important subset of patients. A screening algorithm that risk-stratifies based on classification of CHD and clinical suspicion may provide a practical, data-driven approach to genetic testing in this population and limit unnecessary resource utilization. PMID:25494910

  2. The Solar Activity Effect on the Rate of Complications in Cardiac Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheyner, Olga; Matusova, Elena; Fridman, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    The essential effect of powerful solar flares on a rate of post voperation bleedings and tachyarrhythmias is revealed. The latter complication rate is found to increase in 1.5 times during the first 5-7- days after solar proton events and reach the maximum in the 2-4 days. The analysis of a flareless periods does not show such correlation. Thus, geoeffective solar flares are shown to be the additional risk factor for cardiac surgery.

  3. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Pericardial Effusions Requiring Readmission After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Elias, Matthew D; Glatz, Andrew C; O'Connor, Matthew J; Schachtner, Susan; Ravishankar, Chitra; Mascio, Christoper E; Cohen, Meryl S

    2017-03-01

    Pericardial effusion (PE) may require readmission after cardiac surgery and has been associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality. We sought to identify the prevalence and risk factors for postoperative PE requiring readmission in children. A retrospective analysis of the Pediatric Health Information System database was performed between January 1, 2003, and September 30, 2014. All patients ≤18 years old who underwent cardiac surgery were identified by ICD-9 codes. Those readmitted within 1 year with an ICD-9 code for PE were identified. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine risk factors for PE readmissions. Of the 142,633 surgical admissions, 1535 (1.1%) were readmitted with PE. In multivariable analysis, older age at the initial surgical admission [odds ratio (OR) 1.17, p < 0.001], trisomy 21 (OR 1.24, p = 0.015), geographic region (OR 1.33-1.48, p ≤ 0.001), and specific surgical procedures [heart transplant (OR 1.82, p < 0.001), systemic-pulmonary artery shunt (OR 2.23, p < 0.001), and atrial septal defect surgical repair (OR 1.34, p < 0.001)] were independent risk factors for readmission with PE. Of readmitted patients, 44.2% underwent an interventional PE procedure. Factors associated with interventions included shorter length of stay (LOS) for the initial surgical admission (OR 0.85, p = 0.008), longer LOS for the readmission (OR 1.37, p < 0.001), and atrial septal defect surgery (OR 1.40, p = 0.005). In this administrative database of children undergoing cardiac surgery, readmissions for PE occurred after 1.1% of cardiac surgery admissions. The risk factors identified for readmissions and interventions may allow for improved risk stratification, family counseling, and earlier recognition of PE for children undergoing cardiac surgery.

  4. Posttraumatic growth in patients who survived cardiac surgery: the predictive and mediating roles of faith-based factors.

    PubMed

    Ai, Amy L; Hall, Daniel; Pargament, Kenneth; Tice, Terrence N

    2013-04-01

    Despite the growing knowledge of posttraumatic growth, only a few studies have examined personal growth in the context of cardiac health. Similarly, longitudinal research is lacking on the implications of religion/spirituality for patients with advanced cardiac diseases. This paper aims to explore the effect of preoperative religious coping on long-term postoperative personal growth and potential mediation in this effect. Analyses capitalized on a preoperative survey and medical indices from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons' National Database of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Participants in the current follow-up study completed a mailed survey 30 months after surgery. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to evaluate the extent to which preoperative use of religious coping predicted growth at follow-up, after controlling for key demographics, medical indices, mental health, and protective factors. Predictors of posttraumatic growth at follow-up were positive religious coping and a living status without a partner. Medical indices, optimistic expectations, social support, and other religious factors were unrelated to posttraumatic growth. Including religious factors diminished effects of gender, age, and race. Including perceived spiritual support completely eliminated the role of positive religious coping, indicating mediation. Preoperative positive religious coping may have a long-term effect on postoperative personal growth, explainable by higher spiritual connections as a part of significance-making. These results suggest that spirituality may play a favorable role in cardiac patients' posttraumatic growth after surviving a life-altering operation. The elimination of demographic effects may help explain previously mixed findings concerning the association between these factors and personal growth.

  5. For neonates undergoing cardiac surgery does thymectomy as opposed to thymic preservation have any adverse immunological consequences?

    PubMed

    Afifi, Ahmed; Raja, Shahzad G; Pennington, Daniel J; Tsang, Victor T

    2010-09-01

    A best evidence topic in congenital cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether neonatal thymectomy in patients undergoing cardiac surgery has any adverse immunological consequences. Altogether 164 papers were found using the reported search, of which nine papers represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses were tabulated. The thymus is the major production site of T cells, whose stocks are built-up during foetal and early postnatal life. However, its function diminishes after the first years of life, and although thymic output is maintained into adulthood, the thymus mostly degenerates into fatty tissue in elderly adults. To date, there has been no general consensus with regard to the importance of this organ during childhood and adulthood. As a consequence, during cardiac surgery in neonates, partial or total thymectomy is routinely performed to enable better access to the heart and great vessels to correct congenital heart defects, suggesting that it may be dispensable during childhood and adulthood. Interestingly, current best available evidence from nine case-control studies suggests that neonatal thymectomy affects peripheral T-cell populations both in the short- as well as long-term and results in premature immunosenescence. However, the impact of these changes on the risk of infectious diseases or malignancy has not been thoroughly evaluated by any of these studies. Maintenance of a registry of patients undergoing neonatal thymectomy and further studies to assess the functional or clinical consequences of this practice would be valuable.

  6. Late Operating Room Start Times Impact Mortality and Cost for Nonemergent Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yount, Kenan W; Lau, Christine L; Yarboro, Leora T; Ghanta, Ravi K; Kron, Irving L; Kern, John A; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2015-01-01

    Background There is growing concern over the effect of starting non-emergent cardiac surgery later in the day on clinical outcomes and resource utilization. Our objective was to determine the differences in patient outcomes for starting non-emergent cardiac surgery after 3pm. Methods All non-emergent cardiac operations performed at a single institution from July 2008 to 2013 were reviewed. Cases were stratified based on “early start” or “late start,” defined by incision time before or after 3pm. Rates of observed and risk-adjusted mortality, major complications, and costs were compared on a univariate basis for all patients and via multivariable linear and logistic regression for patients with a valid Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Predicted Risk of Mortality (PROM). Results A total of 3,395 non-emergent cardiac operations were reviewed, including 368 late start cases. Compared to cases starting earlier, mortality was significantly higher for patients undergoing late operations (5.2% vs. 3.5%, p=0.046) despite similar preoperative risk (STS PROM 3.8% vs. 3.3%) and major complication rates (18.2% vs. 18.3%). Costs were 8% higher with late start cases ($51,576 vs. $47,641, p<0.001). After controlling for case type, surgeon, year, and risk, late cases resulted in higher mortality (odds ratio 2.04, p=0.041) despite shorter operative duration (16 min, p<0.001). Conclusions Starting non-emergent cardiac cases later in the day is associated with 2× higher absolute and risk-adjusted mortality. These data should be carefully considered—not only by surgeons and patients but also in the context of the operating room system—when scheduling non-emergent cardiac cases. PMID:26209491

  7. Strategies for prevention of acute kidney injury in cardiac surgery: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Santana-Santos, Eduesley; Marcusso, Marila Eduara Fátima; Rodrigues, Amanda Oliveira; de Queiroz, Fernanda Gomes; de Oliveira, Larissa Bertacchini; Rodrigues, Adriano Rogério Baldacin; Palomo, Jurema da Silva Herbas

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is a common complication after cardiac surgery and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and increased length of stay in the intensive care unit. Considering the high prevalence of acute kidney injury and its association with worsened prognosis, the development of strategies for renal protection in hospitals is essential to reduce the associated high morbidity and mortality, especially for patients at high risk of developing acute kidney injury, such as patients who undergo cardiac surgery. This integrative review sought to assess the evidence available in the literature regarding the most effective interventions for the prevention of acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. To select the articles, we used the CINAHL and MedLine databases. The sample of this review consisted of 16 articles. After analyzing the articles included in the review, the results of the studies showed that only hydration with saline has noteworthy results in the prevention of acute kidney injury. The other strategies are controversial and require further research to prove their effectiveness. PMID:25028954

  8. Cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamic changes during infant cardiac surgery: measurements by near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    du Plessis, Adre J.; Volpe, Joseph J.

    1996-10-01

    Despite dramatic advances in the survival rate among infants undergoing cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease, the incidence of brain injury suffered by survivors remains unacceptably high. This is largely due to our limited understanding of the complex changes in cerebral oxygen utilization and supply occurring during the intraoperative period as a result of hypothermia, neuroactive drugs, and profound circulatory changes. Current techniques for monitoring the adequacy of cerebral oxygen supply and utilization during hypothermic cardiac surgery are inadequate to address this complex problem and consequently to identify the infant at risk for such brain injury. Furthermore, this inability to detect imminent hypoxic- ischemic brain injury is likely to become all the more conspicuous as new neuroprotective strategies, capable of salvaging 'insulated' neuronal tissue form cell death, enter the clinical arena. Near infrared spectroscopy is a relatively new, noninvasive, and portable technique capable of interrogating the oxygenation and hemodynamics of tissue in vivo. These characteristics of the technique have generated enormous interest among clinicians in the ability of near infrared spectroscopy to elucidate the mechanisms of intraoperative brain injury and ultimately to identify infants oat risk for such injury. This paper reviews the experience with this technique to date during infant cardiac surgery.

  9. [Anesthetic management of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy undergoing non-cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Takuji

    2014-01-01

    There is little information on the perioperative management of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) undergoing non-cardiac surgery. The presence of a history or signs of heart failure and un-diagnosed DCM preoperatively, may be associated with an increased risk during non-cardiac surgery. In these patients, preoperative assessment of LV function, including echocardiography, and assessment of an individual's capacity to perform a spectrum of common daily tasks may be recommended to quantify the severity of systolic function. It is important to prevent low cardiac output and arrhythmia for the perioperative management of patients with DCM. Sympathetic hyperactivity often causes atrial or ventricular tachyarrhythmia, which could worsen systemic hemodynamics in these patients. In particular, the prevention of life-threatening arrhythmia, such as, ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation is important. To prevent perioperative low output syndrome, inotropic support, using catecholamines or phosphodiesterase inhibitors with or without vasodilators should be performed under careful monitoring. It is desirable to use a pulmonary-artery catheter during moderate to high risk surgery, because the optimum level of left ventricular pre-load is very narrow in these patients. Every effort must be made to detect postoperative heart failure by careful monitoring, including PAC, and physical examination.

  10. An augmented reality platform for planning of minimally invasive cardiac surgeries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Elvis C. S.; Sarkar, Kripasindhu; Baxter, John S. H.; Moore, John; Wedlake, Chris; Peters, Terry M.

    2012-02-01

    One of the fundamental components in all Image Guided Surgery (IGS) applications is a method for presenting information to the surgeon in a simple, effective manner. This paper describes the first steps in our new Augmented Reality (AR) information delivery program. The system makes use of new "off the shelf" AR glasses that are both light-weight and unobtrusive, with adequate resolution for many IGS applications. Our first application is perioperative planning of minimally invasive robot-assisted cardiac surgery. In this procedure, a combination of tracking technologies and intraoperative ultrasound is used to map the migration of cardiac targets prior to selection of port locations for trocars that enter the chest. The AR glasses will then be used to present this heart migration data to the surgeon, overlaid onto the patients chest. The current paper describes the calibration process for the AR glasses, their integration into our IGS framework for minimally invasive robotic cardiac surgery, and preliminary validation of the system. Validation results indicate a mean 3D triangulation error of 2.9 +/- 3.3mm, 2D projection error of 2.1 +/- 2.1 pixels, and Normalized Stereo Calibration Error of 3.3.

  11. Usefulness of 40-slice multidetector row computed tomography to detect coronary disease in patients prior to cardiac valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Pouleur, Anne-Catherine; le Polain de Waroux, Jean-Benoît; Kefer, Joëlle; Pasquet, Agnès; Coche, Emmanuel; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; Gerber, Bernhard L

    2007-12-01

    Preoperative identification of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients prior to valve surgery requires systematic invasive coronary angiography. The purpose of this current prospective study was to evaluate whether exclusion of CAD by multi-detector CT (MDCT) might potentially avoid systematic cardiac catheterization in these patients. Eighty-two patients (53 males, 62 +/- 13 years) scheduled to undergo valve surgery underwent 40-slice MDCT before invasive quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). According to QCA, 15 patients had CAD (5 one-vessel, 6 two-vessel and 4 three-vessel disease). The remaining 67 patients had no CAD. On a per-vessel basis, MDCT correctly identified 27/29 (sensitivity 93%) vessels with and excluded 277/299 vessels (specificity 93%) without CAD. On a per-patient basis, MDCT correctly identified 14/15 patients with (sensitivity 93%) and 60/67 patients without CAD (specificity 90%). Positive and negative predictive values of MDCT were 67% and 98%. Performing invasive angiography only in patients with abnormal MDCT might have avoided QCA in 60/82 (73%). MDCT could be potentially useful in the preoperative evaluation of patients with valve disease. By selecting only those patients with coronary lesions to undergo invasive coronary angiography, it could avoid cardiac catheterization in a large number of patients without CAD.

  12. Pancreatic cellular injury after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass: frequency, time course and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Nys, Monique; Venneman, Ingrid; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Preiser, Jean-Charles; Vanbelle, Sophie; Albert, Adelin; Camus, Gérard; Damas, Pierre; Larbuisson, Robert; Lamy, Maurice

    2007-05-01

    Although often clinically silent, pancreatic cellular injury (PCI) is relatively frequent after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass; and its etiology and time course are largely unknown. We defined PCI as the simultaneous presence of abnormal values of pancreatic isoamylase and immunoreactive trypsin (IRT). The frequency and time evolution of PCI were assessed in this condition using assays for specific exocrine pancreatic enzymes. Correlations with inflammatory markers were searched for preoperative risk factors. One hundred ninety-three patients submitted to cardiac surgery were enrolled prospectively. Blood IRT, amylase, pancreatic isoamylase, lipase, and markers of inflammation (alpha1-protease inhibitor, alpha2-macroglobulin, myeloperoxidase) were measured preoperatively and postoperatively until day 8. The postoperative increase in plasma levels of pancreatic enzymes and urinary IRT was biphasic in all patients: early after surgery and later (from day 4 to 8 after surgery). One hundred thirty-three patients (69%) experienced PCI, with mean IRT, isoamylase, and alpha1-protease inhibitor values higher for each sample than that in patients without PCI. By multiple regression analysis, we found preoperative values of plasma IRT >or=40 ng/mL, amylase >or=42 IU/mL, and pancreatic isoamylase >or=20 IU/L associated with a higher incidence of postsurgery PCI (P < 0.005). In the PCI patients, a significant correlation was found between the 4 pancreatic enzymes and urinary IRT, total calcium, myeloperoxidase, alpha1-protease inhibitor, and alpha2-macroglobulin. These data support a high prevalence of postoperative PCI after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, typically biphasic and clinically silent, especially when pancreatic enzymes were elevated preoperatively.

  13. Incidence and risk factors of nosocomial infections after cardiac surgery in Georgian population with congenital heart diseases.

    PubMed

    Lomtadze, M; Chkhaidze, M; Mgeladze, E; Metreveli, I; Tsintsadze, A

    2010-01-01

    Nosocomial infections still remain a serious problem in patients undergoing open heart surgery. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence, etiology and main risk factors of nosocomial infections (NI) following cardiac surgery in congenital heart diseases population. Retrospective case study was conducted. 387 patients with congenital heart disease (CHD), who underwent cardiac surgery from January 2007 to December 2008 were studied. The age of the most patients varied between 1 day to 15 years, 73 patients (18,8%) were older than 15 years. All 387 patients underwent cardiac surgery. The rate of NI was 16%. The most common infections were bloodstream infections (BSI) (7,75%) and respiratory tract infections (7%) respectively. The rate of NI was higher in patients under 1 year of age, after urgent surgery and urgent reoperation, long cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and aortic cross-clamp time, also in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation, massive haemotransfusion, with open heart bone after surgery, reintubation, hospitalization in another hospital during last three month. It was concluded that the most common nosocomial infection after cardiac surgery congenital heart diseases in Georgian population was blood stream infection. The main risk factors of NI in the same setting were age under 1 year, urgent surgery, urgent reoperation, long CPB and aortic cross-clamp time, long duration of mechanical ventilation, massive haemotransfusion, open heart bone after surgery, reintubation, hospitalization in another hospital during last three month.

  14. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiac arrest during moyamoya cerebral revascularization surgery: case report.

    PubMed

    Choudhri, Omar; Shah, Aatman; Basarab-Tung, Jennifer; Jaffe, Richard A; Steinberg, Gary K

    2015-09-01

    The authors describe the case of a 51-year-old man with bilateral moyamoya disease and prior strokes who developed an asystolic cardiac arrest while undergoing revascularization surgery under mild hypothermia. The patient was successfully treated with venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) after manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was unsuccessful for 45 minutes. ECMO is a cardiopulmonary support system that is indicated for respiratory failure in pediatric and adult patients. It is increasingly being used as an extension to mechanical CPR for patients who have suffered cardiac arrest if the underlying cause of cardiac arrest is thought to be reversible. Identifying which patients should be placed on emergency ECMO after cardiac arrest is controversial given its high morbidity and mortality. ECMO in neurosurgical settings has associated risks of intracranial hemorrhage and neurological compromise, while resource utilization is paramount given the high costs of this treatment. This paper is significant because it describes the use of ECMO in an unindicated setting. Limited data are available for ECMO usage after cardiac arrest with baseline cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, this paper raises important considerations for extracorporeal CPR use in a patient who had recently undergone craniotomy. The patient in this report remained on ECMO for 48 hours, after which he was successfully weaned. He developed a pericardial effusion and compartment syndrome from the ECMO but made a complete neurological recovery. Use of ECMO emergently in an appropriately chosen neurosurgical patient is safe, even in the setting of baseline cerebral ischemia and recent craniotomy.

  15. Is recombinant activated factor VII effective in the treatment of excessive bleeding after paediatric cardiac surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Okonta, Kelechi E.; Edwin, Frank; Falase, Bode

    2012-01-01

    A best evidence topic in paediatric cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether recombinant activated factor VII was effective for the treatment of excessive bleeding after paediatric cardiac surgery. Altogether 150 papers were found using the reported search; 13 papers were identified that provided the best evidence to answer the question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these studies were tabulated. A total of 311 children experienced excessive bleeding following cardiac surgery that was refractory to the conventional methods of achieving haemostasis. One hundred and ninety-two patients received the rFVIIa while 116 were in control arm from five studies. The primary end-point was on chest tube drainage, the plasma prothrombin time, the activated partial thromboplastin time after the administration of rFVIIa and the secondary end-point was reduction of blood products transfusion. Thrombosis was a complication in 8 patients (4.2%); three deaths (1.6%) but not attributable to thromboembolic events following the use of rFVIIa. Most of the studies failed to clearly state the doses but the extracted doses ranged between 30 and 180 µg/kg/dose, the interval between doses ranged between 15 and 120 min with a maximum of four doses. However, most of the patients had 180 µg/kg/dose with interval between dose of 2 h and maximum of two doses with dosage moderated with respect to weight, prior coagulopathy and responsiveness. There were two randomized studies with good sample size. One showed no significant differences in the secondary end points between the two arms and noted no adverse complications. However, the rFVIIa was used prophylactically. The other observed that there were no increase in thromboembolic events rather rFVIIa was effective in decreasing excessive bleeding that may complicate cardiac surgery in children

  16. Safety and effectiveness of an oral premedication regimen before cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Böttiger, B W; Rauch, H; Haussmann, R; Keller, M; Christmann, G; Fleischer, F; Martin, E

    1995-07-01

    Thirty-five adult cardiac surgical patients received 20 mg dipotassium clorazepate orally the evening before surgery and 2 mg flunitrazepam 60 min before induction of anaesthesia. If anaesthesia was to be induced after 08.30 hours patients received an additional 20 mg dipotassium clorazepate at 06.15 hours. The following measurements were made: peripheral arterial oxygen saturation (Spo2) breathing room air; anxiety by visual analogue scale; degree of sedation; and haemodynamic variables. Mean (Spo2) was 95.9% (SD 1.8%) on the day before surgery and 95.4% (SD 1.5%) on arrival at the operating room. When the operation started after 08.30 hours, mean (Spo2) at 09.00 hours was 96.0% (SD 1.4%). There were no detected episodes of hypoxaemia after premedication. Mean anxiety score decreased significantly from 3.9 (SD 2.6) on the day before surgery to 3.3 (SD 2.1) on arrival at the operating room (patients' score; P < 0.002) and from 4.6 (SD 2.4) to 3.3 (SD 2.0) (anaesthesiologists' score; P < 0.001). Nearly all patients were considered well sedated, which was reflected by normal haemodynamic variables on arrival at the operating room. The combination of clorazepate and flunitrazepam is effective oral premedication for adult cardiac surgery, causing no obvious desaturation even when supplemental oxygen is not given.

  17. Cardiac Surgery for Carcinoid Heart Disease: A Weapon Not to Be Misused.

    PubMed

    Bonou, Maria; Kapelios, Chris J; Kaltsas, Gregory; Perreas, Konstantinos; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Barbetseas, John

    2017-01-01

    Carcinoid heart disease (CHD) complicates approximately 25% of patients with a carcinoid tumor and carcinoid syndrome and leads to heart valve degeneration with mixed-stenotic and regurgitation pathology and consequent heart failure (HF) leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Cardiac surgery in symptomatic, severe CHD leads to significantly better functional capacity and prolonged survival when compared to medical treatment alone. Recent studies have shown improvement in postoperative outcomes of patients undergoing surgery for CHD over the last decades. The trend for early diagnosis and application of surgery prior to the manifestation of HF symptoms, which tended to develop during the previous years, does not seem justifiable based on the findings of recent studies. Therefore, the optimal timing of intervention in CHD and the type of valve that should preferably be used remain issues of controversy. This review comprehensively examines the existing literature on the treatment options for patients with CHD, with a special focus on short- and long-term survival after cardiac surgery, and discusses the selection of the exact patient profile and intervention timing that are more likely to optimize the benefit-to-risk ratio for surgical intervention.

  18. A trial of nebulised heparin to limit lung injury following cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Dixon, B; Smith, R; Santamaria, J D; Orford, N R; Wakefield, B J; Ives, K; McKenzie, R; Zhang, B; Yap, C H

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass triggers an acute inflammatory response in the lungs. This response gives rise to fibrin deposition in the microvasculature and alveoli of the lungs. Fibrin deposition in the microvasculature increases alveolar dead space, while fibrin deposition in alveoli causes shunting. We investigated whether prophylactic nebulised heparin could limit this form of lung injury. We undertook a single-centre double-blind randomised trial. Forty patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were randomised to prophylactic nebulised heparin (50,000 U) or placebo. The primary endpoint was the change in arterial oxygen levels over the operative period. Secondary endpoints included end-tidal CO₂, the alveolar dead space fraction and bleeding complications. We found nebulised heparin did not improve arterial oxygen levels. Nebulised heparin was, however, associated with a lower alveolar dead space fraction (P <0.05) and lower tidal volumes at the end of surgery (P <0.01). Nebulised heparin was not associated with bleeding complications. In conclusion, prophylactic nebulised heparin did not improve oxygenation, but was associated with evidence of better alveolar perfusion and CO₂elimination at the end of surgery.

  19. Does a gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponge reduce sternal wound infections in high-risk cardiac surgery patients?

    PubMed Central

    Birgand, Gabriel; Radu, Costin; Alkhoder, Soleiman; Al Attar, Nawwar; Raffoul, Richard; Dilly, Marie-Pierre; Nataf, Patrick; Lucet, Jean-Christophe

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Sternal wound infections occurring after cardiac surgery have a critical impact on morbidity, mortality and hospital costs. This study evaluated the efficacy of a gentamicin–collagen sponge in decreasing deep sternal-wound infections in high-risk cardiac surgery patients. METHODS We conducted a quasi-experimental single-centre prospective cohort study in diabetic and/or overweight patients undergoing coronary-artery bypass surgery with bilateral internal mammary artery grafts. The end-point was the rate of reoperation for deep sternal wound infection. The period from January 2006 to October 2008, before the introduction of the gentamicin sponge, was compared with the period from November 2008 to December 2010. RESULTS Of 552 patients (median body mass index, 31.5; 37.7% with diabetes requiring insulin), 68 (12.3%) had deep sternal wound infections. Reoperation for deep sternal wound infections occurred in 40/289 (13.8%) preintervention patients and 22/175 (12.6%) patients managed with the sponge. Independent risk factors were female sex and longer time on mechanical ventilation, but not use of the sponge (adjusted odds ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.52–1.73; P = 0.88). The group managed with the sponge had a higher proportion of gentamicin-resistant micro-organisms (21/27, 77.8%) compared with the other patients (23/56, 41.1%; P < 0.01). The median time to reoperation for wound infection was higher with the sponge (21 vs 17 days, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS A gentamicin–collagen sponge was not effective in preventing deep sternal wound infections in high-risk patients. Our results suggest that a substantial proportion of wound contaminations occur after bypass surgery with bilateral internal mammary artery grafts. PMID:23115102

  20. Factors Influencing Neurodevelopment after Cardiac Surgery during Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Hövels-Gürich, Hedwig Hubertine

    2016-01-01

    Short- and long-term neurodevelopmental (ND) disabilities with negative impact on psychosocial and academic performance, quality of life, and independence in adulthood are known to be the most common sequelae for surviving children after surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD). This article reviews influences and risk factors for ND impairment. For a long time, the search for independent risk factors was focused on the perioperative period and modalities of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). CPB operations to ensure intraoperative vital organ perfusion and oxygen supply with or without circulatory arrest or regional cerebral perfusion bear specific risks. Examples of such risks are embolization, deep hypothermia, flow rate, hemodilution, blood gas management, postoperative hyperthermia, systemic inflammatory response, and capillary leak syndrome. However, influences of these procedure-specific risk factors on ND outcome have not been found as strong as expected. Furthermore, modifications have not been found to support the effectiveness of the currently used neuroprotective strategies. Postoperative factors, such as need for extracorporal membrane oxygenation or assist device support and duration of hospital stay, significantly influence ND parameters. On the other hand, the so-called “innate,” less modifiable patient-specific risk factors have been found to exert significant influences on ND outcomes. Examples are type and severity of CHD, genetic or syndromic abnormalities, as well as prematurity and low birth weight. Structural and hemodynamic characteristics of different CHDs are assumed to result in impaired brain growth and delayed maturation with respect to the white matter. Beginning in the fetal period, this so-called “encephalopathy of CHD” is suggested a major innate risk factor for pre-, peri-, and postoperative additional hypoxic or ischemic brain injury and subsequent ND impairment. Furthermore, MRI studies on brain volume, structure, and

  1. Ischemic stroke risk reduction following cardiac surgery by carotid compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isingoma, Paul

    Every year over 500,000 cardiovascular procedures requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are performed in the United States. CPB is a technique that temporarily takes over the function of the heart and lungs during surgery, maintaining the circulation of blood and the oxygen content of the body. During CPB, an aortic cross-clamp is used to clamp the aorta and separate the systemic circulation from the outflow of the heart. Unfortunately, these procedures have been found to cause most cerebral emboli, which produce clinical, subclinical and silent neurologic injuries. Many clinical neurologic injuries occur in the postoperative period, with over 20% of the clinical strokes occurring during this period. In this study, we focus on visualizing the flow distribution in the aortic arch, the effect of carotid compression and the influence of compression time and MAP during CPB on reducing cerebral emboli. Experiments are performed with an aortic arch model in a mock cardiovascular system. Fluorescent particles are used to simulate emboli that are released into circulation immediately after carotid compression. The LVAD is used as the pump to produce flow in the system by gradually adjusting the speed to maintain desired clinical conditions. Aortic and proximal branches MAP of 65.0 +/- 5.0 mmHg (normal MAP) or 95.0 +/- 5.0 mmHg (high MAP), aortic flow of 4.0 +/- 0.5 L/min, and all branches flow (left and right carotids, and subclavian arteries) of 10% of the aortic flow. Flow distribution of particles is visualized using LaVision's DaVis imaging software and analyzed using imagej's particle analysis tool to track, count, and record particle properties from the aortic arch. Carotid compression for 10-20 seconds reduces the number of particles entering the carotid arteries by over 73% at normal MAP, and by over 85% at high MAP. A higher MAP resulted in fewer particles entering the branching vessels both at baseline and during occlusion conditions. A compression duration of

  2. Non-invasive Evaluation for Epilepsy Surgery

    PubMed Central

    IWASAKI, Masaki; JIN, Kazutaka; NAKASATO, Nobukazu; TOMINAGA, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy surgery is aimed to remove the brain tissues that are indispensable for generating patient’s epileptic seizures. There are two purposes in the pre-operative evaluation: localization of the epileptogenic zone and localization of function. Surgery is planned to remove possible epileptogenic zone while preserving functional area. Since no single diagnostic modality is superior to others in identifying and localizing the epileptogenic zone, multiple non-invasive evaluations are performed to estimate the location of the epileptogenic zone after concordance between evaluations. Essential components of non-invasive pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy include detailed clinical history, long-term video-electroencephalography monitoring, epilepsy-protocol magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and neuropsychological testing. However, a significant portion of drug-resistant epilepsy is associated with no or subtle MRI lesions or with ambiguous electro-clinical signs. Additional evaluations including fluoro-deoxy glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), magnetoencephalography and ictal single photon emission computed tomography can play critical roles in planning surgery. FDG-PET should be registered on three-dimensional MRI for better detection of focal cortical dysplasia. All diagnostic tools are complementary to each other in defining the epileptogenic zone, so that it is always important to reassess the data based on other results to pick up or confirm subtle abnormalities. PMID:27627857

  3. Pulmonary Protection Strategies in Cardiac Surgery: Are We Making Any Progress?

    PubMed Central

    Al Jaaly, Emad; Zakkar, Mustafa; Fiorentino, Francesca; Angelini, Gianni D.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary dysfunction is a common complication of cardiac surgery. The mechanisms involved in the development of pulmonary dysfunction are multifactorial and can be related to the activation of inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways. Clinical manifestation varies from mild atelectasis to severe respiratory failure. Managing pulmonary dysfunction postcardiac surgery is a multistep process that starts before surgery and continues during both the operative and postoperative phases. Different pulmonary protection strategies have evolved over the years; however, the wide acceptance and clinical application of such techniques remain hindered by the poor level of evidence or the sample size of the studies. A better understanding of available modalities and/or combinations can result in the development of customised strategies for the different cohorts of patients with the potential to hence maximise patients and institutes benefits. PMID:26576223

  4. Acute cardiac arrhythmias following surgery for congenital heart disease: mechanisms, diagnostic tools, and management.

    PubMed

    Payne, Linda; Zeigler, Vicki L; Gillette, Paul C

    2011-06-01

    This article focuses on the management of those cardiac arrhythmias most commonly seen in the immediate postoperative period. They include ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, atrial flutter, junctional ectopic tachycardia, bradycardia, and atrioventricular block. The mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias are reviewed followed by a brief overview of the predominant acute arrhythmias, tools used for the diagnostic evaluation of these arrhythmias, management strategies, and, finally, nursing considerations.

  5. Intensive Care Unit Admission Parameters Improve the Accuracy of Operative Mortality Predictive Models in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ranucci, Marco; Ballotta, Andrea; Castelvecchio, Serenella; Baryshnikova, Ekaterina; Brozzi, Simonetta; Boncilli, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Background Operative mortality risk in cardiac surgery is usually assessed using preoperative risk models. However, intraoperative factors may change the risk profile of the patients, and parameters at the admission in the intensive care unit may be relevant in determining the operative mortality. This study investigates the association between a number of parameters at the admission in the intensive care unit and the operative mortality, and verifies the hypothesis that including these parameters into the preoperative risk models may increase the accuracy of prediction of the operative mortality. Methodology 929 adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery were admitted to the study. The preoperative risk profile was assessed using the logistic EuroSCORE and the ACEF score. A number of parameters recorded at the admission in the intensive care unit were explored for univariate and multivariable association with the operative mortality. Principal Findings A heart rate higher than 120 beats per minute and a blood lactate value higher than 4 mmol/L at the admission in the intensive care unit were independent predictors of operative mortality, with odds ratio of 6.7 and 13.4 respectively. Including these parameters into the logistic EuroSCORE and the ACEF score increased their accuracy (area under the curve 0.85 to 0.88 for the logistic EuroSCORE and 0.81 to 0.86 for the ACEF score). Conclusions A double-stage assessment of operative mortality risk provides a higher accuracy of the prediction. Elevated blood lactates and tachycardia reflect a condition of inadequate cardiac output. Their inclusion in the assessment of the severity of the clinical conditions after cardiac surgery may offer a useful tool to introduce more sophisticated hemodynamic monitoring techniques. Comparison between the predicted operative mortality risk before and after the operation may offer an assessment of the operative performance. PMID:21042411

  6. Perioperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio as a predictor of poor cardiac surgery patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Giakoumidakis, Konstantinos; Fotos, Nikolaos V; Patelarou, Athina; Theologou, Stavros; Argiriou, Mihalis; Chatziefstratiou, Anastasia A; Katzilieri, Christina; Brokalaki, Hero

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between the perioperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and cardiac surgery patient outcomes. Patients and methods A retrospective cohort study of 145 patients who underwent cardiac surgery in a tertiary hospital of Athens, Greece, from January to March 2015, was conducted. By using a structured short questionnaire, this study reviewed the electronic hospital database and the medical and nursing patient records for data collection purposes. The statistical significance was two-tailed, and p-values <0.05 were considered significant. The statistical analysis was performed with Mann–Whitney U test and Spearman’s correlation coefficient, by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (IBM SPSS 21.0 for Windows). Results The increased preoperative levels of NLR were associated with significantly higher mortality, both in-hospital (p=0.001) and 30-day (p=0.002), prolonged postoperative hospital length of stay (LOS), both in the cardiac intensive care unit (ICU) (p=0.002), and in-hospital (p=0.018), and likewise with delayed tracheal extubation (p≤0.001). Furthermore, patients with elevated NLR during the second postoperative day had significantly higher in-hospital mortality (p=0.018), increased incidence of pneumonia (p=0.022), higher probability of readmission to the ICU (p=0.002), prolonged ICU LOS (p≤0.001), and delayed tracheal extubation (p≤0.001). Conclusion Increased perioperative NLR seems to be associated with significantly higher mortality and morbidity in cardiac surgery patients. At the same time, NLR is a significant and inexpensive biomarker for the early identification of patients at high risk for complications. In addition, NLR levels could lead clinicians to perform measures for the optimal therapeutic patient approach. PMID:28243161

  7. Impact of respiratory infection in the results of cardiac surgery in a tertiary hospital in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Isaac Newton Guimarães; de Araújo, Diego Torres Aladin; de Moraes, Fernando Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of respiratory tract infection in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery in relation to mortality and to identify patients at higher risk of developing this complication. Methods Cross-sectional observational study conducted at the Recovery of Cardiothoracic Surgery, using information from a database consisting of a total of 900 patients operated on in this hospital during the period from 01/07/2008 to 1/07/2009. We included patients whose medical records contained all the information required and undergoing elective surgery, totaling 109 patients with two excluded. Patients were divided into two groups, WITH and WITHOUT respiratory tract infection, as the development or respiratory tract infection in hospital, with patients in the group without respiratory tract infection, the result of randomization, using for the pairing of the groups the type of surgery performed. The outcome variables assessed were mortality, length of hospital stay and length of stay in intensive care unit. The means of quantitative variables were compared using the Wilcoxon and student t-test. Results The groups were similar (average age P=0.17; sex P=0.94; surgery performed P=0.85-1.00) Mortality in the WITH respiratory tract infection group was significantly higher (P<0.0001). The times of hospitalization and intensive care unit were significantly higher in respiratory tract infection (P<0.0001). The presence of respiratory tract infection was associated with the development of other complications such as renal failure dialysis and stroke P<0.00001 and P=0.002 respectively. Conclusion The development of respiratory tract infection postoperative cardiac surgery is related to higher mortality, longer periods of hospitalization and intensive care unit stay. PMID:26313727

  8. The Safety and Efficacy of Antifibrinolytic Therapy in Neonatal Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Yuan; Shuhaiber, Jeffery H.; Loyola, Hugo; Liu, Hua; del Nido, Pedro; DiNardo, James A.; Pigula, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neonates undergoing open-heart surgery are particularly at risk of postoperative bleeding requiring blood transfusion. Aprotinin has attained high efficacy in reducing the requirement for a blood transfusion following a cardiopulmonary bypass, but is seldom studied in the neonatal age group. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and adverse effects of aprotinin and tranexamic acid in neonates undergoing open-heart surgery at a single centre. Methods Between October 2003 and March 2008, perioperative data of 552 consecutive neonatal patients undergoing open-heart surgery in Children’s Hospital Boston were reviewed. Among them, 177 did not receive antifibrinolytic therapy (Group A); 100 were treated with tranexamic acid only (Group B); and 275 patients received aprotinin with or without tranexamic acid (Group C). Except for antifibrinolytic therapy, the anaesthesiological and surgical protocols remained identical. Postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality were the primary study endpoints. Results Body weight and Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1) scores were statistically comparable among the three groups. No statistically significant differences were observed between the duration of hospitalization, chest tube drainage, reexploration for bleeding, and kidney function impairment. In Group C, less blood was transfused within 24 hours than in GroupB. Operative mortality was similar among the three groups. Conclusion No further risk and kidney injury were observed in the use of aprotinin in neonatal cardiac surgery, aprotinin demonstrated a reduced requirement for blood transfusion compared with tranexamic acid. Our data provide reasonable evidence that aprotinin and tranexamic acid are safe and efficacious as antifibrinolytic modalities in neonatal patients undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:25954976

  9. The prevalence of chronic chest and leg pain following cardiac surgery: a historical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bruce, J; Drury, N; Poobalan, A S; Jeffrey, R R; Smith, W C S; Chambers, W A

    2003-07-01

    Chronic pain after surgery is recognised as an important post-operative complication; recent studies have shown up to 30% of patients reporting persistent pain following mastectomy and inguinal hernia repair. No large-scale studies have investigated the epidemiology of chronic pain at two operative sites following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). This paper reports the follow-up of a cohort of 1348 patients who underwent cardiac surgery between 1996 and 2000 at one cardiothoracic unit in northeast Scotland. Chronic pain was defined as pain in the location of surgery, different from that suffered pre-operatively, arising post-operatively and persisting beyond 3 months. The survey questionnaire consisted of the short-form-36 (SF-36), Rose angina questionnaire, McGill pain questionnaire and the University of California and San Francisco (UCSF) pain service questionnaire. Of the 1080 responders, 130 reported chronic chest pain, 100 chronic post-saphenectomy pain and 194 reported pain at both surgical sites. The cumulative prevalence of post-cardiac surgery pain was 39.3% (CI(95) 36.4-42.2%) and mean time of 28 months since surgery (SD 15.3 months). Patients who reported pain at both sites had lower quality of life scores across all eight health domains compared to patients with pain at one site only and those who were pain-free. Prevalence of chronic pain decreased with age, from 55% in those aged under 60 years to 34% in patients over 70 years. Patients with pre-operative angina and those who were overweight or obese (BMI>/=25) at the time of surgery were more likely to report chronic pain. Chronic pain following median sternotomy and saphenous vein harvesting is more common than hitherto reported and that patients undergoing CABG should be warned of this possibility.

  10. Evidence of an association between brain cellular injury and cognitive decline after non-cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rappold, T.; Laflam, A.; Hori, D.; Brown, C.; Brandt, J.; Mintz, C. D.; Sieber, F.; Gottschalk, A.; Yenokyan, G.; Everett, A.; Hogue, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is common after non-cardiac surgery, but the mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that decrements in cognition 1 month after non-cardiac surgery would be associated with evidence of brain injury detected by elevation of plasma concentrations of S100β, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and/or the brain-specific protein glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP). Methods. One hundred and forty-nine patients undergoing shoulder surgery underwent neuropsychological testing before and then 1 month after surgery. Plasma was collected before and after anaesthesia. We determined the relationship between plasma biomarker concentrations and individual neuropsychological test results and a composite cognitive functioning score (mean Z-score). Results. POCD (≥−1.5 sd decrement in Z-score from baseline) was present in 10.1% of patients 1 month after surgery. There was a negative relationship between higher plasma GFAP concentrations and lower postoperative composite Z-scores {estimated slope=−0.14 [95% confidence interval (CI) −0.24 to −0.04], P=0.005} and change from baseline in postoperative scores on the Rey Complex Figure Test copy trial (P=0.021), delayed recall trial (P=0.010), and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (P=0.004) after adjustment for age, sex, history of hypertension and diabetes. A similar relationship was not observed with S100β or NSE concentrations. Conclusions. Decline in cognition 1 month after shoulder surgery is associated with brain cellular injury as demonstrated by elevated plasma GFAP concentrations. PMID:26675953

  11. Octreotide use in post-cardiac surgery chylothorax: a 12-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Aljazairi, Abdulrazaq Sheikh; Bhuiyan, Tauhid Ahmed; Alwadai, Abdullah Hasan; Almehizia, Rayd Abdulaziz

    2017-01-01

    Background Chylothorax following cardiothoracic surgery is a rare condition in pediatric patients with significant morbidity and mortality. Pharmacological management with octreotide suggests possible efficacy; however, current evidence is inadequate. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of octreotide as a therapeutic option in this clinical setting. Methods This was a 12-year single-center retrospective cohort study of all patients (birth to 18-years old) who received octreotide for management of post-cardiac surgery chylothorax between January 2003 to August 2015. The primary efficacy endpoint was resolution of chylothorax, categorized as complete (<2 mL·kg(-1)·day(-1)), partial (based on physician's judgement), or failed. The primary safety endpoint was any significant adverse drug reaction leading to discontinuation of octreotide therapy. Of the 46 patients identified as receiving octreotide for post-cardiac surgery chylothorax, 29 were included in efficacy and safety analyses. Results Resolution of chylothorax was achieved in 62% (complete in 28%, partial in 34%) of the total sample. The 38% who did not respond to octreotide therapy required thoracic duct ligation. The mean initial dose and duration of octreotide was 4 ± 3 µg·kg(-1)·h(-1) and 10 ± 5 days, respectively. Besides minor side-effects including transient hyperglycemia (45%), abdominal distension (3%), and tachycardia (>150 beats·min(-1); 10%), no patient developed a significant side-effect that required discontinuation of therapy. Conclusions Pharmacological management of post-cardiac surgery induced chylothorax with octreotide shows promising benefits with an acceptable safety profile.

  12. Nanofiber-reinforced biological conduit in cardiac surgery: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Guhathakurta, Soma; Galla, Satish; Ramesh, Balasundari; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen

    2011-06-01

    Several options are available for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction, including commercially available bovine jugular vein and cryo-preserved homografts. Homograft non-availability and the problems of commercially available conduits led us to develop indigenously processed bovine jugular vein conduits with competent valves. They were made completely acellular and strengthened by non-conventional cross-linking without disturbing the extracellular matrix, which improved the luminal surface characteristics for hemocompatibility. Biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo, along with thermal stability, matrix stability, and mechanical strength have been evaluated. Sixty-nine patients received these conduits for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction. Seven conduits dilated and 4 required replacement. To counteract dilatation, biodegradable polymeric nanofibers in various combinations and in isolation (collagen, polycaprolactone, polylactic acid) were characterized and used to reinforce the conduit circumferentially. Physical validation by mechanical testing, scanning electron microscopy, and in-vitro cytotoxicity was conducted. Thermal stability, spectroscopy studies of the polymer, and preclinical studies of the coated bovine jugular vein in animals are in progress. The feasibility studies have been completed, and the final polymer selection depends on evaluation of the functional superiority of the coated bovine jugular vein.

  13. Impact of Peri-Operative Acute Kidney Injury as a Severity Index for 30-day Readmission After Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jeremiah R.; Parikh, Chirag R.; Ross, Cathy S.; Kramer, Robert S.; Magnus, Patrick C.; Chaisson, Kristine; Boss, Richard A.; Helm, Robert E.; Horton, Susan R.; Hofmaster, Patricia; Desaulniers, Helen; Blajda, Pamela; Westbrook, Benjamin M.; Duquette, Dennis; LeBlond, Kelly; Quinn, Reed D.; Jones, Cheryl; DiScipio, Anthony W.; Malenka, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Of patients undergoing cardiac surgery in the United States, 15–20% are re-hospitalized within 30-days. Current models to predict readmission have not evaluated the association between severity of post-operative acute kidney injury (AKI) and 30-day readmissions. Methods We collected data from 2,209 consecutive patients who underwent either coronary artery bypass (CABG) or valve surgery at seven member hospitals of the Northern New England Cardiovascular Disease Study Group Cardiac Surgery Registry (NNE) between July 2008 and December 2010. Administrative data at each hospital was searched to identify all patients readmitted to the index hospital within 30 days of discharge. We defined AKI Stages by the AKI Network definition of 0.3 or 50% increase (Stage 1), 2-fold increase (stage 2) and a 3-fold or 0.5 increase if the baseline serum creatinine was at least 4.0 (mg/dL) or new dialysis (stage 3). We evaluate the association between stages of AKI and 30-day readmission using multivariate logistic regression. Results There were 260 patients readmitted within 30-days (12.1%). The median time to readmission was 9 (IQR 4–16) days. Patients not developing AKI following cardiac surgery had a 30-day readmission rate of 9.3% compared to patients developing AKI stage 1 (16.1%), AKI stage 2 (21.8%) and AKI stage 3 (28.6%, p <0.001). Adjusted odds ratios for AKI stage 1 (1.81; 1.35, 2.44), stage 2 (2.39; 1.38, 4.14) and stage 3 (3.47; 1.85–6.50). Models to predict readmission were significantly improved with the addition of AKI stage (c-statistic 0.65, p = 0.001) and net reclassification rate of 14.6% (95%CI: 5.05% to 24.14%, p = .003). Conclusions In addition to more traditional patient characteristics, the severity of post-operative AKI should be used when assessing a patient’s risk for readmission. PMID:24119985

  14. Thallium redistribution does not predict perioperative cardiac complications following vascular surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmers, A.; Kispert, J.F.; Roitman, L.; Endean, E.D.; Hyde, G.L.; Ryo, U.Y. )

    1991-06-01

    Utility of preoperative stress thallium scintigraphy (STS) was determined in 59 patients, thought to be at increased risk, prior to major vascular surgery from July 1987 to February 1990. Forty-seven had oral dipyridamole and 12 underwent exercise STS. Thallium redistribution (TR) was present in 61% (n = 36); fixed defects were present in 59% (n = 35); and some combination of defects was present in 76% (n = 45). Perioperative cardiac complications (CC = congestive heart failure (n = 3), ventricular arrhythmia (n = 2), and MI (n = 1)) were present in 8.5% (6 CC in 5 patients). Incidence of CC was 8.3% (3/36) in those with TR, and 8.7% (2/23) without TR (relative risk = 0.95). Perioperative MI was present in 2.8% (1/36) with TR vs. 0% (0/23) without. Though mortality was 3.4%, no perioperative deaths were from cardiac disease. Utility of STS is not clearly established for prediction of perioperative cardiac risk after major vascular surgery.

  15. Associations of hospital characteristics with nosocomial pneumonia after cardiac surgery can impact on standardized infection rates.

    PubMed

    Sanagou, M; Leder, K; Cheng, A C; Pilcher, D; Reid, C M; Wolfe, R

    2016-04-01

    To identify hospital-level factors associated with post-cardiac surgical pneumonia for assessing their impact on standardized infection rates (SIRs), we studied 43 691 patients in a cardiac surgery registry (2001-2011) in 16 hospitals. In a logistic regression model for pneumonia following cardiac surgery, associations with hospital characteristics were quantified with adjustment for patient characteristics while allowing for clustering of patients by hospital. Pneumonia rates varied from 0·7% to 12·4% across hospitals. Seventy percent of variability in the pneumonia rate was attributable to differences in hospitals in their long-term rates with the remainder attributable to within-hospital differences in rates over time. After adjusting for patient characteristics, the pneumonia rate was found to be higher in hospitals with more registered nurses (RNs)/100 intensive-care unit (ICU) admissions [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1·2, P = 0·006] and more RNs/available ICU beds (aOR 1·4, P < 0·001). Other hospital characteristics had no significant association with pneumonia. SIRs calculated on the basis of patient characteristics alone differed substantially from the same rates calculated on the basis of patient characteristics and the hospital characteristic of RNs/100 ICU admissions. Since SIRs using patient case-mix information are important for comparing rates between hospitals, the additional allowance for hospital characteristics can impact significantly on how hospitals compare.

  16. Raised Plasma Robo4 and Cardiac Surgery-Associated Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Burke-Gaffney, Anne; Svermova, Tatiana; Mumby, Sharon; Finney, Simon J.; Evans, Timothy W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Endothelial dysfunction associated with systemic inflammation can contribute to organ injury/failure following cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Roundabout protein 4 (Robo4), an endothelial-expressed transmembrane receptor and regulator of cell activation, is an important inhibitor of endothelial hyper-permeability. We investigated the hypothesis that plasma levels of Robo4 are indicative of organ injury, in particular acute kidney injury (AKI), after cardiac surgery. Methods Patients (n = 32) undergoing elective cardiac surgery with CPB were enrolled, prospectively. Plasma Robo4 concentrations were measured pre-, 2 and 24 h post-operatively, using a commercially available ELISA. Plasma and endothelial markers of inflammation [interleukin (IL) -6, -8, -10: von Willibrand factor (vWF) and angiopoeitin-2 (Ang-2)] and the AKI marker, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), were also measured by ELISA. Results Plasma Robo4 increased significantly (p<0.001) from pre-operative levels of 2515±904 pg/ml to 4473±1915 pg/ml, 2 h after surgery; and returned to basal levels (2682±979 pg/ml) by 24 h. Plasma cytokines, vWF and NGAL also increased 2 h post-operatively and remained elevated at 24 h. Ang-2 increased 24 h post-operatively, only. There was a positive, significant correlation (r = 0.385, p = 0.0298) between Robo-4 and IL-10, but not other cytokines, 2 h post-operatively. Whilst raised Robo4 did not correlate with indices of lung dysfunction or other biomarkers of endothelial activation; there was a positive, significant correlation between raised (2 h) plasma NGAL and Robo4 (r = 0.4322, p = 0.0135). When patients were classed as AKI or non-AKI either using NGAL cut-off of 150 ng/ml, or the AKI Network (AKIN) clinical classification; plasma Robo4 was significantly higher (p = 0.0073 and 0.003, respectively) in AKI vs. non-AKI patients (NGAL cut-off: 5350±2191 ng/ml, n = 16 vs. 3595±1068 pg

  17. Vascular connector devices increase the availability of minimally invasive cardiac surgery to ischemic heart patients.

    PubMed

    Ramchandani, M; Bedeir, K

    2011-01-01

    The revival of off-pump cardiac surgery and the exploration of less invasive techniques for coronary artery bypass grafting, have lead to an increasing technical difficulty, as compared to conventional surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. The moving target vessel in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery, as well as the increasingly limited space in minimally invasive cardiac surgery were not convenient to many surgeons, a fact that lead many surgeons to deprive their patients the potential benefits of these techniques. Since the 1950's, surgeons have attempted to make the anastomotic procedure less cumbersome and less time consuming. Many creative ideas and devices were made, but for many different reasons, they eventually faded away. Since then, hand-sewn anastomoses have been the standard of care in coronary artery bypass grafting. Today, with the obvious need for a facilitated and fast coronary anastomosis, interest in these anastomotic devices has been re-awakened. The exact geometry, physiology and dynamics of the perfect anastomosis have thus been studied, in an attempt to provide an understanding of reasons behind anastomosis and graft failure after coronary artery bypass surgery, and eventually design the best performing device. These devices would allow for a faster, more accurate and a more reproducible coronary anastomosis using minimally invasive techniques. Also, due to a short learning curve, the standardization of percutaneous devices would allow much more surgeons to more widely adopt less invasive techniques. In summary, we see anastomotic devices as a solution to the technical challenges surgeons encounter with minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting.

  18. Hemoglobin-associated Oxidative Stress in the Pericardial Compartment of Post-operative Cardiac Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Philip A.; Chacko, Balu K.; Ravi, Saranya; Johnson, Michelle S.; Mitchell, Tanecia; Barnes, Stephen; Arabshahi, Alireza; Dell’Italia, Louis J.; George, David J.; Steele, Chad; George, James F.; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.; Melby, Spencer J.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and valvular heart disease often require treatment with corrective surgery to prevent future myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, and heart failure. Mechanisms underlying the development of the associated complications of surgery are multifactorial and have been linked to inflammation and oxidative stress, classically as measured in the blood or plasma of patients. Post-operative pericardial fluid (PO-PCF) has not been investigated in depth with respect to the potential to induce oxidative stress. This is important since cardiac surgery disrupts the integrity of the pericardial membrane surrounding the heart, and causes significant alterations in the composition of the pericardial fluid (PCF). This includes contamination with hemolyzed blood and high concentrations of oxidized hemoglobin, which suggests that cardiac surgery results in oxidative stress within the pericardial space. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that PO-PCF is highly pro-oxidant and that the potential interaction between inflammatory cell-derived hydrogen peroxide with hemoglobin is associated with oxidative stress. Blood and PCF were collected from 31 patients at the time of surgery and postoperatively from 4 to 48 hours after coronary artery bypass grafting, valve replacement, or valve repair (mitral or aortic). PO-PCF contained high concentrations of neutrophils and monocytes which are capable of generating elevated amounts of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide through the oxidative burst. In addition, PO-PCF primed naïve neutrophils resulting in an enhanced oxidative burst upon stimulation. The PO-PCF also contained increased concentrations of cell-free oxidized hemoglobin which was associated with elevated levels of F2α-isoprostanes and prostaglandins, consistent with both oxidative stress and activation of cyclooxygenase. Lastly, protein analysis of the PO-PCF revealed evidence of protein thiol oxidation and protein carbonylation. We conclude that PO-PCF is

  19. Postoperative Arrhythmias after Cardiac Surgery: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Therapeutic Management

    PubMed Central

    Cianflone, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Arrhythmias are a known complication after cardiac surgery and represent a major cause of morbidity, increased length of hospital stay, and economic costs. However, little is known about incidence, risk factors, and treatment of early postoperative arrhythmias. Both tachyarrhythmias and bradyarrhythmias can present in the postoperative period. In this setting, atrial fibrillation is the most common heart rhythm disorder. Postoperative atrial fibrillation is often self-limiting, but it may require anticoagulation therapy and either a rate or rhythm control strategy. However, ventricular arrhythmias and conduction disturbances can also occur. Sustained ventricular arrhythmias in the recovery period after cardiac surgery may warrant acute treatment and long-term preventive strategy in the absence of reversible causes. Transient bradyarrhythmias may be managed with temporary pacing wires placed at surgery, but significant and persistent atrioventricular block or sinus node dysfunction can occur with the need for permanent pacing. We provide a complete and updated review about mechanisms, risk factors, and treatment strategies for the main postoperative arrhythmias. PMID:24511410

  20. Bacteriologic Profile of Pericardial Infections After Cardiac Surgery: Study in an Iranian Cardiovascular Tertiary Care Center

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffari, Kambiz; Bakhshandeh, Hooman; Soudi, Hengameh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bacterial pericarditis is an important cause of post-surgery mortality and morbidity. This can be a preventable complication and the involved pathogens vary according to the time and location. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the bacteriologic profile in patients with pericardial infections after cardiac surgery in the largest tertiary care center for cardiovascular diseases in Iran. The results can be applied for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of similar patients in Iran. Patients and Methods: This prospective study was performed in Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center (RCMRC), the largest tertiary care center for cardiovascular disease in Iran from March 2011 to March 2012. Patients who had undergone cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and showed suggestive sign and symptoms of pericardial infections were registered and samples from their pericardial fluids were obtained to perform standard bacteriologic and antibiogram tests. Results: A total of 158 patients were registered. Bacteriologic findings were positive in 30 patients (19%). Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most frequent isolated organism, which was found in 22 patients (73.3%) with eight of them being methicillin-resistant strains. Conclusions: The bacteriologic profile in our patient is specific to our own community. Knowledge about this profile can help us to improve prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the affected patients. PMID:25478545

  1. Association of blood products administration during cardiopulmonary bypass and excessive post-operative bleeding in pediatric cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Hemant S; Barrett, Sarah S; Barry, Kristen; Xu, Meng; Saville, Benjamin R; Donahue, Brian S; Harris, Zena L; Bichell, David P

    2015-03-01

    Our objectives were to study risk factors and post-operative outcomes associated with excessive post-operative bleeding in pediatric cardiac surgeries performed using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) support. A retrospective observational study was undertaken, and all consecutive pediatric heart surgeries over 1 year period were studied. Excessive post-operative bleeding was defined as 10 ml/kg/h of chest tube output for 1 h or 5 ml/kg/h for three consecutive hours in the first 12 h of pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU) stay. Risk factors including demographics, complexity of cardiac defect, CPB parameters, hematological studies, and post-operative morbidity and mortality were evaluated for excessive bleeding. 253 patients were studied, and 107 (42 %) met the criteria for excessive bleeding. Bayesian model averaging revealed that greater volume of blood products transfusion during CPB was significantly associated with excessive bleeding. Multiple logistic regression analysis of blood products transfusion revealed that increased volume of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) administration for CPB prime and during CPB was significantly associated with excessive bleeding (p = 0.028 and p = 0.0012, respectively). Proportional odds logistic regression revealed that excessive bleeding was associated with greater time to achieve negative fluid balance, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and duration of PCICU stay (p < 0.001) after adjusting for multiple parameters. A greater volume of blood products administration, especially PRBCs transfusion for CPB prime, and during the CPB period is associated with excessive post-operative bleeding. Excessive bleeding is associated with worse post-operative outcomes.

  2. Myocardial gene delivery using molecular cardiac surgery with recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors in vivo.

    PubMed

    White, J D; Thesier, D M; Swain, J B D; Katz, M G; Tomasulo, C; Henderson, A; Wang, L; Yarnall, C; Fargnoli, A; Sumaroka, M; Isidro, A; Petrov, M; Holt, D; Nolen-Walston, R; Koch, W J; Stedman, H H; Rabinowitz, J; Bridges, C R

    2011-06-01

    We use a novel technique that allows for closed recirculation of vector genomes in the cardiac circulation using cardiopulmonary bypass, referred to here as molecular cardiac surgery with recirculating delivery (MCARD). We demonstrate that this platform technology is highly efficient in isolating the heart from the systemic circulation in vivo. Using MCARD, we compare the relative efficacy of single-stranded (ss) adeno-associated virus (AAV)6, ssAAV9 and self-complimentary (sc)AAV6-encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein, driven by the constitutive cytomegalovirus promoter to transduce the ovine myocardium in situ. MCARD allows for the unprecedented delivery of up to 48 green fluorescent protein genome copies per cell globally in the sheep left ventricular (LV) myocardium. We demonstrate that scAAV6-mediated MCARD delivery results in global, cardiac-specific LV gene expression in the ovine heart and provides for considerably more robust and cardiac-specific gene delivery than other available delivery techniques such as intramuscular injection or intracoronary injection; thus, representing a potential, clinically translatable platform for heart failure gene therapy.

  3. Levosimendan vs. intra-aortic balloon pump in high-risk cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Lomivorotov, Vladimir V; Cherniavskiy, Alexander M; Boboshko, Vladimir A; Kornilov, Igor A; Lomivorotov, Vladimir N; Karaskov, Alexander M

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the efficiency of levosimendan and preventive intra-aortic balloon pump in high-risk cardiac patients (left ventricular ejection fraction <35%) operated under cardiopulmonary bypass. In 20 patients, intra-aortic balloon pump was started 16-18 h before surgery; another 20 had a levosimendan infusion starting after induction of anesthesia with an initial bolus of 12 μg·kg(-1) for 10 min, followed by 0.1 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1) for 24 h. Postoperative complications, hemodynamics, and markers of cardiac damage were analyzed. In the levosimendan group, cardiac index was significantly higher 5 min after cardiopulmonary bypass, at the end of the operation, 2 and 4 h after perfusion, compared to the intra-aortic balloon pump group. The level of troponin I in the levosimendan group was significantly lower at 6 h after the operation. Intensive care unit stay was significantly shorter in the levosimendan group. It was concluded that the use of levosimendan in high-risk cardiac patients is as effective as intra-aortic balloon pump, in terms of maintaining stable hemodynamic during and after operations under cardiopulmonary bypass. The lower level of troponin I at 6 h postoperatively suggests cardioprotective properties of levosimendan, but requires further investigation.

  4. Anaesthesia management for non-cardiac surgery in children with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tomohiro; Schindler, Ehrenfried

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common form of congenital abnormality and occurs in over 1% of newborns. Approximately 30% of children with CHD have other extra-cardiac anomalies, which significantly increases mortality in CHD patients. It is expected that the number of CHD patients who consult non-specialized hospitals for non-cardiac surgery after palliative or corrective operations will increase because of the extraordinary progression of treatments, such as surgical procedures, interventional procedures, and intensive care medicine, as well as diagnosis. The aim of this article is to enable anaesthesiologists who are not usually engaged in the anaesthesia management of CHD patients to provide perioperative management for CHD patients safely and with confidence by having basic and advanced knowledge about CHD patients and their pathophysiological characteristics.

  5. Dynamic trends in cardiac surgery: why the logistic EuroSCORE is no longer suitable for contemporary cardiac surgery and implications for future risk models

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, Graeme L.; Grant, Stuart W.; Murphy, Gavin J.; Bhabra, Moninder; Pagano, Domenico; McAllister, Katherine; Buchan, Iain; Bridgewater, Ben

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Progressive loss of calibration of the original EuroSCORE models has necessitated the introduction of the EuroSCORE II model. Poor model calibration has important implications for clinical decision-making and risk adjustment of governance analyses. The objective of this study was to explore the reasons for the calibration drift of the logistic EuroSCORE. METHODS Data from the Society for Cardiothoracic Surgery in Great Britain and Ireland database were analysed for procedures performed at all National Health Service and some private hospitals in England and Wales between April 2001 and March 2011. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. EuroSCORE risk factors, overall model calibration and discrimination were assessed over time. RESULTS A total of 317 292 procedures were included. Over the study period, mean age at surgery increased from 64.6 to 67.2 years. The proportion of procedures that were isolated coronary artery bypass grafts decreased from 67.5 to 51.2%. In-hospital mortality fell from 4.1 to 2.8%, but the mean logistic EuroSCORE increased from 5.6 to 7.6%. The logistic EuroSCORE remained a good discriminant throughout the study period (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve between 0.79 and 0.85), but calibration (observed-to-expected mortality ratio) fell from 0.76 to 0.37. Inadequate adjustment for decreasing baseline risk affected calibration considerably. DISCUSSIONS Patient risk factors and case-mix in adult cardiac surgery change dynamically over time. Models like the EuroSCORE that are developed using a ‘snapshot’ of data in time do not account for this and can subsequently lose calibration. It is therefore important to regularly revalidate clinical prediction models. PMID:23152436

  6. Risk Factors for Acute Kidney Injury after Congenital Cardiac Surgery in Infants and Children: A Retrospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunhee; Park, Jung Bo; Kim, Youngwon; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Jun, Tae-Gook; Kim, Chung Su

    2016-01-01

    .69), regardless of different age groups and cyanotic or non-cyanotic heart disease. Prospective trials are required to evaluate whether correction of preoperative anemia and prevention of hemoconcentration may ameliorate postoperative AKI in patients who underwent congenital cardiac surgery. PMID:27832187

  7. A Comparison of a Machine Learning Model with EuroSCORE II in Predicting Mortality after Elective Cardiac Surgery: A Decision Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Allyn, Jérôme; Allou, Nicolas; Augustin, Pascal; Philip, Ivan; Martinet, Olivier; Belghiti, Myriem; Provenchere, Sophie; Montravers, Philippe; Ferdynus, Cyril

    2017-01-01

    Background The benefits of cardiac surgery are sometimes difficult to predict and the decision to operate on a given individual is complex. Machine Learning and Decision Curve Analysis (DCA) are recent methods developed to create and evaluate prediction models. Methods and finding We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a prospective collected database from December 2005 to December 2012, from a cardiac surgical center at University Hospital. The different models of prediction of mortality in-hospital after elective cardiac surgery, including EuroSCORE II, a logistic regression model and a machine learning model, were compared by ROC and DCA. Of the 6,520 patients having elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, 6.3% died. Mean age was 63.4 years old (standard deviation 14.4), and mean EuroSCORE II was 3.7 (4.8) %. The area under ROC curve (IC95%) for the machine learning model (0.795 (0.755–0.834)) was significantly higher than EuroSCORE II or the logistic regression model (respectively, 0.737 (0.691–0.783) and 0.742 (0.698–0.785), p < 0.0001). Decision Curve Analysis showed that the machine learning model, in this monocentric study, has a greater benefit whatever the probability threshold. Conclusions According to ROC and DCA, machine learning model is more accurate in predicting mortality after elective cardiac surgery than EuroSCORE II. These results confirm the use of machine learning methods in the field of medical prediction. PMID:28060903

  8. Invasive surgery reduces infarct size and preserves cardiac function in a porcine model of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    van Hout, Gerardus PJ; Teuben, Michel PJ; Heeres, Marjolein; de Maat, Steven; de Jong, Renate; Maas, Coen; Kouwenberg, Lisanne HJA; Koenderman, Leo; van Solinge, Wouter W; de Jager, Saskia CA; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Hoefer, Imo E

    2015-01-01

    Reperfusion injury following myocardial infarction (MI) increases infarct size (IS) and deteriorates cardiac function. Cardioprotective strategies in large animal MI models often failed in clinical trials, suggesting translational failure. Experimentally, MI is induced artificially and the effect of the experimental procedures may influence outcome and thus clinical applicability. The aim of this study was to investigate if invasive surgery, as in the common open chest MI model affects IS and cardiac function. Twenty female landrace pigs were subjected to MI by transluminal balloon occlusion. In 10 of 20 pigs, balloon occlusion was preceded by invasive surgery (medial sternotomy). After 72 hrs, pigs were subjected to echocardiography and Evans blue/triphenyl tetrazoliumchloride double staining to determine IS and area at risk. Quantification of IS showed a significant IS reduction in the open chest group compared to the closed chest group (IS versus area at risk: 50.9 ± 5.4% versus 69.9 ± 3.4%, P = 0.007). End systolic LV volume and LV ejection fraction measured by echocardiography at follow-up differed significantly between both groups (51 ± 5 ml versus 65 ± 3 ml, P = 0.033; 47.5 ± 2.6% versus 38.8 ± 1.2%, P = 0.005). The inflammatory response in the damaged myocardium did not differ between groups. This study indicates that invasive surgery reduces IS and preserves cardiac function in a porcine MI model. Future studies need to elucidate the effect of infarct induction technique on the efficacy of pharmacological therapies in large animal cardioprotection studies. PMID:26282710

  9. Meta-analysis for outcomes of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qiankun; Hong, Liang; Mu, Xinwei; Zhang, Cui; Chen, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the outcomes of acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery by the meta-analysis. Electronic databases PubMed and Embase were searched for relative studies from December 2008 to June 2015. For eligible studies, the R software was conducted to meta-analyze outcomes of AKI patients (AKI group) and none-AKI patients after cardiac surgery (NO AKI group). The chi-square-based Q test and I2 statistic were used for heterogeneity analysis. P < 0.1 or I2 > 50% revealed significant heterogeneity among studies, and then a random effects model was used; otherwise a fixed effect model was performed. Egger's test was performed for publication bias assessment. Subgroup analysis was performed by stratifying AKI definitions and study type. Totally 17 studies with 9656 subjects (2331 in the AKI group and 7325 in the NO AKI group) were enrolled. Significantly higher renal replacement therapy (RRT) (OR=23.67, 95%CI: 12.58–44.55), mortality (OR = 6.27, 95%CI: 3.58–11.00), serum creatinine (SMD = 1.42, 95%CI: 1.01–1.83), and hospital length of stay (LOS) (SMD = 0.45, 95%CI: 0.02–0.88) were shown in the AKI group compared with patients in the NO AKI group. Subgroup analysis showed that results of only 3 subgroups were reversed indicating that the definition of AKI did not affect its outcomes. Publication bias was only found among studies involving mortality and serum creatinine, but the 2 outcomes were not reversed after correction. This meta-analysis confirmed the worse outcomes of AKI in patients after cardiac surgery, including higher RRT rates, mortality, and longer hospital LOS than those of NO AKI patients. PMID:27930561

  10. Ibuprofen - a Safe Analgesic During Cardiac Surgery Recovery? A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Qazi, Saddiq Mohammad; Sindby, Eske Jesper; Nørgaard, Martin Agge

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Postoperative pain-management with non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs has been controversial, due to related side-effects. We investigated whether there was a significant difference between an oxycodone-based pain-management regimen versus a slow-release ibuprofen based regimen, in a short term post-cardiac surgery setting. Particular attention was given to the rate of myocardial infarction, sternal healing, gastro-intestinal complications, renal failure and all-cause mortality. Methods: This was a single-centre, open label parallel design randomised controlled study. Patients, who were undergoing cardiac surgery for the first time, were randomly allocated either to a regimen of slow-release oxycodone (10 mg twice daily) or slow-release ibuprofen (800 mg twice daily) combined with lansoprazole. Data relating to blood-tests, angiographies, surgical details and administered medicine were obtained from patient records. The follow-up period was 1 to 37 months (median 25 months). Results: One hundred eighty-two patients were included in the trial and available for intention to treat analysis. There were no significant difference between the groups (P>0.05) in the rates of sternal healing, postoperative myocardial infarction or gastrointestinal bleeding. The preoperative levels of creatinine were found to increase by 100% in nine patients (9.6%) in the ibuprofen group, resulting in an acute renal injury (in accordance with the RIFLE-criteria). Eight of these patients returned to normal renal function within 14 days. The levels of creatinine in patients in the oxycodone group were not found to increase to the same magnitude. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that patients treated postoperatively, following cardiac surgery, are at no greater risk of harm if short term slow release ibuprofen combined with lansoprazole treatment is used when compared to an oxycodone based regimen. Renal function should, however, be closely monitored and in the

  11. Intraoperative Magnesium Administration Does Not Improve Neurocognitive Function Following Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Joseph P.; White, William D.; Schinderle, David B.; Podgoreanu, Mihai V.; Berger, Miles; Milano, Carmelo A.; Laskowitz, Daniel T.; Stafford-Smith, Mark; Blumenthal, James A.; Newman, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Neurocognitive decline occurs frequently after cardiac surgery and persists in a significant number of patients. Magnesium is thought to provide neuroprotection through preservation of cellular energy metabolism, blockade of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, diminution of the inflammatory response, and inhibition of platelet activation. We therefore hypothesized that intraoperative magnesium administration would decrease postoperative cognitive impairment. Methods Following IRB approval, 389 patients undergoing cardiac surgery were enrolled into this prospective, randomized, double-blinded placebo controlled clinical trial. Subjects were randomized to receive: 1) Magnesium as a 50 mg/kg bolus followed by another 50 mg/kg infusion over 3 hours or 2) Placebo bolus and infusion. Cognitive function was assessed preoperatively and again at 6 weeks postoperatively using a standardized test battery. Mean CD11b fluorescence and percentage of platelets expressing CD62P, markers of leukocyte and platelet activation respectively, were assessed by flow cytometry as a secondary outcome. The effect of magnesium on postoperative cognition was tested using multivariable regression modeling, adjusting for age, years of education, baseline cognition, gender, race and weight. Results Among the 389 allocated subjects (Magnesium: N=198; Placebo: N=191), the incidence of cognitive deficit in the magnesium group was 44.4% compared to 44.9% in the placebo group (p=0.93). The cognitive change score and platelet and leukocyte activation were also not different between groups. Multivariable analysis revealed a marginal interaction between treatment group and weight, such that heavier subjects receiving magnesium were less likely to suffer cognitive deficit (p=0.06). Conclusions Magnesium administered intravenously during cardiac surgery does not reduce postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Clinical Trials Registration–URL http://clinicaltrials.gov/ Unique identifier

  12. Melatonin treatment in the prevention of postoperative delirium in cardiac surgery patients

    PubMed Central

    Artemiou, Panagiotis; Bilecova-Rabajdova, Miroslava; Sabol, Frantisek; Torok, Pavol; Kolarcik, Peter; Kolesar, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Post-cardiac surgery delirium is a severe complication. The circadian rhythm of melatonin secretion has been shown to be altered postoperatively. Aim of the study It was hypothesized that restoring normal sleeping patterns with a substance that is capable of resynchronizing circadian rhythm such as exogenous administration of melatonin may possibly reduce the incidence of postoperative delirium. Material and methods This paper represents a prospective clinical observational study. Two consecutive groups of 250 consecutive patients took part in the study. Group A was the control group and group B was the melatonin group. In group B, the patients received prophylactic melatonin treatment. The main objectives were to observe the incidence of delirium, to identify any predictors of delirium, and to compare the two groups based on the delirium incidence. Results The incidence of delirium was 8.4% in the melatonin group vs. 20.8% in the control group (p = 0.001). Predictors of delirium in the melatonin group were age (p = 0.001) and higher EuroSCORE II value (p = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, age and EuroSCORE II value (p = 0.014) were predictors of postoperative delirium. Comparing the groups, the main predictors of delirium were age (p = 0.001), EuroSCORE II value (p = 0.001), cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) time (p = 0.001), aortic cross-clamping (ACC) time (p = 0.008), sufentanil dose (p = 0.001) and mechanical ventilation (p = 0.033). Conclusions Administration of melatonin significantly decreases the incidence of postoperative delirium after cardiac surgery. Prophylactic treatment with melatonin should be considered in every patient scheduled for cardiac surgery. PMID:26336494

  13. Evaluation of outpatient experience with vitreoretinal surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, C S; Gross, J G; Abramson, I; Mazzei, W J; Freeman, W R

    1992-01-01

    The experience of 55 consecutive individuals undergoing outpatient vitreoretinal surgery was evaluated. Objective variables, including preoperative and intraoperative information, subjective postoperative pain, and discomfort were measured with a previously validated 100 mm visual analogue scale. Patients also ranked the overall experience. Average pain and discomfort scores in the recovery room were 21.8 and 22.6 and overnight were 26.7 and 30.4 (scale 0 to 100), respectively. Eighty eight per cent of subjects were satisfied with the experience. Elevated pain and discomfort scores were statistically correlated with scleral buckling, prolonged surgical or recovery room time, requirement for parenteral pain medications, and high intraocular pressure on the first postoperative visit. None of the patients needed further hospital treatment. This study suggests that vitreoretinal surgery in an appropriately selected population does not require routine inpatient care. PMID:1739718

  14. Evaluation of malnutrition in orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Cross, Michael Brian; Yi, Paul Hyunsoo; Thomas, Charlotte F; Garcia, Jane; Della Valle, Craig J

    2014-03-01

    Malnutrition can increase the risk of surgical site infection in both elective spine surgery and total joint arthroplasty. Obesity and diabetes are common comorbid conditions in patients who are malnourished. Despite the relatively high incidence of nutritional disorders among patients undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery, the evaluation and management of malnutrition is not generally well understood by practicing orthopaedic surgeons. Serologic parameters such as total lymphocyte count, albumin level, prealbumin level, and transferrin level have all been used as markers for nutrition status. In addition, anthropometric measurements, such as calf and arm muscle circumference or triceps skinfold, and standardized scoring systems, such as the Rainey-MacDonald nutritional index, the Mini Nutritional Assessment, and institution-specific nutritional scoring tools, are useful to define malnutrition. Preoperative nutrition assessment and optimization of nutritional parameters, including tight glucose control, normalization of serum albumin, and safe weight loss, may reduce the risk of perioperative complications, including infection.

  15. Effect of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation after heart valve surgery (CopenHeartVR): study protocol for a randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Heart valve diseases are common with an estimated prevalence of 2.5% in the Western world. The number is rising due to an ageing population. Once symptomatic, heart valve diseases are potentially lethal, and heavily influence daily living and quality of life. Surgical treatment, either valve replacement or repair, remains the treatment of choice. However, post surgery, the transition to daily living may become a physical, mental and social challenge. We hypothesise that a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation programme can improve physical capacity and self-assessed mental health and reduce hospitalisation and healthcare costs after heart valve surgery. Methods A randomised clinical trial, CopenHeartVR, aims to investigate whether cardiac rehabilitation in addition to usual care is superior to treatment as usual after heart valve surgery. The trial will randomly allocate 210 patients, 1:1 intervention to control group, using central randomisation, and blinded outcome assessment and statistical analyses. The intervention consists of 12 weeks of physical exercise, and a psycho-educational intervention comprising five consultations. Primary outcome is peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) measured by cardiopulmonary exercise testing with ventilatory gas analysis. Secondary outcome is self-assessed mental health measured by the standardised questionnaire Short Form 36. Also, long-term healthcare utilisation and mortality as well as biochemistry, echocardiography and cost-benefit will be assessed. A mixed-method design is used to evaluate qualitative and quantitative findings encompassing a survey-based study before the trial and a qualitative pre- and post-intervention study. Discussion The study is approved by the local regional Research Ethics Committee (H-1-2011-157), and the Danish Data Protection Agency (j.nr. 2007-58-0015). Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (http://NCT01558765). PMID:23782510

  16. Novel biomarkers for early diagnosis of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery in adults

    PubMed Central

    Kališnik, Jurij Matija

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is a common and serious complication and it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of acute kidney injury is based on the serum creatinine levels which rise several hours to days after the initial injury. Thus, novel biomarkers that will enable faster diagnosis are needed in clinical practice. There are numerous urine and serum proteins that indicate kidney injury and are under extensive research. Despite promising basic research results and assembled data, which indicate superiority of some biomarkers to creatinine, we are still awaiting clinical application. PMID:27212976

  17. Cardiac surgery and heparin induced thrombocytopaenia (HIT): a case report and short review.

    PubMed

    McMeniman, W J; Chard, R B; Norrie, J; Posen, J

    2012-05-01

    This patient presented for emergency cardiac surgery following two episodes of thrombocytopaenia, one before and one associated with exposure to unfractionated heparin in a seven-week period of intensive care management. Although the diagnosis of heparin induced thrombocytopaenia (HIT) was uncertain on clinical grounds when assessed by current criteria, the positive antibody status directed management in accordance with the internationally recognised guidelines published by the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) Evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines. An alternative anticoagulant to unfractionated heparin was indicated for cardiopulmonary bypass. Bivalirudin was selected because of recent literature supporting its safe use.

  18. Evaluation and Management of Maternal Cardiac Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Metz, Torri D; Khanna, Amber

    2016-12-01

    Pregnant women often complain of palpitations. The differential diagnosis for new-onset palpitations in pregnancy ranges from benign conditions to life-threatening arrhythmias. Maternal arrhythmias can occur in isolation or in the setting of underlying structural heart disease. Optimal management of maternal cardiac arrhythmias includes identification of the specific arrhythmia, diagnosis of comorbid conditions, and appropriate intervention. In general, management of maternal cardiac arrhythmias is similar to that of the general population. Special consideration must be given as to the effects of medications and procedures on both the mother and fetus to optimize outcomes. The importance of multidisciplinary care with cardiology, obstetrics, and anesthesia is emphasized.

  19. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, independent of insulin use, is associated with an increased risk of cardiac complications after vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Bakker, E J; Valentijn, T M; van de Luijtgaarden, K M; Hoeks, S E; Voute, M T; Goncalves, F B; Verhagen, H J; Stolker, R J

    2013-09-01

    Previous reports on the prognostic value of diabetes mellitus for cardiac complications after vascular surgery show divergent results, especially in regards to the role of type 2 diabetes as a cardiac risk factor, which remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of type 2 diabetes on 30-day cardiac complications after vascular surgery. Patients undergoing elective vascular surgery between 2002 and 2011 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Previous diagnosis of type 1 and 2 diabetes and use of oral glucose-lowering medications and insulin were recorded. Patients with type 1 diabetes were excluded from the analysis. The main outcome parameter was cardiac complications, a composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, severe arrhythmia and asymptomatic troponin release within 30 days of surgery. In multivariate analysis, corrections were made for comorbidities, demographics, medication use and surgical risk. Of 1462 patients, 329 (22.5%) patients had type 2 diabetes. Cardiac complications occurred in 155 (13.7%) patients without diabetes and in 68 (20.7%) with type 2 diabetes. In multivariate analysis, type 2 diabetes was associated with a significantly increased risk of 30-day cardiac complications (odds ratio 1.80; 95% confidence interval 1.25 to 2.60). Results were similar for type 2 diabetes patients managed with (odds ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 3.37) and without (odds ratio 1.79; 95% confidence interval 1.19 to 2.70) insulin. Type 2 diabetes is an independent risk factor for cardiac complications after vascular surgery and should be treated as such in preoperative cardiac risk stratification.

  20. Catheter-Based Educational Experiences: A Canadian Survey of Current Residents and Recent Graduates in Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Juanda, Nadzir; Chan, Vincent; Chan, Ryan; Rubens, Fraser D

    2016-03-01

    The past decade has witnessed significant developments in the use of catheter-based therapies in cardiovascular medicine. We sought to assess the educational opportunities for cardiac surgery trainees to determine their readiness for participation in these strategies. A web-based survey was distributed to current residents, recent graduates, and program directors in Canadian cardiac surgery residency programs from 2008-2013. The survey was distributed to 110 residents and graduates. Forty-five percent completed the survey. Thirty-five percent expressed that they experienced resistance organizing their rotations because they had to compete with non-cardiac surgery colleagues, and 6 were denied local cardiac catheterization rotations. By the end of the rotation, 56% were comfortable performing a diagnostic cardiac catheterization independently. Exposure to being the operator performing diagnostic catheterization was significantly associated with the positive perception of being able to perform a diagnostic catheterization independently (odds ratio [OR], 5.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-19.81; P = 0.017). Eighty-eight percent of respondents expressed the need for more exposure in catheter-based rotations. Seven of 11 program directors completed the survey. All believed such rotations should be mandatory and foresaw a bigger role for hybrid catheter-based/cardiac surgery procedures in the future. Trainees and program directors perceive that increased exposure to catheter-based therapies is important to career development as a cardiac surgeon. This survey will contribute to the development of a cardiac surgery training curriculum as we foresee more hybrid and team procedures.

  1. Pre-anesthetic echocardiographic findings in children undergoing non-cardiac surgery at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, E Sadoh,; Paul, Ikhurionan; Charles, Imarengiaye,

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background A pre-anaesthestic echocardiogram (echo) is requested for most non-cardiac surgeries to identify possible cardiac structural anomalies Objective To describe the prevalence and spectrum of structural cardiac abnormalities seen in various non-cardiac conditions Methods We carried out a retrospective review of pre-anaesthetic echos performed over five years on children scheduled for non-cardiac surgery. The requests were categorised according to referring specialities, and the biodata and echo findings were noted Results A total of 181 children and 181 echocardiograms were studied, and 100 (55.2%) of the patients were male. Most of the children (87, 48.1%) with oro-facial clefts were referred from dentistry. Of the 181 children, 39 (21.5%) had cardiac abnormalities, most (34, 87.2%) of whom had congenital heart disease (CHD). Ophthalmic requests with suspected congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) had the highest prevalence of 8/12 (66.7%) while the lowest was oro-facial clefts at 15/87 (17.2%). Atrial septal defect was the commonest abnormality, found in 14 patients (35.9%) Conclusion Pre-anaesthetic echo should be performed, especially for children with suspected CRS and other congenital anomalies, requiring non-cardiac surgery. PMID:27701485

  2. History of Cardiac Surgery at the Peter Bent Brigham and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Lawrence H

    2015-01-01

    The history of the Brigham dates from 1913, Harvey Cushing was the first chief of surgery and while at Hopkins did research on mitral stenosis, In 1913 he chose Elliot cutler to be a resident and in 1913 Cutler did the first successful valve operation in the world setting the tone of innovation and dedication to cardiac disease surgical treatment over the next century. There was large numbers of closed mitrals operations in 40s-60s. Bioprothetic valve implantation in the 70s mitral valve repair beginning in the 80s and continuing to the present and one of the first proponents of minimally invasive valve surgery starting in the 90s continuing to the present .

  3. Butorphanol premedication to facilitate invasive monitoring in cardiac surgery patients before induction of anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Mukesh; Nath, Soumya Shanker; Banerjee, Sudipto; Tripathi, Mamta

    2009-01-01

    Cannulations (peripheral vein, radial artery and jugular vein) performed for invasive monitoring before induction of anaesthesia in cardiac surgery patients may be associated with stress and anxiety. The efficacy and safety of butorphanol premedication was assessed in setting up of invasive monitoring. The study was a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled one with 70 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. In group-1 patients (n = 35) (placebo) intramuscular saline was administered 1-2 hours before the surgery in equivalent volume to butorphanol. In group-2 (n = 35) butorphanol (1, 1.5 and 2 mg for three body weight groups < 40 kg, 41-60 kg and> 60 kg, respectively) was administered 1-2 hours before surgery. Observer blinded for medication recorded the sedation score, pupil size and pain after each cannulation using visual analogue score (VAS). Student's 't' test and Chi-square test for proportions, Mann-Whitney test for non-parametric data was carried out. The median pain score of cannulation in group-2 (butorphanol) in the hand (10 mm) and neck (20 mm) were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than group-1 (placebo) patients (hand = 30 mm and neck = 40 mm). Pain during neck cannulation was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced (VAS < 30 mm) in patients with the pupil size of < 2.5 mm. Since the pain during neck cannulation was more than pain during hand cannulations in both the groups, we conclude that the intensity of pain depends also upon the site of cannulation. Besides the analgesic effect of butorphanol, its sedative effect helped to effectively decrease the pain during neck cannulation in conscious patients.

  4. Evaluation of Cardiac Arrhythmia among Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Walker, James; Calkins, Hugh; Nazarian, Saman

    2010-01-01

    Due to the growing awareness of exercise related arrhythmias and improved sensitivity of diagnostic modalities, physicians are increasingly faced with choices that may have life changing impact for the athlete. This article surveys recent research and expert opinion addressing benign and pathogenic cardiac changes underlying arrhythmias in athletes. PMID:20870195

  5. The Effectiveness of Hand Massage on Pain in Critically Ill Patients After Cardiac Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Martorella, Géraldine; Laizner, Andréa Maria; Maheu, Christine; Gélinas, Céline

    2016-01-01

    Background Postoperative pain is common in the intensive care unit despite the administration of analgesia. Some trials suggest that massage can be effective at reducing postoperative pain in acute care units; however, its effects on pain relief in the intensive care unit and when pain severity is highest remain unknown. Objective The objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of hand massage on the pain intensity (primary outcome), unpleasantness and interference, muscle tension, anxiety, and vital signs of critically ill patients after cardiac surgery. Methods A 3-arm randomized controlled trial will be conducted. A total of 79 patients who are 18 years or older, able to speak French or English and self-report symptoms, have undergone elective cardiac surgery, and do not have a high risk of postoperative complications and contraindications to hand massage will be recruited. They will be randomly allocated (1:1:1) to standard care plus either 3 20-minute hand massages (experimental), 3 20-minute hand holdings (active control), or 3 20-minute rest periods (passive control). Pain intensity, unpleasantness, anxiety, muscle tension, and vital signs will be evaluated before, immediately after, and 30 minutes later for each intervention administered within 24 hours postoperatively. Peer-reviewed competitive funding was received from the Quebec Nursing Intervention Research Network and McGill University in December 2015, and research ethics approval was obtained February 2016. Results Recruitment started in April 2016, and data collection is expected to be complete by January 2017. To date, 24 patients were randomized and had data collection done. Conclusions This study will be one of the first randomized controlled trials to examine the effect of hand massage on the pain levels of critically ill patients after cardiac surgery and to provide empirical evidence for the use of massage among this population. ClinicalTrial ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02679534; https

  6. TNFbeta+250 polymorphism and hyperdynamic state in cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Iribarren, José Luis; Sagasti, Fernando Martínez; Jiménez, Juan José; Brouard, Maitane; Salido, Eduardo; Martínez, Rafael; Mora, María Luisa

    2008-12-01

    We have investigated genetic and clinical factors associated with hyperdynamic state (HS) after heart surgery with extracorporeal circulation (ECC). We performed a prospective cohort study of consecutive patients who underwent elective heart surgery with ECC. HS was defined as hyperthermia (>38 degrees C), cardiac index (CI) >3.5 l/min/m(2) and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) <1600 dynes x s/cm(5) x m(2). The study included demographic variables, gene polymorphisms A/G of tumor necrosis factor-beta (TNFbeta+250), G/A-1082 of interleukin-10 (IL-10), polymorphism of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), comorbidity, type of surgery, serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), and postoperative course. We used Pearson chi(2) or Fisher exact test, and Student t-test for univariate analysis, with forward stepwise logistic regression for multivariate adjustment. Eighty patients were studied, of whom 22 (27.5%) developed HS. The presence of allele G of TNFbeta+250 polymorphism was associated with an increased incidence of HS (68% vs. 37%; P=0.011). In the multivariate analysis, a longer duration of ECC, and the presence of the G allele, were associated with the development of HS. The G allele of TNFbeta+250 polymorphism, and prolonged extracorporeal circuit times, may favor the development of a hyperdynamic state after heart surgery with ECC.

  7. Reduced aspirin responsiveness as assessed by impedance aggregometry is not associated with adverse outcome after cardiac surgery in a small low-risk cohort.

    PubMed

    Bolliger, Daniel; Filipovic, Miodrag; Matt, Peter; Tanaka, Kenichi A; Gregor, Michael; Zenklusen, Urs; Seeberger, Manfred D; Lurati Buse, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Reduced aspirin responsiveness (i.e. persistent high platelet reactivity in platelet function testing) might be associated with increased risk of myocardial ischemia and cardiac mortality in patients with coronary disease. However, the impact in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is unclear. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate the predictive value of reduced aspirin responsiveness on cardiac and thromboembolic events in patients undergoing elective isolated CABG surgery with aspirin intake until at least two days before surgery. We included 304 patients in this prospective single-center cohort study. Impedance platelet aggregometry (Multiplate®) was performed directly before and on the first day after surgery. Reduced aspirin responsiveness was defined as area under the curve in ASPItest (AUCASPI) ≥300 U. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause mortality and/or major adverse cardiac or thromboembolic events within 1 year. Reduced aspirin responsiveness was found in 13 and 24% of patients pre and postoperatively, respectively. There was no difference in the outcomes between patients with normal and reduced aspirin responsiveness in the preoperative measurement (log-rank test, p = 0.540). Multivariate analysis including logistic EuroSCORE I and postoperative troponin T levels did not show any association of reduced aspirin responsiveness with adverse outcome (hazard ratio, 0.576; (95% CI 0.128-2.585; p = 0.471). Similarly, postoperative reduced aspirin responsiveness was not associated with adverse events. To conclude, reduced aspirin responsiveness as evaluated by Multiplate® platelet function analyzer was not associated with increased incidence of major adverse cardiac and thromboembolic events and mortality after CABG surgery.

  8. Natural and synthetic antifibrinolytics in adult cardiac surgery: efficacy, effectiveness and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hardy, J F; Bélisle, S

    1994-11-01

    Epsilon-aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid, two synthetic antifibrinolytics, and aprotinin, an antifibrinolytic derived from bovine lung, are used to reduce excessive bleeding and transfusion of homologous blood products (HBP) after cardiac surgery. This review analyzes the studies on the utilization of antifibrinolytics in adult cardiac surgery according to the epidemiological concepts of efficacy, effectiveness and efficiency. A majority of published studies confirm the efficacy of antifibrinolytics administered prophylactically to reduce postoperative bleeding and transfusion of HBP. More studies are needed, however, to compare antifibrinolytics and determine if any one is superior to the others. Despite their demonstrated efficacy, antifibrinolytics are only one of the options available to diminish the use of HBP. Other blood-saving techniques, surgical expertise, temperature during cardiopulmonary bypass and respect of established transfusion guidelines may modify the effectiveness of antifibrinolytics to the point where antifibrinolytics may not be necessary. At this time, insufficient data have been published to perform a cost vs benefit analysis of the use of antifibrinolytics. This complex analysis takes into account not only direct costs (cost of the drug and of blood products), but also the ensuing effects of treatment such as: length of stay in the operating room, in the intensive care unit and in the hospital; need for surgical re-exploration; treatment of transfusion or drug-related complications, etc. In particular, the risk of thrombotic complications associated with antifibrinolytics is the subject of an ongoing, unresolved controversy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Congestive kidney failure in cardiac surgery: the relationship between central venous pressure and acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Gambardella, Ivancarmine; Gaudino, Mario; Ronco, Claudio; Lau, Christopher; Ivascu, Natalia; Girardi, Leonard N

    2016-11-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) in cardiac surgery has traditionally been linked to reduced arterial perfusion. There is ongoing evidence that central venous pressure (CVP) has a pivotal role in precipitating acute renal dysfunction in cardiac medical and surgical settings. We can regard this AKI driven by systemic venous hypertension as 'kidney congestive failure'. In the cardiac surgery population as a whole, when the CVP value reaches the threshold of 14 mmHg in postoperative period, the risk of AKI increases 2-fold with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.99, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 1.16-3.40. In cardiac surgery subsets where venous hypertension is a hallmark feature, the incidence of AKI is higher (tricuspid disease 30%, carcinoid valve disease 22%). Even in the non-chronically congested coronary artery bypass population, CVP measured 6 h postoperatively showed significant association to renal failure: risk-adjusted OR for AKI was 5.5 (95% CI 1.93-15.5; P = 0.001) with every 5 mmHg rise in CVP for patients with CVP <9 mmHg; for CVP increments of 5 mmHg above the threshold of 9 mmHg, the risk-adjusted OR for AKI was 1.3 (95% CI 1.01-1.65; P = 0.045). This and other clinical evidence are discussed along with the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, involving the supremacy of volume receptors in regulating the autonomic output in hypervolaemia, and the regional effect of venous congestion on the nephron. The effect of CVP on renal function was found to be modulated by ventricular function class, aetiology and acuity of venous congestion. Evidence suggests that acute increases of CVP should be actively treated to avoid a deterioration of the renal function, particularly in patients with poor ventricular fraction. Besides, the practice of treating right heart failure with fluid loading should be avoided in favour of other ways to optimize haemodynamics in this setting, because of the detrimental effects on the kidney function.

  10. Electric impedance platelet aggregometry in cardiac surgery patients: A comparative study of two technologies.

    PubMed

    Ranucci, Marco; Baryshnikova, Ekaterina; Crapelli, Giulia Beatrice; Ranucci, Matteo; Meloni, Silvia; Pistuddi, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Platelet function tests are suggested to assess platelet reactivity before cardiac and major non-cardiac surgery. Different point-of-care platelet function tests are available. Among these, electric impedance platelet aggregometry (EIPA) (Multiplate®, MP) is one of the most widely used techniques. Recently, a new EIPA system (Rotem Platelet®, RP) was released. This is a comparative study of platelet function measured with MP and RP. Fifty cardiac surgery patients were admitted to this study. All the patients received a preoperative platelet function test with both the MP and the RP; for each technology, two tests were performed: the ADPtest (investigating P2Y12 receptor platelet reactivity) and the TRAPtest (investigating the thrombin-dependent platelet reactivity). ADP-based platelet reactivity values demonstrated a significant (p = 0.019) correlation between the MP and the RP; and a marginally significant (p = 0.042) correlation for TRAP-based tests. The Bland-Altman analysis of the ADPtest demonstrated a positive bias of 5.94 units (MP > RP) and a percentage error of 88%. For the TRAPtest, there was a positive bias of 12 units (MP > RP) and a percentage error of 89%. In patients who were preoperatively treated with P2Y12 receptor inhibitors, only the MP ADPtest was positively associated with the days from drug discontinuation (p = 0.003). Platelet function assessment with RP greatly differs from the equivalent MP measure, and no correction value can be applied due to the low level of precision. This applies both to ADPtest and TRAPtest. The MP ADPtest is more reliable for platelet reactivity after discontinuation of P2Y12 receptor inhibitors.

  11. What is the utility of preoperative frailty assessment for risk stratification in cardiac surgery?

    PubMed

    Bagnall, Nigel Mark; Faiz, Omar; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2013-08-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether frailty scoring can be used either separately or combined with conventional risk scores to predict survival and complications. Five hundred and thirty-five papers were found using the reported search, of which nine cohort studies represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. There is a paucity of evidence, as advanced age is a criterion for exclusion in most randomized controlled trials. Conventional models of risk following cardiac surgery are not calibrated to accurately predict the outcomes in the elderly and do not currently include frailty parameters. There is no universally accepted definition for frailty, but it is described as a physiological decline in multiple organ systems, decreasing a patient's capacity to withstand the stresses of surgery and disease. Frailty is manifest clinically as deficits in functional capacity, such as slow ambulation and impairments in the activities of daily living (ADL). Analysis of predictive models using area under receiver operating curves (AUC) suggested only a modest benefit by adding gait speed to a Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS score)-Predicted Risk of Mortality or Major Morbidity (PROM) risk score (AUC 0.04 mean difference). However, a specialist frailty assessment tool named FORECAST was found to be superior at predicting adverse outcomes at 1 year compared with either EuroSCORE or STS score (AUC 0.09 mean difference). However, risk models incorporating frailty parameters require further validation and have not been widely adopted. Routine collection of objective frailty measures such as 5-metre walk time and ADL assessment will help to provide data to develop new risk-assessment models to facilitate risk stratification and

  12. Assessment of cardiac parameters in evaluation of cardiac functions in patients with thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Oztarhan, Kazim; Delibas, Yavuz; Salcioglu, Zafer; Kaya, Guldemet; Bakari, Suleyman; Bornaun, Helen; Aydogan, Gonul

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate cardiac function and early cardiac dysfunction of patients followed as thalassemia major. In this study, the authors compared 100 patients, diagnosed as thalassemia major with mean age 11.84 ± 4.35, with 60 healthy control subjects at the same age between 2008 and 2011. Early diagnosis of iron overload that may occur after repeated transfusions is important in this patient group. To detect early iron accumulation, the authors compared ferritin with the echo findings, the 24-hour Holter, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2* values in the patients of same age and sex, treated with chelators, without heart failure, nonsplenectomized, and do not differ in the presence of hepatitis C. Ferritin levels, left ventricular systolic functions (ejection fraction [EF], shortening fraction [SF]), left ventricular measurements, left ventricular diastolic functions, T2* image on cardiac magnetic resonance, heart rate variables in 24 hours, and Holter rhythm were evaluated to show the early failure of cardiac functions. In this study the authors confirmed that iron-related cardiac toxicity damages electrical activity earlier than myocardial contractility. Left ventricular diastolic diameter (LVDd), left ventricular mass (LVM), and LV systolic diameter (LVDs) levels were significantly higher in the patient group with ectopia. Patients with ectopia are the ones in whom LVM and LVDd are increased. In thalassemia major patients with ectopia, LF/HF ratio was markedly increased, QTc dispersion was clearly found higher in patients with ectopia rather than nonectopic patients. The standard deviation all normal RR interval series (SDNN) was found clearly lower in thalassemia major group with ectopia than control group because it is assumed that increase in cardiac sympathetic neuronal activity is related to exposure to chronic diastolic and systolic failure.

  13. Accuracy of Cardiac Output by Nine Different Pulse Contour Algorithms in Cardiac Surgery Patients: A Comparison with Transpulmonary Thermodilution.

    PubMed

    Broch, Ole; Bein, Berthold; Gruenewald, Matthias; Masing, Sarah; Huenges, Katharina; Haneya, Assad; Steinfath, Markus; Renner, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Today, there exist several different pulse contour algorithms for calculation of cardiac output (CO). The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of nine different pulse contour algorithms with transpulmonary thermodilution before and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Methods. Thirty patients scheduled for elective coronary surgery were studied before and after CPB. A passive leg raising maneuver was also performed. Measurements included CO obtained by transpulmonary thermodilution (COTPTD) and by nine pulse contour algorithms (COX1-9). Calibration of pulse contour algorithms was performed by esophageal Doppler ultrasound after induction of anesthesia and 15 min after CPB. Correlations, Bland-Altman analysis, four-quadrant, and polar analysis were also calculated. Results. There was only a poor correlation between COTPTD and COX1-9 during passive leg raising and in the period before and after CPB. Percentage error exceeded the required 30% limit. Four-quadrant and polar analysis revealed poor trending ability for most algorithms before and after CPB. The Liljestrand-Zander algorithm revealed the best reliability. Conclusions. Estimation of CO by nine different pulse contour algorithms revealed poor accuracy compared with transpulmonary thermodilution. Furthermore, the less-invasive algorithms showed an insufficient capability for trending hemodynamic changes before and after CPB. The Liljestrand-Zander algorithm demonstrated the highest reliability. This trial is registered with NCT02438228 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

  14. Accuracy of Cardiac Output by Nine Different Pulse Contour Algorithms in Cardiac Surgery Patients: A Comparison with Transpulmonary Thermodilution

    PubMed Central

    Bein, Berthold; Gruenewald, Matthias; Masing, Sarah; Huenges, Katharina; Haneya, Assad; Steinfath, Markus; Renner, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Today, there exist several different pulse contour algorithms for calculation of cardiac output (CO). The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of nine different pulse contour algorithms with transpulmonary thermodilution before and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Methods. Thirty patients scheduled for elective coronary surgery were studied before and after CPB. A passive leg raising maneuver was also performed. Measurements included CO obtained by transpulmonary thermodilution (COTPTD) and by nine pulse contour algorithms (COX1–9). Calibration of pulse contour algorithms was performed by esophageal Doppler ultrasound after induction of anesthesia and 15 min after CPB. Correlations, Bland-Altman analysis, four-quadrant, and polar analysis were also calculated. Results. There was only a poor correlation between COTPTD and COX1–9 during passive leg raising and in the period before and after CPB. Percentage error exceeded the required 30% limit. Four-quadrant and polar analysis revealed poor trending ability for most algorithms before and after CPB. The Liljestrand-Zander algorithm revealed the best reliability. Conclusions. Estimation of CO by nine different pulse contour algorithms revealed poor accuracy compared with transpulmonary thermodilution. Furthermore, the less-invasive algorithms showed an insufficient capability for trending hemodynamic changes before and after CPB. The Liljestrand-Zander algorithm demonstrated the highest reliability. This trial is registered with NCT02438228 (ClinicalTrials.gov). PMID:28116294

  15. Management of penetrating cardiac injuries in the Department of surgery, Mohamed Thahar Maamouri Hospital, Tunisia: report of 19 cases.

    PubMed

    Ezzine, Sonia Baccari; Bouassida, Mahdi; Benali, Mechaal; Ghannouchi, Mosaab; Chebbi, Fethi; Sassi, Sélim; Mighri, Mohamed Mongi; Touinsi, Hassen; Sassi, Sadok

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss how to ameliorate the management of penetrating cardiac injuries in general surgery department. An algorithm for the initial assessment of penetrating injuries in cardiac box, based on our own experience, is presented. This was a retrospective study of 19 patients undergoing thoracotomy for penetrating cardiac injuries, managed in the department of general surgery of Nabeul-Tunisia, between 1994 and 2010. The mean age of patients was 25 years old. Sex ratio was 8,5. All patients had cardiac injury resulting from stab wounds inside of the pericardium. 42% of them were critically unstable, 21% had cardiac tamponnade. All these patients were quickly transferred to the operating room without any other investigations. 37% of patients were hemodynamically stable and underwent additional investigations. The management of penetrating cardiac injuries is possible in a general surgery department, but it requires a rapid prehospital transfer, a yet thorough physical examination along with efficient surgical management, all done in minimal time.

  16. Lactate Elevation During and After Major Cardiac Surgery in Adults: A Review of Etiology, Prognostic Value, and Management.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lars W

    2017-03-08

    Elevated lactate is a common occurrence after cardiac surgery. This review summarizes the literature on the complex etiology of lactate elevation during and after cardiac surgery, including considerations of oxygen delivery, oxygen utilization, increased metabolism, lactate clearance, medications and fluids, and postoperative complications. Second, the association between lactate and a variety of outcomes are described, and the prognostic role of lactate is critically assessed. Despite the fact that elevated lactate is strongly associated with many important outcomes, including postoperative complications, length of stay, and mortality, little is known about the optimal management of postoperative patients with lactate elevations. This review ends with an assessment of the limited literature on this subject.

  17. Management of patients with prosthetic heart valves during non-cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Bernard D

    2004-01-01

    Non-cardiac surgery in patients with prosthetic heart valves poses the particular hazards of infective endocarditis, increased bleeding risk and the possibility of acute/subacute valve thrombosis or systemic thromboembolism associated with interrupted anticoagulation. Management is complicated by the absence of randomised trials examining peri-operative anticoagulation management. Thromboembolic risk increases substantially when oral anticoagulation is discontinued and valve thrombosis may be inapparent for 1-2 months. This delayed diagnosis makes it difficult to identify the inciting event, either clinically or in experimental trials. Furthermore, the absence of early post-operative events may falsely suggest that peri-operative anticoagulation was safe and adequate. The approach to management therefore remains controversial. Seamless oral anticoagulation is preferred whenever possible and this is safe for a range of minor procedures, including cardiac catheterisation, dental and ophthalmic surgery. Major surgical procedures require withdrawal of oral anticoagulation before surgery to lower the international normalised ratio (INR) to <1.5 and maintained anticoagulation with unfractionated heparin which should be started when the INR is <2.5 in high risk patients and <2.0 in those at lower risk. The evidence to support the safety of low molecular weight heparins in this situation is scanty and despite its widespread promulgation this approach is NOT recommended. Oral anticoagulation is then resumed post-operatively, though therapeutic levels are not achieved for several days. The determination of which patients require prolonged overlap of heparin and oral anticoagulants is difficult. Clinical judgement is required but these regimes are strongly recommended for those at highest risk of thromboembolism. With strict adherence to these guidelines, the incidence of major complications is low.

  18. Topical and low-dose intravenous tranexamic acid in cyanotic cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jigar; Prajapati, Mrugesh; Patel, Hardik; Gandhi, Hemang; Deodhar, Shilpa; Pandya, Himani

    2017-02-01

    Background Coagulopathy is a major problem in surgery for cyanotic congenital heart disease. Tranexamic acid has been used both topically and systemically and plays a vital role in pediatric cardiac surgery by reducing blood loss and blood product requirement. We aimed to determine the anti-fibrinolytic effectiveness of low-dose systemic or topical tranexamic acid or a combination of both. Methods Seventy-five patients were divided in 3 groups of 25. Group A patients were given tranexamic acid 20 mg kg(-1) intravenously after sternotomy and 20 mg kg(-1) after heparin reversal. Group B patients were given tranexamic acid 50 mg kg(-1) in 20 mL of saline intrapericardially before sternal closure, with the drain clamped for 20 min. Group C patients were given tranexamic acid 20 mg kg(-1) intravenously after sternotomy and 50 mg kg(-1) intrapericardially before sternal closure. A number of clinical variables were recorded in the first 3 postoperative days. Ventilator time, intensive care unit stay, and outcome were also recorded. Results Chest tube drainage and blood product requirements were lowest in group C. Blood urea and serum creatinine levels were higher in groups A and C ( p < 0.05). Intensive care unit stay and ventilator time were similar in all 3 groups. No patient died and none had a seizure or other neurological event or thromboembolic complication postoperatively. Conclusion The combination of low-dose intravenous and topical tranexamic acid reduces postoperative blood loss and blood product requirement without incurring neurological, renal or thromboembolic complications. We recommend the routine use of topical and low-dose systemic tranexamic acid in cyanotic pediatric cardiac surgery.

  19. The role of prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation (IABP) in emergency non-cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Samad, Khalid; Khan, Fauzia Anis

    2006-01-01

    Patients with recent myocardial infarction (MI), congestive heart failure, severe angina, or uncorrected multivessel coronary artery disease are at increased risk of cardiac complications after urgent major non-cardiac surgery. Although invasive haemodynamic monitoring and preoperative optimization of cardiac status may lead to some reduction in the rate of perioperative cardiac events, the mortality from such events still remains high. The use of an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) may play a role in such patients by improving the function of the injured heart. We report our experience with the use of perioperative IABP in a patient with unstable angina and recent MI who underwent urgent cholecystectomy. There were no perioperative cardiac events while the IABP was in place. The anaesthetic concerns, intraoperative and postoperative monitoring and care and usefulness of IABP will be discussed.

  20. Effect of preoperative angina pectoris on cardiac outcomes in patients with previous myocardial infarction undergoing major noncardiac surgery (data from ACS-NSQIP).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ambarish; Sood, Akshay; Sammon, Jesse D; Abdollah, Firas; Gupta, Ena; Golwala, Harsh; Bardia, Amit; Kibel, Adam S; Menon, Mani; Trinh, Quoc-Dien

    2015-04-15

    The impact of preoperative stable angina pectoris on postoperative cardiovascular outcomes in patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) who underwent major noncardiac surgery is not well studied. We studied patients with previous MI who underwent elective major noncardiac surgeries within the American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (2005 to 2011). Primary outcome was occurrence of an adverse cardiac event (MI and/or cardiac arrest). Multivariable logistic regression models evaluated the impact of stable angina on outcomes. Of 1,568 patients (median age 70 years; 35% women) with previous MI who underwent major noncardiac surgery, 5.5% had postoperative MI and/or cardiac arrest. Patients with history of preoperative angina had significantly greater incidence of primary outcome compared to those without anginal symptoms (8.4% vs 5%, p = 0.035). In secondary outcomes, reintervention rates (22.5% vs 11%, p <0.001) and length of stay (median 6-days vs 5-days; p <0.001) were also higher in patients with preoperative angina. In multivariable analyses, preoperative angina was a significant predictor for postoperative MI (odds ratio 2.49 [1.20 to 5.58]) and reintervention (odds ratio 2.40 [1.44 to 3.82]). In conclusion, our study indicates that preoperative angina is an independent predictor for adverse outcomes in patients with previous MI who underwent major noncardiac surgery, and cautions against overreliance on predictive tools, for example, the Revised Cardiac Risk Index, in these patients, which does not treat stable angina and previous MI as independent risk factors during risk prognostication.

  1. Evaluation of respiratory and cardiac motion correction schemes in dual gated PET/CT cardiac imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lamare, F. Fernandez, P.; Le Maitre, A.; Visvikis, D.; Dawood, M.; Schäfers, K. P.; Rimoldi, O. E.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Cardiac imaging suffers from both respiratory and cardiac motion. One of the proposed solutions involves double gated acquisitions. Although such an approach may lead to both respiratory and cardiac motion compensation there are issues associated with (a) the combination of data from cardiac and respiratory motion bins, and (b) poor statistical quality images as a result of using only part of the acquired data. The main objective of this work was to evaluate different schemes of combining binned data in order to identify the best strategy to reconstruct motion free cardiac images from dual gated positron emission tomography (PET) acquisitions. Methods: A digital phantom study as well as seven human studies were used in this evaluation. PET data were acquired in list mode (LM). A real-time position management system and an electrocardiogram device were used to provide the respiratory and cardiac motion triggers registered within the LM file. Acquired data were subsequently binned considering four and six cardiac gates, or the diastole only in combination with eight respiratory amplitude gates. PET images were corrected for attenuation, but no randoms nor scatter corrections were included. Reconstructed images from each of the bins considered above were subsequently used in combination with an affine or an elastic registration algorithm to derive transformation parameters allowing the combination of all acquired data in a particular position in the cardiac and respiratory cycles. Images were assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast, image profile, coefficient-of-variation (COV), and relative difference of the recovered activity concentration. Results: Regardless of the considered motion compensation strategy, the nonrigid motion model performed better than the affine model, leading to higher SNR and contrast combined with a lower COV. Nevertheless, when compensating for respiration only, no statistically significant differences were

  2. Preoperative Antihypertensive Medication in Relation to Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ai-Guo; Chen, An-ji; Zhang, Xiong-fei; Deng, Hui-wei

    2017-01-01

    Background. We undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of preoperative hypertension and preoperative antihypertensive medication to postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library (from inception to March 2016) for eligible studies. The outcomes were the effects of preoperative hypertension, preoperative calcium antagonists regimen, preoperative ACE inhibitors regimen, and preoperative beta blocking agents regimen with POAF. We calculated pooled risk ratios (OR) and 95% CIs using random- or fixed-effects models. Results. Twenty-five trials involving 130087 patients were listed. Meta-analysis showed that the number of preoperative hypertension patients in POAF group was significantly higher (P < 0.05), while we found that there are no significant differences between two groups in Asia patients by subgroup analysis, which is in contrast to other outcomes. Compared with the Non-POAF group, the number of patients who used calcium antagonists and ACE inhibitors preoperatively in POAF group was significantly higher (P < 0.05). And we found that there were no significant differences between two groups of preoperative beta blocking agents used (P = 0.08). Conclusions. Preoperative hypertension and preoperative antihypertensive medication in patients undergoing cardiac operations seem to be associated with higher risk of POAF. PMID:28286753

  3. Quantification of chemotaxis during pediatric cardiac surgery by flow and laser scanning cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarnok, Attila; Schmid, Joerg W.; Osmancik, Pavel; Lenz, Dominik; Pipek, Michal; Hambsch, Joerg; Gerstner, Andreas O.; Schneider, Peter

    2002-05-01

    Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) alters the leukocyte composition of the peripheral blood (PB). This response contributes to the sometimes adverse outcome with capillary leakage. Migration of activated cells to sites of inflammation, driven by chemokines is part of this response. In order to determine the chemotactic activity of patients serum during and after surgery we established an assay for PB leukocytes (PBL). PBL from healthy donors were isolated and 250,000 cells were placed into a migration chamber separated by a filter from a second lower chamber filled with patient serum. After incubation cells from top and bottom chamber were removed and stained with a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies for leukocyte subsets and analyzed on a flow cytometer (FCM). Cells at the bottom of the filter belong to the migrating compartment and were quantified by LSC after staining of nucleated cells. Increased chemotactic activity started at onset of anaesthesia followed by a phase of low activity immediately after surgery and a second phase of a high post-operative activity. The in vitro results correlated with results obtained by immunopenotyping of circulating PBL. Manipulation of the chemokine pattern might prove beneficial to prevent extravasation of cells leading to tissue damage. In chemotaxis assays with low amount of available serum the combined use of FCM and Laser Scanning LSC proved as an appropriate analytical tool.

  4. [Inflammatory response and haematological disorders in cardiac surgery: toward a more physiological cardiopulmonary bypass].

    PubMed

    Baufreton, C; Corbeau, J-J; Pinaud, F

    2006-05-01

    The systemic inflammatory response in cardiac surgery is closely related to the haemostasis disturbances. It is responsible of a significant morbidity and mortality that was previously suspected to be caused by cardiopulmonary bypass alone. However, it is time now to clearly identify the factors that are material-dependent from that material-independent. From this point of view, off-pump surgery allowed for better comprehension of the multiple sources of the inflammatory response. Numerous pathways are activated, involving complement, platelets, neutrophiles and monocytes. The tissue pathway of the coagulation system, through tissue factor, is of major importance and has to be surgically considered in order to reduce the whole body inflammatory response postoperatively. The quality of the extracorporeal perfusion through its consequences on organ perfusion, particularly in the splanchnic area, also participates to this pathophysiological process. Beyond the progress of technology provided by the industry, particularly the minimally extracorporeal circulation derived from off-pump surgery evolution, the surgical approach is of major importance in the control of the systemic inflammatory response and must not be ignored yet.

  5. Metabotyping Patients’ Journeys Reveals Early Predisposition to Lung Injury after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Maltesen, Raluca Georgiana; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen; Pedersen, Shona; Hanifa, Munsoor Ali; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Kristensen, Søren Risom; Wimmer, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide and patients with severe symptoms undergo cardiac surgery. Even after uncomplicated surgeries, some patients experience postoperative complications such as lung injury. We hypothesized that the procedure elicits metabolic activity that can be related to the disease progression, which is commonly observed two-three days postoperatively. More than 700 blood samples were collected from 50 patients at nine time points pre-, intra-, and postoperatively. Dramatic metabolite shifts were observed during and immediately after the intervention. Prolonged surgical stress was linked to an augmented anaerobic environment. Time series analysis showed shifts in purine-, nicotinic acid-, tyrosine-, hyaluronic acid-, ketone-, fatty acid, and lipid metabolism. A characteristic ‘metabolic biosignature’ was identified correlating with the risk of developing postoperative complications two days before the first clinical signs of lung injury. Hence, this study demonstrates the link between intra- and postoperative time-dependent metabolite changes and later postoperative outcome. In addition, the results indicate that metabotyping patients’ journeys early, during or just after the end of surgery, may have potential impact in hospitals for the early diagnosis of postoperative lung injury, and for the monitoring of therapeutics targeting disease progression. PMID:28074924

  6. Intrathecal Morphine Plus General Anesthesia in Cardiac Surgery: Effects on Pulmonary Function, Postoperative Analgesia, and Plasma Morphine Concentration

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Luciana Moraes; Santos, Verônica Cavani Jorge; Santos, Silvia Regina Cavani Jorge; Malbouisson, Luiz Marcelo Sá; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of intrathecal morphine on pulmonary function, analgesia, and morphine plasma concentrations after cardiac surgery. INTRODUCTION: Lung dysfunction increases morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Regional analgesia may improve pulmonary outcomes by reducing pain, but the occurrence of this benefit remains controversial. METHODS: Forty-two patients were randomized for general anesthesia (control group n=22) or 400 μg of intrathecal morphine followed by general anesthesia (morphine group n=20). Postoperative analgesia was accomplished with an intravenous, patient-controlled morphine pump. Blood gas measurements, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV), and FVC/FEV ratio were obtained preoperatively, as well as on the first and second postoperative days. Pain at rest, profound inspiration, amount of coughing, morphine solicitation, consumption, and plasma morphine concentration were evaluated for 36 hours postoperatively. Statistical analyses were performed using the repeated measures ANOVA or Mann-Whiney tests (*p<0.05). RESULTS: Both groups experienced reduced FVC postoperatively (3.24 L to 1.38 L in control group; 2.72 L to 1.18 L in morphine FEV1 (p=0.085), group), with no significant decreases observed between groups. The two groups also exhibited similar results for FEV1/FVC (p=0.68) and PaO2/FiO2 ratio (p=0.08). The morphine group reported less pain intensity (evaluated using a visual numeric scale), especially when coughing (18 hours postoperatively: control group= 4.73 and morphine group= 1.80, p=0.001). Cumulative morphine consumption was reduced after 18 hours in the morphine group (control group= 20.14 and morphine group= 14.20 mg, p=0.037). The plasma morphine concentration was also reduced in the morphine group 24 hours after surgery (control group= 15.87 ng.mL−1 and morphine group= 4.08 ng.mL−1, p=0.029). CONCLUSIONS: Intrathecal morphine administration did not significantly alter

  7. Delirium after Cardiac Surgery: A Pilot Study from a Single Tertiary Referral Center

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashok K; Jayant, Aveek; Arya, VK; Magoon, Rohan; Sharma, Ridhima

    2017-01-01

    Background: Advances in cardiac surgery has shifted paradigm of management to perioperative psychological illnesses. Delirium is a state of altered consciousness with easy distraction of thoughts. The pathophysiology of this complication is not clear, but identification of risk factors is important for positive postoperative outcomes. The goal of the present study was to prospectively identify the incidence, motoric subtypes, and risk factors associated with development of delirium in cardiac surgical patients admitted to postoperative cardiac intensive care, using a validated delirium monitoring instrument. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, observational study. This study included 120 patients of age 18–80 years, admitted to undergo cardiac surgery after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Specific preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data for possible risk factors were obtained. Once in a day, assessment of delirium was done. Continuous variables were measured as mean ± standard deviation, whereas categorical variables were described as proportions. Differences between groups were analyzed using Student's t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, or Chi-square test. Variables with a P < 0.1 were then used to develop a predictive model using stepwise logistic regression with bootstrapping. Results: Delirium was seen in 17.5% patients. The majority of cases were of hypoactive delirium type (85.72%). Multiple risk factors were found to be associated with delirium, and when logistic regression with bootstrapping applied to these risk factors, five independent variables were detected. History of hypertension (relative risk [RR] =6.7857, P = 0.0003), carotid artery disease (RR = 4.5000, P < 0.0001) in the form of stroke or hemorrhage, noninvasive ventilation (NIV) use (RR = 5.0446, P < 0.0001), Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay more than 10 days (RR = 3.1630, P = 0.0021), and poor postoperative pain control (RR = 2.4958, P = 0.0063) was associated

  8. Storage time of intraoperative transfused allogeneic red blood cells is not associated with new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation in cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jiwei; Skals, Regitze Kuhr; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Jakobsen, Carl-Johan; Bæch, John; Petersen, Mikkel Steen

    2017-01-01

    Background Allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion has been associated with new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) following cardiac surgery. Prolonged storage time of RBC may increase the risk. The primary aim of the study was to evaluate whether the storage time of RBC is associated with development of POAF. Materials and methods Pre-, per- and postoperative data were retrieved from the Western Denmark Heart Registry and local blood banks regarding patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery, valve surgery or combined procedures in Aalborg or Aarhus University Hospital during 2010–2014. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the risk of POAF according to transfusion of RBC on the day of surgery. Furthermore, we determined trend in storage time of RBC according to risk of POAF using restricted cubic splines. Patients with a history of preoperative atrial fibrillation, patients who received transfusions preoperative and patients who died at the day of surgery were among excluded patients. Results A total of 2,978 patients with a mean age of 66.4 years were included and 609 patients (21%) received RBC transfusion on the day of surgery. POAF developed in 752 patients (25%) and transfused patients were at an increased risk compared with non-transfused patients (adjusted Odds Ratios for patients receiving RBC: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.11–1.69, P-value = 0.004). However, RBC transfusion was not necessarily the cause of POAF and may only be a marker for development of POAF. There was no significant association between storage time of RBC and POAF. Conclusions In contrast to intraoperative allogeneic RBC transfusion in general, increased storage time of RBC is not associated with development of POAF in cardiac surgery. PMID:28225837

  9. Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy. A Spanish retrospective case-cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury is among the most serious complications after cardiac surgery and is associated with an impaired outcome. Multiple factors may concur in the development of this disease. Moreover, severe renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) presents a high mortality rate. Consequently, we studied a Spanish cohort of patients to assess the risk factors for RRT in cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI). Methods A retrospective case-cohort study in 24 Spanish hospitals. All cases of RRT after cardiac surgery in 2007 were matched in a crude ratio of 1:4 consecutive patients based on age, sex, treated in the same year, at the same hospital and by the same group of surgeons. Results We analyzed the data from 864 patients enrolled in 2007. In multivariate analysis, severe acute kidney injury requiring postoperative RRT was significantly associated with the following variables: lower glomerular filtration rates, less basal haemoglobin, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes, prior diuretic treatment, urgent surgery, longer aortic cross clamp times, intraoperative administration of aprotinin, and increased number of packed red blood cells (PRBC) transfused. When we conducted a propensity analysis using best-matched of 137 available pairs of patients, prior diuretic treatment, longer aortic cross clamp times and number of PRBC transfused were significantly associated with CSA-AKI. Patients requiring RRT needed longer hospital stays, and suffered higher mortality rates. Conclusion Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring RRT is associated with worse outcomes. For this reason, modifiable risk factors should be optimised and higher risk patients for acute kidney injury should be identified before undertaking cardiac surgery. PMID:19772621

  10. Comparison of three point-of-care testing devices to detect hemostatic changes in adult elective cardiac surgery: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bleeding complications in cardiac surgery may lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Traditional blood coagulation tests are not always suitable to detect rapid changes in the patient's coagulation status. Point-of-care instruments such as the TEG (thromboelastograph) and RoTEM (thromboelastometer) have been shown to be useful as a guide for the clinician in the choice of blood products and they may lead to a reduction in the need for blood transfusion, contributing to better patient blood management. Methods The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the TEG, RoTEM and Sonoclot instruments to detect changes in hemostasis in elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and to investigate possible correlations between variables from these three instruments and routine hematological coagulation tests. Blood samples from thirty-five adult patients were drawn before and after surgery and analyzed in TEG, RoTEM, Sonoclot and routine coagulation tests. Data were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance and Pearson's test for linear correlation. Results We found significant changes for all TEG variables after surgery, for three of the RoTEM variables, and for one variable from the Sonoclot. There were significant correlations postoperatively between plasma fibrinogen levels and variables from the three instruments. Conclusions TEG and RoTEM may be used to detect changes in hemostasis following cardiac surgery with CPB. Sonoclot seems to be less suitable to detect such changes. Variables from the three instruments correlated with plasma fibrinogen and could be used to monitor treatment with fibrinogen concentrate. PMID:25276093

  11. [Nitrid oxide, levosimendan and sildenafile in a patient with right ventricle dysfunction and severe pulmonary hypertension after cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Aleixandre, L; Cortell, J; Vicente, R; Herrera, P; Loro, J M; Valera, F

    2014-11-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) and the resulting right ventricle dysfunction are important risk factors in patients who undergo cardiac surgery. The treatment of PHT and right ventricle dysfunction should be focused on maintaining the correct right ventricle after load, improving right ventricle function and reducing the right ventricle pre-load and therefore reducing pulmonary vascular resistance by means of vasodilators. A combined therapy of vasodilators and medicines which have different mechanisms of action, is becoming an option for the treatment of PHT. We present a 65 year old woman that suffered from mitral regurgitation, aortic valve disease, tricuspid and ascending aortic dilation with 115mmHg of pulmonary artery pressure (by ultrasound evaluation). The patient was operated on of mitral, aortic valve and tricuspid plastia and proximal aortic artery plastia as well. Previosly to surgery the patient suffered right ventricle dysfunction and PHT and was treated with nitric oxide, intravenous sildenafil and levosimendan. Subsequent evolution was satisfactory, PHT being controlled, without arterial hypotension nor respiratory alterations.

  12. Measurement of Exercise Tolerance before Surgery (METS) study: a protocol for an international multicentre prospective cohort study of cardiopulmonary exercise testing prior to major non-cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pearse, Rupert M; Shulman, Mark A; Abbott, Tom E F; Torres, Elizabeth; Croal, Bernard L; Granton, John T; Thorpe, Kevin E; Grocott, Michael P W; Farrington, Catherine; Myles, Paul S; Cuthbertson, Brian H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preoperative functional capacity is considered an important risk factor for cardiovascular and other complications of major non-cardiac surgery. Nonetheless, the usual approach for estimating preoperative functional capacity, namely doctors’ subjective assessment, may not accurately predict postoperative morbidity or mortality. 3 possible alternatives are cardiopulmonary exercise testing; the Duke Activity Status Index, a standardised questionnaire for estimating functional capacity; and the serum concentration of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT pro-BNP), a biomarker for heart failure and cardiac ischaemia. Methods and analysis The Measurement of Exercise Tolerance before Surgery (METS) Study is a multicentre prospective cohort study of patients undergoing major elective non-cardiac surgery at 25 participating study sites in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the UK. We aim to recruit 1723 participants. Prior to surgery, participants undergo symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a cycle ergometer, complete the Duke Activity Status Index questionnaire, undergo blood sampling to measure serum NT pro-BNP concentration and have their functional capacity subjectively assessed by their responsible doctors. Participants are followed for 1 year after surgery to assess vital status, postoperative complications and general health utilities. The primary outcome is all-cause death or non-fatal myocardial infarction within 30 days after surgery, and the secondary outcome is all-cause death within 1 year after surgery. Both receiver-operating-characteristic curve methods and risk reclassification table methods will be used to compare the prognostic accuracy of preoperative subjective assessment, peak oxygen consumption during cardiopulmonary exercise testing, Duke Activity Status Index scores and serum NT pro-BNP concentration. Ethics and dissemination The METS Study has received research ethics board approval at all sites

  13. Two-dimensional, non-Doppler strain imaging during anesthesia and cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Skubas, Nikolaos J

    2009-03-01

    Transesophageal echochardiography (TEE) has become an essential intraoperative monitor during general anesthesia for cardiac surgical procedures. In clinical practice, ventricular function is visually evaluated using gray scale and Doppler modes, despite the fact that subjective interpretation is influenced by level of experience and training. Echocardiographic strain imaging measures cardiac deformation and provides objective quantification of regional myocardial function. Non-Doppler strain, which is derived by tracking speckles from two-dimensional (2D) images, bypasses the limitations of Doppler-based strain measurements and evaluates the complex myocardial deformation along three dimensions. As a result, longitudinal shortening, circumferential thinning and radial thickening can be quantified using standard midesophageal and transgastric views, being acquired during a comprehensive TEE examination. Once non-Doppler strain becomes available on "real time," it will have the potential to become a valuable tool for detection of ischemia on the regional level and objective quantification of global ventricular function.

  14. Patient and family satisfaction levels in the intensive care unit after elective cardiac surgery: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of a preoperative patient education intervention

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Patricia; Chiu, Chun Hung; Ho, Ka Man; Gomersall, Charles David; Underwood, Malcolm John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patients and their families are understandably anxious about the risk of complications and unfamiliar experiences following cardiac surgery. Providing information about postoperative care in the intensive care unit (ICU) to patients and families may lead to lower anxiety levels, and increased satisfaction with healthcare. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the effectiveness of preoperative patient education provided for patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Methods and analysis 100 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft, with or without valve replacement surgery, will be recruited into a 2-group, parallel, superiority, double-blinded randomised controlled trial. Participants will be randomised to either preoperative patient education comprising of a video and ICU tour with standard care (intervention) or standard education (control). The primary outcome measures are the satisfaction levels of patients and family members with ICU care and decision-making in the ICU. The secondary outcome measures are patient anxiety and depression levels before and after surgery. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the Joint Chinese University of Hong Kong—New Territories East Cluster Clinical Research Ethics Committee (reference number CREC 2015.308). The findings will be presented at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. Study participants will receive a 1-page plain language summary of results. Trial registration number ChiCTR-IOR-15006971. PMID:27334883

  15. The Vascular Quality Initiative Cardiac Risk Index for prediction of myocardial infarction after vascular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Schanzer, Andres; Scali, Salvatore T.; Goodney, Philip P.; Eldrup-Jorgensen, Jens; Cronenwett, Jack L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to develop and to validate the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) for prediction of postoperative myocardial infarction (POMI) after vascular surgery. Methods We developed risk models for in-hospital POMI after 88,791 nonemergent operations from the VQI registry, including carotid endarterectomy (CEA; n = 45,340), infrainguinal bypass (INFRA; n = 18,054), suprainguinal bypass (SUPRA; n = 2678), endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR; n = 18,539), and open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (OAAA repair; n = 4180). Multivariable logistic regression was used to create an all-procedure and four procedure-specific risk calculators based on the derivation cohort from 2012 to 2014 (N = 61,236). Generalizability of the all-procedure model was evaluated by applying it to each procedure subtype. The models were validated using a cohort (N = 27,555) from January 2015 to February 2016. Model discrimination was measured by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and performance was validated by bootstrapping 5000 iterations. The VQI CRI calculator was made available on the Internet and as a free smart phone app available through QxCalculate. Results Overall POMI incidence was 1.6%, with variation by procedure type as follows: CEA, 0.8%; EVAR, 1.0%; INFRA, 2.6%; SUPRA, 3.1%; and OAAA repair, 4.3% (P < .001). Predictors of POMI in the all-procedure model included age, operation type, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes, creatinine concentration >1.8 mg/dL, stress test status, and body mass index (AUC, 0.75; 95% confidence interval =CI], 0.73-0.76). The all-procedure model demonstrated only minimally reduced accuracy when it was applied to each procedure, with the following AUCs: CEA, 0.65 (95% CI, 0.59-0.70); INFRA, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.64-0.73); EVAR, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.65-0.80); SUPRA, 0.62 (95% CI, 0.52-0.72); and OAAA, 0.63 (95% CI, 0.56-0.70). Procedure-specific models had

  16. Fulminant mediastinitis due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: atypical presentation and spreading following cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Horacio; Carrascal, Yolanda; Maroto, Laura; Arce, Nuria

    2013-05-01

    Mediastinitis due to Klebsiella pneumoniae, related to thoracic wall contamination after cardiac surgery, has rarely been described. We aim to report a case of fulminant mediastinitis due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae, secondary to a disseminated concomitant pulmonary infection. The patient remained pauci-symptomatic until clinical manifestations of sepsis acutely appeared.

  17. Bed Capacity Planning Using Stochastic Simulation Approach in Cardiac-surgery Department of Teaching Hospitals, Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    TORABIPOUR, Amin; ZERAATI, Hojjat; ARAB, Mohammad; RASHIDIAN, Arash; AKBARI SARI, Ali; SARZAIEM, Mahmuod Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: To determine the hospital required beds using stochastic simulation approach in cardiac surgery departments. Methods: This study was performed from Mar 2011 to Jul 2012 in three phases: First, collection data from 649 patients in cardiac surgery departments of two large teaching hospitals (in Tehran, Iran). Second, statistical analysis and formulate a multivariate linier regression model to determine factors that affect patient's length of stay. Third, develop a stochastic simulation system (from admission to discharge) based on key parameters to estimate required bed capacity. Results: Current cardiac surgery department with 33 beds can only admit patients in 90.7% of days. (4535 d) and will be required to over the 33 beds only in 9.3% of days (efficient cut off point). According to simulation method, studied cardiac surgery department will requires 41–52 beds for admission of all patients in the 12 next years. Finally, one-day reduction of length of stay lead to decrease need for two hospital beds annually. Conclusion: Variation of length of stay and its affecting factors can affect required beds. Statistic and stochastic simulation model are applied and useful methods to estimate and manage hospital beds based on key hospital parameters. PMID:27957466

  18. Preoperative Preparation for Cardiac Surgery Facilitates Recovery, Reduces Psychological Distress, and Reduces the Incidence of Acute Postoperative Hypertension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Erling A.

    1987-01-01

    Cardiac surgery patients were assigned to information-only, information-plus-coping, or control preoperative preparation groups. Preoperatively, both experimental groups were significantly less anxious than were controls. Both experimental groups increased patients' belief in control over recovery. Postoperatively, experimental patients were less…

  19. Changes in serum enzyme levels accompanying cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation

    PubMed Central

    Welbourn, Nora; Melrose, D. G.; Moss, D. W.

    1966-01-01

    Serum lactic dehydrogenase, alpha-hydroxy-butyrate dehydrogenase, iso-citric dehydrogenase, and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase activities were measured daily for two weeks postoperatively in the serum of 22 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. The length of perfusion was found to be a major factor affecting the extent of increased post-operative enzyme activities. Significantly higher levels were demonstrated in patients perfused for over one hour compared with those perfused for under one hour. Hepatocellular damage, age, and type of operation were not considered to be major factors in determining the extent of this increased activity. A considerable increase in enzyme activity was found to occur during perfusion when the dilution introduced by mixing the patient's circulation with the priming fluid of the heart-lung machine was taken into account. This dilution, when accounted for, increased the observed enzyme activity by 30 to 50%. PMID:5937606

  20. Mothers' view on late postoperative pain management by the nursing team in children after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira; Strabelli, Brisa Soldatelli; de Almeida, Fernanda Cristina Queiroz Gomes; Rossato, Lisabelle Mariano; Leite, Adriana Moraes; de Lima, Regina Aparecida Garcia

    2010-01-01

    Postoperative pain management in children is a complex, multidimensional and subjective phenomenon. It represents a challenge for children, parents and health professionals. This study aimed to understand how mothers assess their children's pain management by the nursing team in the late postoperative phase of cardiac surgery. Empirical data collection was carried out through semistructured interviews with 17 mothers who accompanied their children. Data were subject to qualitative analysis, revealing that, for the mothers, taking good care results from the confidence they vest in the nursing team and from the observation of the medication interventions this team performs. Not taking good care of their children is a consequence of lack of information or inadequate communication between the team and the mothers. The results of this study permit identifying aspects that strengthen and weaken nursing care for these clients, contributing to the improvement of the delivered care.

  1. The World Congress of Paediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery: a short factual history by Jane Somerville.

    PubMed

    Somerville, Jane

    2012-12-01

    The World Congress of Paediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery has survived with minimal assets and simple organisation. Each congress is special, taking on the humour, flavour, and culture of the organising country. It is hard work for a few organisers and money is hard to raise. The steering committee works closely, fairly, and successfully, and even though accused of being secretive and effete that does not matter. It is efficient and produces successful, happy world congresses, where all involved with the speciality are welcome. With so many "grown-ups" with congenital heart disease, it is no longer just a paediatric problem - maybe the name of this congress must change again. Regardless, the flag must fly on.

  2. Tools for assessing quality of life in cardiology and cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pudlo, Robert; Jaworska, Izabela; Byrczek-Godula, Kamila; Gąsior, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The holistic concept of health, popularization of knowledge, as well as social and economic factors have contributed to the growing interest in research concerning quality of life in cardiovascular diseases. The value of direct measurements of the patient's well-being and the extent of their functioning in everyday life (i.e., health-related quality of life; HRQoL) has gained appreciation. Questionnaires are the most popular method of measuring quality of life. On the basis of the literature, we can conclude that the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire is one of the most widely used tools measuring the quality of life of patients undergoing cardiological treatment and cardiac surgery. PMID:27212988

  3. An Endovascular Approach to the Entrapped Central Venous Catheter After Cardiac Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Shamit S.; Konanur, Meghana; Foltz, Gretchen; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Resnick, Scott

    2016-03-15

    PurposeEntrapment of central venous catheters (CVC) at the superior vena cava (SVC) cardiopulmonary bypass cannulation site by closing purse-string sutures is a rare complication of cardiac surgery. Historically, resternotomy has been required for suture release. An endovascular catheter release approach was developed.Materials and MethodsFour cases of CVC tethering against the SVC wall and associated resistance to removal, suggestive of entrapment, were encountered. In each case, catheter removal was achieved using a reverse catheter fluoroscopically guided over the suture fixation point between catheter and SVC wall, followed by the placement of a guidewire through the catheter. The guidewire was snared and externalized to create a through-and-through access with the apex of the loop around the suture. A snare placed from the femoral venous access provided concurrent downward traction on the distal CVC during suture release maneuvers.ResultsIn the initial attempt, gentle traction freed the CVC, which fractured and was removed in two sections. In the subsequent three cases, traction alone did not release the CVC. Therefore, a cutting balloon was introduced over the guidewire and inflated. Gentle back-and-forth motion of the cutting balloon atherotomes successfully incised the suture in all three attempts. No significant postprocedural complications were encountered. During all cases, a cardiovascular surgeon was present in the interventional suite and prepared for emergent resternotomy, if necessary.ConclusionAn endovascular algorithm to the “entrapped CVC” is proposed, which likely reduces risks posed by resternotomy to cardiac surgery patients in the post-operative period.

  4. Rifampin blood and tissue levels in patients undergoing cardiac valve surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Archer, G L; Armstrong, B C; Kline, B J

    1982-01-01

    Single 600-mg capsules of rifampin were given orally to 26 patients as prophylaxis during cardiac valve replacement. Antibiotic concentrations were measured in blood (serum or plasma) and tissue (excised cardiac valve). The serum or plasma levels of rifampin in 18 patients who ingested this drug 2 h before they received preoperative opiates and anticholinergics intramuscularly were not significantly different from the levels in four normal volunteers who received the drug. These levels were 15.9 +/- 6.5 micrograms/ml (mean +/- standard deviation) 2 h after drug administration, 7.1 +/- 4.3 micrograms/ml 8 h after drug administration and 2 h after a mean of 1.4 h on cardiopulmonary bypass, and 1.6 +/- 1.6 micrograms/ml 24 h after drug ingestion. The valve tissue level was 3.8 +/- 2.7 micrograms/g (mean +/- standard deviation; n = 10). This value was 65% of the simultaneous serum and plasma levels and 31% of the peak serum and plasma levels. Eight patients who were given rifampin at the same time that they received other preoperative medications had significantly lower blood levels than the 18 patients who received rifampin 2 h earlier (P less than 0.001). No rifampin was detected in valves from seven of these patients. Decreased rifampin absorption due to simultaneous administration with opiates and anticholinergics was the probable reason for the low plasma and serum levels observed. These data suggest that, if properly dosed, rifampin administered orally gives high blood and valve tissue levels, which are affected minimally by cardiopulmonary bypass in patients undergoing cardiac valve surgery. PMID:7103459

  5. Hospital-Acquired Infections After Cardiac Surgery and Current Physician Practices: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    O’Keefe, Scott; Williams, Kenneth; Legare, Jean-Francois

    2017-01-01

    Background The management of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) with respect to physician practices remains largely unexplored despite increasing efforts to standardize care. In the present study, we report findings from a 2-month audit of all patients that have undergone cardiac surgery at a large referral center in Atlantic Canada. Methods All patients who underwent cardiac surgical procedures during May and June 2013 at the Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Center in Halifax, Nova Scotia were identified. The prevalence of urinary tract infections (UTIs), pneumonia, leg harvest site infections, superficial sternal wound infections, deep sternal wound infections, and sepsis was examined to determine physician approaches in terms of verification rates (microbiology), time of diagnosis and duration of treatment. Continuous variables were compared using Student’s t-test and categorical variables were analyzed using Fischer’s exact test. Results A total of 185 consecutive patients underwent cardiac surgical procedures, of which 39 (21%) developed at least one postoperative infection. The overall prevalence of infection types, from highest to lowest, was UTI (8%), pneumonia (7%), leg harvest site infection (5%), superficial surgical site infection (4%), and sepsis (2%). There were no deep sternal wound infections. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 3.8% with a median length of stay (LOS) of 8 days. The overall infection verification rate was 50% (ranged from 100% in sepsis to 10% in leg harvest site infections). In all cases, a full course of antibiotics was administered despite negative microbiology cultures or limited evidence of an actual infection. Conclusions HAIs are commonly treated without being verified and treatment is often not discontinued after negative cultures are received. Our findings highlight the fact that antibiotic treatment is not always supported by evidence, and the effect of this could contribute to increased selective pressure

  6. Negative emotions and quality of life six months after cardiac surgery: the dominant role of depression not anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tully, Phillip J; Baker, Robert A; Turnbull, Deborah A; Winefield, Helen R; Knight, John L

    2009-12-01

    The specific syndromal aspects of depression and anxiety have not been explored in relation to changes in health related quality of life (HRQOL) after cardiac surgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of general stress, depression and anxiety on HRQOL after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Utilizing a tripartite conceptual model of depression and anxiety, it was hypothesized that general stress symptoms, rather than unique depressive or anxiogenic symptoms, would be associated with lower HRQOL 6 months after CABG surgery. Elective CABG patients (n=226) completed baseline and postoperative self-report measures of negative emotions and HRQOL, and 193 patients completed these measures at 6-month follow-up. Multiple linear regression analyses and logit link analyses were performed to test the hypothesis. Elevated depression symptoms before and after surgery showed an association with lower and worse HRQOL for vitality and social role functioning and physical and general health. This study adds to previous research by outlining discrete associations between specific HRQOL domains, and is perhaps the first to test a theoretical model of depression and anxiety in relation to cardiac CABG patients' perceptions of HRQOL. These findings encourage further research on negative emotions and HRQOL in cardiac surgery patients and the practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Combination of acute preoperative plateletpheresis, cell salvage, and aprotinin minimizes blood loss and requirement during cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Ji, Hongwen; Lin, Jing; Lenehan, Eric; Ji, Bingyang; Liu, Jinping; Liu, Jin; Long, Cun; Crane, Terry A

    2005-03-01

    Acute preoperative plateletpheresis (APP), cell salvage (CS) technique, and the use of aprotinin have been individually reported to be effective in reducing blood loss and blood component transfusion while improving hematological profiles in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In this prospective randomized clinical study, the efficacy of these combined approaches on reducing blood loss and transfusion requirements was evaluated. Seventy patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were randomly divided into four groups: a control group (group I, n = 10) did not receive any of the previously mentioned approaches. An APP and CS group (group II, n = 20) experienced APP in which preoperative platelet-rich plasma was collected and reinfused after reversal of heparin, along with the cell salvage technique throughout surgery. The third group (group III, n = 22) received aprotinin in which 5,000,000 KIU Trasylol was applied during surgery, and a combination group (group IV, n = 18) was treated with all three approaches, i.e., APP, CS, and aprotinin. Compared with group I (896+/-278 mL), the postoperative total blood loss was significantly reduced in groups II, III, and IV (468+/-136, 388+/-122, 202+/-81 mL, respectively, p < 0.05). The requirements of packed red blood cells in the three approached groups (153+/-63, 105+/-178, 0+/-0 mL, respectively) also were reduced when compared with group I (343+/-118 mL, p < 0.05). In group I, six patients (6/10) received fresh-frozen plasma and three patients (3/10) received platelet transfusion, whereas no patients in the other three groups required fresh-frozen plasma and platelet. In conclusion, both plateletpheresis concomitant with cell salvage and aprotinin contribute to the improvement of postoperative hemostasis, and the combination of these two approaches could minimize postoperative blood loss and requirement.

  8. The impact of prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease on pediatric cardiology and cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Chiappa, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1980s prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) has progressively impacted on the practice of pediatric cardiology and cardiac surgery. Fetal cardiology today raises special needs in screening programs, training of the involved staff, and allocations of services. Due to the increased detection rate and to the substantial number of terminations, the reduced incidence of CHD at birth can affect the workload of centers of pediatric cardiology and surgery. In utero transportation and competition among centers may change the area of referral in favor of the best centers. Echocardiography is a powerful means to diagnose and to guide lifesaving medical treatment of sustained tachyarrhythmias in the fetus. Prenatal diagnosis not only improves the preoperative conditions in most cases but also postoperative morbidity and mortality in selected types of CHD. Intrauterine transcatheter valvuloplasty in severe outflow obstructive lesions has been disappointing so far and this technique remains investigational, until its benefits are determined by controlled trials. Prenatal diagnosis allows counselling of families which are better prepared for the foreseeable management and outcome of the fetus. These benefits can reduce the risks of litigation for missed ultrasound diagnosis. As increased costs can be expected in institutions dealing with a large number of fetal CHD, the administrators of these institutions should receive protected funds, proportional to their needs.

  9. Arterial Limb Microemboli during Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Observations from a Congenital Cardiac Surgery Practice

    PubMed Central

    Matte, Gregory S.; Connor, Kevin R.; Liu, Hua; DiNardo, James A.; Faraoni, David; Pigula, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Gaseous microemboli (GME) are known to be delivered to the arterial circulation of patients during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). An increased number of GME delivered during adult CPB has been associated with brain injury and postoperative cognitive dysfunction. The GME load in children exposed to CPB and its consequences are not well characterized. We sought to establish a baseline of arterial limb emboli counts during the conduct of CPB for our population of patients requiring surgery for congenital heart disease. We used the emboli detection and counting (EDAC) device to measure GME activity in 103 consecutive patients for which an EDAC machine was available. Emboli counts for GME <40 μ and >40 μ were quantified and indexed to CPB time (minutes) and body surface area (BSA) to account for the variation in patient size and CPB times. Patients of all sizes had a similar embolic burden when indexed to bypass time and BSA. Furthermore, patients of all sizes saw a three-fold increase in the <40 μ embolic burden and a five-fold increase in the >40 μ embolic burden when regular air was noted in the venous line. The use of kinetic venous-assisted drainage did not significantly increase arterial limb GME. Efforts for early identification and mitigation of venous line air are warranted to minimize GME transmission to congenital cardiac surgery patients during CPB. PMID:27134302

  10. Retained Blood Syndrome After Cardiac Surgery: A New Look at an Old Problem.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Edward M; Gillinov, A Marc; Cohn, William E; Ley, S Jill; Fischlein, Theodor; Perrault, Louis P

    2015-01-01

    Retained blood occurs when drainage systems fail to adequately evacuate blood during recovery from cardiothoracic surgery. As a result, a spectrum of mechanical and inflammatory complications can ensue in the acute, subacute, and chronic setting. The objectives of this review were to define the clinical syndrome associated with retained blood over the spectrum of recovery and to review existing literature regarding how this may lead to complications and contributes to poor outcomes. To better understand and prevent this constellation of clinical complications, a literature review was conducted, which led us to create a new label that better defines the clinical entity we have titled retained blood syndrome. Analysis of published reports revealed that 13.8% to 22.7% of cardiac surgical patients develop one or more components of retained blood syndrome. This can present in the acute, subacute, or chronic setting, with different pathophysiologic mechanisms active at different times. The development of retained blood syndrome has been linked to other clinical outcomes, including the development of postoperative atrial fibrillation and infection and the need for hospital readmission. Grouping multiple objectively measurable and potentially preventable postoperative complications that share a common etiology of retained blood over the continuum of recovery demonstrates a high prevalence of retained blood syndrome. This suggests the need to develop, implement, and test clinical strategies to enhance surgical drainage and reduce postoperative complications in patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery.

  11. Preoperative Endogenous Ouabain Predicts Acute Kidney Injury in Cardiac Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bignami, Elena; Casamassima, Nunzia; Frati, Elena; Lanzani, Chiara; Corno, Laura; Alferi, Ottavio; Gottlieb, Stephen; Simonini, Marco; Shah, Keyur B.; Mizzi, Anna; Messaggio, Elisabetta; Zangrillo, Alberto; Ferrandi, Mara; Ferrari, Patrizia; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Hamlyn, John M.; Manunta, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Acute kidney injury is a frequent complication of cardiac surgery and increases morbidity and mortality. As preoperative biomarkers predicting the development of acute kidney injury are not available, we have tested the hypothesis that preoperative plasma levels of endogenous ouabain may function as this type of biomarker. Rationale and Design Endogenous ouabain is an adrenal stress hormone associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Its involvement in acute kidney injury is unknown. With studies in patients and animal settings, including isolated podocytes, we tested the above mentioned hypothesis. Patients Preoperative endogenous ouabain was measured in 407 patients admitted for elective cardiac surgery and in a validation population of 219 other patients. We also studied the effect of prolonged elevations of circulating exogenous ouabain on renal parameters in rats and the influence of ouabain on podocyte proteins both “in vivo” and “in vitro.” Main Results In the first group of patients, acute kidney injury (2.8%, 8.3%, 20.3%, p < 0.001) and ICU stay (1.4 ± 0.38, 1.7 ± 0.41, 2.4 ± 0.59 days, p = 0.014) increased with each incremental preoperative endogenous ouabain tertile. In a linear regression analysis, the circulating endogenous ouabain value before surgery was the strongest predictor of acute kidney injury. In the validation cohort, acute kidney injury (0%, 5.9%, 8.2%, p < 0.0001) and ICU stay (1.2 ± 0.09, 1.4 ± 0.23, 2.2 ± 0.77 days, p = 0.003) increased with the preoperative endogenous ouabain tertile. Values for preoperative endogenous ouabain significantly improved (area under curve: 0.85) risk prediction over the clinical score alone as measured by integrate discrimination improvement and net reclassification improvement. Finally, in the rat model, elevated circulating ouabain reduced creatinine clearance (–18%, p < 0.05), increased urinary protein excretion (+ 54%, p < 0.05), and reduced expression of podocyte nephrin

  12. [34,450 days of cardiac surgery in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Pirk, J

    2005-01-01

    Professor Karel Maydl was born in Rokytnice nad Jizerou, where his father was employed at the local court. Czech cardio-surgery was born with the first successful treatment of the stab in the heart, which was done by professor Rychlík in 1910. The next few years the cardio-surgery was represented only by occasional treatment of heart injury. Only in 1934 Jirí Divis excided ganglion stelatum to cure angina pectoris and in 1936 he performed surgical treatment of constrictive pericarditis. Article reviews all Essentials moments in the development of cardio-surgery in Bohemia and Moravia. The second part of the paper gives at present the most frequently performed surgeries. It is concluded that the Czech cardio-surgery has according to the numbers and duality of the treatment the west-European level. At the end Professor Maydl, who died for heart failure, is quoted, why he himself had to be stroked by the disease, which is not possible to treat with the knife. In the 100 years since that it is possible to evaluate that in ICEM 283 medical doctors have been treated for the heart disease and results of their operations were Berger than in standard population. It reproves the bad record of doctors to be bad patients.

  13. Evaluation of Cardiac Toxicity Biomarkers in Rats from Different Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyuri; Chini, Naseem; Fairchild, David G; Engle, Steven K; Reagan, William J; Summers, Sandra D; Mirsalis, Jon C

    2016-12-01

    There is a great need for improved diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of potential cardiac toxicity in drug development. This study reports the evaluation of several commercially available biomarker kits by 3 institutions (SRI, Eli Lilly, and Pfizer) for the discrimination between myocardial degeneration/necrosis and cardiac hypertrophy as well as the assessment of the interlaboratory and interplatform variation in results. Serum concentrations of natriuretic peptides (N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide [NT-proANP] and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]), cardiac and skeletal troponins (cTnI, cTnT, and sTnI), myosin light chain 3 (Myl3), and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) were assessed in rats treated with minoxidil (MNX) and isoproterenol (ISO). MNX caused increased heart-to-body weight ratios and prominent elevations in NT-proANP and NT-proBNP concentrations detected at 24-hr postdose without elevation in troponins, Myl3, or FABP3 and with no abnormal histopathological findings. ISO caused ventricular leukocyte infiltration, myocyte fibrosis, and necrosis with increased concentrations of the natriuretic peptides, cardiac troponins, and Myl3. These results reinforce the advantages of a multimarker strategy in elucidating the underlying cause of cardiac insult and detecting myocardial tissue damage at 24-hr posttreatment. The interlaboratory and interplatform comparison analyses also showed that the data obtained from different laboratories and platforms are highly correlated and reproducible, making these biomarkers widely applicable in preclinical studies.

  14. Early cardiology assessment and intervention reduces mortality following myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS)

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Alina; Pattenden, Holly; Leung, Maria; Davies, Simon; George, David A.; Raubenheimer, Hilgardt; Niwaz, Zakiyah

    2016-01-01

    Background Myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS) is defined as troponin elevation of ≥0.03 ng/mL associated with 3.87-fold increase in early mortality. We sought to determine the impact of cardiology intervention on mortality in patients who developed MINS after general thoracic surgery. Methods A retrospective review was performed in patients over 5 years. Troponin was routinely measured and levels ≥0.04 ng/mL classified as positive. Data acquisition and mortality status was obtained via medical records and NHS tracing systems. Thirty-day mortality was compared on MINS cohort using Fisher’s exact square testing and logistic regression analysis. Results Troponin levels were measured in 491 (96%) of 511 patients. Eighty (16%) patients fulfilled the MINS criteria. Sixty-one (76%) received early cardiology consult and “myocardial infarction” stated in four (5%) patients. Risk assessment (for AMI) was undertaken; 20 (25%) patients were commenced on aspirin, four (5%) on β-blockers and one (1%) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Forty-nine (61%) patients received primary risk factor modifications and 26 (33%) had outpatient follow-up. There were no significant differences in the proportion of patients who died within 30 days post-operatively in the MINS group of 2.6% compared to the non-MINS group of 1.6% (P=0.625). The odds ratio for 30-day mortality in the MINS group was 1.69 (95% CI: 0.34 to 8.57, P=0.522). Conclusions MINS is common after general thoracic surgery. Early cardiology intervention reduced the expected hazard ratio of early death from 3.87 to an odds ratio of 1.69 with no significant difference in 30-day mortality for patients who developed MINS. PMID:27162667

  15. [S3-Guideline: Recommendations for intra-aortic balloon pumping in cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Pilarczyk, Kevin; Bauer, Adrian; Boening, Andreas; von der Brelie, Michael; Eichler, Ingolf; Gohrbandt, Bernard; Groesdonk, Heinrich Volker; Haake, Nils; Heringlake, Matthias; Langebartels, Georg; Markewitz, Andreas; Thiele, Holger; Trummer, Georg; Marggraf, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Although intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) is the most frequently used mechanical cardiac assist device in cardiothoracic surgery, there are only guidelines for substantive sections of aortic counterpulsation including prophylactic and postoperative use. In contrast, evidence-based recommendations are still lacking concerning intraoperative use, management, contraindication and other relevant issues. According to international surveys, important aspects of IABP usage show a wide variation in clinical practice. The results of a national questionnaire performed before initiation of this guideline confirmed these findings and demonstrated a clear need for the development of a consensus-based guideline. Therefore, the presented multidisciplinary S-3-guideline was developed under the direction of the German Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Thorax-, Herz- und Gefäßchirurgie, DGTHG) to make evidence-based recommendations for the usage of aortic counterpulsation after cardiothoracic surgery according to the requirements of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) and the Medical Centre for Quality (Ärztliches Zentrum für Qualität - (ÄZQ)). Main topics discussed in this guideline involve IABP support in the prophylactic, preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative setting as well as the treatment of right heart failure, contraindications, anticoagulation, monitoring, weaning, and limitations of IABP therapy. The presented 15 key messages of the guideline were approved after two consensus meetings under moderation of the AWMF with participation of the German Society of Cardiology (DGK), German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI), German Interdisciplinary Association for Intensive Care (DIVI) and the German Society for Cardiovascular Engineering (DGfK).

  16. Erythropoietin Neuroprotection in Neonatal Cardiac Surgery: A Phase I/II Safety and Efficacy Trial

    PubMed Central

    Andropoulos, Dean B.; Brady, Ken; Easley, R. Blaine; Dickerson, Heather A.; Voigt, Robert G.; Shekerdemian, Lara S.; Meador, Marcie R.; Eisenman, Carol A.; Hunter, Jill V.; Turcich, Marie; Rivera, Carlos; McKenzie, E. Dean; Heinle, Jeffrey S.; Fraser, Charles D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Neonates undergoing complex congenital heart surgery have a significant incidence of neurological problems. Erythropoietin has anti-apoptotic, anti-excitatory, and anti-inflammatory properties to prevent neuronal cell death in animal models, and improves neurodevelopmental outcomes in full term neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. We designed a prospective phase I/II trial of erythropoietin neuroprotection in neonatal cardiac surgery to assess safety, and indicate efficacy. Methods Neonates undergoing surgery for D-transposition of the great vessels, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, or aortic arch reconstruction were randomized to 3 perioperative doses of erythropoietin, or placebo. Neurodevelopmental testing with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III was performed at age 12 months. Results 59 patients received study drug. Safety profile, including MRI brain injury, clinical events, and death, was not different between groups. 3 patients in each group died. 42 patients (22 erythropoietin, 20 placebo, 79% of survivors) returned for 12-month follow-up. The mean Cognitive Scores were erythropoietin, 101.1 ± 13.6, placebo, 106.3 ± 10.8 (p=0.19); Language Scores were erythropoietin 88.5 ± 12.8, placebo 92.4 ± 12.4 (p=0.33); and Motor Scores were erythropoietin 89.9 ± 12.3, placebo 92.6 ± 14.1, (p=0.51). Conclusions Safety profile for erythropoietin administration was not different than placebo. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were not different between groups, however this pilot study was not powered to definitively address this outcome. Lessons learned from the current study suggest optimized study design features for a larger prospective trial to definitively address the utility of erythropoietin for neuroprotection in this population. PMID:23102686

  17. Hemoglobin and B-type natriuretic peptide preoperative values but not inflammatory markers, are associated with postoperative morbidity in cardiac surgery: a prospective cohort analytic study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Risk stratification in cardiac surgery significantly impacts outcome. This study seeks to define whether there is an independent association between the preoperative serum level of hemoglobin (Hb), leukocyte count (LEUCO), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), or B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and postoperative morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery. Methods Prospective, analytic cohort study, with 554 adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery in a tertiary cardiovascular hospital and followed up for 12 months. The cohort was distributed according to preoperative values of Hb, LEUCO, hsCRP, and BNP in independent quintiles for each of these variables. Results After adjustment for all covariates, a significant association was found between elevated preoperative BNP and the occurrence of low postoperative cardiac output (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.53–7.80, p = 0.003) or postoperative atrial fibrillation (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.45–10.38). For the combined outcome (death/acute coronary syndrome/rehospitalization within 12 months), we observed an OR of 1.93 (95% CI 1.00–3.74). An interaction was found between BNP level and the presence or absence of diabetes mellitus. The OR for non-diabetics was 1.26 (95% CI 0.61–2.60) and for diabetics was 18.82 (95% CI 16.2–20.5). Preoperative Hb was also significantly and independently associated with the occurrence of postoperative low cardiac output (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.13–0.81, p = 0.016). Both Hb and BNP were significantly associated with the lengths of intensive care unit and hospital stays and the number of transfused red blood cells (p < 0.002). Inflammatory markers, although associated with adverse outcomes, lost statistical significance when adjusted for covariates. Conclusions High preoperative BNP or low Hb shows an association of independent risk with postoperative outcomes, and their measurement could help to stratify surgical risk. The ability to predict the onset of atrial fibrillation or

  18. Incidence of inferior vena cava thrombosis detected by transthoracic echocardiography in the immediate postoperative period after adult cardiac and general surgery.

    PubMed

    Saranteas, T; Kostopanagiotou, G; Tzoufi, M; Drachtidi, K; Knox, G M; Panou, F

    2013-11-01

    Venous thromboembolism is an important complication after general and cardiac surgery. Using transthoracic echocardiography, this study assessed the incidence of inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis among a total of 395 and 289 cardiac surgical and major surgical patients in the immediate postoperative period after cardiac and major surgery, respectively. All transthoracic echocardiography was performed by a specialist intensivist within 24 hours after surgery with special emphasis on using the subcostal view in the supine position to visualise the IVC. Of the 395 cardiac surgical patients studied, the IVC was successfully visualised using the subcostal view in 315 patients (79.8%) and eight of these patients (2.5%) had a partially obstructive thrombosis in the IVC. In 250 out of 289 (85%) general surgical patients, the IVC was also clearly visualised, but only one patient (0.4%) had an IVC thrombosis (2.5 vs 0.4%, P <0.05). In summary, visualisation of the IVC was feasible in most patients in the immediate postoperative period after both adult cardiac and major surgery. IVC thrombosis appeared to be more common after adult cardiac surgery than general surgery. A large prospective cohort study is needed to define the risk factors for IVC thrombus and whether early thromboprophylaxis can reduce the incidence of IVC thrombus after adult cardiac surgery.

  19. Method to Calculate the Protamine Dose Necessary for Reversal of Heparin as a Function of Activated Clotting Time in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cuenca, Javier Suárez; Diz, Pilar Gayoso; Sampedro, Francisco Gude; Zincke, J. Marcos Gómez; Acuña, Helena Rey; Fontanillo, M. Manuela Fontanillo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Activated clotting time (ACT) has been used to monitor coagulation and guide management of anticoagulation control in patients undergoing cardiac surgery for decades. However, reversal of heparin with protamine is typically empirically based on total heparin administered. Dose-related adverse effects of protamine are well described. The aim of this study was to evaluate a heparin reversal strategy based on calculation of the protamine dose based on ACT measurements. We present a method using a mathematical formula based on the dose–response line (1). To check the formula, we performed a retrospective observational cohort study of 177 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The study group of 80 patients was administered the dose of protamine obtained using our formula, and the control group of 97 patients was administered the empirically calculated dose. The ACT returned to normal values in patients who were given doses of protamine that were calculated using our formula; all but two had a final ACT of 141. The application of the formula resulted in a significant reduction in the dose of protamine (p < .023). The formula we present is a valid method for calculating the dose of protamine necessary to neutralize heparin. This same method can be used working with a target ACT to adjust the dose of heparin. As a result of its functionality, it allows application on a daily basis standardizing the process. We believe that the formula we developed can be applied in all those procedures in which it is necessary to anticoagulate patients with heparin and later neutralization (cardiac surgery with or without CPB, vascular surgery, procedures of interventional cardiology, and extracorporeal depuration procedures). PMID:24649571

  20. Variation in Outcomes for Risk-Stratified Pediatric Cardiac Surgical Operations: An Analysis of the STS Congenital Heart Surgery Database

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip; O'Brien, Sean M.; Pasquali, Sara K.; Jacobs, Marshall Lewis; Lacour-Gayet, François G.; Tchervenkov, Christo I.; Austin III, Erle H.; Pizarro, Christian; Pourmoghadam, Kamal K.; Scholl, Frank G.; Welke, Karl F.; Gaynor, J. William; Clarke, David R.; Mayer, John E.; Mavroudis, Constantine

    2013-01-01

    Background. We evaluated outcomes for groups of risk-stratified operations in The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database to provide contemporary benchmarks and examine variation between centers. Methods. Patients undergoing surgery from 2005 to 2009 were included. Centers with more than 10% missing data were excluded. Discharge mortality and postoperative length of stay (PLOS) among patients discharged alive were calculated for groups of risk-stratified operations using the five Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Congenital Heart Surgery mortality categories (STAT Mortality Categories). Power for analyzing between-center differences in outcome was determined for each STAT Mortality Category. Variation was evaluated using funnel plots and Bayesian hierarchical modeling. Results. In this analysis of risk-stratified operations, 58,506 index operations at 73 centers were included. Overall discharge mortality (interquartile range among programs with more than 10 cases) was as follows: STAT Category 1 = 0.55% (0% to 1.0%), STAT Category 2 = 1.7% (1.0% to 2.2%), STAT Category 3 = 2.6% (1.1% to 4.4%), STAT Category 4 = 8.0% (6.3% to 11.1%), and STAT Category 5 = 18.4% (13.9% to 27.9%). Funnel plots with 95% prediction limits revealed the number of centers characterized as outliers by STAT Mortality Categories was as follows: Category 1 = 3 (4.1%), Category 2 = 1 (1.4%), Category 3 = 7 (9.7%), Category 4 = 13 (17.8%), and Category 5 = 13 (18.6%). Between-center variation in PLOS was analyzed for all STAT Categories and was greatest for STAT Category 5 operations. Conclusions. This analysis documents contemporary benchmarks for risk-stratified pediatric cardiac surgical operations grouped by STAT Mortality Categories and the range of outcomes among centers. Variation was greatest for the more complex operations. These data may aid in the design and planning of quality assessment and quality improvement

  1. A comparison of the Nexfin® and transcardiopulmonary thermodilution to estimate cardiac output during coronary artery surgery.

    PubMed

    Broch, O; Renner, J; Gruenewald, M; Meybohm, P; Schöttler, J; Caliebe, A; Steinfath, M; Malbrain, M; Bein, B

    2012-04-01

    The newly introduced Nexfin(®) device allows analysis of the blood pressure trace produced by a non-invasive finger cuff. We compared the cardiac output derived from the Nexfin and PiCCO, using transcardiopulmonary thermodilution, during cardiac surgery. Forty patients with preserved left ventricular function undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery were studied after induction of general anaesthesia and until discharge to the intensive care unit. There was a significant correlation between Nexfin and PiCCO before (r(2) = 0.81, p < 0.001) and after (r(2) = 0.56, p < 0.001) cardiopulmonary bypass. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated the mean bias of Nexfin to be -0.1 (95% limits of agreement -0.6 to +0.5, percentage error 23%) and -0.1 (-0.8 to +0.6, 26%) l.min(-1).m(-2), before and after cardiopulmonary bypass, respectively. After a passive leg-raise was performed, there was also good correlation between the two methods, both before (r(2) = 0.72, p < 0.001) and after (r(2) = 0.76, p < 0.001) cardiopulmonary bypass. We conclude that the Nexfin is a reliable method of measuring cardiac output during and after cardiac surgery.

  2. The coronary CT angiography vision protocol: a prospective observational imaging cohort study in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Tej; Butler, Craig; Chow, Benjamin; Chan, M T V; Mitha, Ayesha; Nagele, Peter; Tandon, Vikas; Stewart, Lori; Graham, Michelle; Choi, G Y S; Kisten, T; Woodard, P K; Crean, Andrew; Abdul Aziz, Y F; Karthikeyan, G; Chow, C K; Szczeklik, W; Markobrada, M; Mastracci, T.; Devereaux, P J

    2012-01-01

    Introduction At present, physicians have a limited ability to predict major cardiovascular complications after non-cardiac surgery and little is known about the anatomy of coronary arteries associated with perioperative myocardial infarction. We have initiated the Coronary CT Angiography (CTA) VISION Study to (1) establish the predictive value of coronary CTA for perioperative myocardial infarction and death and (2) describe the coronary anatomy of patients that have a perioperative myocardial infarction. Methods and analysis The Coronary CTA VISION Study is prospective observational study. Preoperative coronary CTA will be performed in 1000–1500 patients with a history of vascular disease or at least three cardiovascular risk factors who are undergoing major elective non-cardiac surgery. Serial troponin will be measured 6–12 h after surgery and daily for the first 3 days after surgery. Major vascular outcomes at 30 days and 1 year after surgery will be independently adjudicated. Ethics and dissemination Coronary CTA results in a measurable radiation exposure that is similar to a nuclear perfusion scan (10–12 mSV). Treating physicians will be blinded to the CTA results until 30 days after surgery in order to provide the most unbiased assessment of its prognostic capabilities. The only exception will be the presence of a left main stenosis >50%. This approach is supported by best available current evidence that, excluding left main disease, prophylatic revascularisation prior to non-cardiac surgery does not improve outcomes. An external safety and monitoring committee is overseeing the study and will review outcome data at regular intervals. Publications describing the results of the study will be submitted to major peer-reviewed journals and presented at international medical conferences. PMID:22855630

  3. Utility of Ultraportable Echocardiography in the Preoperative Evaluation of Noncardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Jean Allan; Almeida, Maria Lucia Pereira; Estrada, Tereza Cristina Duque; Werneck, Guilherme Lobosco; Rocha, Alexandre Marins; Rosa, Maria Luiza Garcia; Ribeiro, Mario Luiz; Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco

    2016-01-01

    Background The ultraportable echocardiogram machine, with relevant portability and easiness in performing diagnoses, when in experienced hands, may contribute to the reliability of preoperative evaluation in noncardiac surgeries. Objectives To assess cardiac function parameters in patients aged older than 60 years, candidates of elective noncardiac surgeries, classified as ASA1 or ASA 2 according to surgical risk. Methods A total of 211 patients referred for elective surgeries, without suspicion of previous heart diseases, were included in the study. Assessment of patients was conducted by conventional echocardiogram using the ultraportable V Scan (GE) device right after the pre-anesthetic clinical evaluation. We assessed the clinical impact of echocardiography results by using a questionnaire addressed to the anesthetist. Results Mean age of patients was 68.9 ± 7.0 years, 154 were women. The most frequent surgeries were: a) facectomy - cataract - 18; b) inguinal hernia surgery - 18; c) Cholecystectomy - 16. We found 58 normal tests (27.5%), 70 (33.2%) with mild valve reflux, and 83 (39.3%) with relevant abnormality, such as increase in heart chamber size, global and/or segmental contractile dysfunction, significant valve dysfunction or other unspecified. Test results caused delay of surgical procedure for a more detailed cardiac evaluation in 20 (9.5%) patients, and change in anesthetic management in 7 (3.3%). Conclusion There was a considerable clinical impact with the use of the ultraportable echocardiography, since one out of every ten patients evaluated had their clinical management changed due to the detection of previously unsuspected, significant heart diseases, with the potential for severe complications. PMID:27982268

  4. Peri-operative heart-type fatty acid binding protein is associated with acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Schaub, Jennifer A.; Garg, Amit X.; Coca, Steven G.; Testani, Jeffrey M.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Eikelboom, John; Kavsak, Peter; McArthur, Eric; Shortt, Colleen; Whitlock, Richard; Parikh, Chirag R.

    2015-01-01

    Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a common complication after cardiac surgery and is associated with worse outcomes. Since heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) is a myocardial protein that detects cardiac injury, we sought to determine if plasma H-FABP was associated with AKI in the TRIBE-AKI cohort; a multi-center cohort of 1219 patients at high risk for AKI who underwent cardiac surgery. The primary outcomes of interest were any AKI (Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) stage 1 or higher) and severe AKI (AKIN stage 2 or higher). The secondary outcome was long-term mortality after discharge. Patients who developed AKI had higher levels of H-FABP pre- and post-operatively than patients who did not have AKI. In analyses adjusted for known AKI risk factors, first post-operative log(H-FABP) was associated with severe AKI (adjusted OR 5.39 [95% CI, 2.87-10.11] per unit increase), while pre-operative log(H-FABP) was associated with any AKI (2.07 [1.48-2.89]) and mortality (1.67 [1.17-2.37]). These relationships persisted after adjustment for change in serum creatinine (for first postoperative log(H-FABP)) and biomarkers of cardiac and kidney injury, including brain natriuretic peptide, cardiac troponin-I, interleukin-18, liver fatty acid binding protein, kidney injury molecule-1, and neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin. Thus, peri-operative plasma H-FABP levels may be used for risk-stratification of AKI and mortality following cardiac surgery. PMID:25830762

  5. New cardiac surgery programs established from 1993 to 2004 led to little increased access, substantial duplication of services.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Frances Leslie; Siewers, Andrea; Goodman, David C; Wang, Dongmei; Wennberg, David E

    2011-08-01

    Despite decreasing demand for bypass surgery, 301 new cardiac surgery programs opened between 1993 and 2004. We used Medicare data to identify where the new programs opened and to assess their impact on access and efficiency. Forty-two percent of the new programs opened in communities that already had access to cardiac surgery, which suggests that their creation has led to a fight for shares of a shrinking market. New programs were much more likely to open in states that did not require them to show a certificate-of-need. Overall, travel time to the nearest cardiac surgery program changed little, which suggests that these programs have done little to improve geographic access. The duplication of services that resulted in many areas may have engendered competition based on quality, price, or both, but it may also have increased surgical rates, with unknown results. We observe that certificate-of-need requirements may help avoid unnecessary duplication of services by preventing new programs from opening in close proximity to existing ones.

  6. Usefulness of case reports to improve medical knowledge regarding trigemino-cardiac reflex in skull base surgery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We describe the discovery of the trigemino-cardiac reflex by Schaller in 1999 and the continued improvement of the knowledge about the trigemino-cardiac reflex involved in neurosurgery, especially in skull base surgery, during the past several years. The achieved medical progress could be gained only by the practical experience described by different case reports and later case series that have been published in several principal scientific journals. Additionally, we explain the scientific as well as clinical importance of the communication of the case reports on TCR. Special reference has been given to the validity of the case reports for new phenomena in clinical medicine. PMID:21496216

  7. Patterns and determinants of functional and absolute iron deficiency in patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation following heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Tramarin, Roberto; Pistuddi, Valeria; Maresca, Luigi; Pavesi, Marco; Castelvecchio, Serenella; Menicanti, Lorenzo; de Vincentiis, Carlo; Ranucci, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Background Anaemia and iron deficiency are frequent following major surgery. The present study aims to identify the iron deficiency patterns in cardiac surgery patients at their admission to a cardiac rehabilitation programme, and to determine which perioperative risk factor(s) may be associated with functional and absolute iron deficiency. Design This was a retrospective study on prospectively collected data. Methods The patient population included 339 patients. Functional iron deficiency was defined in the presence of transferrin saturation <20% and serum ferritin ≥100 µg/l. Absolute iron deficiency was defined in the presence of serum ferritin values <100 µg/l. Results Functional iron deficiency was found in 62.9% of patients and absolute iron deficiency in 10% of the patients. At a multivariable analysis, absolute iron deficiency was significantly ( p = 0.001) associated with mechanical prosthesis mitral valve replacement (odds ratio 5.4, 95% confidence interval 1.9-15) and tissue valve aortic valve replacement (odds ratio 4.5, 95% confidence interval 1.9-11). In mitral valve surgery, mitral repair carried a significant ( p = 0.013) lower risk of absolute iron deficiency (4.4%) than mitral valve replacement with tissue valves (8.3%) or mechanical prostheses (22.5%). Postoperative outcome did not differ between patients with functional iron deficiency and patients without iron deficiency; patients with absolute iron deficiency had a significantly ( p = 0.017) longer postoperative hospital stay (median 11 days) than patients without iron deficiency (median nine days) or with functional iron deficiency (median eight days). Conclusions Absolute iron deficiency following cardiac surgery is more frequent in heart valve surgery and is associated with a prolonged hospital stay. Routine screening for iron deficiency at admission in the cardiac rehabilitation unit is suggested.

  8. Clinical effectiveness of centrifugal pump to produce pulsatile flow during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Gu, Y John; van Oeveren, Willem; Mungroop, Hubert E; Epema, Anne H; den Hamer, Inez J; Keizer, Jorrit J; Leuvenink, Ron P; Mariani, Massimo A; Rakhorst, Gerhard

    2011-02-01

    Although the centrifugal pump has been widely used as a nonpulsatile pump for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), little is known about its performance as a pulsatile pump for CPB, especially on its efficacy in producing hemodynamic energy and its clinical effectiveness. We performed a study to evaluate whether the Rotaflow centrifugal pump produces effective pulsatile flow during CPB and whether the pulsatile flow in this setting is clinically effective in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Thirty-two patients undergoing CPB for elective coronary artery bypass grafting were randomly allocated to a pulsatile perfusion group (n = 16) or a nonpulsatile perfusion group (n = 16). All patients were perfused with the Rotaflow centrifugal pump. In the pulsatile group, the centrifugal pump was adjusted to the pulsatile mode (60 cycles/min) during aortic cross-clamping, whereas in the nonpulsatile group, the pump was kept in its nonpulsatile mode during the same period of time. Compared with the nonpulsatile group, the pulsatile group had a higher pulse pressure (P < 0.01) and a fraction higher energy equivalent pressure (EEP, P = 0.058). The net gain of pulsatile flow, represented by the surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE), was found much higher in the CPB circuit than in patients (P < 0.01). Clinically, there was no difference between the pulsatile and nonpulsatile groups with regard to postoperative acute kidney injury, endothelial activation, or inflammatory response. Postoperative organ function and the duration of hospital stay were similar in the two patient groups. In conclusion, pulsatile CPB with the Rotaflow centrifugal pump is associated with a small gain of EEP and SHE, which does not seem to be clinically effective in adult cardiac surgical patients.

  9. Screening value of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide as a predictor of perioperative cardiac events after noncardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Goei, Dustin; Poldermans, Don

    2010-09-01

    Preoperative cardiac risk assessment is the cornerstone of rationale perioperative management that guides invasive surgical interventions. In addition to clinical risk factors, a simple screening biomarker would be useful for identifying those surgical patients who might benefit from additional cardiac testing or therapeutic interventions. Preoperative plasma levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are predictors of cardiac events after noncardiac surgery. NT–proBNP is synthesized in the ventricular myocardium in response to ventricular wall stress. To further increase the diagnostic accuracy of NT-proBNP for preoperative screening, it is important to identify confounding factors that influence NT-proBNP levels and their interaction with identifying risks for adverse cardiac events. Moreover, until now the available data from previous studies has been unable to consistently recognize the optimal discriminatory threshold for NT-proBNP. Currently, the ongoing DECREASE-VI study is conducted to evaluate whether current preoperative risk stratification can be improved by incorporating NT-proBNP measurements.

  10. Retinal evaluation and treatment after refractive corneal surgery.

    PubMed

    Swinger, C A; Kraushar, M F

    1985-08-01

    Refractive corneal surgery (a collective term used to describe a variety of surgical procedures that alter the refractive status of the eye through the surgical modification of corneal curvature) shows promise for use in situations where current methods of optical correction do not meet the patient's needs. This article reviews our experiences with the retinal evaluation of patients who have undergone corneal refractive surgery and offers recommendations for the treatment of retinal pathology after such surgery.

  11. Cardiovascular evaluation and management of severely obese patients undergoing surgery: a science advisory from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Paul; Alpert, Martin A; Fleisher, Lee A; Thompson, Paul D; Sugerman, Harvey J; Burke, Lora E; Marceau, Picard; Franklin, Barry A

    2009-07-07

    Obesity is associated with comorbidities that may lead to disability and death. During the past 20 years, the number of individuals with a body mass index >30, 40, and 50 kg/m(2), respectively, has doubled, quadrupled, and quintupled in the United States. The risk of developing comorbid conditions rises with increasing body mass index. Possible cardiac symptoms such as exertional dyspnea and lower-extremity edema occur commonly and are nonspecific in obesity. The physical examination and electrocardiogram often underestimate cardiac dysfunction in obese patients. The risk of an adverse perioperative cardiac event in obese patients is related to the nature and severity of their underlying heart disease, associated comorbidities, and the type of surgery. Severe obesity has not been associated with increased mortality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery but has been associated with an increased length of hospital stay and with a greater likelihood of renal failure and prolonged assisted ventilation. Comorbidities that influence the preoperative cardiac risk assessment of severely obese patients include the presence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heart failure, systemic hypertension, pulmonary hypertension related to sleep apnea and hypoventilation, cardiac arrhythmias (primarily atrial fibrillation), and deep vein thrombosis. When preoperatively evaluating risk for surgery, the clinician should consider age, gender, cardiorespiratory fitness, electrolyte disorders, and heart failure as independent predictors for surgical morbidity and mortality. An obesity surgery mortality score for gastric bypass has also been proposed. Given the high prevalence of severely obese patients, this scientific advisory was developed to provide cardiologists, surgeons, anesthesiologists, and other healthcare professionals with recommendations for the preoperative cardiovascular evaluation, intraoperative and perioperative management, and postoperative cardiovascular care of

  12. Positive predictive value of cardiac examination, procedure and surgery codes in the Danish National Patient Registry: a population-based validation study

    PubMed Central

    Adelborg, Kasper; Sundbøll, Jens; Munch, Troels; Frøslev, Trine; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Schmidt, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Objective Danish medical registries are widely used for cardiovascular research, but little is known about the data quality of cardiac interventions. We computed positive predictive values (PPVs) of codes for cardiac examinations, procedures and surgeries registered in the Danish National Patient Registry during 2010–2012. Design Population-based validation study. Setting We randomly sampled patients from 1 university hospital and 2 regional hospitals in the Central Denmark Region. Participants 1239 patients undergoing different cardiac interventions. Main outcome measure PPVs with medical record review as reference standard. Results A total of 1233 medical records (99% of the total sample) were available for review. PPVs ranged from 83% to 100%. For examinations, the PPV was overall 98%, reflecting PPVs of 97% for echocardiography, 97% for right heart catheterisation and 100% for coronary angiogram. For procedures, the PPV was 98% overall, with PPVs of 98% for thrombolysis, 92% for cardioversion, 100% for radiofrequency ablation, 98% for percutaneous coronary intervention, and 100% for both cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardiac defibrillators. For cardiac surgery, the overall PPVs was 99%, encompassing PPVs of 100% for mitral valve surgery, 99% for aortic valve surgery, 98% for coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and 100% for heart transplantation. The accuracy of coding was consistent within age, sex, and calendar year categories, and the agreement between independent reviewers was high (99%). Conclusions Cardiac examinations, procedures and surgeries have high PPVs in the Danish National Patient Registry. PMID:27940630

  13. Clinical review: Practical recommendations on the management of perioperative heart failure in cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Acute cardiovascular dysfunction occurs perioperatively in more than 20% of cardiosurgical patients, yet current acute heart failure (HF) classification is not applicable to this period. Indicators of major perioperative risk include unstable coronary syndromes, decompensated HF, significant arrhythmias and valvular disease. Clinical risk factors include history of heart disease, compensated HF, cerebrovascular disease, presence of diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency and high-risk surgery. EuroSCORE reliably predicts perioperative cardiovascular alteration in patients aged less than 80 years. Preoperative B-type natriuretic peptide level is an additional risk stratification factor. Aggressively preserving heart function during cardiosurgery is a major goal. Volatile anaesthetics and levosimendan seem to be promising cardioprotective agents, but large trials are still needed to assess the best cardioprotective agent(s) and optimal protocol(s). The aim of monitoring is early detection and assessment of mechanisms of perioperative cardiovascular dysfunction. Ideally, volume status should be assessed by 'dynamic' measurement of haemodynamic parameters. Assess heart function first by echocardiography, then using a pulmonary artery catheter (especially in right heart dysfunction). If volaemia and heart function are in the normal range, cardiovascular dysfunction is very likely related to vascular dysfunction. In treating myocardial dysfunction, consider the following options, either alone or in combination: low-to-moderate doses of dobutamine and epinephrine, milrinone or levosimendan. In vasoplegia-induced hypotension, use norepinephrine to maintain adequate perfusion pressure. Exclude hypovolaemia in patients under vasopressors, through repeated volume assessments. Optimal perioperative use of inotropes/vasopressors in cardiosurgery remains controversial, and further large multinational studies are needed. Cardiosurgical perioperative classification of cardiac

  14. Determinants of distance walked during the six-minute walk test in patients undergoing cardiac surgery at hospital discharge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of distance walked in six-minute walk test (6MWD) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery at hospital discharge. Methods The assessment was performed preoperatively and at discharge. Data from patient records were collected and measurement of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) were performed. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) was performed at discharge. Patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery, coronary artery bypass grafting or valve replacement were eligible. Patients older than 75 years who presented arrhythmia during the protocol, with psychiatric disorders, muscular or neurological disorders were excluded from the study. Results Sixty patients (44.26% male, mean age 51.53 ± 13 years) were assessed. In multivariate analysis the following variables were selected: type of surgery (P = 0.001), duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (P = 0.001), Functional Independence Measure - FIM (0.004) and body mass index - BMI (0.007) with r = 0.91 and r2 = 0.83 with P < 0.001. The equation derived from multivariate analysis: 6MWD = Surgery (89.42) + CPB (1.60) + MIF (2.79 ) - BMI (7.53) - 127.90. Conclusion In this study, the determinants of 6MWD in patients undergoing cardiac surgery were: the type of surgery, CPB time, functional capacity and body mass index. PMID:24885130

  15. Clinical features associated with adverse events in patients with post-pericardiotomy syndrome following cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Alraies, M Chadi; Al Jaroudi, Wael; Shabrang, Cyrus; Yarmohammadi, Hirad; Klein, Allan L; Tamarappoo, Balaji K

    2014-11-01

    Postpericardiotomy syndrome (PPS) may be associated with tamponade and pericardial constriction that may require procedural intervention. The aim of this study was to identify clinical features associated with adverse events requiring procedural intervention in patients with PPS. A total of 239 patients who developed PPS after cardiac surgery were monitored for 12 months. PPS was diagnosed if 2 of the 5 following findings were present: fever without infection, pleuritic pain, friction rub, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion (<60 days after surgery). The primary end point was the development of pericardial effusion or pericardial constriction requiring procedural intervention. Among 239 patients with PPS, 75 (31%) required procedural intervention. In a univariate analysis, the odds of a procedural intervention were decreased with older age (odds ratio [OR] 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96 to 0.99) and with colchicine used in combination with anti-inflammatory agents (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.79). However, the odds were increased in patients with preoperative heart failure (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1 to 3.39) and early postoperative constrictive physiology (OR 5.77, 95% CI 2.62 to 12.7). After multivariate adjustment, treatment with colchicine along with anti-inflammatory agents was associated with lower odds of requiring intervention (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99). Independent positive predictors of procedural intervention included age (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99), time to PPS (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99), and early postoperative constrictive physiology (OR 6.23, 95% CI 2.04 to 19.07). In conclusion, younger age, early-onset PPS, and postoperative constrictive physiology were associated with the need for procedural intervention in patients with PPS, whereas colchicine was associated with reduced odds of adverse events and procedural intervention.

  16. Quantitative image quality evaluation for cardiac CT reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Hsin-Wu; Fan, Jiahua; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Balhorn, William; Okerlund, Darin R.

    2016-03-01

    Maintaining image quality in the presence of motion is always desirable and challenging in clinical Cardiac CT imaging. Different image-reconstruction algorithms are available on current commercial CT systems that attempt to achieve this goal. It is widely accepted that image-quality assessment should be task-based and involve specific tasks, observers, and associated figures of merits. In this work, we developed an observer model that performed the task of estimating the percentage of plaque in a vessel from CT images. We compared task performance of Cardiac CT image data reconstructed using a conventional FBP reconstruction algorithm and the SnapShot Freeze (SSF) algorithm, each at default and optimal reconstruction cardiac phases. The purpose of this work is to design an approach for quantitative image-quality evaluation of temporal resolution for Cardiac CT systems. To simulate heart motion, a moving coronary type phantom synchronized with an ECG signal was used. Three different percentage plaques embedded in a 3 mm vessel phantom were imaged multiple times under motion free, 60 bpm, and 80 bpm heart rates. Static (motion free) images of this phantom were taken as reference images for image template generation. Independent ROIs from the 60 bpm and 80 bpm images were generated by vessel tracking. The observer performed estimation tasks using these ROIs. Ensemble mean square error (EMSE) was used as the figure of merit. Results suggest that the quality of SSF images is superior to the quality of FBP images in higher heart-rate scans.

  17. Bivalirudin as an Alternative Anticoagulant for Cardiopulmonary Bypass During Adult Cardiac Surgery-A Change in Practice.

    PubMed

    Gatt, Peter; Galea, Samuel Anthony; Busuttil, Walter; Grima, Charles; Muscat, Jeffrey; Farrugia, Yvette

    2017-03-01

    The referral of patients for open heart surgery, presenting with a history of heparin hypersensitivity instigated a multidisciplinary effort to find an alternative anticoagulant to heparin. The various options mentioned in the literature call for changes in the routine practice of open heart surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass. These changes involve mostly the perfusion setup and conduct on bypass and to a lesser extent the anesthetic and surgical practice. Nevertheless, the different professions involved in the cardiac surgical firm discussed the proposed changes in a multidisciplinary effort. A new protocol was drafted, endorsed, and executed. The authors highlight these changes and their successful use in the subsequent case study.

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Handheld Robot-Aided Intraocular Laser Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sungwook; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Martel, Joseph N.; Lobes, Louis A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents robot-aided intraocular laser surgery using a handheld robot known as Micron. The micromanipulator incorporated in Micron enables visual servoing of a laser probe, while maintaining a constant distance of the tool tip from the retinal surface. The comparative study was conducted with various control methods for evaluation of robot-aided intraocular laser surgery. PMID:27019653

  19. Plasma IL-6 and IL-10 Concentrations Predict AKI and Long-Term Mortality in Adults after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, William R.; Garg, Amit X.; Coca, Steven G.; Devereaux, Philip J.; Eikelboom, John; Kavsak, Peter; McArthur, Eric; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Shortt, Colleen; Shlipak, Michael; Whitlock, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation has an integral role in the pathophysiology of AKI. We investigated the associations of two biomarkers of inflammation, plasma IL-6 and IL-10, with AKI and mortality in adults undergoing cardiac surgery. Patients were enrolled at six academic centers (n=960). AKI was defined as a ≥50% or ≥0.3-mg/dl increase in serum creatinine from baseline. Pre- and postoperative IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations were categorized into tertiles and evaluated for associations with outcomes of in-hospital AKI or postdischarge all-cause mortality at a median of 3 years after surgery. Preoperative concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10 were not significantly associated with AKI or mortality. Elevated first postoperative IL-6 concentration was significantly associated with higher risk of AKI, and the risk increased in a dose-dependent manner (second tertile adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.61 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.10 to 2.36]; third tertile adjusted OR, 2.13 [95% CI, 1.45 to 3.13]). First postoperative IL-6 concentration was not associated with risk of mortality; however, the second tertile of peak IL-6 concentration was significantly associated with lower risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.57 to 0.99]). Elevated first postoperative IL-10 concentration was significantly associated with higher risk of AKI (adjusted OR, 1.57 [95% CI, 1.04 to 2.38]) and lower risk of mortality (adjusted HR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.56 to 0.93]). There was a significant interaction between the concentration of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, an established AKI biomarker, and the association of IL-10 concentration with mortality (P=0.01). These findings suggest plasma IL-6 and IL-10 may serve as biomarkers for perioperative outcomes. PMID:25855775

  20. The Impact of Stress Hormones on Post-traumatic Stress Disorders Symptoms and Memory in Cardiac Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Porhomayon, Jahan; Kolesnikov, Sergei; Nader, Nader D

    2014-01-01

    The relationship and interactions between stress hormones and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are well established from both animal and human research studies. This interaction is especially important in the post-operative phase of cardiac surgery where the development of PTSD symptoms will result in increased morbidity and mortality and prolong length of stay for critically ill cardiac surgery patients. Cardiopulmonary bypass itself will independently result in massive inflammation response and release of stress hormones in the perioperative period. Glucocorticoid may reduce this response and result in reduction of PTSD symptom clusters and therefore improve health outcome. In this review, we plan to conduct a systemic review and analysis of the literatures on this topic.

  1. Gentamicin-Impregnated Collagen Sponge: Effectiveness in Preventing Sternal Wound Infection in High-Risk Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rapetto, Filippo; Bruno, Vito D.; Guida, Gustavo; Marsico, Roberto; Chivasso, Pierpaolo; Zebele, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Sternal wound infections represent one of the most frequent complications after cardiac surgery and are associated with high postoperative mortality. Several preventive methods have been introduced, and recently, gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponges (GICSs) have shown a promising effect in reducing the incidence of this type of complications. Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that has been widely used to treat infections caused by multiresistant bacteria; despite its effectiveness, its systemic use carries a risk of toxicity. GICSs appear to overcome this side effect, topically delivering high antibiotic concentrations to the wound and thus reducing the toxic-related events. Although several retrospective analyses and randomized controlled trials have studied the use of GICSs in cardiac surgery, conclusions regarding their efficacy in preventing sternal wound infection are inconsistent. We have reviewed the current literature focusing on high-risk patients. PMID:27279734

  2. Evaluation of Migraine Surgery Outcomes through Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Katie G.; Israel, Jacqueline S.; Ghasemzadeh, Rezvaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social media have been used to study many aspects of health and human behavior. Although social media present a unique opportunity to obtain unsolicited patient-reported outcomes, its use has been limited in plastic and reconstructive surgical procedures, including migraine nerve surgery. The goal of this study was to utilize the most popular social media site, Facebook, to evaluate patients’ experience with migraine surgery. Methods: Six months of data regarding nerve surgery, nerve stimulators, and radiofrequency nerve ablation were collected from posts and comments written by members of 2 Facebook groups. Outcomes were classified by degree of resolution of symptoms. Results: A total of 639 posts related to migraine surgery. Of 304 posts commenting on postoperative success of nerve surgery, 16% reported elimination of headaches and 65% significant improvement (81% with complete or significant improvement), 5% partial improvement, 11% no change, and 3% worsening symptoms. Nerve surgery had a higher success rate than nerve stimulators and radiofrequency ablation. Nerve surgery was recommended by 90% of users. Conclusions: The 81% rate of complete or significant improvement of symptoms in this study is close to the 79% to 84% shown in current literature. Similar to the findings of a recent systematic review, surgery is more efficacious compared with nerve stimulators and ablation. This study adds to evidence favoring migraine surgery by removing evaluator bias and demonstrates that surgical outcomes and satisfaction data may be obtained from social media. PMID:27826478

  3. Preliminary evaluation of a microtransesophageal probe in neonates and young infants undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Pavithran, Sreeja; Natarajan, Kanagarajan; Vishwambaran, Bijesh; Arke, Avinash Dayalal; Sivakumar, Kothandam

    2014-01-01

    Background: The larger size of the currently available transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) probes limits their use to relatively older infants undergoing cardiac surgery. In very young neonates and infants, epicardial echocardiogram is used to assess postoperative residual defects. Recently, a miniaturized microTEE probe compatible in neonates has been introduced for clinical use. We evaluated the use of this probe in small infants undergoing cardiac surgery. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three consecutive neonates and infants undergoing cardiac surgery at our institution were included in the study. Intraoperative echocardiography with Philips s8-3t microTEE probe done using IE33 platform was utilized to study the preoperative anatomy and assess postoperative results. Results: Thirty-three patients aged 3 days-2 years (mean 5.1 months) and weighing 2.5-11 kg (mean 4.4 kg) underwent perioperative evaluation using the microTEE probe. Good quality two-dimensional and color Doppler images were obtained in all patients. There were no complications related to the probe insertion or manipulation. The findings on microTEE led to revision of surgery in five patients. Certain echocardiographic parameters that could never be recorded with epicardial echocardiogram could be easily seen in microTEE. Conclusion: On preliminary evaluation, the microTEE probe provided good quality images in very small infants who were not amenable for transesophageal echocardiographic evaluation so far. The probe could be used safely in small infants without complications. It appears to be a promising imaging modality in the perioperative assessment of young infants undergoing cardiac surgery, in whom intraoperative epicardial echocardiography is currently the only tool. PMID:25298691

  4. Is I-gel airway a better option to endotracheal tube airway for sevoflurane-fentanyl anesthesia during cardiac surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Elgebaly, Ahmed Said; Eldabaa, Ahmed Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anesthetists used lower doses of fentanyl, successfully with hemodynamic control by titrating volatile anesthetic agents or vasodilators for fast-tracking in cardiac surgery. Hypothesis: Lower total doses of anesthetics and fentanyl could be required with hemodynamic control by use of supraglottic devices than endotracheal tube (ETT) and helps in fast-tracking. Design: A prospective randomized observational clinical trial study. Aims: The authors compared the utility of I-gel airway with a conventional ETT during the induction and maintenance of anesthesia with sevoflurane and fentanyl in adults undergoing cardiac surgery. Patients and Methods: A total of 49 adult patients underwent cardiac surgery were randomized into two groups according to the airway management: I-gel group (n = 23) and ETT group (n = 26). Doses of fentanyl and hemodynamic parameters (heart rate [HR], mean arterial pressure [MAP] central venous pressure [CVP], pulmonary artery pressure [PAP], and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure [PCWP]) were recorded preoperative, 5 min following tracheal intubation or I-gel airway insertion, after skin incision, after stenotomy, and after weaning off bypass. Results: None of the patients in the I-gel group required additional doses of fentanyl during the I-gel insertion, compared with 74% of the patients during laryngoscopy and endotracheal insertion in the ETT group, for an average total dose of 22.6 ± 0.6 μg/kg. The MAP and HR did not significantly differ from the baseline values at any point of measurement in either group. Furthermore, CVP, PAP, and PCWP measured during the procedure were significantly lower in I-gel group than ETT group. Extubation required more amount of time in ETT than I- gel group. Conclusion: The I-gel airway is well-tolerated by adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery, and requires lower total doses of anesthetics than endotracheal intubation with hemodynamic control and helps in fast-tracking. PMID:25886229

  5. Training in paediatric cardiac surgery: the history and role of training in a different country and even overseas.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Martin J

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a personal perspective on the value of training overseas in paediatric cardiac surgery. From personal experience and observation, I argue that travel does indeed broaden the mind and placing artificial constraints on movement of trainees is a negative move. We need to work with others, in other cultures to become rounded human beings. And to be an empathetic surgeon, you need to be a rounded human being.

  6. The incidence of delirium after cardiac surgery in the elderly: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yulin; Flaherty, Joseph H; Yue, Jirong; Wang, Yanyan; Deng, Chuanyao; Chen, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Delirium is one of the most common complications after cardiac surgery in the elderly. Future studies aimed at preventing postoperative delirium will need an accurate estimate of incidence. However, there are no available systematic reviews on the incidence, and reports of incidence of postoperative delirium after a cardiac operation vary widely with significant heterogeneity. Therefore, we aim to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the most accurate incidence possible of postoperative delirium in individuals aged >65 years after cardiac surgery. Methods and analyses We will undertake a comprehensive literature search among PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO and CINAHL, from their inception to January 2017. Prospective cohort and cross sectional studies that described the incidence of delirium will be eligible for inclusion. The primary outcome will be the incidence of delirium. Risk of bias and methodological quality for the included studies will be assessed using a risk of bias tool for prevalence studies and the Cochrane guidelines. Heterogeneity of the estimates across studies will be assessed. Incidence data will be pooled by selective or emergency surgery. This systematic review will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Ethics and dissemination This proposed systematic review and meta-analysis is based on published data, and thus there is no requirement for ethics approval. The study will provide an up to date and accurate incidence of postoperative delirium among the older population after cardiac surgery, which is necessary for future research in this area. The findings of this study will be presented at conferences and disseminated through publication in a peer reviewed journal. Trial registration number CRD42016047773. PMID:28360251

  7. Are Non-cardiac Surgeries Safe for Dialysis Patients? – A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cherng, Yih-Giun; Liao, Chien-Chang; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Xiao, Duan

    2013-01-01

    Background End-stage renal disease represents a risk complex that complicates surgical results. The surgical outcomes of dialysis patients have been studied in specific fields, but the global features of postoperative adverse outcomes in dialysis patients receiving non-cardiac surgeries have not been examined. Methods Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database was used to study 8,937 patients under regular dialysis with 8,937 propensity-score matched-pair controls receiving non-cardiac surgery between 2004 and 2007. We investigated the influence of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, effects of hypertension and diabetes, and impact of additional comorbidities on postoperative adverse outcomes. Results Postoperative mortality in dialysis patients was higher than in controls (odds ratio [OR] 3.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.56 to 4.33) when receiving non-cardiac surgeries. Complications such as acute myocardial infarction, pneumonia, bleeding, and septicemia were significantly increased. Postoperative mortality was significantly increased among peritoneal dialysis patients (OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.70 to 4.31) and hemodialysis patients (OR 3.42, 95% CI 2.62 to 4.47) than in controls. Dialysis patients with both hypertension and diabetes had the highest risk of postoperative complications; these risks increased with number of preoperative medical conditions. Patients under dialysis also showed significantly increased length of hospitalization, more ICU stays and higher medical expenditures. Conclusion Surgical patients under dialysis encountered significantly higher postoperative complications and mortality than controls when receiving non-cardiac surgeries. Different dialysis techniques, pre-existing hypertension/diabetes, and various comorbidities had complication-specific impacts on surgical adverse outcomes. These findings can help surgical teams provide better risk assessment and postoperative care for dialysis patients. PMID:23516581

  8. Haemodynamic improvement of older, previously replaced mechanical mitral valves by removal of the subvalvular pannus in redo cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Tae Youn; Choi, Jong Bum; Kuh, Ja Hong

    2017-01-01

    Patients requiring redo cardiac surgery for diseased heart valves other than mitral valves may show increased pressure gradients and reduced valve areas of previously placed mechanical mitral valves due to subvalvular pannus formation. We treated four women who had mechanical mitral valves inserted greater than or equal to 20 years earlier and who presented with circular pannus that protruded into the lower margin of the valve ring but did not impede leaflet motion. Pannus removal improved the haemodynamic function of the mitral valve.

  9. Reduced Long-Term Relative Survival in Females and Younger Adults Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Enger, Tone Bull; Pleym, Hilde; Stenseth, Roar; Greiff, Guri; Wahba, Alexander; Videm, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess long-term survival and mortality in adult cardiac surgery patients. Methods 8,564 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery in Trondheim, Norway from 2000 until censoring 31.12.2014 were prospectively followed. Observed long-term mortality following surgery was compared to the expected mortality in the Norwegian population, matched on gender, age and calendar year. This enabled assessment of relative survival (observed/expected survival rates) and relative mortality (observed/expected deaths). Long-term mortality was compared across gender, age and surgical procedure. Predictors of reduced survival were assessed with multivariate analyses of observed and relative mortality. Results During follow-up (median 6.4 years), 2,044 patients (23.9%) died. The observed 30-day, 1-, 3- and 5-year mortality rates were 2.2%, 4.4%, 8.2% and 13.8%, respectively, and remained constant throughout the study period. Comparing observed mortality to that expected in a matched sample from the general population, patients undergoing cardiac surgery showed excellent survival throughout the first seven years of follow-up (relative survival ≥ 1). Subsequently, survival decreased, which was more pronounced in females and patients undergoing other procedures than isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Relative mortality was higher in younger age groups, females and patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR). The female survival advantage in the general population was obliterated (relative mortality ratio (RMR) 1.35 (1.19–1.54), p<0.001). Increasing observed long-term mortality seen with ageing was due to population risk, and younger age was independently associated with increased relative mortality (RMR per 5 years 0.81 (0.79–0.84), p<0.001)). Conclusions Cardiac surgery patients showed comparable survival to that expected in the general Norwegian population, underlining the benefits of cardiac surgery in appropriately selected patients. The

  10. Cardiac surgery or interventional cardiology? Why not both? Let's go hybrid.

    PubMed

    Papakonstantinou, Nikolaos A; Baikoussis, Nikolaos G; Dedeilias, Panagiotis; Argiriou, Michalis; Charitos, Christos

    2017-01-01

    A hybrid strategy, firstly performed in the 1990s, is a combination of tools available only in the catheterization laboratory with those available only in the operating room in order to minimize surgical morbidity and face with any cardiovascular lesion. The continuous evolution of stent technology along with the adoption of minimally invasive surgical approaches, make hybrid approaches an attractive alternative to standard surgical or transcatheter techniques for any given set of cardiovascular lesions. Examples include hybrid coronary revascularization, when an open surgical anastomosis of the left internal mammary artery to the left anterior descending coronary artery is performed along with stent implantation in non-left anterior descending coronary vessels, open heart valve surgery combined with percutaneous coronary interventions to coronary lesions, hybrid aortic arch debranching combined with endovascular grafting for thoracic aortic aneurysms, hybrid endocardial and epicardial atrial fibrillation procedures, and carotid artery stenting along with coronary artery bypass grafting. The cornerstone of success for all of these methods is the productive collaboration between cardiac surgeons and interventional cardiologists. The indications and patient selection of these procedures are still to be defined. However, high-risk patients have already been shown to benefit from hybrid approaches.

  11. Temporal Changes in Survival after Cardiac Surgery Are Associated with the Thirty-Day Mortality Benchmark

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Bryan G; Wong, Jim K; Miller, D Craig; Lobato, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the hypothesis that postoperative survival exhibits heterogeneity associated with the timing of quality metrics. Data Sources Retrospective observational study using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2005 through 2009. Study Design Survival analysis was performed on all admission records with a procedure code for major cardiac surgery (n = 595,089). The day-by-day hazard function for all-cause in-hospital mortality at 1-day intervals was analyzed using joinpoint regression (a data-driven method of testing for changes in hazard). Data Extraction Methods A comprehensive analysis of a publicly available national administrative database was performed. Principal Findings Statistically significant shifts in the pattern of postoperative mortality occurred at day 6 (95 percent CI = day 5–8) and day 30 (95 percent CI = day 20–35). Conclusions While the shift at day 6 plausibly can be attributed to the separation between routine recovery and a complicated postoperative course, the abrupt increase in mortality at day 30 has no clear organic etiology. This analysis raises the possibility that this observed shift may be related to clinician behavior because of the use of 30-day mortality as a quality metric, but further studies will be required to establish causality. PMID:24713085

  12. Noninvasive evaluation of cardiac valve prostheses.

    PubMed

    Kotler, M N; Goldman, A; Parry, W R

    1986-01-01

    Noninvasive techniques are particularly helpful in evaluating the function of mechanical prostheses and tissue valves. Combined phonocardiography with M-mode echocardiography, cinefluoroscopy, and Doppler echocardiography are the most useful noninvasive techniques in differentiating normal from abnormal metallic prosthetic valve function. The intensity of the opening and closing clicks and associated murmurs will depend on the type of prosthetic valve, the heart rate and rhythm, and the underlying hemodynamic status. Arrhythmias and/or conduction disturbances may produce motion patterns that mimic the echocardiographic signs of malfunctioning prosthetic valves. Two-dimensional echocardiography is of limited help in assessing patients with metallic prosthetic valves because of reverberating artifacts and side lobe echoes. However, 2-D echo is extremely useful in excluding underlying left ventricular dysfunction. In addition, 2-D echo allows the determination of the precise alignment of the prosthetic valves so that optimal M-mode evaluation of the disc or poppet motion can be undertaken. Two-dimensional echocardiography also allows diagnosis of pericardial effusion and exclusion of other valvular abnormalities. Differentiation of thrombus formation or tissue ingrowth from paravalvular regurgitation or dehiscence is possible by echophonocardiography, Doppler echocardiography, and cinefluoroscopy. Doppler echocardiography is the most sensitive noninvasive technique in diagnosing paravalvular leaks. In addition, significant obstruction across a prosthetic valve can be determined by calculation of maximal gradient across the obstructed orifice using Doppler echocardiography. The differentiation between "benign physiological regurgitation" from true "pathological regurgitation" by Doppler is not always possible. Disc variance is a potentially serious and lethal problem with the older Beall valves and can be detected readily by a combination of echophonocardiography

  13. Decreased Bioenergetic Health Index in monocytes isolated from the pericardial fluid and blood of post-operative cardiac surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Philip A; Chacko, Balu K; George, David J; Zhi, Degui; Wei, Chih-Cheng; Dell'Italia, Louis J; Melby, Spencer J; George, James F; Darley-Usmar, Victor M

    2015-07-01

    Monitoring the bioenergetics of leucocytes is now emerging as an important approach in translational research to detect mitochondrial dysfunction in blood or other patient samples. Using the mitochondrial stress test, which involves the sequential addition of mitochondrial inhibitors to adherent leucocytes, we have calculated a single value, the Bioenergetic Health Index (BHI), which represents the mitochondrial function in cells isolated from patients. In the present report, we assess the BHI of monocytes isolated from the post-operative blood and post-operative pericardial fluid (PO-PCF) from patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Analysis of the bioenergetics of monocytes isolated from patients' PO-PCF revealed a profound decrease in mitochondrial function compared with monocytes isolated from their blood or from healthy controls. Further, patient blood monocytes showed no significant difference in the individual energetic parameters from the mitochondrial stress test but, when integrated into the BHI evaluation, there was a significant decrease in BHI compared with healthy control monocytes. These data support the utility of BHI measurements in integrating the individual parameters from the mitochondrial stress test into a single value. Supporting our previous finding that the PO-PCF is pro-oxidant, we found that exposure of rat cardiomyocytes to PO-PCF caused a significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). These findings support the hypothesis that integrated measures of bioenergetic health could have prognostic and diagnostic value in translational bioenergetics.

  14. Renal Doppler Resistive Index as a Marker of Oxygen Supply and Demand Mismatch in Postoperative Cardiac Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Corradi, Francesco; Brusasco, Claudia; Paparo, Francesco; Manca, Tullio; Santori, Gregorio; Benassi, Filippo; Molardi, Alberto; Gallingani, Alan; Ramelli, Andrea; Gherli, Tiziano; Vezzani, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective. Renal Doppler resistive index (RDRI) is a noninvasive index considered to reflect renal vascular perfusion. The aim of this study was to identify the independent hemodynamic determinants of RDRI in mechanically ventilated patients after cardiac surgery. Methods. RDRI was determined in 61 patients by color and pulse Doppler ultrasonography of the interlobar renal arteries. Intermittent thermodilution cardiac output measurements were obtained and blood samples taken from the tip of pulmonary artery catheter to measure hemodynamics and mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2). Results. By univariate analysis, RDRI was significantly correlated with SvO2, oxygen extraction ratio, left ventricular stroke work index, and cardiac index, but not heart rate, central venous pressure, mean artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, systemic vascular resistance index, oxygen delivery index, oxygen consumption index, arterial lactate concentration, and age. However, by multivariate analysis RDRI was significantly correlated with SvO2 only. Conclusions. The present data suggests that, in mechanically ventilated patients after cardiac surgery, RDRI increases proportionally to the decrease in SvO2, thus reflecting an early vascular response to tissue hypoxia. PMID:26605339

  15. Ciclosporin to Protect Renal function In Cardiac Surgery (CiPRICS): a study protocol for a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept study

    PubMed Central

    Grins, Edgars; Dardashti, Alain; Brondén, Björn; Metzsch, Carsten; Erdling, André; Nozohoor, Shahab; Mokhtari, Arash; Hansson, Magnus J; Elmér, Eskil; Algotsson, Lars; Jovinge, Stefan; Bjursten, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is common and results in increased morbidity and mortality. One possible mechanism for AKI is ischaemia–reperfusion injury caused by the extracorporeal circulation (ECC), resulting in an opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in the kidneys, which can lead to cell injury or cell death. Ciclosporin may block the opening of mPTP if administered before the ischaemia–reperfusion injury. We hypothesised that ciclosporin given before the start of ECC in cardiac surgery can decrease the degree of AKI. Methods and analysis Ciclosporin to Protect Renal function In Cardiac Surgery (CiPRICS) study is an investigator-initiated double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel design, single-centre study performed at a tertiary university hospital. The primary objective is to assess the safety and efficacy of ciclosporin to limit the degree of AKI in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. We aim to evaluate 150 patients with a preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15–90 mL/min/1.73 m2. Study patients are randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive study drug 2.5 mg/kg ciclosporin or placebo as an intravenous injection after anaesthesia induction but before start of surgery. The primary end point consists of relative P-cystatin C changes from the preoperative day to postoperative day 3. The primary variable will be tested using an analysis of covariance method. Secondary end points include evaluation of P-creatinine and biomarkers of kidney, heart and brain injury. Ethics and dissemination The trial is conducted in compliance with the current version of the Declaration of Helsinki and the International Council for Harmonisation (ICH) Good Clinical Practice guidelines E6 (R1) and was approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board, Lund and the Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA). Written and oral informed consent is obtained before enrolment into

  16. The correlation between preoperative erythrocyte sedimentation rate and postoperative outcome in adult cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bilehjani, Eissa; Fakhari, Solmaz; Farzin, Haleh; Yaghoubi, Alireza; Mirinazhad, Moussa; Shadvar, Kamran; Dehghani, Abbasali; Aboalaiy, Pariasadat

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Over the past decades, it has been recommended that preoperative assessment mainly relies on history and physical examination rather than unnecessary laboratory tests. In Iranian hospitals, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) has been routinely measured in most of the patients awaiting major surgery, which has in turn exacted heavy costs on the health system. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the preoperative routine measurement of ESR in such patients. Materials and methods This is a retrospective study, in which we evaluated the medical files of 620 patients. Patients older than 18 years, who had undergone elective heart surgery in our hospital in 2014, were included in the study. The data associated with demography, heart disease diagnosis, type of surgery, significant preoperative tests, delay or postponing of surgery and the reason for it, type and characteristics of the subspecialty consultation, and finally, postoperative complication and mortality rate were collected and analyzed. The patients were categorized into four groups according to ESR value: normal (<15 mm/h in females or <20 mm/h in males), moderately increased (<40 mm/h), severely increased (≥40 mm/h), and not measured. Results Of the 620 patients’ files, 402 were of males and 218 were of females. Demographic values and preoperative characteristics were similar in the four groups. A total of 105 consultations were given to 79 patients preoperatively, where only in five cases, the elevation in ESR was the main reason for consultation. In no other cases did the consultations result in new diagnoses. Overall, postoperative complication and mortality rate were the same in all four groups; in severely increased ESR group, on the other hand, the need for long periods of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stays was higher than that of other groups. Conclusion It is concluded that elevated preoperative ESR does not cancel or defer the surgery, nor does it help

  17. Efficacy of intraoperative cell salvage in decreasing perioperative blood transfusion rates in first-time cardiac surgery patients: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Claudia L.; Yip, Alexandra M.; MacLeod, Jeffrey B.; O’Reilly, Bill; Murray, Joshua; Ouzounian, Maral; Brown, Craig D.; Forgie, Rand; Pelletier, Marc P.; Hassan, Ansar

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of intraoperative cell salvage (ICS) in transfusion reduction during cardiac surgery remains conflicting. We sought to evaluate the impact of routine ICS on outcomes following cardiac surgery. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent nonemergent, first-time cardiac surgery 18 months before and 18 months after the implementation of routine ICS. Perioperative transfusion rates, postoperative bleeding, clinical and hematological outcomes, and overall cost were examined. We used multivariable logistic regression modelling to determine the risk-adjusted effect of ICS on likelihood of perioperative transfusion. Results A total of 389 patients formed the final study population (186 undergoing ICS and 203 controls). Patients undergoing ICS had significantly lower perioperative transfusion rates of packed red blood cells (pRBCs; 33.9% v. 45.3% p = 0.021), coagulation products (16.7% v. 32.5% p < 0.001) and any blood product (38.2% v. 52.7%, p = 0.004). Patients receiving ICS had decreased mediastinal drainage at 12 h (mean 320 [range 230–550] mL v. mean 400 [range 260–690] mL, p = 0.011) and increased postoperative hemoglobin (mean 104.7 ± 13.2 g/L v. 95.0 ± 11.9 g/L, p < 0.001). Following adjustment for other baseline and intraoperative covariates, ICS emerged as an independent predictor of lower perioperative transfusion rates of pRBCs (odds ratio [OR] 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31–0.87), coagulation products (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24–0.71) and any blood product (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.29–0.77). Additionally, ICS was associated with a cost benefit of $116 per patient. Conclusion Intraoperative cell salvage could represent a clinically cost-effective way of reducing transfusion rates in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Further research on systematic ICS is required before recommending it for routine use. PMID:27668331

  18. Incidence and Progression of Cardiac Surgery-associated Acute Kidney Injury and its Relationship with Bypass and Cross Clamp Time

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Habib Md Reazaul; Yunus, Mohd; Saikia, Manuj Kumar; Kalita, Jyoti Prasad; Mandal, Mrinal

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiac surgery-associated kidney injury (CSA-AKI) is common but relatively less is known about its progression. The present study is aimed at evaluating the incidence and course of CSA-AKI and its relationship with the different durations of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and cross clamp times. Materials and Methods: Occurrences of CSA-AKI are evaluated as per the Akin Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria over the course of 5 postoperative day (POD) in 100 patients. The relationship of different durations of CPB and aortic cross clamp time with CSA-AKI is analyzed by Chi-squared test for trend and other appropriate tests using INSTAT software. Results: One hundred (43 male, 57 female; mean age of 37.01 ± 12.28 years, and baseline mean serum creatinine 0.99 ± 0.20 mg %) patients undergone mostly valve replacement, and congenital heart disease correction was evaluated. Nearly 49% suffered CSA-AKI (81.63% AKIN Class I) with maximum numbers on 2nd POD. Serum creatinine followed a falling trend 3rd POD onward except in 8.16% cases of CSA-AKI. Oliguria was absent even in AKIN Class II. The CPB time >70 min and cross clamp time >60 min increase CSA-AKI risk by an OR of 4.76 and 2.84, respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion: CSA-AKI is very prevalent; mostly of AKIN Class I and increases with increasing CPB and cross clamp time. Urine output is not a reliable indicator of CSA-AKI. The AKIN Class II on the very 1st POD or increasing trend of serum creatinine beyond 3rd POD should alert for early intervention. PMID:28074790

  19. S3 guidelines for intensive care in cardiac surgery patients: hemodynamic monitoring and cardiocirculary system.

    PubMed

    Carl, M; Alms, A; Braun, J; Dongas, A; Erb, J; Goetz, A; Goepfert, M; Gogarten, W; Grosse, J; Heller, A R; Heringlake, M; Kastrup, M; Kroener, A; Loer, S A; Marggraf, G; Markewitz, A; Reuter, D; Schmitt, D V; Schirmer, U; Wiesenack, C; Zwissler, B; Spies, C

    2010-06-15

    Hemodynamic monitoring and adequate volume-therapy, as well as the treatment with positive inotropic drugs and vasopressors are the basic principles of the postoperative intensive care treatment of patient after cardiothoracic surgery. The goal of these S3 guidelines is to evaluate the recommendations in regard to evidence based medicine and to define therapy goals for monitoring and therapy. In context with the clinical situation the evaluation of the different hemodynamic parameters allows the development of a therapeutic concept and the definition of goal criteria to evaluate the effect of treatment. Up to now there are only guidelines for subareas of postoperative treatment of cardiothoracic surgical patients, like the use of a pulmonary artery catheter or the transesophageal echocardiography. The German Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Thorax-, Herz- und Gefässchirurgie, DGTHG) and the German Society for Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Anästhesiologie und lntensivmedizin, DGAI) made an approach to ensure and improve the quality of the postoperative intensive care medicine after cardiothoracic surgery by the development of S3 consensus-based treatment guidelines. Goal of this guideline is to assess the available monitoring methods with regard to indication, procedures, predication, limits, contraindications and risks for use. The differentiated therapy of volume-replacement, positive inotropic support and vasoactive drugs, the therapy with vasodilatators, inodilatators and calcium sensitizers and the use of intra-aortic balloon pumps will also be addressed. The guideline has been developed following the recommendations for the development of guidelines by the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF). The presented key messages of the guidelines were approved after two consensus meetings under the moderation of the Association of the Scientific Medical

  20. S3 guidelines for intensive care in cardiac surgery patients: hemodynamic monitoring and cardiocirculary system

    PubMed Central

    Carl, M.; Alms, A.; Braun, J.; Dongas, A.; Erb, J.; Goetz, A.; Goepfert, M.; Gogarten, W.; Grosse, J.; Heller, A. R.; Heringlake, M.; Kastrup, M.; Kroener, A.; Loer, S. A.; Marggraf, G.; Markewitz, A.; Reuter, D.; Schmitt, D. V.; Schirmer, U.; Wiesenack, C.; Zwissler, B.; Spies, C.

    2010-01-01

    Hemodynamic monitoring and adequate volume-therapy, as well as the treatment with positive inotropic drugs and vasopressors are the basic principles of the postoperative intensive care treatment of patient after cardiothoracic surgery. The goal of these S3 guidelines is to evaluate the recommendations in regard to evidence based medicine and to define therapy goals for monitoring and therapy. In context with the clinical situation the evaluation of the different hemodynamic parameters allows the development of a therapeutic concept and the definition of goal criteria to evaluate the effect of treatment. Up to now there are only guidelines for subareas of postoperative treatment of cardiothoracic surgical patients, like the use of a pulmonary artery catheter or the transesophageal echocardiography. The German Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Thorax-, Herz- und Gefäßchirurgie, DGTHG) and the German Society for Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Anästhesiologie und lntensivmedizin, DGAI) made an approach to ensure and improve the quality of the postoperative intensive care medicine after cardiothoracic surgery by the development of S3 consensus-based treatment guidelines. Goal of this guideline is to assess the available monitoring methods with regard to indication, procedures, predication, limits, contraindications and risks for use. The differentiated therapy of volume-replacement, positive inotropic support and vasoactive drugs, the therapy with vasodilatators, inodilatators and calcium sensitizers and the use of intra-aortic balloon pumps will also be addressed. The guideline has been developed following the recommendations for the development of guidelines by the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF). The presented key messages of the guidelines were approved after two consensus meetings under the moderation of the Association of the Scientific Medical

  1. The impact on cardiac diagnosis and mortality of focused transthoracic echocardiography in hip fracture surgery patients with increased risk of cardiac disease: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Canty, D J; Royse, C F; Kilpatrick, D; Bowyer, A; Royse, A G

    2012-11-01

    Hip fracture surgery is associated with a high rate of mortality and morbidity; heart disease is the leading cause and is often unrecognised and inadequately treated. Pre-operative focused transthoracic echocardiography by anaesthetists frequently influences management, but mortality outcome studies have not been performed to date. Mortality over the 12 months after hip fracture surgery, in 64 patients at risk of cardiac disease who received pre-operative echocardiography, was compared with 66 randomised historical controls who did not receive echocardiography. Mortality was lower in the group that received echocardiography over the 30 days (4.7% vs 15.2%, log rank p=0.047) and 12 months after surgery (17.1% vs 33.3%, log rank p=0.031). Hazard of death was also reduced with pre-operative echocardiography over 12 months after adjustment for known risk factors (hazard ratio 0.41, 95% CI 0.2-0.85, p=0.016). Pre-operative echocardiography was not associated with a delay in surgery. These data support a randomised controlled trial to confirm these findings.

  2. Paediatric and congenital cardiac surgery in emerging economies: surgical 'safari' versus educational programmes.

    PubMed

    Corno, Antonio F

    2016-07-01

    To attract the interest of all people potentially involved in humanitarian activities in the emerging economies, in particular giving attention to the basic requirements of the organization of paediatric cardiac surgery activities, the requirements for a successful partnership with the local existing organizations and the basic elements of a patient-centred multidisciplinary integrated approach. Unfortunately, for many years, the interventions in the low and middle income countries were largely limited to short-term medical missions, not inappropriately nicknamed 'surgical safari', because of negative general and specific characteristics. The negative aspects and the limits of the short-term medical missions can be overcome only by long-term educational programmes. The most suitable and consistent models of long-term educational programmes have been combined and implemented with the personal experience to offer a proposal for a long-term educational project, with the following steps: (i) site selection; (ii) demographic research; (iii) site assessment; (iv) organization of surgical educational teams; (v) regular frequency of surgical educational missions; (vi) programme evolution and maturation; (vii) educational outreach and interactive support. Potential limits of a long-term educational surgical programme are: (i) financial affordability; (ii) basic legal needs; (iii) legal support; (iv) non-profit indemnification. The success should not be measured by the number of successful operations of any given mission, but by the successful operations that our colleagues perform after we leave. Considering that the children in need outnumber by far the people able to provide care, in this humanitarian medicine there should be plenty of room for cooperation rather than competition. The main goal should be to provide teaching to local staff and implement methods and techniques to support the improvement of the care of the patients in the long run. This review focuses on the

  3. Preoperative preparation of patients with cardiomyopathies in non-cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Bradić, Zeljko; Ivanović, Branislava; Marković, Dejan; Simić, Dusica; Janković, Radmilo; Kalezić, Nevena

    2011-01-01

    Cardiomyopathies are myocardial diseases in which there is structural and functional disorder of the heart muscle, in the absence of coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular disease and congenital heart disease. Cardiomyopathies are grouped into specific morphological and functional phenotypes: dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and unclassified cardiomyopathies. Patients with dilated and hypertrophic cardiomypathy are prone to the development of congestive heart failure in the perioperative period. Also, patients with hypertrophic and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy are prone to arrhythmias in the perioperative period. Preoperative evaluation includes history, physical examination, ECG, chest radiography, complete blood count, electrolytes, creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, glucose, liver enzymes, urin analysis, BNP and echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular function. Drug therapy should be optimized and continued preoperatively. Surgery should be delayed (unless urgent) in patients with decompensated or untreated cardiomyopathy. Preoperative evaluation requires integrated multidisciplinary approach of anesthesiologists, cardiologist and surgeons.

  4. Bivalirudin as an adjunctive anticoagulant to heparin in the treatment of heparin resistance during cardiopulmonary bypass-assisted cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    McNair, E; Marcoux, J-A; Bally, C; Gamble, J; Thomson, D

    2016-04-01

    Heparin resistance (unresponsiveness to heparin) is characterized by the inability to reach acceptable activated clotting time values following a calculated dose of heparin. Up to 20% of the patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass using unfractionated heparin (UFH) for anticoagulation experience heparin resistance. Although UFH has been the "gold standard" for anticoagulation, it is not without its limitations. It is contraindicated in patients with confirmed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and heparin or protamine allergy. The safety and efficacy of the use of the direct thrombin inhibitor bivalirudin for anticoagulation during cardiac surgery has been reported. However, there have been no reports on the treatment of heparin resistance with bivalirudin during CPB. In this review, we report the favorable outcome of our single-center experience with the alternative use of bivalirudin in the management of anticoagulation of heparin unresponsive patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

  5. Elective nasal continuous positive airway pressure to support respiration after prolonged ventilation in infants after congenital cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Hemang; Mishra, Amit; Thosani, Rajesh; Acharya, Himanshu; Shah, Ritesh; Surti, Jigar; Sarvaia, Alpesh

    2017-01-01

    Background: We sought to compare the effectiveness of oxygen (O2) treatment administered by an O2 mask and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) in infants after congenital cardiac surgery. Methods: In this retrospective observational study, 54 infants undergoing corrective cardiac surgery were enrolled. According to the anesthesiologist's preference, the patients ventilated for more than 48 h were either put on NCPAP or O2 mask immediately after extubation. From pre-extubation to 24 h after treatment, arterial blood gas and hemodynamic data were measured. Results: After 24 h of NCPAP institution, the patients showed a significant improvement in oxygenation compared to O2 mask group. Respiratory rate (per minute) decreased from 31.67 ± 4.55 to 24.31 ± 3.69 (P < 0.0001), PO2 (mmHg) increased from 112.12 ± 22.83 to 185.74 ± 14.81 (P < 0.0001), and PCO2 (mmHg) decreased from 42.88 ± 5.01 to 37.00 ± 7.22 (P < 0.0076) in patients on NCPAP. In this group, mean pediatric cardiac surgical Intensive Care Unit (PCSICU) stay was 4.72 ± 1.60 days, with only 2 (11.11%) patients requiring re-intubation. Conclusion: NCPAP can be used safely and effectively in infants undergoing congenital cardiac surgery to improve oxygenation/ventilation. It also reduces the work of breathing, PCSICU stay, and may reduce the likelihood of re-intubation. PMID:28163425

  6. Cardiac evaluation of clinically healthy captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus).

    PubMed

    Estrada, Amara H; Gerlach, Trevor J; Schmidt, Mandi K; Siegal-Willott, Jessica L; Atkins, Adrienne L; Van Gilder, James; Citino, Scott B; Padilla, Luis R

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this project was to determine radiographic vertebral heart sizes and electrocardiographic (ECG) and echocardiographic measurements in healthy anesthetized maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus). The wolves, housed at the White Oak Conservation and Smithsonian National Zoo Conservation and Research Centers, were being anesthetized for annual examinations. Cardiac auscultation, thoracic radiographs, a standard 6-lead ECG, and echocardiography were performed on the wolves while they were under general anesthesia. Thirteen maned wolves were evaluated: five males and eight females. Mean age was 6.4 +/- 4.4 years (range, 2-13 years). Mean weight was 26 +/- 2.95 kg (range, 22-32 kg). Low-grade systolic murmurs were auscultated in three of 13 maned wolves. Evaluation of ECGs revealed a sinus rhythm, with a QRS morphology, and mean electrical axis similar to domestic canines. Radiographic evaluation revealed a mean vertebral heart size of 8.27 +/- 0.48 (range, 7.9-8.6). In addition, the cardiac silhouette was seen to elongate, with an increase in sternal contact in older wolves. Echocardiography showed that mitral valve degenerative changes and insufficiency is likely common in older wolves. Visualization of physiologic regurgitation across the mitral and pulmonary valves was common in wolves of all ages. Left ventricular measurements were similar to those reported for healthy dogs, and several variables correlated well with body weight. Two wolves were found to have one to three heartworms in the right pulmonary artery, and degenerative mitral valve disease was determined in maned wolves older than 6 years of age. All of the wolves in this study were on heartworm preventative and tested negative for heartworm antigen at their annual examinations. The results of this study provide reference information for use in the cardiac evaluation of anesthetized maned wolves.

  7. Microfiltration platform for continuous blood plasma protein extraction from whole blood during cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Aran, Kiana; Fok, Alex; Sasso, Lawrence A.; Kamdar, Neal; Guan, Yulong; Sun, Qi; Ündar, Akif

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the design, fabrication, and testing of a cross-flow filtration microdevice, for the continuous extraction of blood plasma from a circulating whole blood sample in a clinically relevant environment to assist in continuous monitoring of a patient’s inflammatory response during cardiac surgeries involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) procedures (about 400 000 adult and 20 000 pediatric patients in the United States per year). The microfiltration system consists of a two-compartment mass exchanger with two aligned sets of PDMS microchannels, separated by a porous polycarbonate (PCTE) membrane. Using this microdevice, blood plasma has been continuously separated from blood cells in a real-time manner with no evidence of bio-fouling or cell lysis. The technology is designed to continuously extract plasma containing diagnostic plasma proteins such as complements and cytokines using a significantly smaller blood volume as compared to traditional blood collection techniques. The microfiltration device has been tested using a simulated CPB circulation loop primed with donor human blood, in a manner identical to a clinical surgical setup, to collect plasma fractions in order to study the effects of CPB system components and circulation on immune activation during extracorporeal circulatory support. The microdevice, with 200 nm membrane pore size, was connected to a simulated CPB circuit, and was able to continuously extract ~15% pure plasma volume (100% cell-free) with high sampling frequencies which could be analyzed directly following collection with no need to further centrifuge or modify the fraction. Less than 2.5 ml total plasma volume was collected over a 4 h sampling period (less than one Vacutainer blood collection tube volume). The results tracked cytokine concentrations collected from both the reservoir and filtrate samples which were comparable to those from direct blood draws, indicating very high protein recovery of the microdevice

  8. Microfiltration platform for continuous blood plasma protein extraction from whole blood during cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Aran, Kiana; Fok, Alex; Sasso, Lawrence A; Kamdar, Neal; Guan, Yulong; Sun, Qi; Ündar, Akif; Zahn, Jeffrey D

    2011-09-07

    This report describes the design, fabrication, and testing of a cross-flow filtration microdevice, for the continuous extraction of blood plasma from a circulating whole blood sample in a clinically relevant environment to assist in continuous monitoring of a patient's inflammatory response during cardiac surgeries involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) procedures (about 400,000 adult and 20,000 pediatric patients in the United States per year). The microfiltration system consists of a two-compartment mass exchanger with two aligned sets of PDMS microchannels, separated by a porous polycarbonate (PCTE) membrane. Using this microdevice, blood plasma has been continuously separated from blood cells in a real-time manner with no evidence of bio-fouling or cell lysis. The technology is designed to continuously extract plasma containing diagnostic plasma proteins such as complements and cytokines using a significantly smaller blood volume as compared to traditional blood collection techniques. The microfiltration device has been tested using a simulated CPB circulation loop primed with donor human blood, in a manner identical to a clinical surgical setup, to collect plasma fractions in order to study the effects of CPB system components and circulation on immune activation during extracorporeal circulatory support. The microdevice, with 200 nm membrane pore size, was connected to a simulated CPB circuit, and was able to continuously extract ~15% pure plasma volume (100% cell-free) with high sampling frequencies which could be analyzed directly following collection with no need to further centrifuge or modify the fraction. Less than 2.5 ml total plasma volume was collected over a 4 h sampling period (less than one Vacutainer blood collection tube volume). The results tracked cytokine concentrations collected from both the reservoir and filtrate samples which were comparable to those from direct blood draws, indicating very high protein recovery of the microdevice

  9. Early postoperative changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism following neonatal cardiac surgery: Effects of surgical duration

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Erin M.; Lynch, Jennifer M.; Goff, Donna A.; Schwab, Peter J.; Baker, Wesley B.; Durduran, Turgut; Busch, David R.; Nicolson, Susan C.; Montenegro, Lisa M.; Naim, Maryam Y.; Xiao, Rui; Spray, Thomas L.; Yodh, A. G.; Gaynor, J. William; Licht, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The early postoperative period following neonatal cardiac surgery is a time of increased risk for brain injury, yet the mechanisms underlying this risk are unknown. To understand these risks more completely, we quantified changes in postoperative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral blood flow (CBF) compared with preoperative levels by using noninvasive optical modalities. Methods Diffuse optical spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy were used concurrently to derive cerebral blood flow and oxygen utilization postoperatively for 12 hours. Relative changes in CMRO2, OEF, and CBF were quantified with reference to preoperative data. A mixed-effect model was used to investigate the influence of total support time and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest duration on relative changes in CMRO2, OEF, and CBF. Results Relative changes in CMRO2, OEF, and CBF were assessed in 36 patients, 21 with single-ventricle defects and 15 with 2-ventricle defects. Among patients with single-ventricle lesions, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest duration did not affect relative changes in CMRO2, CBF, or OEF (P > .05). Among 2-ventricle patients, total support time was not a significant predictor of relative changes in CMRO2 or CBF (P > .05), although longer total support time was associated significantly with greater increases in relative change of postoperative OEF (P = .008). Conclusions Noninvasive diffuse optical techniques were used to quantify postoperative relative changes in CMRO2, CBF, and OEF for the first time in this observational pilot study. Pilot data suggest that surgical duration does not account for observed variability in the relative change in CMRO2, and that more comprehensive clinical studies using the new technology are feasible and warranted to elucidate these issues further. PMID:23111021

  10. A comparison of gastric and rectal CO2 in cardiac surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Elaine M; Kerr, Mary E; Hoffman, Leslie A; Steiner, Richard P; Baranek, Robert A

    2005-04-01

    Critical care nurses assess and treat clinical conditions associated with inadequate oxygenation. Changes in regional organ (gut) blood flow are believed to occur in response to a decrease in oxygenation. Although the stomach is a widely accepted monitoring site, there are multiple methodological and measurement issues associated with the gastric environment that limit the accuracy of P CO2 detection. The rectum may provide nurses with an alternative site for monitoring changes in P CO2 without the limitations associated with gastric monitoring. This pilot study used a repeated measures design to examine changes in gastric and rectal P CO2 during elective coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and in the immediate 4-hr postoperative period in 26 subjects. The systemic indicators explained little variation in the regional indicators during protocol. A comparison of rectal and gastric P CO2 revealed no statistically significant differences in the direction or magnitude of change over any phase of cardiac surgery (baseline, CPB, post-CPB). A reduction in both rectal and gastric P CO2 occurred during CPB, and both values trended upward during the post-CPB phase. However, poor correlation and agreement was found between the measures of P CO2 at the two sites. Although clinically important, the cause is unclear. Possible explanations include variation in CO2 production between the gastric and rectal site, differences in sensitivity of the two monitoring instruments, or the absence of hemodynamic complications, which limited the extent of change in P CO2. Further investigation using patients with more profound changes in oxygenation are needed to identify response patterns and possible mechanisms.

  11. Platelet concentrates transfusion in cardiac surgery in relation to preoperative point-of-care assessment of platelet adhesion and aggregation.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Cristina; Hartmann, Jennifer; Osthaus, Alexander; Schöchl, Herbert; Raymondos, Kostas; Koppert, Wolfgang; Rahe-Meyer, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Platelet dysfunction is an important cause of bleeding early after cardiac surgery. Whole-blood multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA), investigating the adhesion and aggregation of activated platelets onto metal electrodes, has shown correlations with platelet concentrates transfusion in this setting. Platelet activity in vivo is dependent on shear stress, an aspect that cannot be investigated with MEA, but with the cone and plate(let) analyzer (CPA) Impact-R that measures the interaction of platelets and von Willebrand factor (vWF) in whole blood under shear. We hypothesized that preoperative CPA may show better correlation with platelet concentrates transfusion post-cardiac surgery than MEA, since it is dependent on both platelet activity and platelet interaction with vWF multimers. Blood was obtained preoperatively from 30 patients undergoing aorto-coronary bypass (ACB) and 20 patients with aortic valve (AV) surgery. MEA was performed in hirudin-anticoagulated blood. The Impact-R analyses were performed in blood anticoagulated with hirudin, heparin or the standard anticoagulant citrate. For the light microscopy images obtained, the parameter surface coverage (SC) was calculated. Preoperative Impact-R results were abnormally decreased in AV patients and significantly lower than in ACB patients. For the Impact-R analysis performed in citrated blood, no correlation with platelet concentrates transfusion was observed. In contrast, MEA was comparable between the groups and correlated significantly with intraoperative platelet concentrates transfusion in both groups (rho between -0.47 and -0.62, p < 0.05). Multiple electrode aggregometry appeared more useful and easier to apply than CPA for preoperatively identifying patients with platelet concentrates transfusion in cardiac surgery.

  12. Hemolysis during cardiac surgery is associated with increased intravascular nitric oxide consumption and perioperative kidney and intestinal tissue damage

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen Windsant, Iris C.; de Wit, Norbert C. J.; Sertorio, Jonas T. C.; van Bijnen, Annemarie A.; Ganushchak, Yuri M.; Heijmans, John H.; Tanus-Santos, Jose E.; Jacobs, Michael J.; Maessen, Jos G.; Buurman, Wim A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) and intestinal injury negatively impact patient outcome after cardiac surgery. Enhanced nitric oxide (NO) consumption due to intraoperative intravascular hemolysis, may play an important role in this setting. This study investigated the impact of hemolysis on plasma NO consumption, AKI, and intestinal tissue damage, after cardiac surgery. Methods: Hemolysis (by plasma extracellular (free) hemoglobin; fHb), plasma NO-consumption, plasma fHb-binding capacity by haptoglobin (Hp), renal tubular injury (using urinary N-Acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase; NAG), intestinal mucosal injury (through plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein; IFABP), and AKI were studied in patients undergoing off-pump cardiac surgery (OPCAB, N = 7), on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG, N = 30), or combined CABG and valve surgery (CABG+Valve, N = 30). Results: FHb plasma levels and NO-consumption significantly increased, while plasma Hp concentrations significantly decreased in CABG and CABG+Valve patients (p < 0.0001) during surgery. The extent of hemolysis and NO-consumption correlated significantly (r2 = 0.75, p < 0.0001). Also, NAG and IFABP increased in both groups (p < 0.0001, and p < 0.001, respectively), and both were significantly associated with hemolysis (Rs = 0.70, p < 0.0001, and Rs = 0.26, p = 0.04, respectively) and NO-consumption (Rs = 0.55, p = 0.002, and Rs = 0.41, p = 0.03, respectively), also after multivariable logistic regression analysis. OPCAB patients did not show increased fHb, NO-consumption, NAG, or IFABP levels. Patients suffering from AKI (N = 9, 13.4%) displayed significantly higher fHb and NAG levels already during surgery compared to non-AKI patients. Conclusions: Hemolysis appears to be an important contributor to postoperative kidney injury and intestinal mucosal damage, potentially by limiting NO-bioavailability. This observation offers a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target to improve patient outcome after

  13. Postoperative Neurocognitive Dysfunction in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery after Remote Ischemic Preconditioning: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Meybohm, Patrick; Renner, Jochen; Broch, Ole; Caliebe, Dorothee; Albrecht, Martin; Cremer, Jochen; Haake, Nils; Scholz, Jens; Zacharowski, Kai; Bein, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Background Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has been shown to enhance the tolerance of remote organs to cope with a subsequent ischemic event. We hypothesized that RIPC reduces postoperative neurocognitive dysfunction (POCD) in patients undergoing complex cardiac surgery. Methods We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial including 180 adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were randomized either to RIPC or to control group. Primary endpoint was postoperative neurocognitive dysfunction 5–7 days after surgery assessed by a comprehensive test battery. Cognitive change was assumed if the preoperative to postoperative difference in 2 or more tasks assessing different cognitive domains exceeded more than one SD (1 SD criterion) or if the combined Z score was 1.96 or greater (Z score criterion). Results According to 1 SD criterion, 52% of control and 46% of RIPC patients had cognitive deterioration 5–7 days after surgery (p = 0.753). The summarized Z score showed a trend to more cognitive decline in the control group (2.16±5.30) compared to the RIPC group (1.14±4.02; p = 0.228). Three months after surgery, incidence and severity of neurocognitive dysfunc