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Sample records for cardiomyopathy iron status

  1. The Cardiomyopathy of Iron Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Nikita; Rich, Michael W.; Gayomali, Charina

    2006-01-01

    Iron-deficiency anemia can have deleterious effects on the heart. Herein, we describe the effects of iron deficiency on the heart as corroborated with electrocardiography, radiology, echocardiography, and cardiac catheterization. We review the pathophysiology, clinical features, and management of iron-deficiency–induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:17041692

  2. Iron status of vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Craig, W J

    1994-05-01

    An appropriately planned well-balanced vegetarian diet is compatible with an adequate iron status. Although the iron stores of vegetarians may be reduced, the incidence of iron-deficiency anemia in vegetarians is not significantly different from that in omnivores. Restrictive vegetarian diets (eg, macrobiotic) are associated with more widespread iron-deficiency anemia. Western vegetarians who consume a variety of foods have a better iron status than do those in developing countries who consume a limited diet based on unleavened, unrefined cereals. Whereas phytates, polyphenolics, and other plant constituents found in vegetarian diets inhibit nonheme-iron absorption, vitamin C, citric acid, and other organic acids facilitate nonheme-iron absorption.

  3. Iron Overload Cardiomyopathy, Better Understanding of An Increasing Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gujja, Pradeep; Rosing, Douglas R.; Tripodi, Dorothy J.; Shizukuda, Yukitaka

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of Iron Overload Cardiomyopathy (IOC) is increasing. The spectrum of symptoms of IOC is varied. Early in the disease process, patients may be asymptomatic while severely overloaded patients can have terminal heart failure complaints that are refractory to treatment. It has been shown that early recognition and intervention may alter outcomes. Biochemical markers and tissue biopsy, that have traditionally been used to diagnose and guide therapy, are not sensitive enough to detect early cardiac iron deposition. Newer diagnostic modalities such as MRI are noninvasive and can assess quantitative cardiac iron load. Phlebotomy and chelating drugs are suboptimal means of treating IOC; hence the roles of gene therapy, hepcidin, and CCBs are being actively investigated. There is a need for the development of clinical guidelines in order to improve the management of this emerging complex disease. PMID:20846597

  4. Cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    Cardiomyopathy is the name for diseases of the heart muscle. These diseases enlarge your heart muscle or ... tissue. Some people live long, healthy lives with cardiomyopathy. Some people don't even realize they have ...

  5. Iron-overload injury and cardiomyopathy in acquired and genetic models is attenuated by resveratrol therapy

    PubMed Central

    Das, Subhash K.; Wang, Wang; Zhabyeyev, Pavel; Basu, Ratnadeep; McLean, Brent; Fan, Dong; Parajuli, Nirmal; DesAulniers, Jessica; Patel, Vaibhav B.; Hajjar, Roger J.; Dyck, Jason R. B.; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Oudit, Gavin Y.

    2015-01-01

    Iron-overload cardiomyopathy is a prevalent cause of heart failure on a world-wide basis and is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with secondary iron-overload and genetic hemochromatosis. We investigated the therapeutic effects of resveratrol in acquired and genetic models of iron-overload cardiomyopathy. Murine iron-overload models showed cardiac iron-overload, increased oxidative stress, altered Ca2+ homeostasis and myocardial fibrosis resulting in heart disease. Iron-overload increased nuclear and acetylated levels of FOXO1 with corresponding inverse changes in SIRT1 levels in the heart corrected by resveratrol therapy. Resveratrol, reduced the pathological remodeling and improved cardiac function in murine models of acquired and genetic iron-overload at varying stages of iron-overload. Echocardiography and hemodynamic analysis revealed a complete normalization of iron-overload mediated diastolic and systolic dysfunction in response to resveratrol therapy. Myocardial SERCA2a levels were reduced in iron-overloaded hearts and resveratrol therapy restored SERCA2a levels and corrected altered Ca2+ homeostasis. Iron-mediated pro-oxidant and pro-fibrotic effects in human and murine cardiomyocytes and cardiofibroblasts were suppressed by resveratrol which correlated with reduction in iron-induced myocardial oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis. Resveratrol represents a clinically and economically feasible therapeutic intervention to reduce the global burden from iron-overload cardiomyopathy at early and chronic stages of iron-overload. PMID:26638758

  6. Iron-overload injury and cardiomyopathy in acquired and genetic models is attenuated by resveratrol therapy.

    PubMed

    Das, Subhash K; Wang, Wang; Zhabyeyev, Pavel; Basu, Ratnadeep; McLean, Brent; Fan, Dong; Parajuli, Nirmal; DesAulniers, Jessica; Patel, Vaibhav B; Hajjar, Roger J; Dyck, Jason R B; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2015-12-07

    Iron-overload cardiomyopathy is a prevalent cause of heart failure on a world-wide basis and is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with secondary iron-overload and genetic hemochromatosis. We investigated the therapeutic effects of resveratrol in acquired and genetic models of iron-overload cardiomyopathy. Murine iron-overload models showed cardiac iron-overload, increased oxidative stress, altered Ca(2+) homeostasis and myocardial fibrosis resulting in heart disease. Iron-overload increased nuclear and acetylated levels of FOXO1 with corresponding inverse changes in SIRT1 levels in the heart corrected by resveratrol therapy. Resveratrol, reduced the pathological remodeling and improved cardiac function in murine models of acquired and genetic iron-overload at varying stages of iron-overload. Echocardiography and hemodynamic analysis revealed a complete normalization of iron-overload mediated diastolic and systolic dysfunction in response to resveratrol therapy. Myocardial SERCA2a levels were reduced in iron-overloaded hearts and resveratrol therapy restored SERCA2a levels and corrected altered Ca(2+) homeostasis. Iron-mediated pro-oxidant and pro-fibrotic effects in human and murine cardiomyocytes and cardiofibroblasts were suppressed by resveratrol which correlated with reduction in iron-induced myocardial oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis. Resveratrol represents a clinically and economically feasible therapeutic intervention to reduce the global burden from iron-overload cardiomyopathy at early and chronic stages of iron-overload.

  7. Iron status in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Wawer, Anna A; Gillings, Rachel; Jennings, Amy; Myint, Phyo K

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent in older age, particularly after the age of 80. Serum ferritin concentrations also decline, although there is no evidence to suggest that changes in iron stores are an inevitable consequence of ageing. Chronic inflammation is a common condition in older people, making the measurement of iron status difficult, and it is likely that elevated levels of circulating hepcidin are responsible for changes in iron metabolism that result in systemic iron depletion. Other contributory factors are poor diet and some medications, such as aspirin. Anaemia in older age has undesirable health outcomes, including increased susceptibility to falling and depression. However, there are concerns about possible adverse effects of iron supplements, either in relation to pro-inflammatory effects in the gut or inappropriate tissue iron deposition. Brain iron levels are increased with age-related degenerative diseases, but it is not known if this is the cause or a consequence of the disease, and genetic factors are likely to play a role. In order to maintain body iron within the normal range a personalised approach is required, taking into account all of the factors that may affect iron metabolism and the available strategies for preventing iron deficiency or overload.

  8. Iron status in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Fairweather-Tait, Susan J.; Wawer, Anna A.; Gillings, Rachel; Jennings, Amy; Myint, Phyo K.

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent in older age, particularly after the age of 80. Serum ferritin concentrations also decline, although there is no evidence to suggest that changes in iron stores are an inevitable consequence of ageing. Chronic inflammation is a common condition in older people, making the measurement of iron status difficult, and it is likely that elevated levels of circulating hepcidin are responsible for changes in iron metabolism that result in systemic iron depletion. Other contributory factors are poor diet and some medications, such as aspirin. Anaemia in older age has undesirable health outcomes, including increased susceptibility to falling and depression. However, there are concerns about possible adverse effects of iron supplements, either in relation to pro-inflammatory effects in the gut or inappropriate tissue iron deposition. Brain iron levels are increased with age-related degenerative diseases, but it is not known if this is the cause or a consequence of the disease, and genetic factors are likely to play a role. In order to maintain body iron within the normal range a personalised approach is required, taking into account all of the factors that may affect iron metabolism and the available strategies for preventing iron deficiency or overload. PMID:24275120

  9. Iron-Induced Damage in Cardiomyopathy: Oxidative-Dependent and Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Gammella, Elena; Recalcati, Stefania; Rybinska, Ilona; Buratti, Paolo; Cairo, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of cardiomyopathy in patients with hemosiderosis, particularly in transfusional iron overload, strongly indicates that iron accumulation in the heart plays a major role in the process leading to heart failure. In this context, iron-mediated generation of noxious reactive oxygen species is believed to be the most important pathogenetic mechanism determining cardiomyocyte damage, the initiating event of a pathologic progression involving apoptosis, fibrosis, and ultimately cardiac dysfunction. However, recent findings suggest that additional mechanisms involving subcellular organelles and inflammatory mediators are important factors in the development of this disease. Moreover, excess iron can amplify the cardiotoxic effect of other agents or events. Finally, subcellular misdistribution of iron within cardiomyocytes may represent an additional pathway leading to cardiac injury. Recent advances in imaging techniques and chelators development remarkably improved cardiac iron overload detection and treatment, respectively. However, increased understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of iron overload cardiomyopathy is needed to pave the way for the development of improved therapeutic strategies. PMID:25878762

  10. Next-Generation Biomarkers for Iron Status.

    PubMed

    Drakesmith, Hal

    2016-01-01

    Iron is needed for oxygen transport, muscle activity, mitochondrial function, DNA synthesis, and sensing of hypoxia. The hierarchical master determinant of dietary iron absorption and iron distribution within the body is the peptide hormone hepcidin. Hepcidin itself is regulated by a combination of signals derived from iron stores, inflammation, and erythropoietic expansion. Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are common and important conditions that can be treated with iron preparations. However, other factors besides iron deficiency can cause anemia, especially inflammation, which responds poorly to iron treatment, and inherited disorders of red blood cells, which are associated with accumulation of excess pathogenic iron. Assessment of iron status is challenging, and indices such as serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, and zinc protoporphyrin have specific weaknesses. Moreover, a diagnosis of iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia is most useful if the diagnosis also leads to effective treatment. Low levels of hepcidin allow iron absorption and effective iron incorporation into red blood cells. The best 'biomarker' to guide treatment may therefore be the physiological 'determinant' of iron utilization. Iron is also important in transplantation medicine and influences clinical outcome of arterial pulmonary hypertension; here too, biomarkers including hepcidin may be useful to actively and beneficially manage iron status.

  11. Iron and oxidative stress in cardiomyopathy in thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Berdoukas, Vasilios; Coates, Thomas D; Cabantchik, Zvi Ioav

    2015-11-01

    With repeated blood transfusions, patients with thalassemia major rapidly become loaded with iron, often surpassing hepatic metal accumulation capacity within ferritin shells and infiltrating heart and endocrine organs. That pathological scenario contrasts with the physiological one, which is characterized by an efficient maintenance of all plasma iron bound to circulating transferrin, due to a tight control of iron ingress into plasma by the hormone hepcidin. Within cells, most of the acquired iron becomes protein-associated, as once released from endocytosed transferrin, it is used within mitochondria for the synthesis of protein prosthetic groups or it is incorporated into enzyme active centers or alternatively sequestered within ferritin shells. A few cell types also express the iron extrusion transporter ferroportin, which is under the negative control of circulating hepcidin. However, that system only backs up the major cell regulated iron uptake/storage machinery that is poised to maintain a basal level of labile cellular iron for metabolic purposes without incurring potentially toxic scenarios. In thalassemia and other transfusion iron-loading conditions, once transferrin saturation exceeds about 70%, labile forms of iron enter the circulation and can gain access to various types of cells via resident transporters or channels. Within cells, they can attain levels that exceed their ability to chemically cope with labile iron, which has a propensity for generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby inducing oxidative damage. This scenario occurs in the heart of hypertransfused thalassemia major patients who do not receive adequate iron-chelation therapy. Iron that accumulates in cardiomyocytes forms agglomerates that are detected by T2* MRI. The labile forms of iron infiltrate the mitochondria and damage cells by inducing noxious ROS formation, resulting in heart failure. The very rapid relief of cardiac dysfunction seen after intensive iron

  12. Iron status and the female athlete.

    PubMed

    McClung, James P

    2012-06-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency disorder in the world. In the developed world, the greatest prevalence of ID and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) occurs in premenopausal women. Premenopausal women experience ID and IDA due to inadequate consumption of dietary iron coupled with iron losses through physiologic processes such as menstruation. Further, female athletes may experience an elevated risk of ID and IDA, as hepcidin, a peptide hormone that inhibits iron absorption and sequesters iron in the macrophage, may rise in response to physical activity. Declines in physical and cognitive performance have been demonstrated in female athletes with ID and IDA. Performance decrements are attenuated as iron status improves. This review will focus on iron status in female athletes, and will include a review of nutritional countermeasures to prevent ID and IDA.

  13. Current status of iron-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamihara, Yoichi

    2012-03-01

    Current status of iron-based superconductors is summarized. Although short range magnetic ordering and magnetic phase separation of Fe are controversial, (long range) magnetic and electronic phase diagrams of iron based superconductors can be classified into two-type. Antiferromagnetic ordering of itinerant Fe does not coexist with superconducting phase of SmFeAsO1 - xFx. The very large H c2 of iron-based superconductors attract us to attempts at applications.

  14. [Iron stores status at early pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Barón, María Adela; Solano, Liseti; Peña, Evelyn; Del Real, Sara

    2005-06-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common cause of nutritional anemia. During pregnancy there is a high risk of developing it, due to the increase of iron requirements for fetal and maternal tissues growth. The objective of this study was to determine the iron nutritional status in early pregnancy and to determine its relationship with the dietary intake. The study applied a cross-sectional and descriptive design in 419 pregnant women (13-41 y) from Valencia, Carabobo, Venezuela. Serum ferritin was determined by enzimoinmunoassay and hemoglobin by a semi-automated method. Dietary iron intake was assessed through two non-consecutive 24 hours recalls. Statistical analysis included basic descriptives, Fisher exact test, Chi-square, and Mann-Whitney tests; with a statistical significance of p < 0.05. The iron deficiency and anemia prevalence were 16.2% and 14.4%, respectively; corresponding 36.6% to ferropenic anemia. 10.4%, 29.0% and 24.2% of the women had deficient intake for iron, vitamin C and A, respectively. There were no significant differences by age. A nutritional risk was observed regarding the iron status, demonstrated by the percentage of ferropenic anemia and because the main dietary contribution came from non-heme iron, which has low bioavailability. Additionally, there was an important percentage of inadequate vitamin C and A intakes; hence, their contribution to iron absorption was limited.

  15. Vitamin and iron status in new vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Helman, A D; Darnton-Hill, I

    1987-04-01

    This study assessed the biochemical status of a number of vitamins and iron in a group of new vegetarians. Values were compared with a group of omnivores of similar age. Satisfactory to high levels of serum folate, vitamin E, and riboflavin were found, and all were significantly higher in vegetarians than omnivores. Thiamin status was satisfactory in both groups although a small but statistically significant difference in favor of the omnivores was found. Serum vitamin B-12 was significantly lower in vegetarians, and iron status as measured by serum ferritin was very significantly lower in vegetarians. Pyridoxine status was similar in both groups. A number of sex differences were found in the vegetarian sample. New vegetarian women appear to be at particular risk of developing low iron stores.

  16. Cell Therapies in Cardiomyopathy: Current Status of Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Because the human heart has limited potential for regeneration, the loss of cardiomyocytes during cardiac myopathy and ischaemic injury can result in heart failure and death. Stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of dead myocardium, directly or indirectly, and seems to offer functional benefits to patients. The ideal candidate donor cell for myocardial reconstitution is a stem-like cell that can be easily obtained, has a robust proliferation capacity and a low risk of tumour formation and immune rejection, differentiates into functionally normal cardiomyocytes, and is suitable for minimally invasive clinical transplantation. The ultimate goal of cardiac repair is to regenerate functionally viable myocardium after myocardial infarction (MI) to prevent or heal heart failure. This review provides a comprehensive overview of treatment with stem-like cells in preclinical and clinical studies to assess the feasibility and efficacy of this novel therapeutic strategy in ischaemic cardiomyopathy. PMID:28194324

  17. Recurrence of Postoperative Stress-Induced Cardiomyopathy Resulting from Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Yousef M.; Tarant, Nicki S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Classically, stress-induced cardiomyopathy (SIC), also known as takotsubo cardiomyopathy, displays the pathognomonic feature of reversible left ventricular apical ballooning without coronary artery stenosis following stressful event(s). Temporary reduction in ejection fraction (EF) resolves spontaneously. Variants of SIC exhibiting mid-ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities have been identified. Recent case series present SIC as a finding in association with sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP). This case presents a patient who develops recurrence of nonapical cardiomyopathy secondary to status epilepticus. Case Report. Involving a postoperative, postmenopausal woman having two distinct episodes of status epilepticus (SE) preceding two incidents of SIC. Preoperative transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) confirms the patient's baseline EF of 60% prior to the second event. Postoperatively, SE occurs, and the initial electrocardiogram exhibits T-wave inversions with subsequent elevation of troponin I. Postoperative TTE shows an EF of 30% with mid-ventricular wall akinesia restoring baseline EF rapidly. Conclusion. This case identifies the need to understand SIC and its diagnostic criteria, especially when cardiac catheterization is neither indicated nor available. Sudden cardiac death should be considered as a possible complication of refractory status epilepticus. The pathophysiology in SUDEP is currently unknown; yet a correlation between SUDEP and SIC is hypothesized to exist. PMID:28210509

  18. The Clinical Status of Stem Cell Therapy for Ischemic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianyun; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Fan; Li, Jing; Li, Yaqi; Tan, Zirui; Hu, Jie; Qi, Yixin; Li, Quanhai; Yan, Baoyong

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) is becoming a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the whole world. Stem cell-based therapy is emerging as a promising option for treatment of ICM. Several stem cell types including cardiac-derived stem cells (CSCs), bone marrow-derived stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), skeletal myoblasts (SMs), and CD34(+) and CD 133(+) stem cells have been applied in clinical researches. The clinical effect produced by stem cell administration in ICM mainly depends on the transdifferentiation and paracrine effect. One important issue is that low survival and residential rate of transferred stem cells in the infracted myocardium blocks the effective advances in cardiac improvement. Many other factors associated with the efficacy of cell replacement therapy for ICM mainly including the route of delivery, the type and number of stem cell infusion, the timing of injection, patient's physical condition, the particular microenvironment onto which the cells are delivered, and clinical condition remain to be addressed. Here we provide an overview of the pros and cons of these transferred cells and discuss the current state of their therapeutic potential. We believe that stem cell translation will be an ideal option for patients following ischemic heart disease in the future.

  19. Effect of dietary iron source and iron status on iron bioavailability tests in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D.; Hendricks, D.G.; Mahoney, A.W.

    1986-03-05

    Weanling male rats were made anemic in 7 days by feeding a low iron diet and bleeding. Healthy rats were fed the low iron diet supplemented with ferrous sulfate (29 ppm Fe). Each group was subdivided and fed for 10 days on test diets containing about 29 ppm iron that were formulated with meat:spinach mixtures or meat:soy mixtures to provided 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, or 0:100% of the dietary iron from these sources or from a ferrous sulfate diet. After 3 days on the diets all rats were dosed orally with 2 or 5 micro curries of /sup 59/Fe after a 18 hour fast and refeeding for 1.5 hours. Iron status influenced liver iron, carcass iron, liver radio activity and percent of radioactive dose retained. Diet influenced fecal iron and apparent absorption of iron. In iron bioavailability studies assessment methodology and iron status of the test subject greatly influences the estimates of the value of dietary sources of iron.

  20. Iron Status of Deployed Military Members

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-04

    Afghanistan. Design: Observational Study Methods: All participants completed a demographic data sheet providing information about their age, sex ...Both female sex (p = 0.05) and a self- reported history of anemia (p < 0.05) were associated with diminished iron status. In female volunteers...demographic data sheet providing information about their age, sex , length of deployment, home base zip code (for altitude determination), previous history of

  1. Mitochondrial Cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Scaglia, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are found in all nucleated human cells and perform various essential functions, including the generation of cellular energy. Mitochondria are under dual genome control. Only a small fraction of their proteins are encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), whereas more than 99% of them are encoded by nuclear DNA (nDNA). Mutations in mtDNA or mitochondria-related nDNA genes result in mitochondrial dysfunction leading to insufficient energy production required to meet the needs for various organs, particularly those with high energy requirements, including the central nervous system, skeletal and cardiac muscles, kidneys, liver, and endocrine system. Because cardiac muscles are one of the high energy demanding tissues, cardiac involvement occurs in mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies being one of the most frequent cardiac manifestations found in these disorders. Cardiomyopathy is estimated to occur in 20-40% of children with mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial cardiomyopathies can vary in severity from asymptomatic status to severe manifestations including heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common type; however, mitochondrial cardiomyopathies might also present as dilated, restrictive, left ventricular non-compaction, and histiocytoid cardiomyopathies. Cardiomyopathies are frequent manifestations of mitochondrial diseases associated with defects in electron transport chain complexes subunits and their assembly factors, mitochondrial transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNAs, ribosomal proteins, translation factors, mtDNA maintenance, and coenzyme Q10 synthesis. Other mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies include Barth syndrome, Sengers syndrome, TMEM70-related mitochondrial complex V deficiency, and Friedreich ataxia.

  2. Mitochondrial Cardiomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Scaglia, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are found in all nucleated human cells and perform various essential functions, including the generation of cellular energy. Mitochondria are under dual genome control. Only a small fraction of their proteins are encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), whereas more than 99% of them are encoded by nuclear DNA (nDNA). Mutations in mtDNA or mitochondria-related nDNA genes result in mitochondrial dysfunction leading to insufficient energy production required to meet the needs for various organs, particularly those with high energy requirements, including the central nervous system, skeletal and cardiac muscles, kidneys, liver, and endocrine system. Because cardiac muscles are one of the high energy demanding tissues, cardiac involvement occurs in mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies being one of the most frequent cardiac manifestations found in these disorders. Cardiomyopathy is estimated to occur in 20–40% of children with mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial cardiomyopathies can vary in severity from asymptomatic status to severe manifestations including heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common type; however, mitochondrial cardiomyopathies might also present as dilated, restrictive, left ventricular non-compaction, and histiocytoid cardiomyopathies. Cardiomyopathies are frequent manifestations of mitochondrial diseases associated with defects in electron transport chain complexes subunits and their assembly factors, mitochondrial transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNAs, ribosomal proteins, translation factors, mtDNA maintenance, and coenzyme Q10 synthesis. Other mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies include Barth syndrome, Sengers syndrome, TMEM70-related mitochondrial complex V deficiency, and Friedreich ataxia. PMID:27504452

  3. Health-Related Quality of Life and Functional Status Are Associated with Cardiac Status and Clinical Outcome in Children with Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Sleeper, Lynn A; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Colan, Steven D; Hsu, Daphne; Orav, Endel J; Lemler, Matthew S; Clunie, Sarah; Messere, Jane; Fountain, Darlene; Miller, Tracie L; Wilkinson, James D; Lipshultz, Steven E

    2016-03-01

    To measure the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and functional status of children with cardiomyopathy and to determine whether they are correlated with sociodemographics, cardiac status, and clinical outcomes. Parents of children in the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry completed the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ; age ≥ 5 years) and Functional Status II (Revised) (age ≤ 18 years) instruments. Linear and Cox regressions were used to examine hypothesized associations with HRQOL. The 355 children evaluated at ≥ 5 years (median 8.6 years) had lower functioning (CHQ Physical and Psychosocial Summary Scores 41.7 ± 14.4 and 47.8 ± 10.7) than that of healthy historical controls. The most extreme CHQ domain score, Parental Impact-Emotional, was one SD below normal. Younger age at diagnosis and smaller left ventricular end-diastolic dimension z score were associated independently with better physical functioning in children with dilated cardiomyopathy. Greater income/education correlated with better psychosocial functioning in children with hypertrophic and mixed/other types of cardiomyopathy. In the age ≥ 5 year cohort, lower scores on both instruments predicted earlier death/transplant and listing for transplant in children with dilated and mixed/other types of cardiomyopathy (P < .001). Across all ages (n = 565), the Functional Status II (Revised) total score was 87.1 ± 16.4, and a lower score was associated with earlier death/transplant for all cardiomyopathies. HRQOL and functional status in children with cardiomyopathy is on average impaired relative to healthy children. These impairments are associated with older age at diagnosis, lower socioeconomic status, left ventricular size, and increased risk for death and transplant. Identification of families at risk for functional impairment allows for provision of specialized services early in the course of disease. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00005391. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of iron supplementation on iron status during the first week after blood donation.

    PubMed

    Røsvik, A S; Hervig, T; Wentzel-Larsen, T; Ulvik, R J

    2010-04-01

    Frequent blood donations may lead to a negative iron balance. Iron depletion may be prevented by iron supplementation after whole blood donations. The aim of this study was to compare the short time changes in iron status after donation in two groups randomized to iron supplementation or no additional iron. A second objective was to evaluate the effect of iron supplementation in donors having HFE-variants compared to HFE wild types. Subjects of both genders (199 women, 200 men) were randomised to receive iron supplementation or no additional iron after donation. Iron status, defined by the concentration of haemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, concentration of haemoglobin in reticulocytes (CHr) and percent hypochrome mature red blood cells, was determined at the start of donation and 8 +/- 2 days after donation. HFE genotyping was performed at reappearance. There was a significant difference between the two study groups on all the iron status parameters. CHr was an efficient, early marker of ongoing synthesis of haemoglobin. Heterozygosity for the HFE variants C282Y and H63D had no statistically significant influence on the iron status. The donor's baseline serum ferritin value may be basis for an individual iron supplementation regimen, as donors with serum ferritin >50 microg/l do not seem to utilize the iron supplementation, but prefer endogenous iron to restore the loss of haemoglobin. Iron supplementation had a significant positive impact on the restoration of iron status one week after donation.

  5. Iron nutrition and premenopausal women: effects of poor iron status on physical and neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    McClung, James P; Murray-Kolb, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Iron is a nutritionally essential trace element that functions through incorporation into proteins and enzymes, many of which contribute to physical and neuropsychological performance. Poor iron status, including iron deficiency (ID; diminished iron stores) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA; poor iron stores and diminished hemoglobin), affects billions of people worldwide. This review focuses on physical and neuropsychological outcomes associated with ID and IDA in premenopausal women, as the prevalence of ID and IDA is often greater in premenopausal women than other population demographics. Recent studies addressing the physiological effects of poor iron status on physical performance, including work productivity, voluntary activity, and athletic performance, are addressed. Similarly, the effects of iron status on neurological performance, including cognition, affect, and behavior, are summarized. Nutritional countermeasures for the prevention of poor iron status and the restoration of decrements in performance outcomes are described.

  6. Iron supplementation for female athletes: effects on iron status and performance outcomes.

    PubMed

    DellaValle, Diane M

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient involved in oxidative metabolism and critical to exercise performance. The prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) is much higher in active women for a variety of reasons, and poor iron status has been shown to be detrimental to overall health as well as physical performance. Iron status can be assessed using a number of indicators; however clinical cut-offs for active populations remain controversial. Randomized, placebo-controlled supplementation trials of iron-depleted female athletes have shown that oral iron supplementation in doses of 100-mg FeSO4·d (approximately 20 mg elemental iron) improves iron status and may improve measures of physical performance. It is recommended that female athletes most at risk of ID be screened at the beginning of and during the training season using hemoglobin and serum ferritin, and appropriate dietary and/or supplementation recommendations be made to those with compromised iron status.

  7. Relation of Cytosolic Iron Excess to the Cardiomyopathy of Friedreich's Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, R. Liane; Qian, Jiang; Santambrogio, Paolo; Levi, Sonia; Koeppen, Arnulf H.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of death in Friedreich's ataxia (FA). This autosomal recessive disease is caused by a homozygous guanine-adenine-adenine (GAA) trinucleotide repeat expansion in the frataxin gene (chromosome 9q21). One untoward effect of frataxin deficiency is lack of iron (Fe)-sulfur clusters, but progressive remodeling of the heart in FA may be more specifically related to sarcoplasmic Fe overload. The Fe-containing inclusions in a small percentage of cardiomyocytes may not represent purely mitochondrial accumulation of the metal. The objective of this work was to re-examine the contribution of Fe to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, fiber necrosis, and myocardial scarring by a combination of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), slide histochemistry of Fe, and immunohistochemistry of two Fe-related proteins. Polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-embedded human cardiac tissues from left and right ventricular walls; ventricular septum; right atrium; and atrial septum were studied by qualitative and quantitative XRF. Tissues were recovered from the PEG matrix, re-embedded in paraffin, and sectioned for the visualization of Fe, ferritin, and ferroportin. XRF showed quantifiable levels of Fe and zinc (Zn). Regions of significantly increased Fe (1–4 mm2) were irregularly distributed throughout the working myocardium. Fe granules were sparse in conductive tissue. Zn signals remained unchanged. Robust cytosolic ferritin reaction product occurred in many fibers of the affected regions. Ferroportin displayed no response except in fibers with advanced Fe overload. These observations are at variance with the concept of selective Fe overload only in cardiac mitochondria. Fe-mediated damage to cardiomyocytes and myocardial scarring are more likely due to cytosolic Fe excess. PMID:23000103

  8. Infant iron status affects iron absorption in Peruvian breastfed infants at 2 and 5 mo of age

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effects of prenatal iron supplementation on maternal postpartum iron status and early infant iron homeostasis remain largely unknown. We examined iron absorption and growth in exclusively breastfed infants in relation to fetal iron exposure and iron status during early infancy. Longitudinal, paired ...

  9. The effect of nutrition knowledge and dietary iron intake on iron status in young women.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Alecia J; Chalmers, Kerry A; Collins, Clare E; Patterson, Amanda J

    2014-10-01

    Previous research on the relationships between general nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, and dietary iron intake and iron status has produced inconsistent results. Currently, no study has focused on knowledge of dietary iron and its effect on dietary iron intake. This study aimed to determine whether nutrition knowledge of iron is related to dietary iron intake in young women, and subsequently whether greater knowledge and intake translates into better iron status. A cross-sectional assessment of nutrition knowledge of iron, dietary iron intake and iron status was conducted in women aged 18-35 years living in Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Iron status was assessed by serum ferritin, haemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor and alpha-1-glycoprotein. One hundred and seven women (27.8 ± 4.7 years) completed the nutrition knowledge questionnaire and FFQ. Of these, 74 (70%) also had biomarkers of iron status measured. Mean iron intake was 11.2 ± 3.8 mg/day. There was no association between nutrition knowledge score and whether the women met the RDI for iron (F (1, 102) = .40, P = .53). A positive correlation was shown between nutrition knowledge score and iron intake (mg/day) (r = 0.25, P = .01). Serum ferritin was positively associated with the frequency of flesh food intake (r = .27 P = .02). Vegetarians (including partial vegetarians) had significantly lower serum ferritin levels than non-vegetarians (F (1, 71) = 7.44, P = .01). Significant positive correlations found between higher flesh food intake and biomarkers of iron status suggest that educating non-vegetarians about the benefits of increased flesh food consumption and vegetarians about dietary iron enhancers and inhibitors may have potential for addressing the high rates of iron deficiency among young women. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Conflicting effects of BMI and waist circumference on iron status.

    PubMed

    Choma, Solomon Simon Ramphai; Alberts, Marianne; Modjadji, Sewela Elizabeth Perpetua

    2015-10-01

    The association between obesity and iron status has a long history and is still receiving attention. However comparative analysis of the association between general obesity (BMI) and visceral obesity (waist circumference) with iron status has not been extensively researched. The aim of the present study is thus to determine if body mass index and waist circumference have the same correlation with iron status. One thousand one hundred and thirty people (225 men and 905 women) aged 30 years and above participated in this study. Anthropometric parameters, haemoglobin, iron and total iron binding capacity concentrations were measured using standard methods. Percentage transferrin saturation was calculated and ferritin concentrations were measured using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Obese or overweight women had significantly lower iron and transferrin saturation concentration when compared to non-obese women. In contrast, women with high waist circumference had comparable plasma iron and transferrin saturation to women with normal waist circumference. Partial correlation analysis and linear regression analysis showed that BMI is negatively and significantly associated with plasma iron, transferrin saturation, Hb and ferritin concentration, whilst waist circumference is positively but insignificantly associated with plasma iron, transferrin saturation, Hb and ferritin concentration. Binary regression analysis showed that obese or overweight people are more likely to have iron deficiency, whilst those with raised waist circumference are more likely to have iron overload. Multivariate analysis showed that body mass index is negatively and significantly associated with low iron status, while waist circumference is positively and insignificantly associated with iron status. This is supported by a comparison of plasma iron, transferrin saturation and ferritin concentrations in participants with high body mass index and normal waist circumference and participants with

  11. Iron status of breastfed infants is improved equally by medicinal iron and iron-fortified cereal123

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Steven E; Jeter, Janice M

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although uncommon, iron deficiency (ID) occurs in breastfed infants. The regular provision of iron may prevent ID. Objective: The objective was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of 2 modalities of providing iron (medicinal iron or iron-fortified cereal) to breastfed infants. The study tested the hypothesis that regular provision of iron improves iron status of breastfed infants without adverse effects. Design: In this prospective, randomized, open-label trial, breastfed infants received on a regular basis either medicinal iron (n = 48) or an iron-fortified fruit-cereal combination (n = 45) from 4 to 9 mo or no intervention (control group; n = 59). The interventions provided 7.0–7.5 mg ferrous sulfate/d. Infants were enrolled at 1 mo and were followed to 2 y. Iron-status indicators were determined periodically, stool characteristics were recorded, and growth was monitored. Results: The regular provision of iron led to improved iron status during and for some months after the intervention. Both sources of iron were about equally effective. Iron affected stool color but had no effect on feeding-related behavior. However, medicinal iron was associated with a small but significant reduction in length gain and a trend toward reduced weight gain. ID anemia was observed in 4 infants (2.3%), most of whom had a low birth iron endowment. Mild ID was common in the second year of life. Conclusions: Regular provision of medicinal iron or iron-fortified cereal improves the iron status of breastfed infants and may prevent ID. Both modalities are equally effective, but medicinal iron leads to somewhat reduced growth. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00760890. PMID:19458014

  12. ESR and iron status in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Madan, N; Kapoor, S; Rusia, U; Sharma, S; Nayyar, V L; Sundaram, K R; Sood, S K

    1997-10-01

    ESR (Westergen) correlated significantly with the iron status (as measured by Hb concentration, haematocrit, red cell count, MCH, P/H ratio, serum iron, TIBC and percent saturation of transferrin) in a group of pregnant women (PW) at term. Serum ferritin correlated negatively with the ESR but the correlation was not statistically significant. Serum ferritin levels of < 50 micrograms/L were present in 9 (34.6%) PW with ESR > or = 50 mm 1st hour and 5 (19.2%) PW with ESR < 50 mm 1st hour. The mean ESR in PW was 55.7 (+/- 22.9) and was > or = 50 mm 1st hour in 50% and < 75 mm 1st hour in 82.7%. The difference in the mean ESR in anaemic and nonanaemic PW was highly significant (p < 0.001), 87.5% anaemic PW with serum ferritin > 50 micrograms/L had ESR > or = 50 mm 1st hour, suggesting the possible effect of chronic infection in raising ferritin levels in these PW.

  13. The relationship between the iron isotopic composition of human whole blood and iron status parameters.

    PubMed

    Van Heghe, Lana; Delanghe, Joris; Van Vlierberghe, Hans; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2013-11-01

    As the iron status of an individual cannot be adequately assessed on the basis of the (total) Fe concentration in whole blood or serum, in medicine a number of parameters, such as the serum concentrations of ferritin, transferrin and soluble transferrin receptor and the transferrin saturation, are routinely determined instead. As previous research has shown that also the isotopic composition of Fe in blood and tissues is dependent on the metabolism, the present study assessed whether Fe isotopic composition in whole blood provides information as to an individual's iron status. Fe isotopic analysis of whole blood samples from a reference population (healthy volunteers) was carried out using multi-collector ICP-mass spectrometry (after chromatographic target element isolation) and the results obtained were investigated by statistical means as to their potential relation with the iron status parameters conventionally used in medicine. A low δ(56)Fe value was demonstrated to coincide with high iron status and a high δ(56)Fe value with low iron status, thus reflecting the response of the body to this iron status in terms of iron uptake, distribution between blood and stores and mobilization of storage iron. In a second phase, the iron isotopic composition in blood from patients treated for hemochromatosis type I and from patients with anemia of chronic disease (ACD) was determined. The results for hemochromatosis patients plotted with the values of low iron status, while those for ACD patients plotted with the values of high iron status. By taking a closer look at the aberrant iron metabolism that comes with these diseases, it can be seen that the patient samples confirm the conclusions drawn for the reference population. Patients with hemochromatosis type I have a strongly upregulated iron uptake, like healthy individuals with low iron status. The metabolism of patients suffering from ACD tries to remove iron from the circulation by downregulating the iron uptake

  14. Iron status determination in pregnancy using the Thomas plot.

    PubMed

    Weyers, R; Coetzee, M J; Nel, M

    2016-04-01

    Physiological changes during pregnancy affect routine tests for iron deficiency. The reticulocyte haemoglobin equivalent (RET-He) and serum-soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) assay are newer diagnostic parameters for the detection of iron deficiency, combined in the Thomas diagnostic plot. We used this plot to determine the iron status of pregnant women presenting for their first visit to an antenatal clinic in Bloemfontein, South Africa. Routine laboratory tests (serum ferritin, full blood count and C-reactive protein) and RET-He and sTfR were performed. The iron status was determined using the Thomas plot. For this study, 103 pregnant women were recruited. According to the Thomas plot, 72.8% of the participants had normal iron stores and erythropoiesis. Iron-deficient erythropoiesis was detected in 12.6%. A third of participants were anaemic. Serum ferritin showed excellent sensitivity but poor specificity for detecting depleted iron stores. HIV status had no influence on the iron status of the participants. Our findings reiterate that causes other than iron deficiency should be considered in anaemic individuals. When compared with the Thomas plot, a low serum ferritin is a sensitive but nonspecific indicator of iron deficiency. The Thomas plot may provide useful information to identify pregnant individuals in whom haematologic parameters indicate limited iron availability for erythropoiesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Dietary iron intervention using a staple food product for improvement of iron status in female runners.

    PubMed

    Alaunyte, Ieva; Stojceska, Valentina; Plunkett, Andrew; Derbyshire, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Adequate nutrient intake is critically important for achieving optimal sports performance. Like all athletes, female runners require a nutritionally balanced diet to maintain daily activities and a successful training regime. This study investigates the effects of cereal product based dietary iron intervention on iron status of recreational female runners (n = 11; 32 ± 7yr; 239 ± 153 minutes exercise/week, of which 161 ± 150 minutes running activity/week; VO2max 38 ± 4 ml/kg/min). Participants completed a 6-week dietary intervention study. They were asked to replace their usual bread with iron-rich Teff bread as part of their daily diet. During this period, their dietary habits were assessed by multiple pass 24-hr recalls; iron status was determined by venous blood analysis for serum transferrin, serum transferrin receptor, serum ferritin, total iron-binding capacity and transferrin receptor/ferritin log index. Pre-intervention a cohort of 11 female runners reported inadequate daily dietary iron intake of 10.7 ± 2.7 mg/day, which was associated with overall compromised iron status. Over a third of all participants showed depleted bodily iron stores (serum ferritin <12 μg/L). Pre-intervention macronutrient assessment revealed adequate energy, protein and fibre intakes, whilst total fat and saturated fat intake was above the recommendations at the expense of carbohydrate intake. A 6-week dietary intervention resulted in significantly higher total iron intakes (18.5 mg/day, P < 0.05) and improved iron tissue supply but not enlarged iron stores. Improvements in heamatological indices were associated with compromised baseline iron status, prolonged intervention period and increase in dietary iron intake. Dietary iron interventions using a staple cereal product offer an alternative way of improving dietary iron intake and favourable affecting overall iron status in physically active females.

  16. Restless Legs Syndrome, pica, and iron status in blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Bryan R.; Kleinman, Steven; Wright, David J.; Glynn, Simone A.; Rye, David B.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Mast, Alan E.; Cable, Ritchard G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The association of blood donation related iron deficiency with pica or Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS) remains poorly elucidated. This study evaluated the prevalence of RLS and pica in blood donors completing the REDS-II Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) Study. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS RISE enrolled 2425 blood donors in a prospective cohort study; 1334 donors provided blood samples to characterize iron status and answered a questionnaire inquiring into symptoms of RLS and pica at a final visit after 15–24 months of follow-up. Associations between both conditions and iron status were evaluated. RESULTS There were 9% and 20% of donors reporting symptoms of Probable or Probable/Possible RLS, respectively. Iron depletion and donation intensity were not predictive of RLS. Pica was reported by 65 donors (5.5%), half of whom reported daily cravings. Prevalence of pica increased with degree of iron depletion in women (2% in iron replete females, 13% in those with ferritin < 12ng/mL), but not in men. Probable RLS and pica co-expressed in 8 individuals, but no more frequently than expected by chance. CONCLUSION RLS and pica have been associated with iron deficiency in non-donor populations. This study indicates a potentially high prevalence of RLS in frequent blood donors but shows no association with iron status or donation intensity. Low iron stores were associated with higher prevalence of pica, but only in females. Furthermore, the results are incompatible with RLS and pica sharing a common pathophysiology. PMID:23763445

  17. Iron Status of Vegetarian Children: A Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Roman; Bell, Kami

    2017-01-01

    Iron is considered a nutrient of concern for vegetarians. In children, inadequate iron status may lead to anemia and poor growth. Thirteen original manuscripts met the inclusion criteria. Various biochemical markers of iron status, such as hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin, were used. Seven of the 13 studies reported the prevalence of iron deficiency separately for vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Five out of 7 showed a higher prevalence of iron deficiency among the vegetarian participants, while the other 2 showed a higher prevalence of iron deficiency among non-vegetarians. A wide range of iron deficiency prevalence, from 4.3% of vegetarian participants in one study to 73% having ferritin <10 µg/L in another study, was found. Hb data showed almost as wide variations from 0% of children having Hb values lower than 11 g/dL to 47.5% having Hb values below 3rd percentile. Key Messages: The prevalence of iron deficiency among vegetarian children varies considerably from one study to another. The wide variation in the prevalence of inadequate iron status was consistent for studies from industrial and developing countries. The physiological significance of low iron status among vegetarians reported in some studies is unknown. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Maternal iron status during pregnancy compared with neonatal iron status better predicts placental iron transporter expression in humans.

    PubMed

    Best, Cora M; Pressman, Eva K; Cao, Chang; Cooper, Elizabeth; Guillet, Ronnie; Yost, Olivia L; Galati, Jonathan; Kent, Tera R; O'Brien, Kimberly O

    2016-10-01

    The placenta richly expresses nonheme and heme Fe transport proteins. To address the impact of maternal and neonatal Fe status and hepcidin on the regulation of these proteins, mRNA expression and protein abundance of nonheme and heme Fe transport proteins were evaluated in placental tissue from 154 adolescents. Regression analyses found maternal Fe status was significantly associated with multiple placental nonheme and heme transporters, whereas neonatal Fe status was related to only 3 heme transporters. Across statistical analyses, maternal Fe status was consistently associated with the placental nonheme Fe importer transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1). Protein abundance of TfR1 was related to midgestation maternal serum ferritin (SF) (β = -0.32; P = 0.005) and serum TfR (β = 0.25; P = 0.024). Protein abundance of the heme importer, proton-coupled folate transporter, was related to neonatal SF (β = 0.30; P = 0.016) and serum TfR (β = -0.46; P < 0.0001). Neonatal SF was also related to mRNA expression of the heme exporter feline leukemia virus subgroup C receptor 1 (β = -0.30; P = 0.004). In summary, maternal Fe insufficiency during pregnancy predicts increased expression of the placental nonheme Fe transporter TfR1. Associations between placental heme Fe transporters and neonatal Fe status require further study.-Best, C. M., Pressman, E. K., Cao, C., Cooper, E., Guillet, R., Yost, O. L., Galati, J., Kent, T. R., O'Brien, K. O. Maternal iron status during pregnancy compared with neonatal iron status better predicts placental iron transporter expression in humans. © FASEB.

  19. Maternal iron status during pregnancy compared with neonatal iron status better predicts placental iron transporter expression in humans

    PubMed Central

    Best, Cora M.; Pressman, Eva K.; Cao, Chang; Cooper, Elizabeth; Guillet, Ronnie; Yost, Olivia L.; Galati, Jonathan; Kent, Tera R.; O’Brien, Kimberly O.

    2016-01-01

    The placenta richly expresses nonheme and heme Fe transport proteins. To address the impact of maternal and neonatal Fe status and hepcidin on the regulation of these proteins, mRNA expression and protein abundance of nonheme and heme Fe transport proteins were evaluated in placental tissue from 154 adolescents. Regression analyses found maternal Fe status was significantly associated with multiple placental nonheme and heme transporters, whereas neonatal Fe status was related to only 3 heme transporters. Across statistical analyses, maternal Fe status was consistently associated with the placental nonheme Fe importer transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1). Protein abundance of TfR1 was related to midgestation maternal serum ferritin (SF) (β = −0.32; P = 0.005) and serum TfR (β = 0.25; P = 0.024). Protein abundance of the heme importer, proton-coupled folate transporter, was related to neonatal SF (β = 0.30; P = 0.016) and serum TfR (β = −0.46; P < 0.0001). Neonatal SF was also related to mRNA expression of the heme exporter feline leukemia virus subgroup C receptor 1 (β = −0.30; P = 0.004). In summary, maternal Fe insufficiency during pregnancy predicts increased expression of the placental nonheme Fe transporter TfR1. Associations between placental heme Fe transporters and neonatal Fe status require further study.—Best, C. M., Pressman, E. K., Cao, C., Cooper, E., Guillet, R., Yost, O. L., Galati, J., Kent, T. R., O’Brien, K. O. Maternal iron status during pregnancy compared with neonatal iron status better predicts placental iron transporter expression in humans. PMID:27402672

  20. Assessment of the iron status of Filipino adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kuizon, M D; Natera, M G; Ancheta, L P; Platon, T P; Desnacido, J A; Macapinlac, M P

    1982-03-01

    The iron nutritional status of 1,153 Filipino adolescents from low, medium and high socio-economic groups was assessed by determination of hemoglobin, FEP, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation. Prevalence rates of iron deficiency based on FEP and serum ferritin were higher for females than for males. Iron deficiency was more prevalent among adolescents from low socio-economic families. The high prevalence of iron deficiency (24.4%) based on FEP among females from the low socio-economic group may be due to inadequate iron intake and low availability of dietary iron since 79.7% came from vegetable sources. Compared to FEP and transferrin saturation, serum ferritin determination appeared to be more sensitive as an indicator of iron status.

  1. The extent of coprophagy in rats with differing iron status and its effect on iron absorption.

    PubMed

    Tidehag, P; Hallmans, G; Sjöström, R; Sunzel, B; Wetter, L; Wing, K

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of coprophagy in rats with differing iron status and its effect on the measurement of iron absorption from test meals with and without bran. Two experiments were performed using radioisotope-labelled microspheres added as a non-digestible marker for the ingested faeces and the diet and 59Fe added as a marker for the nonhaem iron in the test meal. In this study, coprophagy occurred at group mean rates of between 5 and 22% and was independent of the iron status of the rats or the presence or absence of bran in the diet. The relative absorption of iron, measured as the retention of 59Fe from a single meal, was affected to the same extent in groups with the same iron status, if it was affected at all. Thus comparisons of iron absorption from diets with and without bran should not be affected by coprophagy.

  2. Iron status of women is associated with the iron concentration of potable groundwater in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Rebecca D; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Ali, Hasmot; Jahan, Nusrat; Labrique, Alain B; Schulze, Kerry; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P

    2011-05-01

    Women of reproductive age are at a high risk of iron deficiency, often as a result of diets low in bioavailable iron. In some settings, the iron content of domestic groundwater sources is high, yet its contribution to iron intake and status has not been examined. In a rural Bangladeshi population of women deficient in dietary iron, we evaluated the association between groundwater iron intake and iron status. In 2008, participants (n = 209 with complete data) were visited to collect data on 7-d food frequency, 7-d morbidity history, 24-h drinking water intake, and rice preparation, and to measure the groundwater iron concentration. Blood was collected to assess iron and infection status. Plasma ferritin (μg/L) and body iron (mg/kg) concentrations were [median (IQR)] 67 (46, 99) and 10.4 ± 2.6, respectively, and the prevalence of iron deficiency (ferritin < 12 μg/L) was 0%. Daily iron intake from water [42 mg (18, 71)] was positively correlated with plasma ferritin (r = 0.36) and total body iron (r = 0.35) (P < 0.001 for both). In adjusted linear regression analyses, plasma ferritin increased by 6.1% (95% CI: 3.8, 8.4%) and body iron by 0.3 mg/kg (0.2, 0.4) for every 10-mg increase in iron intake from water (P < 0.001). In this rural area of northern Bangladesh, women of reproductive age had no iron deficiency likely attributable to iron consumed from drinking groundwater, which contributed substantially to dietary intake. These findings suggest that iron intake from water should be included in dietary assessments in such settings.

  3. The effect of blood donation frequency on iron status.

    PubMed

    Røsvik, A S; Ulvik, R J; Wentzel-Larsen, T; Hervig, T

    2009-12-01

    The effects of blood donation on iron status in donors without iron supplementation were studied. Analysing interactions between donations and iron status markers may predict these effects. Haemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin were analysed in 893 donors over 1 year. Serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) was measured at the first and last donation. Prolonged intervals prevented decrease in Hb in women and in ferritin for both genders. In women, a high TfR-F index (sTfR/log ferritin) predicted fall in Hb. Adjusting the donation intervals is a way to prevent iron deficiency in blood donors.

  4. Iron Status of Inner-City African-American Infants

    PubMed Central

    Lozoff, Betsy; Angelilli, Mary Lu; Zatakia, Jigna; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Calatroni, Agustin; Beard, John

    2007-01-01

    The iron status of African-American infants continues to be subject to debate. We characterized the iron status of 198 9-month-old inner-city infants (94% fed iron-fortified formula) using a comprehensive panel of measures and assessing lead and inflammation markers. The proportion with iron deficiency was calculated based on three approaches (≥ 2 abnormal iron measures with or without anemia for MCV model—NHANES II, ferritin model—NHANES III, or Sweden/Honduras study) and a promising new measure—body iron, calculated from ferritin and transferrin receptor (TfR). There were no sex differences for any iron measure. Hb < 110 g/l was observed in 25%; Hb ≤ 105 g/l in 10.1%. Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) values were elevated without elevated lead concentrations or an inflammatory response: mean FEP = 86.6 μg/dl red blood cells [75.5 μmol/mol heme]; 52.3% were > 80 μg/dl (1.42 μmol/l), almost half of which were accompanied by a second abnormal iron measure. The estimated prevalence of iron deficiency was 14.4, 5.3, and 2.5% for the MCV model, ferritin model, and Sweden/Honduras cutoffs, respectively, and 4.1% for body iron < 0 mg/kg. Regulation of iron storage is immature at < 1 year of age, making estimates of iron deficiency that depend on ferritin, including body iron, suspect in this age period. Thus, the “true” prevalence of iron deficiency could not be established with confidence due to major differences in the results, depending on the guidelines used. Functional indicators of poor iron status in young infants are urgently needed. PMID:17019689

  5. Magnesium status and the effect of magnesium supplementation in feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, L M; Brown, D J; Smith, F W; Rush, J E

    1997-01-01

    Magnesium deficiency has been associated with the development of cardiovascular disease in several species. Cats may be predisposed to alterations in magnesium status because of recent changes in the composition of commercial feline diets. The purposes of this study were 1) to examine the dietary history of cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), 2) to study magnesium status of cats with HCM compared to normal cats, and 3) to determine the effects of magnesium supplementation in cats with HCM. In part 1 of the study, diets of 65 cats with HCM were examined retrospectively. Forty of the 45 cats for which diets could be determined (89%) ate a diet designed to be magnesium-restricted and/or to produce an acidic urine. In part 2 of the study, 10 cats with HCM were compared to 10 healthy control cats for serum creatinine and magnesium; urine creatinine and magnesium, urine specific gravity and pH, and fractional excretion of magnesium. Urine creatinine and specific gravity were higher in control cats than in cats with HCM. No other differences were found between the 2 groups. In part 3, cats with HCM were supplemented with either 210 mg magnesium chloride (n = 15) or 210 mg lactose (n = 15) for 12 wk. No differences between the 2 groups were found for changes in either magnesium status or echocardiographic parameters. However, the 30 cats with HCM, as a group, did show significant improvements in measures of cardiac hypertrophy over the 12-week period. This was likely the result of treatment with other medications, rather than the magnesium supplementation. The results of this study suggest that cats with HCM are likely to be fed magnesium-restricted diets, but that they do not appear to have altered magnesium status compared to healthy controls. PMID:9243004

  6. Iron status of female collegiate athletes involved in different sports.

    PubMed

    Gropper, Sareen S; Blessing, Daniel; Dunham, Kim; Barksdale, Jeffrey M

    2006-01-01

    Iron status was assessed in 70 female athletes aged 18-25 yr participating in collegiate cross-country track, tennis, softball, swimming, soccer, basketball, and gymnastics. No significant differences in mean hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and ferritin were found among teams. The mean concentrations of each parameter for each of the teams were within the normal ranges. However, several athletes from different sports had suboptimal iron status indexes. Of 17 athletes with a serum ferritin concentration < or = 15 microg/L, 8 (4 freshmen, 2 sophomores, 2 unknown) also exhibited low serum iron concentrations (< 60 microg/dL) and low transferrin saturation (< 16%). Thirteen (6 freshmen, 3 sophomores, 2 juniors, 2 seniors) of 51 (25%) athletes failed to consume two-thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for iron and exhibited suboptimal serum concentrations of ferritin, iron, and/or transferrin saturation. Of nine athletes taking iron supplements, one exhibited suboptimal iron status. In summary, nonanemic iron depletion was present among female collegiate athletes involved in many different sports and in all years of participation (freshmen, sophomore, junior, and senior athletes). Female athletes should continue to be individually and routinely evaluated for nutritional deficiencies throughout their collegiate athletic careers.

  7. Iron status of young children from immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Natasha Ruth; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine S; Maguire, Jonathon L; Borkhoff, Cornelia M

    2016-12-01

    Children from immigrant families may be at risk for iron deficiency (ID) due to differences in pre-migration and post-migration exposures. Our objectives were to determine whether there is an association between family immigrant status and iron stores and to evaluate whether known dietary, environmental or biological determinants of low iron status influence this relationship. This was a cross-sectional study of healthy urban preschool children (12-72 months) recruited from seven primary care practices in Toronto. Laboratory assessment of serum ferritin and haemoglobin and standardised parent-completed surveys were completed between 2008 and 2013 during routine health maintenance visits. Multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between family immigrant status and serum ferritin, ID (ferritin <14 μg/L) and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) (ferritin <14 μg/L and haemoglobin ≤110 g/L). Of 2614 children included in the analysis, 47.6% had immigrant family status. The median serum ferritin was 30 μg/L and 10.4% of all children had ID and 1.9% had IDA. After adjusting for maternal ethnicity and education, age, sex, income quintile, cow's milk intake, breastfeeding duration and bottle use, there were no significant associations between immigrant status and ferritin, ID or IDA. Significant predictors of low iron status included age, sex, cow's milk intake and breastfeeding duration. We found no association between family immigrant status and iron status after including clinically important covariates in the models. These data suggest immigrant children may not need enhanced screening for iron status or targeted interventions for iron supplementation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Cardiac Iron Determines Cardiac T2*, T2, and T1 in the Gerbil Model of Iron Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wood, John C.; Otto-Duessel, Maya; Aguilar, Michelle; Nick, Hanspeter; Nelson, Marvin D.; Coates, Thomas D.; Pollack, Harvey; Moats, Rex

    2010-01-01

    Background Transfusional therapy for thalassemia major and sickle cell disease can lead to iron deposition and damage to the heart, liver, and endocrine organs. Iron causes the MRI parameters T1, T2, and T2* to shorten in these organs, which creates a potential mechanism for iron quantification. However, because of the danger and variability of cardiac biopsy, tissue validation of cardiac iron estimates by MRI has not been performed. In this study, we demonstrate that iron produces similar T1, T2, and T2* changes in the heart and liver using a gerbil iron-overload model. Methods and Results Twelve gerbils underwent iron dextran loading (200 mg · kg−1 · wk−1) from 2 to 14 weeks; 5 age-matched controls were studied as well. Animals had in vivo assessment of cardiac T2* and hepatic T2 and T2* and postmortem assessment of cardiac and hepatic T1 and T2. Relaxation measurements were performed in a clinical 1.5-T magnet and a 60-MHz nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometer. Cardiac and liver iron concentrations rose linearly with administered dose. Cardiac 1/T2*, 1/T2, and 1/T1 rose linearly with cardiac iron concentration. Liver 1/T2*, 1/T2, and 1/T1 also rose linearly, proportional to hepatic iron concentration. Liver and heart calibrations were similar on a dry-weight basis. Conclusions MRI measurements of cardiac T2 and T2* can be used to quantify cardiac iron. The similarity of liver and cardiac iron calibration curves in the gerbil suggests that extrapolation of human liver calibration curves to heart may be a rational approximation in humans. PMID:16027257

  9. Iron Status in Mice Carrying a Targeted Disruption of Lactoferrin

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Pauline P.; Mendoza-Meneses, Marisela; Cunningham, Grainne A.; Conneely, Orla M.

    2003-01-01

    Lactoferrin is a member of the transferrin family of iron-binding glycoproteins present in milk, mucosal secretions, and the secondary granules of neutrophils. While several physiological functions have been proposed for lactoferrin, including the regulation of intestinal iron uptake, the exact function of this protein in vivo remains to be established. To directly assess the physiological functions of lactoferrin, we have generated lactoferrin knockout (LFKO−/−) mice by homologous gene targeting. LFKO−/− mice are viable and fertile, develop normally, and display no overt abnormalities. A comparison of the iron status of suckling offspring from LFKO−/− intercrosses and from wild-type (WT) intercrosses showed that lactoferrin is not essential for iron delivery during the postnatal period. Further, analysis of adult mice on a basal or a high-iron diet revealed no differences in transferrin saturation or tissue iron stores between WT and LFKO−/− mice on either diet, although the serum iron levels were slightly elevated in LFKO-/- mice on the basal diet. Consistent with the relatively normal iron status, in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that lactoferrin is not expressed in the postnatal or adult intestine. Collectively, these results support the conclusion that lactoferrin does not play a major role in the regulation of iron homeostasis. PMID:12482971

  10. Dietary iron intake and iron status of German female vegans: results of the German vegan study.

    PubMed

    Waldmann, Annika; Koschizke, Jochen W; Leitzmann, Claus; Hahn, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    As shown in previous studies vegetarians and especially vegans are at risk for iron deficiency. Our study evaluated the iron status of German female vegans. In this cross-sectional study, the dietary intakes of 75 vegan women were assessed by two 9-day food frequency questionnaires. The iron status was analyzed on the basis of blood parameters. Mean daily iron intake was higher than recommended by the German Nutrition Society. Still 42% of the female vegans < 50 years (young women, YW) had a daily iron intake of < 18 mg/day, which is the recommended allowance by the US Food and Nutrition Board. The main dietary sources of iron were vegetables, fruits, cereals and cereal products. Median serum ferritin concentrations were 14 ng/ml for YW and 28 ng/ml for women > or = 50 years (old women, OW). In all, 40% (tri-index model (TIM) 20%) of the YW and 12% (TIM 12%) of the OW were considered iron-deficient based on either serum ferritin levels of < 12 ng/ml or a TIM. Only 3 women had blood parameters which are defined as iron deficiency anemia. Correlations between serum ferritin levels and dietary factors were not found. Although the mean iron intake was above the recommended level, 40% (TIM 20%) of the YW were considered iron-deficient. It is suggested that especially YM on a vegan diet should have their iron status monitored and should consider taking iron supplements in case of a marginal status. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Cord blood transferrin receptors to assess fetal iron status

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, D.; Savage, G.; Tubman, R.; Lappin, T.; Halliday, H.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To study iron status at different gestational ages using cord blood serum transferrin receptors (STfRs).
METHODS—STfRs, iron, ferritin, total iron binding capacity, haemoglobin, and reticulocytes were measured in 144 cord blood samples. The babies were divided into three groups according to gestation (26 very preterm (24-29 weeks); 50 preterm (30-36 weeks); 68 term (37-41 weeks)).
RESULTS—Serum iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity were highest at term, whereas reticulocytes were highest in the very preterm. STfR levels were not influenced by gestation. Haemoglobin (r = 0.46; p < 0.0001) and reticulocytes (r = 0.42; p < 0.0001) were the only indices that independently correlated with STfR levels.
CONCLUSIONS—STfR levels in cord blood are not directly influenced by gestation and probably reflect the iron requirements of the fetus for erythropoiesis.

 PMID:11420322

  12. Influence of welding fume on systemic iron status.

    PubMed

    Casjens, Swaantje; Henry, Jana; Rihs, Hans-Peter; Lehnert, Martin; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Welge, Peter; Lotz, Anne; Gelder, Rainer Van; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Stiegler, Hugo; Eisele, Lewin; Weiss, Tobias; Hartwig, Andrea; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate

    2014-11-01

    Iron is the major metal found in welding fumes, and although it is an essential trace element, its overload causes toxicity due to Fenton reactions. To avoid oxidative damage, excess iron is bound to ferritin, and as a result, serum ferritin (SF) is a recognized biomarker for iron stores, with high concentrations linked to inflammation and potentially also cancer. However, little is known about iron overload in welders. Within this study, we assessed the iron status and quantitative associations between airborne iron, body iron stores, and iron homeostasis in 192 welders not wearing dust masks. Welders were equipped with personal samplers in order to determine the levels of respirable iron in the breathing zone during a working shift. SF, prohepcidin and other markers of iron status were determined in blood samples collected after shift. The impact of iron exposure and other factors on SF and prohepcidin were estimated using multiple regression models. Our results indicate that respirable iron is a significant predictor of SF and prohepcidin. Concentrations of SF varied according to the welding technique and respiratory protection used, with a median of 103 μg l(-1) in tungsten inert gas welders, 125 μg l(-1) in those wearing air-purifying respirators, and 161 μg l(-1) in other welders. Compared to welders with low iron stores (SF < 25 μg l(-1)), those with excess body iron (SF ≥ 400 μg l(-1)) worked under a higher median concentration of airborne iron (60 μg m(-3) versus 148 μg m(-3)). Even though air concentrations of respirable iron and manganese were highly correlated, and low iron stores have been reported to increase manganese uptake in the gastrointestinal tract, no correlation was seen between SF and manganese in blood. In conclusion, monitoring SF may be a reasonable method for health surveillance of welders. Respiratory protection with air-purifying respirators can decrease iron exposure and avoid chronically higher SF in welders working with

  13. Thromboxane A2 mediates iron-overload cardiomyopathy in mice through calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T cells signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Heng; Li, Hsiao-Fen; Lian, Wei-Shiung; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Lan, Yi-Fan; Lai, Pei-Fang; Cheng, Ching-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that iron overload could enhance the production of arachidonic acid and prostanoid, suggesting a causal connection between these signals and iron-overload cardiomyopathy. However, information regarding the downstream signaling is limited. Because thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and prostacyclin are the 2 major prostanoids in the cardiovascular system, and TXA2 plays a major role in vascular atherosclerosis and has pro-inflammatory characteristics, we intended to elucidate the role of TXA2 in iron-overload cardiomyopathy. A 4-week iron loading protocol was instituted for both TXAS gene-deleted (TXAS(-/-)) mice and wild-type (WT) mice, with less severe cardiac fibrosis and preserved normal left ventricular contraction in the TXAS(-/-) mice. Inflammatory profiles, including MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, and myeloperoxidase activity were also lower in the TXAS(-/-) as compared with WT littermates. TXAS supplement to the iron-injured TXAS(-/-) mice re-aggravated cardiac inflammation. Using a TXA2 analog, U46619, for NFAT reporter luciferase activity on cardiomyoctes, and intraperitonal injection of U46619 into nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)-luciferase transgenic mice demonstrated that U46619 increase NFAT expression, and this expression, as well as TNF-α expression, can be blocked by TXA2 receptor antagonist (SQ29548), NFAT-SiRNA, calcineurin inhibitor, or calcium chelator. Finally, intraperitoneal injection of the TNF-α antibody, infliximab, into iron-injured mice decreased TXAS expression and attenuated cardiac fibrosis. TXA2 mediates iron-overload cardiomyopathy through the TNF-α-associated calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway. 

  14. Iron status and dietary iron intake of vegetarian children from Poland.

    PubMed

    Gorczyca, Daiva; Prescha, Anna; Szeremeta, Karolina; Jankowski, Adam

    2013-01-01

    In Poland, vegetarian diets are becoming more and more popular. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of iron intake on iron status in vegetarian children. Dietary iron intake, iron food sources, blood count, serum iron, ferritin level and total iron-binding capacity were estimated in two groups of children, namely vegetarians (n = 22) and omnivores (n = 18) of both sexes, aged from 2 to 18 years. Seven-day food records were used to assess their diet. Dietary iron intake in vegetarians and omnivores was low (up to 65.0 and 60.1% of the recommended dietary allowance). A significantly higher intake of vitamin C was observed in vegetarians compared with omnivores (p = 0.019). The main sources of iron in vegetarians were cereal products, followed by vegetables and mushroom products, then fruit. The prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) was higher in the vegetarian group (p = 0.023). The serum ferritin level and mean corpuscular volume in the vegetarians were also lower than in the omnivores (p = 0.01 and p = 0.014, respectively). Children who follow a vegetarian diet may suffer from ID in spite of having a high vitamin C intake. This indicates the need to introduce dietary education and iron status monitoring. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Mother's iron status, breastmilk iron and lactoferrin--are they related?

    PubMed

    Shashiraj; Faridi, M M A; Singh, O; Rusia, U

    2006-07-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended till 6 months age. Factors regulating the breastmilk iron and lactoferrin levels are incompletely known. Considering high prevalence of nutritional anemia in lactating mothers, we studied the iron status of lactating mothers, their breastmilk iron and lactoferrin levels to determine any relationship between them. Prospective study with 6 months follow-up. Tertiary care referral hospital. Hundred nonanemic and 100 anemic mothers with their babies recruited at birth. Fifty-two nonanemic and 50 anemic mothers and their babies completed the 6-month follow-up. Hemoglobin (Hb), total iron binding capacity (TIBC), percent transferrin saturation (%TS), serum iron (SI) and serum ferritin measured on day 1 and 6 months postpartum. Breastmilk iron and lactoferrin measured on day 1, 14 weeks and 6 months after delivery. Breastmilk iron decreased progressively from day 1 to 14 weeks and at 6 months in both groups, but no significant difference was noted between nonanemic and anemic mothers (P>0.05). Significant decline in breastmilk lactoferrin concentration from day 1 to 14 weeks in nonanemic and anemic mothers (P<0.001) noted. Hemoglobin, TIBC, %TS, SI and serum ferritin of both groups had no correlation with breastmilk iron and lactoferrin concentration on day 1, 14 weeks and 6 months after delivery. Breastmilk iron and lactoferrin concentration had no relationship with the mother's Hb and iron status.

  16. Neopterin and beta-2 microglobulin relations to immunity and inflammatory status in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy patients.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowska, Celina; Wodniecki, Jan; Wojnicz, Romuald; Romuk, Ewa; Jacheć, Wojciech; Tomasik, Andrzej; Skrzep-Poloczek, Bronisława; Spinczyk, Beata; Nowalany-Kozielska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationships among serum neopterin (NPT), β2-microglobulin (β2-M) levels, clinical status, and endomyocardial biopsy results of dilated cardiomyopathy patients (DCM). Serum NPT and β-2 M were determined in 172 nonischaemic DCM patients who underwent right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy and 30 healthy subjects (ELISA test). The cryostat biopsy specimens were assessed using histology, immunohistology, and immunochemistry methods (HLA ABC, HLA DR expression, CD3 + lymphocytes, and macrophages counts). The strong increase of HLA ABC or HLA DR expression was detected in 27.2% patients-group A-being low in 72.8% patients-group B. Neopterin level was increased in patients in group A compared to healthy controls 8.11 (4.50-12.57) versus 4.99 (2.66-8.28) nmol/L (P < 0.05). β-2 microglobulin level was higher in DCM groups A (2.60 (1.71-3.58)) and B (2.52 (1.51-3.72)) than in the control group 1.75 (1.28-1.96) mg/L, P < 0.001. Neopterin correlated positively with the number of macrophages in biopsy specimens (P < 0.05) acute phase proteins: C-reactive proteins (P < 0.05); fibrinogen (P < 0.01); and NYHA functional class (P < 0.05) and negatively with left ventricular ejection fraction (P < 0.05). Neopterin but not β-2 microglobulin concentration reflected immune response in biopsy specimens. Neopterin correlated with acute phase proteins and stage of heart failure and may indicate a general immune and inflammatory activation in heart failure.

  17. Dietary intake and iron status of Australian vegetarian women.

    PubMed

    Ball, M J; Bartlett, M A

    1999-09-01

    Despite the possible overall health benefits of a vegetarian diet, there is concern that some vegetarians and infrequent meat eaters, particularly females, may have inadequate iron status because of low or no heme-iron intakes. The objective was to investigate the nutritional intake and iron status of vegetarian women. The nutritional intakes of 50 free-living vegetarian women aged 18-45 y and 24 age-matched omnivorous control women were assessed by using 12-d weighed dietary records. Iron status was assessed by measuring hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations. There was no significant difference between mean (+/-SD) daily iron intakes of vegetarians and omnivores (10.7 +/- 4.4 and 9.9 +/- 2.9 mg, respectively), although heme-iron intakes were low in the vegetarians. Vegetarians had significantly lower intakes of protein (P < 0.01), saturated fat (P < 0.01), and cholesterol (P < 0.001), and significantly higher intakes of dietary fiber (P < 0.001) and vitamin C (P < 0.05). Mean serum ferritin concentrations were significantly lower (P = 0.025) in vegetarians (25.0 +/- 16.2 microg/L) than in omnivores (45.5 +/- 42.5 microg/L). However, similar numbers of vegetarians (18%) and omnivores (13%) had serum ferritin concentrations <12 microg/L, which is a value often used as an indicator of low iron stores. Hemoglobin concentrations were not significantly different. It is important that both vegetarian and omnivorous women maintain an adequate iron status and follow dietary practices that enhance iron absorption.

  18. Influence of prenatal iron and zinc supplements on supplemental iron absorption, red blood cell iron incorporation, and iron status in pregnant Peruvian women.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, K O; Zavaleta, N; Caulfield, L E; Yang, D X; Abrams, S A

    1999-03-01

    The influence of iron status on iron absorption during pregnancy was examined among pregnant Peruvian women. This was done by measuring supplemental iron absorption, red blood cell iron incorporation and iron status. The subjects were 45 pregnant Peruvian women (33 +or- 1 week gestation) who were divided into 2 groups. The first group of 28 pregnant women received daily prenatal supplements containing 60 mg of iron and 250 mcg of folate with or without 15 mg of zinc, from week 10 to 24 of gestation until delivery. The second group of 17 women served as the control group. The control group was not given prenatal supplementation. The iron status indicators and isotopes were measured in maternal blood collected 2 weeks postdosing with oral iron-57 and intravenous iron-58 stable isotopes. The results showed that supplementation significantly influenced the maternal serum ferritin and folate concentrations (P 0.05). The serum iron of the iron group was significantly higher than that of the iron + zinc group (P 0.03) or control group (P 0.001). However, the serum zinc concentrations were lower in the supplemented group than in the control group. Even though the percentage of iron absorption was inversely related to maternal serum ferritin concentration, the effect was limited and the percentage of iron absorption did not differ significantly between the two groups. Considering that the absorption of nonheme iron was not substantially greater in pregnant women with depleted iron reserves, it was concluded that prenatal iron supplementation is essential for meeting iron requirements, especially during pregnancy.

  19. Iron status in highly active and sedentary young women.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Kathleen; St Thomas, Megan M; Hahn, Nicole; Vaughan, Linda A; Carlson, Amanda G; Hinton, Pamela

    2009-10-01

    This study examined iron status and nutrient intake in highly active (n = 28; 20 +/- 2 yr, >/=12 hr purposeful physical activity per week [PPA/wk]) and sedentary (n = 28; 24 +/- 3 yr, iron, percent transferrin saturation, total iron-binding capacity, ferritin, transferrin receptor [sTfR], and sTfR index). Independent-sample t tests and the Mann-Whitney nonparametric test compared mean values between groups. Lower serum ferritin (p = .01) and mean cell hemoglobin (p < .01) concentrations were found in active than in sedentary women. Higher mean sTfR (p = .01) and sTfR index (p < .01) values were found in the active women. No significant differences were found between groups for the other blood markers. Serum ferritin concentrations (storage iron) indicated iron depletion (Stage I) in 21% of active and 18% of sedentary participants. Nonetheless, 50% of active and 18% of sedentary participants were iron depleted as evidenced by the sTfR index (ratio of functional-to-storage iron). Elevated sTfR concentrations (functional iron) were observed in 25% of active and 3% of sedentary participants. Although the active women reported greater iron (p < .01) but similar heme iron intakes, they had higher mean sTfR, higher sTfR index, and lower serum ferritin concentrations than the sedentary women. Assessment of iron status may require measures not commonly used in routine assessments.

  20. The evaluation of iron status in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Fishbane, S; Kowalski, E A; Imbriano, L J; Maesaka, J K

    1996-12-01

    Effective treatment of anemia in hemodialysis patients requires ongoing monitoring of iron status. The purpose of this study was to determine levels of commonly used iron indices predictive of iron deficiency in this population. Forty-seven patients with baseline serum ferritin levels < 600 ng/mL were treated with intravenous iron dextran (INFeD; Schein Pharmaceutical Inc., Florham Park, NJ), 1000 mg over ten hemodialysis treatments. Patients whose hematocrit value increased by 5% or who had a 10% decrease in their erythropoietin dose by 2 months were classified as having iron deficiency (N = 31; 66%). All other subjects were classified as having adequate iron (N = 16; 34%). There was no statistically significant difference in baseline serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin content, or red cell distribution width between the two groups. Receiver operator curves demonstrated that none of the iron indices had a high level of utility (both sensitivity and specificity > 80%). Two tests had marginal utility, serum ferritin at a level of < 150 ng/mL, and transferrin saturation < 21%. It was concluded that because of the tests' marginal utility, they should only be interpreted in the context of the patient's underlying erythropoietin, responsiveness. In patients who are responsive to erythropoietin, a transferrin saturation value < 18% or serum ferritin level < 100 ng/mL should be used to indicate inadequate iron. When erythropoietin resistance is present, transferrin saturation of < 27% or serum ferritin < 300 ng/mL should be used to guide iron management.

  1. Infant iron status affects iron absorption in Peruvian breastfed infants at 2 and 5 mo of age.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Julia L; O'Brien, Kimberly O; Abrams, Steven A; Zavaleta, Nelly

    2013-12-01

    Effects of prenatal iron supplementation on maternal postpartum iron status and early infant iron homeostasis remain largely unknown. We examined iron absorption and growth in exclusively breastfed infants in relation to fetal iron exposure and iron status during early infancy. Longitudinal, paired iron-absorption (⁵⁸Fe) studies were conducted in 59 exclusively breastfed Peruvian infants at 2-3 mo of age (2M) and 5-6 mo of age (5M). Infants were born to women who received ≥ 5100 or ≤ 1320 mg supplemental prenatal Fe. Iron status was assessed in mothers and infants at 2M and 5M. Infant iron absorption from breast milk averaged 7.1% and 13.9% at 2M and 5M. Maternal iron status (at 2M) predicted infant iron deficiency (ID) at 5M. Although no infants were iron deficient at 2M, 28.6% of infants had depleted iron stores (ferritin concentration <12 μg/L) by 5M. Infant serum ferritin decreased (P < 0.0001), serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) increased (P < 0.0001), and serum iron decreased from 2M to 5M (P < 0.01). Higher infant sTfR (P < 0.01) and breast-milk copper (P < 0.01) predicted increased iron absorption at 5M. Prenatal iron supplementation had no effects on infant iron status or breast-milk nutrient concentrations at 2M or 5M. However, fetal iron exposure predicted increased infant length at 2M (P < 0.01) and 5M (P < 0.05). Fetal iron exposure affected early infant growth but did not significantly improve iron status or absorption. Young, exclusively breastfed infants upregulated iron absorption when iron stores were depleted at both 2M and 5M.

  2. Prevalence of anemia and associations between neonatal iron status, hepcidin, and maternal iron status among neonates born to pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunmin; Guillet, Ronnie; Cooper, Elizabeth M; Westerman, Mark; Orlando, Mark; Kent, Tera; Pressman, Eva; O'Brien, Kimberly O

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about anemia and iron status in US newborns because screening for anemia is typically not undertaken until 1 y of age. This study was undertaken to characterize and identify determinants of iron status in newborns born to pregnant adolescents. Pregnant adolescents (≤ 18 y, n = 193) were followed from ≥ 12 wk gestation until delivery. Hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, serum iron, hepcidin, erythropoietin (EPO), IL-6, and C-reactive protein were assessed in maternal and cord blood. At birth, 21% of the neonates were anemic (Hb < 13.0 g/dl) and 25% had low iron stores (ferritin < 76 µg/l). Cord serum ferritin concentrations were not significantly associated with gestational age (GA) at birth across the range of 37-42 wk. Neonates born to mothers with ferritin < 12 µg/l had significantly lower ferritin (P = 0.003) compared to their counterparts. Hepcidin and IL-6 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in neonates born to mothers with longer durations of active labor. Given the importance of the iron stores at birth on maintenance of iron homeostasis over early infancy, additional screening of iron status at birth is warranted among those born to this high risk obstetric population.

  3. Iron status of pregnant Indian women from an area of active iron supplementation.

    PubMed

    Menon, Kavitha C; Ferguson, Elaine L; Thomson, Christine D; Gray, Andrew R; Zodpey, Sanjay; Saraf, Abhay; Das, Prabir Kumar; Pandav, Chandrakant S; Skeaff, Sheila A

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the iron status of pregnant tribal women from Ramtek, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India using a combination of indices. A community-based observational study was conducted to assess iron status using a convenience sample of pregnant Indian tribal women from Ramtek. Pregnant women were recruited at 13 to 22 wk gestation (first visit; n = 211) and followed to 29 to 42 wk gestation (second visit; n = 177) of pregnancy. Sociodemographic and anthropometric data; iron supplement intake; and blood samples for estimating hemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin (SF), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were obtained. The mean (SD) Hb concentration at recruitment was 106 (15) g/L and 106 (14) g/L at the second visit; 41% of the women at recruitment and 55% at second visit were anemic (14% higher, P < 0.001). No women at recruitment and 3.7% at second visit had SF concentration < 15 ng/mL; and 3.3% at recruitment and 3.9% at the second visit had sTfR > 4.4 ng/mL (0.6% higher, P = 0.179). Almost 62% and 71% of pregnant women used iron supplements at both visits, respectively. Iron supplement intake > 7 d in the preceding month improved the Hb concentration by 3.23 g/L and reduced sTfR concentration by 13%; women who were breastfeeding at the time of recruitment had 11% higher SF concentration. The iron indices suggest that pregnant tribal women of central India, although anemic, had good iron status. Use of iron supplements > 7 d in the preceding month improved iron status; however, non-iron-deficiency anemia persisted in this group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Associations between Dietary Iron and Zinc Intakes, and between Biochemical Iron and Zinc Status in Women

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Karen; Booth, Alison; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A.; Gibson, Rosalind S.; Bailey, Karl B.; Irving, David; Nowson, Caryl; Riddell, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Iron and zinc are found in similar foods and absorption of both may be affected by food compounds, thus biochemical iron and zinc status may be related. This cross-sectional study aimed to: (1) describe dietary intakes and biochemical status of iron and zinc; (2) investigate associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes; and (3) investigate associations between biochemical iron and zinc status in a sample of premenopausal women aged 18–50 years who were recruited in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a 154-item food frequency questionnaire (n = 379). Iron status was assessed using serum ferritin and hemoglobin, zinc status using serum zinc (standardized to 08:00 collection), and presence of infection/inflammation using C-reactive protein (n = 326). Associations were explored using multiple regression and logistic regression. Mean (SD) iron and zinc intakes were 10.5 (3.5) mg/day and 9.3 (3.8) mg/day, respectively. Median (interquartile range) serum ferritin was 22 (12–38) μg/L and mean serum zinc concentrations (SD) were 12.6 (1.7) μmol/L in fasting samples and 11.8 (2.0) μmol/L in nonfasting samples. For each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron intake, zinc intake increased by 0.4 mg/day. Each 1 μmol/L increase in serum zinc corresponded to a 6% increase in serum ferritin, however women with low serum zinc concentration (AM fasting < 10.7 μmol/L; AM nonfasting < 10.1 μmol/L) were not at increased risk of depleted iron stores (serum ferritin <15 μg/L; p = 0.340). Positive associations were observed between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between iron and zinc status, however interpreting serum ferritin concentrations was not a useful proxy for estimating the likelihood of low serum zinc concentrations and women with depleted iron stores were not at increased risk of impaired zinc status in this cohort. PMID:25903453

  5. Associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between biochemical iron and zinc status in women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Karen; Booth, Alison; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Gibson, Rosalind S; Bailey, Karl B; Irving, David; Nowson, Caryl; Riddell, Lynn

    2015-04-20

    Iron and zinc are found in similar foods and absorption of both may be affected by food compounds, thus biochemical iron and zinc status may be related. This cross-sectional study aimed to: (1) describe dietary intakes and biochemical status of iron and zinc; (2) investigate associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes; and (3) investigate associations between biochemical iron and zinc status in a sample of premenopausal women aged 18-50 years who were recruited in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a 154-item food frequency questionnaire (n = 379). Iron status was assessed using serum ferritin and hemoglobin, zinc status using serum zinc (standardized to 08:00 collection), and presence of infection/inflammation using C-reactive protein (n = 326). Associations were explored using multiple regression and logistic regression. Mean (SD) iron and zinc intakes were 10.5 (3.5) mg/day and 9.3 (3.8) mg/day, respectively. Median (interquartile range) serum ferritin was 22 (12-38) μg/L and mean serum zinc concentrations (SD) were 12.6 (1.7) μmol/L in fasting samples and 11.8 (2.0) μmol/L in nonfasting samples. For each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron intake, zinc intake increased by 0.4 mg/day. Each 1 μmol/L increase in serum zinc corresponded to a 6% increase in serum ferritin, however women with low serum zinc concentration (AM fasting < 10.7 μmol/L; AM nonfasting < 10.1 μmol/L) were not at increased risk of depleted iron stores (serum ferritin <15 μg/L; p = 0.340). Positive associations were observed between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between iron and zinc status, however interpreting serum ferritin concentrations was not a useful proxy for estimating the likelihood of low serum zinc concentrations and women with depleted iron stores were not at increased risk of impaired zinc status in this cohort.

  6. Iron Status Predicts Malaria Risk in Malawian Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Femkje A. M.; Calis, Job C. J.; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele; Phiri, Kamija; Geskus, Ronald B.; Brabin, Bernard J.; Leenstra, Tjalling

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Iron deficiency is highly prevalent in pre-school children in developing countries and an important health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. A debate exists on the possible protective effect of iron deficiency against malaria and other infections; yet consensus is lacking due to limited data. Recent studies have focused on the risks of iron supplementation but the effect of an individual's iron status on malaria risk remains unclear. Studies of iron status in areas with a high burden of infections often are exposed to bias. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of baseline iron status for malaria risk explicitly taking potential biases into account. Methods and materials We prospectively assessed the relationship between baseline iron deficiency (serum ferritin <30 µg/L) and malaria risk in a cohort of 727 Malawian preschool children during a year of follow-up. Data were analyzed using marginal structural Cox regression models and confounders were selected using causal graph theory. Sensitivity of results to bias resulting from misclassification of iron status by concurrent inflammation and to bias from unmeasured confounding were assessed using modern causal inference methods. Results and Conclusions The overall incidence of malaria parasitemia and clinical malaria was 1.9 (95% CI 1.8–2.0) and 0.7 (95% CI 0.6–0.8) events per person-year, respectively. Children with iron deficiency at baseline had a lower incidence of malaria parasitemia and clinical malaria during a year of follow-up; adjusted hazard ratio's 0.55 (95%-CI:0.41–0.74) and 0.49 (95%-CI:0.33–0.73), respectively. Our results suggest that iron deficiency protects against malaria parasitemia and clinical malaria in young children. Therefore the clinical importance of treating iron deficiency in a pre-school child should be weighed carefully against potential harms. In malaria endemic areas treatment of iron deficiency in children requires sustained prevention of

  7. Iron intake and iron status in breastfed infants during the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Dube, Katharina; Schwartz, Jana; Mueller, Manfred J; Kalhoff, Hermann; Kersting, Mathilde

    2010-12-01

    Breastfed infants may be at particular risk for iron deficiency because breast milk is low in iron. In a secondary analysis of data from a complementary feeding trial, indicators of iron status were examined, with particular focus on the development of iron status in those infants who were fully breastfed during the first 4 months of life. In this retrospective analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial infants were stratified according to their predominant milk diet during the first 4 months of life, a subgroup of breastfed infants (group BM, n=53) were compared with a subgroup of infants fed (iron-fortified) formula (group F, n=23). Dietary iron intake and indicators of iron status were analysed at 4 months of age (during the full milk feeding period), and during the complementary feeding period at 7 and 10 months of age. Iron intake was low in the BM group, ranging below the Dietary Reference Intakes throughout the complementary feeding period, with the (estimated) bioavailable iron intake only just achieving the reference requirements. At 4 months, iron deficiency (ID, Ferritin <12.0 ng/mL) was observed in 3 infants in the BM group and in 1 infant in the F group; no infant developed iron deficiency anaemia (IDA, ID and Hb <10.5 g/dl). At 7 and at 10 months of age, iron status was adequate in all infants of the F group. In the BM group, at 7 (10) months of age, ID was diagnosed in 10 (11) infants and IDA was found in 2 (1) infants. Healthy infants, fully breastfed at 4 months of age, demonstrated ID in about 21% and IDA in up to 6% during the second half of infancy while fed according to the paediatric dietary guidelines. This finding supports the recommendation that supplementation with bioavailable iron via complementary foods should be started early (4-6 months of age) in order to prevent iron deficiency during infancy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Iron status in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Ann; Krebs, Nancy F; Stewart, Patricia A; Austin, Harriet; Johnson, Susan L; Withrow, Nikki; Molloy, Cynthia; James, S Jill; Johnson, Cynthia; Clemons, Traci; Schmidt, Brianne; Hyman, Susan L

    2012-11-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often have food selectivity and restricted diets, putting them at risk for nutritional deficiencies. Previous studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) in children with ASDs living in Wales, Canada, and Turkey. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of ID and the adequacy of iron intake in children with ASD in the United States. Participants (age 2-11 years recruited from the Autism Treatment Network Diet and Nutrition Study) completed a 3-day diet record (n = 368) and had laboratory measures of serum ferritin (SF), complete blood count, iron, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation (TS) (n = 222). Of the 222 participants with laboratory data, 18 (8%) had SF <12 µg/L and 2 (1%) had ID defined by both low SF and TS (3 children with low SF had missing TS data). One subject had iron deficiency anemia. Fewer than 2% of subjects had iron intake below the estimated average requirement. Although the determination of iron status is complex, these data do not support previous reports that children with ASD are at greater risk for ID than the general population; however, 8% percent of the sample did demonstrate low SF despite <2% of the sample demonstrating iron intake below the estimated average requirement. The prevalence of low SF may be an underestimate, because SF is an acute phase reactant and the study included no measure of inflammation.

  9. Estimating Tissue Iron Burden: Current Status and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Wood, John C.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Iron overload is becoming an increasing problem as haemoglobinopathy patients gain greater access to good medical care and as therapies for myelodysplastic syndromes improve. Therapeutic options for iron chelation therapy have increased and many patients now receive combination therapies. However, optimal utilization of iron chelation therapy requires knowledge not only of the total body iron burden but the relative iron distribution among the different organs. The physiological basis for extrahepatic iron deposition is presented in order to help identify patients at highest risk for cardiac and endocrine complications. This manuscript reviews the current state of the art for monitoring global iron overload status as well as its compartmentalization. Plasma markers, computerized tomography, liver biopsy, magnetic susceptibility devices and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are all discussed but MRI has come to dominate clinical practice. The potential impact of recent pancreatic and pituitary MRI studies on clinical practice are discussed as well as other works-in-progress. Clinical protocols are derived from experience in haemoglobinopathies but may provide useful guiding principles for other iron overload disorders, such as myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:25765344

  10. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    Cardiomyopathy - restrictive; Infiltrative cardiomyopathy; Idiopathic myocardial fibrosis ... In a case of restrictive cardiomyopathy, the heart muscle is of normal size or slightly enlarged. Most of the time, it also pumps normally. However, it does ...

  11. Timing of umbilical cord clamping: effect on iron endowment of the newborn and later iron status.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, Camila M

    2011-11-01

    The optimal timing of umbilical cord clamping has been debated in the scientific literature for at least the last century, when cord clamping practices shifted from delayed towards immediate clamping. Recent research provides evidence for the beneficial effect of delayed cord clamping on infant iron status. The present review describes the physiological basis for the impact of cord clamping time on total body iron at birth and the relationship between birth body iron, as affected by cord clamping time, and iron status later in infancy. This research is discussed in the context of current clamping practices, which tend towards early cord clamping in most settings, as well as the high levels of anemia present in young infants in many countries worldwide. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  12. The Influence of Vitamin A Supplementation on Iron Status

    PubMed Central

    Michelazzo, Fernanda B.; Oliveira, Julicristie M.; Stefanello, Juliana; Luzia, Liania A.; Rondó, Patricia H. C.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A (VA) and iron deficiencies are important nutritional problems, affecting particularly preschool children, as well as pregnant and lactating women. A PubMed (National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA) literature review was carried out to search for clinical trials published from 1992 to 2013 that assessed the influence of vitamin A supplementation on iron status. Simultaneous use of iron and vitamin A supplements seemed to be more effective to prevent iron deficiency anemia than the use of these micronutrients alone. Some studies did not include a placebo group and only a few of them assessed vitamin A status of the individuals at baseline. Moreover, the studies did not consider any inflammatory marker and a reasonable number of iron parameters. Another important limitation was the lack of assessment of hemoglobin variants, especially in regions with a high prevalence of anemia. Assessment of hemoglobin variants, inflammatory markers and anemia of chronic inflammation would be important to the studies investigated. Studies involving different populations are necessary to elucidate the interaction between the two micronutrients, especially regarding iron absorption and modulation of erythropoiesis. PMID:24212089

  13. Evaluation of iron status: zinc protoporphyrin vis-a-vis bone marrow iron stores.

    PubMed

    Das, Sheila; Philip, Kandathil Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) in the red cells is an indicator of iron status in the bone marrow (BM) and can be easily measured by Protofluor-Z Hematofluorometer from Helena Laboratories. It is well known that bone marrow iron is a gold standard for the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) even in the pre-latent phase. Hence, it was considered pertinent to evaluate the diagnostic utility of ZPP in comparison with bone marrow iron stores. 107 random BM were selected over a period of 2(1/2) years; in each case, RBC indices where recorded along with ZPP and Perls' Prussian blue reaction for BM iron stores. The specificity and sensitivity were found to be 77.8% and sensitivity 69.8%, respectively. However, the sensitivity increased up to 96.2% when Hb, RBC indices and ZPP were considered for the diagnosis of IDA.

  14. Types of Cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Cardiomyopathy The types of cardiomyopathy include: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Dilated ... cardiomyopathy Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy Unclassified ... Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is very common and can affect ...

  15. Iron supplementation in pregnancy and breastfeeding and iron, copper and zinc status of lactating women from a human milk bank.

    PubMed

    Mello-Neto, Julio; Rondó, Patricia Helen Carvalho; Oshiiwa, Marie; Morgano, Marcelo Antonio; Zacari, Cristiane Zago; dos Santos, Mariana Lima

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of iron supplementation in pregnancy and breastfeeding on iron status of lactating women from a Brazilian Human Milk Bank. Blood and mature breast milk samples were collected from 145 women for assessment of iron status, as well as copper and zinc status. Haemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin were determined, respectively, by electronic counting, colorimetry and chemiluminescence. Transferrin and ceruloplasmin were analysed by nephelometry. Serum copper and zinc were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and serum alkaline phosphatase was measured by a colorimetric method. Iron, zinc and copper in breast milk were determined by spectrometry. Mean values of iron, copper and zinc (blood and breast milk) were compared by ANOVA, followed by Tukey's test. Iron supplementation was beneficial to prevent anaemia in pregnancy but not effective to treat anaemia. During breastfeeding, iron supplementation had a negative effect on maternal copper status, confirming an interaction between these micronutrients.

  16. Redox, iron, and nutritional status of children during swimming training.

    PubMed

    Kabasakalis, Athanasios; Kalitsis, Konstantinos; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Tsalis, George; Kouretas, Dimitris; Loupos, Dimitris; Mougios, Vassilis

    2009-11-01

    Effects of exercise training on important determinants of children's long-term health, such as redox and iron status, have not been adequately investigated. The aim of the present study was to examine changes in markers of the redox, iron and nutritional status of boy and girl swimmers during a prolonged period of training. 11 boys and 13 girls, aged 10-11 years, were members of a swimming club. They were assessed at the beginning of the training season, at 13 weeks and at 23 weeks through blood sampling and recording of the diet. Reduced glutathione increased at 13 and 23 weeks, whereas oxidised glutathione decreased at 13 weeks, resulting in an increase of the reduced/oxidised glutathione ratio at 13 and 23 weeks. Total antioxidant capacity, catalase, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation and ferritin did not change significantly. Carbohydrate intake was below 50% of energy and fat intake was above 40% of energy. Intakes of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol were excessive. Iron intake was adequate but intakes of folate, vitamin E, calcium and magnesium did not meet the recommended daily allowances. No significant differences were found between sexes in any of the parameters measured. In conclusion, child swimmers improved the redox status of glutathione during training, although the intake of antioxidant nutrients did not change. The iron status was not impaired by training. Suboptimal intake of several nutrients suggests the need for nutritional monitoring and education of children athletes.

  17. The Effect of Iron Fortification on Iron (Fe) Status and Inflammation: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jingqiu; Sun, Qianqian; Liu, Jinrong; Hu, Yanqi; Liu, Shanshan; Zhang, Jie; Sheng, Xiaoyang; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency (ID) is common in toddlers in developing countries. Iron fortified or meat-based complementary foods may be effective to prevent ID. Objective Our objective was to compare iron status at 18 months and growth from 6 to 18 months in rural poor toddlers fed 3 different complementary foods. Methods The study was nested within a larger trial in which 6-month-old infants were randomized to receive 50g/d meat (MG), an equi-caloric fortified cereal supplement (FG) or local cereal supplement (LG) for 1 year. Hb, sTfR, HsCRP, ferritin and AGP were measured in 410 blood samples collected by a random sampling (MG, 137; FG, 140; LG, 133); calprotectin was measured in feces. Body iron = -[log (sTfR ×1000/ferritin)-2.8229] /0.1207. ID = ferritin<12ug/L. Results The toddlers in FG had the significantly highest levels in serum ferritin and body iron (P = 0.043, 0.004), and the rates of both ID and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) were the lowest in FG (P = 0.010, 0.021). The rate of systemic inflammation in FG was 30.71%, which was the highest among three groups (P = 0.042). No intervention effects on either the rates of ID and IDA or iron stores (serum ferritin and body iron) were shown in MG. The change in length-for-age z scores (LAZ) from 6 to 18 months among three groups was significantly different (P = 0.021) and a smaller decrease of LAZ in MG and a larger decrease of LAZ in FG were observed. Conclusion Iron fortified cereal improved iron status of poor rural toddlers but was also associated with systemic inflammation which was likely to impair their growth. PMID:27923057

  18. Deferoxamine inhibition of malaria is independent of host iron status

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism whereby deferoxamine (DF) inhibits the growth of malaria parasites was studied in rats infected with Plasmodium berghei. Peak parasitemia was 32.6% (day 14) in untreated controls and 0.15% (day 7) in rats receiving 0.33 mg/g in 8 hourly DF injections, subcutaneously. DF inhibition of parasite growth was achieved without any reduction in transferrin saturation or hemoglobin synthesis and with only a partial (56%) depletion of hepatic iron stores. Dietary iron depletion resulted in anemia (hematocrit 25 vs. 46%), microcytosis (MCV 54 vs. 60 fl), and reduced transferrin saturation (17 vs. 96%) without any effect on infection (peak parasitemia 30 vs. 36%). Similarly, parenteral iron loading with ferric citrate over 10 d (75 mg iron/kg) failed to aggravate infection. In a search for evidence of direct interaction between DF and parasitized erythrocytes, gel filtration and ultrafiltration was performed on hemolysates obtained from in vivo 59Fe- labeled parasitized erythrocytes. This showed that 1.1-1.9% of the intracellular radioiron was located in a chelatable, labile iron pool. Incubation of intact cells with 0-500 microM DF resulted in a proportional increase in intracellular iron chelation, and the chelation of all available labile intracellular iron was completed within 6 h. These observations indicate that the severity of P. berghei infection in rats and its in vivo suppression by DF are independent of host iron status and suggest that DF inhibition of malaria involves intracellular chelation of a labile iron pool in parasitized erythrocytes. PMID:3294334

  19. Deferoxamine inhibition of malaria is independent of host iron status

    SciTech Connect

    Hershko, C.; Peto, T.E.

    1988-07-01

    The mechanism whereby deferoxamine (DF) inhibits the growth of malaria parasites was studied in rats infected with Plasmodium berghei. Peak parasitemia was 32.6% (day 14) in untreated controls and 0.15% (day 7) in rats receiving 0.33 mg/g in 8 hourly DF injections, subcutaneously. DF inhibition of parasite growth was achieved without any reduction in transferrin saturation or hemoglobin synthesis and with only a partial (56%) depletion of hepatic iron stores. Dietary iron depletion resulted in anemia (hematocrit 25 vs. 46%), microcytosis (MCV 54 vs. 60 fl), and reduced transferrin saturation (17 vs. 96%) without any effect on infection (peak parasitemia 30 vs. 36%). Similarly, parenteral iron loading with ferric citrate over 10 d (75 mg iron/kg) failed to aggravate infection. In a search for evidence of direct interaction between DF and parasitized erythrocytes, gel filtration and ultrafiltration was performed on hemolysates obtained from in vivo /sup 59/Fe-labeled parasitized erythrocytes. This showed that 1.1-1.9% of the intracellular radioiron was located in a chelatable, labile iron pool. Incubation of intact cells with 0-500 microM DF resulted in a proportional increase in intracellular iron chelation, and the chelation of all available labile intracellular iron was completed within 6 h. These observations indicate that the severity of P. berghei infection in rats and its in vivo suppression by DF are independent of host iron status and suggest that DF inhibition of malaria involves intracellular chelation of a labile iron pool in parasitized erythrocytes.

  20. Iron and the female athlete: a review of dietary treatment methods for improving iron status and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Alaunyte, Ieva; Stojceska, Valentina; Plunkett, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Iron is a functional component of oxygen transport and energy production in humans and therefore is a critically important micronutrient for sport and exercise performance. Athletes, particularly female athletes participating in endurance sport, are at increased risk of compromised iron status due to heightened iron losses through menstruation and exercise-induced mechanisms associated with endurance activity. Conventionally oral iron supplementation is used in prevention or/and treatment of iron deficiency. However, this approach has been criticised because of the side effects and increased risk of iron toxicity associated with the use of supplements. Thus, more recently there has been a growing interest in using dietary modification rather than the use of supplements to improve iron status of athletes. Dietary iron treatment methods include the prescription of an iron-rich diet, or/and haem iron-based diet, dietary advice counselling and inclusion of novel iron-rich products into the daily diet. Although studies using dietary modification are still scarce, current literature suggests that dietary iron interventions can assist in maintaining iron status in female athletes, especially during intensive training and competition. Future research should focus on the most efficient method(s) of dietary modification for improvement of iron status and whether these approaches can have a favourable impact on sports and exercise performance.

  1. Influence of host iron status on Plasmodium falciparum infection

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Martha A.; Goheen, Morgan M.; Cerami, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency affects one quarter of the world's population and causes significant morbidity, including detrimental effects on immune function and cognitive development. Accordingly, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends routine iron supplementation in children and adults in areas with a high prevalence of iron deficiency. However, a large body of clinical and epidemiological evidence has accumulated which clearly demonstrates that host iron deficiency is protective against falciparum malaria and that host iron supplementation may increase the risk of malaria. Although many effective antimalarial treatments and preventive measures are available, malaria remains a significant public health problem, in part because the mechanisms of malaria pathogenesis remain obscured by the complexity of the relationships that exist between parasite virulence factors, host susceptibility traits, and the immune responses that modulate disease. Here we review (i) the clinical and epidemiological data that describes the relationship between host iron status and malaria infection and (ii) the current understanding of the biological basis for these clinical and epidemiological observations. PMID:24834053

  2. Disparity between dietary iron intake and iron status of children aged 10-12 years.

    PubMed

    Spodaryk, K

    1999-12-01

    Iron status was assessed in a representative sample of 188 adolescents living in a medium-sized city in Poland. Dietary intakes were evaluated using records of diet over a period of seven consecutive days. Subjects were considered to be iron deficient when two or more of the following parameters were abnormal: serum ferritin, transferrin saturation or mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. Based on this definition, the prevalence of iron deficiency in the investigated sample of children aged from ten to twelve years was 12.7%. Iron deficiency anaemia was defined using the following criteria: haemoglobin values less than 12.0 g. dl (-1) in girls or less than 12.2 g. dl(-1) in boys, combined with an iron deficiency. With such a definition, the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in all subjects was 6.3%. Four boys (3.9%) and six girls (6.8%) were diagnosed as anaemic. The values for Hb in the anaemic boys ranged from 10.9 to 12.2 g. dl (-1) and in anaemic girls from 8.7 to 12.0 g. (-1). It was found that the majority of the individuals studied had a dietary haem-iron intake lower than that recommended. No relationship was found between the level of serum ferritin and total iron and vitamin C dietary intake, but there was positive correlation between serum ferritin and intake of haem iron. A seven-day dietary history questionnaire correctly identified children at risk of iron deficiency anaemia.

  3. Will iron supplementation given during menstruation improve iron status better than weekly supplementation?

    PubMed

    Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Dillon, Drupadi; Khusun, Helda

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of two different iron supplements administered either on a weekly basis or during menstruation, a 16-week community experimental study was carried out among postmenarcheal female adolescent students in Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Forty eight students received a placebo tablet weekly, 48 other students got an iron tablet weekly and 41 students took an iron tablet for four consecutive days during their menstruation cycle. All subjects were given deworming tablets before supplementation. Haemoglobin, serum ferritin, height, weight, mid-upper arm circumference and dietary intake were assessed before and after intervention. The supplementation contributed to a significant improvement in the iron status of the intervention groups compared to the placebo group (P < 0.05). In the menstruation group, the haemoglobin concentrations of the anaemic subjects improved significantly (P < 0.05) while for the non-anaemic subjects, serum ferritin concentrations also increased significantly (P < 0.05). In the weekly group for anaemic and nonanaemic subjects, there was a significant increase in both haemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations (P < 0.05). This study revealed that weekly supplementation of iron tablets continued for 16 weeks contributed a higher improvement to haemoglobin concentration, compared with supplementing iron tablets for four consecutive days during menstruation for four menstrual cycles. This suggests that weekly iron supplementation is preferable.

  4. Evaluation of iron status in European adolescents through biochemical iron indicators: the HELENA Study.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, M; Mistura, L; Patterson, E; Sjöström, M; Díaz, L E; Stehle, P; Gonzalez-Gross, M; Kersting, M; Widhalm, K; Molnár, D; Gottrand, F; De Henauw, S; Manios, Y; Kafatos, A; Moreno, L A; Leclercq, C

    2011-03-01

    To assess the iron status among European adolescents through selected biochemical parameters in a cross-sectional study performed in 10 European cities. Iron status was defined utilising biochemical indicators. Iron depletion was defined as low serum ferritin (SF<15 μg/l). Iron deficiency (ID) was defined as high-soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR>8.5 mg/l) plus iron depletion. Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) was defined as ID with haemoglobin (Hb) below the WHO cutoff for age and sex: 12.0 g/dl for girls and for boys aged 12.5-14.99 years and 13.0 g/dl for boys aged ≥15 years. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used as analytical method for SF, sTfR and C-reactive protein (CRP). Subjects with indication of inflammation (CRP >5 mg/l) were excluded from the analyses. A total of 940 adolescents aged 12.5-17.49 years (438 boys and 502 girls) were involved. The percentage of iron depletion was 17.6%, significantly higher in girls (21.0%) compared with boys (13.8%). The overall percentage of ID and IDA was 4.7 and 1.3%, respectively, with no significant differences between boys and girls. A correlation was observed between log (SF) and Hb (r = 0.36, P < 0.01), and between log (sTfR) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (r = -0.30, P < 0.01). Iron body stores were estimated on the basis of log (sTfR/SF). A higher percentage of negative values of body iron was recorded in girls (16.5%) with respect to boys (8.3%), and body iron values tended to increase with age in boys, whereas the values remained stable in girls. To ensure adequate iron stores, specific attention should be given to girls at European level to ensure that their dietary intake of iron is adequate.

  5. Evaluation of iron status in European adolescents through biochemical iron indicators: the HELENA Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, M; Mistura, L; Patterson, E; Sjöström, M; Díaz, L E; Stehle, P; Gonzalez-Gross, M; Kersting, M; Widhalm, K; Molnár, D; Gottrand, F; De Henauw, S; Manios, Y; Kafatos, A; Moreno, L A; Leclercq, C

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To assess the iron status among European adolescents through selected biochemical parameters in a cross-sectional study performed in 10 European cities. Subjects/Methods: Iron status was defined utilising biochemical indicators. Iron depletion was defined as low serum ferritin (SF<15 μg/l). Iron deficiency (ID) was defined as high-soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR>8.5 mg/l) plus iron depletion. Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) was defined as ID with haemoglobin (Hb) below the WHO cutoff for age and sex: 12.0 g/dl for girls and for boys aged 12.5–14.99 years and 13.0 g/dl for boys aged ⩾15 years. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used as analytical method for SF, sTfR and C-reactive protein (CRP). Subjects with indication of inflammation (CRP >5 mg/l) were excluded from the analyses. A total of 940 adolescents aged 12.5–17.49 years (438 boys and 502 girls) were involved. Results: The percentage of iron depletion was 17.6%, significantly higher in girls (21.0%) compared with boys (13.8%). The overall percentage of ID and IDA was 4.7 and 1.3%, respectively, with no significant differences between boys and girls. A correlation was observed between log (SF) and Hb (r=0.36, P<0.01), and between log (sTfR) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (r=−0.30, P<0.01). Iron body stores were estimated on the basis of log (sTfR/SF). A higher percentage of negative values of body iron was recorded in girls (16.5%) with respect to boys (8.3%), and body iron values tended to increase with age in boys, whereas the values remained stable in girls. Conclusions: To ensure adequate iron stores, specific attention should be given to girls at European level to ensure that their dietary intake of iron is adequate. PMID:21245877

  6. Efficacy of daily and weekly iron supplementation on iron status in exclusively breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Yurdakök, Kadriye; Temiz, Fatih; Yalçin, S Songül; Gümrük, Fatma

    2004-05-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) remains the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in infants worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of daily and weekly iron supplementation for 3 months to improve the iron status in 4-month-old, exclusively breast-fed healthy infants. Infants 4 months of age were eligible for the open, randomized controlled trial if their mothers intended to continue exclusive breast-feeding until the infants were 6 months of age. Infants or mothers with iron deficiency (ID) or IDA on admission were excluded. The infants (n = 79) were randomly assigned to three groups, the first group receiving daily (1 mg/kg daily), the second group weekly (7 mg/kg weekly), and the third group no iron supplementation. Anthropometric measurements were taken on admission and at 6 and 7 months of age. Iron status was analyzed on admission and monthly for 3 months. Both hematologic parameters and anthropometric measurements were found to be similar among the three groups during the study period. Seven infants (31.8%) in the control group, six (26.0%) in the daily group, and three (13.6%) in the weekly group developed ID or IDA (P > 0.05). Infants whose mothers had ID or IDA during the study period were more likely to develop ID or IDA independently from iron supplementation. Serum ferritin levels decreased between 4 and 6 months of age in the control and daily groups; the weekly group showed no such decrease. In all groups, the mean levels of serum ferritin were significantly increased from 6 months to 7 months of age during the weaning period. In this study, which had a limited number of cases, weekly or daily iron supplementation was not found to decrease the likelihood of IDA. In conclusion, exclusively breast-fed infants with maternal IDA appeared to be at increased risk of developing IDA.

  7. Iron status biomarkers in iron deficient women consuming oily fish versus red meat diet.

    PubMed

    Navas-Carretero, S; Pérez-Granados, A M; Schoppen, S; Sarria, B; Carbajal, A; Vaquero, M P

    2009-06-01

    Specific recommendations for anemic individuals consist in increasing red meat intake, but the population at large is advised to reduce consumption of red meat and increase that of fish, in order to prevent the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to determine the effects of consuming an oily fish compared to a red meat diet on iron status in women with low iron stores. The study was designed attending the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement guidelines. It was a randomised crossover dietary intervention study of two 8-week periods. Twenty-five young women with low iron stores completed the study. Two diets containing a total of 8 portions of fish, meat and poultry per week were designed differing only in their oily fish or red meat content (5 portions per week). At the beginning and the end of each period blood samples were taken and hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum ferritin, serum iron, serum transferrin, serum transferrin receptor-2 and the Zn-protoporphyrin/free-protoporphyrin ratio were determined. Food intake and body weight were monitored. During the oily fish diet, PUFA intake was significantly higher (p=0.010) and iron intake lower (mean+/-SD, 11.5+/-3.4 mg/day vs. 13.9+/-0.1 mg/day, p=0.008), both diets providing lower mean daily iron intake than recommended for menstruating women. Although there were no significant differences after 16 weeks, serum ferritin moderately decreased and soluble transferrin receptor increased with the oily fish, while changes with the red meat diet were the opposite. In conclusion, an oily fish diet compared to a red meat diet does not decrease iron status after 8 weeks in iron deficient women.

  8. Iron status and reproduction in US women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2006.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    Women experience significant changes in iron status throughout their reproductive lifespans. While this is evident in regions with high rates of malnutrition and infectious disease, the extent of reproductive-related changes is less well known in countries with low rates of iron deficiency anemia, such as the United States. The goal of this study is determine the relationship between women's reproductive variables (pregnancy, parity, currently breastfeeding, regular menstruation, hormonal contraceptive use, and age at menarche) and iron status (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin receptor, and % transferrin saturation) using an anthropological framework for interpreting the results. Data from women aged 18-49 were taken from the 1999-2006 US NHANES, a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of US women. Using multiple imputation and complex survey statistics, women's reproductive variables were regressed against indicators of iron status. Pregnant women had significantly poorer iron status, by most indicators, than non-pregnant women. All biomarkers demonstrated significantly lower iron levels with increasing parity. Women who were having regular periods had iron indicators that suggested decreased iron levels, while women who used hormonal contraceptives had iron indicators that suggested increased iron levels. Despite relatively good iron status and widespread availability of iron-rich foods in the US, women still exhibit patterns of iron depletion across several reproductive variables of interest. These results contribute to an ecological approach to iron status that seeks to understand variation in iron status, with the hopes that appropriate, population-specific recommendations can be developed to improve women's health.

  9. Iron Status and Reproduction in US Women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2006

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Women experience significant changes in iron status throughout their reproductive lifespans. While this is evident in regions with high rates of malnutrition and infectious disease, the extent of reproductive-related changes is less well known in countries with low rates of iron deficiency anemia, such as the United States. The goal of this study is determine the relationship between women's reproductive variables (pregnancy, parity, currently breastfeeding, regular menstruation, hormonal contraceptive use, and age at menarche) and iron status (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin receptor, and % transferrin saturation) using an anthropological framework for interpreting the results. Data from women aged 18–49 were taken from the 1999–2006 US NHANES, a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of US women. Using multiple imputation and complex survey statistics, women's reproductive variables were regressed against indicators of iron status. Pregnant women had significantly poorer iron status, by most indicators, than non-pregnant women. All biomarkers demonstrated significantly lower iron levels with increasing parity. Women who were having regular periods had iron indicators that suggested decreased iron levels, while women who used hormonal contraceptives had iron indicators that suggested increased iron levels. Despite relatively good iron status and widespread availability of iron-rich foods in the US, women still exhibit patterns of iron depletion across several reproductive variables of interest. These results contribute to an ecological approach to iron status that seeks to understand variation in iron status, with the hopes that appropriate, population-specific recommendations can be developed to improve women's health. PMID:25375360

  10. HFE gene mutations and iron status of Brazilian blood donors.

    PubMed

    Santos, P C J L; Cançado, R D; Terada, C T; Rostelato, S; Gonzales, I; Hirata, R D C; Hirata, M H; Chiattone, C S; Guerra-Shinohara, E M

    2010-01-01

    Mutations of the HFE and TFR2 genes have been associated with iron overload. HFE and TFR2 mutations were assessed in blood donors, and the relationship with iron status was evaluated. Subjects (N = 542) were recruited at the Hemocentro da Santa Casa de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Iron status was not influenced by HFE mutations in women and was independent of blood donation frequency. In contrast, men carrying the HFE 282CY genotype had lower total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) than HFE 282CC genotype carriers. Men who donated blood for the first time and were carriers of the HFE 282CY genotype had higher transferrin saturation values and lower TIBC concentrations than those with the homozygous wild genotype for the HFE C282Y mutation. Moreover, in this group of blood donors, carriers of HFE 63DD plus 63HD genotypes had higher serum ferritin values than those with the homozygous wild genotype for HFE H63D mutation. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that HFE 282CY leads to a 17.21% increase (P = 0.018) and a 83.65% decrease (P = 0.007) in transferrin saturation and TIBC, respectively. In addition, serum ferritin is influenced by age (3.91%, P = 0.001) and the HFE 63HD plus DD genotype (55.84%, P = 0.021). In conclusion, the HFE 282Y and 65C alleles were rare, while the HFE 63D allele was frequent in Brazilian blood donors. The HFE C282Y and H63D mutations were associated with alterations in iron status in blood donors in a gender-dependent manner.

  11. Iron deficiency in adolescent female athletes - is iron status affected by regular sporting activity?

    PubMed

    Sandström, Göran; Börjesson, Mats; Rödjer, Stig

    2012-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among a group of female athletes and compare with an age-matched group of female nonathletes. To study lifestyle factors that could play a role in the development of ID and IDA and compare these factors between the groups. A controlled clinical trial. A senior high school for athletes in Gothenburg, Sweden. All female athletes at a senior high school for top-level athletes were offered to take part. Fifty-seven female athletes accepted to participate in the study. The control group consisted of a random sample of 130 age-matched nonathlete students; 92 accepted to participate in the study. Intervention was not an actual part of this study but those with ID and IDA were treated with iron by the regular school doctor. Iron deficiency anemia and ID were determined by levels of hemoglobin, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin. The main result of the study is the finding that ID and IDA are common among young adolescent female athletes and that there was no difference between female athletes and nonathletes. In the athlete group, 30 of 57 individuals (52%) had ID compared with 43 of 92 individuals (48%) in the nonathlete group (P > 0.3). Comparisons of the 2 groups showed no significant difference in hemoglobin (P > 0.30). In total, we found that 5 of 57 athletes (8.6%) had IDA compared with 3 of 92 nonathletes (3.3%), the difference being not statistically significant (P = 0.24). The main finding of this study is that ID and IDA are common among female adolescents but not more common among athletes than nonathletes. The results are despite factors that should favor a better iron status in the athlete group, such as better iron intake and less menstrual bleeding. Other factors that might have an impact on iron balance, must therefore be considered.

  12. Iron status and body composition of competitive female ice skaters

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, P.J.; Caldwell, M.J.; Gerber, L.E.; Rand, A.G.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of training and competition on iron status and body composition of ice skaters were evaluated pre-season (PS), during competitive season (CS), and out of season (OS). Eighteen females, aged 14 to 16, with mean heights and weights of 158.2 +/- 4.1cm, and 50.9 +/- 5.2 kg, respectively, participated. During each season, fasted, cenous blood samples were analyzed for hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Mg), serum iron (SI), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), and serum ferritin (F). Percent body fat was estimated from skinfolds (SF) and from underwater weighting (UW). Mean percent PS body fat was 20% by both UW and SF. UW values did not change significantly with seasons. In contrast, percent SF body fat were significantly higher OS than PS and CS. Heights and weights did not differ significantly during the year. Mean Hcts were normal throughout the seasons, however mean Hbs were significantly lower during CS than OS (14.5 vs. 15.5gm/dl, respectively). Mean F did not vary significantly PS and OS. Mean SI and TIBC were in normal ranges although OS means were significantly higher than PS and CS. The results indicate that the iron status of the ice skaters in the study varied with the training seasons and was lower during CS.

  13. The iron status at birth of neonates with risk factors for developing iron deficiency: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    MacQueen, BC; Christensen, RD; Ward, DM; Bennett, ST; O’Brien, EA; Sheffield, MJ; Baer, VL; Snow, GL; Lewis, KA Weaver; Fleming, RE; Kaplan, J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates, infants of diabetic mothers (IDM) and very-low-birth weight premature neonates (VLBW) are reported to have increased risk for developing iron deficiency and possibly associated neurocognitive delays. STUDY DESIGN We conducted a pilot study to assess iron status at birth in at-risk neonates by measuring iron parameters in umbilical cord blood from SGA, IDM, VLBW and comparison neonates. RESULTS Six of the 50 infants studied had biochemical evidence of iron deficiency at birth. Laboratory findings consistent with iron deficiency were found in one SGA, one IDM, three VLBW, and one comparison infant. None of the infants had evidence of iron deficiency anemia. CONCLUSIONS Evidence of biochemical iron deficiency at birth was found in 17% of screened neonates. Studies are needed to determine whether these infants are at risk for developing iron-limited erythropoiesis, iron deficiency anemia or iron-deficient neurocognitive delay. PMID:27977019

  14. Iron status and socioeconomic determinants of the quantity and quality of dietary iron in a group of rural Iranian women.

    PubMed

    Djazayery, A; Keshavarz, A; Ansari, F; Mahmoudi, M

    2001-01-01

    Iron intake and status were investigated in 471 mothers (age range: 16-53 years) from rural areas in Khorramabad, Islamic Republic of Iran. Although average total iron intake was acceptable, only 6.4% of women derived at least 4% of their total intake from animal iron. Average energy and protein intakes were inadequate. Low iron status was seen in 8.2%-28.7%, depending on the parameter used, with 28.3% experiencing iron-deficiency anaemia. Significantly higher animal iron intakes were found in literate or employed women, or those of family size fewer than six people. Increasing employment opportunities, income levels and literacy rates for women will result in better iron intake and status and should receive particular attention in national planning.

  15. Maternal inflammation at delivery affects assessment of maternal iron status.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunmin; Guillet, Ronnie; Cooper, Elizabeth M; Westerman, Mark; Orlando, Mark; Pressman, Eva; O'Brien, Kimberly O

    2014-10-01

    Pregnant adolescents (aged ≤ 18 y, n = 253) were followed from ≥ 12 wk of gestation to delivery to assess longitudinal changes in anemia and iron status and to explore associations between iron status indicators, hepcidin, and inflammatory markers. Hemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), ferritin, serum iron, erythropoietin (EPO), hepcidin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), folate, and vitamin B-12 were measured, and total body iron (TBI) (milligrams per kilogram) was calculated using sTfR and ferritin values. Anemia prevalence increased from trimesters 1 and 2 (3-5%, <28 wk) to trimester 3 (25%, 33.2 ± 3.7 wk, P < 0.0001). The prevalence of iron deficiency (sTfR > 8.5 mg/L) doubled from pregnancy to delivery (7% to 14%, P = 0.04). Ferritin and hepcidin concentrations at delivery may have been elevated as a consequence of inflammation because IL-6 concentrations at delivery were 1.6-fold higher than those obtained at 26.1 ± 3.3 wk of gestation (P < 0.0001), and a positive association was found between IL-6 and both hepcidin and ferritin at delivery (P < 0.01). EPO was consistently correlated with hemoglobin (r = -0.36 and -0.43, P < 0.001), ferritin (r = -0.37 and -0.32, P < 0.0001), sTfR (r = 0.35 and 0.25, P < 0.001), TBI (r = -0.44 and -0.37, P < 0.0001), and serum iron (r = -0.22 and -0.16, P < 0.05) at mid-gestation and at delivery, respectively. EPO alone explained the largest proportion of variance in hemoglobin at 26.0 ± 3.3 wk of gestation (R(2) = 0.13, P = 0.0001, n = 113) and at delivery (R(2) = 0.19, P < 0.0001, n = 192). Pregnant adolescents are at high risk of anemia. EPO is a sensitive indicator of iron status across gestation, is not affected by systemic inflammation, and may better predict risk of anemia at term. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01019902.

  16. Iron status in diffuse telogen hair loss among women.

    PubMed

    Moeinvaziri, Mojdeh; Mansoori, Parvin; Holakooee, Koorosh; Safaee Naraghi, Zahra; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between iron body status and different types of hair loss has been investigated in a number of studies, however, with relatively discrepant findings. Therefore we conducted an analytical case-control study to assess whether diffuse telogen hair loss in women of childbearing age (15 to 45 years old) is associated with iron deficiency. Using the analytical case-control methodology, we studied 30 consecutive women with documented diffuse telogen hair loss in comparison with 30 women without hair loss. Study subjects had no history of nutritional supplement intake or chronic underlying diseases, and had normal thyroid function and inflammatory profiles. Biochemical investigations were performed in all study women. The mean ferritin level and trasferrin saturation was statistically significantly lower in patients with diffuse telogen hair loss than in subjects without hair loss (16.3+/-12.6 vs. 60.3+/-50.1, ng/mL; P<0.0001 and 20.3+/-9.7 vs. 28.3+/-11.8 percent; P=0.006, respectively). Also, total iron binding capacity was significantly higher in patients than in control group (367.8+/-58.2 vs. 319.2+/-60.1 microg/dL; P=0.004). Of nine patients with iron deficiency anemia (Hb <12 g/dL), eight patients had telogen hair loss (odds ratio: 10.5, 95%CI: 1.2-90.7; P=0.013). Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for diffuse telogen hair loss was 21.0 (4.2-105.0) at serum ferritin levels < or =30 ng/mL. Women with iron deficiency status are at a risk of telogen hair loss. The important role of serum ferritin in hair loss is becoming more evident. In women without systemic inflammation or other underlying disorders, serum ferritin levels below or equal to 30 ng/mL are strongly associated with telogen hair loss.

  17. Calcium does not inhibit iron absorption or alter iron status in infant piglets adapted to a high calcium diet.

    PubMed

    Wauben, I P; Atkinson, S A

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a dietary calcium:iron ratio similar to that often consumed by premature human infants inhibits iron absorption in infant piglets adapted to a high calcium diet. Male Yorkshire piglets were randomized at 3 to 4 d of age to a high calcium diet (4.67 g/L = HC) or a normal calcium diet (2.0 g/L = NC) and fed for 2 to 2.5 wk. An iron dextran injection was administered in amounts to achieve a marginal state of iron repletion to simulate iron status of premature infants. In vivo iron absorption from the diet was determined using the radiotracers 55Fe and 59Fe and whole body counting. Calcium:iron interactions at absorption sites in piglets fed HC and NC were investigated by measurements of time-dependent 59Fe uptake in response to different calcium:iron ratios in vitro in brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). In vivo iron absorption from the diet did not differ between NC and HC diet groups [57 +/- 8% versus 55 +/- 17% (mean +/- SD), respectively]. Iron status and iron contencentrations in spleen, liver, intestine, kidney and heart did not differ between diet groups. Iron uptake in BBMV was significantly reduced by calcium in both HC and NC (P < 0.001); but there were no significant differences in iron uptake in response to different calcium:iron ratios between HC and NC. With feeding a HC diet for 2 wk there may be an adaptive response to counteract the inhibitory effects of calcium on iron absorption, thus resulting in similar in vivo iron absorption and iron status irrespective of the 1.3-fold difference in dietary calcium:iron ratio between piglet groups. However, future studies are needed to determine the specific sites of calcium:iron interactions and adaptation mechanisms. Since the calcium:iron ratios used in this study reflect the usual calcium:iron ratios in diets for premature infants, it is unlikely that interactive effects of calcium with iron will compromise iron status in this infant population when

  18. Laboratory variables for assessing iron deficiency in REDS-II Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) blood donors.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Joseph E; Steele, Whitney R; Wright, David J; Mast, Alan E; Carey, Patricia M; Murphy, Edward L; Gottschall, Jerry L; Simon, Toby L; Cable, Ritchard G

    2013-11-01

    Iron deficiency is common in regular blood donors. We evaluated the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of red blood cell (RBC) hematology analyzer indices to assess iron status as a part of donor management. A total of 1659 male and female donors from the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II) Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) study who were either first-time/reactivated (FT/RA; no donations for 2 years) or frequent donors were recruited into a longitudinal study of regular donation of RBCs. Of these, 1002 donors returned 15 to 24 months later for a final assessment. Absent iron stores (AIS) was defined as plasma ferritin level of less than 12 μg/L. Logarithm of the ratio of soluble transferrin receptor to ferritin of at least 2.07 (≥97.5% in FT/RA males) was used to define iron-deficient erythropoiesis (IDE). Receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed to assess selected RBC indices (e.g., percentage of hypochromic mature RBCs, proportion of hypochromic mature RBCs [HYPOm], and hemoglobin [Hb] content of reticulocytes [CHr]) in identifying AIS and IDE. HYPOm and CHr detected IDE with comparable sensitivity, 72% versus 69%, but differed in specificity: HYPOm 68% and CHr 53%. For detecting AIS, sensitivity was improved to 85% for HYPOm and 81% for CHr but specificity was reduced for both. Venous Hb had high specificity but poor sensitivity for IDE and AIS. A plasma ferritin level of less than 26.7 μg/L was a good surrogate for assessing IDE. RBC indices correlate with AIS and IDE and are more informative than Hb measurement, but lack sufficient sensitivity and specificity to be used as diagnostic tools in blood donors at risk for iron deficiency. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  19. Laboratory variables for assessing iron deficiency in REDS-II Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Joseph E.; Steele, Whitney R.; Wright, David J.; Mast, Alan E.; Carey, Patricia M.; Murphy, Edward L.; Gottschall, Jerry L.; Simon, Toby L.; Cable, Ritchard G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Iron deficiency is common in regular blood donors. We evaluated the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of red blood cell (RBC) hematology analyzer indices to assess iron status as a part of donor management. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 1659 male and female donors from the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II) Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) study who were either first-time/reactivated (FT/ RA; no donations for 2 years) or frequent donors were recruited into a longitudinal study of regular donation of RBCs. Of these, 1002 donors returned 15 to 24 months later for a final assessment. Absent iron stores (AIS) was defined as plasma ferritin level of less than 12 µ.g/L. Logarithm of the ratio of soluble transferrin receptor to ferritin of at least 2.07 (≥97.5% in FT/RA males) was used to define iron-deficient erythropoiesis (IDE). Receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed to assess selected RBC indices (e.g., percentage of hypochromic mature RBCs, proportion of hypochromic mature RBCs [HYPOm], and hemoglobin [Hb] content of reticulocytes [CHr]) in identifying AIS and IDE. RESULTS HYPOm and CHr detected IDE with comparable sensitivity, 72% versus 69%, but differed in specificity: HYPOm 68% and CHr 53%. For detecting AIS, sensitivity was improved to 85% for HYPOm and 81% for CHr but specificity was reduced for both. Venous Hb had high specificity but poor sensitivity for IDE and AIS. A plasma ferritin level of less than 26.7 u.g/L was a good surrogate for assessing IDE. CONCLUSION RBC indices correlate with AIS and IDE and are more informative than Hb measurement, but lack sufficient sensitivity and specificity to be used as diagnostic tools in blood donors at risk for iron deficiency. PMID:23617531

  20. What's Cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... people in the U.S. with children under 12 accounting for less than 10% of all cases. According ... RCM) is the least common type of cardiomyopathy accounting for only 5% of patients with cardiomyopathy. It ...

  1. Peripartum cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Grixti, Sarah; Magri, Caroline J; Xuereb, Robert; Fava, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a form of dilated cardiomyopathy of indeterminate aetiology occurring in late pregnancy or the months following delivery. This article reviews current knowledge of its pathophysiology, therapeutic strategies and prognosis, as well as new treatments and future directions.

  2. Maternal and perinatal predictors of newborn iron status.

    PubMed

    Morton, Susan B; Saraf, Rajneeta; Bandara, Dinusha K; Bartholomew, Karen; Gilchrist, Catherine A; Atatoa Carr, Polly E; Baylis, Lara; Wall, Clare R; Blacklock, Hilary A; Tebbutt, Margaret; Grant, Cameron C

    2014-09-12

    To describe iron status at birth in a population sample of children. Cord blood samples were obtained at birth from 131 infants enrolled in the cohort study Growing Up in New Zealand. Cord blood serum ferritin (SF) and haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were measured and associations of SF and Hb with maternal and birth characteristics were determined. Demographics were comparable to the larger cohort, except for having a higher pre-pregnancy body mass index (26.9 vs. 25.4 kg/m2, P=0.005), lower frequency of cigarette smoking during pregnancy (2% vs. 11%, P=0.0004), and smaller proportion with birth-weight <2500 g (0% vs. 5%, P=0.03). Median (interquartile range) SF was 135 (88-180) mcg/L and mean (plus or minus SD) Hb was 160 plus or minus 17 g/L. Eight newborns (7%) had cord SF levels indicative of iron deficiency (SF <35 mcg/L), two newborns were anaemic (Hb <130 g/L) and none had iron deficiency anaemia. Median SF was lower in newborns whose mothers consumed greater than or equal to 3 servings of milk/day during the pregnancy (131 vs. 151 mcg/L, P=0.04). No other associations with SF or Hb were observed. Iron deficiency is present in 7% of newborns in New Zealand. Newborns whose mothers consumed more milk during pregnancy had a lower median SF concentration.

  3. Relationship between vitamin D deficiency, bone remodelling and iron status in iron-deficient young women consuming an iron-fortified food.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Toxqui, Laura; Zazo, Pilar; de la Piedra, Concepción; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2013-03-01

    Iron and vitamin D deficiencies are two of the most widespread nutritional disorders in the world. Our aim was to know whether the consumption of an iron-fortified fruit juice modifies bone remodelling and the possible influence of baseline vitamin D status on the recovery of iron status in a group of iron-deficient women. Iron biomarkers, 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and dietary intake were measured in 123 iron-deficient menstruating women. A subgroup (n = 41) participated in a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study of 16-weeks during winter. They consumed a placebo fruit juice (P) or iron-fortified fruit juice (F). Dietary intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathormone (PTH), bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aminoterminal telopeptide of collagen I (NTX) and iron biomarkers were determined. Ninety-two per cent of the iron-deficient women were vitamin D deficient or insufficient. Transferrin saturation and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were positively correlated. Iron status improved in F, 25-hydroxyvitamin D decreased in F and P, and PTH, ALP and NTX levels were within the normal range and did not vary. Women with 25-hydroxyvitamin D ≥ 50 nmol/L compared with 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 50 nmol/L showed a higher increase in transferrin saturation (a marker of iron supply to tissues) during iron recovery. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is very high in iron-deficient women. The recovery of iron status by consuming an iron-fortified food does not affect 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels; however, the increase in iron supply to tissues is lower if the women also present vitamin D deficiency. Although bone health does not seem to be affected in this group of women, correction of iron and vitamin D deficiencies should be promoted in young women to improve present and future health.

  4. Zinc and iron status during pregnancy of Filipino women.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Nynke; Romano, Aurora B Ampong; Gibson, Rosalind S

    2002-01-01

    Low birthweight is associated with maternal anaemia and, in some circumstances, with low iron and zinc status, but this relationship has not been investigated in the Philippines. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of anaemia and suboptimal iron and zinc status in pregnant women from three geographical regions (mountain, coast, city) of Zamboanga del Sur province at 24 weeks (n = 305). and again at 36 weeks (n = 127), gestation. At 24 weeks, 34% were anaemic (i.e., haemoglobin < 105 g/L) from all causes, of whom only 14% had concomitant low serum ferritin values (i.e., < 12 microg/L). The presence of infection was low, based on both elevated white blood cell count (> 11 x 10(9)/L; 19%) and serum C-reactive protein (> 15 mg/L; 3%). Of the women surveyed, 20% were iron depleted but not anaemic, and 15% were zinc deficient (i.e., serum zinc < 7.1 Micromol/L). The mean (+/- SD) birthweight of the infants (n = 250) was 3074 g +/- 408 g, of whom 5% were of low birthweight (< 2500 g). No differences existed for biochemical indices or birthweight among the three regions, or between women consuming maize or rice-based diets. Women with low haemoglobin (P = 0.05) and low serum zinc (P = 0.14) values at 24 weeks gestation had infants with lower birthweights than those with values > or = 105 g/L and > or = 7.1 micromol/L, respectively. However, in the multivariate model, the contribution of maternal haemoglobin to the variance in birthweight at 24 weeks gestation was non-significant, although modest for serum zinc. Anaemia and/or suboptimal zinc status during pregnancy may be related to low birthweight in the Philippines, and their aetiology deserves further study.

  5. Influence of diet and supplements on iron status after gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Mischler, Renee A; Armah, Seth M; Wright, Breanne N; Mattar, Samer G; Rosen, Arthur D; Gletsu-Miller, Nana

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency is common after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, but there is no consensus on the optimal diet quality and quantity for restoring and preserving iron status. The authors explored the impact of dietary and supplemental sources of iron and absorptive factors on iron status. Academic, United States. In a cross-sectional cohort of individuals who underwent RYGB, nutrient intakes from food and supplements were measured using 3-day food records. Blood biomarkers of iron status, including concentrations of ferritin, total iron binding capacity, serum transferrin receptor (sTfR), and the sTfR:ferritin ratio, were assessed by a reference laboratory; iron deficiency was defined as having at least 2 abnormal measures. Associations between iron status biomarkers and dietary predictors were determined using regression analysis. Of the 36 participants, 97% were female, the mean age was 45 years (95% confidence interval, 41-48 years), and body mass index was 32 (30-35) kg/m(2). Iron deficiency was found in 42% of participants. Dietary intake of heme iron, found in meats, was favorably associated with 3 iron status biomarkers (ferritin, β = .366; sTfR:ferritin ratio, β = -.459; and total iron binding capacity, β = -18.26; all P<.05), independent of obesity-induced inflammation. Intake of vitamin C from food contributed to iron status (ferritin, β = .010 and sTfR:ferritin ratio, β = -.011; P<.05). Use of supplementary non-heme iron, at doses recommended for prophylaxis (45 mg/d), was positively associated with serum ferritin (β = .964; P = .029). For patients who have undergone RYGB, consuming high, but realistic amounts of heme iron in meat, vitamin C from food, and adherence to recommended iron supplements can prevent iron deficiency. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pediatric Cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Teresa M; Hsu, Daphne T; Kantor, Paul; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Ware, Stephanie M; Colan, Steven D; Chung, Wendy K; Jefferies, John L; Rossano, Joseph W; Castleberry, Chesney D; Addonizio, Linda J; Lal, Ashwin K; Lamour, Jacqueline M; Miller, Erin M; Thrush, Philip T; Czachor, Jason D; Razoky, Hiedy; Hill, Ashley; Lipshultz, Steven E

    2017-09-15

    Pediatric cardiomyopathies are rare diseases with an annual incidence of 1.1 to 1.5 per 100 000. Dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathies are the most common; restrictive, noncompaction, and mixed cardiomyopathies occur infrequently; and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is rare. Pediatric cardiomyopathies can result from coronary artery abnormalities, tachyarrhythmias, exposure to infection or toxins, or secondary to other underlying disorders. Increasingly, the importance of genetic mutations in the pathogenesis of isolated or syndromic pediatric cardiomyopathies is becoming apparent. Pediatric cardiomyopathies often occur in the absence of comorbidities, such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, renal dysfunction, and diabetes mellitus; as a result, they offer insights into the primary pathogenesis of myocardial dysfunction. Large international registries have characterized the epidemiology, cause, and outcomes of pediatric cardiomyopathies. Although adult and pediatric cardiomyopathies have similar morphological and clinical manifestations, their outcomes differ significantly. Within 2 years of presentation, normalization of function occurs in 20% of children with dilated cardiomyopathy, and 40% die or undergo transplantation. Infants with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have a 2-year mortality of 30%, whereas death is rare in older children. Sudden death is rare. Molecular evidence indicates that gene expression differs between adult and pediatric cardiomyopathies, suggesting that treatment response may differ as well. Clinical trials to support evidence-based treatments and the development of disease-specific therapies for pediatric cardiomyopathies are in their infancy. This compendium summarizes current knowledge of the genetic and molecular origins, clinical course, and outcomes of the most common phenotypic presentations of pediatric cardiomyopathies and highlights key areas where additional research is required. URL: http

  7. Influence of maternal diabetes mellitus on fetal iron status

    PubMed Central

    Verner, Alison Maria; Manderson, John; Lappin, Terrence RJ; McCance, David R; Halliday, Henry L; Sweet, David G

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of maternal diabetes on fetal iron status using serum transferrin receptors (STfR) and their ratio to ferritin (TfR‐F index) in cord blood. Methods Iron, ferritin, erythropoietin, STfR and haemoglobin concentration were measured and TfR‐F index calculated in 97 maternal/cord blood pairs. Forty‐nine women had type 1 diabetes (diagnosed before pregnancy) and these were compared with forty‐eight non‐ diabetic controls. The women with type 1 diabetes were recruited consecutively from attendance at the joint antenatal endocrine clinic while the control group of women was recruited from consecutive attendance at the remaining antenatal clinics. Results The infants of the diabetic women had significantly lower levels of ferritin (47 vs 169 μg/l; p<0.01) and higher STfR (17.4 vs 12.9 mg/l; p<0.01) and TfR‐F index (10.4 vs 5.8; p<0.01) than controls. They were also significantly more acidotic at birth (7.25 vs 7.30; p<0.01), were born at an earlier gestation (36.7 vs 39.7 weeks; p<0.01) and had higher z Scores for weight (0.53 vs 0.02; p = 0.016). Conclusions Maternal diabetes causes depletion of fetal iron stores and is associated with higher fetal iron demands as indicated by higher STfR level and TfR‐F index in cord blood. PMID:17095546

  8. The effect of iron fortification and de-worming on anaemia and iron status of Vietnamese schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Le Huong, Thi; Brouwer, Inge D; Nguyen, Khan Cong; Burema, Jan; Kok, Frans J

    2007-05-01

    Previous data from Vietnam show that anaemia is highly prevalent among schoolchildren, who are considered not to be iron deficient. Trichuris infection doubled the risk of anaemia. The present study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that de-worming is more effective than iron fortification in an anaemic, infection-prone population. In a trial with a 2 x 2 factorial design, 425 anaemic children aged 6-8 years were randomly assigned to receive either iron-fortified noodles or placebo, and mebendazole or placebo. Outcomes considered were change in haematological indicators of iron status (Hb, serum ferritin (SF), serum transferrin receptor (TfR) and haemoglobinopathies analysis); inflammations (C-reactive protein (CRP)); parasite infection status (hookworm, Trichuris and Ascaris infection); and IgE. ANOVA and logistic regression were used to assess the effects of iron fortification and de-worming on Hb, SF, TfR, body iron and anaemia. Hb improved in all groups after 6 months of intervention. Iron fortification significantly improved Hb, SF and body iron (2.6 g/l, 16.3 microg/l and 1 mg/kg, respectively). Prevalence of elevated IgE was very high at baseline (99%) and significantly reduced to about 75% in all groups after intervention. De-worming unexpectedly showed no effect on Hb, iron status and IgE level. It is concluded that iron fortification slightly improved anaemia and iron status in anaemic schoolchildren in rural Vietnam that were not considered iron deficient. Chronic infection or other unidentified factors may play an important role in the seasonal reduction of anaemia seen in all treatment groups.

  9. Effect of iron status on iron absorption in different habitual meals in young south Indian women.

    PubMed

    Kalasuramath, Suneeta; Kurpad, Anura V; Thankachan, Prashanth

    2013-02-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) affects a large number of women in India. An inverse relationship exists between iron (Fe) status and Fe absorption. Dietary inhibitory and enhancing factors exert a profound influence on bioavailability of Fe. Although the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for Fe is based on 8 per cent bioavailability, it is not clear if this holds good for the usual highly inhibitory Indian diet matrix. This study was aimed to determine Fe absorption from several habitually consumed south Indian food and to evaluate the interaction of Fe status with absorption. Four Fe absorption studies were performed on 60 apparently healthy young women, aged 18-35 years. Based on blood biochemistry, 45 of them were ID and 15 were iron replete (IR). The habitual meals assessed were rice, millet and wheat based meals in the ID subjects and rice based meal alone in the IR subjects. Each subject received the test meal labelled with 3 mg of ⁵⁷Fe and Fe absorption was measured based on erythrocyte incorporation of isotope label 14 days following administration. Mean fractional Fe absorption from the rice, wheat and millet based meals in the ID subjects were 8.3, 11.2 and 4.6 per cent, respectively. Fe absorption from the rice-based meals was 2.5 per cent in IR subjects. Fe absorption is dictated by Fe status from low bioavailability meals. Millet based meals have the lowest bioavailability, while the rice and wheat based meals had moderate to good bioavailability. In millet based meals, it is prudent to consider ways to improve Fe absorption.

  10. Effect of iron status on iron absorption in different habitual meals in young south Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Kalasuramath, Suneeta; Kurpad, Anura V.; Thankachan, Prashanth

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Iron deficiency (ID) affects a large number of women in India. An inverse relationship exists between iron (Fe) status and Fe absorption. Dietary inhibitory and enhancing factors exert a profound influence on bioavailability of Fe. Although the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for Fe is based on 8 per cent bioavailability, it is not clear if this holds good for the usual highly inhibitory Indian diet matrix. This study was aimed to determine Fe absorption from several habitually consumed south Indian food and to evaluate the interaction of Fe status with absorption. Methods: Four Fe absorption studies were performed on 60 apparently healthy young women, aged 18-35 years. Based on blood biochemistry, 45 of them were ID and 15 were iron replete (IR). The habitual meals assessed were rice, millet and wheat based meals in the ID subjects and rice based meal alone in the IR subjects. Each subject received the test meal labelled with 3 mg of 57Fe and Fe absorption was measured based on erythrocyte incorporation of isotope label 14 days following administration. Results: Mean fractional Fe absorption from the rice, wheat and millet based meals in the ID subjects were 8.3, 11.2 and 4.6 per cent, respectively. Fe absorption from the rice-based meals was 2.5 per cent in IR subjects. Interpretation & conclusions: Fe absorption is dictated by Fe status from low bioavailability meals. Millet based meals have the lowest bioavailability, while the rice and wheat based meals had moderate to good bioavailability. In millet based meals, it is prudent to consider ways to improve Fe absorption. PMID:23563376

  11. Peripartum Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Arany, Zolt; Elkayam, Uri

    2016-04-05

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a potentially life-threatening pregnancy-associated disease that typically arises in the peripartum period and is marked by left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure. The disease is relatively uncommon, but its incidence is rising. Women often recover cardiac function, but long-lasting morbidity and mortality are not infrequent. Management of peripartum cardiomyopathy is largely limited to the same neurohormonal antagonists used in other forms of cardiomyopathy, and no proven disease-specific therapies exist yet. Research in the past decade has suggested that peripartum cardiomyopathy is caused by vascular dysfunction, triggered by late-gestational maternal hormones. Most recently, information has also indicated that many cases of peripartum cardiomyopathy have genetic underpinnings. We review here the known epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management of peripartum cardiomyopathy, as well as the current knowledge of the pathophysiology of the disease. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Effects of iron status on transpulmonary transport and tissue distribution of Mn and Fe.

    PubMed

    Brain, Joseph D; Heilig, Elizabeth; Donaghey, Thomas C; Knutson, Mitchell D; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne; Molina, Ramon M

    2006-03-01

    Manganese transport into the blood can result from inhaling metal-containing particles. Intestinal manganese and iron absorption is mediated by divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and is upregulated in iron deficiency. Since iron status alters absorption of Fe and Mn in the gut, we tested the hypothesis that iron status may alter pulmonary transport of these metals. DMT1 expression in the lungs was evaluated to explore its role in metal transport. The pharmacokinetics of intratracheally instilled 54Mn or 59Fe in repeatedly bled or iron oxide-exposed rats were compared with controls. Iron oxide exposure caused a reduction in pulmonary transport of 54Mn and 59Fe, and decreased uptake in other major organs. Low iron status from repeated bleeding also reduced pulmonary transport of iron but not of manganese. However, uptake of manganese in the brain and of iron in the spleen increased in bled rats. DMT1 transcripts were detected in airway epithelium, alveolar macrophages, and bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue in all rats. Focal increases were seen in particle-containing macrophages and adjacent epithelial cells, but no change was observed in bled rats. Although lung DMT1 expression did not correlate with iron status, differences in pharmacokinetics of instilled metals suggest that their potential toxicity can be modified by iron status.

  13. Doxorubicin Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Kanu; Zhang, Jianqing; Honbo, Norman; Karliner, Joel S.

    2010-01-01

    Established doxorubicin cardiomyopathy is a lethal disease. When congestive heart failure develops, mortality is approximately 50%. Extensive research has been done to understand the mechanism and pathophysiology of doxorubicin cardiomyopathy, and considerable knowledge and experience has been gained. Unfortunately, no effective treatment for established doxorubicin cardiomyopathy is presently available. Extensive research has been done and is being done to discover preventive treatments. However an effective and clinically applicable preventive treatment is yet to be discovered. PMID:20016174

  14. The impact of HFE mutations on haemoglobin and iron status in individuals experiencing repeated iron loss through blood donation

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Alan E.; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Schlumpf, Karen S.; Wright, David J.; Johnson, Bryce; Carrick, Danielle M.; Cable, Ritchard G.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Glynn, Simone A.; Steele, Whitney R.; Murphy, Edward L.; Sacher, Ronald; Busch, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Frequent blood donors become iron deficient. HFE mutations are present in over 30% of donors. A 24-month study of 888 first time/reactivated donors and 1537 frequent donors measured haemoglobin and iron status to assess how HFE mutations impact the development of iron deficiency erythropoiesis. Donors with two HFE mutations had increased baseline haemoglobin and iron stores as did those with one mutation, albeit to a lesser extent. Over multiple donations haemoglobin and iron status of donors with HFE mutations paralleled those lacking mutations. The prevalence of HFE mutations was not increased in higher intensity donors. Thus, in general, HFE mutations do not temper donation-induced changes in haemoglobin and iron status. However, in Black donors there was an increase of H63D carriers at baseline, from 3.7% in first time/reactivated donors to 15.8% in frequent donors, suggesting that the relative effects of HFE mutations on iron absorption may vary between racial/ethnic groups. In secondary analyses, venous haemoglobin decreased more slowly in donors with ferritin ≥ 12 μg/l; and haemoglobin recovery time was shorter in donors with reticulocyte haemoglobin (CHr) ≥ 32.6 pg, indicating that these biochemical measures are better indicators of a donor’s response to phlebotomy than their HFE mutation status. PMID:22118647

  15. The impact of HFE mutations on haemoglobin and iron status in individuals experiencing repeated iron loss through blood donation*.

    PubMed

    Mast, Alan E; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Schlumpf, Karen S; Wright, David J; Johnson, Bryce; Carrick, Danielle M; Cable, Ritchard G; Kiss, Joseph E; Glynn, Simone A; Steele, Whitney R; Murphy, Edward L; Sacher, Ronald; Busch, Michael P

    2012-02-01

    Frequent blood donors become iron deficient. HFE mutations are present in over 30% of donors. A 24-month study of 888 first time/reactivated donors and 1537 frequent donors measured haemoglobin and iron status to assess how HFE mutations impact the development of iron deficiency erythropoiesis. Donors with two HFE mutations had increased baseline haemoglobin and iron stores as did those with one mutation, albeit to a lesser extent. Over multiple donations haemoglobin and iron status of donors with HFE mutations paralleled those lacking mutations. The prevalence of HFE mutations was not increased in higher intensity donors. Thus, in general, HFE mutations do not temper donation-induced changes in haemoglobin and iron status. However, in Black donors there was an increase of H63D carriers at baseline, from 3·7% in first time/reactivated donors to 15·8% in frequent donors, suggesting that the relative effects of HFE mutations on iron absorption may vary between racial/ethnic groups. In secondary analyses, venous haemoglobin decreased more slowly in donors with ferritin ≥12μg/l; and haemoglobin recovery time was shorter in donors with reticulocyte haemoglobin (CHr) ≥32·6pg, indicating that these biochemical measures are better indicators of a donor's response to phlebotomy than their HFE mutation status. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Ascorbic acid from lime juice does not improve the iron status of iron-deficient women in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Olga P; Diaz, Margarita; Rosado, Jorge L; Allen, Lindsay H

    2003-08-01

    Although ascorbic acid (AA) increases dietary iron bioavailability, there has been no food-based community trial of its efficacy in improving iron status. The objective was to assess the efficacy of 25 mg AA as agua de limón (limeade), consumed with each of 2 daily meals, in improving the iron status of iron-deficient women. Two rural Mexican populations were randomly assigned to an AA or a placebo group, each with 18 iron-deficient women. The AA group was given 500 mL limeade containing 25 mg AA twice a day, 6 d/wk, for 8 mo. The placebo group was given a lime-flavored beverage free of AA or citric acid. Beverages were consumed within 30 min of 2 main daily meals. Data were collected on morbidity (3 times/wk), dietary intake (on 6 d), socioeconomic status, parasites (twice), medical history, and response to treatment. Blood samples at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 mo were analyzed for hemoglobin, plasma AA, plasma ferritin, transferrin receptors, and C-reactive protein. AA intake was significantly (P < 0.0001) higher in the AA group, but nonheme iron, heme iron, and phytic acid intakes did not differ significantly. Plasma AA was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in the AA group at 2, 4, 6, and 8 mo. There were no final differences between groups in hemoglobin, plasma ferritin, or transferrin receptor concentrations or in the ratio of transferrin receptors to plasma ferritin after control for initial concentrations. Increasing dietary AA by 25 mg at each of 2 meals/d did not improve iron status in iron-deficient women consuming diets high in phytate and nonheme iron.

  17. Maternal obesity during pregnancy is negatively associated with maternal and neonatal iron status

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andrew D.; Zhao, Gengli; Jiang, Ya-ping; Zhou, Min; Xu, Guobin; Kaciroti, Niko; Zhang, Zhixiang; Lozoff, Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Obesity among pregnant women may adversely affect both maternal iron status throughout pregnancy and placental transfer of iron. The objective of this study was to determine the association of maternal body mass index (BMI) with 1) maternal iron status and inflammation in mid and late pregnancy, 2) the change in maternal iron status throughout pregnancy, and 3) neonatal iron status. Subjects/Methods We examined longitudinal data from 1,613 participants in a pregnancy iron supplementation trial in rural China. Women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies were enrolled in the early second trimester of pregnancy and followed through parturition. Maternal blood samples obtained at enrollment and in the third trimester, and cord blood samples were analyzed for a range of hematological and iron biomarkers. Results There was a negative association between maternal BMI and iron status at enrollment (transferrin receptor (sTfR): r=0.20, P<0.001; body iron (BI): r=−0.05; P=0.03). This association was markedly stronger among obese women. Maternal BMI was positively associated with maternal inflammation (C-reactive protein: r=0.33, P<0.001). In multiple linear regression models, maternal BMI was negatively associated with neonatal iron status (cord serum ferritin: −0.01, P=0.008; BI: −0.06, P=0.006) and associated with a lower decrease in iron status throughout pregnancy (sTfR: −4.6, P<0.001; BI: 1.1, P=0.004). Conclusions Maternal obesity during pregnancy may adversely affect both maternal and neonatal iron status, potentially through inflammatory pathways. PMID:26813939

  18. Community-based dietary phytate reduction and its effect on iron status in Malawian children.

    PubMed

    Manary, Mark J; Krebs, Nancy F; Gibson, Rosalind S; Broadhead, Robin L; Hambidge, K Michael

    2002-06-01

    This study describes a community-based method used in rural Malawi to remove dietary phytate, an inhibitor of iron absorption, and notes an improvement in the iron status of ten children who participated in the trial. Phytate was removed by soaking maize flour in excess water with phytase and decanting the water before cooking the flour. Iron status, as measured by soluble transferrin receptor and zinc protoporphyrin, was improved but not normal.

  19. The association between red and processed meat consumption and iron intakes and status among British adults.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sigrid; Ashwell, Margaret

    2003-06-01

    To examine the association between consumption of red and processed meat (RPM) and iron intakes and status in adults. Further analysis of the Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults, a cross-sectional study of 2197 adults aged 16-64 years carried out in 1986/7. Adults (836 men and 838 women) with serum ferritin measurements, who were not taking iron supplements, were classified into four groups according to RPM consumption (from 7-day weighed records). Iron absorbed was estimated from equations based on haem and non-haem iron and the influence of iron stores. Women who ate least meat (<90 g day-1) had three times the risk of a low iron intake (below the Lower Reference Nutrient Intake) compared with high consumers of RPM (>140 g day-1). Men who ate no RPM also had a higher risk of low iron intake. Using an estimate of minimal values for iron losses, there was a twofold difference in the potential risk of negative iron balance between women non-RPM consumers and high RPM consumers. Status measurements indicated that, among women, anaemia was least prevalent (6%) among high consumers compared with 12-14% among average RPM consumers. Inverse trends were also observed for serum ferritin in both sexes. Low consumption of RPM has implications for iron intakes and iron status in men and women, since the risk of negative iron balance and its consequences are increased. Dietary messages must consider these implications and provide appropriate advice.

  20. Effects of wheat flour fortified with different iron fortificants on iron status and anemia prevalence in iron deficient anemic students in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Huang, Jian; Li, Wenxian; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Anxu; Huo, Junsheng; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Chunming

    2007-01-01

    To compare the effects of wheat flours fortified with NaFeEDTA, FeSO4 and elemental iron (electrolytic iron), in improving iron status in anemic students. Four hundreds anemic students (11 to 18 years old) were divided into four groups and given wheat flour fortified with different iron fortificants at different concentrations: control group (no added iron); NaFeEDTA group (20 mg Fe/kg); FeSO4 group (30 mg Fe/kg); and elemental iron group (60 mg Fe/kg). The trial lasted for 6 months and the following parameters were examined every 2 months: whole blood hemoglobin, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity and transferrin receptor. The flour consumption in the 4 groups was 300-400 g/person/day, accounted for 70% of total cereal consumption in the diets. There were no significant differences in flour consumption among the 4 groups. Blood hemoglobin level increased in all the 3 intervened groups, but the increment in the NaFeEDTA group was significantly higher and earlier than the other 2 groups; and only 1% of the subjected remained anemic at the end of the trial in the NaFeEDTA group, while 40% and 60% of the subjects in the FeSO4 and electrolytic iron group remained anemic, respectively. The order of improvements in free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, serum ferritin and transferring receptor levels were: NaFeEDTA > FeSO4 > electrolytic iron. No significant changes were found in the control group on all the tested parameters during the trial. The results indicated that even NaFeEDTA was added at a lower level, it has better effects than FeSO4 and elemental iron on controlling iron deficiency anemia and improving iron status in anemic children; while elemental iron was the least effective.

  1. Comparison of food habits, iron intake and iron status in adolescents before and after the withdrawal of the general iron fortification in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, A; Hulthén, L

    2015-04-01

    Sifted flour was fortified with carbonyl iron for 50 years in Sweden. This study evaluates changes in food habits, intake of iron, factors affecting iron absorption and iron status after the discontinuation of the general iron fortification in adolescents with the highest requirements. A total of 2285 15- to 16-year-old students in 1994 (634 girls and 611 boys) and in 2000 (534 girls and 486 boys) in 13 schools in Gothenburg, Sweden, were included in two cross-sectional surveys assessing food habits with diet history interviews and iron deficiency defined with serum ferritin stores ⩽ 15 μg/l and no preceding infection. In girls, iron deficiency increased from 37 to 45%, while in boys, it was stable at 23%. Total iron intake decreased from 15.7 to 9.5 mg/day and 22.5 to 13.9 mg/day in girls and boys, respectively. Cereals were the main iron source. Among girls, the increase of fish and decrease of calcium intake may not counteract the effect of decreased intake of fortification iron. Among boys, more meat, less calcium and more vitamin C may have favoured the bioavailability of iron. The discontinuation of the general iron fortification resulted in a 39% decrease in total iron intake and iron deficiency increased substantially in girls. However, in boys no change in iron deficiency was observed. Whether this was a result of changed bioavailability of dietary iron or simultaneous changes of non-dietary factors remains to be explored.

  2. INHERITED CARDIOMYOPATHIES

    PubMed Central

    Towbin, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiomyopathies, diseases of the heart muscle, are major causes of morbidity and mortality. A significant percentage of patients with cardiomyopathies have genetic-based, inheritable disease and, over the past two decades the genetic causes of these disorders have been increasingly discovered. The genes causing these disorders when they are mutated appear to encode proteins that frame a “final common pathway” for that specific disorder but the specifics of the phenotype, including age of onset, severity, and outcome is variable for reasons not yet understood. The “final common pathways” for the classified forms of cardiomyopathy include the sarcomere in the primarily diastolic dysfunction disorders hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM), the linkage of the sarcomere and sarcolemma in the systolic dysfunction disorder dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and the desmosome in arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AVC). Left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) is an overlap disorder and appears that any of these “final common pathways” can be involved depending on the specific form of LVNC. The genetics and mechanisms responsible for these clinical phenotypes will be described. PMID:25186923

  3. Peripartum cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Sundin, Courtney Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a very rare, but serious life-threatening emergency. Early recognition of signs and symptoms, along with radiologic imaging and blood work, can facilitate timely diagnosis. Once peripartum cardiomyopathy is diagnosed, a multidisciplinary team can facilitate the delivery of quality care to promote optimal outcomes.

  4. The Study of HFE Genotypes and Its Expression Effect on Iron Status of Iranian Haemochromatosis, Iron Deficiency Anemia Patients, Iron-Taker and Non Iron-Taker Controls.

    PubMed

    Beiranvand, Elham; Abediankenari, Saeid; Rostamian, Mosayeb; Beiranvand, Behnoush; Naazeri, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    The role of HFE gene mutations or its expression in regulation of iron metabolism of hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) patients is remained controversial. Therefore here the correlation between two common HFE genotype (p.C282Y, p.H63D) and HFE gene expression with iron status in HH, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and healthy Iranian participants was studied. For this purpose genotype determination was done by polymerase chain reaction--restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Real-Time PCR was applied for evaluation of HFE gene expression. Biochemical parameters and iron consumption were also assessed. Homozygote p.H63D mutation was seen in all HH patients and p.C282Y was not observed in any member of the population. A significant correlation was observed between serum ferritin (SF) level and gender or age of HH patients. p.H63D homozygote was seen to be able to significantly increase SF and transferrin saturation (TS) level without affecting on liver function. Our results also showed that iron consumption affects on TS level increasing. HFE gene expression level of IDA patients was significantly higher than other groups. Also the HFE gene expression was negatively correlated with TS. Finally, the main result of our study showed that loss of HFE function in HH is not derived from its gene expression inhibition and much higher HFE gene expression might lead to IDA. However we propose repeating of the study for more approval of our finding.

  5. Host iron status and iron supplementation mediate susceptibility to erythrocytic stage Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Martha A.; Goheen, Morgan M.; Fulford, Anthony; Prentice, Andrew M.; Elnagheeb, Marwa A.; Patel, Jaymin; Fisher, Nancy; Taylor, Steve M.; Kasthuri, Raj S.; Cerami, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency and malaria have similar global distributions, and frequently co-exist in pregnant women and young children. Where both conditions are prevalent, iron supplementation is complicated by observations that iron deficiency anaemia protects against falciparum malaria, and that iron supplements increase susceptibility to clinically significant malaria, but the mechanisms remain obscure. Here, using an in vitro parasite culture system with erythrocytes from iron-deficient and replete human donors, we demonstrate that Plasmodium falciparum infects iron-deficient erythrocytes less efficiently. In addition, owing to merozoite preference for young erythrocytes, iron supplementation of iron-deficient individuals reverses the protective effects of iron deficiency. Our results provide experimental validation of field observations reporting protective effects of iron deficiency and harmful effects of iron administration on human malaria susceptibility. Because recovery from anaemia requires transient reticulocytosis, our findings imply that in malarious regions iron supplementation should be accompanied by effective measures to prevent falciparum malaria. PMID:25059846

  6. Important considerations in iron management and nutritional status in select hemodialysis populations.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Rosie

    2007-01-01

    Patients on hemodialysis frequently encounter multiple complications during the course of therapy. Anemia occurs from impaired erythropoiesis stemming from chronic kidney disease and loss of blood and iron during the hemodialysis process. Dietary restrictions are often necessary in patients on hemodialysis to maintain adequate nutritional status and prevent the accumulation of nutrients that are not effectively removed with hemodialysis. These factors can significantly affect a patient's iron status and result in iron-restricted erythropoiesis and eventually absolute iron deficiency. This article describes the role that nephrology nurses have in effectively managing nutrition, iron status, and anemia in patients on hemodialysis and highlights important clinical characteristics that should be considered in select racial or ethnic populations. The results of an initiative within one dialysis network to track dietary intake and administer appropriate anemia treatment, including intravenous iron, through an educational program are examined.

  7. Compromised zinc status of experimental rats as a consequence of prolonged iron & calcium supplementation.

    PubMed

    Jayalakshmi, S; Platel, Kalpana

    2016-02-01

    Iron supplementation is usually given to pregnant and lactating women who may also have marginal deficiency of zinc. The negative impact of supplemental iron and calcium on zinc status is a cause of concern. The present investigation was undertaken to examine the effect of inclusion of iron and calcium in the diet at supplementary levels on zinc status of experimental rats. Groups of experimental rats were maintained on diets supplemented with iron (Molar ratio - Zn:Fe 1:30) and calcium (Molar ratio - Zn:Ca 1:667) both individually and in combination for six weeks. Zinc status of these rats was assessed by determining zinc concentration in circulation and in organs, and the activities of zinc containing enzymes in serum and liver. The zinc status of experimental rats receiving supplemental levels of iron and calcium was significantly compromised. Zinc concentration in serum, kidney, spleen and liver was reduced significantly by both these minerals. Six weeks of supplementation of iron and calcium individually, significantly reduced the activity of liver and serum superoxide dismutase and alkaline phosphatase. Activity of liver alcohol dehydrogenase was lowered in calcium supplemented group and in calcium + iron supplemented group, while that of carbonic anhydrase was significantly reduced by iron, calcium and their combination. Supplemental levels of iron and calcium, both individually and in combination, significantly compromised the zinc status of experimental rats. This negative effect of these two minerals was more prominent when these were supplemented for a period of six weeks.

  8. Cardiomyopathy in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lewey, Jennifer; Haythe, Jennifer

    2014-08-01

    Cardiomyopathy during pregnancy is uncommon but potentially catastrophic to maternal health, accounting for up to 11% of maternal deaths. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is diagnosed in women without a history of heart disease 1 month before delivery or within 5 months postpartum. About half of all women will have full myocardial recovery within 6 months of diagnosis, but complications such as severe heart failure or death are not rare. African-American women have higher rates of diagnosis and adverse events. Women with preexisting cardiomyopathy, such as dilated or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, followed closely during pregnancy often tolerate pregnancy and delivery. Risk factors for adverse outcomes include functional status at baseline, severity of systolic dysfunction or outflow tract gradient, or history of prior cardiac event, such as arrhythmia or stroke. The level of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) can be used to risk stratify women for adverse events. Pregnant women with cardiomyopathy should be followed closely by a multidisciplinary team comprised of nurses, obstetricians, neonatologists, cardiologists, anesthesiologists, and cardiac surgeons.

  9. Predictors of iron status in well-nourished 4-y-old children.

    PubMed

    Ohlund, Inger; Lind, Torbjörn; Hörnell, Agneta; Hernell, Olle

    2008-04-01

    Iron status in childhood is influenced by diet. Other factors affecting iron status at that age are unclear. The objectives of the study were to evaluate iron status in 4-y-old children, to track that status from infancy to childhood, and to examine the associations of iron status with dietary factors, growth, and heredity. This study consisted of a longitudinal follow-up at age 4 y of children (n = 127) from the cohort of a study that began at age 6 mo. Blood samples and anthropometry were assessed in both children and their parents; food records were collected from children only. Dietary intake was not significantly correlated with hemoglobin concentrations, whereas the consumption of meat products had a positive effect on serum ferritin concentrations and mean corpuscular volume in boys (P = 0.015 and 0.04, respectively). The prevalences of anemia and iron deficiency were low, affecting 2 (1.8%) and 3 (2.8%) children, respectively; no child had iron deficiency anemia. There was significant within-subject tracking of hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume from age 6 mo to 4 y. The mother's but not the father's hemoglobin correlated with the child's hemoglobin over time. Food choices had little effect on iron status. Hemoglobin concentrations and mean corpuscular volume were tracked from infancy to childhood. In healthy, well-nourished children with a low prevalence of iron deficiency, the mother's hemoglobin was significantly associated with that of her child, but the underlying mechanism is unclear.

  10. Iron status in female endurance athletes and in non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Malczewska, J; Raczynski, G; Stupnicki, R

    2000-09-01

    Iron status was studied in 126 female endurance athletes and 52 control subjects, all aged 16-20 years. The study aimed at identifying factors responsible for iron deficiency. Twenty-six percent of athletes and 50% of controls had latent iron-deficiency without anemia symptoms. A too low intake of iron (especially heme iron: 0.3 mg daily), and of nutrients influencing iron metabolism, were identified as main causes of iron deficiency in control subjects. In athletes, whose iron intake was sufficient (14.6 mg), the principal cause of iron deficiency were blood losses due to menstruation. High level of physical activity, expressed as training volume and experience, did not adversely affect iron stores, as these were higher than in control subjects and the incidence of iron deficiency was much lower than in the control group. It was concluded that an increased intake of iron and of dietary factors involved in iron metabolism prevented possible exercise-induced losses of iron in young athletes.

  11. Influence of iron and zinc status on cadmium accumulation in Bangladeshi women

    SciTech Connect

    Kippler, Maria; Ekstroem, Eva-Charlotte; Loennerdal, Bo; Goessler, Walter; Akesson, Agneta; El Arifeen, Shams; Persson, Lars-Ake; Vahter, Marie . E-mail: Marie.Vahter@ki.se

    2007-07-15

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental contaminant present in food. The absorption in the intestine increases in individuals with low iron stores, but the effect of zinc deficiency is not clear. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of iron and zinc status on cadmium accumulation in pregnant Bangladeshi women. We measured cadmium in urine from 890 women using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Further, we also measured ferritin and zinc in plasma. The median cadmium concentration in urine was 0.59 {mu}g/L (adjusted to mean specific gravity of 1.012 g/mL). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that urinary cadmium was associated with plasma ferritin and plasma zinc via a significant interaction between dichotomized plasma ferritin and plasma zinc. The analysis was adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women with low iron stores and adequate zinc status had significantly higher urinary cadmium compared to women with both adequate iron stores and zinc status. There was no difference in urinary cadmium between women with both low iron stores and zinc status compared to those with both adequate iron stores and zinc status. In conclusion, low iron stores were associated with increased cadmium accumulation, but only at adequate zinc status.

  12. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of iron supplementation in female soldiers during military training: effects on iron status, physical performance, and mood.

    PubMed

    McClung, James P; Karl, J Philip; Cable, Sonya J; Williams, Kelly W; Nindl, Bradley C; Young, Andrew J; Lieberman, Harris R

    2009-07-01

    Decrements in iron status have been reported in female soldiers during military training. Diminished iron status adversely affects physical and cognitive performance. We wanted to determine whether iron supplementation could prevent decrements in iron status and improve measures of physical performance and cognitive status in female soldiers during basic combat training (BCT). In this 8-wk randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, soldier volunteers (n = 219) were provided with capsules containing either 100 mg ferrous sulfate or a placebo. Iron status indicator assays were performed pre- and post-BCT. Two-mile running time was assessed post-BCT; mood was assessed by using the Profile of Mood States questionnaire pre- and post-BCT. The BCT course affected iron status: red blood cell distribution width and soluble transferrin receptor were elevated (P < 0.05), and serum ferritin was lowered (P < 0.05) post-BCT. Iron supplementation attenuated the decrement in iron status; group-by-time interactions (P < 0.01) were observed for serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. Iron supplementation resulted in improved (P < 0.05) vigor scores on the Profile of Mood States post-BCT and in faster running time (P < 0.05) in volunteers reporting to BCT with iron deficiency anemia. Iron status is affected by BCT, and iron supplementation attenuates the decrement in indicators of iron status in female soldiers. Furthermore, iron supplementation may prove to be beneficial for mood and physical performance during the training period. Future efforts should identify and treat female soldiers or athletes who begin training regimens with iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia.

  13. Cardiomyopathy associated with celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Goel, Nisheeth K; McBane, Robert D; Kamath, Patrick S

    2005-05-01

    Celiac disease or celiac sprue is predominantly a disease of the small intestine characterized by chronic malabsorption in genetically susceptible individuals who ingest grains containing gluten, such as wheat, barley, and rye. Although previously believed to be uncommon, celiac disease may be present in up to 1% of the general population. Celiac disease is associated frequently with iron deficiency anemia, dermatitis herpetiformis, selective IgA deficiency, thyroid disorders, diabetes mellitus, and various connective tissue disorders but is rarely associated with cardiomyopathy. We describe a patient with celiac disease associated with cardiomyopathy whose cardiac function improved substantially after treatment with a gluten-free diet. Cardiomyopathy associated with celiac disease is a serious and potentially lethal condition. However, with early diagnosis and treatment with a gluten-free diet, cardiomyopathy in patients with celiac disease may be completely reversible.

  14. Effects of iron intake through food or supplement on iron status and performance of healthy adolescent swimmers during a training season.

    PubMed

    Tsalis, G; Nikolaidis, M G; Mougios, V

    2004-05-01

    Maintenance of a normal iron status is important for swimming performance during training and competition. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether 1) the iron status of healthy adolescent swimmers changes during a training season of six months, and 2) increasing daily iron intake affects iron status or performance. Forty-two (21 male and 21 female) swimmers, aged 12 - 17, without anemia or iron deficiency were divided into three equal groups. Group A received an iron supplement of 47 mg per day, group B followed a dietary plan rich in iron (providing, on average, 26 mg per day), and group C had a regular diet. Blood samples were taken before the beginning of the study and at the end of each of three training phases (moderate intensity training, high intensity training, and tapering) for the determination of hematological and iron status parameters. To evaluate performance, swimming tests at different distances were conducted along with blood sampling. The results showed significant fluctuations of iron status during the training season, including an increase in erythrocyte parameters during moderate intensity training. No significant differences in iron status or performance were found among the three groups. In conclusion, iron status and performance of healthy adolescent swimmers were affected by training irrespective of iron intake ranging from one to over five times the RDA over a period of six months.

  15. Relationship between blood donors' iron status and their age, body mass index and donation frequency.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Ali Malekshahi; Natanzi, Mahboobeh Mehrabani; Djalali, Mahmoud; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Javanbakht, Mohammad Hassan; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali Akbar; Zareei, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Regular blood donation may decrease body iron storage and lead to anemia. The aim here was to evaluate the iron status of Iranian male blood donors and the impact of age, body mass index (BMI) and donation frequency over one year, on iron status indices. Cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study at Tehran Blood Transfusion Center, Tehran, Iran. Between July and September 2011, 117 male blood donors were selected and divided into four groups according to their frequency of blood donation. Thirty male non-donors were also recruited as controls after adjusting for age, weight, height, smoking habits and monthly income. Iron status indices and some criteria such as general health and dietary measurements were determined among all subjects. The values of the iron-related parameters were significantly lower among donors than among non-donors. Only total iron binding capacity (TIBC) was found to be significantly higher among different donor groups than in the controls. A significant positive correlation was observed between age and serum ferritin (SF) only among the donors who had donated once within the preceding year. The iron status indices did not show any significant relationship with BMI among donors or non-donors. A donation frequency of more than twice a year had a significant influence on iron-related parameters. Therefore, without annual measurement of these parameters, further phlebotomies may lead to iron deficiency and donor rejection in the future.

  16. The Role of Eating Habits on the Iron Status of Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Bivolarska, Anelia V; Gatseva, Penka D; Maneva, Ana I

    2016-01-01

    This study highlights the relationship between some eating habits and iron status during pregnancy. The study included 219 healthy pregnant women aged 27.6 ± 5.7 years from southern Bulgaria. Subjects' iron status was assessed on the basis of the following iron indicators: hemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin (SF), serum transferrin receptor (sTfR), and body iron index (mg/kg). Severe anemia among the women from southern Bulgaria was not observed. Advanced pregnancy and some eating habits are factors that deteriorate iron status. Women who had consumed fish at least 3 times a week had lower levels of sTfR (р = 0.008), higher levels of SF (р = 0.05), and lower levels of body iron (р = 0.018). Frequent legume consumption was related to increased levels of sTfR (р = 0.036). Pregnant women with a high frequency of coffee consumption had lower values of body iron (р < 0.0001). Women who had consumed cow's milk at least 3 times a week had lower levels of SF (р = 0.026) and body iron (р = 0.042). Regular consumption of fish and legumes, rarely drinking coffee, and milk consumption during the intervals between food intake are conditions for optimization of iron status during pregnancy.

  17. Urinary Hepcidin Levels in Iron-Deficient and Iron-Supplemented Piglets Correlate with Hepcidin Hepatic mRNA and Serum Levels and with Body Iron Status

    PubMed Central

    Staroń, Robert; Van Swelm, Rachel P. L.; Lipiński, Paweł; Gajowiak, Anna; Lenartowicz, Małgorzata; Bednarz, Aleksandra; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Pieszka, Marek; Laarakkers, Coby M. M.; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Starzyński, Rafał R.

    2015-01-01

    Among livestock, domestic pig (Sus scrofa) is a species, in which iron metabolism has been most intensively examined during last decade. The obvious reason for studying the regulation of iron homeostasis especially in young pigs is neonatal iron deficiency anemia commonly occurring in these animals. Moreover, supplementation of essentially all commercially reared piglets with iron entails a need for monitoring the efficacy of this routine practice followed in the swine industry for several decades. Since the discovery of hepcidin many studies confirmed its role as key regulator of iron metabolism and pointed out the assessment of its concentrations in biological fluids as diagnostic tool for iron-related disorder. Here we demonstrate that urine hepcidin-25 levels measured by a combination of weak cation exchange chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (WCX-TOF MS) are highly correlated with mRNA hepcidin expression in the liver and plasma hepcidin-25 concentrations in anemic and iron-supplemented 28-day old piglets. We also found a high correlation between urine hepcidin level and hepatic non-heme iron content. Our results show that similarly to previously described transgenic mouse models of iron disorders, young pigs constitute a convenient animal model to explore accuracy and relationship between indicators for assessing systemic iron status. PMID:26323096

  18. Urinary Hepcidin Levels in Iron-Deficient and Iron-Supplemented Piglets Correlate with Hepcidin Hepatic mRNA and Serum Levels and with Body Iron Status.

    PubMed

    Staroń, Robert; Van Swelm, Rachel P L; Lipiński, Paweł; Gajowiak, Anna; Lenartowicz, Małgorzata; Bednarz, Aleksandra; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Pieszka, Marek; Laarakkers, Coby M M; Swinkels, Dorine W; Starzyński, Rafał R

    2015-01-01

    Among livestock, domestic pig (Sus scrofa) is a species, in which iron metabolism has been most intensively examined during last decade. The obvious reason for studying the regulation of iron homeostasis especially in young pigs is neonatal iron deficiency anemia commonly occurring in these animals. Moreover, supplementation of essentially all commercially reared piglets with iron entails a need for monitoring the efficacy of this routine practice followed in the swine industry for several decades. Since the discovery of hepcidin many studies confirmed its role as key regulator of iron metabolism and pointed out the assessment of its concentrations in biological fluids as diagnostic tool for iron-related disorder. Here we demonstrate that urine hepcidin-25 levels measured by a combination of weak cation exchange chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (WCX-TOF MS) are highly correlated with mRNA hepcidin expression in the liver and plasma hepcidin-25 concentrations in anemic and iron-supplemented 28-day old piglets. We also found a high correlation between urine hepcidin level and hepatic non-heme iron content. Our results show that similarly to previously described transgenic mouse models of iron disorders, young pigs constitute a convenient animal model to explore accuracy and relationship between indicators for assessing systemic iron status.

  19. Development of a molecular-based index for assessing iron status in bloom-forming pennate diatoms.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Adrian; Moreno, Carly M; Cohen, Natalie R; Oleinikov, Irina; deLong, Kimberly; Twining, Benjamin S; Armbrust, Virginia E; Lampe, Robert H

    2017-04-10

    Iron availability limits primary productivity in large areas of the world's oceans. Ascertaining the iron status of phytoplankton is essential for understanding the factors regulating their growth and ecology. We developed an incubation-independent, molecular-based approach to assess the iron nutritional status of specific members of the diatom community, initially focusing on the ecologically important pennate diatom Pseudo-nitzschia. Through a comparative transcriptomic approach, we identified two genes that track the iron status of Pseudo-nitzschia with high fidelity. The first gene, FTN, encodes for the highly specialized iron storage protein ferritin. The second gene, ISIP2a, encodes an iron-concentrating protein induced under iron-limiting conditions. In the oceanic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia granii (Hasle) Hasle, transcript abundance of these genes directly relates to changes in iron availability, with increased FTN transcript abundance under iron-replete conditions and increased ISIP2a transcript abundance under iron-limiting conditions. The resulting ISIP2a:FTN transcript ratio reflects the iron status of cells, where a high ratio indicates iron limitation. Field samples collected from iron grow-out microcosm experiments conducted in low iron waters of the Gulf of Alaska and variable iron waters in the California Upwelling Zone verify the validity of our proposed Pseudo-nitzschia Iron Limitation Index (ILI), which can be used to ascertain in situ iron status and further developed for other ecologically important diatoms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of endurance exercise (triathlon) on circulating transferrin receptors and other indicators of iron status in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Röcker, Lothar; Hinz, Katrin; Holland, Karsten; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Vogelgesang, Jens; Kiesewetter, Holger

    2002-01-01

    Numerous reports have described a poor iron status in female endurance athletes. However, the traditionally applied indicators of iron status (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin) may not truly reflect the iron status. Therefore we studied the newly developed soluble transferrin receptor and other indicators of iron status in twelve female endurance athletes before and after a triathlon race. Resting values showed a poor iron status in the participants of the race. Serum TfR concentration increased slightly after the race. However, if the values are corrected for hemoconcentration no change could be found. Hemoglobin, serum ferritin and transferrin values were increased after the race.

  1. Iron Absorption from an Intrinsically Labeled Lentil Meal Is Low but Upregulated in Women with Poor Iron Status.

    PubMed

    DellaValle, Diane M; Glahn, Raymond P; Shaff, Jon E; O'Brien, Kimberly O

    2015-10-01

    Low iron absorption from important staple foods may contribute to iron deficiency in developing countries. To date, few studies have examined the iron bioavailability of pulse crops as commonly prepared and consumed by humans. The objectives were to characterize the iron absorption from a test meal of intrinsically labeled (57)Fe lentils prepared as dal, to compare the bioavailability of iron from (57)Fe in dal with that observed for a reference dose of (58)Fe as ferrous sulfate, and to assess associations between iron absorption and iron status indicators. This crossover study included 19 nonpregnant women (n = 6 anemic; hemoglobin: <12.0 g/dL) who consumed 2 test meals on consecutive days in a counter-balanced order, ferrous sulfate (7 mg FeSO4 plus 1 mg (58)Fe) and 330 g dal (lentils enriched to 85.1% with (57)Fe, 8 mg native (57)Fe). Iron absorption was determined by analyzing blood samples taken 14 d after dosing with the use of magnetic sector thermal ionization mass spectrometry. We found that the mean iron absorption from the dal was 2.20% ± 3.40% and was significantly lower than the 23.6% ± 13.2% observed from the same iron load given as ferrous sulfate (P < 0.001). Absorption of non-heme iron from dal and from ferrous sulfate was inversely associated with serum ferritin (SF; r = -0.50, P = 0.05 and r = -0.81, P < 0.001, respectively) and serum hepcidin (r = -0.45, P = 0.05 and r = -0.60, P = 0.007, respectively). Anemic women absorbed more iron from either source (1.20% from dal, P = 0.10; 18.3% from ferrous sulfate, P = 0.001) compared with women who were iron replete. Iron absorption from the dal was low overall but upregulated in anemic women. Both SF and hepcidin were inversely associated with iron absorption from both a supplemental and a food-based non-heme iron source in nonanemic and anemic women. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Maternal pregnancy weight gain and cord blood iron status are associated with eosinophilia in infancy.

    PubMed

    Weigert, R; Dosch, N C; Bacsik-Campbell, M E; Guilbert, T W; Coe, C L; Kling, P J

    2015-08-01

    Allergic disease is multifactorial in origin. Because iron nutrition affects immune responses and maternal pregnancy weight gain impairs fetal iron delivery while increasing fetal demands for growth, the study examined maternal pregnancy weight gain, newborn iron status and an index of atopic disease, infant eosinophilia. Within a larger prospective study of healthy newborns at risk for developing iron deficiency anemia, umbilical cord iron indicators were compared to infant eosinophil counts. Infants who developed eosinophilia exhibited higher cord reticulocyte-enriched zinc protoporphyrin/heme ratio, P<0.05 and fewer cord ferritin values in the highest (best) quartile, P<0.05. If cord ferritin was in the upper three quartiles, the negative predictive value for infant eosinophilia was 90%. High maternal pregnancy weight gain predicted infant eosinophil counts, P<0.04, and contributed to cord ferritin predicting eosinophilia, P<0.003. Poor fetal iron status may be an additional risk factor for infant eosinophilia.

  3. Ineffective erythropoiesis and regulation of iron status in iron loading anaemias.

    PubMed

    Camaschella, Clara; Nai, Antonella

    2016-02-01

    The definition 'iron loading anaemias' encompasses a group of inherited and acquired anaemias characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis, low hepcidin levels, excessive iron absorption and secondary iron overload. Non-transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia is the paradigmatic example of these conditions that include dyserythropoietic and sideroblastic anaemias and some forms of myelodysplasia. Interrupting the vicious cycle between ineffective erythropoiesis and iron overload may be of therapeutic benefit in all these diseases. Induction of iron restriction by means of transferrin infusions, minihepcidins or manipulation of the hepcidin pathway prevents iron overload, redistributes iron from parenchymal cells to macrophage stores and partially controls anaemia in β-thalassaemic mice. Inhibition of ineffective erythropoiesis by activin ligand traps improves anaemia and iron overload in the same models. Targeting iron loading or ineffective erythropoiesis shows promise in preclinical studies; activin ligand traps are in clinical trials with promising results and may be useful in patients with ineffective erythropoiesis.

  4. Exercise-induced changes in iron status and hepcidin response in female runners.

    PubMed

    Auersperger, Irena; Škof, Branko; Leskošek, Bojan; Knap, Bojan; Jerin, Aleš; Lainscak, Mitja

    2013-01-01

    Exercise-induced iron deficiency is a common finding in endurance athletes. It has been suggested recently that hepcidin may be an important mediator in this process. To determine hepcidin levels and markers of iron status during long-term exercise training in female runners with depleted and normal iron stores. Fourteen runners were divided into two groups according to iron status. Blood samples were taken during a period of eight weeks at baseline, after training and after ten days' recovery phase. Of 14 runners, 7 were iron deficient at baseline and 10 after training. Hepcidin was lower at recovery compared with baseline (p<0.05). The mean cell haemoglobin content, haemoglobin content per reticulocyte and total iron binding capacity all decreased, whereas soluble transferrin receptor and hypochromic red cells increased after training and recovery (p<0.05 for all). The prevalence of depleted iron stores was 71% at the end of the training phase. Hepcidin and iron stores decreased during long-term running training and did not recover after ten days, regardless of baseline iron status.

  5. Exercise-Induced Changes in Iron Status and Hepcidin Response in Female Runners

    PubMed Central

    Auersperger, Irena; Škof, Branko; Leskošek, Bojan; Knap, Bojan; Jerin, Aleš; Lainscak, Mitja

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Exercise-induced iron deficiency is a common finding in endurance athletes. It has been suggested recently that hepcidin may be an important mediator in this process. Objective To determine hepcidin levels and markers of iron status during long-term exercise training in female runners with depleted and normal iron stores. Methods Fourteen runners were divided into two groups according to iron status. Blood samples were taken during a period of eight weeks at baseline, after training and after ten days’ recovery phase. Results Of 14 runners, 7 were iron deficient at baseline and 10 after training. Hepcidin was lower at recovery compared with baseline (p<0.05). The mean cell haemoglobin content, haemoglobin content per reticulocyte and total iron binding capacity all decreased, whereas soluble transferrin receptor and hypochromic red cells increased after training and recovery (p<0.05 for all). Conclusion The prevalence of depleted iron stores was 71% at the end of the training phase. Hepcidin and iron stores decreased during long-term running training and did not recover after ten days, regardless of baseline iron status. PMID:23472137

  6. Iron Supplementation Effects on Redox Status following Aseptic Skeletal Muscle Trauma in Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Tsiokanos, Athanasios; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zalavras, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2017-01-01

    Exercise-induced skeletal muscle microtrauma is characterized by loss of muscle cell integrity, marked aseptic inflammatory response, and oxidative stress. We examined if iron supplementation would alter redox status after eccentric exercise. In a randomized, double blind crossover study, that was conducted in two cycles, healthy adults (n = 14) and children (n = 11) received daily either 37 mg of elemental iron or placebo for 3 weeks prior to and up to 72 h after an acute eccentric exercise bout. Blood was drawn at baseline, before exercise, and 72 h after exercise for the assessment of iron status, creatine kinase activity (CK), and redox status. Iron supplementation at rest increased iron concentration and transferrin saturation (p < 0.01). In adults, CK activity increased at 72 h after exercise, while no changes occurred in children. Iron supplementation increased TBARS at 72 h after exercise in both adults and children; no changes occurred under placebo condition. Eccentric exercise decreased bilirubin concentration at 72 h in all groups. Iron supplementation can alter redox responses after muscle-damaging exercise in both adults and children. This could be of great importance not only for healthy exercising individuals, but also in clinical conditions which are characterized by skeletal muscle injury and inflammation, yet iron supplementation is crucial for maintaining iron homeostasis. This study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02374619. PMID:28203319

  7. Current status of iron metabolism: Clinical and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Conde Diez, Susana; de Las Cuevas Allende, Ricardo; Conde García, Eulogio

    2017-03-03

    Hepcidin is the main regulator of iron metabolism and a pathogenic factor in iron disorders. Hepcidin deficiency causes iron overload, whereas hepcidin excess causes or contributes to the development of iron-restricted anaemia in chronic inflammatory diseases. We know the mechanisms involved in the synthesis of hepcidin and, under physiological conditions, there is a balance between activating signals and inhibitory signals that regulate its synthesis. The former include those related to plasmatic iron level and also those related to chronic inflammatory diseases. The most important inhibitory signals are related to active erythropoiesis and to matriptase-2. Knowing how hepcidin is synthesised has helped design new pharmacological treatments whose main target is the hepcidin. In the near future, there will be effective treatments aimed at correcting the defect of many of these iron metabolism disorders.

  8. Effect of iron status in rats on the absorption of metal ions from plant ferritin.

    PubMed

    Zielińska-Dawidziak, Magdalena; Hertig, Iwona; Staniek, Halina; Piasecka-Kwiatkowska, Dorota; Nowak, Krzysztof W

    2014-06-01

    An isolate of lead-ferritin obtained from soybean seeds sprouted in 25 mM of PbNO3 was introduced into the diet of both iron-deficient and iron non-deficient male rats. After a 21-day administration period, statistical differences in the lead accumulation in the femurs of the rats were noted. Iron-deficient rats accumulated more than four times the amount of lead in their bones than rats without iron-deficiency. No further decrease was observed in haemoglobin concentrations in the groups of animals fed with lead isolates, either iron-deficient or iron non-deficient. Also, no differences in the mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were observed at the end of the experiment in the group of iron non-deficient rats fed with lead-ferritin isolate compared to the control group of iron non-deficient rats. In the iron-deficient group fed with lead-ferritin isolate, a small increase in haemoglobin concentrations, MCH, MCV and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentrations (MCHC) was recorded. The results presented in this paper confirm that lead from the tested preparation-lead ferritin isolate-was better absorbed by those rats with induced iron deficiency anaemia. Additionally, we may also suspect based on the obtained results that absorption of ferritin-iron depends on iron status in the body.

  9. Response of zinc, iron and copper status parameters to supplementation with zinc or zinc and iron in women

    SciTech Connect

    Yadrick, K.; Kenney, M.A.; Winterfeldt, E.

    1986-03-05

    Supplementation with zinc at levels available over-the-counter may compromise iron or copper status. This study examined the effects of zinc(50mg/day) or zinc and iron(50 mg each/day) on 18 women aged 25-40. Subjects were matched on initial levels of serum ferritin(SF) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase(ESOD) and randomly assigned to Group Z (zinc) or F-Z (iron and zinc). The following were measured pretreatment and after 6 and 10 weeks treatment: serum zinc (BZ), salivary sediment zinc (SSZ), hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit (Hct), SF, serum ceruloplasmin (Cp) and ESOD. Effects of treatment and weeks of treatment on changes from initial blood and saliva levels were analyzed using AOV. BZ increased (P=0.0144) and ESOD decreased (P=0.0001) with weeks of treatment. Differences due to treatment are presented. No effects were noted on Hgb, Hct or Cp. Intakes of zinc supplements at about 4X RDA appear to decrease copper(ESOD) and iron(SF) status. Use of iron w/zinc may be protective for FE but not Cu, and may compromise zinc (SSZ) status.

  10. TIDBIT: portable diagnostics of multiplexed nutrition deficiencies: iron, vitamin A and inflammation status (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhengda; Erickson, David

    2017-03-01

    Vitamin A and iron deficiency are common malnutrition affecting billions of people worldwide. However, in infrastructure limited settings, access to blood vitamin A and iron status test is limited because of the complexity and cost of traditional diagnostic methods. Direct measurements of vitamin A and iron level is not easy to perform, and it is necessary to measure approximate marker for obtaining vitamin A and iron deficiency status. Measurement of inflammatory marker is also necessary because the vitamin A and iron level are altered by inflammation status. Here we introduced a multiplex rapid point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices that simultaneously characterize three markers relevant to vitamin A, iron and inflammation status: retinol binding protein 4, ferritin and C-reactive protein with lateral flow immunoassay test strips. Level of retinol binding protein 4, ferritin and C-reactive protein are indicated by excitation intensity of fluorescence tags with three different colors. The test can be done within 15 minutes and a complete sample-answer quantitative results of vitamin A, iron and inflammation status level can be obtained with assists of a smartphone and an external device. We also demonstrated the device is able to perform colorimetric analysis on single test area. which gives the device potential to perform more tests simultaneously at the same time.

  11. Dietary strategies for improving iron status: balancing safety and efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Yery A.; Pereira, Dora; Cerami, Carla; Wegmuller, Rita; Constable, Anne; Spieldenner, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    In light of evidence that high-dose iron supplements lead to a range of adverse events in low-income settings, the safety and efficacy of lower doses of iron provided through biological or industrial fortification of foodstuffs is reviewed. First, strategies for point-of-manufacture chemical fortification are compared with biofortification achieved through plant breeding. Recent insights into the mechanisms of human iron absorption and regulation, the mechanisms by which iron can promote malaria and bacterial infections, and the role of iron in modifying the gut microbiota are summarized. There is strong evidence that supplemental iron given in nonphysiological amounts can increase the risk of bacterial and protozoal infections (especially malaria), but the use of lower quantities of iron provided within a food matrix, ie, fortified food, should be safer in most cases and represents a more logical strategy for a sustained reduction of the risk of deficiency by providing the best balance of risk and benefits. Further research into iron compounds that would minimize the availability of unabsorbed iron to the gut microbiota is warranted. PMID:27974599

  12. Cellular iron status influences the functional relationship between microglia and oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Surguladze, N; Slagle-Webb, B; Cozzi, A; Connor, J R

    2006-12-01

    Previously, we have reported that there is a spatiotemporal relationship between iron accumulation in microglia and oligodendrocytes during normal development and in remyelination following injury. This in vivo observation has prompted us to develop a cell culture model to test the relationship between iron status of microglia and survival of oligodendrocytes. We found that conditioned media from iron-loaded microglia increases the survival of oligodendrocytes; but conditioned media from iron loaded activated microglia is toxic to oligodendrocytes. In the trophic condition, one of the proteins released by iron-loaded microglia is H-ferritin, and transfecting the microglia with siRNA for H-ferritin blocks the trophic response on oligodendrocytes. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation decreases the amount of H-ferritin that is released from microglia and increases the release of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1. LPS activation of iron-enriched microglia results in the activation of NF-kB and greater release of cytokines when compared with that of control microglia; whereas treating microglia with an iron chelator is associated with less NF-kB activation and less release of cytokines. These results indicate that microglia play an important role in iron homoeostasis and that their iron status can influence how microglia influence growth and survival of oligodendrocytes. The results further indicate that ferritin, released by microglia, is a significant source of iron for oligodendrocytes.

  13. Effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on the metabolism of copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc in an animal model of alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Bogden, J.D.; Al-Rabiai, S.; Gilani, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (AC) is one of the diseases caused by alcohol abuse, and there has been considerable debate about the possibility that nutritional factors may be important in the etiology of AC. In addition, there is evidence that ethanol may affect the metabolism of trace elements. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if chronic ethanol administration produces changes in the metabolism of the essential metals copper, iron, manganese, zinc, and selenium using an animal model of AC. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups; an ad libitum control group (AL), a pair-fed control group (PF), and an ethanol-dosed group (ETOH). The latter group received gradually increasing concentrations (5-25%) of ethanol in the drinking water for 15 wk. Food intake was monitored and urine and feces collected for a 4-d period during the study to determine ethanol effects on trace-element balance. Growth of both the PF and ETOH animals was inhibited. Ethanol produced substantial increases in liver manganese and decreases in liver copper and zinc. Metal concentrations in heart and concentrations in other tissues studied (spleen, testes, brain, bone, kidney, and muscle) did not differ significantly among the groups, except for testes selenium and kidney zinc. Reduced food intake and ethanol ingestion were associated with a reduced percentage of ingested selenium excreted in the urine. Deficiencies of copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc in myocardial tissue are not likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of AC in the rat. 38 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  14. Relationship between physical activity, physical performance, and iron status in adult women.

    PubMed

    Crouter, Scott E; DellaValle, Diane M; Haas, Jere D

    2012-08-01

    Iron deficiency affects approximately 16% of US females 18-45 years old. Iron is a key component of heme-containing proteins, which are essential for oxygen transport throughout the body. With low iron levels, performance and intense physical activity may be compromised. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between iron status, physical performance, and physical activity in 18- to 45-year-old females. Participants (N = 109) were screened for iron status using a venous blood sample, had their height and mass measured, and self-reported their physical activity level. The screening was used to match iron-depleted nonanemic females (hemoglobin, Hgb > 120 g·L(-1); serum ferritin, sFer < 20 µg·L(-1)) to females with normal iron levels. After participant matching, they had their body composition measured, performed three cycle ergometer tests (maximal, endurance, and efficiency), and wore an ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer for five consecutive days, except when sleeping or during water activities. The final sample consisted of 25 iron-depleted participants and 24 with normal iron levels. Key findings were as follows: (i) after controlling for fat-free mass and vigorous physical activity, iron-depleted females had a significantly lower [Formula: see text]O(2) at ventilatory threshold compared with those with normal iron levels (P < 0.05); and (ii) after controlling for age, iron-depleted females spent significantly more time in sedentary behaviors and significantly less time in light physical activity than those with normal iron levels (P < 0.05). The increased sedentary time in iron-depleted females may contribute to excess mass gain over time; however, further investigation is needed to confirm these results.

  15. Effect of iron supplementation during lactation on maternal iron status and oxidative stress: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Josh M; Yang, Zhenyu; Lönnerdal, Bo; Chantry, Caroline J; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2017-10-01

    We examined the effect of iron-containing prenatal vitamin-mineral supplements taken postpartum on biomarkers of iron status and oxidative stress. Lactating women (n = 114) were randomly assigned to consume daily one iron-free prenatal vitamin-mineral supplement plus either 27 mg of iron or placebo for approximately 3.5 months. The placebo group took the tablets between meals, while those given iron took the tablets either with (Fe-W) or between meals (Fe-B). Blood and urine samples were collected before and after the supplementation period to analyze hemoglobin (Hb), ferritin, hepcidin, transferrin saturation (TfSat), total plasma iron, and biomarkers of oxidative stress (isoprostane and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)) and inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP) and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP)). There was a trend toward a greater change in Hb among women in the Fe-B group compared to placebo (+2.5 vs. -3.7 g/L, respectively, p = 0.063). When the iron groups were combined, there was a greater change in Hb (+1.4 g/L) compared to placebo (p = 0.010). There were trends toward greater changes in TfSat (p = 0.087) and total plasma iron (p = 0.065) in the iron groups compared to placebo, yet no significant differences between the three groups in change in hepcidin (p = 0.291), isoprostane (p = 0.319), or 8-OHdG (p = 0.659), nor in change in ferritin among those with elevated CRP at baseline (60% of women; p = 0.946); among those without elevated CRP (40% of women), ferritin increased more in the iron groups compared to placebo (p = 0.001). Iron consumption during lactation moderately increased iron status, particularly among women without elevated CRP, and increased Hb, but did not significantly increase oxidative stress. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Phytic acid concentration influences iron bioavailability from biofortified beans in Rwandese women with low iron status.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nicolai; Egli, Ines; Gahutu, Jean B; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Boy, Erick; Hurrell, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The common bean is a staple crop in many African and Latin American countries and is the focus of biofortification initiatives. Bean iron concentration has been doubled by selective plant breeding, but the additional iron is reported to be of low bioavailability, most likely due to high phytic acid (PA) concentrations. The present study evaluated the impact of PA on iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans. Iron absorption, based on erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes, was measured in 22 Rwandese women who consumed multiple, composite bean meals with potatoes or rice in a crossover design. Iron absorption from meals containing biofortified beans (8.8 mg Fe, 1320 mg PA/100 g) and control beans (5.4 mg Fe, 980 mg PA/100 g) was measured with beans containing either their native PA concentration or with beans that were ∼50% dephytinized or >95% dephytinized. The iron concentration of the cooked composite meals with biofortified beans was 54% higher than in the same meals with control beans. With native PA concentrations, fractional iron absorption from the control bean meals was 9.2%, 30% higher than that from the biofortified bean meals (P < 0.001). The quantity of iron absorbed from the biofortified bean meals (406 μg) was 19% higher (P < 0.05) than that from the control bean meals. With ∼50% and >95% dephytinization, the quantity of iron absorbed from the biofortified bean meals increased to 599 and 746 μg, respectively, which was 37% (P < 0.005) and 51% (P < 0.0001) higher than from the control bean meals. PA strongly decreases iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans, and a high PA concentration is an important impediment to the optimal effectiveness of bean iron biofortification. Plant breeders should focus on lowering the PA concentration of high-iron beans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01521273. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Iron Status in Toddlerhood Predicts Sensitivity to Psychostimulants in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Catharyn A.; Xie, Diqiong; Zimmerman, Bridget M.; Calarge, Chadi A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Iron deficiency is associated with impaired dopaminergic signaling and externalizing behavior. The authors examine, whether iron stores in toddlerhood influence later response to psychostimulants. Method: Youth participating in a study monitoring the long-term safety of risperidone were included in this analysis if they had received…

  18. Iron Status in Toddlerhood Predicts Sensitivity to Psychostimulants in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Catharyn A.; Xie, Diqiong; Zimmerman, Bridget M.; Calarge, Chadi A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Iron deficiency is associated with impaired dopaminergic signaling and externalizing behavior. The authors examine, whether iron stores in toddlerhood influence later response to psychostimulants. Method: Youth participating in a study monitoring the long-term safety of risperidone were included in this analysis if they had received…

  19. Evaluation of Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep and Iron Status in Children With Autism.

    PubMed

    Lane, Rebecca; Kessler, Riley; Buckley, Ashura Williams; Rodriguez, Alcibiades; Farmer, Cristan; Thurm, Audrey; Swedo, Susan; Felt, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Recent data suggest that both disordered sleep and low serum iron occur more frequently in children with autism compared with children with typical development. Iron deficiency has been linked to specific sleep disorders. The goal of the current study was to evaluate periodic limb movements in sleep and iron status in a group of children with autism compared with typically developing children and children with nonautism developmental delay to determine if iron status correlated with polysomnographic measures of latency and continuity and periodic limb movements in sleep. A total of 102 children (68 with autism, 18 typically developing, 16 with developmental delay) aged 2 to 7 years underwent a one-night modified polysomnography study and phlebotomy at the National Institutes of Health to measure serum markers of iron status (ferritin, iron, transferrin, percent transferrin saturation). No serum iron marker was associated with periodic limb movements of sleep or any other sleep parameter; this did not differ among the diagnostic groups. No significant differences among groups were observed on serum iron markers or most polysomnogram parameters: periodic limb movements in sleep, periodic limb movements index, wake after sleep onset, or sleep efficiency. Children in the autism group had significantly less total sleep time. Serum ferritin was uniformly low across groups. This study found no evidence that serum ferritin is associated with polysomnogram measures of latency or sleep continuity or that young children with autism are at increased risk for higher periodic limb movements index compared with typically developing and developmental delay peers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The association of iron status with educational performance and intelligence among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, D S; Kumarasiri, P V R; Nugegoda, D B; Dissanayake, D M

    2009-09-01

    The aim was to identify the association of iron status with educational performance and intelligence of adolescents. This was a cross sectional comparative study among adolescents aged 13-15 years. Each iron deficient student was matched with an iron sufficient student from the same school, class and sex. Iron status was based on haemoglobin and serum ferritin levels. The marks for mathematics, science, Sinhala language and social science were considered to assess educational performance. Intelligence was measured by Raven's Standard progressive matrices. All the possible confounders and effect modifiers were considered. Home visits to a sub-sample checked the quality of data. The final analysis included 188 students (94 matched pairs). Neither educational performance nor intelligence showed significant associations with the iron status. The severity of the iron deficiency did not relate to these cognitive variables either. Twenty-three and 8 co-variables showed statistically significant associations with educational performance and intelligence respectively. Following a multiple regression analysis intelligence, the enthusiasm of the student towards learning, occupational ambition, household possession, problems at home and private tuition for mathematics were key factors predicting educational performance. Stunting and educational level of the mother were important factors influencing intelligence. Iron status does not play a major role in educational performance and intelligence of school going adolescents. Several factors affect educational performance and intelligence. This study highlights the difficulty in extrapolating the findings of similar studies to different ecological settings.

  1. Iron Deficiency in Blood Donors: Analysis of Enrollment Data from the REDS-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Cable, Ritchard G.; Glynn, Simone A.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Mast, Alan E.; Steele, Whitney R.; Murphy, Edward L.; Wright, David J.; Sacher, Ronald A.; Gottschall, Jerry L.; Vij, Vibha; Simon, Toby L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Regular blood donors are at risk of iron deficiency, but characteristics which predispose to this condition are poorly defined. Methods 2425 red cell donors, either first time (FT) or reactivated donors (no donations for 2 years) or frequent donors were recruited for follow-up. At enrollment, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hemoglobin were determined. Donor variables included demographics, smoking, dietary intake, use of iron supplements, and menstrual/pregnancy history. Models to predict two measures of iron deficiency were developed: Absent iron stores (AIS) were indicated by ferritin < 12 ng/mL and iron deficient erythropoiesis (IDE) by log (sTfR/ferritin) ≥ 2.07. Results 15.0% of donors had AIS, 41.7% IDE. In frequent donors, 16.4% and 48.7% of males had AIS and IDE, respectively, with corresponding proportions of 27.1% and 66.1% for females. Donation intensity was most closely associated with AIS/IDE (ORs from 5.3 to 52.2 for different donation intensity compared to FT donors). Being female, younger, and/or menstruating also increased the likelihood of having AIS/IDE, as did having a lower weight. Marginally significant variables for AIS and/or IDE were being a non-smoker, previous pregnancy and not taking iron supplements. Dietary variables were in general unrelated to AIS/IDE, as was race/ethnicity. Conclusion A large proportion of both female and male frequent blood donors have iron depletion. Donation intensity, gender/menstrual status, weight, and age are important independent predictors of AIS/IDE. Reducing the frequency of blood donation is likely to reduce the prevalence of iron deficiency among blood donors, as might implementing routine iron supplementation. PMID:20804527

  2. Iron deficiency in blood donors: analysis of enrollment data from the REDS-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) study.

    PubMed

    Cable, Ritchard G; Glynn, Simone A; Kiss, Joseph E; Mast, Alan E; Steele, Whitney R; Murphy, Edward L; Wright, David J; Sacher, Ronald A; Gottschall, Jerry L; Vij, Vibha; Simon, Toby L

    2011-03-01

    Regular blood donors are at risk of iron deficiency, but characteristics that predispose to this condition are poorly defined. A total of 2425 red blood cell donors, either first-time (FT) or reactivated donors (no donations for 2 years) or frequent donors, were recruited for follow-up. At enrollment, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hemoglobin were determined. Donor variables included demographics, smoking, dietary intake, use of iron supplements, and menstrual and/or pregnancy history. Models to predict two measures of iron deficiency were developed: Absent iron stores (AIS) were indicated by a ferritin level of less than 12 ng/mL and iron-deficient erythropoiesis (IDE) by a log(sTfR/ferritin) value of 2.07 or greater. A total of 15.0% of donors had AIS and 41.7% IDE. In frequent donors, 16.4 and 48.7% of males had AIS and IDE, respectively, with corresponding proportions of 27.1 and 66.1% for females. Donation intensity was most closely associated with AIS and/or IDE (odds ratios from 5.3 to 52.2 for different donation intensity compared to FT donors). Being female, younger, and/or menstruating also increased the likelihood of having AIS and/or IDE, as did having a lower weight. Marginally significant variables for AIS and/or IDE were being a nonsmoker, previous pregnancy, and not taking iron supplements. Dietary variables were in general unrelated to AIS and/or IDE, as was race and/or ethnicity. A large proportion of both female and male frequent blood donors have iron depletion. Donation intensity, sex and/or menstrual status, weight, and age are important independent predictors of AIS and/or IDE. Reducing the frequency of blood donation is likely to reduce the prevalence of iron deficiency among blood donors, as might implementing routine iron supplementation. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  3. Prevalence of iron deficiency in 12-mo-old infants from 11 European areas and influence of dietary factors on iron status (Euro-Growth study).

    PubMed

    Male, C; Persson, L A; Freeman, V; Guerra, A; van't Hof, M A; Haschke, F

    2001-05-01

    A prospective longitudinal cohort study was performed to assess the prevalence of iron deficiency in European infants at 12 mo of age, and to study the influence of socio-economic status, dietary factors, growth and morbidity on iron status. The cohort consisted of 488 normal term infants from primary healthcare centres in 11 European areas. Assessed were socio-economic variables, dietary intake, anthropometry and morbidity at regular intervals from birth to 12 mo, and haemoglobin, serum ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, transferrin saturation and serum transferrin receptor concentrations at age 12 mo. The prevalence of anaemia was 9.4%, of iron deficiency 7.2%, and of iron deficiency anaemia 2.3%. More than 40% of anaemia was associated with normal iron status and associated with an increased frequency of recent infections. Iron deficiency anaemia was significantly more frequent with low (5.1%) than high socio-economic status (0%). Dietary factors accounted for most of this variation in multiple regression analysis. Early introduction of cows' milk was the strongest negative determinant of iron status. Feeding of iron-fortified formula was the main factor positively influencing iron status. Other dietary factors, including breastfeeding, did not play a significant role as determinants of iron status at age 12 mo. Conclusion. Iron deficiency anaemia is present in 2.3% of 12-mo-old European infants. The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia varies strongly with socio-economic status. Avoidance of cows' milk feeding during the first year of life is the key measure in the prevention of iron deficiency.

  4. Dietary iron supplements and Moringa oleifera leaves influence the liver hepcidin messenger RNA expression and biochemical indices of iron status in rats.

    PubMed

    Saini, R K; Manoj, P; Shetty, N P; Srinivasan, K; Giridhar, P

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the effects of iron depletion and repletion on biochemical and molecular indices of iron status were investigated in growing male Wistar rats. We hypothesized that iron from Moringa leaves could overcome the effects of iron deficiency and modulate the expression of iron-responsive genes better than conventional iron supplements. Iron deficiency was induced by feeding rats an iron-deficient diet for 10 weeks, whereas control rats were maintained on an iron-sufficient diet (35.0-mg Fe/kg diet). After the depletion period, animals were repleted with different source of iron, in combination with ascorbic acid. Iron deficiency caused a significant (P < .05) decrease in serum iron and ferritin levels by 57% and 40%, respectively, as compared with nondepleted control animals. Significant changes in the expression (0.5- to100-fold) of liver hepcidin (HAMP), transferrin, transferrin receptor-2, hemochromatosis type 2, ferroportin 1, ceruloplasmin, and ferritin-H were recorded in iron-depleted and iron-repleted rats, as compared with nondepleted rats (P < .05). Dietary iron from Moringa leaf was found to be superior compared with ferric citrate in overcoming the effects of iron deficiency in rats. These results suggest that changes in the relative expression of liver hepcidin messenger RNA can be used as a sensitive molecular marker for iron deficiency.

  5. Serum ferritin and the iron status of Canadians.

    PubMed Central

    Valberg, L. S.; Sorbie, J.; Ludwig, J.; Pelletier, O.

    1976-01-01

    Serum ferritin concentration was determined in 1105 Canadians aged 1 to 90 years. Geometric mean values (ng/ml) were as follows: children 1 to 4 years old, 12; children 5 to 9 years old, 15; adolescent girls, 17; adolescent boys, 18; women 20 to 39 years, 23; women 65 years and older, 52; men 20 to 39 years, 93; and men 40 and older, 92. Ranges were side in all age groups, reflecting variations in size of body iron stores. From analysis of the ferritin values it is highly probably that iron stores were greatly reduced in approximately 25% of children, 30% of adolescents, 30% of menstruating women, 60% of pregnant women and 3% of men. Iron-deficiency anemia was noted in only 2% of subjects. If "normality" requires more than small amounts of storage iron to meet physiologic demands, the study results suggest a high probability of iron deficiency in 60% of the pregnant women and in 19% of the other subjects; but if normality is defined as maintenance of adequate iron stores for erythropoiesis, the prevalence of iron deficiency was zero in the pregnant women and 2% in the other subjects. PMID:1253085

  6. The effect of humic acids and their complexes with iron on the functional status of plants grown under iron deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abros'kin, D. P.; Fuentes, M.; Garcia-Mina, J. M.; Klyain, O. I.; Senik, S. V.; Volkov, D. S.; Perminova, I. V.; Kulikova, N. A.

    2016-10-01

    The effect of humic acids (HAs) and their iron complexes (Fe-HAs) on the input of the main mineral elements into wheat seedlings, as well as on the efficiency of photosynthesis and the lipid profile of plants, under iron deficiency has been studied. The input of iron from Fe-HA complexes and its predominant accumulation in roots are demonstrated. It is found that HAs increase the efficiency of photosynthesis due to enhanced electron transport in photosystem II. It is shown that the application of HAs and Fe-HAs is accompanied by an enhanced input of Zn into plants, which could increase the antioxidant status of plants under iron deficiency conditions. In addition, a pronounced increase in the content of lipids in plants is revealed, which is indicative of the effect of HAs on plant metabolism. The obtained results suggest that the positive effect of Fe-HAs and HAs on plants under iron deficiency conditions is due to a combination of factors, among which the effect of HAs on the antioxidant status of plants and the plant lipid metabolism predominates.

  7. [Peripartum cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Mouquet, Frédéric; Bouabdallaoui, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    The peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare form of dilated cardiomyopathy resulting from alteration of angiogenesis toward the end of pregnancy. The diagnosis is based on the association of clinical heart failure and systolic dysfunction assessed by echocardiography or magnetic resonance imaging. Diagnoses to rule out are myocardial infarction, amniotic liquid embolism, myocarditis, inherited cardiomyopathy, and history of treatment by anthracycline. Risk factors are advance maternal age (>30), multiparity, twin pregnancy, African origin, obesity, preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, and prolonged tocolytic therapy. Treatment of acute phase is identical to usual treatment of acute systolic heart failure. After delivery, VKA treatment should be discussed in case of systolic function <25% because of higher risk of thrombus. A specific treatment by bromocriptine can be initiated on a case-by-case basis. Complete recovery of systolic function is observed in 50% of cases. The mortality risk is low. Subsequent pregnancy should be discouraged, especially if systolic function did not recover.

  8. Recurrent takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a child.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Nayan T; Parent, John J; Hurwitz, Roger A

    2016-02-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy or transient apical ballooning syndrome very rarely presents in children. In all patients with takotsubo, it is estimated that only 3.5% will have recurrence. In this study, we describe a case of recurrent takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a child, likely triggered by status epilepticus.

  9. Iron Deficiency in Blood Donors: The REDS-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Cable, Ritchard G.; Glynn, Simone A.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Mast, Alan E.; Steele, Whitney R.; Murphy, Edward L.; Wright, David J.; Sacher, Ronald A.; Gottschall, Jerry L.; Tobler, Leslie H.; Simon, Toby L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Blood donors are at risk of iron deficiency. We evaluated the effects of blood donation intensity on iron and hemoglobin in a prospective study. Methods Four cohorts of frequent and first time or reactivated blood donors (no donation in 2 years), female and male, totaling 2425 were characterized and followed as they donated blood frequently. At enrollment and the final visit, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hemoglobin were determined. Models to predict iron deficiency and hemoglobin deferral were developed. Iron depletion was defined at two levels: Iron Deficient Erythropoiesis (IDE) [log (soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin ≥ 2.07)] and Absent Iron Stores (AIS) (ferritin < 12 ng/mL). Results Among returning female first time/reactivated donors, 20% and 51% had AIS and IDE at their final visit, respectively; corresponding proportions for males were 8% and 20%. Among female frequent donors who returned, 27% and 62% had AIS and IDE, respectively, while corresponding proportions for males were 18% and 47%. Predictors of IDE and/or AIS included a higher frequency of blood donation in the last 2 years, a shorter interdonation interval, and being female and young; conversely, taking iron supplements reduced the risk of iron depletion. Predictors of hemoglobin deferral included female gender, Black race and a shorter interdonation interval. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of iron depletion in frequent blood donors. Increasing the interdonation interval would reduce the prevalence of iron depletion and hemoglobin deferral. Alternatively, replacement with iron supplements may allow frequent donation without the adverse outcome of iron depletion. PMID:22023513

  10. Iron deficiency in blood donors: the REDS-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) study.

    PubMed

    Cable, Ritchard G; Glynn, Simone A; Kiss, Joseph E; Mast, Alan E; Steele, Whitney R; Murphy, Edward L; Wright, David J; Sacher, Ronald A; Gottschall, Jerry L; Tobler, Leslie H; Simon, Toby L

    2012-04-01

    Blood donors are at risk of iron deficiency. We evaluated the effects of blood donation intensity on iron and hemoglobin (Hb) in a prospective study. Four cohorts of frequent and first-time or reactivated (FT/RA) blood donors (no donation in 2 years), female and male, totaling 2425, were characterized and followed as they donated blood frequently. At enrollment and the final visit, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and Hb were determined. Models to predict iron deficiency and Hb deferral were developed. Iron depletion was defined at two levels: iron deficiency erythropoiesis (IDE) [log(sTfR/ferritin) ≥ 2.07] and absent iron stores (AIS; ferritin < 12 ng/mL). Among returning female FT and RA donors, 20 and 51% had AIS and IDE at their final visit, respectively; corresponding proportions for males were 8 and 20%. Among female frequent donors who returned, 27 and 62% had AIS and IDE, respectively, while corresponding proportions for males were 18 and 47%. Predictors of IDE and/or AIS included a higher frequency of blood donation in the past 2 years, a shorter interdonation interval, and being female and young; conversely, taking iron supplements reduced the risk of iron depletion. Predictors of Hb deferral included female sex, black race, and a shorter interdonation interval. There is a high prevalence of iron depletion in frequent blood donors. Increasing the interdonation interval would reduce the prevalence of iron depletion and Hb deferral. Alternatively, replacement with iron supplements may allow frequent donation without the adverse outcome of iron depletion. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  11. Consuming Iron Biofortified Beans Increases Iron Status in Rwandan Women after 128 Days in a Randomized Controlled Feeding Trial.

    PubMed

    Haas, Jere D; Luna, Sarah V; Lung'aho, Mercy G; Wenger, Michael J; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Beebe, Stephen; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Egli, Ines M

    2016-08-01

    Food-based strategies to reduce nutritional iron deficiency have not been universally successful. Biofortification has the potential to become a sustainable, inexpensive, and effective solution. This randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of iron-biofortified beans (Fe-Beans) to improve iron status in Rwandan women. A total of 195 women (aged 18-27 y) with serum ferritin <20 μg/L were randomly assigned to receive either Fe-Beans, with 86 mg Fe/kg, or standard unfortified beans (Control-Beans), with 50 mg Fe/kg, 2 times/d for 128 d in Huye, Rwanda. Iron status was assessed by hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and body iron (BI); inflammation was assessed by serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). Anthropometric measurements were performed at baseline and at end line. Random weekly serial sampling was used to collect blood during the middle 8 wk of the feeding trial. Mixed-effects regression analysis with repeated measurements was used to evaluate the effect of Fe-Beans compared with Control-Beans on iron biomarkers throughout the course of the study. At baseline, 86% of subjects were iron-deficient (serum ferritin <15 μg/L) and 37% were anemic (hemoglobin <120 g/L). Both groups consumed an average of 336 g wet beans/d. The Fe-Beans group consumed 14.5 ± 1.6 mg Fe/d from biofortified beans, whereas the Control-Beans group consumed 8.6 ± 0.8 mg Fe/d from standard beans (P < 0.05). Repeated-measures analyses showed significant time-by-treatment interactions for hemoglobin, log serum ferritin, and BI (P < 0.05). The Fe-Beans group had significantly greater increases in hemoglobin (3.8 g/L), log serum ferritin (0.1 log μg/L), and BI (0.5 mg/kg) than did controls after 128 d. For every 1 g Fe consumed from beans over the 128 study days, there was a significant 4.2-g/L increase in hemoglobin (P < 0.05). The consumption of iron-biofortified beans significantly improved iron status

  12. Biomarkers of iron status and trace elements in welders.

    PubMed

    Ellingsen, Dag G; Chashchin, Maxim; Berlinger, Balazs; Konz, Tobias; Zibarev, Evgenij; Aaseth, Jan; Chashchin, Valery; Thomassen, Yngvar

    2014-07-01

    Iron status was studied in 137 welders exposed to a geometric mean (GM) air concentration of 214 μg/m(3) (range 1-3230) of manganese (Mn), in 137 referents and in 34 former welders. The GM concentrations of S-ferritin were 119 (3-1498), 112 (9-1277) and 98 (12-989) μg/L (p=0.24) in the three groups, respectively. Also the GM concentrations of S-hepcidin were not significantly different between the groups (8.4 μg/L (2.8-117); 6.6 μg/L (1.8-100); 6.5 μg/L (1.2-22)) (p=0.22). Multiple linear regression analysis including all welders and referents showed an increase in the concentration of S-ferritin associated with having serum carbohydrate deficient transferrin (S-CDT) above the upper reference limit of ≥1.7%, indicating high alcohol consumption. Serum C-reactive protein was not associated with exposure as welders, but an association with S-ferritin was shown. The GM S-ferritin concentrations among all welders and referents with S-CDT≥1.7% were 157 μg/L (95% CI 113-218) as compared to 104 μg/L (95% CI 94-116) (p=0.02) in those with S-CDT<1.7%. The GM concentrations of Mn in biological fluids were higher in the welders as compared to the referents, while S-Fe, S-Co and B-Co were statistically significantly lower. This could suggest a competitive inhibition from Mn on the uptake of Fe and Co. Increasing concentrations of S-CDT was associated with higher S-Mn, S-Fe and B-Co in the multiple linear regression analysis. The association between S-CDT and S-Fe remained when all subjects with high S-CDT (≥1.7%) were excluded, suggesting increased uptake of Fe even at lower alcohol consumption.

  13. Efficacy of daily vs. weekly supplementation of iron in schoolchildren with low iron status.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Imran Akhtar; Rahman, M Ataur; Jaleel, Anila

    2004-10-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is still a major nutritional and public health problem in developing countries. The prevalence among young children and pregnant women is particularly high. Daily oral supplementation with medicinal iron is considered an effective strategy for reducing the incidence of IDA but non-compliance is a major problem with this strategy. We undertook this study to compare the results of once-weekly vs. daily oral iron supplementation in schoolchildren. Sixty children ranging between 5 and 10 years with iron deficiency anemia were selected from a school in Karachi, Pakistan and were divided into two equal groups, i.e., daily and weekly supplementation groups. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), and serum ferritin were determined before the start of the study. Ferrous sulfate (200 mg) was given daily to the daily supplementation group and once-weekly to the weekly supplementation group for 2 months. When post-supplementation values of the above-mentioned parameters were determined, a significant improvement was observed in all parameters in both groups. It is concluded that once-weekly iron supplementation is as effective as daily supplementation for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Moreover, weekly iron supplementation is cost effective and has no or fewer side-effects.

  14. Anemia and iron status of Malay women attending an antenatal clinic in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Rosline; Abdullah, Wan Zaidah; Nik Hussain, Nik Hazlina

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect the frequency of iron deficiency anemia in women attending their first antenatal clinic at a Maternal and Child Health Clinic in Kubang Kerian, a district of Kelantan that is located on the East coast of Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was done over a two-month period and fifty-two Malay women were enrolled in this study. Red blood cell indices and serum ferritin were used as a screening tool for anemia and iron status. Eighteen patients (34.6%) were anemic. The majority were classified as having mild anemia (90%). Four of them had hypochromic microcytic anemia. Of 52 women, 7 had iron deficient erythropoiesis and 11 (61.1%) had iron deficient anemia. The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women was 21.2%, which is similar to other developing countries. The serum ferritin level was significantly associated with the hemoglobin level (p=0.003). Other red blood cell indices were not useful in predicting iron deficient erythropoiesis. It is important to detect iron deficient erythropoiesis during the first antenatal check-up, as it is an early manifestation of iron deficiency anemia. In conclusion, screening for iron deficient is recommended during first antenatal visit because iron deficiency anemia is still the leading cause of nutritional deficiency in pregnant women. This will initiate an early therapeutic intervention so as to reduce public health problem.

  15. Iron Supplementation Attenuates the Inflammatory Status of Anemic Piglets by Regulating Hepcidin.

    PubMed

    Pu, Yutian; Guo, Bingxiu; Liu, Dan; Xiong, Haitao; Wang, Yizhen; Du, Huahua

    2015-09-01

    Iron deficiency is common throughout the world and has been linked to immunity impairments. Using piglets to model human infants, we assessed the impact of systemic iron homeostasis on proinflammatory status. Artificially reared piglets were parenterally supplied with iron dextran by intramuscular administration at the age of 3 days. Relative to no iron supplementation (control), iron dextran-treated (FeDex) piglets increased hematological parameters as well as iron levels in serum and tissues from days 21 to 49. High expression of hepcidin was observed in FeDex-treated piglets, which correlated with suppressed expression of ferroportin in duodenum. Lower levels of proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β) transcripts were detected in ileum of FeDex-treated piglets, which indicated that iron supplementation could attenuate the increase of inflammatory cytokines caused by iron deficiency. Histopathological analysis of liver and duodenum proved the less inflammatory responses after iron supplementation. Hepcidin was highly stimulated by FeDex supplementation and attenuated the inflammation of anemia, which implied that hepcidin might had antiinflammatory function and is a candidate regulator of the cross-talk between iron regulation and inflammation.

  16. Effects of different regimens of iron prophylaxis on maternal iron status and pregnancy outcome: a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Francesca; Berti, Cristiana; Mandò, Chiara; Martinelli, Anna; Mazzali, Cristina; Cetin, Irene

    2017-08-01

    Iron supplementation is associated with side effects and overload risk. We compared different regimens of iron supplementation on maternal hematological status and pregnancy outcome in a cohort of healthy pregnant women. Eighty non-anemic women with a normal singleton pregnancy were recruited at 11-13 weeks and randomized into controls (C; n = 20) and groups supplemented with ferrous iron 30 mg (FI; n = 20), liposomal iron 14 mg (Sideral® Pharmanutra, Pisa PI, Italy) (LI14; n = 20) and liposomal iron 28 mg/daily (LI28; n = 20) up to 6 weeks post-partum. Longitudinal maternal blood samples for iron markers were collected. Data on birth outcome were recorded. The treatment effect was evaluated using a mixed-effect regression model. Both LI28 and LI14 groups showed significantly higher hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations compared with controls. Birth weight showed a trend to increase with supplementation, resulting in higher birth weight in the LI28 group compared with controls (3499 ± 464.1 g and 3092 ± 469.5 g, respectively, p < 0.01). Our data show the effectiveness of 28 mg and 14 mg LI on maternal anemia prevention, as previously reported with FI 40 mg. LI has similar effects of higher doses of ferrous iron on maternal hematological parameters, thus allowing to reduce iron doses and side effects.

  17. Circulating concentrations of a marker of type I collagen metabolism are associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation status in ragdoll cats.

    PubMed

    Borgeat, K; Dudhia, J; Luis Fuentes, V; Connolly, D J

    2015-06-01

    Human carriers of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated sarcomeric mutations have abnormal collagen metabolism before overt left ventricular hypertrophy is detectable. This study investigated whether differences in collagen biomarkers were present in blood samples of ragdoll cats positive for the MYBPC3:R820W mutation compared with negative controls. Cats were recruited for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy screening using echocardiography and genotyping. Circulating markers of collagen turnover (C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen [CITP; type I collagen degradation] and N-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen [type III collagen synthesis]) and cardiac biomarkers (N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide and cardiac troponin I) were measured. Correlation between concentrations of collagen biomarkers and echocardiographic variables was analysed, and collagen biomarker concentrations were compared between MYBPC3 mutation positive and negative cats, without left ventricular hypertrophy. Linear regression analyses showed that genotype was independently associated with CITP concentration. CITP was higher in mutation carriers (25 · 4 µg/L, interquartile range 16 · 0-29 · 2 µg/L) than non-carriers (14 · 6 µg/L, interquartile range 9 · 38-19 · 2 µg/L; P = 0 · 024). Circulating CITP was higher in MYBPC3-positive ragdoll cats than negative controls and may indicate altered collagen metabolism. Further studies are necessary to determine whether alterations in circulating collagen biomarker concentration relate to an early stage of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  18. The relationship between iron status and adiposity in women from developing countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Aderibigbe, Olaide Ruth; Pisa, Pedro T; Vorster, Hester H; Kruger, Salome H

    2014-01-01

    Scientific reports have shown that iron deficiency is positively associated with adiposity. With the high prevalence of iron deficiency and obesity in developing countries and women being particularly affected, this review was carried out with the aim of elucidating the link between iron status and adiposity in women from developing countries and to examine factors influencing this relationship. An extensive literature search was conducted using several search engines. A systematic approach with prespecified inclusion criteria was used in selecting relevant literature. Eight studies that met the inclusion criteria were selected for review. The relationship between iron status indices and adiposity in women in developing countries varied widely. While some studies observed negative relationships, some reported positive relationships, and others no significant relationships. Furthermore, other factors such as infection, alcohol consumption, type of diet, and genes were shown to affect the relationship between iron status and adiposity in women in developing countries. In conclusion, the possibility of iron status playing a role in adiposity in women from developing countries is likely, and it may be influenced by several other factors as described in the results. Thus, it is recommended that a special research effort should be directed toward this area.

  19. Determinants of iron status in Malaysian adolescents from a rural community.

    PubMed

    Foo, Leng Huat; Khor, Geok Lin; Tee, E-Siong; Dhanaraj, Prabakaran

    2004-09-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide. The prevalence of anaemia in the developing countries is three to four times higher than that in the developed countries. The iron status was assessed in 199 apparently healthy male and female adolescents aged 12-19 years living in a fishing community in Sabah, Malaysia. Data on socio-economic characteristics, lifestyles, anthropometry measurements, iron status, and dietary intake were gathered. Dietary intake of energy, iron, and most nutrients (with the exception of protein and vitamin C) were below the recommended levels for Malaysian adolescents. Three-quarters of the iron was derived from plant foods. The mean haemoglobin value for the male was 13.9 +/- 1.3 g/dl with 9.5% having less than 12 g/dl, while the respective figures for the female were 12.4 +/- 1.6 g/dl and 28.6%. The mean serum ferritin concentrations for male and female adolescents were 21.5 and 15.4 microg/l, respectively; with 25.7% of the males and 49.5% of the females having deficient levels of ferritin. Dietary intake of total energy and iron, and gender were found to be independent determinants of serum ferritin and haemoglobin levels, accounting for over 40% of the variations for each of these iron indicators. In males, but not in females, the intake of dietary protein and iron, and physical activity were also found to be significant determinants of serum ferritin. The age of subjects and household size were significant determinants of haemoglobin levels for male subjects, but not for female subjects. The findings indicate the importance of adequate intake of energy and dietary iron for improving the iron status of adolescents.

  20. Restrictive cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Dawson, David

    2009-12-01

    Restrictive cardiomyopathies constitute a heterogenous group of heart muscle conditions that all have, in common, the symptoms of heart failure. Diastolic dysfunction with preserved systolic function is often the only echocardiographic abnormality that may be noted, although systolic dysfunction may also be an integral part of some specific pathologies, particularly in the most advanced cases such as amyloid infiltration of the heart. By far, the majority of restrictive cardiomyopathies are secondary to a systemic disorder such as amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, scleroderma, haemochromatosis, eosinophilic heart disease, or as a result of radiation treatment. The much more rare diagnosis of idiopathic restrictive cardiomyopathy is supported only by the absence of specific pathology on either endomyocardial biopsies or at post-mortem. Restrictive cardiomyopathy is diagnosed based on medical history, physical examination, and tests: such as blood tests, electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, echocardiography, and magnetic resonance imaging. With its wide availability, echocardiography is probably the most important investigation to identify the left ventricular dysfunction and should be performed early and by groups that are familiar with the wide variety of aetiologies. Finally, on rare occasions, the differential diagnosis from constrictive pericarditis may be necessary.

  1. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-del-Árbol, Luis; Serradilla, Regina

    2015-11-07

    During the course of cirrhosis, there is a progressive deterioration of cardiac function manifested by the disappearance of the hyperdynamic circulation due to a failure in heart function with decreased cardiac output. This is due to a deterioration in inotropic and chronotropic function which takes place in parallel with a diastolic dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy in the absence of other known cardiac disease. Other findings of this specific cardiomyopathy include impaired contractile responsiveness to stress stimuli and electrophysiological abnormalities with prolonged QT interval. The pathogenic mechanisms of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy include impairment of the b-adrenergic receptor signalling, abnormal cardiomyocyte membrane lipid composition and biophysical properties, ion channel defects and overactivity of humoral cardiodepressant factors. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy may be difficult to determine due to the lack of a specific diagnosis test. However, an echocardiogram allows the detection of the diastolic dysfunction and the E/e' ratio may be used in the follow-up progression of the illness. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the impairment of effective arterial blood volume and correlates with the degree of liver failure. A clinical consequence of cardiac dysfunction is an inadequate cardiac response in the setting of vascular stress that may result in renal hypoperfusion leading to renal failure. The prognosis is difficult to establish but the severity of diastolic dysfunction may be a marker of mortality risk. Treatment is non-specific and liver transplantation may normalize the cardiac function.

  2. Effect of green tea on iron status and oxidative stress in iron-loaded rats.

    PubMed

    Ounjaijean, S; Thephinlap, C; Khansuwan, U; Phisalapong, C; Fucharoen, S; Porter, J B; Srichairatanakool, S

    2008-07-01

    Plasma non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) is potentially toxic and contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), consequently leading to tissue damage and organ dysfunction. Iron chelators and antioxidants are used for treatment of thalassemia patients. Green tea (GT) contains catechins derivatives that have many biological activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the iron-chelating and free-radical scavenging capacities of green tea extract in vivo. Rats were injected ip with ferric citrate together with orally administered GT extract (GTE) for 4 months. Blood was collected monthly for measurement of iron overload and oxidative stress indicators. Plasma iron (PI) and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) were quantified using bathophenanthroline method. Plasma NTBI was assayed with NTA chelation/HPLC. Plasma malonyldialdehyde (MDA) was determined by using the TBARS method. Erythrocyte oxidative stress was assessed using flow cytometry. Levels of PI, TIBC, NTBI and MDA, and erythrocyte ROS increased in the iron-loaded rats. Intervention with GT extract markedly decreased the PI and TIBC concentrations. It also lowered the transferrin saturation and effectively inhibited formation of NTBI. It also decreased the levels of erythrocyte ROS in week 4, 12 and 16. Therefore, green tea extract can decrease iron in plasma as well as eliminate lipid peroxidation in plasma, and destroy formation of erythrocyte ROS in the rats challenged with iron. The bifunctional effects could be beneficial in alleviating the iron and oxidative stress toxicity. In prospective, these GTE activities should be further examined in thalassemic animals or humans.

  3. Iron status and its determinants in a nationally representative sample of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Van Oyen, Herman; Egli, Ines; Ines, Egli; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2013-05-01

    Iron-deficiency anemia is associated with adverse neonatal health outcomes. Iron status and its determinants were assessed in a representative sample of Belgian pregnant women. Blood samples were collected and a questionnaire was completed face-to-face. Hemoglobin (Hb) and mean cell volume were measured using a Beckman Coulter Hematology Analyzer and serum ferritin (SF) and transferrin receptor (sTfr) concentrations by immunoassay. In total, 55 obstetric clinics and 1,311 pregnant women were included. Approximately 40% of third-trimester and 6% of first-trimester women had SF levels less than 15 μg/L. Approximately 21% of third-trimester and 4% of first-trimester women had anemia (Hb <110 g/L). Of the third-trimester women, 23% were iron-deficient nonanemic (SF <15 μg/L and Hb ≥110 g/L), 16% had iron-deficiency anemia (SF <15 μg/L and Hb <110 g/L), and approximately 7% had tissue iron deficiency (sTfr >8.5 mg/L). The median body iron stores were 8.1 mg/kg among first-trimester women, but only 3.6 mg/kg among third-trimester women. SF levels were significantly positively associated with age and education level, and were higher among nulliparous women and lower among North-African women. sTfr concentrations were significantly negatively associated with age and were lower among smokers, nulliparous women, and women who planned their pregnancy. Despite the fact that two thirds of Belgian pregnant women took iron-containing supplements, iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia were frequent in third-trimester women. The World Health Organization regards this as a moderate public health problem. National iron supplementation guidelines are needed in Belgium to optimize iron status during pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Iron status of Hindu brahmin, Jain and Muslim communities in Surat, Gujarat.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, A S; Mahida, V I; Gupte, S C

    2007-12-01

    To determine iron status of healthy, unrelated Brahmin, Jain and Muslim participants having different dietary habits. Control participants other than above three communities, consumed vegetarian or non-vegetarian diet. Brahmin and Jain were strictly vegetarian but Jain did not consume roots or tubers. Muslims consumed non-vegetarian food. Standard techniques were used to measure hematological parameters, serum iron, total iron bindings capacity (TIBC), serum ferritin, transferrin and transferrin saturation. For statistical evaluation mean, standard deviation, pair t test, χ2 and ANOVA (F test) were employed. Study includes 565 male and 198 female children and adults. Among them 205 were children and remaining adults. All four categories i.e. control, Brahmin, Jain and Muslims showed higher incidence of anemia and iron deficiency in females compared to males. Mean values of hematological parameters did not vary significantly in four groups. Serum iron, TIBC, transferrin and ferritin levels indicated iron deficiency anemia more frequently in Jains and less frequently in Muslims (p<0.05). Iron status of Brahmin was comparable with controls (p<0.01). Majority of the participants had serum ferritin concentration >15 ng/mL. Except one male Jain child none of the participants had serum ferritin concentration <12 ng/mL. Jain subjects more frequently had serum iron concentration <60 μg/dL. Jain participants had higher incidence of iron deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diet consumed by Gujarati Hindu Brahmin community provided them with a sufficient iron to maintain their iron profile like Muslims consuming non-vegetarian diet.

  5. Cardiomyopathy in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia; Wahbi, Karim

    2013-01-01

    According to the American Heart Association, cardiomyopathies are classified as primary (solely or predominantly confined to heart muscle), secondary (those showing pathological myocardial involvement as part of a neuromuscular disorder) and those in which cardiomyopathy is the first/predominant manifestation of a neuromuscular disorder. Cardiomyopathies may be further classified as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, or unclassified cardiomyopathy (noncompaction, Takotsubo-cardiomyopathy). This review focuses on secondary cardiomyopathies and those in which cardiomyopathy is the predominant manifestation of a myopathy. Any of them may cause neurological disease, and any of them may be a manifestation of a neurological disorder. Neurological disease most frequently caused by cardiomyopathies is ischemic stroke, followed by transitory ischemic attack, syncope, or vertigo. Neurological disease, which most frequently manifests with cardiomyopathies are the neuromuscular disorders. Most commonly associated with cardiomyopathies are muscular dystrophies, myofibrillar myopathies, congenital myopathies and metabolic myopathies. Management of neurological disease caused by cardiomyopathies is not at variance from the same neurological disorders due to other causes. Management of secondary cardiomyopathies is not different from that of cardiomyopathies due to other causes either. Patients with neuromuscular disorders require early cardiologic investigations and close follow-ups, patients with cardiomyopathies require neurological investigation and avoidance of muscle toxic medication if a neuromuscular disorder is diagnosed. Which patients with cardiomyopathy profit most from primary stroke prevention is unsolved and requires further investigations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Recent evidence from human and animal studies regarding iron status and infant development.

    PubMed

    Beard, John

    2007-02-01

    Infants are at risk for iron deficiency as breast milk or formula is replaced by semisolid foods during weaning. The scope of this article is to briefly review new findings on developmental iron deficiency and the persistence of deficiency effects into adulthood. A lack of sufficient iron intake may significantly delay the development of the central nervous system because of alterations in morphology, neurochemistry, and bioenergics. Depending on the stage of development at the time of iron deficiency, there may be an opportunity to reverse adverse effects, but the success of repletion efforts may be time dependent. The program project on "Brain and Behavior in Early Iron Deficiency" (B. Lozoff, P.I.) undertook preclinical and clinical studies to identify the regions of the brain and behaviors affected, and perhaps irreversibly altered, by early-life iron deficiency. Multiple outcomes are being measured in humans, nonhuman primates, and rodents. Data in monkeys show significant effects on neurodevelopment with dietary iron deficiency. Findings in human infants are consistent with altered myelination and changes in monoamine functioning. Rodent studies show that effects of iron deficiency during gestation and lactation persist despite restoration of iron status at weaning. These cross-species studies indicate a vulnerable period in early development that may result in long-lasting damage.

  7. Study of maternal influences on fetal iron status at term using cord blood transferrin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, D; Savage, G; Tubman, T; Lappin, T; Halliday, H

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To determine effects of maternal iron depletion and smoking on iron status of term babies using serum transferrin receptors (STfR) and their ratio to ferritin (TfR-F index) in cord blood.
METHODS—Iron, ferritin, STfR, and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration were measured and TfR-F index calculated in 67 cord /maternal blood pairs. Twenty six mothers were iron depleted (ferritin <10 µg/l) and 28 were smokers.
RESULTS—Maternal iron depletion was associated with decreased cord ferritin (113 v 171 µg/l) and Hb (156 v 168 g/l) but no change in STfR or TfR-F index. Smoking was associated with increased cord Hb (168 v 157 g/l) and TfR-F index (4.1 v 3.4), and decreased ferritin (123 v 190 µg/l). Cord TfR-F index and Hb were positively correlated (r = 0.48).
CONCLUSIONS—Maternal iron depletion is associated with reduced fetal iron stores but no change in free iron availability. Smoking is associated with increased fetal iron requirements for erythropoiesis.

 PMID:11124923

  8. Iron nutritional status in female karatekas, handball and basketball players, and runners.

    PubMed

    Nuviala, R J; Castillo, M C; Lapieza, M G; Escanero, J F

    1996-03-01

    The iron nutritional status was studied in 84 sportswomen (19 karatekas, 20 handball players, 20 basketball players, and 25 middle and long distance runners) and in 82 nonathletic females of similar characteristics (control group). After a 7-day nutritional survey by means of the food weighing method, it was found that iron intake was significantly higher in the handball players (p < 0.05), basketball players (p < 0.01), and runners (p < 0.01) with regard to the control group; the basketball players were the only ones to cover the recommended minimum intake (15 mg/day). The heme iron intake was significantly greater in the handball and basketball players (p < 0.01), who, together with the runners, reached the value of 1.5 mg/day, which is considered to be optimal. In relation to the control group, the karatekas and handball and basketball players had lower levels of serum ferritin, although their iron intake was greater, whereas the runners had higher values that were very similar to those of the control group, due to the iron supplementation they had received. Despite finding a marked prevalence of inadequate iron intake, both in the sportswomen and in the control group, the manifest cases of anemia are relatively scarce. The organic iron stores do not seem to depend exclusively on the iron intake but also on intimate mechanisms of intestinal absorption and diverse causes of iron loss.

  9. A vegetarian diet rich in soybean products compromises iron status in young students.

    PubMed

    Shaw, N S; Chin, C J; Pan, W H

    1995-02-01

    The iron status of young Chinese Buddhist vegetarians (23 men and 32 women) and nonvegetarian students (20 men and 39 women from a medical college) was investigated by dietary assessment of iron intake and hematological measurement of biochemical indices including hemoglobin, plasma iron, transferrin, transferrin saturation and plasma ferritin. A characteristic of the vegetarian diet in this study was the replacement of meat by soybean products. Results of the dietary assessment showed that the average iron density of the diets ranged from 1.9 to 2.2 mg/MJ, with no difference between the vegetarian and nonvegetarian diets. Daily iron intake was similar in both vegetarian and nonvegetarian men. However, iron intake was significantly higher in female vegetarians than nonvegetarians, averaging 104 and 78% of the RDA, respectively. Results of blood analysis showed that, for both sexes, the median plasma ferritin concentration of the vegetarians (male 47 micrograms/L and female 12 micrograms/L) was about half the level of the nonvegetarians (male 91 micrograms/L and female 27 micrograms/L). Occurrence and risk of iron deficiency are more prevalent in vegetarians. Correlation between plasma ferritin concentration and years of vegetarian practice in vegetarian men was marginally significant (r = -0.38, P = 0.077). We conclude that a vegetarian diet that is rich in soybean products and restricted in animal foods is limited in bioavailable iron and is not adequate for maintaining iron balance in men and women.

  10. What Is Cardiomyopathy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Cardiomyopathy? Cardiomyopathy refers to diseases of the heart muscle. These ... many causes, signs and symptoms, and treatments. In cardiomyopathy, the heart muscle becomes enlarged, thick, or rigid. ...

  11. Effects of Vitamin A Supplementation on Iron Status Indices and Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Al-Zabedi, Ebtesam M.; Al-Maktari, Mohamed T.; Atroosh, Wahib M.; Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K.; Moktar, Norhayati; Sallam, Atiya A.; Abdullah, Wan Ariffin; Jani, Rohana; Surin, Johari

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world including developed and developing countries. Despite intensive efforts to improve the quality of life of rural and aboriginal communities in Malaysia, anaemia and IDA are still major public health problems in these communities particularly among children. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 250 Orang Asli (aboriginal) schoolchildren in Malaysia to investigate the effects of a single high-dose of vitamin A supplementation (200,000 IU) on iron status indices, anaemia and IDA status. The effect of the supplement was assessed after 3 months of receiving the supplements; after a complete 3-day deworming course of 400 mg/day of albendazole tablets. The prevalence of anaemia was found to be high: 48.5% (95% CI = 42.3, 54.8). Moreover, 34% (95% CI = 28.3, 40.2) of the children had IDA, which accounted for 70.1% of the anaemic cases. The findings showed that the reduction in serum ferritin level and the increments in haemoglobin, serum iron and transferrin saturation were found to be significant among children allocated to the vitamin A group compared to those allocated to the placebo group (p < 0.01). Moreover, a significant reduction in the prevalence of IDA by almost 22% than prevalence at baseline was reported among children in the vitamin A group compared with only 2.3% reduction among children in the placebo group. In conclusion, vitamin A supplementation showed a significant impact on iron status indices and IDA among Orang Asli children. Hence, providing vitamin A supplementation and imparting the knowledge related to nutritious food should be considered in the efforts to improve the nutritional and health status of these children as a part of efforts to improve the quality of life in rural and aboriginal communities. PMID:24384995

  12. Effects of vitamin A supplementation on iron status indices and iron deficiency anaemia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Al-Zabedi, Ebtesam M; Al-Maktari, Mohamed T; Atroosh, Wahib M; Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K; Moktar, Norhayati; Sallam, Atiya A; Abdullah, Wan Ariffin; Jani, Rohana; Surin, Johari

    2013-12-31

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world including developed and developing countries. Despite intensive efforts to improve the quality of life of rural and aboriginal communities in Malaysia, anaemia and IDA are still major public health problems in these communities particularly among children. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 250 Orang Asli (aboriginal) schoolchildren in Malaysia to investigate the effects of a single high-dose of vitamin A supplementation (200,000 IU) on iron status indices, anaemia and IDA status. The effect of the supplement was assessed after 3 months of receiving the supplements; after a complete 3-day deworming course of 400 mg/day of albendazole tablets. The prevalence of anaemia was found to be high: 48.5% (95% CI=42.3, 54.8). Moreover, 34% (95% CI=28.3, 40.2) of the children had IDA, which accounted for 70.1% of the anaemic cases. The findings showed that the reduction in serum ferritin level and the increments in haemoglobin, serum iron and transferrin saturation were found to be significant among children allocated to the vitamin A group compared to those allocated to the placebo group (p<0.01). Moreover, a significant reduction in the prevalence of IDA by almost 22% than prevalence at baseline was reported among children in the vitamin A group compared with only 2.3% reduction among children in the placebo group. In conclusion, vitamin A supplementation showed a significant impact on iron status indices and IDA among Orang Asli children. Hence, providing vitamin A supplementation and imparting the knowledge related to nutritious food should be considered in the efforts to improve the nutritional and health status of these children as a part of efforts to improve the quality of life in rural and aboriginal communities.

  13. Effects of polyacrylamide soil conditioner on the iron status of soybean plants. [Glycine max

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Wallace, G.A.; Abouzamzam, A.M.; Char, J.W.

    1986-05-01

    An iron-inefficient cultivar of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. Bragg cv. PI-54619-5-1 was grown in two different calcareous soils, a Natrargid and a Torrifluvents, to determine if improvement of soil aeration with a synthetic polyacrylamide as a soil conditioner would decrease the tendency of the cultivar to lime-induced chlorosis. The results suggest that when soil is well aerated with good drainage from use of the soil conditioner, the iron status of plants is improved.

  14. Iron Status in Chronic Heart Failure: Impact on Symptoms, Functional Class and Submaximal Exercise Capacity.

    PubMed

    Enjuanes, Cristina; Bruguera, Jordi; Grau, María; Cladellas, Mercé; Gonzalez, Gina; Meroño, Oona; Moliner-Borja, Pedro; Verdú, José M; Farré, Nuria; Comín-Colet, Josep

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of iron deficiency and anemia on submaximal exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. We undertook a single-center cross-sectional study in a group of stable patients with chronic heart failure. At recruitment, patients provided baseline information and completed a 6-minute walk test to evaluate submaximal exercise capacity and exercise-induced symptoms. At the same time, blood samples were taken for serological evaluation. Iron deficiency was defined as ferritin < 100 ng/mL or transferrin saturation < 20% when ferritin is < 800 ng/mL. Additional markers of iron status were also measured. A total of 538 heart failure patients were eligible for inclusion, with an average age of 71 years and 33% were in New York Heart Association class III/IV. The mean distance walked in the test was 285 ± 101 meters among those with impaired iron status, vs 322 ± 113 meters (P=.002). Symptoms during the test were more frequent in iron deficiency patients (35% vs 27%; P=.028) and the most common symptom reported was fatigue. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that increased levels of soluble transferrin receptor indicating abnormal iron status were independently associated with advanced New York Heart Association class (P < .05). Multivariable analysis using generalized additive models, soluble transferrin receptor and ferritin index, both biomarkers measuring iron status, showed a significant, independent and linear association with submaximal exercise capacity (P=.03 for both). In contrast, hemoglobin levels were not significantly associated with 6-minute walk test distance in the multivariable analysis. In patients with chronic heart failure, iron deficiency but not anemia was associated with impaired submaximal exercise capacity and symptomatic functional limitation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk factors for low iron intake and poor iron status in a national sample of British young people aged 4-18 years.

    PubMed

    Thane, C W; Bates, C J; Prentice, A

    2003-08-01

    To examine the prevalence and dietary, sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors of low iron intake and poor iron status in British young people. National Diet and Nutrition Survey of young people aged 4-18 years. Great Britain, 1997. In total, 1699 young people provided 7-day weighed dietary records, of which 11% were excluded because the participant reported being unwell with eating habits affected. Blood was obtained from 1193 participants, with iron status indicated by haemoglobin, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation. Iron intakes were generally adequate in most young people aged 4-18 years. However, low iron intakes (below the Lower Reference Nutrient Intake) occurred in 44% of adolescent girls (11-18 years), being less prevalent with high consumption of breakfast cereals. Low haemoglobin concentration (<115 g l-1, 4-12 years; <120 or <130 g l-1, 13+ years for girls and boys, respectively) was observed in 9% of children aged 4-6 years, pubertal boys (11-14 years) and older girls (15-18 years). Adolescent girls who were non-Caucasians or vegetarians had significantly poorer iron status than Caucasians or meat eaters, independent of other risk factors. The three iron status indices were correlated significantly with haem, but not non-haem, iron intake. Adolescent girls showed the highest prevalence of low iron intake and poor iron status, with the latter independently associated with non-Caucasian ethnicity and vegetarianism. Risk of poor iron status may be reduced by consuming (particularly lean red) meat or enhancers of non-haem iron absorption (e.g. fruit or fruit juice) in vegetarians.

  16. A Novel in Vivo Model for Assessing the Impact of Geophagic Earth on Iron Status.

    PubMed

    Seim, Gretchen L; Tako, Elad; Ahn, Cedric; Glahn, Raymond P; Young, Sera L

    2016-06-13

    The causes and consequences of geophagy, the craving and consumption of earth, remain enigmatic, despite its recognition as a behavior with public health implications. Iron deficiency has been proposed as both a cause and consequence of geophagy, but methodological limitations have precluded a decisive investigation into this relationship. Here we present a novel in vivo model for assessing the impact of geophagic earth on iron status: Gallus gallus (broiler chicken). For four weeks, animals were gavaged daily with varying dosages of geophagic material or pure clay mineral. Differences in haemoglobin (Hb) across treatment groups were assessed weekly and differences in liver ferritin, liver iron, and gene expression of the iron transporters divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), duodenal cytochrome B (DcytB) and ferroportin were assessed at the end of the study. Minimal impact on iron status indicators was observed in all non-control groups, suggesting dosing of geophagic materials may need refining in future studies. However, this model shows clear advantages over prior methods used both in vitro and in humans, and represents an important step in explaining the public health impact of geophagy on iron status.

  17. A Novel in Vivo Model for Assessing the Impact of Geophagic Earth on Iron Status

    PubMed Central

    Seim, Gretchen L.; Tako, Elad; Ahn, Cedric; Glahn, Raymond P.; Young, Sera L.

    2016-01-01

    The causes and consequences of geophagy, the craving and consumption of earth, remain enigmatic, despite its recognition as a behavior with public health implications. Iron deficiency has been proposed as both a cause and consequence of geophagy, but methodological limitations have precluded a decisive investigation into this relationship. Here we present a novel in vivo model for assessing the impact of geophagic earth on iron status: Gallus gallus (broiler chicken). For four weeks, animals were gavaged daily with varying dosages of geophagic material or pure clay mineral. Differences in haemoglobin (Hb) across treatment groups were assessed weekly and differences in liver ferritin, liver iron, and gene expression of the iron transporters divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), duodenal cytochrome B (DcytB) and ferroportin were assessed at the end of the study. Minimal impact on iron status indicators was observed in all non-control groups, suggesting dosing of geophagic materials may need refining in future studies. However, this model shows clear advantages over prior methods used both in vitro and in humans, and represents an important step in explaining the public health impact of geophagy on iron status. PMID:27304966

  18. Serum iron status of under-five children with sickle cell anaemia in lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akodu, S O; Diaku-Akinwumi, I N; Kehinde, O A; Njokanma, O F

    2013-01-01

    Background. Iron status in patients with sickle cell anaemia is a matter of continuing investigation. Objective. This paper aims to determine the serum iron status of under-five, sickle cell anaemia patients. Methods. The study spanned from December 2009 to February 2010 at the Consultant Outpatient Clinics involving 97 HbSS subjects and 97 age- and sex-matched HbAA controls. Biochemical iron status was assayed in subjects and controls. Results. Age range of the children was seven months to five years, with a mean of 30.6 (±15.97) months. Irrespective of gender, mean serum iron values were higher in HbAA controls than their HbSS counterparts but the observed difference was not significant (P = 0.299 and 0.111, resp.). The mean total iron binding capacity values of males and females were also not significantly different for sickle cell anaemia subjects and controls (P > 0.05). Males and females with HbAA had significantly lower serum ferritin when compared with their HbSS counterparts. Irrespective of gender, mean transferrin saturation was lower in HbSS subjects but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Children with sickle cell anaemia have higher serum ferritin than controls, implying relatively higher iron content in the reticuloendothelial cells.

  19. Effects of Different Complementary Feeding Regimens on Iron Status and Enteric Microbiota in Breastfed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Nancy F.; Sherlock, Laurie G.; Westcott, Jamie; Culbertson, Diana; Hambidge, K. Michael; Feazel, Leah M.; Robertson, Charles E.; Frank, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare iron status in breastfed infants randomized to complementary feeding regimens that provided iron from fortified infant cereals or meats, and examined the development of the enteric microbiota among groups. Study design Forty-five exclusively breastfed 5 month old infants were randomized to commercially available pureed meats, iron- and zinc-fortified infant cereals, or iron-only fortified infant cereals as the first and primary complementary food through 9–10 months of age. Dietary iron was determined by monthly 3-d diet records. Iron status was assessed at end of the study by hemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin (SF), and soluble transferrin receptor (STfR) measurements. In a subsample 14 infants, enteric microbiota were profiled in monthly stool samples (5–9 mo) by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Results Infants in cereal groups had 2–3 fold greater daily iron intakes vs the meat group (P < 0.0001). 27% of participants had low SF, and 36% were mildly anemic, without significant differences by feeding group; more infants in meat group had high STfR (p=0.03). Sequence analysis identified differences by time and feeding group in the abundances of several bacterial groups, including significantly more abundant butyrate producing Clostridium Group XIVa in the meat group (P=0.01) Conclusions A high percentage of healthy infants who were breastfed-only were iron deficient, and complementary feeding, including iron exposure, influenced the development of the enteric microbiota. If these findings are confirmed, reconsideration of strategies to both meet infants’ iron requirements and optimize the developing microbiome may be warranted. PMID:23452586

  20. Effects of different complementary feeding regimens on iron status and enteric microbiota in breastfed infants.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Nancy F; Sherlock, Laurie G; Westcott, Jamie; Culbertson, Diana; Hambidge, K Michael; Feazel, Leah M; Robertson, Charles E; Frank, Daniel N

    2013-08-01

    To compare iron status in breastfed infants randomized to groups receiving complementary feeding regimens that provided iron from fortified infant cereals or meats, and to examine the development of the enteric microbiota in these groups. Forty-five exclusively breastfed 5-month-old infants were randomized to 1 of 3 feeding groups (FGs)-commercially available pureed meats, iron- and zinc-fortified infant cereals, or iron-only fortified infant cereals-as the first and primary complementary food through 9-10 months of age. Dietary iron was determined by monthly 3-day diet records. Iron status was assessed at the end of the study by measurements of hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor levels. In a subsample of 14 infants, enteric microbiota were profiled in monthly stool samples (5-9 months) by 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing. Infants in the 2 cereal FGs had 2- to 3-fold greater daily iron intakes versus the meat FG (P < .0001). More than one-quarter (27%) of the infants had a low serum ferritin level, and 36% were mildly anemic, with no significant differences by FG; more infants in the meat FG had a high soluble transferrin receptor value (P = .03). Sequence analysis identified differences by time and FG in the abundances of several bacterial groups, including significantly more abundant butyrate-producing Clostridium group XIVa in the meat FG (P = .01) CONCLUSION: A high percentage of healthy infants who were breastfed-only were iron-deficient, and complementary feeding, including iron exposure, influenced the development of the enteric microbiota. If these findings are confirmed, then reconsideration of strategies to both meet infants' iron requirements and optimize the developing microbiome may be warranted. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Iron status and food matrix strongly affect the relative bioavailability of ferric pyrophosphate in humans.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Diego; Zimmermann, Michael B; Wegmüller, Rita; Walczyk, Thomas; Zeder, Christophe; Hurrell, Richard F

    2006-03-01

    Although ferric pyrophosphate is a promising compound for iron fortification of foods, few data are available on the effect of food matrices, processing, and ascorbic acid on its bioavailability. We compared the relative bioavailability (RBV) of ferrous sulfate in an experimental form of micronized dispersible ferric pyrophosphate (MDFP) in a wheat-milk infant cereal given with and without ascorbic acid with the RBV of MDFP from a processed and unprocessed rice meal. A crossover design was used to measure iron absorption in young women (n = 26) from test meals fortified with isotopically labeled [57Fe]-MDFP and [58Fe]-ferrous sulfate, based on erythrocyte incorporation of stable isotope labels 14 d later. Geometric mean iron absorption from the wheat-based meal fortified with MDFP was 2.0% and that from the meal fortified with ferrous sulfate was 3.2% (RBV = 62). The addition of ascorbic acid at a molar ratio of 4:1 to iron increased iron absorption from MDFP to 5.8% and that from ferrous sulfate to 14.8% (RBV = 39). In the rice meals, mean iron absorption from MDFP added to the rice at the time of feeding was 1.7%, and that from ferrous sulfate was 11.6% (RBV = 15). The mean iron absorption from MDFP extruded into artificial rice grains was 3.0% and that from ferrous sulfate in unprocessed rice was 12.6% (RBV = 24). Sixteen of 26 subjects were iron deficient. Iron status was a highly significant predictor of the RBV of MDFP (P < 0.001). RBV of the experimental MDFP varied markedly with food matrix and iron status. Assigning a single RBV value to poorly soluble compounds may be of limited value in evaluating their suitability for food fortification.

  2. [C-reactive protein in the assessment of iron status in patients on hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Rathaus, M

    2009-01-01

    Iron availability is a prerequisite for an efficient hematopoietic response to erythropoietin. Dynamic evaluation of iron status is difficult in hemodialysis patients and can be further complicated by the presence of an inflammatory state. Several cytokines, in particular interleukin 6 (IL-6), stimulate the production of hepcidin in the liver. This hormone is the main regulator of the extracellular iron concentration through its effect on the iron channel ferroportin, present in several cell types. IL-6 is also the major stimulus for the production of C-reactive protein (CRP), a nonspecific but sensitive marker of inflammation. Measurement of hepcidin is technically difficult and has so far been limited to research. On the other hand, measurement of CRP, which is both sensitive and easily measurable with automated techniques, might possibly be used as a surrogate measure of iron status in hemodialysis patients. Several studies have suggested the value of CRP in this context, but they dealt with small patient groups and single-time-point measurements. Even the definition of normal values of CRP in dialysis patients is uncertain. During the period between 2003 and 2007, we performed 8322 measurements of CRP in 401 hemodialysis patients followed for 3-60 months. All parameters of iron balance (serum iron, TSAT, percent hypochromic RBC and Hgb concentration in reticulocytes) were clearly affected by the presence of an inflammatory state. We believe that measurement of CRP must be part of the routine hematological assessment of hemodialyzed patients to allow the correct interpretation of data in anemia treatment.

  3. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content in the evaluation of iron status of hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Fishbane, S; Galgano, C; Langley, R C; Canfield, W; Maesaka, J K

    1997-07-01

    The assessment of iron status for hemodialysis patients has been hindered by the inaccuracy of commonly used diagnostic tests. A novel assay, the reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr), has recently been found to sensitively detect functional iron deficiency among nonuremic patients treated with recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEPO). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CHr for the assessment of iron status in hemodialysis patients. One hundred sixty-four stable hemodialysis patients had a mean CHr of 27.5 +/- 2.8 pg with a normal distribution of values. The mean CH (mature red cell hemoglobin content) was 26.4 +/- 2.4 pg. There was a close correlation between CHr and CH (r = 0.86, P < 0.0001). A significant subgroup of patients (12.2%) had CHr values < CH. These patients had recent increases in rHuEPO dose, and a lower mean transferrin saturation and hematocrit, suggesting the recent onset of functional iron deficiency due to the increase in rHuEPO dose. In the second phase of the study, 32 patients were randomly selected to receive treatment with a single dose infusion of 1,000 mg of intravenous iron dextran (IVFe). Patients were classified as iron deficient (N = 7) if they responded with a significant reticulocytosis (sustained 1 basis point increase in corrected reticulocyte index within 2 weeks). All other patients were classified as iron replete (N = 25). A CHr < 26 pg at baseline predicted iron deficiency with a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 80%. The serum ferritin, transferrin saturation and percentage of hypochromic red blood cells all were less accurate. The time to correction of iron deficiency at the level of the reticulocyte was found to be within 48 hours as measured by correction of the mean CHr to > 26 pg, and by the shift of the vast majority of the reticulocyte population to CHr > 26 pg within this time span. We conclude that CHr < 26 pg is an accurate measure of iron status in hemodialysis patients, that a CHr value < CH indicates the

  4. Decreased serum hepcidin and improved functional iron status 6 months after restrictive bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Fantuzzi, Giamila; Freels, Sally; Holterman, Ai-xuan L; Galvani, Carlos; Ayloo, Subhashini; Vitello, Joseph; Braunschweig, Carol

    2010-10-01

    Excess adiposity is associated with low-grade inflammation and decreased iron status. Iron depletion in obesity is thought to be mediated by an inflammation-induced increase in the body's main regulator of iron homeostasis, hepcidin. Elevated hepcidin can result in iron depletion as it prevents the release of dietary iron absorbed into the enterocytes, limiting replenishment of body iron losses. Weight reduction is associated with decreased inflammation; however, the impact of reduced inflammation on iron status and systemic hepcidin in obese individuals remains unknown. We determined prospectively the impact of weight loss on iron status parameters, serum hepcidin, inflammation, and dietary iron in 20 obese premenopausal females 6 months after restrictive bariatric surgery. At baseline, the presence of iron depletion was high with 45% of the women having serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) >28.1 nmol/l. Differences between baseline and 6 months after surgery for BMI (47.56 vs. 39.55 kg/m(2); P < 0.0001), C-reactive protein (CRP) (10.83 vs. 5.71 mg/l; P < 0.0001), sTfR (29.97 vs. 23.08 nmol/l; P = 0.001), and serum hepcidin (111.25 vs. 31.35 ng/ml; P < 0.0001) were significantly lower, whereas hemoglobin (Hb) (12.10 vs. 13.30 g/dl; P < 0.0001) and hematocrit (Hct) (36.58 vs. 38.78%; P = 0.001) were significantly higher. Ferritin and transferrin saturation (Tsat) showed minimal improvement at follow-up. At baseline, hepcidin was not correlated with sTfR (r = 0.02); however, at follow-up, significant correlations were found (r = -0.58). Change in interleukin-6 (IL-6) from baseline was marginally associated with decreased log serum hepcidin (Δ IL-6: β = -0.22; P = 0.15), whereas change in BMI or weight was not. No significant difference in dietary iron was noted after surgery. Weight loss in obese premenopausal women is associated with reduced serum hepcidin and inflammation. Reduction in inflammation and hepcidin likely allow for enhanced dietary iron

  5. [Menstrual blood loss and iron nutritional status in female undergraduate students].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Gao, Qiang; Tian, Su; Chen, Yuexiao; Ma, Yuxia; Huang, Zhenwu

    2011-03-01

    To study menstrual blood loss and iron nutritional status in female undergraduate students. Thirty female undergraduate students were selected by simple random sampling method, the general information were investigated by questionnaire. The menstrual blood was collected by weighing every pad before and after use, and the blood not collected in pads was estimated. Hemoglobin, serum free protoporphyrin and serum ferritin were measured by regular method. The relationship between menstrual blood loss and iron nutritional status was analyzed by bivariate correlation statistics. The average menstrual period was (4.5 +/- 1.4) days. The average menstrual blood loss was (59.3 +/- 25.1) g, in a range of 24 g to 110 g. The average content of serum ferritin, free protoporphyrin and hemoglobin was (25.13 +/- 14.33) ng/ml, (0.06 +/- 0.01) microg/ml and (131.61 +/- 9.76) g/L respectively. There were 22.58% of subjects in iron reduction period (serum ferritin < 12 ng/ml). The menstrual blood loss was negatively correlated with serum ferritin. The amount of menstrual blood loss among individual students was significantly different. No clinical anemia does not mean in a good iron nutritional status. Serum ferritin is a sensitive indicator for iron nutritional status.

  6. Effect of zinc supplementation on the antioxidant, copper, and iron status of physically active adolescents.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Karla de Jesus Fernandes; Donangelo, Carmen Marino; de Oliveira, Astrogildo Vianna; da Silveira, Carmen Lucia Porto; Koury, Josely Correa

    2009-04-01

    Puberty associated with intense physical activity results in oxidation stress. Zinc supplementation may benefit antioxidant capacity although it may also affect iron and copper status. This study evaluated the effect of zinc supplementation on antioxidant, zinc and copper status of physically active male football players (13 years +/- 0.4 years), divided in two groups and studied during 12 weeks: Zn-supplemented (Zn-SUP, 22 mg Zn d(-1) as zinc gluconate, n = 21) and placebo (PLA, n = 26). At baseline, there was no significant difference in biochemical indices between the two groups. After treatment, plasma zinc and erythrocyte iron increased in both groups (p < 0.001); urinary zinc increased (p < 0.001) only in Zn-SUP, and erythrocyte zinc decreased (p = 0.002) only in PLA. Plasma iron and copper decreased (p = 0.01 and p = 0.015, respectively) only in Zn-SUP. Plasma ferric-reducing ability and plasma conjugated dienes increased, and erythrocyte osmotic fragility decrease in both groups, although the latter two were significantly lower in Zn-SUP compared to PLA (p < 0.01). In conclusion, our study indicates that the use of 22 mg d(-1) of supplemental zinc during 12 week in adolescent athletes did not affect growth, improved markers of antioxidant status but reduced plasma iron and copper. Therefore, it appears that the use of zinc supplementation by healthy adolescent athletes benefits their antioxidant capacity but impairs copper and iron nutritional status. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Decreased serum hepcidin, inflammation, and improved functional iron status six-months post-restrictive bariatric surgery.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Excess adiposity is associated with low-grade inflammation and decreased iron status. Iron depletion (ID) in obesity is thought to be mediated by an inflammation-induced increase in the body’s main regulator of iron homeostasis, hepcidin. Elevated hepcidin can result in ID as it prevents the release...

  8. Deranged iron status in psoriasis: the impact of low body mass

    PubMed Central

    Ponikowska, Malgorzata; Tupikowska, Malgorzata; Kasztura, Monika; Jankowska, Ewa A; Szepietowski, Jacek C

    2015-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency (ID) frequently complicates inflammatory-mediated chronic disorders, irrespective of anaemia. Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated skin disease with systemic pro-inflammatory activation; thus, these patients may be prone to develop ID. ID adversely affects immune cells function, which can further contribute to disease progression. This study investigates iron status in psoriasis. Methods Serum concentrations of ferritin, transferrin saturation (Tsat), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hepcidin were assessed as the biomarkers of iron status in 39 patients with psoriasis (17 men, age: 47 ± 10 years) and 44 healthy subjects (30 men, age: 53 ± 6 years). Results Compared with healthy controls, patients with psoriasis demonstrated similar haematologic status but deranged iron status as evidenced by decreased Tsat and elevated sTfR (negative tissue iron balance) and low levels of hepcidin (depleted iron stores) (all P < 0.05 vs. controls). In patients, the levels of interleukin-6 (level of pro-inflammatory activation) significantly correlated with hepcidin (R = 0.54), but not with ferritin, Tsat, and sTfR. Biomarkers reflecting ID were not associated with the severity of the disease (assessed with the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index) but significantly correlated low body mass index (BMI). Patients with BMI < 24 kg/m2 compared with those with BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 demonstrated lower levels of ferritin (40 ± 30 vs. 186 ± 128 ng/mL, P < 0.001) and hepcidin (4.9 ± 2.3 vs. 10.7 ± 6.7 ng/mL, P = 0.03). Conclusion Psoriasis is associated with deranged iron status characterized by depleted iron stores with concomitant unmet cellular iron requirements. The magnitude of these abnormalities is particularly strong in patients with low body mass index. Whether iron deficiency may become a therapeutic target in psoriasis needs to be investigated. PMID:26673741

  9. Reversible Cardiomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Harsh; Madanieh, Raef; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vatti, Satya K; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Cardiomyopathies (CMs) have many etiological factors that can result in severe structural and functional dysregulation. Fortunately, there are several potentially reversible CMs that are known to improve when the root etiological factor is addressed. In this article, we discuss several of these reversible CMs, including tachycardia-induced, peripartum, inflammatory, hyperthyroidism, Takotsubo, and chronic illness–induced CMs. Our discussion also includes a review on their respective pathophysiology, as well as possible management solutions. PMID:26052233

  10. Iron status in toddlerhood predicts sensitivity to psychostimulants in children.

    PubMed

    Turner, Catharyn A; Xie, Diqiong; Zimmerman, Bridget M; Calarge, Chadi A

    2012-05-01

    Iron deficiency is associated with impaired dopaminergic signaling and externalizing behavior. The authors examine, whether iron stores in toddlerhood influence later response to psychostimulants. Youth participating in a study monitoring the long-term safety of risperidone were included in this analysis if they had received psychostimulant monotherapy for at least 3 weeks and had a complete blood count obtained before psychostimulant treatment. Sensitivity to psychostimulants was defined based on the weight-adjusted dose during the 1st year of treatment. Regression analysis examined whether the hematological tests based on the characteristics of red blood cells were associated with sensitivity to psychostimulants. A total of 29 participants (93% men; 76% Whites), primarily with ADHD (93%), comprised the current sample. The hematological tests were obtained, on average, 3 years before the initiation of psychostimulants monotherapy that occurred at 5.8 years of age and continued for a median of 0.85 years, at an average daily dose of 0.98 mg/kg (SD = 0.38) in methylphenidate equivalent. Compared with those who were poorly sensitive to psychostimulants, after adjusting for age, mean corpuscular volume was significantly higher in the highly and moderately psychostimulants sensitive groups. If replicated, these findings suggest that more attention should be paid to optimizing body iron in early childhood.

  11. [Iron status in pregnant women and its changes during preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Malek-mellouli, Monia; Amara, Fethi Ben; Loussaief, Wafa; Reziga, Hédi

    2013-10-01

    Micronutrients or trace elements are minerals essential for growth and development of the body human. To analyze changes in normal pregnancy and during preeclampsia, serum iron and its main proteins: ferritin and soluble transferrin receptors. This is a prospective study of case- control study of 56 pregnant women and 30 non-pregnant women selected as controls. Pregnant women received a quarterly dosing paramètres. The same assays were performed once in controls. The comparative assay of various parameters in normal pregnancy and in control women showed a significant decrease in serum iron from 1 to the third quarter, a slight decline in reserves ferritin in 1st and 2nd quarter increases and becomes significant in the third quarter and an increase of soluble receptors trasferrine during pregnancy, which becomes significant in the third quarter. We noted a disturbance of these parameters in preeclampsia. Iron is essential for fetal development. His involvement in several maternal- fetal complications is not to dismantle .

  12. Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Domenico; Basso, Cristina; Judge, Daniel P

    2017-09-15

    Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy is an inherited heart muscle disorder, predisposing to sudden cardiac death, particularly in young patients and athletes. Pathological features include loss of myocytes and fibrofatty replacement of right ventricular myocardium; biventricular involvement is often observed. It is a cell-to-cell junction cardiomyopathy, typically caused by genetically determined abnormalities of cardiac desmosomes, which leads to detachment of myocytes and alteration of intracellular signal transduction. The diagnosis of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy does not rely on a single gold standard test but is achieved using a scoring system, which encompasses familial and genetic factors, ECG abnormalities, arrhythmias, and structural/functional ventricular alterations. The main goal of treatment is the prevention of sudden cardiac death. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator is the only proven lifesaving therapy; however, it is associated with significant morbidity because of device-related complications and inappropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator interventions. Selection of patients who are the best candidates for implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation is one of the most challenging issues in the clinical management. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Inflammation and metabolic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Kazuhiko; Otsu, Kinya

    2017-03-15

    Excessive feeding is associated with an increase in the incidence of chronic metabolic diseases, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Metabolic disturbance induces chronic low-grade inflammation in metabolically-important organs, such as the liver and adipose tissue. Many of the inflammatory signalling pathways are directly triggered by nutrients. The pro-inflammatory mediators in adipocytes and macrophages infiltrating adipose tissue promote both local and systemic pro-inflammatory status. Metabolic cardiomyopathy is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by structural and functional alterations and interstitial fibrosis without coronary artery disease or hypertension. In the early stage of metabolic cardiomyopathy, metabolic disturbance is not accompanied by substantial changes in myocardial structure and cardiac function. However, metabolic disturbance induces subcellular low-grade inflammation in the heart, and in turn, subcellular component abnormalities, such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and impaired calcium handling, leading to impaired myocardial relaxation. In the advanced stage, the vicious cycle of subcellular component abnormalities, inflammatory cell infiltration, and neurohumoral activation induces cardiomyocyte injury and death, and cardiac fibrosis, resulting in impairment of both diastolic and systolic functions. This review discusses some recent advances in understanding involvement of inflammation in metabolic cardiomyopathy. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Trichuriasis and low-iron status in schoolchildren from Northwest Mexico.

    PubMed

    Quihui-Cota, L; Morales-Figueroa, G G; Esparza-Romero, J; Valencia, M E; Astiazarán-García, H; Méndez, R O; Pacheco-Moreno, B I; Crompton, D W T; Diaz-Camacho, S P

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between trichuriasis and iron status in rural schoolchildren from Northwest Mexico. A total of 73 schoolchildren (37 boys, 36 girls) between the ages of 6 and 10 years were voluntarily recruited from the public primary school of the rural community of El Higueral in Culiacan, Sinaloa (Northwest Mexico) for a cross-sectional study with a longitudinal follow-up of 5 weeks. Data were collected on socioeconomic status, anthropometry, haematological and biochemical indices of iron status, daily iron intake, and prevalence and intensity of trichuriasis. Multiple regression models, independent t-test and paired t-test were used to analyse the association between trichuriasis and iron status in cross-sectional and longitudinal samples, respectively. Adjusted models were tested for linear regression assumptions using residual plots. The mean age of the Trichuris-free and Trichuris-infected groups was 7.7±1.3 and 7.7±1.5 years respectively (P=0.92). The height for age was significantly higher in the Trichuris-free group than the Trichuris-infected group (P=0.02). No differences were found in the socioeconomic variables between the two groups. At baseline, significantly higher concentrations of haemoglobin, haematocrit, blood cell count (RBC) and serum iron were measured in the Trichuris-free group compared with the Trichuris-infected children (P<0.05). An association was found between trichuriasis and haemoglobin adjusted for socioeconomic variables, age and sex. Haemoglobin, RBC and serum ferritin concentrations were significantly increased in the infected children 5 weeks after treatment (P<0.05). Trichuriasis could be a risk factor for low-iron status in the schoolchildren of Northwest Mexico.

  15. [Cardiomyopathies. I: classification of cardiomyopathies--dilated cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, H P; Noutsias, M; Kühl, U; Lassner, D; Gross, U; Poller, W; Pauschinger, M

    2005-11-01

    Cardiomyopathies are common causes of heart failure and sudden cardiac death. According to the WHO classification, "specific" cardiomyopathies are differentiated from "idiopathic" cardiomyopathies. Thus, this classification is primarily based on pathophysiological characteristics. The diagnostic spectrum in cardiomyopathies comprises the entire spectrum of non-invasive and invasive cardiological examination techniques. The exact verification of certain cardiomyopathies necessitates additionally investigations. For example, immunohistological and molecular biological investigations of endomyocardial biopsies may confirm inflammatory cardiomyopathy, which is often induced by viruses. Several studies have shown that specific immunomodulatory treatment options can halt the progressive course of the disease. Several gene mutations have been identified in genetic/familial dilated cardiomyopathy. First-degree relatives should be screened for early stages. Primary prevention of sudden cardiac death shows increasing superiority of the implantable defibrillator compared with pharmacological approaches (i.e. amiodarone).

  16. Impact of multiple micronutrient vs. iron - folic acid supplements on maternal anemia and micronutrient status in pregnancy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background. Multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplements could increase hemoglobin and improve micronutrient status of pregnant women more than iron ± folic acid supplements alone. Objective. To compare the effects of MMN vs. iron ± folic acid supplements on hemoglobin and micronutrient status of pregn...

  17. Iron intakes and status of 2-year-old children in the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Elaine K; Ní Chaoimh, Carol; O'B Hourihane, Jonathan; Kenny, Louise C; Irvine, Alan D; Murray, Deirdre M; Kiely, Mairead

    2016-08-09

    Young children are at risk of iron deficiency and subsequent anaemia, resulting in long-term consequences for cognitive, motor and behavioural development. This study aimed to describe the iron intakes, status and determinants of status in 2-year-old children. Data were collected prospectively in the mother-child Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study from 15 weeks' gestation throughout early childhood. At the 24-month assessment, serum ferritin, haemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume were measured, and food/nutrient intake data were collected using a 2-day weighed food diary. Iron status was assessed in 729 children (median [IQR] age: 2.1 [2.1, 2.2] years) and 468 completed a food diary. From the food diary, mean (SD) iron intakes were 6.8 (2.6) mg/day and 30% had intakes < UK Estimated Average Requirement (5.3 mg/day). Using WHO definitions, iron deficiency was observed in 4.6% (n = 31) and iron deficiency anaemia in five children (1.0%). Following an iron series workup, five more children were diagnosed with iron deficiency anaemia. Twenty-one per cent had ferritin concentrations <15 µg/L. Inadequate iron intakes (OR [95% CI]: 1.94 [1.09, 3.48]) and unmodified cows' milk intakes ≥ 400 mL/day (1.95 [1.07, 3.56]) increased the risk of low iron status. Iron-fortified formula consumption was associated with decreased risk (0.21 [0.11, 0.41] P < 0.05). In this, the largest study in toddlers in Europe, a lower prevalence of low iron status was observed than in previous reports. Compliance with dietary recommendations to limit cows' milk intakes in young children and consumption of iron-fortified products appears to have contributed to improved iron status at two years.

  18. Impact of multiple micronutrient versus iron-folic acid supplements on maternal anemia and micronutrient status in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Allen, Lindsay H; Peerson, Janet M

    2009-12-01

    Multiple micronutrient supplements could increase hemoglobin and improve micronutrient status of pregnant women more than iron supplements alone or iron with folic acid. To compare the effects of multiple micronutrients with those of iron supplements alone or iron with folic acid, on hemoglobin and micronutrient status of pregnant women. Studies were identified in which pregnant women were randomized to treatment with multiple micronutrients, or with iron with or without folic acid. A pooled analysis was conducted to compare the effects of these supplements on maternal hemoglobin, anemia, and micronutrient status. Effect size was calculated for individual and combined studies, based on mean change from baseline to final measure in the group receiving iron, with or without folic acid, minus the mean change in the group, divided by the pooled standard deviation of the two groups. The effect on the relative risk of anemia or iron deficiency was calculated as the probability of anemia or iron deficiency in the group receiving multiple micronutrients divided by the probability in the group receiving iron, with or without folic acid. Multiple micronutrient supplements had the same impact on hemoglobin and iron status indicators as iron with or without folic acid. There was no overall effect on serum retinol or zinc. In the only study in which status of other micronutrients was analyzed, a high prevalence of multiple deficiencies persisted in the group receiving multiple micronutrients provided with daily recommended intakes of each nutrient. Multiple micronutrient supplements increased hemoglobin synthesis to the same extent as supplementation with iron with or without folic acid, although often they contained lower amounts of iron. The amount of supplemental iron and other nutrients that can enable pregnant women with micronutrient deficiencies to achieve adequate status remains to be determined.

  19. Motor Development in 9-Month-Old Infants in Relation to Cultural Differences and Iron Status

    PubMed Central

    Schapiro, Lauren; Liang, Weilang; Rodrigues, Onike; Shafir, Tal; Kaciroti, Niko; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Lozoff, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    Motor development, which allows infants to explore their environment, promoting cognitive, social, and perceptual development, can be influenced by cultural practices and nutritional factors, such as iron deficiency. This study compared fine and gross motor development in 209 9-month-old infants from urban areas of China, Ghana, and USA (African-Americans) and considered effects of iron status. Iron deficiency anemia was most common in the Ghana sample (55%) followed by USA and China samples. Controlling for iron status, Ghanaian infants displayed precocity in gross motor development and most fine-motor reach-and-grasp tasks. US African-Americans performed the poorest in all tasks except bimanual coordination and the large ball. Controlling for cultural site, iron status showed linear trends for gross motor milestones and fine motor skills with small objects. Our findings add to the sparse literature on infant fine motor development across cultures. The results also indicate the need to consider nutritional factors when examining cultural differences in infant development. PMID:21298634

  20. [Liver and heart iron deposition status in patients with β thalassemia major: a multicenter study].

    PubMed

    Li, Changgang; Liu, Sixi; Wang, Ying; Wen, Feiqiu; Gao, Hongying; Chen, Guangfu; Li, Chunfu; Wu, Xuedong; Fang, Jianpei; Hao, Wenge; Liu, Riyang; Zhang, Xinhua; Chu, Chiuwing Winnie; Au, WingYan

    2014-02-01

    To observe the status of iron deposition in patient with β thalassemia major, and to formulate appropriate treatment strategies. The data of status of transfusion and chelation in 135 patients aged from 6 years and 4 months to 17 years and 11 months with β thalassemia major were collected and analyzed. Serum ferritin levels were determined and cardiac and hepatic iron deposition was determined using MRI T2(*) technology. Of the 135 cases studied, 66 were male, and 69 were female, their average age was 12.1 years. Serum ferritin (SF) was determined for 111 cases, it varied from 1 086.8 µg/L to 15 011.5 µg/L. Among them, 16 cases had SF level <2 000 µg/L (14.5%) , in 41 cases SF were between 2 000 and 4 000 µg/L (36.0%) ;in 54 cases SF >4 000 µg/L (48.7%) . Liver MRI T2(*) results showed that in only 8 cases (5.9%) iron content in the liver was in normal range, 19 cases (14.9%) showed mild liver iron deposition;34 (25.2%) moderate and 74 (54.8%, the youngest one was only 6 years and 4 months of age) had severe iron deposition respectively. Cardiac MRI T2(*) showed that in 89 cases (65.9%) iron content in the heart was in normal range;19 cases (14.1%) had mild cardiac iron deposition and 27 (20.0%) presented severe iron deposition (the youngest one was only 9 years and 3 months of age) . SF level was obviously related to liver and cardiac iron deposition (MRI T2(*)) r and P value were -0.284, 0.003 and -0.374, 0.000 respectively. In 108 cases regular transfusion and chelation were delayed due to financial problem. The late and insufficient dosage administered and irregular chelation caused the higher SF level and the severe iron deposition. The survival status of β thalassemia major in China is worrisome. Majority of them had not received regular transfusion and chelation. Liver and cardiac iron deposition occur early and had a high incidence.

  1. Cognitive Performance and Iron Status are Negatively Associated with Hookworm Infection in Cambodian Schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Kuong, Khov; Fiorentino, Marion; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Sinuon, Muth; Molyden, Vann; Burja, Kurt; Parker, Megan; Ly, Sou Chheng; Friis, Henrik; Roos, Nanna; Wieringa, Frank T

    2016-10-05

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection has been associated with lower cognitive performance of schoolchildren. To identify pathways through which STH infection might affect school performance, baseline data from a large rice-fortification trial in Cambodian schoolchildren were used to investigate associations between STH infection, micronutrient status, anemia, and cognitive performance. Complete data on anthropometry, cognitive performance, and micronutrient status were available for 1,760 schoolchildren, 6-16 years of age. STH infection was identified using Kato-Katz, whereas cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), block design, and picture completion. STH infection was found in 18% of the children; almost exclusively hookwork infection. After adjusting for age and gender, raw cognitive test scores were significantly lower in hookworm-infected children (-0.65; -0.78; -2.03 points for picture completion, RCPM, and block design, respectively; P < 0.05 for all). Hookworm infection was associated with iron status (total body iron), but not with vitamin A and zinc status, nor with inflammation or anthropometry. Body iron was negatively associated with increased intensity of hookworm infection (R = 0.22, P < 0.001). Hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren was associated with lower cognitive performance, an effect most likely mediated through lower body iron. Interventions that are more effective against hookworm infection are needed to contribute to better health and improvement of cognitive performance. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Lead and iron status of breast and formula-fed infants

    SciTech Connect

    Lubin, A.H.; Kasler, J.S.; Shrock, R.O.; Signs, S.A.

    1981-06-01

    We examined the iron and lead status of breast-fed and formula-fed infants from birth through the first year of life. Not only has the adequacy of iron intake of breast and formula-fed infants been questioned but also the contamination of breast milk with environmental pollutants such as Pb. In addition, it is believed that a state of Fe deficiency may promote the absorption of Pb. We compared the blood Pb and Fe levels of 23 breast-fed and 23 formula-fed infants whose mothers were enrolled in a longitudinal study determining the effects of maternal nutritional and environmental factors on the infants' subsequent growth and development. Serum iron, TIBC and %SAT values were obtained at 6 and 12 mo. Additional biochemical values including Pb and erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) concentrations were obtained at birth and 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 mo. Iron status was similar at 6 mo for the breast-fed and formula-fed infants, but somewhat higher for the breast-fed infants at 12 mo (NS). Results indicate no differences in Pb or EP status between breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Biochemical values were within normal limits. We conclude that dietary intake of Pb and Fe by infants whether breast-feeding or formula-feeding reflects adequate Fe status and apparent safe Pb state.

  3. Iron status of the late term broiler (Gallus gallus) embryo and hatchling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to investigate and elucidate the iron status of the late term broiler (Gallus gallus)embryo and young chick. This would be vital for better understanding of the transition period that the hatchling experience immediately after hatch. For that, blood, liver and small intestinal samp...

  4. Chromium picolinate supplementation in women: effects on body weight, composition, and iron status.

    PubMed

    Lukaski, Henry C; Siders, William A; Penland, James G

    2007-03-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that supplementation of chromium picolinate (CrPic), 200 microg Cr/d, compared with an equivalent amount of picolinic acid (1720 microg) in CrPic and placebo, decreases body weight, alters body composition, and reduces iron status of women fed diets of constant energy and nutrients. We fed 83 women nutritionally balanced diets, used anthropometry and dual x-ray absorptiometry to assess body composition, and measured serum and urinary Cr and biochemical indicators of iron status before and serially every 4 wk for 12 wk in a double-blind, randomized trial. CrPic supplementation increased (P < 0.0001) serum Cr concentration and urinary Cr excretion compared with picolinic acid and placebo. CrPic did not affect body weight or fat, although all groups lost (P < 0.05) weight and fat; it did not affect fat-free, mineral-free mass or measurements of iron status. Under conditions of controlled energy intake, CrPic supplementation of women did not independently influence body weight or composition or iron status. Thus, claims that supplementation of 200 microg of Cr as CrPic promotes weight loss and body composition changes are not supported.

  5. Influence of iron status and iron supplements on natural killer cell activity in trained women runners.

    PubMed

    Flynn, M G; Mackinnon, L; Gedge, V; Fahlman, M; Brickman, T

    2003-04-01

    Twenty-two trained women runners (.VO2peak 48.1 + 1.2 ml x kg -1 x min -1) were divided into an iron supplement (n = 13) or placebo group (n = 9) based on initial serum ferritin concentration (24.2 +/- 2.9 and 58.5 +/- 4.0 microg x l -1, respectively). Exercise consisted of a 35-min run (80 % .VO2peak) and was performed at week 0 (WK0), after two weeks of intensified training (WK2) and after eight weeks recovery training (WK10). The eight weeks recovery training were concomitant with subjects taking iron supplements or placebo in a double blind fashion. Concentrations of serum ferritin, serum iron and total iron binding capacity were assessed pre-exercise and complete blood count, natural killer cell activity (NKACT), and cell surface markers for CD3+, CD4+, CD3+,CD8+, CD3-, CD16+, CD56+ cells were determined both pre- and post-exercise. Serum ferritin concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) increased on WK10 compared to WK2 (time effect). NKACT (%lysis) and NK cell number was lower (p < 0.05) at WK0 for supplement (42.9 +/- 1.9 % and 305.5 +/- 15.0 x 10 6 x l -1, respectively) compared to placebo groups (50.9 +/- 2.0 and 406.1 +/- 25.6, respectively). Two weeks of intensified training did not alter indices of host defense. In conclusion, NKACT and NK cell numbers were lower in subjects with greater body mass and lower iron stores (p < 0.05), but were not significantly altered after two weeks of intensified training or when serum ferritin levels increased.

  6. Infant Arterial Stiffness and Maternal Iron Status in Pregnancy: A UK Birth Cohort (Baby VIP Study)

    PubMed Central

    Alwan, Nisreen A.; Cade, Janet E.; McArdle, Harry J.; Greenwood, Darren C.; Hayes, Helen E.; Ciantar, Etienne; Simpson, Nigel A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background In animal studies, iron deficiency during pregnancy has been linked to increased offspring cardiovascular risk. No previous population studies have measured arterial stiffness early in life to examine its association with maternal iron status. Objective This study aimed to examine the association between maternal iron status in early pregnancy with infant brachio-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Methods The Baby VIP (Baby's Vascular Health and Iron in Pregnancy) study is a UK-based birth cohort which recruited 362 women after delivery from the Leeds Teaching Hospitals postnatal wards. Ferritin and transferrin receptor levels were measured in maternal serum samples previously obtained in the first trimester. Infant brachio-femoral PWV was measured during a home visit at 2–6 weeks. Results Iron depletion (ferritin <15 µg/l) was detected in 79 (23%) women in early pregnancy. Infant PWV (mean = 6.7 m/s, SD = 1.3, n = 284) was neither associated with maternal ferritin (adjusted change per 10 µg/l = 0.02, 95% CI: −0.01, 0.1), nor with iron depletion (adjusted change = −0.2, 95% CI: −0.6, 0.2). No evidence of association was observed between maternal serum transferrin receptor level and its ratio to ferritin with infant PWV. Maternal anaemia (<11 g/dl) at <20 weeks’ gestation was associated with a 1.0-m/s increase in infant PWV (adjusted 95% CI: 0.1, 1.9). Conclusion This is the largest study to date which has assessed peripheral PWV as a measure of arterial stiffness in infants. There was no evidence of an association between markers of maternal iron status early in pregnancy and infant PWV. PMID:25790854

  7. A study of the predonation hemoglobin and iron status among Hong Kong Chinese blood donors.

    PubMed

    Lee, C K; Wong, H K; Hong, J; Leung, J N S; Tsoi, W C; Lin, C K

    2013-02-01

    Predonation hemoglobin (PDH) is used to safeguard donors' welfare, and low hemoglobin (Hb) is known to be the most frequent reason for donor deferral. A study was initiated to assess the PDH and iron status of blood donors in Hong Kong. This observational study was designed with four groups of whole blood donors invited (group 1-eligible first time donors, group 2-eligible repeat donors with zero or one donation in preceding 12 months, group 3-eligible repeat donors with at least two donations in preceding 12 months, group 4-repeat donors being deferred for low PDH). Predonation blood samples were obtained for blood counts and iron status. Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and chi-square test for trend were applied for statistical analysis. A total of 836 donors were recruited, of which 35 were excluded because of hemoglobinopathy. An inverse relationship between serum ferritin level and number of donations in the preceding 12 months was observed in both sexes. Iron deficiency was significantly seen in 35.1% of male and 65.3% of female deferred donors. More importantly, up to 7.2, 5.8, and 29.5% of the female donors in groups 1, 2, and 3 were found to be iron deficient despite having a high enough PDH. This is the first study to assess PDH and iron status in Chinese blood donors. Iron depletion is noted with increasing number of blood donations in the preceding 12 months. Advice on iron repletion is a necessary step for donor welfare and strategies should be developed to ensure that donors have adequate PDH. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  8. Intake of alcoholic beverages is a predictor of iron status and hemoglobin in adult Tanzanians.

    PubMed

    Malenganisho, Wabyahe; Magnussen, Pascal; Vennervald, Birgitte Jyding; Krarup, Henrik; Kaestel, Pernille; Siza, Julius; Kaatano, Godfrey; Temu, Mansuet; Friis, Henrik

    2007-09-01

    Iron deficiency is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, but its predictors are not fully understood. We conducted a cross-sectional study among adults around Lake Victoria to describe iron status and asses the role of dietary and infectious predictors. Linear regression analyses were used to assess the role of infections and intake of meat, fish, fruit/vegetables, alcoholic beverages, and soil on hemoglobin and serum ferritin, while controlling for elevated serum alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin (ACT). Among 1498 participants, the mean age was 33.3 (14-87) y with 53.9% females. More than one-half ate fish daily, 6% ate fruit/vegetables daily, and only 11% ate meat weekly. One-third consumed alcoholic beverages and one-fifth of females consumed soil. Hookworm (80.3%), Schistosoma mansoni (64.7%), and HIV (7.3%) infection were common. Anemia was found in 48.2% of females (<120 g/L hemoglobin) and 40.1% of males (<130 g/L hemoglobin), and 22.3% of females and 7.0% of males had depleted iron stores (serum ferritin <12 microg/L). In multivariate analyses, alcoholic beverage consumption and HIV were positive, whereas soil eating and hookworm infection were negative predictors of serum ferritin. Alcoholic beverage consumption was a positive predictor of hemoglobin, and soil eating, HIV, and hookworm infection were negative predictors. Intakes of meat, fish, and fruit or vegetables were not predictors. Elevated serum ACT was a predictor of both hemoglobin and serum ferritin. Anemia and depleted iron stores were common, whereas iron overload was rare. In conclusion, the associations between alcoholic beverage intake and hemoglobin and iron status suggest that alcoholic beverages may contain micronutrients essential to erythropoiesis. The role of alcoholic beverage intake and other determinants of hemoglobin and iron status in low-income populations needs to be better elucidated.

  9. Biomarkers of Hypochromia: The Contemporary Assessment of Iron Status and Erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Urrechaga, Eloísa; Borque, Luís; Escanero, Jesús F.

    2013-01-01

    Iron status is the result of the balance between the rate of erythropoiesis and the amount of the iron stores. Direct consequence of an imbalance between the erythroid marrow iron requirements and the actual supply is a reduction of red cell hemoglobin content, which causes hypochromic mature red cells and reticulocytes. The diagnosis of iron deficiency is particularly challenging in patients with acute or chronic inflammatory conditions because most of the biochemical markers for iron metabolism (serum ferritin and transferrin ) are affected by acute phase reaction. For these reasons, interest has been generated in the use of erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters, available on the modern hematology analyzers. Reported during blood analysis routinely performed on the instrument, these parameters can assist in early detection of clinical conditions (iron deficiency, absolute, or functional; ineffective erythropoiesis, including iron restricted or thalassemia), without additional cost. Technological progress has meant that in recent years modern analyzers report new parameters that provide further information from the traditional count. Nevertheless these new parameters are exclusive of each manufacturer, and they are patented. This is an update of these new laboratory test biomarkers of hypochromia reported by different manufactures, their meaning, and clinical utility on daily practice. PMID:23555091

  10. Efficacy of Multiple Micronutrients Fortified Milk Consumption on Iron Nutritional Status in Moroccan Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    El Menchawy, Imane; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; El Kari, Khalid; Saeid, Naima; Zahrou, Fatima Ezzahra; Benajiba, Nada; El Harchaoui, Imane; El Mzibri, Mohamed; El Haloui, Noureddine; Aguenaou, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency constitutes a major public health problem in Morocco, mainly among women and children. The aim of our paper is to assess the efficacy of consumption of multiple micronutrients (MMN) fortified milk on iron status of Moroccan schoolchildren living in rural region. Children (N = 195), aged 7 to 9 y, were recruited from schools and divided into two groups: the nonfortified group (NFG) received daily a nonfortified Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT) milk and the fortified group received (FG) daily UHT milk fortified with multiple micronutrients including iron sulfate. Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0) and after 9 months (T9). Hemoglobin (Hb) was measured in situ by Hemocue device; ferritin and C Reactive Protein were assessed in serum using ELISA and nephelometry techniques, respectively. Results were considered significant when the p value was <0.05. At T9 FG showed a reduction of iron deficiency from 50.9% to 37.2% (p = 0.037). Despite the low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (1.9%); more than 50% of children in our sample suffered from iron deficiency at baseline. The consumption of fortified milk reduced the prevalence of iron deficiency by 27% in schoolchildren living in high altitude rural region of Morocco. Clinical Trial Registration. Our study is registered in the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry with the identification number PACTR201410000896410. PMID:26355324

  11. Subclinical inflammation influences the association between vitamin A- and iron status among schoolchildren in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Abizari, Abdul-Razak; Azupogo, Fusta; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective In resource-poor settings, micronutrient deficiencies such as vitamin A deficiency may co-exist with iron-deficiency. In this study we assessed the iron and vitamin A status of schoolchildren and the association between vitamin A and iron status. Methods A cross-sectional design using the baseline data of a dietary intervention trial conducted among randomly selected 5–12 years old schoolchildren (n = 224) from 2 rural schools in northern Ghana. Hemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin (SF) and serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations were used as measures of iron status. Retinol binding protein (RBP) was used as a measure of vitamin A status. Subclinical inflammation (SCI) was measured using C-reactive protein (CRP) and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations. We examined the cross-sectional association between vitamin A and iron status biomarkers with multiple linear regressions. Results The proportions of schoolchildren with anemia (WHO criteria), iron-deficiency (ID, SF <15μg/l and/or sTfR >8.5mg/l) and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA, concurrent anemia and ID) were 63.8%, 68.3% and 46.4% respectively. Low or marginal vitamin A status (0.70 μmol/l ≤ RBP < 1.05μmol/l) was present in 48.2% while 37.5% of the schoolchildren had vitamin A deficiency (VAD, RBP <0.70 μmol/l). The prevalence of SCI as well as concurrent VAD and ID were 48.7% and 25% respectively. RBP was associated with Hb (β = 7.2, P = 0.05) but not SF (β = 20.7, P = 0.33) and sTfR concentration (β = 12.0, P = 0.63). In the presence of SCI, RBP was not associated with hemoglobin status but a significant positive association was observed among children without SCI. Conclusions The study shows that RBP is significantly associated with Hb concentration but not with SF and sTfR. The observed relationship between RBP and Hb is only significant in the absence of SCI. PMID:28152069

  12. Anthropometric Indices Added the Predictive Ability of Iron Status in Prognosis of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Ebrahimi-Mameghani, Mehrangiz; Hajimaghsood, Masoud; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abnormal homeostasis of iron such as deficiency or overload is associated with the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Another risk factor for CVD is obesity whose added predictive ability to iron status has been assessed by few study. This study aimed to eva¬luate the effect of adding anthropometric indices to a model based on iron status as risk factors of CVD. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 140 adult women aged 18-50 years randomly se-lected from Sheikhorrais Clinic that is one of the Tabriz University sub-specialized clinics in 2011. Anthropometric indices, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and body iron status were measured by standard protocol, non-invasive ultrasound and concentrations of serum iron, ferri¬tin, TIBC (Total iron Binding Capacity) and complete blood cell counts (CBC), respectively. In¬tegrated discriminatory improvement index (IDI) and net reclassification improvement index (NRI) were used as the measures of added predictive ability of anthropometric measures to the iron statues. Results: IDI (SE) after adding Waist Circumference (WC), Waist to Heap Ratio (WHR), Waist to Height Ratio (WHtR), Body Mass Index (BMI) and Body fat (%) to base model was 0.12 (0.028), 0.09 (0.026), 0.12 (0.028), 0.07 (0.022) and 0.10 (0.026) respectively. The NRI (SE) was 0.10 (0.065) for WC, 0.03 (0.058) for WHR, 0.07 (0.067) for WHtR, 0.05 (0.067) for BMI, and 0.08 (0.064) for Body fat. Conclusions: Anthropometric indices could significantly add to the predictive ability of the iron statues, with highest IDI when WC and WHtR were added to the base model. It suggests that by adding WC and WHtR to the iron status lead us to a more optimal model for predicting the ini¬tial stage of atherosclerosis. PMID:24688936

  13. Effect of Oral Iron on Markers of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Status in Children with Iron Deficiency Anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Adnan, Mohammad; Ahmad, Syed Moiz; Islam, Najmul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Conflicting reports are available on the relationship of Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA) and iron therapy with oxidative stress. Aim To study the levels of markers of oxidative stress and anti-oxidant status in children with IDA and to assess the effect of iron therapy on the same. Materials and Methods This prospective, single centre, hospital based study was a sub-study of a randomized controlled trial conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh in collaboration with the Department of Biochemistry (of the same institution) between October 2009 to February 2011. The sub-study was conducted in two parts: in the first part, levels of a biomarker of oxidative stress {Malondialdehyde (MDA)} and anti-oxidant enzymes {Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx)} were assessed and compared between 67 children with IDA and 31 non-anaemic controls; in the second part, the effect of oral iron (6mg/kg/day) for eight weeks on these markers was studied in a subset of 35 children with IDA. The Bivariate correlations procedure was used to compute pair wise associations for a set of variables. T-tests (Independent samples t-test/Paired sample t-test) and Non-parametric tests (Mann–Whitney test/Wilcoxon signed-rank test) were applied as applicable for normally and non-normally distributed data, respectively. Results Levels of anti-oxidant enzymes were significantly lower (p<0.001) in children with IDA as compared to controls, viz., SOD {median, 8.63 (IQR, 8.60-8.66) vs. 9.46 (IQR, 9.14-9.62) units/mg protein}, CAT {median, 8.49 (IQR, 8.46-8.50) vs. 9.10 (IQR, 9.04-9.14) μmol H2O2/min/mg protein} and GPx {median, 49.19 (IQR, 48.99-49.60) vs. 56.94(IQR, 56.80-57.14) mol NADPH oxidized /min/ mg protein}. Whereas, levels of MDA were significantly higher (p<0.001) in IDA group {median, 1.50 (IQR, 1.48-1.52) vs. 1.24 (IQR, 1.20-1.27) moles/ml of serum}. Levels

  14. Effects of repeated blood donations on iron status and hematologic variables of canine blood donors.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rui R F; Gopegui, Rafael R; Araujo, Maria Manuela R C; de Matos, Augusto J F

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the bone marrow regenerative response and iron status of canine blood donors subjected to repeated blood collections for 1 year. Prospective cohort study. 57 blood donor dogs. Hematologic variables, including reticulocyte percentage, were evaluated before and 10 days after each blood collection in 16 dogs donating 13% of total blood volume (TBV) every 2 months (group 1), 16 dogs donating 13% of TBV every 3 months (group 2), and 25 dogs donating 15% of TBV every 3 months (group 3) for 1 year. Serum concentrations of iron, transferrin, and ferritin were analyzed before inclusion in the study and 10 days after the last donation. Significant increases in RBC distribution width, platelet count, WBC count, and reticulocyte percentage were detected after blood donation in all groups. Dogs of group 2 had a significantly higher serum ferritin concentration than did dogs of group 1; dogs of group 1 had a significant decrease in serum ferritin concentration. A positive correlation between the number of blood donations and both RBC distribution width and reticulocyte percentage was found for all groups. All blood donation regimens induced a bone marrow regenerative response, which was able to restore depleted blood cells within 10 days after blood donation while maintaining iron status within the calculated reference range. However, dogs donating 13% of TBV every 2 months had a significant decrease in iron stores, which suggested that iron-related variables must be monitored during prolonged blood donor programs.

  15. A prospective study of iron status in exclusively breastfed term infants up to 6 months of age.

    PubMed

    Raj, Shashi; Faridi, Mma; Rusia, Usha; Singh, Om

    2008-03-01

    Can exclusive breastfeeding until six months of age maintain optimum iron status in term babies? We evaluated iron status of exclusively breastfed term infants in relation to breast milk iron and lactoferrin. In this prospective study in Delhi, India, during the period 2003-2004 normally delivered babies of non-anemic [(Hemoglobin (Hb) = 11 g/dl, n = 68] and anemic (Hb 7 - 10.9 g/dl, n = 61) mothers were followed until 6 months of age. Iron parameters were measured in the cord blood at 14 weeks and 6 months. Breast milk iron and lactoferrin were measured at the same intervals. Iron parameters in babies of both groups were within normal limits at birth, 14 weeks and 6 months. Mean breast milk iron and lactoferrin in non-anemic (day 1: 0.89, 6 months: 0.26 mg/l; day 1: 12.02, 6 months: 5.85 mg/ml) and anemic mothers (day 1: 0.86, 6 months: 0.27 mg/l; day 1: 12.91, 6 months: 6.37 mg/ml) were not different on day one or at other times. No relationship was found between breast milk iron, lactoferrin and iron status of the babies. Exclusively breastfed infants of non-anemic and anemic mothers did not develop iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia by six months of age.

  16. A prospective study of iron status in exclusively breastfed term infants up to 6 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Shashi; Faridi, MMA; Rusia, Usha; Singh, Om

    2008-01-01

    Background Can exclusive breastfeeding until six months of age maintain optimum iron status in term babies? We evaluated iron status of exclusively breastfed term infants in relation to breast milk iron and lactoferrin. Methods In this prospective study in Delhi, India, during the period 2003–2004 normally delivered babies of non-anemic [(Hemoglobin (Hb) = 11 g/dl, n = 68] and anemic (Hb 7 – 10.9 g/dl, n = 61) mothers were followed until 6 months of age. Iron parameters were measured in the cord blood at 14 weeks and 6 months. Breast milk iron and lactoferrin were measured at the same intervals. Results Iron parameters in babies of both groups were within normal limits at birth, 14 weeks and 6 months. Mean breast milk iron and lactoferrin in non-anemic (day 1: 0.89, 6 months: 0.26 mg/l; day 1: 12.02, 6 months: 5.85 mg/ml) and anemic mothers (day 1: 0.86, 6 months: 0.27 mg/l; day 1: 12.91, 6 months: 6.37 mg/ml) were not different on day one or at other times. No relationship was found between breast milk iron, lactoferrin and iron status of the babies. Conclusion Exclusively breastfed infants of non-anemic and anemic mothers did not develop iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia by six months of age. PMID:18312681

  17. Rhizosphere microbial community structure in relation to root location and plant iron nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Yang, C H; Crowley, D E

    2000-01-01

    Root exudate composition and quantity vary in relation to plant nutritional status, but the impact of the differences on rhizosphere microbial communities is not known. To examine this question, we performed an experiment with barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants under iron-limiting and iron-sufficient growth conditions. Plants were grown in an iron-limiting soil in root box microcosms. One-half of the plants were treated with foliar iron every day to inhibit phytosiderophore production and to alter root exudate composition. After 30 days, the bacterial communities associated with different root zones, including the primary root tips, nonelongating secondary root tips, sites of lateral root emergence, and older roots distal from the tip, were characterized by using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fingerprints generated by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results showed that the microbial communities associated with the different root locations produced many common 16S rDNA bands but that the communities could be distinguished by using correspondence analysis. Approximately 40% of the variation between communities could be attributed to plant iron nutritional status. A sequence analysis of clones generated from a single 16S rDNA band obtained at all of the root locations revealed that there were taxonomically different species in the same band, suggesting that the resolving power of DGGE for characterization of community structure at the species level is limited. Our results suggest that the bacterial communities in the rhizosphere are substantially different in different root zones and that a rhizosphere community may be altered by changes in root exudate composition caused by changes in plant iron nutritional status.

  18. Rhizosphere Microbial Community Structure in Relation to Root Location and Plant Iron Nutritional Status

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ching-Hong; Crowley, David E.

    2000-01-01

    Root exudate composition and quantity vary in relation to plant nutritional status, but the impact of the differences on rhizosphere microbial communities is not known. To examine this question, we performed an experiment with barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants under iron-limiting and iron-sufficient growth conditions. Plants were grown in an iron-limiting soil in root box microcosms. One-half of the plants were treated with foliar iron every day to inhibit phytosiderophore production and to alter root exudate composition. After 30 days, the bacterial communities associated with different root zones, including the primary root tips, nonelongating secondary root tips, sites of lateral root emergence, and older roots distal from the tip, were characterized by using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fingerprints generated by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results showed that the microbial communities associated with the different root locations produced many common 16S rDNA bands but that the communities could be distinguished by using correspondence analysis. Approximately 40% of the variation between communities could be attributed to plant iron nutritional status. A sequence analysis of clones generated from a single 16S rDNA band obtained at all of the root locations revealed that there were taxonomically different species in the same band, suggesting that the resolving power of DGGE for characterization of community structure at the species level is limited. Our results suggest that the bacterial communities in the rhizosphere are substantially different in different root zones and that a rhizosphere community may be altered by changes in root exudate composition caused by changes in plant iron nutritional status. PMID:10618246

  19. A Multiplex Immunoassay Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Iron, Vitamin A and Inflammation Status Markers

    PubMed Central

    Crudder, Christopher; Levin, Carol E.; Garrett, Dean; Lyman, Chris; Boyle, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Deficiencies of vitamin A and iron affect a significant portion of the world's population, and efforts to characterize patterns of these deficiencies are hampered by a lack of measurement tools appropriate for large-scale population-based surveys. Vitamin A and iron are not easily measured directly, so reliable proxy markers for deficiency status have been identified and adopted. Measurement of inflammatory markers is necessary to interpret vitamin A and iron status markers, because circulating levels are altered by inflammation. We developed a multiplex immunoassay method for simultaneous measurement of five markers relevant to assessing inflammation, vitamin A and iron status: α-1-acid glycoprotein, C-reactive protein, retinol binding protein 4, ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. Serum and plasma specimens were used to optimize the assay protocol. To evaluate assay performance, plasma from 72 volunteers was assayed using the multiplex technique and compared to conventional immunoassay methods for each of the five markers. Results of the new and conventional assay methods were highly correlated (Pearson Correlations of 0.606 to 0.991, p<.0001). Inter-assay imprecision for the multiplex panel varied from 1% to 8%, and all samples fell within the limits of quantification for all assays at a single dilution. Absolute values given by the multiplex and conventional assays differed, indicating a need for further work to devise a new standard curve. This multiplexed micronutrient immunoassay technique has excellent potential as a cost effective tool for use in large-scale deficiency assessment efforts. PMID:25525806

  20. Metabolic cardiomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    Guertl, Barbara; Noehammer, Christa; Hoefler, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    The energy needed by cardiac muscle to maintain proper function is supplied by adenosine Ariphosphate primarily (ATP) production through breakdown of fatty acids. Metabolic cardiomyopathies can be caused by disturbances in metabolism, for example diabetes mellitus, hypertrophy and heart failure or alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Deficiency in enzymes of the mitochondrial β-oxidation show a varying degree of cardiac manifestation. Aberrations of mitochondrial DNA lead to a wide variety of cardiac disorders, without any obvious correlation between genotype and phenotype. A completely different pathogenetic model comprises cardiac manifestation of systemic metabolic diseases caused by deficiencies of various enzymes in a variety of metabolic pathways. Examples of these disorders are glycogen storage diseases (e.g. glycogenosis type II and III), lysosomal storage diseases (e.g. Niemann-Pick disease, Gaucher disease, I-cell disease, various types of mucopolysaccharidoses, GM1 gangliosidosis, galactosialidosis, carbohydrate–deficient glycoprotein syndromes and Sandhoff's disease). There are some systemic diseases which can also affect the heart, for example triosephosphate isomerase deficiency, hereditary haemochromatosis, CD 36 defect or propionic acidaemia. PMID:11298185

  1. Community mobilization and social marketing to promote weekly iron-folic acid supplementation in women of reproductive age in Vietnam: impact on anemia and iron status.

    PubMed

    Berger, Jacques; Thanh, Hoang Thi Kim; Cavalli-Sforza, Tommaso; Smitasiri, Suttilak; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Milani, Silvano; Hoa, Pham Thuy; Quang, Nguyen Dinh; Viteri, Fernando

    2005-12-01

    The community mobilization and social marketing program promoting a preventive approach of weekly iron-folic acid supplementation in women of reproductive age improved iron status of non-pregnant women in Vietnam. Three to six months of weekly pre-pregnancy supplementation and regular weekly intake of supplements during pregnancy allowed women to achieve good iron and hemoglobin status during the two first trimesters of pregnancy. In the third trimester, iron deficiency and anemia were notably present but low birth weight prevalence was low. This demonstrates the effectiveness and safety of the preventive approach as implemented here to prevent and control iron deficiency and anemia in women of reproductive age before and during pregnancy.

  2. Blood donation, body iron status and carotid intima-media thickness.

    PubMed

    Engberink, Mariëlle F; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Durga, Jane; Swinkels, Dorine W; de Kort, Wim L A M; Schouten, Evert G; Verhoef, Petra

    2008-02-01

    Iron could promote free radical formation, which may lead to injury of the arterial wall and atherosclerosis. Blood donation may reduce cardiovascular risk by lowering body iron status. We collected data on blood donation history and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CIMT) in 819 subjects (50-70 years), who were recruited from municipal and blood bank registries in The Netherlands. Serum iron parameters were assessed, including non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) that has recently been found in conditions of iron overload. Serum ferritin was lower in current donors (n=443; 44 microg/L) than in ex-donors (n=120; 114 microg/L) and never-donors (n=256; 124 microg/L, P for trend <0.001). For NTBI, values were 2.33, 2.54, and 2.51 micromol/L, respectively (P<0.05). CIMT was slightly reduced in frequent donors (i.e., > or =49 times during life or > or =2 times per year), although not statistically significant. CIMT was not significantly related to NTBI. Frequent blood donation, resulting in lowered body iron, might give some protection against accelerated atherosclerosis.

  3. Nutrient intake and blood iron status of male collegiate soccer players.

    PubMed

    Noda, Yuka; Iide, Kazuhide; Masuda, Reika; Kishida, Reina; Nagata, Atsumi; Hirakawa, Fumiko; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Imamura, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: 1) to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise athletes about nutrition practices that might enhance performance, and 2) to evaluate the dietary iron intake and blood iron status of Japanese collegiate soccer players. The subjects were 31 soccer players and 15 controls. Dietary information was obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. The mean carbohydrate (6.9 g.kg-1 BW) and protein (1.3 g/kg) intakes of the soccer players were marginal in comparisons with recommended targets. The mean intakes of calcium, magnesium, vitamin A, B1, B2, and C were lower than the respective Japanese recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate dietary intakes in the soccer players. The mean intakes of green and other vegetables, milk and dairy products, fruits, and eggs were lower than the recommended targets. Thus, we recommended athletes to increase the intake of these foodstuffs along with slight increase in carbohydrate and lean meat. The mean intake of iron was higher than the respective RDA in the soccer players. A high prevalence of hemolysis (71%) in the soccer players was found. None of the soccer players and controls had anemia. Two soccer players had iron depletion, while none was found in the controls. In those players who had iron deficiency, the training load need to be lowered and/or iron intake may be increased.

  4. Anemia and iron status in young fertile non-professional female athletes.

    PubMed

    Di Santolo, Manuela; Stel, Giuliana; Banfi, Giuseppe; Gonano, Fabio; Cauci, Sabina

    2008-04-01

    We evaluated the effects of regular physical exercise on anemia and iron status in young non-professional female athletes. A total of 191 healthy white Italian women (23.5 +/- 4.68 years) were analyzed; 70 were non-professional athletes performing 11.1 +/- 2.63 h week(-1) exercise and 121 were sedentary controls. Blood markers of anemia and iron status-hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cells (RBC), serum ferritin, iron, transferrin (Tf), transferrin saturation (TfS), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and the sTfR/log ferritin ratio (sTfR-F index)-were evaluated. Anemia threshold was Hb < 120 g l(-1). Ferritin concentrations < 12 microg l(-1) were considered as iron deficiency (ID). Frequency of anemia (15.7 versus 10.7%, P = 0.32), ID (27.1 versus 29.8%, P = 0.70), and ID anemia (8.6 versus 5.8%, P = 0.46) was not different in athletes and controls. However, athletes were threefold more likely than controls (17.1 versus 5.8%) to have serum iron < 50 microg dl(-1) [odds ratio (OR) 3.37, P = 0.012]. Low-TfS (<15%) was found in 25.7% of athletes and in 13.2% of controls, OR 2.27, P = 0.030. Elevated-sTfR (>1.76 mg l(-1)) was found in 24.3% of athletes and in 12.4% of controls, OR 2.27, P = 0.034. Regular non-professional sport activity does not cause an increased rate of anemia or of iron deficiency in fertile women. However, physical exercise has an impact on iron status as it reduces serum iron and transferrin saturation, and elevates sTfR. Nearly one fifth of recreational athletes have anemia and a third have iron deficit, these conditions can decrease their physical performance.

  5. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of an iron-fortified food product in female soldiers during military training: relations between iron status, serum hepcidin, and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Karl, J Philip; Lieberman, Harris R; Cable, Sonya J; Williams, Kelly W; Young, Andrew J; McClung, James P

    2010-07-01

    Iron status degrades in female soldiers during military training. Inflammation-mediated up-regulation of hepcidin, a key mediator of iron homeostasis, may be a contributing factor. We measured the efficacy of an iron-fortified food product for maintaining iron status in female soldiers during basic combat training (BCT) and examined relations between iron status, serum hepcidin concentrations, and inflammation. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted. Volunteers received an iron-fortified food product (total dose = 56 mg Fe/d) or a placebo twice daily during the 9-wk BCT course. Iron-status indicators, serum hepcidin concentrations, and markers of inflammation were measured pre- and post-BCT. BCT affected iron status; serum ferritin concentrations decreased (P < or = 0.05), and concentrations of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and hemoglobin and the red cell distribution width increased (P < or = 0.05). Consumption of the iron-fortified food product attenuated declines in iron status in iron-deficient anemic soldiers; a group-by-time interaction was observed for hemoglobin and sTfR concentrations (P < or = 0.05). Serum hepcidin concentrations were not affected by BCT; however, hepcidin concentrations were lower in iron-deficient anemic soldiers than in those with normal iron status (P < or = 0.05) and were positively associated with serum ferritin (P < or = 0.05) and C-reactive protein (P < or = 0.05) concentrations pre- and post-BCT. Twice-daily consumption of an iron-fortified food product improved iron status in iron-deficient anemic soldiers but not in iron-normal or iron-deficient nonanemic soldiers. Serum hepcidin concentrations were not affected by training but were associated with iron status and inflammation pre- and post-BCT. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01100905.

  6. Low-Dose Iron Supplementation in Infancy Modestly Increases Infant Iron Status at 9 Mo without Decreasing Growth or Increasing Illness in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Rural China.

    PubMed

    Lozoff, Betsy; Jiang, Yaping; Li, Xing; Zhou, Min; Richards, Blair; Xu, Guobin; Clark, Katy M; Liang, Furong; Kaciroti, Niko; Zhao, Gengli; Santos, Denise Cc; Zhang, Zhixiang; Tardif, Twila; Li, Ming

    2016-03-01

    Previous trials of iron supplementation in infancy did not consider maternal iron supplementation. This study assessed effects of iron supplementation in infancy and/or pregnancy on infant iron status, illnesses, and growth at 9 mo. Enrollment occurred from December 2009 to June 2012 in Hebei, China. Infants born to women in a pregnancy iron supplementation trial were randomly assigned 1:1 to iron [∼1 mg Fe/(kg · d) as oral iron proteinsuccynilate] or placebo from 6 wk to 9 mo, excluding infants with cord ferritin <35 μg/L. Study groups were pregnancy placebo/infancy placebo (placebo/placebo), pregnancy placebo/infancy iron (placebo/iron), pregnancy iron/infancy placebo (iron/placebo), and pregnancy iron/infancy iron (iron/iron). The primary outcome was 9-mo iron status: iron deficiency (ID) by cutoff (≥2 abnormal iron measures) or body iron <0 mg/kg and ID + anemia (hemoglobin <110 g/L). Secondary outcomes were doctor visits or hospitalizations and weight or length gain from birth to 9 mo. Statistical analysis by intention to treat and dose-response (between number of iron bottles received and outcome) used logistic regression with concomitant RRs and general linear models, with covariate control as applicable. Of 1482 infants randomly allocated, 1276 had 9-mo data (n = 312-327/group). Iron supplementation in infancy, but not pregnancy, reduced ID risk: RRs (95% CIs) were 0.89 (0.79, 0.998) for placebo/iron compared to placebo/placebo, 0.79 (0.63, 0.98) for placebo/iron compared to iron/placebo, 0.87 (0.77, 0.98) for iron/iron compared to placebo/placebo, and 0.86 (0.77, 0.97) for iron/iron compared to iron/placebo. However, >60% of infants still had ID at 9 mo. Receiving more bottles of iron in infancy was associated with better infant iron status at 9 mo but only among iron-supplemented infants whose mothers were also iron supplemented (i.e., the iron/iron group). There were no group differences in hospitalizations or illnesses and no adverse effects on

  7. Low-Dose Iron Supplementation in Infancy Modestly Increases Infant Iron Status at 9 Mo without Decreasing Growth or Increasing Illness in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Rural China123

    PubMed Central

    Lozoff, Betsy; Jiang, Yaping; Li, Xing; Zhou, Min; Richards, Blair; Xu, Guobin; Clark, Katy M; Liang, Furong; Kaciroti, Niko; Zhao, Gengli; Santos, Denise CC; Zhang, Zhixiang; Tardif, Twila; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous trials of iron supplementation in infancy did not consider maternal iron supplementation. Objective: This study assessed effects of iron supplementation in infancy and/or pregnancy on infant iron status, illnesses, and growth at 9 mo. Methods: Enrollment occurred from December 2009 to June 2012 in Hebei, China. Infants born to women in a pregnancy iron supplementation trial were randomly assigned 1:1 to iron [∼1 mg Fe/(kg · d) as oral iron proteinsuccynilate] or placebo from 6 wk to 9 mo, excluding infants with cord ferritin <35 μg/L. Study groups were pregnancy placebo/infancy placebo (placebo/placebo), pregnancy placebo/infancy iron (placebo/iron), pregnancy iron/infancy placebo (iron/placebo), and pregnancy iron/infancy iron (iron/iron). The primary outcome was 9-mo iron status: iron deficiency (ID) by cutoff (≥2 abnormal iron measures) or body iron <0 mg/kg and ID + anemia (hemoglobin <110 g/L). Secondary outcomes were doctor visits or hospitalizations and weight or length gain from birth to 9 mo. Statistical analysis by intention to treat and dose-response (between number of iron bottles received and outcome) used logistic regression with concomitant RRs and general linear models, with covariate control as applicable. Results: Of 1482 infants randomly allocated, 1276 had 9-mo data (n = 312–327/group). Iron supplementation in infancy, but not pregnancy, reduced ID risk: RRs (95% CIs) were 0.89 (0.79, 0.998) for placebo/iron compared to placebo/placebo, 0.79 (0.63, 0.98) for placebo/iron compared to iron/placebo, 0.87 (0.77, 0.98) for iron/iron compared to placebo/placebo, and 0.86 (0.77, 0.97) for iron/iron compared to iron/placebo. However, >60% of infants still had ID at 9 mo. Receiving more bottles of iron in infancy was associated with better infant iron status at 9 mo but only among iron-supplemented infants whose mothers were also iron supplemented (i.e., the iron/iron group). There were no group differences in

  8. The impact of H63D HFE gene carriage on hemoglobin and iron status in children.

    PubMed

    Barbara, Kaczorowska-Hac; Marcin, Luszczyk; Jedrzej, Antosiewicz; Wieslaw, Ziolkowski; Elzbieta, Adamkiewicz-Drozynska; Malgorzata, Mysliwiec; Ewa, Milosz; Jacek, Kaczor Jan

    2016-12-01

    The molecular mechanism that regulates iron homeostasis is based on a network of signals, which reflect on the iron requirements of the body. Hereditary hemochromatosis is a heterogenic metabolic syndrome which is due to unchecked transfer of iron into the bloodstream and its toxic effects on parenchymatous organs. It is caused by the mutation of genes that encode proteins that help hepcidin to monitor serum iron. These proteins include the human hemochromatosis protein -HFE, transferrin-receptor 2, hemojuvelin in rare instances, and ferroportin. HFE-related hemochromatosis is the most frequent form of the disease. Interestingly, the low penetrance of polymorphic HFE genes results in rare clinical presentation of the disease, predominantly in middle-aged males. Taking into account the wide dispersion of HFE mutation in our population and also its unknown role in heterozygotes, we analyzed the impact of H63D HFE carriage in the developmental age, with respect to gender, on the iron status and hemoglobin concentration of carriers in comparison to those of wild-type HFE gene (12.7 ± 3.07 years, 42 boys and 41 girls). H63D carriers presented higher blood iron, transferrin saturation, and ferritin concentration than wild-type probands (p < 0.05.) Interestingly, male H63D carriers showed higher hemoglobin concentration than the unburdened children. Moreover, in the H63D carrier group, a positive correlation between iron and hemoglobin was noted. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that changes in iron metabolism occur at a young age in HFE heterozygotes.

  9. Body iron status and gastric cancer risk in the EURGAST study.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Agudo, Antonio; Aranda, Núria; Arija, Victoria; Cross, Amanda J; Molina, Esther; Sanchez, Maria Jose; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Siersema, Peter; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Krogh, Vittorio; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Saieva, Calogero; Naccarati, Alessio; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Tim; Lu, Yunxia; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H; Gavrila, Diana; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, José Ramón; Barricarte, Aurelio; Jenab, Mazda; Zamora-Ros, Raúl; Freisling, Heinz; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Jakszyn, Paula

    2015-12-15

    Although it appears biologically plausible for iron to be associated with gastric carcinogenesis, the evidence is insufficient to lead to any conclusions. To further investigate the relationship between body iron status and gastric cancer risk, we conducted a nested case-control study in the multicentric European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The study included 456 primary incident gastric adenocarcinoma cases and 900 matched controls that occurred during an average of 11 years of follow-up. We measured prediagnostic serum iron, ferritin, transferrin and C-reactive protein, and further estimated total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) and transferrin saturation (TS). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of gastric cancer by iron metrics were estimated from multivariable conditional logistic regression models. After adjusting for relevant confounders, we observed a statistically significant inverse association between gastric cancer and ferritin and TS indices (ORlog2  = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.72-0.88; OR10%increment  = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.78-0.97, respectively). These associations appear to be restricted to noncardia gastric cancer (ferritin showed a p for heterogeneity = 0.04 and TS had a p for heterogeneity = 0.02), and no differences were found by histological type. TIBC increased risk of overall gastric cancer (OR50 µg/dl  = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.02-1.2) and also with noncardia gastric cancer (p for heterogeneity = 0.04). Additional analysis suggests that time between blood draw and gastric cancer diagnosis could modify these findings. In conclusion, our results showed a decreased risk of gastric cancer related to higher body iron stores as measured by serum iron and ferritin. Further investigation is needed to clarify the role of iron in gastric carcinogenesis.

  10. Iron status in elite young athletes: gender-dependent influences of diet and exercise.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Braun, Hans; Achtzehn, Silvia; Hildebrand, Ursula; Predel, Hans-Georg; Mester, Joachim; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2012-02-01

    Iron depletion seems to occur more frequently among athletes than in the general population and may affect performance capacity. Only little information is available about the prevalence of iron status abnormalities in young elite athletes and whether iron depletion is associated with gender, sport, age or nutrition- and exercise-related factors in this group. Hence, diet, exercise and haematological data from 193 elite athletes (96 males, 97 females; 16.2 ± 2.7 years) from 24 different sports were analyzed retrospectively. Most female athletes failed to meet the recommended daily allowance for iron, even though dietary iron density was higher than in males (5.75 ± 0.78 vs. 6.17 ± 0.98 mg/1,000 kcal; P = 0.001). Iron depletion (serum ferritin < 35 μg/L) occurred in 31% of male and 57% of female athletes (P < 0.001). Low haemoglobin (males: <13 g/dL; females: <12 g/dL) and haematocrit (males: <40%; females: <36%) values were equally prevalent in both genders [haemoglobin: 7.3% (males), 6.2% (females); haematocrit: 13.5% (males); 15.5% (females)]. In females, reduced ferritin levels were associated with a lower dietary iron density (5.9 ± 0.8 vs. 6.6 ± 1.1 mg/1,000 kcal; P = 0.002). Males with iron depletion had a significantly higher estimated energy expenditure (48.7 ± 7.0 vs. 44.4 ± 7.6 kcal/kg/day; P = 0.009).

  11. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  12. Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Pilichou, Kalliopi; Thiene, Gaetano; Bauce, Barbara; Rigato, Ilaria; Lazzarini, Elisabetta; Migliore, Federico; Perazzolo Marra, Martina; Rizzo, Stefania; Zorzi, Alessandro; Daliento, Luciano; Corrado, Domenico; Basso, Cristina

    2016-04-02

    Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC) is a heart muscle disease clinically characterized by life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and pathologically by an acquired and progressive dystrophy of the ventricular myocardium with fibro-fatty replacement. Due to an estimated prevalence of 1:2000-1:5000, AC is listed among rare diseases. A familial background consistent with an autosomal-dominant trait of inheritance is present in most of AC patients; recessive variants have also been reported, either or not associated with palmoplantar keratoderma and woolly hair. AC-causing genes mostly encode major components of the cardiac desmosome and up to 50% of AC probands harbor mutations in one of them. Mutations in non-desmosomal genes have been also described in a minority of AC patients, predisposing to the same or an overlapping disease phenotype. Compound/digenic heterozygosity was identified in up to 25% of AC-causing desmosomal gene mutation carriers, in part explaining the phenotypic variability. Abnormal trafficking of intercellular proteins to the intercalated discs of cardiomyocytes and Wnt/beta catenin and Hippo signaling pathways have been implicated in disease pathogenesis.AC is a major cause of sudden death in the young and in athletes. The clinical picture may include a sub-clinical phase; an overt electrical disorder; and right ventricular or biventricular pump failure. Ventricular fibrillation can occur at any stage. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies led to identify biventricular and dominant left ventricular variants, thus supporting the use of the broader term AC.Since there is no "gold standard" to reach the diagnosis of AC, multiple categories of diagnostic information have been combined and the criteria recently updated, to improve diagnostic sensitivity while maintaining specificity. Among diagnostic tools, contrast enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance is playing a major role in detecting left dominant forms of AC, even preceding morpho

  13. Association between iron status, iron deficiency anaemia, and severe early childhood caries: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe tooth decay is known to affect the health and well-being of young children. However, little is known about the influence of Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) on childhood nutritional status. The purpose of this study was to contrast ferritin and haemoglobin levels between preschoolers with S-ECC and caries-free controls. Methods Children were recruited as part of a larger case–control study examining differences in nutritional status between those with and without S-ECC. Preschoolers with S-ECC were recruited on the day of their dental surgery, while caries-free controls were recruited from the community. Parents completed a questionnaire and the child underwent venipuncture. The study was approved by the University’s Health Research Ethics Board. Statistics included descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses. A p value ≤ .05 was significant. A total of 266 children were recruited; 144 with S-ECC and 122 caries-free. Results The mean age was 40.8 ± 14.1 months. The mean ferritin concentration for all children was 29.6 ± 17.9 μg/L while the mean haemoglobin level was 115.1 ± 10.1 g/L. Children with S-ECC were significantly more likely to have low ferritin (p=.033) and low haemoglobin levels (p>.001). Logistic regression analyses revealed that children with S-ECC were nearly twice as likely to have low ferritin levels and were over six times more likely to have iron deficiency anaemia than caries-free controls. Conclusions Children with S-ECC appear to be at significantly greater odds of having low ferritin status compared with caries-free children and also appear to have significantly lower haemoglobin levels than the caries-free control group. Children with S-ECC also appear to be at significantly greater odds for iron deficiency anaemia than cavity-free children. PMID:23388209

  14. Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a buildup of iron in the body. Sarcoidosis is the name of an inflammatory disease that ... and form larger lumps that attack other organs. Sarcoidosis often affects your skin, eyes, or liver, but ...

  15. Red blood cell antioxidant and iron status in alcoholic and nonalcoholic cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Fiorelli, Gemino; De Feo, T M; Duca, L; Tavazzi, D; Nava, I; Fargion, S; Cappellini, M D

    2002-03-01

    Iron overload has been reported in alcoholic liver cirrhosis but it remains to be established whether iron is involved in inducing oxidative damage to erythrocytes in alcoholic cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to assess oxidative damage and red cell indicators of antioxidant defences in alcoholics with mild-to-severe liver cirrhosis, taking into account the iron status. Twenty-nine patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (AC) and 27 with nonalcoholic cirrhosis (NAC) were studied. Serum lipid peroxides (LPO) were assayed by a colourimetric method. Serum-free malonyldialdehyde (MDA) was assayed by selected ion monitoring in positive chemical ionization; serum 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal (4-HNE) was determined by a colorimetric method. Reduced (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), adenine and pyridine cofactors were assayed in whole blood extracts by HPLC. Hexose-monophosphate shunt (HMPS), glycolytic pathway (EMP) and antioxidant enzyme activities were determined by standard methods. Iron status was evaluated by standard clinical chemistry and by histological grading of liver iron. Nontransferrin-bound iron (NTBI) was measured in serum by HPLC. GSH progressively decreased with increasing severity of liver involvement in AC and NAC. MDA, 4-HNE and NTBI were significantly higher in AC serum. Stimulation of red cell HMPS and reducing potential, in terms of NADPH production, were more pronounced in AC. These results suggest that NTBI is more important than the decrease of antioxidant defences in inducing lipid peroxidation. NTBI may play a catalytic role in free radical reactions in the presence of cellular reductants such as NADPH.

  16. Total hemoglobin mass, iron status, and endurance capacity in elite field hockey players.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Timo; Franke, Julia; Voss, Sven; Bloch, Wilhelm; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Platen, Petra

    2010-03-01

    The aims of this study were as follows: To evaluate total hemoglobin mass (tHbmass) in international field hockey players; to examine the correlation between tHbmass and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max); and to assess influences of iron status on tHbmass and on VO2max. The players of the German women's (N = 17, aged 24.8 +/- 3.0 [21-31] years) and men's (N = 17, aged 24.2 +/- 2.9 [19-32] years) national field hockey team were investigated. tHbmass was measured by an optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method. The following parameters were measured in venous blood: Hemoglobin concentration (Hbconc), hematocrit (Hct), number and percentage of reticulocytes, reticulocyte hemoglobin content, serum iron, serum ferritin, serum transferrin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, and serum soluble transferrin receptor concentration. VO2max was determined in a treadmill test. tHbmass (women: 10.6 +/- 1.1 g/kg; men: 12.5 +/- 0.9 g/kg) correlated to VO2max (women: 46.6 +/- 2.9 mL/min/kg; men: 55.8 +/- 4.0 mL/min/kg) in women (r = 0.56, p < 0.05) and in men (r = 0.57, p < 0.05), whereas Hbconc and Hct did not. The investigated parameters of iron status showed no association to tHbmass or to VO2max. In conclusion, tHbmass can be used as an indicator for endurance capacity in elite field hockey players, whereas Hbconc may not. tHbmass or VO2max were not influenced by the actual iron status of the investigated athletes.

  17. Effects of exercise on soluble transferrin receptor and other variables of the iron status

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Y; Schmid, A; Konig, D; Berg, A

    2002-01-01

    Background: Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfr) is a new marker of iron status and erythropoietic activity. It has been included in multivariable blood testing models for the detection of performance enhancing erythropoietin misuse in sport. Objective: To evaluate the effect of different types and volumes of physical activity on sTfr concentration, variables of iron status (ferritin, transferrin, iron, and protein), and haematological indices. Methods: Thirty nine subjects were divided into three groups: 1, untrained (n = 12); 2, moderately trained (n = 14); 3, highly trained (n = 13, seven men, six women). Groups 1 and 2 carried out two exercise tests: an incremental running test until exhaustion (test A) and a 45 minute constant speed running test at 70% VO2MAX (test B). Group 3 performed three days (women) or four days (men) of prolonged aerobic cycling exercise. The above variables together with haemoglobin and packed cell volume were analysed in venous blood samples before and after exercise. Changes in blood and plasma volume were estimated. Results: sTfr levels were slightly increased in trained and untrained subjects immediately after test A. Test B and aerobic exercise had no significant effect on sTfr. Ferritin levels were increased after the laboratory tests for trained and untrained subjects and after prolonged aerobic exercise in male cyclists. Transferrin was increased significantly in trained and untrained subjects after both laboratory tests, but remained unchanged after prolonged exercise. Plasma and blood volumes were decreased after the laboratory tests but increased after aerobic exercise. No differences in the variables were observed between trained and untrained subjects with respect to response to exercise. Conclusion: The changes in sTfr and the variables of iron status can be mainly attributed to exercise induced changes in volume. Taking these limitations into account, sTfr can be recommended as a marker of iron deficiency in athletes

  18. Carnitine status of pregnant women: effect of carnitine supplementation and correlation between iron status and plasma carnitine concentration.

    PubMed

    Keller, U; van der Wal, C; Seliger, G; Scheler, C; Röpke, F; Eder, K

    2009-09-01

    It has been shown that plasma carnitine concentrations markedly decline during gestation in women. The reason for this, however, is unknown. One objective of this study was to investigate the effect of carnitine supplementation on plasma carnitine concentrations in pregnant women. The second objective was to investigate the hypothesis that reduced plasma carnitine concentrations during gestation are caused by a reduced carnitine synthesis because of a diminished iron status. Healthy pregnant women (n=26) were randomly assigned in two groups receiving either a L-carnitine supplement (500 mg L-carnitine per day as L-carnitine L-tartrate) (n=13) or placebo (n=13) from the 13th week of gestation to term. In the control group, there was a marked reduction of plasma carnitine concentration from the 12th week of gestation to term. This reduction was prevented by the supplementation of carnitine. In the control group, there was a positive relationship between the parameters of iron status (mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and ferritin) and plasma concentration of carnitine (P<0.05). Moreover, there were inverse correlations between the concentrations of ferritin and the carnitine precursor gamma-butyrobetaine in plasma, and between gamma-butyrobetaine and carnitine in plasma (P<0.05). This study confirms that plasma carnitine concentrations decline in the course of pregnancy, an effect that can be prevented by the supplementation of carnitine. Data of this study, moreover, suggest that the decline of plasma carnitine concentration during pregnancy could be caused by a reduced rate of carnitine biosynthesis, possibly because of an inadequate iron status.

  19. Iron status markers are only transiently affected by a football game.

    PubMed

    Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Douroudos, Ioannis I; Deli, Chariklia K; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Mohr, Magni; Avloniti, Alexandra; Barbero-Álvarez, Jose C; Margonis, Konstantinos; Mavropalias, Georgios; Stampoulis, Theodoros; Giannakidou, Dimitra; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yannis; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2015-01-01

    We examined the temporal variation of iron's status markers during a 60 h period following a football game. Thirty-four male football players were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, N = 14, participated only in measurements and training) or an experimental group (EG, N = 20, took part in a football game one week after the completion of the competitive season). All participants trained regularly for two consecutive days after the game. Training and game load was monitored with high time-resolution global positioning system (GPS) devices. Blood samples were collected and muscle damage markers and repeated sprint ability (RSA) were assessed pre-game and at 2 h, 12 h 36 h and 60 h post-game. No changes were noted in CG. Iron concentration decreased (P < 0.05) 2 h post-game and normalised thereafter whereas total iron binding capacity increased (P < 0.05) 12-60 h of recovery (P < 0.05). Erythrocytes, haemoglobin (HGB) concentration, plasma volume, haematocrit, mean cell volume, mean cell HGB, mean cell HGB concentration, red cell width-SD, red cell width-CV, ferritin concentration and transferrin saturation remained unaltered during the intervention period. Creatine kinase activity and muscle soreness increased (P < 0.05) throughout recovery in EG. RSA declined (P < 0.05) until 36 h of recovery and normalised thereafter. Our data demonstrate that iron status markers are only transiently affected by a football game.

  20. Indicators of iron status in elite soccer players during the sports season.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, S M; Ahmetovic, Z

    2009-08-01

    The main aim of the study was to investigate the changes of hematologic status in elite soccer players throughout a competitive season. Study was conducted with 35 male professional soccer players and the measurements were collected at the start of the conditioning period, at the start of the season, in the mid-season and at the end of the season. Blood was drawn from an antecubital vein for a complete blood count, serum iron, and transferrin and ferritin levels. We found significantly higher hematocrit at preseason assessment as compared with other sampling periods (P < 0.05). No other differences were found between any of the hematologic variables during the study. The lowest hemoglobin level, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum iron, ferritin and transferrin encountered in the study were Hb of 11.2 g/dl, MCV of 77.9 fl, serum iron of 34 microg/dl, ferritin of 15.1 microg/l, transferrin of 224 microg/dl in a 20-year-old soccer player at the start of the season. The variability of the iron status indicators in elite soccer players seems to be stable and poorly related to training phase during sports season.

  1. ironPhone: Mobile device-coupled point-of-care diagnostics for assessment of iron status by quantification of serum ferritin.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Balaji; O'Dell, Dakota; Finkelstein, Julia L; Lee, Seoho; Erickson, David; Mehta, Saurabh

    2018-01-15

    Iron deficiency (ID) is an urgent public health problem that has devastating effects on maternal and child health. However, due to poor access and affordability, screening and diagnosis for ID is often limited to proxy hemoglobin measurements alone. Here, we report the development and validation of ironPhone, a mobile-device coupled portable diagnostics for quantification of serum ferritin concentrations, an iron status biomarker, within a few minutes, from a drop of fingerprick blood. The ironPhone diagnostic platform comprises of a smartphone accessory, an app, and a disposable lateral flow immunoassay test strip to quantify serum ferritin. For initial validation in the lab, we optimized and evaluated the performance of ironPhone with known ferritin concentrations in spiked buffer and serum samples. Following lab validation, we performed a human validation by collecting fingerprick whole blood samples from 20 participants to assess iron status using ironPhone and compared the results with the laboratory standard IMMULITE 2000 analyzer. Findings from the ironPhone for the buffer and spiked serum samples provided a calibration curve with R(2) values of 0.97 (n=27) and 0.93 (n=12), respectively. On comparison with the laboratory standard IMMULITE analyzer in whole blood samples, a correlation of 0.92 (P<0.0001) was observed with a sensitivity of over 90% for predicting ID (ferritin<15.0µg/L) via the ironPhone, demonstrating its promise for iron status assessment at the point-of-care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Maintenance of Iron Status in Healthy Men during an Extended Period of Stress and Physical Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Medicine Human Use Review has been reported that strenuous exercise or physical activity may Committee, and was conducted in accordance with Army Reg... activity 1-3 Robert J Moore, Karl E Friedl, Richard T Tulley, and Eldon W Askew ABSTRACT Body weight loss and iron status of 55 male or physical performance...Some studies showed that correcuon or soldiers were measured during 62 d of intense physical activity the low hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations

  3. Determination of functional iron deficiency status in haemodialysis patients in central South Africa.

    PubMed

    Haupt, L; Weyers, R

    2016-08-01

    Functional iron deficiency (FID) is characterized by adequate body iron stores with an inadequate rate of iron delivery for erythropoiesis. In chronic kidney failure (CKD), iron availability is best assessed using the percentage of hypochromic red cells (%Hypo). The aim of our study was to determine the FID status of haemodialysis patients in central South Africa, using the %Hypo analyte and to evaluate the ability of the currently used biochemical tests, transferrin saturation (TSat) and serum ferritin to diagnose FID. For this study, 49 patients on haemodialysis were recruited. Haemoglobin (Hb), mean cell volume (MCV) and %Hypo were measured on the Advia 2120i. Biochemical analytes (serum ferritin, TSat) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were also recorded. Of the 49 participants, 21 (42.9%) were diagnosed with FID (%Hypo >6%). A large number of patients (91.8%) were anaemic. The TSat demonstrated poor sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing FID compared with %Hypo. The use of %Hypo (rather than TSat) to guide intravenous iron use spared 16 patients the potential harmful effects thereof. Using %Hypo as a single analyte to diagnose FID will lead to more appropriate use of limited resources and a reduction in treatment-related complications. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Hematological and Biochemical Markers of Iron Status in a Male, Young, Physically Active Population

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Lázaro Alessandro Soares; Grotto, Helena Zerlotti W.; Brenzikofer, René; Macedo, Denise Vaz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference intervals (RIs) for the hemogram and iron status biomarkers in a physically active population. The study population included male volunteers (n = 150) with an average age of 19 ± 1 years who had participated in a regular and controlled exercise program for four months. Blood samples were collected to determine hematological parameters using a Sysmex XE-5000 analyzer (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan). Iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation and ferritin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in serum samples were measured using commercial kits (Roche Diagnostics, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) and a Roche/Hitachi 902 analyzer. The RIs were established using the RefVal program 4.1b. The leucocyte count, TIBC, and CRP and ferritin concentrations exhibited higher RIs compared with those in a nonphysically active population. Thirty volunteers (outliers) were removed from the reference population due to blood abnormalities. Among the outliers, 46% exhibited higher CRP concentrations and lower concentrations of iron and reticulocyte hemoglobin compared with the nonphysically active population (P < 0.001). Our results showed that it is important to establish RIs for certain laboratory parameters in a physically active population, especially for tests related to the inflammatory response and iron metabolism. PMID:25045665

  5. Iron status in female athletes participating in team ball-sports.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, A; Enayatizadeh, N; Akbarzadeh, M; Asadi, S; Tabatabaee, S H R

    2010-01-15

    Iron deficiency anemia is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency in the world, affecting 20-50% of the world's population. It is estimated that 10 and 20% of male and female athletes are iron deficient, respectively. Iron deficiency has deleterious effects on the physical performance of athletes. It decreases aerobic capacity, increases heart rate and elongates the recovery time after exercise. In this cross-sectional study, 42 semi-professional female athletes who had been playing in basketball, volleyball and handball super league teams served as subjects. Data on socioeconomic and fertility status as well as the type of sport were obtained through a questionnaire. Nutritional data were gathered with a 3 day dietary recall. Total intake of calorie, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin C and B12 were also analyzed. In addition, ferritin and TIBC were measured and a CBC test was done for each subject. The results showed that the mean total calorie intake of women was 2049.79 +/- 735.12 kcal, where their iron intake was 22.33 +/- 9.24 mg day(-1). There was a significant difference between the iron intake of basketball and volleyball players (p = 0.036). Of our subjects, 33.33% had low ferritin levels (< 30 ng mL(-1)) and it was lowest in handball players. Higher than normal ferritin levels were seen in 12.5% of the subjects. We saw a significant difference in ferritin levels of basketball and handball players (p = 0.047). We conclude that the intake of calorie and iron is low in female athletes and therefore, their hematological indices such as ferritin level are below standard values.

  6. Ferritin and iron status in pregnancy: Relationship to fetal alcohol syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Baumstark, J.S.; Hill, W.C.; Chun, M.A.; Hunter, W.J. )

    1989-02-09

    Ferritin is a water soluble macromolecule of M{sub r} = 450,000 within whose inner core is stored approximately 4,500 atoms of iron (as ferric oxyhydroxide). The protein is the chief source of stored iron and its determination in serum is an excellent indicator of iron status. This laboratory is engaged in a study of iron metabolism and its relationship to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Ferritin and transferrin levels have been determined ion serial maternal sera, as well as cord serum. Patients were identified as high risk for the development of FAS by questionnaire. Transferrin levels for both maternal and cord serum were within normal literature values and increased, in maternal serum, at a rate of 5 mg/dl per week of gestation. Ferritin levels decreased at a rate of 1 ng/ml per gestational week. At term, the ferritin level for maternal serum in ten patients was 17 ng/ml {plus minus} 12 SD with a range of 2-35 ng/ml. The value for ferritin in cord serum was 78 {plus minus} 36 SD which is significantly lower than the normal mean value of 101 {plus minus} 52 ng/ml. Equating 101 ng/ml with 100% efficiency in iron metabolism it can be calculated that the high risk-for-FAS fetus is 23% less efficient in general iron metabolism than is the fetus of the normal patient. A decrease of 23% efficiency in iron metabolism could be associated with intrauterine growth retardation and/or the genesis of birth defects.

  7. [Peripartum cardiomyopathy--a case report].

    PubMed

    Banaczek, Zbigniew; Rak, Grzegorz; Gołyska-Rączkiewicz, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy, a type of dilated cardiomyopathy of unknown origin, occurs in previously healthy women in the final month of pregnancy and up to 5 months after delivery. Although the incidence is low--less than 0.1% of pregnancies--morbidity and mortality rates are high at 5% to 32%. The etiology of left ventricular dysfunction is unknown. Diagnosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy requires heightened awareness among multidisciplinary patient care teams and a high degree of suspicion. Confirmation involves the echocardiography reveals severe left ventricular failure. The outcome of peripartum cardiomyopathy is also highly variable. For some women, the clinical and echocardiographic status improves and sometimes returns to normal, whereas for others, the disease progresses to severe cardiac failure and even sudden cardiac death. Management of peripartum cardiomyopathy should aim first at improving heart-failure symptoms through conventional therapies, and then at administering targeted therapies.The prognosis is best when peripartum cardiomyopathy is diagnosed and treated early. Fortunately, despite a high risk of recurrence in subsequent pregnancies, many patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy recover within 3 to 6 months of disease onset. Future pregnancy is not recommended especially in patients with persistent left ventricular dysfunction because of the risk of dangerous complications.

  8. Children's Cardiomyopathy Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Washington, D.C. and help cardiomyopathy related bills get passed into law and protect at-risk children from sudden cardiac death. TAKE ACTION TODAY Disclaimer & Privacy Policy © 2017 Children's Cardiomyopathy Foundation. All rights reserved.

  9. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... purchased, 10% will be donated to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Association. iGive.com - Online Shopping Joing iGive.com to ... 5% of the purchase price to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Association. Bookmark the link http://smile.amazon.com/ch/ ...

  10. Improvements in iron status and cognitive function in young women consuming beef or non-beef lunches.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Cynthia

    2013-12-27

    Iron status is associated with cognitive performance and intervention trials show that iron supplementation improves mental function in iron-deficient adults. However, no studies have tested the efficacy of naturally iron-rich food in this context. This investigation measured the hematologic and cognitive responses to moderate beef consumption in young women. Participants (n=43; age 21.1±0.4 years) were randomly assigned to a beef or non-beef protein lunch group [3-oz (85 g), 3 times weekly] for 16 weeks. Blood was sampled at baseline, and weeks 8 and 16, and cognitive performance was measured at baseline and week 16. Body iron increased in both lunch groups (p<0.0001), with greater improvement demonstrated in women with lower baseline body iron (p<0.0001). Body iron had significant beneficial effects on spatial working memory and planning speed (p<0.05), and ferritin responders (n=17) vs. non-responders (n=26) showed significantly greater improvements in planning speed, spatial working memory strategy, and attention (p<0.05). Lunch group had neither significant interactions with iron status nor consistent main effects on test performance. These findings support a relationship between iron status and cognition, but do not show a particular benefit of beef over non-beef protein consumption on either measure in young women.

  11. Increased risk of iron deficiency and reduced iron absorption but no difference in zinc, vitamin A or B-vitamin status in obese women in India.

    PubMed

    Herter-Aeberli, Isabelle; Thankachan, Prashanth; Bose, Beena; Kurpad, Anura V

    2016-12-01

    Two objectives were investigated: (1) to assess the risk of micronutrient deficiencies in relation to weight status in Indian women with a focus on iron but also including zinc, vitamin A and B vitamins and (2) to compare fractional iron absorption between obese (OB) and normal weight (NW) women. Part 1 was a cross-sectional study including 146 healthy, middle-class women from Bangalore, India, with a BMI between 19 and 40 kg/m(2). Anthropometrics and blood pressure were measured, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for the analysis of vitamin and mineral status, hepcidin, blood lipids and glucose. In part 2, 16 OB and 13 NW women consumed a standardized test meal labeled with the stable iron isotope (57)Fe. Incorporation of the iron isotope into erythrocytes was measured 14 days later. In addition, iron status, hepcidin and inflammatory markers were determined. In part 1, compared to NW women, overweight/OB subjects had significantly higher C-reactive protein, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and hepcidin concentrations (p < 0.05). The odds ratio for having high sTfR concentrations (i.e., low iron status) with increasing BMI was 1.09 (95 % CI 1.02-1.17). None of the other micronutrients investigated showed any differences between weight status groups. In part 2, fractional iron absorption was significantly lower in the OB group compared to the NW group even after controlling for differences in iron status (10.0 ± 6.5 vs. 16.7 ± 4.6 %; p = 0.038). OB women in Bangalore have an increased risk of low iron status and absorb less dietary iron; however, their risk of other micronutrient deficiencies was similar to NW women. Our results clearly demonstrate the importance of considering the double burden of malnutrition in the planning of prevention strategies especially in transition countries with emerging obesity epidemics.

  12. Is Higher Consumption of Animal Flesh Foods Associated with Better Iron Status among Adults in Developed Countries? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jacklyn; Williams, Rebecca; McEvoy, Mark; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Patterson, Amanda

    2016-02-16

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most prevalent nutrient deficiency within the developed world. This is of concern as ID has been shown to affect immunity, thermoregulation, work performance and cognition. Animal flesh foods provide the richest and most bioavailable source of dietary (haem) iron, however, it is unclear whether low animal flesh diets contribute to ID. This systematic review aimed to investigate whether a higher consumption of animal flesh foods is associated with better iron status in adults. CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched for published studies that included adults (≥18 years) from developed countries and measured flesh intakes in relation to iron status indices. Eight experimental and 41 observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, studies varied in population and study designs and results were conflicting. Of the seven high quality studies, five showed a positive association between animal flesh intake (85-300 g/day) and iron status. However, the optimum quantity or frequency of flesh intake required to maintain or achieve a healthy iron status remains unclear. Results show a promising relationship between animal flesh intake and iron status, however, additional longitudinal and experimental studies are required to confirm this relationship and determine optimal intakes to reduce ID development.

  13. Is Higher Consumption of Animal Flesh Foods Associated with Better Iron Status among Adults in Developed Countries? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Jacklyn; Williams, Rebecca; McEvoy, Mark; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Patterson, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most prevalent nutrient deficiency within the developed world. This is of concern as ID has been shown to affect immunity, thermoregulation, work performance and cognition. Animal flesh foods provide the richest and most bioavailable source of dietary (haem) iron, however, it is unclear whether low animal flesh diets contribute to ID. This systematic review aimed to investigate whether a higher consumption of animal flesh foods is associated with better iron status in adults. CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched for published studies that included adults (≥18 years) from developed countries and measured flesh intakes in relation to iron status indices. Eight experimental and 41 observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, studies varied in population and study designs and results were conflicting. Of the seven high quality studies, five showed a positive association between animal flesh intake (85–300 g/day) and iron status. However, the optimum quantity or frequency of flesh intake required to maintain or achieve a healthy iron status remains unclear. Results show a promising relationship between animal flesh intake and iron status, however, additional longitudinal and experimental studies are required to confirm this relationship and determine optimal intakes to reduce ID development. PMID:26891320

  14. Trace Element Status (Iron, Zinc, Copper, Chromium, Cobalt, and Nickel) in Iron-Deficiency Anaemia of Children under 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Angelova, Maria Georgieva; Petkova-Marinova, Tsvetelina Valentinova; Pogorielov, Maksym Vladimirovich; Loboda, Andrii Nikolaevich; Nedkova-Kolarova, Vania Nedkova; Bozhinova, Atanaska Naumova

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To determine trace element status and aetiologic factors for development of trace elements deficiencies in children with iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) aged 0 to 3 years. Contingent and Methods. 30 patients of the University Hospital, Pleven, Bulgaria—I group; 48 patients of the Sumy Regional Child's Clinical Hospital, Sumy, Ukraine—II group; 25 healthy controls were investigated. Serum concentrations of iron, zinc, copper, chromium, cobalt, and nickel were determined spectrophotometrically and by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results. Because the obtained serum levels of zinc, copper, and chromium were near the lower reference limits, I group was divided into IA and IB. In IA group, serum concentrations were lower than the reference values for 47%, 57%, and 73% of patients, respectively. In IB group, these were within the reference values. In II group, results for zinc, cobalt, and nickel were significantly lower (P < 0.05), and results for copper were significantly higher in comparison to controls. Conclusion. Low serum concentrations of zinc, copper, cobalt, and nickel were mainly due to inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, and micronutrient interactions in both studied groups. Increased serum copper in II group was probably due to metabolic changes resulting from adaptations in IDA. Data can be used for developing a diagnostic algorithm for IDA. PMID:24839556

  15. Preventive effects of zinc against psychological stress-induced iron dyshomeostasis, erythropoiesis inhibition, and oxidative stress status in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingjie; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Qian, Jianxin; Chen, Xinmin; Shen, Zhilei; Tao, Liping; Li, Hongxia; Qin, Haihong; Li, Min; Shen, Hui

    2012-06-01

    Psychological stress (PS) could cause decreased iron absorption and iron redistribution in body resulting in low iron concentration in the bone marrow and inhibition of erythropoiesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of zinc supplementation on the iron metabolism, erythropoiesis, and oxidative stress status in PS-induced rats. Thirty-two rats were divided into two groups randomly: control group and zinc supplementation group. Each group was subdivided into two subgroups: control group and PS group. Rats received zinc supplementation before PS exposure established by a communication box. We investigated the serum corticosterone (CORT) level; iron apparent absorption; iron contents in liver, spleen, cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and serum; hematological parameters; malondialdehyde (MDA); reduced glutathione (GSH); and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Compared to PS-treated rats with normal diet, the PS-treated rats with zinc supplementation showed increased iron apparent absorption, serum iron, hemoglobin, red blood cell, GSH, and SOD activities; while the serum CORT; iron contents in liver, spleen, and regional brain; and MDA decreased. These results indicated that dietary zinc supplementation had preventive effects against PS-induced iron dyshomeostasis, erythropoiesis inhibition, and oxidative stress status in rats.

  16. Effect of intra-cellular trafficking on flow cytometric measurement of neutrophil's oxidative status in iron deficient pregnant females.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Soha R; Hendawy, Sherif F; Boshnak, Noha H; Sedhom, Mariana S

    2017-03-27

    Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are prevalent among pregnant women particularly in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the iron status among Egyptian pregnant women and its impact on their neutrophil's count and antimicrobial functions. Ninety pregnant females underwent complete blood count, iron profile, flow cytometric studies for neutrophil myeloperoxidase expression & oxidative burst using dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) after phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) stimulation as well as neutrophil phagocytic and lytic indices. According to percent saturation 54/90 women (60%) were iron deficient (<15% saturation) (cases) and 36/90 (40%) were iron sufficient (controls). A higher proportion of iron deficient pregnant women were in their third trimester compared to controls. No significant difference was found between the iron deficient & sufficient groups as regards anemia despite a positive correlation between haemoglobin level and percent saturation (P=.02). Both the phagocytic and lytic indices were significantly lower among the cases compared to controls (P=.014 & .002 respectively). Cases and controls were comparable as regards flow cytometric studies of neutrophils' myeloperoxidase and oxidative burst (P>.05). No significant correlation was found between any of the iron profile parameters and the oxidative burst by flow cytometry. Functional microphage assay (phagocytic and lytic indices) may be more relevant and cost effective than flow cytometry assays of myeloperoxidase and oxidative burst in reflecting either iron status or cellular immunity in pregnancy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The relationship between history of hormonal contraceptive use and iron status among women in Tanzania: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Haile, Zelalem T; Kingori, Caroline; Teweldeberhan, Asli K; Chavan, Bhakti

    2017-10-01

    Approximately 30% of the Tanzanian women in the reproductive age group are iron deficient. At population-level, there is a dearth of research on the relationship between hormonal contraceptive use and iron deficiency. The study objective was to examine the relationship between history of hormonal contraceptive use and iron status among women in Tanzania. We conducted a cross-sectional study analysis including 4186 women who participated in the population-based 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey. Iron status determined by iron deficiency, anemia, and iron deficiency anemia. Almost 19.0% women reported history of hormonal contraceptive use. Nearly, 30.0%, 39.5%, and 14.3% women had iron deficiency, anemia and iron deficiency anemia respectively. History of hormonal contraceptive use was negatively associated with iron deficiency, anemia and iron deficiency anemia, independent of potential confounders. Compared to non-users, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio OR (95% CI) among hormonal contraceptive users was 0.73 (0.56-0.94, p<0.05) for iron deficiency, 0.58 (0.46-0.72, p<0.001) for anemia, and 0.53 (0.37-0.74; p<0.001) for iron deficiency anemia. Longer duration of hormonal contraceptive use (>2years) had lesser odds of iron deficiency 0.63 (0.43-0.91, p for trend 0.005), anemia 0.51 (0.36-0.73, p for trend <0.001) and iron deficiency anemia 0.35 (0.19-0.65, p for trend <0.001). Our finding has important implications for educating healthcare providers and women about additional nutritional benefits of the use of hormonal contraceptives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Iron Status of Sickle Cell Anaemia Patients in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sani, Musa A.; Adewuyi, James O.; Babatunde, Abiola S.; Olawumi, Hannah O.; Shittu, Rasaki O.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is one of the commonest genetic disorders in the world. It is characterized by anaemia, periodic attacks of thrombotic pain, and chronic systemic organ damage. Recent studies have suggested that individuals with SCA especially from developing countries are more likely to be iron deficient rather than have iron overload. The study aims to determine the iron status of SCA patients in Ilorin, Nigeria. Methods. A cross-sectional study of 45 SCA patients in steady state and 45 non-SCA controls was undertaken. FBC, blood film, sFC, sTfR, and sTfR/log sFC index were done on all subjects. Results. The mean patients' serum ferritin (589.33 ± 427.61 ng/mL) was significantly higher than the mean serum ferritin of the controls (184.53 ± 119.74 ng/mL). The mean serum transferrin receptor of the patients (4.24 ± 0.17 μg/mL) was higher than that of the controls (3.96 ± 0.17 μg/mL) (p = 0.290). The mean serum transferrin receptor (sTfR)/log serum ferritin index of the patients (1.65 ± 0.27 μg/mL) was significantly lower than that of the control (1.82 ± 0.18 μg/mL) (p = 0.031). Conclusion. Iron deficiency is uncommon in SCA patients and periodic monitoring of the haematological, biochemical, and clinical features for iron status in SCA patients is advised. PMID:26550015

  19. Interaction of iron status with single nucleotide polymorphisms on incidence of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihye; Kim, Mi Kyung; Jung, Sukyoung; Lim, Ji Eun; Shin, Myung-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Jung; Oh, Bermseok

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to find single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with a risk of Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Korean adults and to investigate the longitudinal association between these SNPs and T2D and the interaction effects of iron intake and average hemoglobin level. Data from the KoGES_Ansan and Ansung Study were used. Gene-iron interaction analysis was conducted using a two-step approach. To select candidate SNPs associated with T2D, a total of 7,935 adults at baseline were included in genome-wide association analysis (step one). After excluding T2D prevalent cases, prospective analyses were conducted with 7,024 adults aged 40-69 (step two). The association of selected SNPs and iron status with T2D and their interaction were determined using a Cox proportional hazard model. A total of 3 SNPs [rs9465871 (CDKAL1), rs10761745 (JMJD1C), and rs163177 (KCNQ1)] were selected as candidate SNPs related to T2D. Among them, rs10761745 (JMJD1C) and rs163177 (KCNQ1) were prospectively associated with T2D. High iron intake was also prospectively associated with the risk of T2D after adjusting for covariates. Average hemoglobin level was positively associated with T2D after adjusting for covariates in women. We also found significant interaction effects between rs10761745 (JMJD1C) and average hemoglobin levels on the risk of T2D among women with normal inflammation and without anemia at baseline. In conclusion, KCNQ1 and JMJD1C may prospectively contribute to the risk of T2D incidence among adults over the age of 40 and JMJD1C, but CDKAL1 may not, and iron status may interactively contribute to T2D incidence in women.

  20. Importance of pre-pregnancy and pregnancy iron status: can long-term weekly preventive iron and folic acid supplementation achieve desirable and safe status?

    PubMed

    Viteri, Fernando E; Berger, Jacques

    2005-12-01

    Most women worldwide enter pregnancy without adequate iron reserves or are already iron deficient. Estimates of iron needs during pregnancy are markedly reduced when iron reserves are available. The needs of absorbed iron to correct mild to moderate anemia in the last two trimesters are estimated. Pre-pregnancy and prenatal weekly supplementation can improve iron reserves effectively and safely, preventing excess iron and favoring better pregnancy outcomes. We explain how the weekly supplementation idea was developed, why current hemoglobin norms may be inadequately high (especially in pregnancy), and why excess iron as recommended by many agencies for developing populations can be undesirable.

  1. Yacon effects in immune response and nutritional status of iron and zinc in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Tostes, Maria das Graças; Viana, Mirelle Lomar; Grancieri, Mariana; Luz, Tereza Cecília dos Santos; Paula, Heberth de; Pedrosa, Rogério Graça; Costa, Neuza Maria Brunoro

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of yacon flour on iron and zinc nutritional status and immune response biomarkers in preschool children. Preschool children ages 2 to 5 y were selected from two nurseries and were placed into a control group (n = 58) or a yacon group (n = 59). The yacon group received yacon flour in preparations for 18 wk at a quantity to provide 0.14 g of fructooligosaccharides/kg of body weight daily. Anthropometric parameters were measured before and after the intervention and dietary intake was measured during the intervention. To assess iron and zinc status, erythrograms, serum iron, ferritin, and plasma, and erythrocyte zinc were evaluated. Systemic immune response was assessed by the biomarkers interleukin IL-4, IL-10, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-α). Intestinal immune response was analyzed by secretory IgA (sIgA) levels before and after the intervention. Statistical significance was evaluated using the paired t test (α = 5%). Before and after the study, the children presented a high prevalence of overweight and an inadequate dietary intake of zinc and fiber. The yacon group presented with lower hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration at the end of the study (P < 0.05). Erythrocyte zinc was reduced in both groups at the end of the study (P < 0.05). Yacon intake increased the serum levels of IL-4 and fecal sIgA (P < 0.05). The control group had lower serum TNF-α after the study period (P < 0.05). Yacon improved intestinal immune response but demonstrated no effect on the nutritional status of iron and zinc in preschool children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Iron, zinc, and copper nutritional status in children infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Janjetic, Mariana A; Goldman, Cinthia G; Balcarce, Norma E; Rua, Eduardo Cueto; González, Andrea Beltrán; Fuda, Julián A; Meseri, Emiliano I; Torti, Horacio E; Barrado, Julieta; Zubillaga, Marcela B; López, Laura B; Boccio, José R

    2010-07-01

    : Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of about half of the world's population and it has been related to extragastrointestinal diseases. The present study sought to evaluate the association between H pylori infection and iron, zinc, and copper nutritional status in symptomatic children. : A cross-sectional study was carried out in 395 children (4-16 years) with upper gastrointestinal symptoms, who were tested for H pylori infection by the C-urea breath test. Iron status was determined by hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and serum transferrin receptors. Copper and zinc serum concentrations were also evaluated. Epidemiological data, dietary assessment, and anthropometric indicators were analyzed as potential confounding factors. : Prevalence of H pylori infection was 24.3%. Anemia and iron deficiency (ID) were found in 12.0% and 14.3% of the H pylori-positive and 8.9% and 11.0% of the H pylori-negative children, respectively. There was no association between H pylori infection and anemia (odds ratio = 1.54 [95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73%-3.24%]) or ID (odds ratio = 1.35 [95% CI 0.67-2.70]). Crude beta coefficients showed that H pylori has no significant effect on hemoglobin, serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptors, copper, and zinc concentrations. However, adjusted results suggested that H pylori-infected children had an increase of 9.74 microg/dL (95% CI 2.12-17.37 microg/dL) in copper concentrations. : This study revealed that H pylori infection was not associated with iron deficiency, anemia, or zinc concentrations; however, a positive relation with copper status was found after adjusting for confounding factors. The contribution of H pylori infection to higher copper concentrations needs to be confirmed by additional studies.

  3. Body composition, dietary intake, and iron status of female collegiate swimmers and divers.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Heidi L; Peterson, C Ted; Reddy, Manju B; Hanson, Kathy B; Swain, James H; Sharp, Rick L; Alekel, D Lee

    2006-06-01

    This study determined the effect of training on body composition, dietary intake, and iron status of eumenorrheic female collegiate swimmers (n = 18) and divers (n = 6) preseason and after 16 wk of training. Athletes trained on dryland (resistance, strength, flexibility) 3 d/wk, 1.5 h/d and in-water 6 d/wk, nine, 2-h sessions per week (6400 to 10,000 kJ/d). Body-mass index (kg/m2; P = 0.05), waist and hip circumferences (P < or = 0.0001), whole body fat mass (P = 0.0002), and percentage body fat (P < or = 0.0001) decreased, whereas lean mass increased (P = 0.028). Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, we found no change in regional lean mass, but fat decreased at the waist (P = 0.0002), hip (P = 0.0002), and thigh (P = 0.002). Energy intake (10,061 +/- 3617 kJ/d) did not change, but dietary quality improved with training, as reflected by increased intakes of fiber (P = 0.036), iron (P = 0.015), vitamin C (P = 0.029), vitamin B-6 (P = 0.032), and fruit (P = 0.003). Iron status improved as reflected by slight increases in hemoglobin (P = 0.046) and hematocrit (P = 0.014) and decreases in serum transferrin receptor (P < or = 0.0001). Studies are needed to further evaluate body composition and iron status in relation to dietary intake in female swimmers.

  4. Iron, Hepcidin and Inflammatory Status of Young Healthy Overweight and Obese Women in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hoi Lun; Bryant, Christian E.; Rooney, Kieron B.; Steinbeck, Katharine S.; Griffin, Hayley J.; Petocz, Peter; O’Connor, Helen T.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Evidence suggests obesity-related inflammation alters iron metabolism potentially increasing the risk of iron deficiency. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate iron, hepcidin and inflammatory status in young, healthy overweight and obese women. Methods 114 young (18–25 years), healthy comorbidity-free women with a body mass index (BMI) ≥27.5 kg/m2 were recruited. Biochemical data were analysed using mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range) and multivariate modelling. Biochemical markers were also stratified according to varying degrees of overweight and obesity. Results Anaemia (haemoglobin <120 g/l) and iron deficiency (serum ferritin <15.0 µg/l) were prevalent in 10% and 17% of participants respectively. Mean/median soluble transferrin receptor was 1.61±0.44 mg/l; hepcidin 6.40 (7.85) ng/ml and C-reactive protein (CRP) 3.58 (5.81) mg/l. Multivariate modelling showed that BMI was a significant predictor of serum iron (coefficient = -0.379; standard error = 0.139; p = 0.008), transferrin saturation (coefficient = -0.588; standard error = 0.222; p = 0.009) and CRP (coefficient = 0.127; standard error = 0.024; p<0.001). Stratification of participants according to BMI showed those with ≥35.0 kg/m2 had significantly higher CRP (p<0.001) than those in lower BMI categories. Conclusions Increasing obesity was associated with minor disturbances in iron metabolism. However, overall outcomes indicated simple iron deficiency (hypoferritinaemia) was the primary iron-related abnormality with no apparent contribution of inflammation or hepcidin, even in those with BMI >35.0 kg/m2. This indicates that obesity alone may not be sufficient to induce clinically significant disturbances to iron metabolism as previously described. This may be attributed to the lack of comorbidity in this cohort. PMID:23861932

  5. Anthracycline cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kobrinsky, N L; Ramsay, N K; Krivit, W

    1982-01-01

    Life-threatening irreversible cardiomyopathy is a major complication of anthracycline therapy, particularly in the pediatric population. The pediatric cardiologist, in concert with the primary oncologist, should therefore play a major role in the care of patients receiving these agents and in clinical trials involving their use. Many risk factors and their relationships to drug pharmacokinetics, mechanisms of action, and toxicity have been identified. These data provide a rational basis for present-day recommendations regarding anthracycline administration and dosage scheduling. They furthermore provide potential avenues for clinical investigation aimed at improving the therapeutic index of these agents: alpha-tocopherol, cytochrome Q10, and other free radical scavengers may decrease the deleterious effects of free radical generation on the myocardium without apparent interference with tumoricidal effect. The cardiac glycosides may decrease cardiac toxicity by specific myocardial exclusion. Anthracycline analogs have been designed to specifically inhibit myocardial binding and/or free radical generation. Clinical trials involving these agents are difficult to interpret because of variability in front end risk factors and dosage schedules in the study population. Furthermore, the relatively low (5 to 10%) incidence of affected patients implies the need for large numbers to demonstrate a statistically significant benefit. Pediatric protocols addressing these issues are urgently needed. Guidelines for present-day management and future studies are outlined.

  6. Dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Robert G; Semsarian, Christopher; Macdonald, Peter

    2017-02-09

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is defined by the presence of left ventricular dilatation and contractile dysfunction. Genetic mutations involving genes that encode cytoskeletal, sarcomere, and nuclear envelope proteins, among others, account for up to 35% of cases. Acquired causes include myocarditis and exposure to alcohol, drugs and toxins, and metabolic and endocrine disturbances. The most common presenting symptoms relate to congestive heart failure, but can also include circulatory collapse, arrhythmias, and thromboembolic events. Secondary neurohormonal changes contribute to reverse remodelling and ongoing myocyte damage. The prognosis is worst for individuals with the lowest ejection fractions or severe diastolic dysfunction. Treatment of chronic heart failure comprises medications that improve survival and reduce hospital admission-namely, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and β blockers. Other interventions include enrolment in a multidisciplinary heart failure service, and device therapy for arrhythmia management and sudden death prevention. Patients who are refractory to medical therapy might benefit from mechanical circulatory support and heart transplantation. Treatment of preclinical disease and the potential role of stem-cell therapy are being investigated.

  7. Inherited cardiomyopathies mimicking arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jason D; Veinot, John P; Rutberg, Julie; Gollob, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) represents an inherited cardiomyopathy that manifests clinically with malignant ventricular arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death, and less commonly heart failure. The condition is characterized by replacement of the myocardium, primarily of the right ventricle, with fibrofatty tissue. Extensive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium has been previously thought to be pathognomonic of ARVC; however, this report details two other forms of inherited cardiomyopathy, namely hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and the PRKAG2 cardiac syndrome, that were found to have significant fibrofatty myocardial replacement at pathologic examination. This report represents the first documentation of inherited cardiomyopathies mimicking ARVC and highlights the concept that other cardiac conditions can be associated with fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlation of 4-month infant feeding modes with their growth and iron status in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yu-hua; Ji, Cheng-ye; Zheng, Xiu-xia; Shan, Jin-ping; Hou, Rui

    2008-03-05

    Growth and development of infants has been an important topic in pediatrics for a long time. Infants must be provided with food containing all necessary nutrients. Breast milk is believed to be the most desirable natural and cheapest food for well-balanced nutrition. But with the progress in the development of substitute food in developed countries, it is thought that formula milk can meet the requirement for infant growth. During early infancy, growth, as the most sensitive index of health, is therefore a critical component in evaluating the adequacy of breast-feeding, mixed-feeding and formula feeding. Iron status is another important index of infant health. Iron deficiency anemia remains the most prevalent nutritional deficiency index in infants worldwide. This study is to compare infants in Beijing at 4 months who are on three different feeding modes (breast feeding, mixed feeding and formula feeding) in physical changes and iron status. The results may provide new mothers with support in feeding mode selection, which will also be helpful to the China Nutrition Association in feeding mode education. This is a cohort study. One thousand and one normal Beijing infants were followed regularly for 12 months. Body weight and horizontal length were measured. Hemoglobin, red blood cell counts, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and serum iron were analyzed at 4 months. The breast feeding percentage in the first 4 months was 47.9%. The feeding mode was not significantly related to maternal delivery age, education, labor pathway nor infant sex (P>0.05). Infant boys and girls exclusively breast-fed from 0 to 4 months had the highest weight at 0-6 months. The anemia rate of breast-fed infant boys at 4 months was the highest. Breast feeding should be given more emphasis. It is compulsory for new mothers to breast-feed their infants if possible. Social environment should also guarantee the requirement for breast feeding. Furthermore the normal values of

  9. Beneficial effects of quercetin-iron complexes on serum and tissue lipids and redox status in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Imessaoudene, Asmahan; Merzouk, Hafida; Berroukeche, Farid; Mokhtari, Nassima; Bensenane, Bachir; Cherrak, Sabri; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed; Elhabiri, Mourad

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is characterized by iron deficiency, carbohydrate and fat alterations as well as oxidative stress. Iron status monitoring is recommended because of the conventional oral iron preparations that frequently exacerbate the already present oxidative stress. Iron complexation by natural antioxidants can be exploited. We herein investigated the metabolic effects of quercetin (25 mg/kg/day), iron (2.5 mg Fe/kg/day) or quercetin-iron complexes (molar ratio 5:1; 25 mg/2.5 mg/kg/day) in animal models of obesity. Our results emphasized that obese rats displayed metabolic alterations that were worsened by iron supplementation. In contrast, quercetin used alone or as iron complex clearly prevented adipose fat accumulation and alleviated the hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, liver steatosis and oxidative stress. In addition, it induced a modulation of lipase activities in obese rats. Interestingly, quercetin-iron complexes showed enhanced beneficial effects such as a corrected iron deficiency in obese rats when compared to quercetin alone. In conclusion, antianemic, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of the quercetin-iron complexes shed a light on their beneficial use against obesity-related metabolic alterations.

  10. Iron and zinc status of young women aged 14 to 19 years consuming vegetarian and omnivorous diets.

    PubMed

    Donovan, U M; Gibson, R S

    1995-10-01

    To assess the iron and zinc status of young females, aged 14 to 19 years, consuming vegetarian and omnivorous diets. Dietary intakes (via 3-day weighed food records), BMI, and laboratory indices of iron and zinc status were compared in a convenience sample of 79 lacto-ovo-vegetarians (LOV), 16 semi-vegetarians (SV), and 29 omnivorous (OM) females. Twenty-nine percent LOV, 44% SV, and 17% OM had low iron stores (i.e., plasma ferritin < 12 micrograms/L); only 3% had anemia. As well, 24% LOV, 33% SV, and 18% OM had serum zinc < 10.71 mumol/L and 14% LOV, 14% SV, and 17% OM had hair zinc < 1.68 mumol/g. Intakes of iron and ascorbic acid from the weighed food records were associated with serum iron (p < 0.04) and total iron binding capacity (negatively; p < 0.02), respectively, whereas Phy:Zn molar ratios were associated with serum zinc (negatively; p < 0.04). Z-scores for BMI were associated with serum zinc (p < 0.02) and diet type (p < 0.001); serum AP activity was associated with age (p < 0.0001) and oral contraceptive use (p < 0.04). Suboptimal iron and zinc status was attributed to low intakes of poorly available iron and zinc in all dietary groups.

  11. Distortion of iron status indices by acute inflammation in older hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Cunietti, Ettore; Chiari, Maria Maddalena; Monti, Massimo; Engaddi, Ilaria; Berlusconi, Aurelia; Neri, Maria Cristina; De Luca, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The relation between acute inflammation and biochemical indices of iron and nutritional status in older in-patients have been investigated. Thirty-nine consecutive patients (25 men and 14 women; median age 79 years) with acute inflammation episode were evaluated. C-reactive protein (CRP) > or = 3 mg/dl was considered to indicate acute inflammation. Iron and nutritional status were explored measuring hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), mean erythrocyte volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and serum levels of iron (Fe), transferrin (T), percentage transferrin saturation (%TS), ferritin (SF), albumin (Alb) and pre-albumin (pre-Alb), the day after admission (T-basal), the day of onset of inflammation (T0), and successively (T5, T8-15, and T-final). CRP and WBC were significantly higher at T0 than T-basal (CRP: +1014%, P < 0.01; WBC: +30%, P < 0.01) but had reduced on days T8-15 compared to T0 (CRP: -90%, P < 0.01; WBC: -26%, P < 0.01). Fe serum levels fell at the beginning of the acute phase (T0: -24% versus T-basal; P < 0.01), but had recovered at T-final (+36% versus T5; P < 0.01). T levels also varied significantly (P < 0.01) (T0: -16% versus T-basal; T-final: +18% versus T5). SF was slightly higher than normal at T-basal and increased further during inflammation (+41% at T5 versus T-basal) to reduce at T-final (-36% versus T5; P < 0.01). At T-final, pre-Alb and Alb were significantly higher than at T5 (pre-Alb +63%, P < 0.01; Alb +20%, P < 0.05). The indices of iron status are disrupted in elderly patients during acute inflammation, just as they are in chronic inflammation, and cannot therefore be used to diagnose sideropenic anemia. The only variables not influenced by inflammation are MCV and %TS. Low values of these, associated with other symptoms of anemia, suggest sideropenic anemia, irrespective of the values of the other indices of iron status. With the appearance of inflammation, nutritional indices

  12. New parameters and reference values for monitoring iron status in Middle Eastern adolescent male athletes.

    PubMed

    Voss, S C; Varamenti, E; Elzain Elgingo, M; Bourdon, P C

    2014-04-01

    Hematological and biochemical parameters of 160 Middle Eastern adolescent male athletes (aged from 12-18 years) were tested in order to investigate their iron status and to establish reference values for this population. A focus of this study was also the investigation of Reticulocyte hemoglobin (RetHe) and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR). Complete blood count, reticulocyte and sera parameters were analyzed at the beginning of the training season for these adolescent athletes. As the diagnosis of iron deficiency in adolescents is extremely difficult subjects were subdivided in three age groups (12-13, 14-15, 16-18). For most of the parameters our results confirmed the existing reference values reported in young athletes. Exceptions were however found with lower Mean Cell Volumes (79.9±4.3 fl) in this group when compared to other age matched data. RetHe, ferritin and sTfR levels were monitored for the interpretation of the iron status in this population and reference values for these parameters were also established. Information to help evidence based decision making about the need for supplementation or further investigations is provided to physicians and nutritionists. RetHe with a proposed threshold value of 25 pg expands the list of parameters which can be used to monitor athletes.

  13. Iron, zinc, copper and magnesium nutritional status in Mexican children aged 1 to 11 years.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ruán, Ma del Carmen; Villalpando, Salvador; García-Guerra, Armando; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Robledo-Pérez, Ricardo; Avila-Arcos, Marco Antonio; Rivera, Juan A

    2012-01-01

    To describe the micronutrient nutritional status of a national sample of 1-11 year old Mexican children surveyed in 2006 in National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2006) and their association with dietary and sociodemographic factors. Serum samples were used (n=5 060) to measure the concentrations of ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc, copper and magnesium. Prevalence of deficiencies in 1-4 and 5-11y old children were for iron (using low ferritin) 26.0 and 13.0%; zinc, 28.1 and 25.8%, respectively; and copper, ≈30% in both age groups. Magnesium low serum concentrations (MLSC), were found in 12.0% and 28.4% of the children, respectively. Being beneficiary of Liconsa (OR=0.32; C.I.95%, 0.17-0.61) or belonging to higher socioeconomic status (OR=0.63; C.I.95%, 0.41-0.97) were protective against iron deficiency. Increasing age (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 1.19-1.32) and living in the Central Region (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 0.36-0.97) were protective against MLSC. Deficiencies of iron and zinc are serious public health problems in Mexican children.

  14. Iron status of the Pakistani population-current issues and strategies.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed; Ahmed, Anwaar; Ahmad, Asif; Ali, Zulfiqar; Riaz, Muhammad; Ismail, Tariq

    2013-01-01

    The present review aims to highlight the magnitude of iron status of Pakistani population and possible remedies to address iron deficiency among vulnerable groups. A computer-based search was carried out on "PubMed", "Google Search" and "Sciencedirect.com" to retrieve relevant scientific literature published in the last two decades. The search yielded 193 articles, of which 64 were culled and further screening was performed based on the type of vulnerable population groups, age, sex and pregnancy. A thorough review of current literature reveals that iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) widely persist in Pakistan and necessitate immediate remedial actions. Females of reproductive age and children under 5 years have been shown to be the most IDA affected population segment. Fortification of wheat flour has been suggested as the most viable approach aptly matching Pakistan's needs for combating IDA. The present review further stresses the need for global involvement to scale up efforts for mitigating ID and IDA to achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that are fundamentally based upon improving nutritional wellbeing of populations in developing economies by 2015.

  15. Duration of exclusive breast-feeding and infant iron and zinc status in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Eneroth, Hanna; El Arifeen, Shams; Persson, Lars-Ake; Kabir, Iqbal; Lönnerdal, Bo; Hossain, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2009-08-01

    There is a concern that exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) for 6 mo may lead to iron and zinc deficiency in low-birth weight (LBW) infants. We assessed the association between duration of EBF and infant iron and zinc status in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab trial, Bangladesh, stratified for normal birth weigh (NBW) and LBW. Duration of EBF was classified into EBF <4 mo and EBF 4-6 mo based on monthly recalls of foods introduced to the infant. Blood samples collected at 6 mo were analyzed for plasma zinc (n = 1032), plasma ferritin (n = 1040), and hemoglobin (Hb) (n = 791). Infants EBF 4-6 mo had a higher mean plasma zinc concentration (9.9 +/- 2.3 micromol/L) than infants EBF <4mo (9.5 +/- 2.0 micromol/L) (P < 0.01). This association was apparent in only the NBW strata and was not reflected in a lower prevalence of zinc deficiency. Duration of EBF was not associated with concentration of plasma ferritin, Hb concentration, or prevalence of iron deficiency or anemia in any strata. Regardless of EBF duration, the prevalence of zinc deficiency, iron deficiency, and anemia was high in infants in this population and strategies to prevent deficiency are needed.

  16. Effect of Spirulina maxima Supplementation on Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, and Zinc Status in Obese Patients with Treated Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, J; Szulińska, M; Tinkov, A A; Bogdański, P

    2016-09-01

    The effects of Spirulina maxima supplementation on calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc status were studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 50 obese subjects with treated hypertension, each randomized to receive 2 g of spirulina or a placebo daily for 3 months. At baseline and after treatment, the calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc concentration in plasma was assessed. It was found that 3 months of S. maxima supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in the iron level in the plasma of obese patients. In conclusion, this is the first clinical study on the influence of spirulina supplementation on mineral status in obese patients with hypertension. Spirulina supplementation affects the iron status of obese Caucasians with well-treated hypertension.

  17. [Classification of cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Asakura, Masanori; Kitakaze, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a group of cardiovascular diseases with poor prognosis. Some patients with dilated cardiomyopathy need heart transplantations due to severe heart failure. Some patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy die unexpectedly due to malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Various phenotypes of cardiomyopathies are due to the heterogeneous group of diseases. The classification of cardiomyopathies is important and indispensable in the clinical situation. However, their classification has not been established, because the causes of cardiomyopathies have not been fully elucidated. We usually use definition and classification offered by WHO/ISFC task force in 1995. Recently, several new definitions and classifications of the cardiomyopathies have been published by American Heart Association, European Society of Cardiology and Japanese Circulation Society.

  18. Neonatal dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Soares, Paulo; Rocha, Gustavo; Pissarra, Susana; Soares, Henrique; Flôr-de-Lima, Filipa; Costa, Sandra; Moura, Cláudia; Dória, Sofia; Guimarães, Hercília

    2017-03-01

    Cardiomyopathies are rare diseases of the heart muscle, of multiple causes, that manifest with various structural and functional phenotypes but are invariably associated with cardiac dysfunction. Dilated cardiomyopathy is the commonest cardiomyopathy in children, and the majority present before one year of age. Its etiology may be acquired or genetic. Myocarditis is an important cause and is responsible for the majority of acquired cases. Inherited (familial) forms of dilated cardiomyopathy may occur in 25-50% of patients. Echocardiographic and tissue Doppler studies are the basis for diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy in most patients. Marked dilatation of the left ventricle with global hypokinesis is the hallmark of the disease. This review will cover the classification, epidemiology and management of newborns with dilated cardiomyopathy. In particular, a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the genetic study of dilated cardiomyopathy and of detailed echocardiographic assessment of these patients will be presented.

  19. Iron and vitamin status biomarkers and its association with physical fitness in adolescents: the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Valtueña, Jara; Ortega, Francisco B; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Breidenassel, Christina; Ferrari, Marika; Molnar, Dénes; Widhalm, Kurt; de Henauw, Stefaan; Kafatos, Anthony; Diaz, Ligia E; Gottrand, Frédéric; Maiani, Giuseppe; Stehle, Peter; Castillo, Manuel J; Moreno, Luis A; González-Gross, Marcela

    2012-08-15

    There is a lack of studies that analyze the association between micronutrient-related biomarker status and physical fitness in adolescents. In the present study, biochemical parameters for iron and vitamin status were studied, along with objective measures of physical fitness in healthy male and female European adolescents. One thousand eighty-nine adolescents (580 girls, 12.5-17.5 yr) from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) cross-sectional study were included. Hierarchical linear models were performed to determine the associations between micronutrient biomarkers and physical fitness. Age, seasonality, latitude, body mass index, menarche (in girls), and physical activity were used as covariates. For cardiorespiratory fitness, concentrations of hemoglobin, retinol, and vitamin C in male adolescents and β-carotene and 25(OH)D in female adolescents were associated with maximal oxygen consumption. For muscular fitness, concentrations of hemoglobin, β-carotene, retinol, and α-tocopherol in male adolescents and β-carotene and 25(OH)D in female adolescents were associated with better performance of the standing long jump test. In summary, concentrations of hemoglobin and most antioxidant vitamins in male adolescents and β-carotene and 25(OH)D in female adolescents were positively associated with cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, after controlling for relevant confounders. The associations between physical fitness and iron or vitamin status observed in this cross-sectional study in adolescents should be followed up by a study specifically designed to evaluate causal relationships.

  20. Characterization and Differentiation of Iron Status in Anemic Very Low Birth Weight Infants Using a Diagnostic Nomogram

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, David C.; Widness, John A.; Haiden, Nadja; Berger, Angelika; Hayde, Michael; Pollak, Arnold; Herkner, Kurt R.

    2009-01-01

    Background In the early weeks of life, very low birth weight (VLBW) infants experience intense laboratory blood sampling leading to clinically significant anemia and the need for red blood cell transfusion. Although controversial, treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) and iron has been recommended to stimulate erythropoiesis; optimal dosing of EPO and iron is still uncertain. Objectives: To assess the validity of a four-quadrant diagnostic plot of iron availability (ferritin index) versus iron demand for erythropoiesis (reticulocyte hemoglobin content, CHr) for differentiating iron status in anemic VLBW infants. Methods Study subjects were enrolled in a previously reported randomized controlled trial of clinically stable VLBW infants <31 weeks’ gestation and <1,300 g at birth to receive 18 days of treatment with: group 1: oral iron; group 2: EPO + oral iron, and group 3: EPO + intravenous + oral iron. Results At the end of treatment the ferritin index was significantly higher in both EPO groups compared to the control group. By day 18, CHr of the control group declined into the quadrant of the diagnostic plot characteristic of functional iron deficiency and anemia of chronic disease. Both EPO groups ended in the quadrants that are characteristic for latent iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, respectively. Conclusions The diagnostic plot for differentiating anemia in VLBW infants may be an informative, clinically useful tool for iron status assessment under different physiologic and therapeutic erythropoietic states. Larger additional studies in difficult patient populations are needed before the clinical utility of this diagnostic procedure can be unequivocally confirmed. PMID:18776731

  1. [The dynamics of indicators of selenium, glutathione and anti-oxidant defense of blood in patients with anemic cardiomyopathy against the background of treatment with preparations of iron and selenium].

    PubMed

    Goncharova, E V; Govorin, A V; Scherbakova, O A; Chistiakova, M V

    2015-02-01

    The study was carried out on samplings of 46 patients with asiderotic anemia of severe degree and complicated by cardiomyopathy and 16 healthy persons. The content of selenium was analyzed using I.I. Nazarenko technique of detection of mass concentration GOST 19413-89. The content of glutathione in blood was detected using the technique based on capacity of acid-soluble thiol aggregations at interaction with 5,5-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzene) acid to form a colored compound--thio-2-nitrobenzene acid. The principle of technique of measurement of activity of glutathione peroxidase of blood ervthrocvtes is in capacity of peroxide hydrogen to form a resistant colored complex with molybdenum salts. The technique of detection of activity of glutathione peroxidase is based on its capacity to catalyze reaction of interaction of reduced glutathione with tretbutyl hydro peroxide and on capacity of glutathione reductase to catalyze NADFN-dependent reduction of oxidated glutathione. The principle of technique of detection of activity of superoxiddismutase is based on capacity of enzyme to suppress reaction of reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium with superoxide anion-radical generated in vitro in the system xanthine-xanthineoxidase. The study established decreasing of content of selenium in blood of patients with anemic cardiomyopathy up to 1.8 times as compared with control group. The content of total glutathione in blood of patients was decreased up to 17.7% at the expense of decreasing of level of reduced glutathione up to 18.5%. The study established decreasing of activity of catalase in erythrocytes up to 1.3 times, glutathione peroxidase up to 2.5 times, glutathione reductase up to 2.1 times and superoxiddismutase up to 1.5 times as compared with control group. After the preparations of iron and selenium ware applied to patients with anemic cardiomyopathy the increase of level of selenium in blood up to 80.4% was established. The level of total glutathione increased up to 54

  2. Iron status of schoolchildren (6–15 years) and associated factors in rural Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ayogu, Rufina N. B.; Okafor, Adaobi M.; Ene-Obong, Henrietta N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Schoolchildren are vulnerable to anaemia because of their higher iron need to meet the demands of puberty and adolescence. Objective The survey determined the haemoglobin levels of schoolchildren aged 6–15 years and the factors affecting their haemoglobin status. Design Data were obtained through a cross sectional survey of 450 randomly selected schoolchildren in Ede-Oballa, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. Ninety were selected for clinical examination, biochemical tests, and nutrient intake study. Haemoglobin, malaria, and stool analysis were carried out by the cyanmethaemoglobin, thin blood film, and wet mount direct methods, respectively. Iron intake was determined by a three-day weighed food intake. Results Results showed that the schoolchildren had pallor (35.6%), brittle hair (31.1%), koilonychia (2.2%), oedema (4.4%) and sore/smooth tongue (7.8%). The children also had malaria (58.9%) and Entamoeba histolytica (42.2%), hookworm (36.7%), tapeworm (35.6%), whipworm (34.5%), and roundworm (27.9%) infestations. Iron intake was inadequate (<100% of recommended nutrient intake) for most of the children. The mean haemoglobin levels of the schoolchildren were low. The 6–9, 10–12, and 13–15 year olds had 9.0, 9.1, and 9.3 g/dl, respectively. Most (85.5%) of them had anaemia. Moderate anaemia was prevalent in 62.2%. Severe anaemia affected the 6–9 year olds more. Malaria (P<0.001), Entamoeba histolytica (P<0.01), hookworm (P<0.05), tapeworm (P<0.01), and whipworm (P<0.001) caused significant reduction in haemoglobin level. Age (b=1.284, P<0.05), birth order (b=−0.629, P<0.01), frequency of illness attack (b=−1.372, P<0.01), household size (b=−0.526, P<0.05), and frequency of skipping breakfast (b=−1.542, P<0.001) were factors that influenced the haemoglobin status of the children. Conclusion The schoolchildren had poor iron status as a result of consumption of plant sources of iron with low bioavailability, parasitic infections, birth order

  3. The nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 of Buddhist vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yujin; Krawinkel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 in vegetarians were assessed and compared with those of non- vegetarians in Korea. The vegetarian subjects were 54 Buddhist nuns who ate no animal source food except for dairy products. The non-vegetarians were divided into two groups: 31 Catholic nuns and 31 female college students. Three-day dietary records were completed, and the blood samples were collected for analyzing a complete blood count, and serum levels of ferritin, folate, and vitamin B-12. There was no difference in hemoglobin among the diet groups. The serum ferritin and hematocrit levels of vegetarians did not differ from that of non- vegetarian students with a high intake of animal source food but low intake of vitamin C, and the levels were lower than that of non-vegetarian Catholic nuns with a modest consumption of animal source food and a high intake of vitamin C. The serum vitamin B-12 levels of all subjects except one vegetarian and the serum folate levels of all subjects except one non-vegetarian student fell within a normal range. In vegetarians, there was a positive correlation between the vitamin C intake and serum ferritin levels as well as between the laver intake and serum vitamin B-12 levels. In order to achieve an optimal iron status, both an adequate amount of iron intake and its bioavailability should be considered. Sufficient intake of vegetables and fruits was reflected in adequate serum folate status. Korean laver can be a good source of vitamin B-12 for vegetarians.

  4. Iron status and self-perceived health, well-being, and fatigue in female university students living in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kathryn L; Conlon, Cathryn A; Kruger, Rozanne; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Matthys, Christophe; Coad, Jane; Stonehouse, Welma

    2012-02-01

    To determine the relationship between iron depletion and self-perceived health, well-being, and fatigue in a female university student population living in New Zealand. A total of 233 women aged 18-44 years studying at Massey University, Auckland, were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Serum ferritin (SF), hemoglobin (Hb), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analyzed from a venipuncture blood sample. Participants completed the SF-36v2 General Health Survey (SF-36) and the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form (MFSI-SF) questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements (height and weight) and data on demographics, lifestyle, and medical history were obtained. Characteristics of iron-sufficient (SF ≥ 20 μg/L, Hb ≥ 120 g/L) and iron-depleted (SF < 20 μg/L, Hb ≥ 120 g/L) participants were compared, and multiple regression analyses were carried out to determine predictors of health, well-being, and fatigue using a p value of <0.01 to indicate statistical significance because multiple comparisons were being made. There were no significant differences in self-perceived health and well-being determined using the SF-36 questionnaire between women who were iron sufficient and women who were iron depleted. Although MFSI-SF physical fatigue was significantly lower in those with iron depletion (p = 0.008), it was not predicted by current iron status in a multivariate model controlling for factors expected to be associated with iron status and fatigue (p = 0.037). However, smoking, a history of suboptimal iron status, and having a current medical condition were significant (negative) predictors of MFSI-SF physical fatigue, explaining 22.5% of the variance (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the other measures of fatigue determined using the MFSI-SF between women who were iron sufficient and those who were iron depleted. Women with iron depletion did not differ significantly from women who were iron sufficient with regard to self

  5. Nutritional status of iron in children from 6 to 59 months of age and its relation to vitamin A deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sales, Márcia Cristina; Paiva, Adriana de Azevedo; de Queiroz, Daiane; Araújo França Costa, Renata; Lins da Cunha, Maria Auxiliadora; Figueroa Pedraza, Dixis

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the iron nutritional status of children from 6 to 59 months of age and its relation to vitamin A deficiency. Cross-sectional study involving 100 children, living in nine cities in the state of Paraíba, which were selected for convenience to form two study groups: children with vitamin A deficiency (serum retinol < 0.70 μmol/L; n = 50) and children without vitamin A deficiency (serum retinol ≥ 0.70 μmol/L; n = 50). The iron nutritional status was evaluated by biochemical, haematological and hematimetric indices. The cases of subclinical infection (C-Reactive Protein ≥ 6 mg/L) were excluded. Children with vitamin A deficiency had serum iron values statistically lower than the corresponding values in children without deficiency. The other iron nutritional status indices showed no statistical difference according to presence/absence of vitamin A deficiency. The interaction between iron and vitamin A deficiencies was evidenced in the case of circulating iron deficiency (serum iron), suggesting failure in the transport mechanisms of the mineral in children with vitamin A deficiency. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Pregnancy, cardiomyopathies, and genetics.

    PubMed

    Van Tintelen, J Peter; Pieper, Petronella G; Van Spaendonck-Zwarts, Karin Y; Van Den Berg, Maarten P

    2014-03-15

    Although familial forms of cardiomyopathy such as hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy have been recognized for decades, it is only recently that much of the genetic basis of these inherited cardiomyopathies has been elucidated. This has provided important insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the disease phenotype. This increased knowledge and the availability of genetic testing has resulted in increasing numbers of mutation carriers who are being monitored, including many who are now of child-bearing age. Pregnancy is generally well tolerated in asymptomatic patients or mutation carriers with inherited cardiomyopathies. However, since pregnancy leads to major physiological changes in the cardiovascular system, in women with genetic cardiomyopathies or who carry a mutation pre-disposing to a genetic cardiomyopathy, pregnancy entails a risk of developing heart failure and/or arrhythmias. This deterioration of cardiac function may occur despite optimal medical treatment. Advanced left ventricular dysfunction, poor functional class (NYHA class III or IV), or prior cardiac events appear to increase the risk of maternal cardiac complications. However, there are no large series of cardiomyopathy patients who are regularly evaluated for cardiac complications during pregnancy and for certain types of inherited cardiomyopathy, only case reports on individual pregnancies are available. Pre-conception cardiologic evaluation and genetic counselling are important for every woman with a cardiomyopathy or a cardiomyopathy-related mutation who is considering having a family. In this article, we give an overview of the basic clinical aspects, genetics, and pregnancy outcome in women with different types of inherited cardiomyopathies. We also discuss the genetic aspects of pregnancy-associated cardiomyopathy, including peripartum cardiomyopathy.

  7. Influence of iron status on risk of maternal or neonatal infection and on neonatal mortality with an emphasis on developing countries.

    PubMed

    Brabin, Loretta; Brabin, Bernard J; Gies, Sabine

    2013-08-01

    Infection is a major cause of neonatal death in developing countries. This review investigates whether host iron status affects the risk of maternal and/or neonatal infection, potentially contributing to neonatal death, and summarizes the iron acquisition mechanisms described for pathogens causing stillbirth, preterm birth, and congenital infection. In vitro evidence shows that iron availability influences the severity and chronicity of infections that cause these negative outcomes of pregnancy. In vivo evidence is lacking, as relevant studies of maternal iron supplementation have not assessed the effect of iron status on the risk of maternal and/or neonatal infection. Reducing iron-deficiency anemia among women is beneficial and should improve the iron stores of babies; moreover, there is evidence that iron status in young children predicts the risk of malaria and, possibly, the risk of invasive bacterial diseases. Caution with maternal iron supplementation is indicated in iron-replete women who may be at high risk of exposure to infection, although distinguishing between iron-replete and iron-deficient women is currently difficult in developing countries, where a point-of-care test is needed. Further research is indicated to investigate the risk of infection relative to iron status in mothers and babies in order to avoid iron intervention strategies that may result in detrimental birth outcomes in some groups of women. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

  8. Iron status of one-year-olds and association with breast milk, cow's milk or formula in late infancy.

    PubMed

    Thorisdottir, Asa V; Ramel, Alfons; Palsson, Gestur I; Tomassson, Helgi; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-09-01

    Studies on iron status in infancy and early childhood have shown contradicting results concerning prolonged breast-feeding and cow's milk intake. The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between iron status among one-year-olds and feeding, with focus on the type of milk. Randomly selected healthy infants were prospectively investigated until 1 year of age in two cohorts born 1995-1996 (n = 114) and 2005 (n = 140). Information on birth data, feeding and growth until 12 months and iron status at 12 months was collected. Data from the two cohorts were pooled and the infants categorized into three groups according to their predominant milk consumption at 9 months of age, that is, breast milk, cow's milk or follow-on formula. The prevalence of iron deficiency was highest in the cow's milk group and lowest in the follow-on formula group. According to a linear model, adjusted for gender, birth weight and exclusive breast-feeding duration, cow's milk consumption was negatively associated with serum ferritin (SF) and formula positively, but breast milk not. Predicted SF (μg/l) = 11.652(intercept) - 5.362(boy) + 0.005 × birth weight (g) + 2.826(exclusively breastfed ≥ 4 months) + 0.027 × formula (ml) - 0.022 × cow's milk (ml) + 0.005 × breast milk (ml). Correction for other dietary factors did not change these results. In this pooled analysis, cow's milk intake in late infancy associated negatively, and follow-on formula positively, with iron status. Prolonged partial breast-feeding does not seem to be of importance for iron status. Fortified food seems to improve iron status in late infancy.

  9. Successful reversal of propionic acidaemia associated cardiomyopathy: evidence for low myocardial coenzyme Q10 status and secondary mitochondrial dysfunction as an underlying pathophysiological mechanism.

    PubMed

    Baruteau, J; Hargreaves, I; Krywawych, S; Chalasani, A; Land, J M; Davison, J E; Kwok, M K; Christov, G; Karimova, A; Ashworth, M; Anderson, G; Prunty, H; Rahman, S; Grünewald, S

    2014-07-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a rare complication in propionic acidaemia (PA). Underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood. We present a child of Pakistani consanguineous parents, diagnosed with late-onset PA at 18months of age. He presented a mild phenotype, showed no severe further decompensations, normal growth and psychomotor development on a low protein diet and carnitine supplementation. At 15years, a mildly dilated left ventricle was noticed. At 17years he presented after a 2-3month history of lethargy and weight loss with severe decompensated dilated cardiomyopathy. He was stabilised on inotropic support and continuous haemofiltration; a Berlin Heart biventricular assist device was implanted. He received d,l-hydroxybutyrate 200mg/kg/day, riboflavin and thiamine 200mg/day each and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Myocardial biopsy showed endocardial fibrosis, enlarged mitochondria, with atypical cristae and slightly low respiratory chain (RC) complex IV activity relative to citrate synthase (0.012, reference range 0.014-0.034). Myocardial CoQ10 was markedly decreased (224pmol/mg, reference range 942-2738), with a marginally decreased white blood cell level (34pmol/mg reference range 37-133). The dose of CoQ10 was increased from 1.5 to 25mg/kg/day. Cardiomyopathy slowly improved allowing removal of the external mechanical cardiac support after 67days. We demonstrate for the first time low myocardial CoQ10 in cardiomyopathy in PA, highlighting secondary mitochondrial impairment as a relevant causative mechanism. According to these findings, a high-dose CoQ10 supplementation could be a potential adjuvant therapeutic to be considered in PA-related cardiomyopathy.

  10. Iron status biomarkers and C-reactive protein in children aged 19 to 72 months in Chile.

    PubMed

    Brito, Alex; Hertrampf, Eva; Olivares, Manuel

    2013-03-01

    The Chilean Ministry of Health has combated iron deficiency through the delivery of fortified milk by the National Complementary Feeding Program (NCFP). To assess iron status and associations between biomarkers of iron status and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) in 218 beneficiaries of the NCFP aged 19 to 72 months in Santiago and Valparaiso, Chile. Blood was collected from a cross-sectional representative sample. Iron status (measured by hemoglobin, zinc protoporphyrin, and serum ferritin levels) and inflammation (according to CRP level) were determined. Serum CRP level was positively associated with serum ferritin and zinc protoporphyrin levels (r = 0.16 and r = 0.15; p = .0168 and p = .0290, respectively). Serum ferritin was higher among children with high CRP (> 10 mg/dL) than among those with low CRP (< or = 10 mg/dL) (p = .003). After adjustment for 10, 6, and 5 mg/L CRP, the prevalence of low serum ferritin changed from 56.4% without adjustment to 60.6%, 61.5%, and 42.7%, respectively, and the prevalence of high zinc protoporphyrin changed from 22.9% to 21.6%, 17.4%, and 17.9%, respectively. There were no differences between regions in biomarkers of iron status. There was no association between consumption of fortified milk and the prevalence of abnormal serum ferritin (< 15 microg/L) after adjustment for sex, age, and breastfeeding (OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.01; p = .288). After adjustment for 10 mg/L CRP, 5.5% were classified as having iron-deficiency anemia, 42.7% as having iron-deficiency erythropoiesis, 17.9% as having depleted iron stores, and 35.8% as having normal iron status. CONCLUSIONS. CRP level was positively associated with: serum ferritin and zinc protoporphyrin levels. Chilean children aged 19 to 72 months from Santiago and Valparaiso who were beneficiaries of the NCFP had a low prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia, a high prevalence of iron-deficiency erythropoiesis, and a moderate prevalence of depleted iron stores.

  11. Ventricular hypertrophy in cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Oakley, C

    1971-01-01

    Semantic difficulties arise when hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy is seen without obstruction and with congestive failure, and also when congestive cardiomyopathy is seen with gross hypertrophy but without heart failure. Retention of a small left ventricular cavity and a normal ejection fraction characterizes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy at all stages of the disorder. Congestive cardiomyopathy is recognized by the presence of a dilated left ventricular cavity and reduced ejection fraction regardless of the amount of hypertrophy and the presence or not of heart failure. Longevity in congestive cardiomyopathy seems to be promoted when hypertrophy is great relative to the amount of pump failure as measured by increase in cavity size. Conversely, death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is most likely when hypertrophy is greatest at a time when outflow tract obstruction has been replaced by inflow restriction caused by diminishing ventricular distensibility. Hypertrophy is thus beneficial and compensatory in congestive cardiomyopathy, whereas it may be the primary disorder and eventual cause of death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Reasons are given for believing that hypertension may have been the original cause of left ventricular dilatation in some case of congestive cardiomyopathy in which loss of stroke output thenceforward is followed by normotension. Development of severe hypertension in these patients after recovery from a prolonged period of left ventricular failure with normotension lends weight to this hypothesis. No fault has been found in the large or small coronary arteries in either hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or congestive cardiomyopathy when they have been examined in life by selective coronary angiography, or by histological methods in biopsy or post-mortem material. Coronary blood supply may be a limiting factor in the compensatory hypertrophy of congestive cardiomyopathy, and the ability to hypertrophy may explain the better prognosis of some

  12. Status of neurocognitive and oxidative stress conditions in iron-steel workers.

    PubMed

    Malekirad, Ali Akbar; Mirabdollahi, Mansuoreh; Pilehvarian, Ali Asghar; Nassajpour, Ali Reza; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine oxidative stress status as well as ferrous (Fe) and Copper (Cu) levels in blood, neurocognitive impairment, and clinical markers in iron-steel workers. A comparative cross-sectional analysis was performed in 50 iron-steel workers who have been in contact with Fe and Cu in comparison with a control group containing 50 healthy subjects in the same age group and sex. Blood levels of lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity, Fe, and Cu along with neurocognitive impairment were measured in workers and controls. Clinical examination was accomplished to record any abnormal sign or symptoms. Comparing with controls, the workers showed higher blood levels of lipid peroxidation and Cu and also a lower total antioxidant capacity. There was a positive correlation between work history and interstitial lung disease that strengths the presumption to progress to chronic obstructive lung disease in future. The results indicate that exposure to a combination of Fe and Cu in iron-steel workers induces oxidative stress. Especially, in the present case, toxic effect of Cu has been more than positive effects of Fe, but the combined exposure resulted in no such critical toxicity.

  13. Household Food Insecurity, Mother's Feeding Practices, and the Early Childhood's Iron Status.

    PubMed

    Salarkia, Nahid; Neyestani, Tirang R; Omidvar, Nasrin; Zayeri, Farid

    2015-01-01

    Health consequences of food insecurity among infants and toddlers have not been fully examined. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between household food insecurity, mother's infant feeding practices and iron status of 6-24 months children. In this cross-sectional study, 423 mother-child pairs were randomly selected by multistage sampling method. Children blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations. Household food security was evaluated using a validated Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. The mother's feeding practices were evaluated using Infant and Young Child Feeding practice variables including: The duration of breastfeeding and the time of introducing of complementary feeding. Based on the results, of the studied households only 47.7% were food secure. Mild and moderate-severe household food insecurity was 39.5% and 12.8%, respectively. Anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia were seen in 29.1%, 12.2%, and 4.8% of children, respectively. There was no significant association between household food insecurity; mother's feeding practices and child ID with or without anemia. We found no association between household food insecurity and the occurrence of anemia in the 6-24 months children. However, these findings do not rule out the possibility of other micronutrient deficiencies among the food-insecure household children.

  14. Iron, folacin, vitamin B/sub 12/ and zinc status and immune response in the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Henry-Christian, J.R.; Johnson, A.A.; Walters, C.S.; Greene, E.J.; Lindsey, A.A.

    1986-03-01

    The relationships of iron, folacin, vitamin B/sub 12/ and zinc status to cell-mediated immune response were investigated among 125 healthy, elderly persons (60-87 years of age). Plasma ferritin, plasma and red cell folate, and plasma vitamin B/sub 12/ levels were assayed immuno-radiometrically. Plasma and hair zinc levels were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Immune response was determined by transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes after stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (con A), and in mixed lymphocyte reaction. Deficiencies of iron, folacin vitamin B/sub 12/ and zinc were each associated (independently) with significantly lower lymphocyte responses to PHA and con A, and mixed lymphocyte reaction (P < 0.01). These findings indicate a depression of cell-mediated immunity in elderly persons deficient in iron, folacin, vitamin B/sub 12/ or zinc. Further, they suggest that deficiencies of these nutrients may play a role in the depression of cell-mediated immunity with age, which in turn may lead to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases and cancer in the elderly.

  15. Household Food Insecurity, Mother's Feeding Practices, and the Early Childhood's Iron Status

    PubMed Central

    Salarkia, Nahid; Neyestani, Tirang R.; Omidvar, Nasrin; Zayeri, Farid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health consequences of food insecurity among infants and toddlers have not been fully examined. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between household food insecurity, mother's infant feeding practices and iron status of 6–24 months children. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 423 mother-child pairs were randomly selected by multistage sampling method. Children blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations. Household food security was evaluated using a validated Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. The mother's feeding practices were evaluated using Infant and Young Child Feeding practice variables including: The duration of breastfeeding and the time of introducing of complementary feeding. Results: Based on the results, of the studied households only 47.7% were food secure. Mild and moderate-severe household food insecurity was 39.5% and 12.8%, respectively. Anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia were seen in 29.1%, 12.2%, and 4.8% of children, respectively. There was no significant association between household food insecurity; mother's feeding practices and child ID with or without anemia. Conclusions: We found no association between household food insecurity and the occurrence of anemia in the 6–24 months children. However, these findings do not rule out the possibility of other micronutrient deficiencies among the food-insecure household children. PMID:26445633

  16. Inflammation profile in overweight/obese adolescents in Europe: an analysis in relation to iron status.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, M; Cuenca-García, M; Valtueña, J; Moreno, L A; Censi, L; González-Gross, M; Androutsos, O; Gilbert, C C; Huybrechts, I; Dallongeville, J; Sjöström, M; Molnar, D; De Henauw, S; Gómez-Martínez, S; de Moraes, A C F; Kafatos, A; Widhalm, K; Leclercq, C

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between inflammatory parameters (CRP, c-reactive protein; AGP, α1-acid glycoprotein), iron status indicators (SF, serum ferritin; sTfR, soluble transferrin receptor) and body mass index (BMI) z-score, fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) in European adolescents. Differences in intake for some nutrients (total iron, haem and non-haem iron, vitamin C, calcium, proteins) were assessed according to BMI categories, and the association of nutrient intakes with BMI z-score, FM and FFM was evaluated. A total of 876 adolescents participating in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence-Cross Sectional Study were included in the study sample. Mean CRP values (standard error; s.e.) were significantly higher in overweight/obese adolescents (1.7±0.3 and 1.4±0.3 mg/l in boys and girls, respectively) than in thin/normal-weight adolescents (1.1±0.2 and 1.0±0.1 mg/l in boys and girls, respectively) (P<0.05). For boys, mean SF values (s.e.) were significantly higher in overweight/obese adolescents (46.9±2.7 μg/l) than in thin/normal-weight adolescents (35.7±1.7 μg/l) (P<0.001), whereas median sTfR values did not differ among BMI categories for both boys and girls. Multilevel regression analyses showed that BMI z-score and FM were significantly related to CRP and AGP (P<0.05). Dietary variables did not differ significantly among BMI categories, except for the intake of vegetable proteins, which, for boys, was higher in thin/normal-weight adolescents than in overweight/obese adolescents (P<0.05). The adiposity of the European adolescents was sufficient to cause chronic inflammation but not sufficient to impair iron status and cause iron deficiency.

  17. Human viral cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Maisch, Bernhard; Ristic, Arsen D; Portig, Irene; Pankuweit, Sabine

    2003-01-01

    Viral infection of the heart is relatively common, usually asymptomatic and has a spontaneous and complete resolution. It can, however, in rare cases, lead to substantial cardiac damage, development of viral cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. Viral cardiomyopathy is defined as viral persistence in a dilated heart. It may be accompanied by myocardial inflammation and then termed inflammatory viral cardiomyopathy (or viral myocarditis with cardiomegaly). If no inflammation is observed in the biopsy of a dilated heart (<14 lymphocytes and macrophages/mm ) the term viral cardiomyopathy or viral persistence in dilated cardiomyopathy should be applied. The diagnosis of myocarditis and viral cardiomyopathy can be made only by endomyocardial biopsy, implementing the WHO/WHF criteria, and PCR techniques for identification of viral genome. The most frequent cardiotropic viruses detected by endomyocardial biopsy are Parvo B19, enteroviruses, adenoviruses, cytomegalovirus, and less frequently Epstein-Barr virus, and influenza virus.

  18. The effect of wheat prebiotics on the gut bacterial population and iron status of iron deficient broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a lot of interest in improving gut health, and consequently increasing Fe absorption, by managing the colonic microbial population. This is traditionally done by the consumption of probiotics, live microbial food supplements. However, an alternative, and often very effective approach, is the consumption of food ingredients known as prebiotics. Fructans and arabinoxylans are naturally occurring non-digestible oligosaccharides in wheat that exhibit prebiotic properties and may enhance intestinal iron (Fe) absorption. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of prebiotics from wheat on Fe bioavailability in vitro (Caco-2 cells) and in vivo (broiler chickens, Gallus gallus). Methods In the current study, the effect of intra-amniotic administration of wheat samples extracts at 17 d of embryonic incubation on the Fe status and possible changes in the bacterial population in intestinal content of broiler hatchlings were investigated. A group of 144 eggs were injected with the specified solution (1 ml per egg) into the amniotic fluid. Immediately after hatch (21 d) and from each treatment group, 10 chicks were euthanized and their small intestine, liver and cecum were removed for relative mRNA abundance of intestinal Fe related transporters, relative liver ferritin amounts and bacterial analysis of cecal content, respectively. Results The in vivo results are in agreement with the in vitro observations, showing no differences in the hatchling Fe status between the treatment groups, as Fe bioavailability was not increased in vitro and no significant differences were measured in the intestinal expression of DMT1, Ferroportin and DcytB in vivo. However, there was significant variation in relative amounts of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the intestinal content between the treatments groups, with generally more bifidobacteria being produced with increased prebiotic content. Conclusions In this study we showed that prebiotics naturally

  19. The effect of wheat prebiotics on the gut bacterial population and iron status of iron deficient broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tako, Elad; Glahn, Raymond P; Knez, Marija; Stangoulis, James Cr

    2014-06-13

    Currently, there is a lot of interest in improving gut health, and consequently increasing Fe absorption, by managing the colonic microbial population. This is traditionally done by the consumption of probiotics, live microbial food supplements. However, an alternative, and often very effective approach, is the consumption of food ingredients known as prebiotics. Fructans and arabinoxylans are naturally occurring non-digestible oligosaccharides in wheat that exhibit prebiotic properties and may enhance intestinal iron (Fe) absorption. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of prebiotics from wheat on Fe bioavailability in vitro (Caco-2 cells) and in vivo (broiler chickens, Gallus gallus). In the current study, the effect of intra-amniotic administration of wheat samples extracts at 17 d of embryonic incubation on the Fe status and possible changes in the bacterial population in intestinal content of broiler hatchlings were investigated. A group of 144 eggs were injected with the specified solution (1 ml per egg) into the amniotic fluid. Immediately after hatch (21 d) and from each treatment group, 10 chicks were euthanized and their small intestine, liver and cecum were removed for relative mRNA abundance of intestinal Fe related transporters, relative liver ferritin amounts and bacterial analysis of cecal content, respectively. The in vivo results are in agreement with the in vitro observations, showing no differences in the hatchling Fe status between the treatment groups, as Fe bioavailability was not increased in vitro and no significant differences were measured in the intestinal expression of DMT1, Ferroportin and DcytB in vivo. However, there was significant variation in relative amounts of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the intestinal content between the treatments groups, with generally more bifidobacteria being produced with increased prebiotic content. In this study we showed that prebiotics naturally found in wheat grains/bread products

  20. [Desmin-related cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Rybakova, M G; Kuznetsova, I A; Gudkova, A Ia; Kostareva, A A; Semernin, E N

    2011-01-01

    The observation of 26 years old patient with desminopathy declared itself by hypertrophied cardiomyopathy with its transformation into restrictive phenotype is presented. The features of pathologic course at the patient were a dominance and diversity of cardiac manifestations. Endomyocardiac biopsy allowed suspecting the desminopathy confirmed by genetic analysis. Morphological features of desmin-related cardiomyopathy were irregular desmin conglomerates mainly located under sarcolemma and an indirect histological signs of idiopathic cardiomyopathy as well nuclear polymorphism, perinuclear "nimbus", chaotic located myofibrils.

  1. Micronutrient status in female university students: iron, zinc, copper, selenium, vitamin B12 and folate.

    PubMed

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2014-11-13

    Young women are at an increased risk of micronutrient deficiencies, particularly due to higher micronutrient requirements during childbearing years and multiple food group avoidances. The objective of this study was to investigate biomarkers of particular micronutrients in apparently healthy young women. Female students (n = 308; age range 18-35 year; Body Mass Index 21.5 ± 2.8 kg/m2; mean ± SD) were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Blood samples were obtained from participants in the fasted state and analysed for biomarkers of iron status, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine, selenium, zinc, and copper. The results show iron deficiency anaemia, unspecified anaemia, and hypoferritinemia in 3%, 7% and 33.9% of participants, respectively. Low vitamin B12 concentrations (<120 pmol/L) were found in 11.3% of participants, while 4.7% showed sub-clinical deficiency based on serum methylmalonic acid concentrations >0.34 μmol/L. Folate concentrations below the reference range were observed in 1.7% (serum) or 1% (erythrocytes) of participants, and 99.7% of the participant had erythrocyte-folate concentrations >300 nmol/L. Serum zinc concentrations <10.7 μmol/L were observed in 2% of participants. Serum copper and selenium concentrations were below the reference range in 23% and 11% of participants, respectively. Micronutrient deficiencies including iron and vitamin B12, and apparent excess of folate are present in educated Australian female students of childbearing age, including those studying nutrition. The effects of dietary behaviours and food choices on markers of micronutrient status require further investigation.

  2. Micronutrient Status in Female University Students: Iron, Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Vitamin B12 and Folate

    PubMed Central

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Young women are at an increased risk of micronutrient deficiencies, particularly due to higher micronutrient requirements during childbearing years and multiple food group avoidances. The objective of this study was to investigate biomarkers of particular micronutrients in apparently healthy young women. Female students (n = 308; age range 18–35 year; Body Mass Index 21.5 ± 2.8 kg/m2; mean ± SD) were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Blood samples were obtained from participants in the fasted state and analysed for biomarkers of iron status, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine, selenium, zinc, and copper. The results show iron deficiency anaemia, unspecified anaemia, and hypoferritinemia in 3%, 7% and 33.9% of participants, respectively. Low vitamin B12 concentrations (<120 pmol/L) were found in 11.3% of participants, while 4.7% showed sub-clinical deficiency based on serum methylmalonic acid concentrations >0.34 μmol/L. Folate concentrations below the reference range were observed in 1.7% (serum) or 1% (erythrocytes) of participants, and 99.7% of the participant had erythrocyte-folate concentrations >300 nmol/L. Serum zinc concentrations <10.7 μmol/L were observed in 2% of participants. Serum copper and selenium concentrations were below the reference range in 23% and 11% of participants, respectively. Micronutrient deficiencies including iron and vitamin B12, and apparent excess of folate are present in educated Australian female students of childbearing age, including those studying nutrition. The effects of dietary behaviours and food choices on markers of micronutrient status require further investigation. PMID:25401503

  3. [Nutritional status, iron, copper, and zinc in school children of shantytowns of Sao Paulo].

    PubMed

    Santos, Elisabete B; Amancio, Olga M S; Oliva, Carlos A G

    2007-01-01

    To assess the anthropometry, body composition and iron, copper and zinc nutritional status, according to gender, of institutionalized children and adolescents living in two shantytowns in the city of Sao Paulo. A cross sectional study using weight, height, arm circumference, skinfolds, electrical bioimpedance, Z scores for the relationships: height to age, body mass index, middle-upper arm circumference, muscle area of the arm and fat area of the arm was carried out; the body fat and lean mass percentages were analyzed according to the formulas proposed by Siri and Slaughter. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron ferritin, copper and zinc were determined. Body weight, middle-upper arm circumference, triceps and subescapular skinfolds, electric resistance, Z scores of the arm area, muscle area of the arm, and body fat percentage of girls were higher in relation to boys. Low stature was found in 8% of the girls and in 5.6% of the boys, without differences according to gender. There was a lower prevalence of malnutrition (2% of the girls and 5.6% of the boys), than of overweight and obesity (30% and 11.2%, respectively). Anemia was observed in 24.4% and iron deficiency in 10.5% of the schoolchildren with or without anemia. Values were below the lower limit of the reference standard for serum copper and zinc, respectively, for 3 and 7 individuals. In the studied population, institutionalized and of low social economic level, a process of nutritional transition and high prevalence of anemia takes place which does not result from an interaction of iron, copper and zinc.

  4. Multi-micronutrient-fortified biscuits decreased the prevalence of anaemia and improved iron status, whereas weekly iron supplementation only improved iron status in Vietnamese school children.

    PubMed

    Hieu, Nguyen Trung; Sandalinas, Fanny; de Sesmaisons, Agnès; Laillou, Arnaud; Tam, Nguyen Phuong; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Bruyeron, Olivier; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Berger, Jacques

    2012-10-28

    In Vietnam, nutrition interventions do not target school children despite a high prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies. The present randomised, placebo-controlled study evaluated the impact of providing school children (n 403) with daily multiple micronutrient-fortified biscuits (FB) or a weekly Fe supplement (SUP) on anaemia and Fe deficiency. Micronutrient status was assessed by concentrations of Hb, and plasma ferritin (PF), transferrin receptor (TfR), Zn and retinol. After 6 months of intervention, children receiving FB or SUP had a significantly better Fe status when compared with the control children (C), indicated by higher PF (FB: geometric mean 36·9 (95% CI 28·0, 55·4) μg/l; SUP: geometric mean 46·0 (95% CI 33·0, 71·7) μg/l; C: geometric mean 34·4 (95% CI 15·2, 51·2) μg/l; P < 0·001) and lower TfR concentrations (FB: geometric mean 5·7 (95% CI 4·8, 6·52) mg/l; SUP: geometric mean 5·5 (95% CI 4·9, 6·2) mg/l; C: geometric mean 5·9 (95% CI 5·1, 7·1) mg/l; P = 0·007). Consequently, body Fe was higher in children receiving FB (mean 5·6 (sd 2·2) mg/kg body weight) and SUP (mean 6·1 (sd 2·5) mg/kg body weight) compared with the C group (mean 4·2 (sd 3·3) mg/kg body weight, P < 0·001). However, anaemia prevalence was significantly lower only in the FB group (1·0%) compared with the C group (10·4%, P = 0·006), with the SUP group being intermediate (7·4%). Children receiving FB had better weight-for-height Z-scores after the intervention than children receiving the SUP (P = 0·009). Vitamin A deficiency at baseline modified the intervention effect, with higher Hb concentrations in vitamin A-deficient children receiving FB but not in those receiving the SUP. This indicates that vitamin A deficiency is implicated in the high prevalence of anaemia in Vietnamese school children, and that interventions should take other deficiencies besides Fe into account to improve Hb concentrations. Provision of biscuits fortified with multiple

  5. The relationship of hookworm infection, anaemia and iron status in a Papua New Guinea highland population and the response to treatment with iron and mebendazole.

    PubMed

    Shield, J M; Vaterlaws, A L; Kimber, R J; Payne, R; Casey, G J; Blunden, R W; Kutkaite, D

    1981-03-01

    In 345 apparently healthy Papua New Guinea male subjects, predominantly highlanders, 89% of whom were infected with hookworm (Necator americanus), there was a statistically significant inverse correlation of hookworm egg count with haemoglobin and serum ferritin level, but no significant correlation with serum albumin, folate or B12 values. A sub-group of 128 was chosen for a six-month study on the effect of treatment with the anthelmintic mebendazole and/or parenteral iron on haemoglobin and serum ferritin levels. Mebendazole-treated subjects remained worm-free and the hookworm egg counts of the controls decreased during the study period. Parenteral iron treatment had the expected effect of raising haemoglobin to a normal level. There was a statistically significant improvement in haemoglobin level in all treated groups but not in the control. Serum ferritin levels decreased significantly in all groups, but more in the control than in the treated groups, although treatment groups were not significantly different. Although probable inadequate uptake of iron by the subjects and blood donation by some subjects was apparently more detrimental to iron status than hookworm infection, the results of this study support the view that hookworm infection in this country contributes to lowered haemoglobin levels and iron status.

  6. Nickel sulphate and epoxy resin: differences in iron status and glutathione redox ration at the time of patch testing.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sirje; Zilmer, Mihkel; Eisen, Maigi; Rehema, Aune; Kullisaar, Tiiu; Vihalemm, Tiiu; Zilmer, Kersti

    2004-05-01

    The reactive patch test reaction is a useful model to characterize oxidative stress in acute allergic contact dermatitis. This model was used to study oxidative stress in the skin of individuals allergic to nickel and epoxy resin. The study included six and five patients, respectively, whose skin was simultaneously biopsied from a positive patch test site and from an apparently healthy area. The biopsies were homogenized and used for determination of iron content, unbound iron binding capacity, diene conjugate levels, and glutathione redox ratio. A positive test reaction to 5% nickel sulphate was accompanied by 2.5-fold increase in iron level as compared to apparently healthy skin (P<0.1). The percentage saturation of iron-binding capacity and the glutathione redox ratio were significantly increased (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). Reactive patch test responses to 1% epoxy resin were not accompanied by clear alterations in iron status or glutathione redox ratio. Our investigation showed that apart from oxidative burst caused by accumulation of inflammatory cells, hapten properties might also influence the oxidative stress status of the skin. The high incidence of nickel allergy may be attributed, at least in part, to the influence of nickel ions on the glutathione redox ratio and iron status of the skin.

  7. Iron Status of Pregnant Women in Rural and Urban Communities of Cross River State, South-South Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okafor, I M; Okpokam, D C; Antai, A B; Usanga, E A

    2017-03-06

    Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria. Iron deficiency is one of the major causes of anaemia in pregnancy.  Inadequate iron intake during pregnancy can be dangerous to both baby and mother. Iron status of pregnant women was assessed in two rural and one urban communities in Cross River State Nigeria. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, red cell count, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor and soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin ratio were measured in plasma/serum of 170 pregnant women within the age range of 15-45 years. Seventy participants were from antenatal clinic of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital Calabar (urban community), 50 from St Joseph Hospital Ikot Ene (rural community) in Akpabuyo Local Government Area and the remaining 50 from University of Calabar Teaching Hospital   extension clinic in Okoyong (rural community), Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River state. The prevalence of   anaemia, iron deficiency, iron depletion and iron deficiency anaemia were found to be significantly higher among pregnant women from the two rural communities when compared to the urban community. it was also observed that  the prevalence of  anaemia, iron deficiency, iron depletion and iron deficiency anaemia   were significantly higher (p<0.05) among pregnant women from Akpabuyo   38(76.00%),   20(40.00%),   23(46.0%)   ,   16(32.00%)   respectively followed   by  Okoyong 24(48.0%),  20(40.0%),  16(32.0%),  6(12.0)     and  then  those  from     Calabar  14(20%), 12(17.90%) , 14(20.0%).  The mean haemoglobin and haematocrit were significantly reduced in pregnant women from the two rural communities. Serum iron, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation showed no significant difference while total iron binding capacity and soluble transferrin receptor significantly increased among

  8. Assessment of iron status among preschool children (6 to 59 months) with and without malaria in Western Province, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kisiangani, Isaac; Mbakaya, Charles; Makokha, Anzelimo; Magu, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Iron deficiency is a major public health concern. Globally, iron deficiency ranks number 9 and is responsible for about 60% of all anemia cases among preschool children. In Africa iron deficiency is 43-52% while in Kenya, children under 5 years constitute the largest burden with 69% of them being deficient. There is limited iron deficiency data in Kenya. This study determined haemoglobin levels, serum ferritin levels, nutritional status and P.falciparum malaria infection in preschool children. Methods A household cross sectional study was undertaken among 125 preschoolers in Western province, drawn from 37 clusters. Systematic random sampling was used for sample selection. Data was collected using pretested structured questionnaires, entered in Microsoft package. Data analysis was done in Statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20 using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression and differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. Results The prevalence of iron deficiency (Serum ferritin <12mg/l), anaemia (Hb < 110g/l) and plasmodium falciparum malaria were 20.8%, 25% and 6.8% respectively. There was a significant association between iron deficiency and anaemia (OR = 3.43, 95% CI: 1.33-8.84, p = 0.008). A preschool child with anaemia was 3.43 times likely to be iron deficient compared to a preschool child who was not anaemic. Conclusion Iron deficiency, anaemia and plasmodium falciparum malaria was prevalent among preschool children. The findings revealed a significant association between iron deficiency and anaemia. Therefore effective interventions to improve iron status will have large health benefits by greatly reducing anaemia in preschool children. PMID:26405498

  9. The Effect of Iron Status on Risk of Coronary Artery Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study-Brief Report.

    PubMed

    Gill, Dipender; Del Greco M, Fabiola; Walker, Ann P; Srai, Surjit K S; Laffan, Michael A; Minelli, Cosetta

    2017-09-01

    Iron status is a modifiable trait that has been implicated in cardiovascular disease. This study uses the Mendelian randomization technique to investigate whether there is any causal effect of iron status on risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). A 2-sample Mendelian randomization approach is used to estimate the effect of iron status on CAD risk. Three loci (rs1800562 and rs1799945 in the HFE gene and rs855791 in TMPRSS6) that are each associated with serum iron, transferrin saturation, ferritin, and transferrin in a pattern suggestive of an association with systemic iron status are used as instruments. SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism)-iron status association estimates are based on a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 48 972 individuals. SNP-CAD estimates are derived by combining the results of a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 60 801 CAD cases and 123 504 controls with those of a meta-analysis of 63 746 CAD cases and 130 681 controls obtained from Metabochip and genome-wide association studies. Combined Mendelian randomization estimates are obtained for each marker by pooling results across the 3 instruments. We find evidence of a protective effect of higher iron status on CAD risk (iron odds ratio, 0.94 per SD unit increase; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-1.00; P=0.039; transferrin saturation odds ratio, 0.95 per SD unit increase; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-0.99; P=0.027; log-transformed ferritin odds ratio, 0.85 per SD unit increase; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-0.98; P=0.024; and transferrin odds ratio, 1.08 per SD unit increase; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.16; P=0.034). This Mendelian randomization study supports the hypothesis that higher iron status reduces CAD risk. These findings may highlight a therapeutic target. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Iron-containing micronutrient supplementation of Chinese women with no or mild anemia during pregnancy improved iron status but did not affect perinatal anemia.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zuguo; Serdula, Mary K; Liu, Jian-Meng; Flores-Ayala, Rafael C; Wang, Linlin; Ye, Rongwei; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M

    2014-06-01

    Universal prenatal daily iron-folic acid (IFA) and multiple micronutrient (MM) supplements are recommended to reduce the risk of low birth weight, maternal anemia, and iron deficiency (ID) during pregnancy, but the evidence of their effect on iron status among women with mild or no anemia is limited. The aim of this study was to describe the iron status [serum ferritin (SF), serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and body iron (BI)] before and after micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy. We examined 834 pregnant women with hemoglobin > 100 g/L at enrollment before 20 wk of gestation and with iron measurement data from a subset of a randomized, double-blind trial in China. Women were randomly assigned to take daily 400 μg of folic acid (FA) (control), FA plus 30 mg of iron, or FA, iron, plus 13 additional MMs provided before 20 wk of gestation to delivery. Venous blood was collected in this subset during study enrollment (before 20 wk of gestation) and 28-32 wk of gestation. We found that, at 28-32 wk of gestation, compared with the FA group, both the IFA and MM groups had significantly lower prevalence of ID regardless of which indicator (SF, sTfR, or BI) was used for defining ID. The prevalence of ID at 28-32 wk of gestation for IFA, MM, and FA were 35.3%, 42.7%, and 59.6% by using low SF, 53.6%, 59.9%, and 69.9% by using high sTfR, and 34.5%, 41.2%, and 59.6% by using low BI, respectively. However, there was no difference in anemia prevalence (hemoglobin < 110 g/L) between FA and IFA or MM groups. We concluded that, compared with FA alone, prenatal IFA and MM supplements provided to women with no or mild anemia improved iron status later during pregnancy but did not affect perinatal anemia. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00137744.

  11. mRNA Levels of Placental Iron and Zinc Transporter Genes Are Upregulated in Gambian Women with Low Iron and Zinc Status.

    PubMed

    Jobarteh, Modou Lamin; McArdle, Harry J; Holtrop, Grietje; Sise, Ebrima A; Prentice, Andrew M; Moore, Sophie E

    2017-07-01

    Background: The role of the placenta in regulating micronutrient transport in response to maternal status is poorly understood.Objective: We investigated the effect of prenatal nutritional supplementation on the regulation of placental iron and zinc transport.Methods: In a randomized trial in rural Gambia [ENID (Early Nutrition and Immune Development)], pregnant women were allocated to 1 of 4 nutritional intervention arms: 1) iron and folic acid (FeFol) tablets (FeFol group); 2) multiple micronutrient (MMN) tablets (MMN group); 3) protein energy (PE) as a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS; PE group); and 4) PE and MMN (PE+MMN group) as LNS. All arms included iron (60 mg/d) and folic acid (400 μg/d). The MMN and PE+MMN arms included 30 mg supplemental Zn/d. In a subgroup of ∼300 mother-infant pairs, we measured maternal iron status, mRNA levels of genes encoding for placental iron and zinc transport proteins, and cord blood iron levels.Results: Maternal plasma iron concentration in late pregnancy was 45% and 78% lower in the PE and PE+MMN groups compared to the FeFol and MMN groups, respectively (P < 0.001). The mRNA levels of the placental iron uptake protein transferrin receptor 1 were 30-49% higher in the PE and PE+MMN arms than in the FeFol arm (P < 0.031), and also higher in the PE+MMN arm (29%; P = 0.042) than in the MMN arm. Ferritin in infant cord blood was 18-22% lower in the LNS groups (P < 0.024). Zinc supplementation in the MMN arm was associated with higher maternal plasma zinc concentrations (10% increase; P < 0.001) than in other intervention arms. mRNA levels for intracellular zinc-uptake proteins, in this case zrt, irt-like protein (ZIP) 4 and ZIP8, were 96-205% lower in the PE+MMN arm than in the intervention arms without added zinc (P < 0.025). Furthermore, mRNA expression of ZIP1 was 85% lower in the PE+MMN group than in the PE group (P = 0.003).Conclusion: In conditions of low maternal iron and in the absence of supplemental zinc, the

  12. Effect of consumption of food cooked in iron pots on iron status and growth of young children: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Adish, A A; Esrey, S A; Gyorkos, T W; Jean-Baptiste, J; Rojhani, A

    1999-02-27

    In less-developed countries, novel strategies are needed to control iron-deficiency anaemia, the most common form of malnutrition. We undertook a community-based randomised controlled trial to assess the effects of iron or aluminium cooking pots in young Ethiopian children. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. The primary outcomes were change in children's haemoglobin concentration, weight, or length over the study period. We also did a laboratory study of total and available iron in traditional Ethiopian foods cooked in iron, aluminium, and clay pots. 407 children, one per household, entered the study. The change in haemoglobin concentration was greater in the iron-pot group than in the aluminium-pot group (mean change to 12 months 1.7 [SD 1.5] vs 0.4 [1.0] g/dL; mean difference between groups 1.3 g/dL [95% Cl 1.1-1.6]). The mean differences between the groups in weight and length gain to 12 months (adjusted for baseline weight or length) were 0.6 cm (95% CI 0.1-1.0) and 0.1 kg (-0.1 to 0.3). The laboratory study showed that total and available iron was greatest in foods cooked in iron pots, except for available iron in legumes for which there was no difference between types of pot. Ethiopian children fed food from iron pots had lower rates of anaemia and better growth than children whose food was cooked in aluminium pots. Provision of iron cooking pots for households in less-developed countries may be a useful method to prevent iron-deficiency anaemia.

  13. Positive association between dietary iron intake and iron status in HIV-infected children in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Herculina S; Balk, Lisanne J; Viljoen, Michelle; Meyers, Tammy M

    2013-01-01

    Anemia is a common complication of pediatric HIV infection and is associated with suboptimal cognitive performance and growth failure. Routine iron supplementation is not provided to South African HIV-infected children. We hypothesized that dietary iron intake without supplementation is sufficient to protect against iron deficiency (ID) in HIV-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. In this prospective study, the difference between dietary intakes of iron-deficient children (soluble transferrin receptor >9.4 mg/L) and iron-sufficient children after 18 months on highly active antiretroviral therapy was examined. The association between iron intake and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was also assessed. Longitudinal data collected for 18 months from 58 HIV-infected African children were assessed by generalized estimation equations, with adjustment for demographic information, dietary intakes, growth parameters, and CD4%. After adjustment for covariates, the longitudinal association between dietary iron intake and Hb concentration remained significant. This association shows that for every 1-mg increase in iron intake per day, Hb increases by 1.1 g/L (P < .001). Mean Hb increased significantly after 18 months of follow-up (106 ± 14 to 129 ± 14 g/L, P < .01), but soluble transferrin receptor also increased (7.7 ± 2.7 to 8.9 ± 3.0 mg/L, P < .01). The incidence of ID increased from 15.2% at baseline to 37.2% after 18 months. Children with animal protein intakes greater than >20 g/d had significantly lower odds for ID at 18 months than did children with lower intakes (odds ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.21-0.77). Dietary iron intake was insufficient to protect against ID, pointing to a need for low-dose iron supplementation for iron-deficient HIV-infected children and interventions to increase the consumption of animal protein.

  14. The influence of storage age on iron status, oxidative stress and antioxidant protection in paediatric packed cell units.

    PubMed

    Collard, Keith; White, Desley; Copplestone, Adrian

    2014-04-01

    Receipt of blood transfusions is associated with the major consequences of prematurity such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Transfusion-mediated (iron-induced) oxidative damage, coupled with the limited ability of the premature baby to deal with enhanced iron and oxidative load may contribute to this. Adverse effects of transfusion may be related to duration of storage. This study examined the influence of storage on iron and oxidative status in paediatric packed red blood cell units. Paediatric packed red blood cell units were sampled 3 days post-donation, then at 7 days and weekly until day 35. The extracellular medium was separated and the following measured: total iron concentration, total iron binding capacity, non-transferrin-bound iron, haemoglobin, total and reduced ascorbate, glutathione and malondialdehyde. Measurable total and non-transferrin bound iron were present in the extracellular fluid of paediatric packs on day 3. Both parameters rose almost linearly to maximal values at 35 days. Haemoglobin and malondialdehyde levels rose gradually from day 3 to day 21, then more steeply to day 35. Ascorbate existed mainly in the oxidised form and fell rapidly towards the end of storage. Intracellular GSH fell throughout the period of storage. Strong correlations existed between biomarkers of oxidative damage and iron parameters. These data suggest that iron released following the initial preparation of packed red blood cell units may derive from free radical-mediated oxidative damage to the red blood cells and haemoglobin, rather than from extracellular haemoglobin. Iron continues to be released during storage as antioxidant protection declines. A cycle of free radical-mediated damage may initiate and then further exacerbate iron release during storage which, in turn, may mediate further free radical-mediated cellular damage. The potential consequences to recipients of older stored blood may be significant.

  15. The influence of storage age on iron status, oxidative stress and antioxidant protection in paediatric packed cell units

    PubMed Central

    Collard, Keith; White, Desley; Copplestone, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Background Receipt of blood transfusions is associated with the major consequences of prematurity such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Transfusion-mediated (iron-induced) oxidative damage, coupled with the limited ability of the premature baby to deal with enhanced iron and oxidative load may contribute to this. Adverse effects of transfusion may be related to duration of storage. This study examined the influence of storage on iron and oxidative status in paediatric packed red blood cell units. Materials and methods Paediatric packed red blood cell units were sampled 3 days post-donation, then at 7 days and weekly until day 35. The extracellular medium was separated and the following measured: total iron concentration, total iron binding capacity, non-transferrin-bound iron, haemoglobin, total and reduced ascorbate, glutathione and malondialdehyde. Results Measurable total and non-transferrin bound iron were present in the extracellular fluid of paediatric packs on day 3. Both parameters rose almost linearly to maximal values at 35 days. Haemoglobin and malondialdehyde levels rose gradually from day 3 to day 21, then more steeply to day 35. Ascorbate existed mainly in the oxidised form and fell rapidly towards the end of storage. Intracellular GSH fell throughout the period of storage. Strong correlations existed between biomarkers of oxidative damage and iron parameters. Discussion These data suggest that iron released following the initial preparation of packed red blood cell units may derive from free radical-mediated oxidative damage to the red blood cells and haemoglobin, rather than from extracellular haemoglobin. Iron continues to be released during storage as antioxidant protection declines. A cycle of free radical-mediated damage may initiate and then further exacerbate iron release during storage which, in turn, may mediate further free radical-mediated cellular damage. The potential consequences to recipients of older stored blood may be significant

  16. Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping on iron status in Mexican infants: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, Camila M; Neufeld, Lynnette M; Tena Alavez, Gilberto; Eguia-Líz Cedillo, Raúl; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2006-06-17

    Delayed clamping of the umbilical cord increases the infant's iron endowment at birth and haemoglobin concentration at 2 months of age. We aimed to assess whether a 2-minute delay in the clamping of the umbilical cord of normal-weight, full-term infants improved iron and haematological status up to 6 months of age. 476 mother-infant pairs were recruited at a large obstetrics hospital in Mexico City, Mexico, randomly assigned to delayed clamping (2 min after delivery of the infant's shoulders) or early clamping (around 10 s after delivery), and followed up until 6 months postpartum. Primary outcomes were infant haematological status and iron status at 6 months of age, and analysis was by intention-to-treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00298051. 358 (75%) mother-infant pairs completed the trial. At 6 months of age, infants who had delayed clamping had significantly higher mean corpuscular volume (81.0 fL vs 79.5 fL 95% CI -2.5 to -0.6, p=0.001), ferritin (50.7 mug/L vs 34.4 mug/L 95% CI -30.7 to -1.9, p=0.0002), and total body iron. The effect of delayed clamping was significantly greater for infants born to mothers with low ferritin at delivery, breastfed infants not receiving iron-fortified milk or formula, and infants born with birthweight between 2500 g and 3000 g. A cord clamping delay of 2 minutes increased 6-month iron stores by about 27-47 mg. Delay in cord clamping of 2 minutes could help prevent iron deficiency from developing before 6 months of age, when iron-fortified complementary foods could be introduced.

  17. Association between iron status and white blood cell counts in African schoolchildren of the North-West Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Onabanjo, Oluseye O; Jerling, Johann C; Covic, Namukolo; Van Graan, Averalda; Taljaard, Christine; Mamabolo, Ramoteme L

    2012-09-01

    Iron deficiency with or without anemia is associated with increased susceptibility to infection owing to impaired immune function; this study aimed to examine the associations between markers of iron status and white blood cell counts in African schoolchildren. This cross-sectional study is part of the larger BeForMi study done in the North-West province of South Africa. A total of 556 African schoolchildren (aged 7-10 years) were recruited from the three schools participating in the BeForMi multiple micronutrient intervention study. Demographic information of the children was obtained from their parents/caregivers/guardians in the language of choice using validated questionnaires. Anthropometric indices (weight and height), iron status parameters, hematological parameters (hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), total and differential white blood cell counts) were measured using standard procedures. No significant gender differences were observed in most of the iron markers and hematological parameters except in C-reactive protein (CRP) (p=0.004) and eosinophils (p=0.042) which were higher in boys while RBC (p=0.018) and Hb (p=0.023) levels were higher in girls. No relationships were observed between the different iron markers and differential white blood cell counts. A positive correlation was observed between serum ferritin (SF) and CRP in girls only (r=0.336, p<0.01), and a positive correlation between SF and mean cell volume (MCV) in boys only (r=0.197, p<0.01). In both genders, no correlations were observed between the different iron markers and the differential white blood cell counts. The study revealed no associations between iron status and differential white blood cell counts in children that participated in the BeForMi study calling for more studies to be done in the area of the significance of iron supplementation in healthy children.

  18. Molecular mechanisms in cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Dadson, Keith; Hauck, Ludger; Billia, Filio

    2017-07-01

    Cardiomyopathies represent a heterogeneous group of diseases that negatively affect heart function. Primary cardiomyopathies specifically target the myocardium, and may arise from genetic [hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D), mitochondrial cardiomyopathy] or genetic and acquired [dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM)] etiology. Modern genomics has identified mutations that are common in these populations, while in vitro and in vivo experimentation with these mutations have provided invaluable insight into the molecular mechanisms native to these diseases. For example, increased myosin heavy chain (MHC) binding and ATP utilization lead to the hypercontractile sarcomere in HCM, while abnormal protein-protein interaction and impaired Ca(2+) flux underlie the relaxed sarcomere of DCM. Furthermore, expanded access to genetic testing has facilitated identification of potential risk factors that appear through inheritance and manifest sometimes only in the advanced stages of the disease. In this review, we discuss the genetic and molecular abnormalities unique to and shared between these primary cardiomyopathies and discuss some of the important advances made using more traditional basic science experimentation. © 2017 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  19. The Association between Malaria and Iron Status or Supplementation in Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sangaré, Laura; van Eijk, Anna Maria; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Walson, Judd; Stergachis, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Malaria prevention and iron supplementation are associated with improved maternal and infant outcomes. However, evidence from studies in children suggests iron may adversely modify the risk of malaria. We reviewed the evidence in pregnancy of the association between malaria and markers of iron status, iron supplementation or parenteral treatment. Methods and Findings We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Global Health Library, and the Malaria in Pregnancy library to identify studies that investigated the association between iron status, iron treatment or supplementation during pregnancy and malaria. Thirty one studies contributed to the analysis; 3 experimental and 28 observational studies. Iron supplementation was not associated with an increased risk of P. falciparum malaria during pregnancy or delivery in Africa (summary Relative Risk = 0.89, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.66–1.20, I2 = 78.8%, 5 studies). One study in Asia reported an increased risk of P. vivax within 30 days of iron supplementation (e.g. adjusted Hazard Ratio = 1.75, 95% CI 1.14–2.70 for 1–15 days), but not after 60 days. Iron deficiency (based on ferritin and C-reactive protein) was associated with lower odds for malaria infection (summary Odds Ratio = 0.35, 0.24–0.51, I2 = 59.2%, 5 studies). With the exception of the acute phase protein ferritin, biomarkers of iron deficiency were generally not associated with malaria infection. Conclusions Iron supplementation was associated with a temporal increase in P vivax, but not with an increased risk of P. falciparum; however, data are insufficient to rule out the potential for an increased risk of P. falciparum. Iron deficiency was associated with a decreased malaria risk in pregnancy only when measured with ferritin. Until there is more evidence, it is prudent to provide iron in combination with malaria prevention during pregnancy. PMID:24551064

  20. [Genetic diagnostics for cardiomyopathies].

    PubMed

    Czepluch, Frauke; Wollnik, Bernd; Hasenfuß, Gerd

    2017-05-01

    Cardiomyopathies often have a genetic etiology. New genetic diagnostic strategies based on next generation sequencing (NGS)-approaches will continuously increase our knowledge about the genetic basis of cardiomyopathies within the following years. Diagnostics and therapy of rare, genetically-induced cardiac diseases increasingly require special cardiac and genetic knowledge. Interestingly, mutations in the same gene or even identical gene mutations can be associated with different cardiomyopathy phenotypes and can exhibit incomplete penetrance or variable expressivity. In the future, the correct interpretation and classification of novel gene variants identified in patients with inherited cardiomyopathy forms will represent a great challenge. Genetic counselling and - if appropriate - subsequent genetic testing for cardiomyopathy patients and their asymptomatic relatives is essential for an early diagnosis of the disease, a prognostic evaluation and possibly for the start of preventive or therapeutic measures. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Iron Status and Helicobacter pylori Infection in Symptomatic Children: An International Multi-Centered Study

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Paul R.; Sanderson, Ian R.; Windle, Henry J.; Walker, Marjorie M.; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; Rocha, Gifone Aguiar; Carvalho, Simone Diniz; Bittencourt, Paulo Fernando Souto; de Castro, Lucia Porto Fonseca; Villagrán, Andrea; Serrano, Carolina; Kelleher, Dermot

    2013-01-01

    Objective Iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) are global major public health problems, particularly in developing countries. Whilst an association between H. pylori infection and ID/IDA has been proposed in the literature, currently there is no consensus. We studied the effects of H. pylori infection on ID/IDA in a cohort of children undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for upper abdominal pain in two developing and one developed country. Methods In total 311 children (mean age 10.7±3.2 years) from Latin America - Belo Horizonte/Brazil (n = 125), Santiago/Chile (n = 105) - and London/UK (n = 81), were studied. Gastric and duodenal biopsies were obtained for evaluation of histology and H. pylori status and blood samples for parameters of ID/IDA. Results The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 27.7% being significantly higher (p<0.001) in Latin America (35%) than in UK (7%). Multiple linear regression models revealed H. pylori infection as a significant predictor of low ferritin and haemoglobin concentrations in children from Latin-America. A negative correlation was observed between MCV (r = −0.26; p = 0.01) and MCH (r = −0.27; p = 0.01) values and the degree of antral chronic inflammation, and between MCH and the degree of corpus chronic (r = −0.29, p = 0.008) and active (r = −0.27, p = 0.002) inflammation. Conclusions This study demonstrates that H. pylori infection in children influences the serum ferritin and haemoglobin concentrations, markers of early depletion of iron stores and anaemia respectively. PMID:23861946

  2. Local and systemic signaling of iron status and its interactions with homeostasis of other essential elements

    PubMed Central

    Gayomba, Sheena R.; Zhai, Zhiyang; Jung, Ha-il; Vatamaniuk, Olena K.

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is essential for plant growth and development. However, alkaline soils, which occupy approximately 30% of the world’s arable lands, are considered Fe-limiting for plant growth because insoluble Fe (III) chelates prevail under these conditions. In contrast, high bioavailability of Fe in acidic soils can be toxic to plants due to the ability of Fe ions to promote oxidative stress. Therefore, plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to sense and respond to the fluctuation of Fe availability in the immediate environment and to the needs of developing shoot tissues to preclude deficiency while avoiding toxicity. In this review, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of local and systemic signaling of Fe status with emphasis on the contribution of Fe, its interaction with other metals and metal ligands in triggering molecular responses that regulate Fe uptake and partitioning in the plant body. PMID:26442030

  3. Iron nutritional status of the phytoplankton assemblage in the Okhotsk Sea during summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Takeshi; Nishioka, Jun; Nakatsuka, Takeshi

    2010-11-01

    To clarify the iron (Fe) nutritional status of the phytoplankton assemblage in the Okhotsk Sea, we conducted incubation experiments in summer 2006. Replicate surface seawater samples with the natural plankton community were incubated with three treatments: Fe enrichment; addition of the strong Fe chelator siderophore desferriferrioxime B (DFB) which strips Fe from the biologically accessible pool; and as a control, no addition. To prevent macronutrient limitation, we added surplus nutrients to all treatments. At all 4 stations in Sakhalin Bay near the mouth of the Amur River and around the east of Sakhalin Island, net specific growth rate showed no significant difference between the control and +Fe treatment, and was repressed in +DFB treatment both in large- and small-sized phytoplankton. These findings indicate that these waters contain sufficient bioavailable Fe and that the Amur River plume which is transported by the east Sakhalin current is a major source of the Fe. In the Bussol' Strait, net specific growth rate in the control was significantly higher than +DFB treatment, suggesting a supply of bioavailable Fe through intense vertical mixing at this site. Iron enrichment treatment stimulated the net specific growth rate of large-sized phytoplankton, indicating that Fe still limits the growth for the large-sized phytoplankton assemblage, but not for small-sized phytoplankton, in this area. An index of Fe availability was defined to quantify the degree of ambient Fe availability in each station, and it revealed the spatial variability of ambient Fe availabilities among the sites.

  4. [Gender effect on cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Biagini, Elena; Berardini, Alessandra; Graziosi, Maddalena; Rosmini, Stefania; Pazzi, Chiara; Rapezzi, Claudio

    2012-06-01

    The role of a gender effect (that means differences in clinical manifestations, access to therapies and response to treatments according to gender) in cardiomyopathies remains a matter of debate. Although recent studies have evaluated the differences in the clinical features and prognosis between the two sexes, many issues remain to be elucidated. At present, the only sex-specific condition that affects females is peripartum cardiomyopathy. Recent evidence suggests a pathogenetic role of a prolactin derivative, and ongoing clinical trials are investigating the possibility of targeted therapies using prolactin secretion inhibitors, such as bromocriptine and carbegoline. Although women were considered so far only carriers of X-linked diseases (Anderson-Fabry disease, Danon disease, Hunter syndrome and dystrophinopathies), clinical experience showed a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations in females due to random X chromosome inactivation. Conversely, in mitochondrial diseases (with matrilineal inheritance), cardiomyopathies may occur in the context of clinical multisystemic involvement without significant gender-related differences. Autosomal inherited cardiomyopathies also show different phenotypes and prognostic impact according to gender. The hypothesis of a premenopausal protective role of female hormones towards myocardial involvement has been raised by recent data on transtiretin-related amyloidosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Preexisting cardiomyopathies may affect pregnancy, labor and delivery in women, since all these conditions are associated with important hemodynamic changes. Women with low-risk hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (asymptomatic and without left ventricular outflow tract gradient) usually can tolerate pregnancy. Conversely, women who are symptomatic before pregnancy or have severe hypertrophy with important outflow tract gradient are at higher risk and should be referred to a tertiary center to be evaluated on a case by case basis

  5. Adequacy of Maternal Iron Status Protects against Behavioral, Neuroanatomical, and Growth Deficits in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Attridge, Megan M.; Andrzejewski, Matthew E.; Flentke, George R.; Smith, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are the leading non-genetic cause of neurodevelopmental disability in children. Although alcohol is clearly teratogenic, environmental factors such as gravidity and socioeconomic status significantly modify individual FASD risk despite equivalent alcohol intake. An explanation for this variability could inform FASD prevention. Here we show that the most common nutritional deficiency of pregnancy, iron deficiency without anemia (ID), is a potent and synergistic modifier of FASD risk. Using an established rat model of third trimester-equivalent binge drinking, we show that ID significantly interacts with alcohol to impair postnatal somatic growth, associative learning, and white matter formation, as compared with either insult separately. For the associative learning and myelination deficits, the ID-alcohol interaction was synergistic and the deficits persisted even after the offsprings’ iron status had normalized. Importantly, the observed deficits in the ID-alcohol animals comprise key diagnostic criteria of FASD. Other neurobehaviors were normal, showing the ID-alcohol interaction was selective and did not reflect a generalized malnutrition. Importantly ID worsened FASD outcome even though the mothers lacked overt anemia; thus diagnostics that emphasize hematological markers will not identify pregnancies at-risk. This is the first direct demonstration that, as suggested by clinical studies, maternal iron status has a unique influence upon FASD outcome. While alcohol is unquestionably teratogenic, this ID-alcohol interaction likely represents a significant portion of FASD diagnoses because ID is more common in alcohol-abusing pregnancies than generally appreciated. Iron status may also underlie the associations between FASD and parity or socioeconomic status. We propose that increased attention to normalizing maternal iron status will substantially improve FASD outcome, even if maternal alcohol abuse continues. These

  6. Adequacy of maternal iron status protects against behavioral, neuroanatomical, and growth deficits in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Rufer, Echoleah S; Tran, Tuan D; Attridge, Megan M; Andrzejewski, Matthew E; Flentke, George R; Smith, Susan M

    2012-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are the leading non-genetic cause of neurodevelopmental disability in children. Although alcohol is clearly teratogenic, environmental factors such as gravidity and socioeconomic status significantly modify individual FASD risk despite equivalent alcohol intake. An explanation for this variability could inform FASD prevention. Here we show that the most common nutritional deficiency of pregnancy, iron deficiency without anemia (ID), is a potent and synergistic modifier of FASD risk. Using an established rat model of third trimester-equivalent binge drinking, we show that ID significantly interacts with alcohol to impair postnatal somatic growth, associative learning, and white matter formation, as compared with either insult separately. For the associative learning and myelination deficits, the ID-alcohol interaction was synergistic and the deficits persisted even after the offsprings' iron status had normalized. Importantly, the observed deficits in the ID-alcohol animals comprise key diagnostic criteria of FASD. Other neurobehaviors were normal, showing the ID-alcohol interaction was selective and did not reflect a generalized malnutrition. Importantly ID worsened FASD outcome even though the mothers lacked overt anemia; thus diagnostics that emphasize hematological markers will not identify pregnancies at-risk. This is the first direct demonstration that, as suggested by clinical studies, maternal iron status has a unique influence upon FASD outcome. While alcohol is unquestionably teratogenic, this ID-alcohol interaction likely represents a significant portion of FASD diagnoses because ID is more common in alcohol-abusing pregnancies than generally appreciated. Iron status may also underlie the associations between FASD and parity or socioeconomic status. We propose that increased attention to normalizing maternal iron status will substantially improve FASD outcome, even if maternal alcohol abuse continues. These findings

  7. [Calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc in drinking water and status biomarkers of these minerals among elder people from Warsaw region].

    PubMed

    Madej, Dawid; Kaluza, Joanna; Antonik, Anna; Brzozowska, Anna; Roszkowski, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc contents in drinking water on chosen parameters of nutritional status of these minerals in 164 elder people, 75-80 age, living in Warsaw region. Blood, hair and saliva were collected to assess the calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc nutritional status, while the samples of drinking water were collected to determine these minerals in water Mineral concentrations in blood, hair saliva and water were assessment using the atomic spectrophotometer absorption method It was showed that contribution of drinking water to calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc intake was: 15%, 4%, 5%, 9%, respectively. The relationship between the contents of these minerals in drinking water and their levels in the blood, hair and saliva had low correlation coefficients. It probably showed that homeostasis was maintained in the human body and other factors such as demographic or lifestyle factors were important.

  8. Copper, iron and zinc absorption, retention and status of young women fed vitamin B-6 deficient diets

    SciTech Connect

    Turnlund, J.R.; Keyes, W.R.; Hudson, C.A.; Betschart, A.A.; Kretsch, M.J.; Sauberlich, H.E. Western Regional Research Center, Albany, CA )

    1991-03-11

    A study was conducted in young women to determine the effect of vitamin B-6 deficient diets on copper, iron and zinc metabolism. Young women were confined to a metabolic research unit for 84 and 98 days. They were fed a vitamin B-6 deficient formula diet initially, followed by food diet containing four increasing levels of vitamin B-6. Copper, iron and zinc absorption, retention and status were determined at intervals throughout the study. Absorption was determined using the stable isotopes {sup 65}Cu, {sup 54}Fe, and {sup 67}Zn. Status was based on serum copper and zinc, hemoglobin, hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume. Copper absorption averaged 18 {plus minus} 1% during vitamin B-6 depletion, significantly lower than 24 {plus minus} 1% during repletion, but serum copper was not affected and balance was positive. Iron absorption was not impaired significantly by vitamin B-6 deficient diets, but status declined during the depletion period. Zinc absorption averaged 40 {plus minus} 2% during depletion and 27 {plus minus} 2% during repletion. Zinc absorption and retention were significantly greater during vitamin B-6 depletion, but serum zinc declined suggesting the absorbed zinc was not available for utilization. The results suggest that vitamin B-6 depletion of young women may inhibit copper absorption, affect iron status and alter zinc metabolism. The effects of vitamin B-6 depletion differ markedly among these elements.

  9. Chilean complementary feeding program reduces anemia and improves iron status in children aged 11 to 18 months.

    PubMed

    Brito, Alex; Olivares, Manuel; Pizarro, Tito; Rodríguez, Lorena; Hertrampf, Eva

    2013-12-01

    Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the world, primarily affecting infants, young children, and women of childbearing age. To evaluate the impact of the National Complementary Feeding Program (NCFP) on anemia and iron status in Chilean children aged 11 to 18 months. Two studies were performed. The first study was performed at one public outpatient health center in Santiago, using data collected in 1999 (n = 128) and 2000 (n = 125), before and after the national introduction of iron-fortified milk. Subsequently, a study of a representative sample (n = 320) from the two most populated areas of the country was performed in 2009. One year after fortification, the prevalence of anemia was 9%; significantly lower (p < .001) than the 27% prevalence observed 1 year before. Ten years after fortification, 14% of children were anemic and 77% of children with anemia (12% of all children) suffered from iron-deficiency anemia. In 2009, 11% of children consuming iron-fortified milk delivered by the NCFP (73%) were anemic, significantly lower (p = .028) than the 21% prevalence of anemia observed in children without consumption. Consumption of iron-fortified milk was positively associated with hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.28, p = .022) and was associated with a lower prevalence of anemia after adjusting for confounding factors (odds ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.96). In Chile, the NCFP has had an impact on the reduction of anemia and improved the iron status of children aged 11 to 18 months. Increasing the consumption of this iron-fortified milk could enhance the impact of the NCFP.

  10. POTENTIAL IMPACT ON BLOOD AVAILABILITY AND DONOR IRON STATUS OF CHANGES TO DONOR HEMOGLOBIN CUTOFF AND INTERDONATION INTERVALS

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Bryan R.; Johnson, Bryce; Wright, David J.; Kleinman, Steven; Glynn, Simone A.; Cable, Ritchard G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND A minimum male hemoglobin (Hb) of 13.0 g/dL will become an FDA requirement in May 2016. In addition, extending whole blood (WB) interdonation intervals (IDIs) beyond 8 weeks has been considered in order to reduce iron depletion in repeat blood donors. This study estimates the impact these changes might have on blood availability and donor iron status. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Six blood centers participating in REDS-II collected information on all donation visits from 2006–09. Simulations were developed from these data using a multi-stage approach that first sought to adequately reproduce the patterns of donor return, Hb and ferritin levels, and outcomes of a donor’s visit (successful single or double RBC donation, deferral for low Hb) observed in REDS-II datasets. Modified simulations were used to predict the potential impact on the blood supply and donor iron status under different Hb cutoff and IDI qualification criteria. RESULTS More than 10% of WB donations might require replacement under many simulated scenarios. Longer IDIs would reduce the proportion of donors with iron depletion, but 80% of these donors may remain iron-depleted if minimal IDIs increased to 12 or 16 weeks. CONCLUSION Higher Hb cutoffs and longer IDIs are predicted to have a potentially large impact on collections but only a modest impact on donor iron depletion. Efforts to address iron depletion should be targeted to at-risk donors, such as iron supplementation programs for frequent donors, and policy makers should try to avoid broadly restrictive donation requirements that could substantially reduce blood availability. PMID:27237451

  11. Potential impact on blood availability and donor iron status of changes to donor hemoglobin cutoff and interdonation intervals.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Bryan R; Johnson, Bryce; Wright, David J; Kleinman, Steven; Glynn, Simone A; Cable, Ritchard G

    2016-08-01

    A minimum male hemoglobin (Hb) level of 13.0 g/dL becomes a Food and Drug Administration requirement effective May 2016. In addition, extending whole blood (WB) interdonation intervals (IDIs) beyond 8 weeks has been considered to reduce iron depletion in repeat blood donors. This study estimates the impact these changes might have on blood availability and donor iron status. Six blood centers participating in Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II) collected information on all donation visits from 2006 to 2009. Simulations were developed from these data using a multistage approach that first sought to adequately reproduce the patterns of donor return, Hb and ferritin levels, and outcomes of a donor's visit (successful single- or double-red blood cell donation, deferral for low Hb) observed in REDS-II data sets. Modified simulations were used to predict the potential impact on the blood supply and donor iron status under different Hb cutoff and IDI qualification criteria. More than 10% of WB donations might require replacement under many simulated scenarios. Longer IDIs would reduce the proportion of donors with iron depletion, but 80% of these donors may remain iron-depleted if minimal IDIs increased to 12 or 16 weeks. Higher Hb cutoffs and longer IDIs are predicted to have a potentially large impact on collections but only a modest impact on donor iron depletion. Efforts to address iron depletion should be targeted to at-risk donors, such as iron supplementation programs for frequent donors, and policy makers should try to avoid broadly restrictive donation requirements that could substantially reduce blood availability. © 2016 AABB.

  12. Cardiomyopathy in Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hetzer, Roland; Siegel, Günter; Delmo Walter, Eva Maria

    2016-02-01

    This report aims to evaluate the existence of primary and secondary cardiomyopathy in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) who underwent surgical management for primary cardiovascular sequelae of this genetic disorder. Likewise, we aim to determine whether the myocardium in MFS is susceptible to ischaemia independent of myocardial protection used during surgery. Between April 1986 and May 2012, 421 patients with MFS were surgically treated for cardiovascular manifestations. Among them, 47 (mean age: 39.45 ± 12.64, median: 36, range: 19-66, years) eventually were surgically treated for cardiomyopathy. They were grouped into A: patients who subsequently developed ischaemic cardiomyopathy and eventually underwent coronary revascularization for coronary artery disease (n = 11); B: patients who subsequently developed end-stage cardiomyopathy for which a mechanical circulatory support device was implanted to support the failing heart (n = 13) and C: patients who subsequently developed end-stage cardiomyopathy (n = 23), among whom 21 underwent primary heart transplantation, while 2 patients are still waiting for donor hearts. Retrospective analysis of the medical records of 47 patients revealed the following: In Group A, 3 (27.2%) patients had already existing ischaemic cardiomyopathy before the first various cardiovascular surgeries, while ischaemic cardiomyopathy in the other 8 (72.7%) developed postoperatively. The interval between previous surgery and development of cardiomyopathy was a mean of 8.0 ± 07 years. In Group B, 5 (38.4%) had existing primary cardiomyopathy prior to surgery, while 8 (61.5%) developed end-stage cardiomyopathy postoperatively. The interval between previous surgery and development of cardiomyopathy was a mean of 9.0 ± 4 months. In Group C, 5 (21.7%) had been diagnosed with cardiomyopathy prior to the cardiovascular surgery, while 18 (78.2%) developed end-stage cardiomyopathy postoperatively. The mean interval between previous surgery and

  13. Nutrition in Pediatric Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Tracie L.; Neri, Daniela; Extein, Jason; Somarriba, Gabriel; Strickman-Stein, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Pediatric cardiomyopathies are heterogeneous groups of serious disorders of the heart muscle and are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality among children who have the disease. While enormous improvements have been made in the treatment and survival of children with congenital heart disease, parallel strides have not been made in the outcomes for cardiomyopathies. Thus, ancillary therapies, such as nutrition and nutritional interventions, that may not cure but may potentially improve cardiac function and quality of life, are imperative to consider in children with all types of cardiomyopathy. Growth failure is one of the most significant clinical problems of children with cardiomyopathy with nearly one-third of children with this disorder manifesting some degree of growth failure during the course of their illness. Optimal intake of macronutrients can help improve cardiac function. In addition, several specific nutrients have been shown to correct myocardial abnormalities that often occur with cardiomyopathy and heart failure. In particular, antioxidants that can protect against free radical damage that often occurs in heart failure and nutrients that augment myocardial energy production are important therapies that have been explored more in adults with cardiomyopathy than in the pediatric population. Future research directions should pay particular attention to the effect of overall nutrition and specific nutritional therapies on clinical outcomes and quality of life in children with pediatric cardiomyopathy. PMID:18159216

  14. Genetics of restrictive cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Sen-Chowdhry, Srijita; Syrris, Petros; McKenna, William J

    2010-04-01

    Restrictive physiology, a severe form of diastolic dysfunction, is characteristically observed in the setting of constrictive pericarditis and myocardial restriction. The latter is commonly due to systemic diseases, some of which are inherited as mendelian traits (eg, hereditary amyloidosis), while others are multifactorial (eg, sarcoidosis). When restrictive physiology occurs as an early and dominant feature of a primary myocardial disorder, it may be termed restrictive cardiomyopathy. In the past decade, clinical and genetic studies have demonstrated that restrictive cardiomyopathy as such is part of the spectrum of sarcomeric disease and frequently coexists with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in affected families.

  15. [Anaemia, iron index status and acute phase proteins in malaria (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire)].

    PubMed

    Ahiboh, H; Oga, A S; Yapi, H F; Kouakou, G; Boua, K D; Edjeme, N; Monnet, D

    2008-02-01

    Clinical signs of malaria are the combined expression of several biological mechanisms. During this parasite infection, anaemia can be the consequence of several different pathogenic mechanisms. It can be an acute haemolytic anaemia due to a mechanical and immune action of the parasite or an inflammation. Besides, in Africa malaria matches with iron deficiency area. So, malarial anaemia in tropical area can be a characteristic of iron deficiency The purpose of this survey was to define the features of malarial anaemia and elucidate the link of all biological processes involved. A black population living in tropical urban areas, with fever and diagnosed Plasmodium-infection was assessed. Parasitaemia, haemoglobin, hematocrit, average corpuscular volume and average corpuscular haemoglobin were determined. For each patient, iron index status and acute phase protein were assessed with the plasmatic iron, ferritin, haptoglobin, transferrin and C-reactive protein. Regardless of gender and age, the characteristics of malarial anaemia are microcythaemia and hypochromia. Anaemia occurs as frequently as parasitaemia is high. When parasitaemia is low anaemia gets a haemolytic feature. When parasitaemia is high, anaemia gets haemolytic and inflammatory features. Anaemia occurs more often with a good iron index status.

  16. The effect of vegetarian diets on iron status in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Haider, Lisa M; Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg; Ekmekcioglu, Cem

    2016-11-23

    Vegetarian diets exclude meat, seafood, and products containing these foods. Although the vegetarian lifestyle could lead to a better health status in adults, it may also bear risks for certain nutritional deficiencies. Cross-sectional studies and narrative reviews have shown that the iron status of vegetarians is compromised by the absence of highly bioavailable haem-iron in meatless diets and the inhibiting effect of certain components present in plant foods on non-haem iron bioavailability. The databases Pubmed, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane CentralRegister of Controlled Trials were searched for studies comparing serum ferritin, as the major laboratory parameter for iron status of adult vegetarians with non-vegetarian control groups. A qualitative review was conducted as well as an inverse-variance random-effects meta-analysis to pool available data. In addition the effect of vegetarian diets according to gender was investigated with a subgroup analysis. The results were validated using a sensitivity analysis. A total of 27 cross-sectional studies and three interventional studies were selected for the systematic review. The meta-analysis which combined data of 24 cross-sectional studies showed that adult vegetarians have significantly lower serum ferritin levels than their non-vegetarian controls (-29.71 µg/L, 95% CI [-39.69, -19.73], p < 0.01). Inclusion of semi-vegetarian diets did not change the results considerably (-23.27 µg/L, 95% CI [-29.77, -16.76], p < 0.01). The effects were more pronounced in men (-61.88 µg/L, 95% CI [-85.59, -38.17], p < 0.01) than in both premenopausal women (-17.70 μg/L, 95% CI [-29.80, -5.60], p < 0.01) and all women (-13.50 μg/L, 95% CI [-22.96, -4.04], p < 0.01), respectively. In conclusion our results showed that vegetarians are more likely to have lower iron stores compared with non-vegetarians. However, since high iron stores are also a risk factor for certain non-communicable diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, it is

  17. A micronutrient-fortified food enhances iron and selenium status of Zambian infants but has limited efficacy on zinc.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Rosalind S; Kafwembe, Emmanuel; Mwanza, Sydney; Gosset, Laura; Bailey, Karl B; Mullen, Anne; Baisley, Kathy; Filteau, Suzanne

    2011-05-01

    Micronutrient-fortified, cereal-based infant foods are recommended for reducing multiple micronutrient deficiencies in low-income countries, but their nutritional quality is not always optimal. In a double-blind randomized trial, we compared the efficacy of a locally produced porridge based on maize, beans, bambaranuts, and groundnuts fortified with 19 (rich) or 9 (basal) micronutrients. Infants aged 6 mo from Lusaka, Zambia were randomized to receive the richly fortified (n = 373) or basal (n = 370) porridge daily for 12 mo along with routine vitamin A supplements. Baseline and final micronutrient status and inflammation (based on α-1-glycoprotein) were assessed using nonfasting blood samples. Baseline prevalence of anemia (39%) and zinc deficiency (51%) were a public health concern. There were overall treatment effects on hemoglobin (Hb) (P = 0.001), serum transferrin receptor (P < 0.001), serum ferritin (P < 0.001), and serum selenium (P = 0.009); biomarker responses for iron and zinc were modified by baseline concentrations, and for Hb and iron by socioeconomic status. At 18 mo, the adjusted odds of anemia, iron deficiency anemia (Hb <105 g/L and transferrin receptor > 11.0 mg/L), and iron deficiency were 0.37 (95% CI = 0.25, 0.55), 0.18 (0.09, 0.35), and 0.30 (0.18, 0.50) times those in the basal group, respectively. The rich level of fortification had no overall treatment effect on serum zinc (1.09; 0.66, 1.80) but improved serum zinc in children with lower Hb concentrations at baseline (P = 0.024). A locally produced cereal- and legume-based infant food richly fortified with micronutrients reduced anemia and improved iron and selenium status but may require reformulation to improve the biochemical zinc status of urban Zambian infants.

  18. Mitochondrial Diseases and Cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Brunel-Guitton, Catherine; Levtova, Alina; Sasarman, Florin

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial cardiomyopathies are clinically and genetically heterogeneous. An integrative approach encompassing clinical, biochemical, and molecular investigations is required to reach a specific diagnosis. In this review we summarize the clinical and genetic aspects of mitochondrial disorders associated with cardiomyopathy, including disorders of oxidative phosphorylation. It also describes groups of disorders that, although not usually classified as mitochondrial disorders, stem from defects in mitochondrial function (eg, disorders of β-oxidation and the carnitine cycle), are associated with secondary mitochondrial impairment (eg, organic acidurias), and are important diagnostically because they are treatable. Current biochemical and molecular techniques for the diagnosis of mitochondrial cardiomyopathies are described, and a diagnostic algorithm is proposed, to help clinicians in their approach to cardiomyopathies in the context of mitochondrial diseases.

  19. Takotsubo (Stress) Cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Takotsubo (Stress) Cardiomyopathy Scott W. Sharkey , John R. Lesser , Barry ... heart contraction has returned to normal. Importance of Stress In 85% of cases, takotsubo is triggered by ...

  20. Nutrient intake, serum lipids and iron status of colligiate rugby players

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are two main playing positions in rugby (backs and forwards), which demonstrate different exercise patterns, roles, and physical characteristics. The purpose of this study was: 1) to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise the athletes about nutrition practices that might enhance performance, and 2) to compare serum lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins (apo), lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity, and iron status of forwards and backs. Methods The sporting group was divided into 18 forwards and 16 backs and were compared with 26 sedentary controls. Dietary information was obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. Results There were significant differences among the three groups. The forwards had the highest body weight, body mass index, percentage of body fat (calculated by sum of four skinfold thicknesses), as well as the highest lean body mass, followed by the backs and the control group. The mean carbohydrate intake was marginal and protein intake was lower than the respective recommended targets in all three groups. The mean intakes of calcium, magnesium, and vitamins A, B1, B2, and C were lower than the respective Japanese recommended dietary allowances or adequate dietary intakes for the rugby players. The forwards had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL2-C than the backs and had significantly higher apo B and LCAT activity than the controls. The backs showed significantly higher HDL-C, HDL3-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apo A-I, and LCAT activity than the controls. Four forwards (22%), five backs (31%), and three controls (12%) had hemolysis. None of the rugby players had anemia or iron depletion. Conclusion The findings of our study indicate that as the athletes increased their carbohydrate and protein intake, their performance and lean body mass increased. Further, to increase mineral and vitamin intakes, we recommended athletes increase their

  1. Peripartum cardiomyopathy: a review.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Basra, Sukhdeep Singh; Sen, Priyanka; Kar, Biswajit

    2012-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is idiopathic heart failure occurring in the absence of any determinable heart disease during the last month of pregnancy or the first 5 months postpartum. The incidence varies worldwide but is high in developing nations; the cause of the disease might be a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Diagnostic echocardiographic criteria include left ventricular ejection fraction <0.45 or M-mode fractional shortening <30% (or both) and end-diastolic dimension >2.7 cm/m(2). Electrocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, endomyocardial biopsy, and cardiac catheterization aid in the diagnosis and management of peripartum cardiomyopathy. Cardiac protein assays can also be useful, as suggested by reports of high levels of NT-proBNP, cardiac troponin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interferon-γ, and C-reactive protein in peripartum cardiomyopathy. The prevalence of mutations associated with familial dilated-cardiomyopathy genes in patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy suggests an overlap in the clinical spectrum of these 2 diseases.Treatment for peripartum cardiomyopathy includes conventional pharmacologic heart-failure therapies-principally diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, vasodilators, digoxin, β-blockers, anticoagulants, and peripartum cardiomyopathy-targeted therapies. Therapeutic decisions are influenced by drug-safety profiles during pregnancy and lactation. Mechanical support and transplantation might be necessary in severe cases. Targeted therapies (such as intravenous immunoglobulin, pentoxifylline, and bromocriptine) have shown promise in small trials but require further evaluation. Fortunately, despite a mortality rate of up to 10% and a high risk of relapse in subsequent pregnancies, many patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy recover within 3 to 6 months of disease onset.

  2. Switching Patients with Non-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease from Oral Iron to Intravenous Ferric Carboxymaltose: Effects on Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent Requirements, Costs, Hemoglobin and Iron Status

    PubMed Central

    Toblli, Jorge Eduardo; Di Gennaro, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD) often receive an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and oral iron treatment. This study evaluated whether a switch from oral iron to intravenous ferric carboxymaltose can reduce ESA requirements and improve iron status and hemoglobin in patients with ND-CKD. Methods This prospective, single arm and single-center study included adult patients with ND-CKD (creatinine clearance ≤40 mL/min), hemoglobin 11–12 g/dL and iron deficiency (ferritin <100 μg/L or transferrin saturation <20%), who were regularly treated with oral iron and ESA during 6 months prior to inclusion. Study patients received an intravenous ferric carboxymaltose dose of 1,000 mg iron, followed by a 6-months ESA/ ferric carboxymaltose maintenance regimen (target: hemoglobin 12 g/dL, transferrin saturation >20%). Outcome measures were ESA dose requirements during the observation period after initial ferric carboxymaltose treatment (primary endpoint); number of hospitalizations and transfusions, renal function before and after ferric carboxymaltose administration, number of adverse reactions (secondary endpoints). Hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin and transferrin saturation were measured monthly from baseline until end of study. Creatinine clearance, proteinuria, C-reactive protein, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase bimonthly from baseline until end of study. Results Thirty patients were enrolled (age 70.1±11.4 years; mean±SD). Mean ESA consumption was significantly reduced by 83.2±10.9% (from 41,839±3,668 IU/patient to 6,879±4,271 IU/patient; p<0.01). Hemoglobin increased by 0.7±0.3 g/dL, ferritin by 196.0±38.7 μg/L and transferrin saturation by 5.3±2.9% (month 6 vs. baseline; all p<0.01). No ferric carboxymaltose-related adverse events were reported and no patient withdrew or required transfusions during the study. Conclusion Among patients with ND

  3. Reversal of Dilated Cardiomyopathy After Successful Radio-Frequency Ablation of Frequent Atrial Premature Beats, a New Cause for Arrhythmia-Induced Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Vervueren, Paul Louis; Delmas, Clement; Berry, Mathieu; Rollin, Anne; Sadron, Marie; Duparc, Alexandre; Mondoly, Pierre; Honton, Benjamin; Lairez, Olivier; Maury, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Incessant atrial premature beats as a potential cause for tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy was suspected in a patient presenting with dilated non-ischemic cardiomyopathy and severely altered left ventricular ejection fraction. The elimination of a left atrial focus by percutaneous RF ablation led to normalization of the clinical status, of atrial and ventricular dimensions and left ventricular systolic function.

  4. An Animal-Source Food Supplement Increases Micronutrient Intakes and Iron Status among Reproductive-Age Women in Rural Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hall, Andrew G; Ngu, Tu; Nga, Hoang T; Quyen, Phi N; Hong Anh, Pham T; King, Janet C

    2017-06-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the impact of local animal-source foods (ASFs) on the nutritional status of reproductive-age women in developing countries.Objective: We hypothesized that a midmorning snack of local ASF for 6 mo would reduce dietary micronutrient deficiencies [usual intake less than the estimated average requirement (EAR)] and improve blood biomarkers of iron, zinc, and vitamins A and B-12 status among nonpregnant, reproductive-age women in rural Vietnam.Methods: One hundred seventeen women, 18-30 y old, were randomly assigned to receive either an ASF (mean: 144 kcal, 8.9 mg Fe, 2.7 mg Zn, 1050 μg retinoic acid equivalent vitamin A, and 5.5 μg vitamin B-12) or a control snack (mean: 150 kcal, 2.0 mg Fe, 0.9 mg Zn, 0 μg retinoic acid equivalent vitamin A, and 0 μg vitamin B-12) 5 d/wk for 6 mo. Usual nutrient intakes were estimated by repeated 24-h dietary recalls. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 3 and 6 mo. Because of the relation between nutritional status and inflammation, serum C-reactive protein, α-1-acid-glycoprotein, and urinary tract infections (UTIs) were also monitored.Results: Eighty-nine women (47 in the ASF group and 42 controls) completed the study. In the ASF group, intakes of iron and vitamins A and B-12 below the EAR were eliminated, and the prevalence of a low zinc intake was reduced to 9.6% compared with 64.7% in controls (P < 0.001). At 6 mo, a modest increase (P < 0.05) in hemoglobin and iron status occurred in the ASF group compared with the control group, but plasma zinc, retinol, and serum vitamin B-12 concentrations did not differ. UTI relative risk was 3.9 (P < 0.05) among women assigned to the ASF group who had a low whole-body iron status at baseline.Conclusions: Adding a small amount of locally produced ASF to the diets of reproductive-age Vietnamese women improved micronutrient intakes and iron status. However, the increased UTI incidence in women in the ASF group with initially lower iron stores

  5. The effect of wheat prebiotics on the gut bacterial population and iron status of iron deficient broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, there is a lot of interest in improving the intestinal health, and consequently increasing minerals as iron absorption, by managing the intestinal microbial population. This is traditionally done by the consumption of probiotics, which are live microbial food supplements. However, a...

  6. Folacin and iron status and hematological findings in predominately black elderly persons from urban low-income households.

    PubMed

    Bailey, L B; Wagner, P A; Christakis, G J; Araujo, P E; Appledorf, H; Davis, C G; Masteryanni, J; Dinning, J S

    1979-11-01

    The folacin and iron status and hemotological parameters of 193 persons 60 years of age and older from urban low-income households were evaluated. Of the serum folacin values 30% were between 3 and 6 ng/ml and 8% were below 3 ng/ml. Of these subjects 60% could be classified as "high risk" (less than 140 ng/ml) and 11% as "medium risk" (140 to 160 ng/ml) based on red blood cell folacin concentrations. Serum iron was normal (greater than 50 micrograms/dl) for all subjects as was transferrin saturation (greater than 15%). Hematological indices showed a 14% incidence of anemia (hemaglobin less than 12 g/dl), and 32% incidence of leukopenia (leukocytes less than 4.8 X 10(3)). These findings demonstrate widespread folacin deficiency and no evidence of iron deficiency in these elderly people.

  7. Donation frequency of blood donors participating in a prospective cohort study of iron status.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Shrein H; Guiltinan, Anne M; Schlumpf, Karen S; Scott, Erik; Banks, Linda L; D'Andrea, Pam; Hartman, Elizabeth L; Vij, Vibha; Wright, David J; Spencer, Bryan; Murphy, Edward L

    2011-06-01

    Blood centers are interested in understanding determinants of frequent blood donation. We hypothesized that participation in uncompensated research could result in higher donation rates. Donation rates for 2425 subjects from six US blood centers enrolled in the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation Study were compared to those of nonenrolled donors (n = 202,383). Over 15 months, we compared mean donation rates and adjusted rate ratios (RRs) between enrolled and nonenrolled for three subgroups, first-time, reactivated, and frequent donors, and donation rates before and after the study enrollment period for frequent donors only. Enrolled donors had higher 15-month mean donation rates than nonenrolled donors (first-time, 1.21 [RR = 1.91]; reactivated, 1.68 [RR = 1.83]; frequent, 3.40 [RR = 1.12]). However, frequent donors donated at approximately the same rate after enrollment as they did before enrollment in the study (3.62 per 15 months [RR = 1.12]). Donors enrolled in the study donated at a higher rate than nonenrolled donors, but frequent donors remained consistent in their donation frequency both before and after enrollment. Although increased donation rates could have been causally related to study enrollment, we cannot rule out an enrollment bias whereby more committed donors were more likely to enroll in the study. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  8. Donation frequency of blood donors participating in a prospective cohort study of iron status

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Shrein H.; Guiltinan, Anne M.; Schlumpf, Karen S.; Scott, Erik; Banks, Linda L.; D’Andrea, Pam; Hartman, Elizabeth L.; Vij, Vibha; Wright, David J.; Spencer, Bryan; Murphy, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blood centers are interested in understanding determinants of frequent blood donation. We hypothesized that participation in uncompensated research could result in higher donation rates. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Donation rates for 2425 subjects from six US blood centers enrolled in the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation Study were compared to those of nonenrolled donors (n = 202,383). Over 15 months, we compared mean donation rates and adjusted rate ratios (RRs) between enrolled and nonenrolled for three subgroups, first-time, reactivated, and frequent donors, and donation rates before and after the study enrollment period for frequent donors only. RESULTS Enrolled donors had higher 15-month mean donation rates than nonenrolled donors (first-time, 1.21 [RR = 1.91]; reactivated, 1.68 [RR = 1.83]; frequent, 3.40 [RR = 1.12]). However, frequent donors donated at approximately the same rate after enrollment as they did before enrollment in the study (3.62 per 15 months [RR = 1.12]). CONCLUSION Donors enrolled in the study donated at a higher rate than nonenrolled donors, but frequent donors remained consistent in their donation frequency both before and after enrollment. Although increased donation rates could have been causally related to study enrollment, we cannot rule out an enrollment bias whereby more committed donors were more likely to enroll in the study. PMID:21658037

  9. The effect of iron overload on rat plasma and liver oxidant status in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Dabbagh, A J; Mannion, T; Lynch, S M; Frei, B

    1994-01-01

    There is ample evidence implicating reactive oxygen species in a number of human degenerative diseases such as atherosclerosis and haemochromatosis. Although lipid peroxidation underlies many of the toxic effects of oxidative stress, there is a lack of a sensitive and reliable method for its assessment in vivo. To understand the implications of oxidative stress in vivo, we have used dietary iron overload (IO) in the rat. Oxidant status in these animals was determined by assessing depletion of endogenous antioxidants and formation of various lipid peroxidation products, including acylated F2-isoprostanes, a novel class of free-radical-derived prostaglandin-F2-like compounds. IO led to a significant decrease in the concentration of the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid in plasma, and alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and ubiquinol-10 in liver. Whereas there was no significant lipid peroxidation in plasma, hepatic F2-isoprostane levels were moderately but significantly increased in IO. In addition, IO caused a significant increase in plasma total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, an effect that was correlated with depletion of plasma ascorbic acid but not alpha-tocopherol. The data demonstrate that IO causes lipid metabolism disturbances and oxidative stress which is associated with substantial depletion of endogenous antioxidants and moderate lipid peroxidative damage. PMID:8010963

  10. Current status of research and development on nickel and iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; George, E.P.; McKamey, C.G.

    1993-12-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive review of current status of research and development on nickel and iron aluminides based on Ni{sub 3}Al, NiAl, Fe{sub 3}Al and FeAl. These aluminides possess attractive properties for elevated-temperature structural use; however, brittle fracture and poor fracture resistance have limited their use as engineering materials in many cases. in recent years, considerable effort has been devoted to the study of the brittle fracture behavior of these aluminides; as a result, both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing brittle fracture have been identified. Surprisingly, moisture-induced hydrogen embrittlement has been recognized as one of the major causes of low ductility and brittle fracture in Ni{sub 3}Al, Fe{sub 3}Al and FeAl at ambient temperatures. These efforts have led to the development of ductile and strong aluminide alloys for structural applications. Industrial interest in these aluminide alloys is high, and several examples of industrial involvement are mentioned.

  11. Status of Iron Metabolism 10 Years After Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Monaco-Ferreira, Daniela Vicinansa; Leandro-Merhi, Vânia Aparecida

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate changes in iron metabolism and verify whether biochemical parameters are related to the use of oral iron supplement 10 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. This longitudinal retrospective study included 151 patients submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The collected data included use of an oral iron supplement, hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron, and ferritin. The chi-squared or Fisher's exact test was used to analyze the association between use of iron supplement and nutritional deficiency. The generalized estimating equations (GEEs) analyzed the nutritional deficiencies over time. Of the study patients with iron-deficiency anemia (n = 15) in the 12-month follow-up, 73.33% (n = 11) were taking an iron supplement, and 26.67% (n = 4) were not (p = 0.0010). The effect of time was significant for hemoglobin, ferritin, iron overload (p < 0.0001), and hematocrit (p = 0.0007). Of the patients who remained in the study until the 120-month follow-up, 37.5 and 45.0% were diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia, defined as ferritin <15 μg/L and ferritin <30 μg/L, respectively. Iron-deficiency anemia increased over time even in patients taking oral iron supplements.

  12. [Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Arrhythmia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Colín Lizalde, Luis de Jesús

    2003-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a relatively common genetic disorder with heterogeneity in mutations, forms of presentation, prognosis and treatment strategies. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is recognized as the most common cause of sudden cardiac death that occurs in young people, including athletes. The clinical diagnosis is complemented with the ecocardiographic study, in which an abnormal myocardial hypertrophy of the septum can be observed in the absence of a cardiac or systemic disease (arterial systemic hypertension, aortic stenosis). The annual sudden mortality rate is 1% and, in selected populations, it ranges between 3 and 6%. The therapeutic strategies depend on the different subsets of patients according to the morbidity and mortality, sudden cardiac death, obstructive symptoms, heart failure or atrial fibrillation and stroke. High risk patients for sudden death may effectively be treated with the automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

  13. Impact of diet and weight loss on iron and zinc status in overweight and obese young women.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hoi Lun; Griffin, Hayley J; Bryant, Christian E; Rooney, Kieron B; Steinbeck, Katharine S; O'Connor, Helen T

    2013-01-01

    Young overweight women are at risk of iron and zinc deficiency. This study assessed iron, zinc and inflammatory status during a 12-month weight loss trial in young women (18-25 y; BMI >=27.5 kg/m2) randomised to a higher-protein (HP: 32% protein; 12.2 mg/day iron; 11.7 mg/day zinc) or lower-protein (LP: 20%; 9.9 mg/day; 7.6 mg/day respectively) diet with contrasting haem iron and zinc content. In completers (HP: n=21; LP: n=15), HP participants showed higher median ferritin (52.0 vs 39.0 μg/L; p=0.021) and lower median soluble transferrin receptor-ferritin index (sTfR-F; 0.89 vs 1.05; p=0.024) although concentrations remained within normal range for both diets. Median C-reactive protein (CRP; HP: 3.54; LP: 4.63 mg/L) and hepcidin (HP: 5.70; LP: 8.25 ng/mL) were not elevated at baseline, and no longitudinal between-diet differences were observed for zinc and CRP. Compared to those with <5% weight loss, HP participants losing >=10% weight showed lower median sTfR-F (0.76 vs 1.03; p=0.019) at six months. Impact of >=10% weight loss on iron was more apparent in LP participants who exhibited greater mean serum iron (20.0 vs 13.5 μmol/L; p=0.002), transferrin saturation (29.8% vs 19.4%; p=0.001) and lower sTfR (1.24 vs 1.92 mg/L; p=0.034) at 12 months. Results show normal iron and zinc status can be maintained during 12 months of energy restriction. In the absence of elevated baseline inflammation and hepcidin, a more favourable iron profile in those with >=10% weight loss may reflect stronger compliance or the potential influence of iron regulatory mechanisms unrelated to inflammatory hepcidin reduction.

  14. Prospect of gene therapy for cardiomyopathy in hereditary muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yongping; Binalsheikh, Ibrahim M.; Leach, Stacey B.; Domeier, Timothy L.; Duan, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cardiac involvement is a common feature in muscular dystrophies. It presents as heart failure and/or arrhythmia. Traditionally, dystrophic cardiomyopathy is treated with symptom-relieving medications. Identification of disease-causing genes and investigation on pathogenic mechanisms have opened new opportunities to treat dystrophic cardiomyopathy with gene therapy. Replacing/repairing the mutated gene and/or targeting the pathogenic process/mechanisms using alternative genes may attenuate heart disease in muscular dystrophies. Areas covered Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common muscular dystrophy. Duchenne cardiomyopathy has been the primary focus of ongoing dystrophic cardiomyopathy gene therapy studies. Here, we use Duchenne cardiomyopathy gene therapy to showcase recent developments and to outline the path forward. We also discuss gene therapy status for cardiomyopathy associated with limb-girdle and congenital muscular dystrophies, and myotonic dystrophy. Expert opinion Gene therapy for dystrophic cardiomyopathy has taken a slow but steady path forward. Preclinical studies over the last decades have addressed many fundamental questions. Adeno-associated virus-mediated gene therapy has significantly improved the outcomes in rodent models of Duchenne and limb girdle muscular dystrophies. Validation of these encouraging results in large animal models will pave the way to future human trials. PMID:27340611

  15. Stress-related cardiomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Stress-related cardiomyopathies can be observed in the four following situations: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy or apical ballooning syndrome; acute left ventricular dysfunction associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage; acute left ventricular dysfunction associated with pheochromocytoma and exogenous catecholamine administration; acute left ventricular dysfunction in the critically ill. Cardiac toxicity was mediated more by catecholamines released directly into the heart via neural connection than by those reaching the heart via the bloodstream. The mechanisms underlying the association between this generalized autonomic storm secondary to a life-threatening stress and myocardial toxicity are widely discussed. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy has been reported all over the world and has been acknowledged by the American Heart Association as a form of reversible cardiomyopathy. Four "Mayo Clinic" diagnostic criteria are required for the diagnosis of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: 1) transient left ventricular wall motion abnormalities involving the apical and/or midventricular myocardial segments with wall motion abnormalities extending beyond a single epicardial coronary artery distribution; 2) absence of obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease that could be responsible for the observed wall motion abnormality; 3) ECG abnormalities, such as transient ST-segment elevation and/or diffuse T wave inversion associated with a slight troponin elevation; and 4) the lack of proven pheochromocytoma and myocarditis. ECG changes and LV dysfunction occur frequently following subarachnoid hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. This entity, referred as neurocardiogenic stunning, was called neurogenic stress-related cardiomyopathy. Stress-related cardiomyopathy has been reported in patients with pheochromocytoma and in patients receiving intravenous exogenous catecholamine administration. The role of a huge increase in endogenous and/or exogenous catecholamine level in critically ill patients

  16. Breastfeeding and Red Meat Intake Are Associated with Iron Status in Healthy Korean Weaning-age Infants.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jeana; Chang, Ju Young; Shin, Sue; Oh, Sohee

    2017-06-01

    The present study investigated risk factors for iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during late infancy, including feeding type and complementary feeding (CF) practice. Healthy term Korean infants (8-15 months) were weighed, and questionnaires regarding delivery, feeding, and weaning were completed by their caregivers. We also examined levels of hemoglobin, serum iron/total iron-binding capacity, serum ferritin, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Among 619 infants, ID and IDA were present in 174 infants (28.1%) and 87 infants (14.0%), respectively. The 288 infants with exclusively/mostly breastfeeding until late infancy (BFL) were most likely to exhibit ID (53.1%) and IDA (28.1%). The risk of ID was independently associated with BFL (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 47.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 18.3-122.9), male sex (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-2.9), fold weight gain (aOR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5-4.6), and perceived inadequacy of red meat intake (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.7). In addition to the risk factors for ID, Cesarean section delivery (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.2) and low parental CF-related knowledge (aOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5-5.2) were risk factors for IDA. In conclusion, prolonged breastfeeding and perceived inadequacy of red meat intake may be among the important feeding-related risk factors of ID and IDA. Therefore, more meticulous education and monitoring of iron-rich food intake, such as red meat, with iron supplementation or iron status testing during late infancy if necessary, should be considered for breastfed Korean infants, especially for those with additional risk factors for ID or IDA. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  17. Breastfeeding and Red Meat Intake Are Associated with Iron Status in Healthy Korean Weaning-age Infants

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated risk factors for iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during late infancy, including feeding type and complementary feeding (CF) practice. Healthy term Korean infants (8–15 months) were weighed, and questionnaires regarding delivery, feeding, and weaning were completed by their caregivers. We also examined levels of hemoglobin, serum iron/total iron-binding capacity, serum ferritin, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Among 619 infants, ID and IDA were present in 174 infants (28.1%) and 87 infants (14.0%), respectively. The 288 infants with exclusively/mostly breastfeeding until late infancy (BFL) were most likely to exhibit ID (53.1%) and IDA (28.1%). The risk of ID was independently associated with BFL (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 47.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 18.3–122.9), male sex (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2–2.9), fold weight gain (aOR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5–4.6), and perceived inadequacy of red meat intake (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0–2.7). In addition to the risk factors for ID, Cesarean section delivery (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1–3.2) and low parental CF-related knowledge (aOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5–5.2) were risk factors for IDA. In conclusion, prolonged breastfeeding and perceived inadequacy of red meat intake may be among the important feeding-related risk factors of ID and IDA. Therefore, more meticulous education and monitoring of iron-rich food intake, such as red meat, with iron supplementation or iron status testing during late infancy if necessary, should be considered for breastfed Korean infants, especially for those with additional risk factors for ID or IDA. PMID:28480656

  18. Changes of serum prohepcidin, iron status and zinc-protoporphyrin in a random group of patients with malignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Grudeva-Popova, J G; Terzieva, D D; Nenova, I S

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the changes in the serum levels of prohepcidin (pHp) and markers of iron homeostasis for gathering more data on the pathogenesis of anemia in malignancies. In 84 patients with advanced solid malignant tumors, but without iron or vitamin B12 and folate deficiency anemia, we measured serum pHp levels and common markers of iron status, erythropoiesis and inflammation. Two months later the same tests were repeated to determine possible changes in the levels of the measured parameters. The first blood sample characterized the group with a moderately low hemoglobin (Hb) and high CRP levels, suggesting anemia in some patients. Two months later higher levels of serum iron (sFe), total iron binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation, ferritin and zinc-protoporphyrine (ZPP) in erythrocytes were found, along with lower pHp and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). The correlation coefficient (R) between the values of iron-containing substances and pHp were low (R=0.244). Allocations by sex, Hb concentration and pHp showed that the changes in each group were similar, keeping the trend of increased sFe, ferritin and ZPP, decreased hs-CRP and pHp, at a stable hematological state. Because of low correlation between sFe and pHp, it seems more likely that the positive two-month change of iron-containing substances in the serum of the studied patients is a result of treatment, impaired liver function or malignant intoxication, rather than of decreased pHp.

  19. Influence of artistic gymnastics on iron nutritional status and exercise-induced hemolysis in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Sureira, Thaiz Mattos; Amancio, Olga Silverio; Pellegrini Braga, Josefina Aparecida

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between body iron losses and gains in artistic gymnastics female athletes. It shows that despite the low iron intake and exercise-induced hemolysis, iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia does not occur, but partial changes in the hematological profile do. The hypothesis that gymnasts' nutritional behavior contributes to anemia, which may be aggravated by exercise-induced hemolysis, led to this cross-sectional study, conducted with 43 female artistic gymnasts 6-16 yr old. The control group was formed by 40 nontraining girls, paired by age. Hemogram, serum iron, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, haptoglobin, total and fractional bilirubin, Type I urine, and parasitologic and occult fecal blood tests were evaluated. The athletes presented mean hematimetric and serum iron values (p = .020) higher than those of the control group. The bilirubin result discarded any hemolytic alteration in both groups. The haptoglobin results were lower in the athlete group (p = .002), confirming the incidence of exercise-induced hemolysis. Both groups presented low iron intake. The results suggest that artistic gymnastics practice leads to exercise-induced hemolysis and partially changes the hematological profile, although not causing iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia, even in the presence of low iron intake.

  20. [Influence of ionizing radiation, application of iron ions and their chelate complexes on the oxidative status of blood serum of rats].

    PubMed

    Riabchenko, N I; Ivannik, B P; Riabchenko, V I; Dzikovskaia, L A

    2011-01-01

    Influence of ionizing radiation, ions of iron and their chelate complexes on the oxidative status of blood serum of rats has been investigated. Animals were irradiated by gamma-rays 60Co at a dose of 4 Gy. Ions of iron and iron chelates with nitrilotriacetic acid and citric acid were introduced into animals intra-abdominally at a doze of 10 mg of iron on 1 kg of body weight. The oxidative status of blood serum was determined according to the estimated content of oxidizing peroxide equivalents which oxidize ferrous iron in ferric iron with the subsequent estimation of ferric iron by means of xylenol orange. We also estimated the total content of iron in blood serum using ferrozine as an indicator. The oxidative status was defined 24 and 96 hours after irradiation and 2 hours after introduction of iron ions and their chelates. The research conducted has shown that the concentration of oxidizing peroxide equivalents in serum and the total iron concentration increase 1.47 times and 1.63 times correspondingly 24 hours after irradiation. The increase in the content of oxidizing peroxide equivalents and iron owing to Fenton's reaction can lead to the appearance of OH* radical and raise the level of damage of nuclear and membrane structures in irradiated cells. 2 hours after introduction of iron ions and their chelates, the content of oxidizing peroxide equivalents increased in the blood serum of irradiated and non-irradiated rats, and the maximum effect was observed when introducing ferrous iron and its chelate with citric acid.

  1. The HFE genotype and a formulated diet controlling for iron status attenuate experimental cerebral malaria in mice.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Dominique F; Stoute, José A; Landmesser, Mary; Neely, Elizabeth; Connor, James R

    2015-10-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infects approximately 500million individuals each year. A small but significant number of infections lead to complications such as cerebral malaria. Cerebral malaria is associated with myelin damage and neurological deficits in survivors, and iron status is thought to impact the outcome of infection. We evaluated whether a mouse model of experimental cerebral malaria with Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain was altered by dietary iron deficiency or genetic iron overload (H67D HFE). We found that H67D mice had increased survival over H67H (wild type) mice. Moreover, a specifically designed formulation diet increased survival regardless of whether the diet was iron deficient or iron adequate. To determine potential mechanisms underlying demyelination in experimental cerebral malaria, we measured Semaphorin4A (Sema4A) protein levels in the brain because we found it is cytotoxic to oligodendrocytes. Sema4A was increased in wild type mice that developed experimental cerebral malaria while consuming standard rodent chow, consistent with a decrease in myelin basic protein, an indicator of myelin integrity. The brains of iron deficient and H67D mice had lower levels of Sema4A. Myelin basic protein was decreased in brains of mice fed the iron deficient diet as has been previously reported. We also examined erythropoietin, which is under consideration for treatment of cerebral malaria, and IL-6, which is known to increase during infection. We found that plasma erythropoietin was elevated and IL-6 was low in H67D mice and in the mice fed the formulation diets. These data reveal a paradigm-shifting concept that maintaining iron status may not increase the mortality associated with malaria and provide a dietary strategy for further examination. Moreover, the data provide clues for exploring the mechanism to limit the co-morbidity associated with experimental cerebral malaria that appears to include decreased Sema4A in brain as well as elevated erythropoietin

  2. Neurocognitive Function Is Associated With Serum Iron Status in Early Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaopeng; Cui, Naixue; Liu, Jianghong

    2017-05-01

    The association between iron and neurocognition remains underexplored in adolescents, and the neurocognitive effects of low and high iron levels have yet to be established. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships of low and high iron levels with neurocognitive domains in early adolescents. The sample comprised 428 adolescents (12.0 ± 0.4 years) from Jintan, China. Serum iron concentrations were analyzed from venous blood samples and classified into low, normal, and high levels according to the clinical reference range 75-175 μg/dl. Neurocognition was measured by the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery and Wechsler Intelligence Scale. Generalized linear regression was used to analyze relationships. Prevalence rates of iron deficiency, normal iron, and high iron were 13.8%, 76.4%, and 9.8%, respectively. Compared with normal levels, iron deficiency was associated with slower performance in tasks that measured abstraction and mental flexibility (β = 107.5, p = .03) and spatial processing ability (β = 917.2, p = .04). High serum iron was associated with less accuracy in the spatial processing ability task (β = -2.2, p = .03) and a longer reaction time in the task assessing abstraction and mental flexibility (β = 702.8, p = .046) compared to normal levels. Both iron deficiency and high iron levels contribute to reduced neurocognitive performance in a domain-specific manner in early adolescents. The dual burden of iron under- and overnutrition should be incorporated into future interventions for improving brain development and cognitive function in adolescents, especially in a Chinese context.

  3. In Rwandese Women with Low Iron Status, Iron Absorption from Low-Phytic Acid Beans and Biofortified Beans Is Comparable, but Low-Phytic Acid Beans Cause Adverse Gastrointestinal Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nicolai; Rohner, Fabian; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Campion, Bruno; Boy, Erick; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Zimmerman, Michael Bruce; Zwahlen, Christian; Wirth, James P; Moretti, Diego

    2016-05-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is a major inhibitor of iron bioavailability from beans, and high PA concentrations might limit the positive effect of biofortified beans (BBs) on iron status. Low-phytic acid (lpa) bean varieties could increase iron bioavailability. We set out to test whether lpa beans provide more bioavailable iron than a BB variety when served as part of a composite meal in a bean-consuming population with low iron status. Dietary iron absorption from lpa, iron-biofortified, and control beans (CBs) (regular iron and PA concentrations) was compared in 25 nonpregnant young women with low iron status with the use of a multiple-meal crossover design. Iron absorption was measured with stable iron isotopes. PA concentration in lpa beans was ∼10% of BBs and CBs, and iron concentration in BBs was ∼2- and 1.5-fold compared with CBs and lpa beans, respectively. Fractional iron absorption from lpa beans [8.6% (95% CI: 4.8%, 15.5%)], BBs [7.3% (95% CI: 4.0%, 13.4%)], and CBs [8.0% (95% CI: 4.4%, 14.6%)] did not significantly differ. The total amount of iron absorbed from lpa beans and BBs was 421 μg (95% CI: 234, 756 μg) and 431 μg (95% CI: 237, 786 μg), respectively, and did not significantly differ, but was >50% higher (P < 0.005) than from CBs (278 μg; 95% CI: 150, 499 μg). In our trial, the lpa beans were hard to cook, and their consumption caused transient adverse digestive side effects in ∼95% of participants. Gel electrophoresis analysis showed phytohemagglutinin L (PHA-L) residues in cooked lpa beans. BBs and lpa beans provided more bioavailable iron than control beans and could reduce dietary iron deficiency. Digestive side effects of lpa beans were likely caused by PHA-L, but it is unclear to what extent the associated digestive problems reduced iron bioavailability. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02215278. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Lethal Cardiomyopathy in Mice Lacking Transferrin Receptor in the Heart.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenjing; Barrientos, Tomasa; Mao, Lan; Rockman, Howard A; Sauve, Anthony A; Andrews, Nancy C

    2015-10-20

    Both iron overload and iron deficiency have been associated with cardiomyopathy and heart failure, but cardiac iron utilization is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that the transferrin receptor (Tfr1) might play a role in cardiac iron uptake and used gene targeting to examine the role of Tfr1 in vivo. Surprisingly, we found that decreased iron, due to inactivation of Tfr1, was associated with severe cardiac consequences. Mice lacking Tfr1 in the heart died in the second week of life and had cardiomegaly, poor cardiac function, failure of mitochondrial respiration, and ineffective mitophagy. The phenotype could only be rescued by aggressive iron therapy, but it was ameliorated by administration of nicotinamide riboside, an NAD precursor. Our findings underscore the importance of both Tfr1 and iron in the heart, and may inform therapy for patients with heart failure.

  5. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy: Pathophysiologic insights

    PubMed Central

    Piano, Mariann R.; Phillips, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a specific heart muscle disease found in individuals with a history of long-term heavy alcohol consumption. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is associated with a number of adverse histological, cellular, and structural changes within the myocardium. Several mechanisms are implicated in mediating the adverse effects of ethanol, including the generation of oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death, impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics/stress, derangements in fatty acid metabolism and transport, and accelerated protein catabolism. In this review, we discuss the evidence for such mechanisms and present the potential importance of drinking patterns, genetic susceptibility, nutritional factors, race, and sex. The purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic paradigm for future research in the area of alcoholic cardiomyopathy. PMID:24671642

  6. Treatment of Chagas Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Botoni, Fernando A.; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P.; Marinho, Carolina Coimbra; Lima, Marcia Maria Oliveira; Nunes, Maria do Carmo Pereira; Rocha, Manoel Otávio C.

    2013-01-01

    Chagas' disease (ChD), caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), was discovered and described by the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas in 1909. After a century of original description, trypanosomiasis still brings much misery to humanity and is classified as a neglected tropical disease prevalent in underdeveloped countries, particularly in South America. It is an increasing worldwide problem due to the number of cases in endemic areas and the migration of infected subjects to more developed regions, mainly North America and Europe. Despite its importance, chronic chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC) pathophysiology is yet poorly understood, and independently of its social, clinical, and epidemiological importance, the therapeutic approach of CCC is still transposed from the knowledge acquired from other cardiomyopathies. Therefore, the objective of this review is to describe the treatment of Chagas cardiomyopathy with emphasis on its peculiarities. PMID:24350293

  7. Iron and Obesity Status-Associated Insulin Resistance Influence Circulating Fibroblast-Growth Factor-23 Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Puig, Josep; Serrano, Marta; Sabater, Mónica; Rubió, Antoni; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Fontan, Marina; Casamitjana, Roser; Xifra, Gemma; Ortega, Francisco José; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema; Ricart, Wifredo

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is known to be produced by the bone and linked to metabolic risk. We aimed to explore circulating FGF-23 in association with fatness and insulin sensitivity, atherosclerosis and bone mineral density (BMD). Circulating intact FGF-23 (iFGF-23) and C-terminal (CtFGF-23) concentrations (ELISA) were measured in 133 middle aged men from the general population in association with insulin sensitivity (Cohort 1); and in association with fat mass and bone mineral density (DEXA) and atherosclerosis (intima media thickness, IMT) in 78 subjects (52 women) with a wide range of adiposity (Cohort 2). Circulating iFGF-23 was also measured before and after weight loss. In all subjects as a whole, serum intact and C-terminal concentrations were linearly and positively associated with BMI. In cohort 1, both serum iFGF-23 and CtFGF-23 concentrations increased with insulin resistance. Serum creatinine contributed to iFGF-23 variance, while serum ferritin and insulin sensitivity (but not BMI, age or serum creatinine) contributed to 17% of CtFGF-23 variance. In cohort 2, CtFGF-23 levels were higher in women vs. men, and increased with BMI, fat mass, fasting and post-load serum glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and PTH, being negatively associated with circulating vitamin D and ferritin levels. The associations of CtFGF-23 with bone density in the radius, lumbar spine and carotid IMT were no longer significant after controlling for BMI. Weight loss led to decreased iFGF-23 concentrations. In summary, the associations of circulating FGF-23 concentration with parameters of glucose metabolism, bone density and atherosclerosis are dependent on iron and obesity status-associated insulin resistance. PMID:23555610

  8. Iron and obesity status-associated insulin resistance influence circulating fibroblast-growth factor-23 concentrations.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Puig, Josep; Serrano, Marta; Sabater, Mónica; Rubió, Antoni; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Fontan, Marina; Casamitjana, Roser; Xifra, Gemma; Ortega, Francisco José; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema; Ricart, Wifredo

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is known to be produced by the bone and linked to metabolic risk. We aimed to explore circulating FGF-23 in association with fatness and insulin sensitivity, atherosclerosis and bone mineral density (BMD). Circulating intact FGF-23 (iFGF-23) and C-terminal (CtFGF-23) concentrations (ELISA) were measured in 133 middle aged men from the general population in association with insulin sensitivity (Cohort 1); and in association with fat mass and bone mineral density (DEXA) and atherosclerosis (intima media thickness, IMT) in 78 subjects (52 women) with a wide range of adiposity (Cohort 2). Circulating iFGF-23 was also measured before and after weight loss. In all subjects as a whole, serum intact and C-terminal concentrations were linearly and positively associated with BMI. In cohort 1, both serum iFGF-23 and CtFGF-23 concentrations increased with insulin resistance. Serum creatinine contributed to iFGF-23 variance, while serum ferritin and insulin sensitivity (but not BMI, age or serum creatinine) contributed to 17% of CtFGF-23 variance. In cohort 2, CtFGF-23 levels were higher in women vs. men, and increased with BMI, fat mass, fasting and post-load serum glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and PTH, being negatively associated with circulating vitamin D and ferritin levels. The associations of CtFGF-23 with bone density in the radius, lumbar spine and carotid IMT were no longer significant after controlling for BMI. Weight loss led to decreased iFGF-23 concentrations. In summary, the associations of circulating FGF-23 concentration with parameters of glucose metabolism, bone density and atherosclerosis are dependent on iron and obesity status-associated insulin resistance.

  9. Elevated iron status and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Cao, José C; Aranda, Núria; Ribot, Blanca; Tous, Mònica; Arija, Victoria

    2016-12-14

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies was to assess the relationship between elevated iron status, measured as hemoglobin and ferritin levels, and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The present study was recorded in PROSPERO (2013:CRD42013005717). The selected studies were identified through a systematic review of scientific literature published in The Cochrane Library and PubMed/MEDLINE databases from their inception until March 10, 2016, in addition to citation tracking and hand-searches. The search strategy of original articles combined several terms for hemoglobin, ferritin, pregnancy, and GDM. OR and 95% CI of the selected studies were used to identify associations between hemoglobin and/or ferritin levels with the risk of GDM. Summary estimates were calculated by combining inverse-variance using fixed-effects model. 2468 abstracts were initially found during the search. Of these, 11 with hemoglobin and/or ferritin data were selected for the meta-analyses. We observed that high hemoglobin (OR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.23-1.88), as well as ferritin (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.48-2.96) levels were linked to an increased risk of GDM. Low heterogeneity was observed in hemoglobin (I(2)  = 33.3%, P = 0.151) and ferritin (I(2)  = 0.7%, P = 0.418) meta-analyses, respectively. Publication bias was not appreciated. High hemoglobin or ferritin levels increase the risk of GDM by more than 50% and more than double, respectively, in the first and third trimester. Therefore, determining of hemoglobin or ferritin concentration in early pregnancy might be a useful tool for recognizing pregnant women at risk of GDM.

  10. Mitochondrial cardiomyopathy and related arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Montaigne, David; Pentiah, Anju Duva

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been shown to be involved in the pathophysiology of arrhythmia, not only in inherited cardiomyopathy due to specific mutations in the mitochondrial DNA but also in acquired cardiomyopathy such as ischemic or diabetic cardiomyopathy. This article briefly discusses the basics of mitochondrial physiology and details the mechanisms generating arrhythmias due to mitochondrial dysfunction. The clinical spectrum of inherited and acquired cardiomyopathies associated with mitochondrial dysfunction is discussed followed by general aspects of the management of mitochondrial cardiomyopathy and related arrhythmia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Arrhythmias in peripartum cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Honigberg, Michael C; Givertz, Michael M

    2015-06-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a complication of late pregnancy and the early postpartum period characterized by dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Approximately half of women fail to recover left ventricular function. Standard management of heart failure is indicated, with some exceptions for women who are predelivery or breastfeeding. Atrial and ventricular arrhythmias are reported in PPCM, but the frequency of arrhythmias in this condition is not well characterized. Management of PPCM-associated arrhythmias may include antiarrhythmic drugs, catheter ablation, and wearable or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. Further research is needed on the prevalence, natural history, and optimal management of arrhythmias in PPCM.

  12. Ovine uterine space restriction alters placental transferrin receptor and fetal iron status during late pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mary Y.; Habeck, Jason M.; Meyer, Katie M.; Koch, Jill M.; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Blohowiak, Sharon E.; Magness, Ronald R.; Kling, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Fetal growth restriction is reported to be associated with impaired placental iron transport. Transferrin receptor (TfR) is a major placental iron transporter in humans, but is unstudied in sheep. TfR is regulated by both iron and nitric oxide (NO), the molecule produced by endothelial NOS (eNOS). We hypothesized that limited placental development downregulates both placental TfR and eNOS expression, thereby lowering fetal tissue iron. Methods An ovine surgical uterine space restriction (USR) model, combined with multifetal gestation, tested the extremes of uterine and placental adaptation. Blood, tissues, and placentomes from non-space restricted (NSR) singletons were compared to USR fetuses at 120 or 130 days of gestation (GD). Results When expressed proportionate to fetal weight, liver iron content did not differ while renal iron was higher in USR vs. NSR fetuses. Renal TfR protein expression did not differ, but placental TfR expression was lower in USR fetuses at GD130. Placental levels of TfR correlated to eNOS. TfR was localized throughout the placentome, including the hemophagous zone, implicating a role for TfR in ovine placental iron transport. Conclusion In conclusion, fetal iron was regulated in an organ-specific fashion. In USR fetuses, NO-mediated placental adaptations may prevent the normal upregulation of placental TfR at GD130. PMID:23202722

  13. Experimental hemochromatosis due to MHC class I HFE deficiency: Immune status and iron metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bahram, Seiamak; Gilfillan, Susan; Kühn, Lukas C.; Moret, Rémy; Schulze, Johannes B.; Lebeau, Annette; Schümann, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    The puzzling linkage between genetic hemochromatosis and histocompatibility loci became even more so when the gene involved, HFE, was identified. Indeed, within the well defined, mainly peptide-binding, MHC class I family of molecules, HFE seems to perform an unusual yet essential function. As yet, our understanding of HFE function in iron homeostasis is only partial; an even more open question is its possible role in the immune system. To advance on both of these avenues, we report the deletion of HFE α1 and α2 putative ligand binding domains in vivo. HFE-deficient animals were analyzed for a comprehensive set of metabolic and immune parameters. Faithfully mimicking human hemochromatosis, mice homozygous for this deletion develop iron overload, characterized by a higher plasma iron content and a raised transferrin saturation as well as an elevated hepatic iron load. The primary defect could, indeed, be traced to an augmented duodenal iron absorption. In parallel, measurement of the gut mucosal iron content as well as iron regulatory proteins allows a more informed evaluation of various hypotheses regarding the precise role of HFE in iron homeostasis. Finally, an extensive phenotyping of primary and secondary lymphoid organs including the gut provides no compelling evidence for an obvious immune-linked function for HFE. PMID:10557317

  14. Influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status: a cross-sectional study in Spanish women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Toxqui, Laura; López-Parra, Ana M; Baeza-Richer, Carlos; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2014-03-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate the combined influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status in Spanish menstruating women (n = 142). Dietary intake was assessed by a 72-h detailed dietary report and menstrual blood loss by a questionnaire, to determine a Menstrual Blood Loss Coefficient (MBLC). Five selected SNPs were genotyped: rs3811647, rs1799852 (Tf gene); rs1375515 (CACNA2D3 gene); and rs1800562 and rs1799945 (HFE gene, mutations C282Y and H63D, respectively). Iron biomarkers were determined and cluster analysis was performed. Differences among clusters in dietary intake, menstrual blood loss parameters and genotype frequencies distribution were studied. A categorical regression was performed to identify factors associated with cluster belonging. Three clusters were identified: women with poor iron status close to developing iron deficiency anemia (Cluster 1, n = 26); women with mild iron deficiency (Cluster 2, n = 59) and women with normal iron status (Cluster 3, n = 57). Three independent factors, red meat consumption, MBLC and mutation C282Y, were included in the model that better explained cluster belonging (R2 = 0.142, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the combination of high red meat consumption, low menstrual blood loss and the HFE C282Y mutation may protect from iron deficiency in women of childbearing age. These findings could be useful to implement adequate strategies to prevent iron deficiency anemia.

  15. Nutritional status of lactating mothers and their breast milk concentration of iron, zinc and copper in rural Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nakamori, Masayo; Ninh, Nguyen Xuan; Isomura, Haruhiko; Yoshiike, Nobuo; Hien, Vu Thi Thu; Nhug, Bui Thi; Nhien, Nguyen Van; Nakano, Takashi; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2009-08-01

    Breast milk is considered to be the best nutrient source for infants. However, nutritional compositions of breast milk in developing countries, especially among malnourished women, have not been fully investigated. This study aimed to assess nutritional status and nutrient composition of breast milk in lactating mothers in rural Vietnam. Sixty breastfeeding mothers at 6 to 12 mo postpartum, free from any medical disorder and/or medication, and not pregnant were randomly selected in Yen The, Bac Giang, Vietnam. Their nutritional status, breast milk concentration and dietary intakes were assessed. Among the study participants, anemia (39.0%) and low serum zinc concentration (55.4%) were frequently observed. Dietary assessment revealed lower intakes of iron (10.2+/-2.5 mg/d) and zinc (10.4+/-2.2 mg/d) than estimated requirements. The breast milk concentration of iron, zinc and copper was 0.43+/-0.15 mg/L, 0.56 (0.37, 0.82) mg/L and 0.19+/-0.05 mg/L, respectively. The breast milk concentration of iron, zinc and copper was not correlated to the serum concentration or dietary intakes. In conclusion, we uncovered a high prevalence of anemia and zinc deficiency in lactating mothers in rural Vietnam. The findings demonstrate a low breast milk zinc concentration among the participants, but need further investigation.

  16. Iron status and its relations with oxidative damage and bone loss during long-duration space flight on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Sara R; Morgan, Jennifer L L; Smith, Scott M

    2013-07-01

    Increases in stored iron and dietary intake of iron during space flight have raised concern about the risk of excess iron and oxidative damage, particularly in bone. The objectives of this study were to perform a comprehensive assessment of iron status in men and women before, during, and after long-duration space flight and to quantify the association of iron status with oxidative damage and bone loss. Fasting blood and 24-h urine samples were collected from 23 crew members before, during, and after missions lasting 50 to 247 d to the International Space Station. Serum ferritin and body iron increased early in flight, and transferrin and transferrin receptors decreased later, which indicated that early increases in body iron stores occurred through the mobilization of iron to storage tissues. Acute phase proteins indicated no evidence of an inflammatory response during flight. Serum ferritin was positively correlated with the oxidative damage markers 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (r = 0.53, P < 0.001) and prostaglandin F2α (r = 0.26, P < 0.001), and the greater the area under the curve for ferritin during flight, the greater the decrease in bone mineral density in the total hip (P = 0.031), trochanter (P = 0.006), hip neck (P = 0.044), and pelvis (P = 0.049) after flight. Increased iron stores may be a risk factor for oxidative damage and bone resorption.

  17. Maternal prenatal iron status and tissue organization in the neonatal brain.

    PubMed

    Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K; Xu, Dongrong; Hao, Xuejun; Bansal, Ravi; Gustafsson, Hanna; Spicer, Julie; Peterson, Bradley S

    2016-03-01

    Children prenatally exposed to inadequate iron have poorer motor and neurocognitive development. No prior study to our knowledge has assessed the influence of maternal prenatal iron intake on newborn brain tissue organization in full-term infants. Third trimester daily iron intake was obtained using the Automated Self-Administered 24-h Dietary Recall with n = 40 healthy pregnant adolescents (aged 14-19 y). Cord blood ferritin was collected in a subsample (n = 16). Newborn (mean = 39 gestational weeks at birth; range 37-41) magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired on a 3.0 Tesla MR Scanner. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) slices were acquired to measure the directional diffusion of water indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA). Reported iron intake was inversely associated with newborn FA values (P ≤ 0.0001) predominantly in cortical gray matter. FA findings were similar using cord blood ferritin values. Higher maternal prenatal iron intake accentuates, and lower intake attenuates, the normal age-related decline in FA values in gray matter, perhaps representing increasing dendritic arborization and synapse formation with higher iron intake. These DTI results suggest that typical variation in maternal iron outside the scope of standard clinical surveillance exerts subtle effects on infant brain development.

  18. Trophic status of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii influences the impact of iron deficiency on photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Terauchi, Aimee M.; Peers, Graham; Kobayashi, Marilyn C.; Niyogi, Krishna K.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the impact of iron deficiency on bioenergetic pathways in Chlamydomonas, we compared growth rates, iron content, and photosynthetic parameters systematically in acetate versus CO2-grown cells. Acetate-grown cells have, predictably (2-fold) greater abundance of respiration components but also, counter-intuitively, more chlorophyll on a per cell basis. We found that phototrophic cells are less impacted by iron deficiency and this correlates with their higher iron content on a per cell basis, suggesting a greater capacity/ability for iron assimilation in this metabolic state. Phototrophic cells maintain both photosynthetic and respiratory function and their associated Fe-containing proteins in conditions where heterotrophic cells lose photosynthetic capacity and have reduced oxygen evolution activity. Maintenance of NPQ capacity might contribute to protection of the photosynthetic apparatus in iron-limited phototrophic cells. Acetate-grown iron-limited cells maintain high growth rates by suppressing photosynthesis but increasing instead respiration. These cells are also able to maintain a reduced plastoquinone pool. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11120-010-9562-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20535560

  19. Proteomic Analysis Reveals That Iron Availability Alters the Metabolic Status of the Pathogenic Fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Parente, Ana F. A.; Bailão, Alexandre M.; Borges, Clayton L.; Parente, Juliana A.; Magalhães, Adriana D.; Ricart, Carlos A. O.; Soares, Célia M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus and the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). The ability of P. brasiliensis to uptake nutrients is fundamental for growth, but a reduction in the availability of iron and other nutrients is a host defense mechanism many pathogenic fungi must overcome. Thus, fungal mechanisms that scavenge iron from host may contribute to P. brasiliensis virulence. In order to better understand how P. brasiliensis adapts to iron starvation in the host we compared the two-dimensional (2D) gel protein profile of yeast cells during iron starvation to that of iron rich condition. Protein spots were selected for comparative analysis based on the protein staining intensity as determined by image analysis. A total of 1752 protein spots were selected for comparison, and a total of 274 out of the 1752 protein spots were determined to have changed significantly in abundance due to iron depletion. Ninety six of the 274 proteins were grouped into the following functional categories; energy, metabolism, cell rescue, virulence, cell cycle, protein synthesis, protein fate, transcription, cellular communication, and cell fate. A correlation between protein and transcript levels was also discovered using quantitative RT-PCR analysis from RNA obtained from P. brasiliensis under iron restricting conditions and from yeast cells isolated from infected mouse spleens. In addition, western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays validated the differential regulation of proteins identified by 2-D gel analysis. We observed an increase in glycolytic pathway protein regulation while tricarboxylic acid cycle, glyoxylate and methylcitrate cycles, and electron transport chain proteins decreased in abundance under iron limiting conditions. These data suggest a remodeling of P. brasiliensis metabolism by prioritizing iron independent pathways. PMID:21829521

  20. Cardiomyopathy Following Latrodectus Envenomation

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Michael; Canning, Josh; Chase, Robyn; Ruha, Anne-Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Latrodectus envenomations are common throughout the United States and the world. While many envenomations can result in catecholamine release with resultant hypertension and tachycardia, myocarditis is very rare. We describe a case of a 22-year-old male who sustained a Latrodectus envenomation complicated by cardiomyopathy. PMID:21293781

  1. Myocardial mechanics in cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Modesto, Karen; Sengupta, Partho P

    2014-01-01

    Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases that can be phenotypically recognized by specific patterns of ventricular morphology and function. The authors summarize recent clinical observations that mechanistically link the multidirectional components of left ventricular (LV) deformation with morphological phenotypes of cardiomyopathies for offering key insights into the transmural heterogeneity of myocardial function. Subendocardial dysfunction predominantly alters LV longitudinal shortening, lengthening and suction performance and contributes to the phenotypic patterns of heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (EF) seen with hypertrophic and restrictive patterns of cardiomyopathy. On the other hand, a more progressive transmural disease results in reduction of LV circumferential and twist mechanics leading to the phenotypic pattern of dilated cardiomyopathy and the clinical syndrome of HF with reduced (EF). A proper characterization of LV transmural mechanics, energetics, and space-time distributions of pressure and shear stress may allow recognition of early functional changes that can forecast progression or reversal of LV remodeling. Furthermore, the interactions between LV muscle and fluid mechanics hold the promise for offering newer mechanistic insights and tracking impact of novel therapies.

  2. Exclusive breast-feeding for 6 months, with iron supplementation, maintains adequate micronutrient status among term, low-birthweight, breast-fed infants in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Kathryn G; Cohen, Roberta J; Brown, Kenneth H

    2004-05-01

    There is little information on the risk of micronutrient deficiencies during the period of exclusive breast-feeding. We evaluated this among term, low-birthweight (LBW; 1500-2500 g) infants in Honduras. Mother-infant pairs were recruited in the hospital and assisted with exclusive breast-feeding during the first 4 mo. At 4 mo, infants were randomly assigned to either continue exclusive breast-feeding to 6 mo (EBF; n = 59) or be given iron-fortified complementary foods (rice, chicken, fruits, and vegetables) from 4 to 6 mo while continuing to breast-feed (SF, n = 60). Blood samples were collected at 2, 4, and 6 mo and analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit, plasma ferritin, % transferrin saturation, vitamin A, vitamin B-12, folate, zinc, and erythrocyte folate. Infants with Hb < 100 g/L at 2 or 4 mo were given medicinal iron supplements for 2 mo; the proportion administered iron drops did not differ significantly between groups. There was no significant effect of complementary foods on indices of vitamin A, B-12, folate, or zinc status. Among infants not given medicinal iron at 4-6 mo, iron status was higher in the SF group than the EBF group. In those given medicinal iron at 4-6 mo, iron status was higher in the EBF group, suggesting that complementary foods interfered with iron utilization. About half of the infants were anemic by 2 mo, before the age when complementary foods would be recommended. This supports the recommendation that LBW infants should receive iron supplementation in early infancy. Given that infants given iron supplements did not benefit from complementary foods at 4-6 mo, we conclude that exclusive breast-feeding for 6 mo (with iron supplementation) can be recommended for term, LBW infants.

  3. The Growth Attainment, Hematological, Iron Status and Inflammatory Profile of Guatemalan Juvenile End-Stage Renal Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Casimiro de Almeida, Juliana; Lou-Meda, Randall; Olbert, Marion; Seifert, Markus; Weiss, Günter; Wiegerinck, Erwin T.; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Solomons, Noel W.; Schümann, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Background Stunting, anemia and inflammation are frequently observed in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Objectives To assess anthropometric, hematological and inflammatory data and to study their potential interrelationship in Guatemalan juveniles undergoing hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). Methods 54 juveniles 7–20 years of age were recruited in FUNDANIER, Guatemala City: 27 on HD and 27 PD. Hemoglobin, serum iron, transferrin, serum transferrin receptor (sTfR), serum ferritin, transferrin saturation and iron-binding capacity, white blood cell count (WBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as IL-6, IL-1 and TNF-α, weight and height were determined by standard methods. Hepcidin–25 (Hep-25) was assessed by weak cation exchange time-of-flight mass-spectrometry. Results 92% and 55% of HD and PD children, respectively, were stunted and 95% and 85% were anemic. Among iron status biomarkers, serum ferritin was massively increased and significantly higher in the HD group compared to the PD group. Hep-25 was also greatly elevated in both groups. 41% of HD patients showed increments in three or more inflammatory biomarkers, while it was 2 or less in all PD subjects. Conclusions The degree of stunting, the prevalence and severity of anemia in Guatemalan juvenile ESRD far exceed the national statistics for this low-income Central American country. Ferritin and Hep-25 concentrations were elevated, with the latter to an extraordinary magnitude. Additional biomarkers of inflammation not directly related to iron status were elevated as well. The role of both disease- and environment-related factors in combination best explains the magnitude of the biomarker abnormalities. PMID:26445018

  4. Iron status of children aged 9-36 months in an urban slum Integrated Child Development Services project in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Deeksha; Agarwal, Kailash N; Sharma, Sushma; Kela, Kusum; Kaur, Iqbal

    2002-02-01

    To assess the magnitude/severity and possible etiology of anemia and iron deficiency among children 9-36 months of age. A population-based study on the prevalence, etiology of anemia and iron status in 545 children, 9-36 months of age, was conducted in an urban slum ICDS (Integrated Child Development Services) project in North-East Delhi. Hemoglobin and serum ferritin was estimated and information on socio-economic, demographic, parasitic infection/infestation and dietary intake was collected. Prevalence of anemia (using WHO cut-off values of Hb >11.0 g/dl) among children, 9-36 months of age, was 64%, of these 7.8% had severe anemia (Hb >7.0 g/dl). Using 10.0 g/dl as the Hb cut-off point 44% children less than 18 months of age in the present study population were anemic. On a sub-sample study, 88% children were estimated to be iron deficient, with serum ferritin concentration less than 12 microg/L. The peripheral smear red cell morphology showed 33.9% as microcytic-hypochromic and 37.1% as dimorphic. Dimorphic anemia was 55% in moderate anemia group. The energy and iron intakes were 56% and 45%, respectively of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA). The parasitic infestation/infection was not related to the prevalence or severity of anemia. In Delhi, high prevalence of moderate to severe anemia and iron deficiency with vitamins folate and/or B12 among children under 3 years of age in an ICDS block in operation for 20 years is of concern. Dietary origin was the main cause of anemia in this age group.

  5. Iron Status and Febrile Seizure- A Case Control Study in Children Less Than 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    SADEGHZADEH, Mansour; KHOSHNEVIS ASL, Parisa; MAHBOUBI, Esrafil

    2012-01-01

    Objective Febrile seizure is one of the most common neurological conditions of childhood. Several theories, such as iron deficiency anemia have been proposed as the pathogenesis of this condition. The aim of this study was to find the association between iron deficiency anemia and febrile seizures in children aged 6 months to 3 years admitted in Valie Asr hospital in Zanjan. Materials &Methods Hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and SI/TIBC ratio were assessed in one hundred children with febrile seizures and compared to the values of one hundred healthy children presenting in a heath care center in the same period as the control group. Results A total of 6% of cases had iron deficiency anemia which was similar to the control group. In the case group SI/TIBC ratio below 12% was seen in 58% of children which was significantly higher than that of the control group (29%). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that although anemia was not common among febrile seizure patients, iron deficiency was more frequent in these patients. PMID:24665277

  6. Genetics Home Reference: familial restrictive cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions familial restrictive cardiomyopathy familial restrictive cardiomyopathy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Familial restrictive cardiomyopathy is a genetic form of heart disease. For ...

  7. Prevalence of Anemia and Underlying Iron Status in Naive Antiretroviral Therapy HIV-Infected Children with Moderate Immune Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Bunupuradah, Torsak; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Wiangnon, Surapon; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Vibol, Ung; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Ngampiyaskul, Chaiwat; Wongsawat, Jurai; Luesomboon, Wicharn; Lumbiganon, Pagakrong; Sopa, Bunruan; Apornpong, Tanakorn; Chuenyam, Theshinee; Cooper, David A.; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Puthanakit, Thanyawee

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Anemia is common in HIV-infected children and iron deficiency is thought to be a common cause. This study investigates the prevalence of anemia, thalassemia, and underlying iron status in Thai and Cambodian children without advanced HIV disease to determine the necessity of routine iron supplementation. Antiretroviral (ARV)-naive HIV-infected Asian children aged 1–12 years, with CD4 15–24%, CDC A or B, and hemoglobin (Hb) ≥7.5 g/dl were eligible for the study. Iron studies, serum ferritin, Hb typing, and C-reactive protein were assessed. Anemia was defined as Hb <11.0 g/dl in children <5 years of age or <11.5 g/dl in children 5–12 years. We enrolled 299 children; 57.9% were female and the mean (SD) age was 6.3 (2.9) years. The mean (SD) CD4% and HIV-RNA were 20% (4.6) and 4.6 (0.6) log10 copies/ml, respectively. The mean (SD) Hb and serum ferritin were 11.2 (1.1) g/dl and 78.3 (76.4) μg/liter, respectively. The overall iron deficiency anemia (IDA) prevalence was 2.7%. One hundred and forty-eight (50%) children had anemia, mostly of a mild degree. Of these, 69 (46.6%) had the thalassemia trait, 62 (41.8%) had anemia of chronic disease (ACD), 9 (6.1%) had thalassemia diseases, 3 (2.0%) had iron deficiency anemia, and 5 (3.4%) had IDA and the thalassemia trait. The thalassemia trait was not associated with increased serum ferritin levels. Mild anemia is common in ARV-naïve Thai and Cambodian children without advanced HIV. However, IDA prevalence is low; with the majority of cases caused by ACD. A routine prescription of iron supplement in anemic HIV-infected children without laboratory confirmation of IDA should be discouraged, especially in regions with a high prevalence of thalassemia and low prevalence of IDA. PMID:22734817

  8. Association between full breastfeeding, timing of complementary food introduction, and iron status in infancy in Germany: results of a secondary analysis of a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Libuda, Lars; Hilbig, Annett; Berber-Al-Tawil, Seda; Kalhoff, Hermann; Kersting, Mathilde

    2016-10-24

    Considering the low content in breast milk breastfed infants might be at particular risk for depleted iron stores after the first months of life. This study evaluates the association of the mode of milk feeding and the timing of complementary food (CF) introduction with parameters of iron status in term healthy infants in Germany. In this secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, parents recorded all foods consumed by their infants from the age of 8 weeks onwards. Mothers were advised on the German food-based dietary guidelines for infants. Accordingly, CF was introduced between the fifth and seventh month of age. Blood samples were taken at 4 and at 10 months of age for analyses of iron status parameters. Iron depletion was defined as serum ferritin <12 ng/mL. The iron intake was lower in breastfed infants (n = 50) than in formula fed (n = 23) with decreasing differences during the course of infancy. At 10 months of age, most iron parameters were not associated with the mode of milk feeding or the timing of CF introduction. At this age, the iron depletion prevalence was >34% without general differences according to the mode of milk feeding or the timing of CF introduction. The high prevalence of depleted iron stores observed in both breastfed and formula-fed infants illustrates the need for further studies to improve our understanding of the optimal iron intake and sensitive parameters of iron status in infancy.

  9. High dietary iron concentrations enhance the formation of cholesterol oxidation products in the liver of adult rats fed salmon oil with minimal effects on antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Brandsch, Corinna; Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high dietary iron concentrations on the antioxidant status of rats fed two different types of fat. Four groups of male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets with adequate (50 mg iron supplemented per kg diet) or high (500 mg iron supplemented per kg diet) iron concentrations with either lard or salmon oil as dietary fat at 100 g/kg for 12 wk. The antioxidant status of the rats was profoundly influenced by the type of fat. Rats fed salmon oil diets had higher concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) (P < 0.001), various cholesterol oxidation products (COP) (P < 0.001), total and oxidized glutathione (P < 0.05) and a lower concentration of alpha-tocopherol (P < 0.05) in liver and plasma than rats fed lard diets. The iron concentration of the diet did not influence the concentrations of TBARS, the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase or the concentration of alpha-tocopherol in plasma or liver. The activity of catalase (P < 0.01) and the concentrations of total, oxidized and reduced glutathione (P < 0.05) in liver were slightly but significantly higher in rats fed high iron diets than in rats fed adequate iron diets, irrespective of the dietary fat. Rats fed the high iron diets with salmon oil, moreover, had higher concentrations of various COP in the liver (P < 0.001) than rats fed adequate iron diets with salmon oil. These results suggest that feeding a high iron diet does not generally affect the antioxidant status of rats but enhances the formation of COP, particularly if the diet is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  10. Effects of wheat-flour biscuits fortified with iron and EDTA, alone and in combination, on blood lead concentration, iron status, and cognition in children: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bouhouch, Raschida R; El-Fadeli, Sana; Andersson, Maria; Aboussad, Abdelmounaim; Chabaa, Laila; Zeder, Christophe; Kippler, Maria; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Sedki, Azzedine; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2016-11-01

    Lead is a common neurotoxicant and its absorption may be increased in iron deficiency (ID). Thus, iron fortification to prevent ID in populations is a promising lead mitigation strategy. Two common fortificants are ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) and ferric sodium EDTA (NaFeEDTA). EDTA can chelate iron and lead. Our study objective was to determine the effects of iron and EDTA, alone and in combination, on blood lead (BPb) concentration, iron status, and cognition. In this 2 × 2 factorial, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 457 lead-exposed Moroccan children were stratified by school and grade and randomly assigned to consume biscuits (6 d/wk at school) containing 1) ∼8 mg Fe as FeSO4, 2) ∼8 mg Fe as NaFeEDTA that contained ∼41 mg EDTA, 3) ∼41 mg EDTA as sodium EDTA (Na2EDTA), or 4) placebo for 28 wk. The primary outcome was BPb concentration; secondary outcomes were iron status and cognitive outcomes from subtests of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test. These outcomes were measured at baseline and endpoint. All data were analyzed by intention-to-treat. The adjusted geometric mean BPb concentration at baseline was 4.3 μg/dL (95% CI: 4.2, 4.3 μg/dL), and at endpoint these values were 3.3 μg/dL (95% CI: 3.1, 3.5 μg/dL) for FeSO4, 2.9 μg/dL (95% CI: 2.7, 3.0 μg/dL) for NaFeEDTA, 3.3 μg/dL (95% CI: 3.1, 3.5 μg/dL) for EDTA, and 3.7 μg/dL (95% CI: 3.5, 3.9 μg/dL) for placebo. We found an effect of iron (P = 0.009) and EDTA (P = 0.012) for reduced BPb concentrations at endpoint, but no iron × EDTA interaction. Iron fortification improved iron status, but there were no positive effects of iron or EDTA on cognitive test scores. Food fortification with iron and EDTA additively reduces BPb concentrations. Our findings suggest that NaFeEDTA should be the iron fortificant of choice in lead-exposed populations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01573013. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Skin fibroblasts from pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration patients show altered cellular oxidative status and have defective iron-handling properties.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Alessandro; Privitera, Daniela; Guaraldo, Michela; Rovelli, Elisabetta; Barzaghi, Chiara; Garavaglia, Barbara; Santambrogio, Paolo; Cozzi, Anna; Levi, Sonia

    2012-09-15

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a neurodegenerative disease belonging to the group of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation disorders. It is characterized by progressive impairments in movement, speech and cognition. The disease is inherited in a recessive manner due to mutations in the Pantothenate Kinase-2 (PANK2) gene that encodes a mitochondrial protein involved in Coenzyme A synthesis. To investigate the link between a PANK2 gene defect and iron accumulation, we analyzed primary skin fibroblasts from three PKAN patients and three unaffected subjects. The oxidative status of the cells and their ability to respond to iron were analyzed in both basal and iron supplementation conditions. In basal conditions, PKAN fibroblasts show an increase in carbonylated proteins and altered expression of antioxidant enzymes with respect to the controls. After iron supplementation, the PKAN fibroblasts had a defective response to the additional iron. Under these conditions, ferritins were up-regulated and Transferrin Receptor 1 (TfR1) was down-regulated to a minor extent in patients compared with the controls. Analysis of iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) reveals that, with respect to the controls, PKAN fibroblasts have a reduced amount of membrane-associated mRNA-bound IRP1, which responds imperfectly to iron. This accounts for the defective expression of ferritin and TfR1 in patients' cells. The inaccurate quantity of these proteins produced a higher bioactive labile iron pool and consequently increased iron-dependent reactive oxygen species formation. Our results suggest that Pank2 deficiency promotes an increased oxidative status that is further enhanced by the addition of iron, potentially causing damage in cells.

  12. The Emerging Role of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Evaluation of Metabolic Cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Mavrogeni, S; Markousis-Mavrogenis, G; Markussis, V; Kolovou, G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss the role of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) in the diagnosis, risk stratification, and follow-up of metabolic cardiomyopathies. The classification of myocardial diseases, proposed by WHO/ISFC task force, distinguished specific cardiomyopathies, caused by metabolic disorders, into 4 types: 1) endocrine disorders, 2) storage or infiltration disorders (amyloidosis, hemochromatosis and familial storage disorders), 3) nutritional disorders (Kwashiorkor, beri-beri, obesity, and alcohol), and 4) diabetic heart. Thyroid disease, pheochromocytoma, and growth hormone excess or deficiency may contribute to usually reversible dilated cardiomyopathy. Glucogen storage diseases can be presented with myopathy, liver, and heart failure. Lysosomal storage diseases can provoke cardiac hypertrophy, mimicking hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmias. Hereditary hemochromatosis, an inherited disorder of iron metabolism, leads to tissue iron overload in different organs, including the heart. Cardiac amyloidosis is the result of amyloid deposition in the heart, formed from breakdown of normal or abnormal proteins that leads to increased heart stiffness, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. Finally, nutritional disturbances and metabolic diseases, such as Kwashiorkor, beri-beri, obesity, alcohol consumption, and diabetes mellitus may also lead to severe cardiac dysfunction. CMR, through its capability to reliably assess anatomy, function, inflammation, rest-stress myocardial perfusion, myocardial fibrosis, aortic distensibility, iron and/or fat deposition can serve as an excellent tool for early diagnosis of heart involvement, risk stratification, treatment evaluation, and long term follow-up of patients with metabolic cardiomyopathies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Anesthetic experience using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cesarean section in the patient with peripartum cardiomyopathy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Young; Jeon, Hyung-Joon; Yun, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Lee, Gang-Geon

    2014-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare form of cardiomyopathy that is associated with significant mortality. It can cause a cardiac arrest during cesarean section even though the patient does not have any previous symptom and sign. The most important thing of anesthesia in this patient is an optimization of hemodynamic and respiratory status. We report the successful general anesthesia using of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cesarean section in a 34-year-old woman with fulminant peripartum cardiomyopathy. PMID:24910733

  14. [Study of vitamin A nutritional status and the correlation of vitamin A and iron in school-age children].

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoming; Liu, Xiangye; Long, Zhu; Shen, Xiaoyi

    2003-01-01

    To understand the VA status, the detectable rate of the sub-clinical VA deficiency and the correlation of VA and iron in the rural school-age children of Beijing Mountain Area. In the dietary survey, blood samples were collected by venopunction and serum VA, and hematological index were determined in 305 children 7-13 years. The intakes of dietary energy, protein and iron were > 85% of the RNI and AI, but dietary intake of VA were (513.7 +/- 286.1) microgram to be 59.7% of the RNI; The average concentration of serum VA was (1.01 +/- 0.29) mumol/L, 59.0% of subjects have serum VA lower than 1.05 mumol/L, in which, 12.8% of them were lower than 0.70 mumol/L, and only 41.0% of subjects were normal levels of serum. With aggravation of iron deficiency from ID to IDA phase, the average serum VA concentrations were descending from 1.02 mumol/L in ID phase to 0.97 mumol/L in IDA phase. But the trend has no statistical significance. The results showed that sub-clinical VA deficiency was 59.0% in the rural school-age children, so VA deficiency was a main nutritional problem in rural school-age children of Beijing mountain area.

  15. Current status of superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast agents for liver magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Xiang J

    2015-01-01

    Five types of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO), i.e. Ferumoxides (Feridex® IV, Berlex Laboratories), Ferucarbotran (Resovist®, Bayer Healthcare), Ferumoxtran-10 (AMI-227 or Code-7227, Combidex®, AMAG Pharma; Sinerem®, Guerbet), NC100150 (Clariscan®, Nycomed,) and (VSOP C184, Ferropharm) have been designed and clinically tested as magnetic resonance contrast agents. However, until now Resovist® is current available in only a few countries. The other four agents have been stopped for further development or withdrawn from the market. Another SPIO agent Ferumoxytol (Feraheme®) is approved for the treatment of iron deficiency in adult chronic kidney disease patients. Ferumoxytol is comprised of iron oxide particles surrounded by a carbohydrate coat, and it is being explored as a potential imaging approach for evaluating lymph nodes and certain liver tumors. PMID:26715826

  16. Current status of superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast agents for liver magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Xiang J

    2015-12-21

    Five types of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO), i.e. Ferumoxides (Feridex(®) IV, Berlex Laboratories), Ferucarbotran (Resovist(®), Bayer Healthcare), Ferumoxtran-10 (AMI-227 or Code-7227, Combidex(®), AMAG Pharma; Sinerem(®), Guerbet), NC100150 (Clariscan(®), Nycomed,) and (VSOP C184, Ferropharm) have been designed and clinically tested as magnetic resonance contrast agents. However, until now Resovist(®) is current available in only a few countries. The other four agents have been stopped for further development or withdrawn from the market. Another SPIO agent Ferumoxytol (Feraheme(®)) is approved for the treatment of iron deficiency in adult chronic kidney disease patients. Ferumoxytol is comprised of iron oxide particles surrounded by a carbohydrate coat, and it is being explored as a potential imaging approach for evaluating lymph nodes and certain liver tumors.

  17. Dietary Intake, Anthropometric Characteristics, and Iron and Vitamin D Status of Female Adolescent Ballet Dancers Living in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kathryn L; Mitchell, Sarah; Foskett, Andrew; Conlon, Cathryn A; von Hurst, Pamela R

    2015-08-01

    Ballet dancing is a multifaceted activity requiring muscular power, strength, endurance, flexibility, and agility; necessitating demanding training schedules. Furthermore dancers may be under aesthetic pressure to maintain a lean physique, and adolescent dancers require extra nutrients for growth and development. This cross-sectional study investigated the nutritional status of 47 female adolescent ballet dancers (13-18 years) living in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants who danced at least 1 hr per day 5 days per week completed a 4-day estimated food record, anthropometric measurements (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry) and hematological analysis (iron and vitamin D). Mean BMI was 19.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2 and percentage body fat, 23.5 ± 4.1%. The majority (89.4%) of dancers had a healthy weight (5th-85th percentile) using BMI-for-age growth charts. Food records showed a mean energy intake of 8097.3 ± 2155.6 kJ/day (48.9% carbohydrate, 16.9% protein, 33.8% fat, 14.0% saturated fat). Mean carbohydrate and protein intakes were 4.8 ± 1.4 and 1.6 ± 0.5 g/kg/day respectively. Over half (54.8%) of dancers consumed less than 5 g carbohydrate/kg/day, and 10 (23.8%) less than 1.2 g protein/kg/day. Over 60% consumed less than the estimated average requirement for calcium, folate, magnesium and selenium. Thirteen (28.3%) dancers had suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin (SF) < 20 μg/L). Of these, four had iron deficiency (SF < 12 μg/L, hemoglobin (Hb) ≥ 120 g/L) and one iron deficiency anemia (SF < 12 μg/L, Hb < 120 g/L). Mean serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D was 75.1 ± 18.6 nmol/L, 41 (91.1%) had concentrations above 50 nmol/L. Female adolescent ballet dancers are at risk for iron deficiency, and possibly inadequate nutrient intakes.

  18. Maternal Iron Status in Pregnancy and Long-Term Health Outcomes in the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Alwan, Nisreen A.; Hamamy, Hanan

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient and is important not only in carrying oxygen but also to the catalytic activity of a variety of enzymes. In the fetus, it is vital to the synthesis of hemoglobin and in brain development. Iron deficiency (ID) anemia in pregnancy is a common problem, even in high-income country settings. Around 50% of pregnant women worldwide are anemic, with at least half of this burden due to ID. Iron supplements are widely recommended and used during pregnancy globally. However, the evidence on the extent of benefit they contribute to the offspring's health is not well established, and their routine use has its side effects and drawbacks. Dietary iron intake is difficult to assess accurately and it is unlikely to be sufficient to meet the demands of pregnancy if women start with inadequate body iron stores at conception. Evidence from experimental animal models suggests that maternal ID during pregnancy is associated with fetal growth restriction, as well as offspring obesity and high blood pressure later in life. The possible biological mechanisms for this observed association may be due to ID-induced changes in placental structure and function, enzyme expression, nutrient absorption, and fetal organ development. However, such evidence is limited in human studies. Prenatal ID in experimental animal models also adversely affected the developing brain structures, neurotransmitter systems, and myelination resulting in acute brain dysfunction during the period of deficiency and persistence of various postnatal neurobehavioral abnormalities as well as persistent dysregulation of some genes into adult life after iron repletion pointing to the possibility of gene expression changes. The evidence from human population studies is limited and heterogeneous and more research is needed in the future, investigating the effects of ID in pregnancy on future offspring health outcomes. PMID:27617121

  19. Inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMI).

    PubMed

    Maisch, Bernhard; Richter, Anette; Sandmöller, Andrea; Portig, Irene; P