Balint, I; Vučak, J; Bašić-Marković, N; Klarić, D; Šakić, V Amerl
Cardiorenal syndrome, a complex pathophysiological disorder of both the heart and kidneys, is a condition in which acute or chronic damage to one organ can lead to acute or chronic dysfunction of the other organ. Depending on primary organ dysfunction and disease duration, there are five different types of cardiorenal syndrome. Type 1 cardiorenal syndrome (acute cardiorenal syndrome) is defined as acute kidney injury caused by sudden decrease in heart function. Type 2 cardiorenal syndrome (chronic cardiorenal syndrome) refers to chronic kidney disease linked to chronic heart failure. Type 3 cardiorenal syndrome (acute renocardial syndrome) is caused by acute kidney injury that leads to heart failure. Type 4 cardiorenal syndrome (chronic renocardial syndrome) includes chronic heart failure due to chronic kidney disease. Type 5 cardiorenal syndrome (secondary cardiorenal syndrome) is reversible or irreversible condition marked by simultaneous heart and kidney insufficiency, as a result of multiorgan disease such as sepsis, diabetes mellitus, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, etc. The pathophysiological patterns of cardiorenal syndrome are extremely complicated. Despite numerous publications, perplexed physiological, biochemical and hormonal disturbances as parts of the main pathogenic mechanisms of cardiorenal syndrome remain obscure. Even though there are guidelines for the treatment of patients with heart failure and chronic kidney disease, similar guidelines for the treatment of cardiorenal syndrome are lacking. In everyday practice, it is crucial to diagnose cardiorenal syndrome and use all diagnostic and therapeutic procedures available to prevent or alleviate kidney and heart failure.
Onuigbo, Macaulay Amechi C
The consensus conference on cardio-renal syndromes (2008) defined 'cardio-renal syndromes' as 'disorders of the heart and kidneys whereby acute or chronic dysfunction in one organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction of the other' and identified five subtypes of the syndromes. Various pathophysiologic mechanisms underlie cardiorenal syndrome including hemodynamic derangements, reduced cardiac output leading to impaired renal perfusion, reduced stroke volume, raised atrial filling pressures, elevated atrial pressures, sodium and water retention, venous congestion, right ventricular dysfunction and venous hypertension causing increased renal venous pressure, intra-abdominal hypertension, various neurohormonal adaptations including activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, adaptive activation of the sympathetic nervous system, cytokine release and oxidative stress. Although there are standardized clinical guidelines for the management of heart failure, and chronic kidney disease, respectively, there are no similar consensus clinical guidelines for the management of the cardiorenal syndromes. RAAS inhibition is advocated in treating systolic heart failure. There is evidence that RAAS inhibition is also useful in cardiorenal syndrome. However, RAAS inhibition, while potentially useful in the management of cardiorenal syndrome, is not the 'magic bullet', is sometimes limited by adverse renal events, is not applicable to all patients, and must be applied by physicians with due diligence and caution. Nevertheless, a more comprehensive multidisciplinary multipronged approach to managing patients with cardiorenal syndrome is even more pragmatic and commonsense given the multiple mechanisms and pathogenetic pathways implicated in the causation and perpetuation of cardiorenal syndrome.
Cabandugama, Peminda K; Gardner, Michael J; Sowers, James R
In the United States, more than 50 million people have blood pressure at or above 120/80 mm Hg. All components of cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS) are linked to metabolic abnormalities and obesity. A major driver for CRS is obesity. Current estimates show that many of those with hypertension and CRS show some degree of systemic and cardiovascular insulin resistance. Several pathophysiologic factors participate in the link between hypertension and CRS. This article updates recent literature with a focus on the function of insulin resistance, obesity, and renin angiotensin aldosterone system-mediated oxidative stress on endothelial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of hypertension. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McCullough, Peter A
The cardiorenal syndromes (CRS) are composed of five recently defined syndromes which represent common clinical scenarios in which both the heart and the kidney are involved in a bidirectional injury process leading to dysfunction of both organs. Common to each subtype are multiple complex pathogenic factors, a precipitous decline in function and a progressive course. Most pathways that lead to CRS involve acute injury to organs which manifest evidence of chronic disease, suggesting reduced ability to sustain damage, maintain vital functions, and facilitate recovery. Prevention of CRS is an ideal clinical goal, because once initiated, CRS cannot be readily aborted, are not completely reversible, and are associated with serious consequences including hospitalization, complicated procedures, need for renal replacement therapy, and death. Principles of prevention include identification and amelioration of precipitating factors, optimal management of both chronic heart and kidney diseases, and future use of multimodality therapies for end-organ protection at the time of systemic injury. This paper will review the core concepts of prevention of CRS with practical applications to be considered in today's practice. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
House, Andrew A.; Haapio, Mikko; Lassus, Johan; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Ronco, Claudio
Cardiorenal syndromes are disorders of the heart and kidneys whereby acute or chronic dysfunction in one organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction of the other. The pharmacological management of Cardiorenal syndromes may be complicated by unanticipated or unintended effects of agents targeting one organ on the other. Hence, a thorough understanding of the pathophysiology of these disorders is paramount. The treatment of cardiovascular diseases and risk factors may affect renal function and modify the progression of renal injury. Likewise, management of renal disease and associated complications can influence heart function or influence cardiovascular risk. In this paper, an overview of pharmacological management of acute and chronic Cardiorenal Syndromes is presented, and the need for high-quality future studies in this field is highlighted. PMID:21660311
Pinheiro da Silva, Ana Luísa; Vaz da Silva, Manuel Joaquim
The Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative consensus conference proposed a classification of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS), aiming for a better delineation of each subtype. Although the exact pathophysiology of type 4 CRS is not completely understood, the mechanisms involved are probably multifactorial. There is growing evidence that oxidative stress is a major connector in the development and progression of type 4 CRS. Giving its complexity, poor prognosis and increasing incidence, type 4 CRS is becoming a significant public health problem. Patients with chronic kidney disease are particularly predisposed to cardiac dysfunction, due to the high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in this population, but the contribution of risk factors specific to chronic kidney disease should also be taken into account. Much remains to be elucidated about type 4 CRS: despite progress over the last decade, there are still significant questions regarding its pathophysiology and there is as yet no specific therapy. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved may provide potential targets for intervention. The present review will provide a brief description of the definition, epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, biomarkers and management strategies of type 4 CRS, and the pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors presumably involved in its development will be particularly highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Brisco, Meredith A.; Testani, Jeffrey M.
Renal dysfunction (RD) in heart failure portends adverse outcomes and often limits aggressive medical and decongestive therapies. Despite the high prevalence in this population, not all forms of RD are prognostically or mechanistically equivalent: RD can result from irreversible nephron loss secondary to diabetic or hypertensive kidney disease or it can develop secondary to the HF itself, i.e. the cardiorenal syndrome. Furthermore, filtration is only one aspect of renal performance such that significant renal impairment secondary to cardiorenal syndrome can exist despite a normal glomerular filtration rate. Renal biomarkers have the potential to inform some of the intricacies involved in accurately assessing cardiorenal interactions. This article discusses novel biomarkers for cardiorenal syndrome and their utility in prognosis, diagnosis, and targeted treatment of heart failure-induced RD. PMID:25239434
Hayden, Melvin R.; Sowers, Kurt M.; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Joginpally, Tejaswini; Krueger, Bennett; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Sowers, James R.
The role of local tissue renin-angiotensin system (tRAS) activation in the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is not well understood. To this point, we posit that early redox stress-mediated injury to tissues and organs via accumulation of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and associated wound healing responses might serve as a paradigm to better understand how tRAS is involved. There are at least five common categories responsible for generating ROS that may result in a positive feedback ROS-tRAS axis. These mechanisms include metabolic substrate excess, hormonal excess, hypoxia-ischemia/reperfusion, trauma, and inflammation. Because ROS are toxic to proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids they may be the primary instigator, serving as the injury nidus to initiate the wound healing process. Insulin resistance is central to the development of the CRS and T2DM, and there are now thought to be four major organ systems important in their development. In states of overnutrition and tRAS activation, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle (SkM), islet tissues, and liver (the quadrumvirate) are individually and synergistically related to the development of insulin resistance, CRS, and T2DM. The obesity epidemic is thought to be the driving force behind the CRS and T2DM, which results in the impairment of multiple end-organs, including the cardiovascular system, pancreas, kidney, retina, liver, adipose tissue, SkM, and nervous system. A better understanding of the complex mechanisms leading to local tRAS activation and increases in tissue ROS may lead to new therapies emphasizing global risk reduction of ROS resulting in decreased morbidity and mortality. PMID:22096455
Liu, Yan; An, Wenjun; Gao, Aibao
Cardiorenal syndrome is a complicated and bidirectional interrelationship between the heart and kidneys. Naringenin (NG) is a naturally occurring flavonoid possessing various biological and pharmacological properties. We tested whether NG could improve cardiac and renal function in a rat model of cardiorenal syndrome. The results showed that NG-attenuated cardiac remodeling and cardiac dysfunction in rats with cardiorenal syndrome, as evidenced by decrease of left ventricle weight (LVW), increase of body weight (BW), decrease of LVW/BW, decrease of concentrations of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, type-B natriuretic peptide, aldosterone, angiotensin (Ang) II, C-reactive protein, and urine protein, increase of left ventricular systolic pressure and falling rates of left ventricular pressure (dp/dtmax), and decrease of left ventricular diastolic pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and -dp/dtmax. NG significantly inhibited the increase of lipid profiles including low-density lipoprotein, TC, and TG in rats. In addition, NG significantly inhibited the increase of cardiac expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and interferon γ. Moreover, NG decreased malonaldehyde level, increased superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione content in rats, and increased the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and catalytic subunit of γ-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCLc) in rats and Ang II-treated cardiac fibroblasts. Inhibition of Nrf2 and glutathione synthesis significantly suppressed NG-induced decrease of ROS level. Inhibition of Nrf2 markedly suppressed NG-induced increase of GCLc expression in Ang II-treated cardiac fibroblasts. The data provide novel options for therapy of patients and new insights into the cardioprotective effects of NG in cardiorenal syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rubattu, Speranza; Mennuni, Silvia; Testa, Marco; Mennuni, Mara; Pierelli, Giorgia; Pagliaro, Beniamino; Gabriele, Erica; Coluccia, Roberta; Autore, Camillo; Volpe, Massimo
Cardiorenal syndrome is a frequently encountered clinical condition when the dysfunction of either the heart or kidneys amplifies the failure progression of the other organ. Complex biochemical, hormonal and hemodynamic mechanisms underlie the development of cardiorenal syndrome. Both in vitro and experimental studies have identified several dysregulated pathways in heart failure and in chronic kidney disease that lead to increased oxidative stress. A decrease in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism has been reported in cardiomyocytes during heart failure. This is balanced by a compensatory increase in glucose uptake and glycolysis with consequent decrease in myocardial ATP content. In the kidneys, both NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial metabolism are important sources of TGF-β1-induced cellular ROS. NOX-dependent oxidative activation of transcription factors such as NF-kB and c-jun leads to increased expression of renal target genes (phospholipaseA2, MCP-1 and CSF-1, COX-2), thus contributing to renal interstitial fibrosis and inflammation. In the present article, we postulate that, besides contributing to both cardiac and renal dysfunction, increased oxidative stress may also play a crucial role in cardiorenal syndrome development and progression. In particular, an imbalance between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, the sympathetic nervous system, and inflammation may favour cardiorenal syndrome through an excessive oxidative stress production. This article also discusses novel therapeutic strategies for their potential use in the treatment of patients affected by cardiorenal syndrome. PMID:24264044
Otero-Losada, Matilde; Gómez Llambí, Hernán; Ottaviano, Graciela; Cao, Gabriel; Müller, Angélica; Azzato, Francisco; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Milei, José
We report experimental evidence confirming renal histopathology, proinflammatory mediators, and oxidative metabolism induced by cola drinking. Male Wistar rats drank ad libitum regular cola (C, n = 12) or tap water (W, n = 12). Measures. Body weight, nutritional data, plasma glucose, cholesterol fractions, TG, urea, creatinine, coenzyme Q10, SBP, and echocardiograms (0 mo and 6 mo). At 6 months euthanasia was performed. Kidneys were processed for histopathology and immunohistochemistry (semiquantitative). Compared with W, C rats showed (I) overweight (+8%, p < 0.05), hyperglycemia (+11%, p < 0.05), hypertriglyceridemia (2-fold, p < 0.001), higher AIP (2-fold, p < 0.01), and lower Q10 level (-55%, p < 0.05); (II) increased LV diastolic diameter (+9%, p < 0.05) and volume (systolic +24%, p < 0.05), posterior wall thinning (-8%, p < 0.05), and larger cardiac output (+24%, p < 0.05); (III) glomerulosclerosis (+21%, p < 0.05), histopathology (+13%, p < 0.05), higher tubular expression of IL-6 (7-fold, p < 0.001), and TNFα (4-fold, p < 0.001). (IV) Correlations were found for LV dimensions with IL-6 (74%, p < 0.001) and TNFα (52%, p < 0.001) and fully abolished after TG and Q10 control. Chronic cola drinking induced cardiac remodeling associated with increase in proinflammatory cytokines and renal damage. Hypertriglyceridemia and oxidative stress were key factors. Hypertriglyceridemic lipotoxicity in the context of defective antioxidant/anti-inflammatory protection due to low Q10 level might play a key role in cardiorenal disorder induced by chronic cola drinking in rats.
Otero-Losada, Matilde; Gómez Llambí, Hernán; Ottaviano, Graciela; Cao, Gabriel; Müller, Angélica; Azzato, Francisco; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Milei, José
We report experimental evidence confirming renal histopathology, proinflammatory mediators, and oxidative metabolism induced by cola drinking. Male Wistar rats drank ad libitum regular cola (C, n = 12) or tap water (W, n = 12). Measures. Body weight, nutritional data, plasma glucose, cholesterol fractions, TG, urea, creatinine, coenzyme Q10, SBP, and echocardiograms (0 mo and 6 mo). At 6 months euthanasia was performed. Kidneys were processed for histopathology and immunohistochemistry (semiquantitative). Compared with W, C rats showed (I) overweight (+8%, p < 0.05), hyperglycemia (+11%, p < 0.05), hypertriglyceridemia (2-fold, p < 0.001), higher AIP (2-fold, p < 0.01), and lower Q10 level (−55%, p < 0.05); (II) increased LV diastolic diameter (+9%, p < 0.05) and volume (systolic +24%, p < 0.05), posterior wall thinning (−8%, p < 0.05), and larger cardiac output (+24%, p < 0.05); (III) glomerulosclerosis (+21%, p < 0.05), histopathology (+13%, p < 0.05), higher tubular expression of IL-6 (7-fold, p < 0.001), and TNFα (4-fold, p < 0.001). (IV) Correlations were found for LV dimensions with IL-6 (74%, p < 0.001) and TNFα (52%, p < 0.001) and fully abolished after TG and Q10 control. Chronic cola drinking induced cardiac remodeling associated with increase in proinflammatory cytokines and renal damage. Hypertriglyceridemia and oxidative stress were key factors. Hypertriglyceridemic lipotoxicity in the context of defective antioxidant/anti-inflammatory protection due to low Q10 level might play a key role in cardiorenal disorder induced by chronic cola drinking in rats. PMID:27340342
Caetano, Francisca; Barra, Sérgio; Faustino, Ana; Botelho, Ana; Mota, Paula; Costa, Marco; Leitão Marques, António
Worsening renal function has an unquestionably negative impact on prognosis in patients with acute heart failure (HF). In Portugal there is little information about the importance of this entity in HF patients admitted to hospital. The objective of this work was to assess the prevalence of cardiorenal syndrome and to identify its key predictors and consequences in patients admitted for acute HF. This was a retrospective study of 155 patients admitted for acute HF. Cardiorenal syndrome was defined as an increase in serum creatinine of ≥26.5 μmol/l. Clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic parameters were analyzed and compared. Mortality was assessed at 30 and 90 days. Cardiorenal syndrome occurred in 46 patients (29.7%), 5.4 ± 4.4 days after admission; 66.7% (n=24) did not recover baseline creatinine levels. The factors associated with cardiorenal syndrome were older age, chronic renal failure, moderate to severe mitral regurgitation, higher admission blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and troponin I, and lower glomerular filtration rate. Patients who developed cardiorenal syndrome had longer hospital stay, were treated with higher daily doses of intravenous furosemide, and more often required inotropic support and renal replacement therapy. They had higher in-hospital and 30-day mortality, and multivariate analysis identified cardiorenal syndrome as an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality. Renal dysfunction is common in acute HF patients, with a negative impact on prognosis, which highlights the importance of preventing kidney damage through the use of new therapeutic strategies and identification of novel biomarkers. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Minatel, Igor Otávio; Ferron, Artur Junio Togneri; Garcia, Jéssica Leite; de Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé; Ferreira, Ana Lúcia; Moreto, Fernando; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos; Corrêa, Camila Renata
Background: The high consumption of fat and sugar contributes to the development of obesity and co-morbidities, such as diabetes, and cardiovascular and kidney diseases. Different strategies have been used to prevent these diseases associated with obesity, such as changes in eating habits and/or the addition of dietary components with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, such as gamma-oryzanol (γOz) present mainly in bran layers and rice germ. Methods: Animals were randomly divided into four experimental groups and fed ad libitum for 20 weeks with control diet (C, n = 8), control diet + γOz (C + γOz, n = 8), high-sugar and high-fat diet (HSF, n = 8), and high-sugar and high-fat diet + γOz (HSF + γOz, n = 8). HSF groups also received water + sucrose (25%). The dose of γOz was added to diets to reach 0.5% of final concentration (w/w). Evaluation in animals included food and caloric intake, body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, uric acid, HOMA-IR, glomerular filtration rate, protein/creatinine ratio, systolic blood pressure, and Doppler echocardiographic. Results: Animals that consumed the HSF diet had weight gain compared to group C, increased insulin, HOMA, glucose and triglycerides, there were also atrial and ventricular structural alterations, deterioration of systolic and diastolic function, decreased glomerular filtration rate, and proteinuria. Gamma-oryzanol is significantly protective against effects on body weight, hypertriglyceridemia, renal damage, and against structural and functional alteration of the heart. Conclusion: Gamma-oryzanol shows potential as a therapeutic to prevent Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome. PMID:29186059
Francisqueti, Fabiane Valentini; Minatel, Igor Otávio; Ferron, Artur Junio Togneri; Bazan, Silméia Garcia Zanati; Silva, Vanessa Dos Santos; Garcia, Jéssica Leite; de Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé; Ferreira, Ana Lúcia; Moreto, Fernando; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos; Corrêa, Camila Renata
The high consumption of fat and sugar contributes to the development of obesity and co-morbidities, such as diabetes, and cardiovascular and kidney diseases. Different strategies have been used to prevent these diseases associated with obesity, such as changes in eating habits and/or the addition of dietary components with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, such as gamma-oryzanol (γOz) present mainly in bran layers and rice germ. Animals were randomly divided into four experimental groups and fed ad libitum for 20 weeks with control diet (C, n = 8), control diet + γOz (C + γOz, n = 8), high-sugar and high-fat diet (HSF, n = 8), and high-sugar and high-fat diet + γOz (HSF + γOz, n = 8). HSF groups also received water + sucrose (25%). The dose of γOz was added to diets to reach 0.5% of final concentration ( w / w ). Evaluation in animals included food and caloric intake, body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, uric acid, HOMA-IR, glomerular filtration rate, protein/creatinine ratio, systolic blood pressure, and Doppler echocardiographic. Animals that consumed the HSF diet had weight gain compared to group C, increased insulin, HOMA, glucose and triglycerides, there were also atrial and ventricular structural alterations, deterioration of systolic and diastolic function, decreased glomerular filtration rate, and proteinuria. Gamma-oryzanol is significantly protective against effects on body weight, hypertriglyceridemia, renal damage, and against structural and functional alteration of the heart. Gamma-oryzanol shows potential as a therapeutic to prevent Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome.
Martins, Hélia; Pedro, Nelson; Castellano, Maria; Monteiro, Pedro; Moura, José Júlio; Providência, Luís A
Heart failure is a chronic and progressive disease that is estimated to affect approximately 20 million people worldwide and is one of the major public health problems. Its prevalence is reaching epidemic levels with about 550,000 new cases diagnosed annually, partly due to increased life expectancy in developed countries. And as it is a systemic disease, it can cause dysfunction in various organs, but especially in the kidney. The renal failure is often associated with heart failure and, when present together, make the treatment more complex and the prognosis is worse. This is the cardio-renal syndrome. The definition of cardio-renal syndrome varies according to the working groups, and there isn't a consensus. The exact cause of deterioration of renal function and the mechanism behind this interaction are complex, multifactorial in nature and not fully known at present. The treatment available is the one used for the treatment of heart failure. It is necessary to maintain the normal function of filtration, secretion and reabsorption in kidney to have a real improvement of the clinical condition of the patient. Patients with higher risk of developing nephropathy and those who have diagnosed renal failure should have prescribed drugs that are handled very carefully. But as in many other clinical situations, there aren't perfect drugs available to treat cardio-renal syndrome and the existing ones may have serious side effects in medium/long term causing the deterioration of renal function and possibly an increased mortality. The treatment is truly challenging in patients with severe fluid overload that is refractory to diuretics. This article aims to present the existing definitions of cardio-renal syndrome, its epidemiology, describe the current knowledge about the pathophysiology and its relationship to therapeutic interventions, some actual strategies and future technologies in an attempt to preserve the kidney, mainly during the decompensation of chronic heart
Ronco, Claudio; Di Lullo, Luca
It is well established that a large number of hospitalized patients present various degrees of heart and kidney dysfunction; primary disease of the heart or kidney often involves dysfunction or injury to the other. Based on above-cited organ cross-talk, the term cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) was proposed. Although CRS was usually referred to as abruption of kidney function following heart injury, it is now clearly established that it can describe negative effects of an impaired renal function on the heart and circulation. The historical lack of clear syndrome definition and complexity of diseases contributed to a waste of precious time especially concerning diagnosis and therapeutic strategies. The effective classification of CRS proposed in a Consensus Conference by the Acute Dialysis Quality Group essentially divides CRS into two main groups, cardiorenal and renocardiac CRS, on the basis of primum movens of disease (cardiac or renal); both cardiorenal and renocardiac CRS are then divided into acute and chronic according to disease onset. Type 5 CRS integrates all cardiorenal involvement induced by systemic disease. Prevalence and incidence data show a widespread increase of CRS also due to an increasing incidence of acute and chronic cardiovascular disease, such as acute decompensated heart failure, arterial hypertension and valvular heart disease. Patients with chronic kidney disease present various degrees of cardiovascular involvement especially due to chronic inflammatory status, volume and pressure overload and secondary hyperparathyroidism leading to a higher incidence of calcific heart disease. The following review will focus on the main aspects (epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostic tools and protocols, therapeutic approaches) of CRS in Western countries (Europe and United States).
Casado Cerrada, Jesús; Pérez Calvo, Juan Ignacio
Heart failure is a complex syndrome that affects almost all organs and systems of the body. Signs and symptoms of organ dysfunction, in particular kidney dysfunction, may be accentuated or become evident for the first time during acute decompensation of heart failure. Cardiorenal syndrome has been defined as the simultaneous dysfunction of both the heart and the kidney, regardless of which of the two organs may have suffered the initial damage and regardless also of their previous functional status. Research into the mechanisms regulating the complex relationship between the two organs is prompting the search for new biomarkers to help physicians detect renal damage in subclinical stages. Hence, a preventive approach to renal dysfunction may be adopted in the clinical setting in the near future. This article provides a general overview of cardiorenal syndrome and an update of the physiopathological mechanisms involved. Special emphasis is placed on the role of visceral congestion as an emergent mechanism in this syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Núñez, Julio; Miñana, Gema; Santas, Enrique; Bertomeu-González, Vicente
Cardiorenal syndrome has been defined as the simultaneous dysfunction of both the heart and the kidney. Worsening renal function that occurs in patients with acute heart failure has been classified as cardiorenal syndrome type 1. In this setting, worsening renal function is a common finding and is due to complex, multifactorial, and not fully understood processes involving hemodynamic (renal arterial hypoperfusion and renal venous congestion) and nonhemodynamic factors. Traditionally, worsening renal function has been associated with worse outcomes, but recent findings have revealed mixed and heterogeneous results, perhaps suggesting that the same phenotype represents a diversity of pathophysiological and clinical situations. Interpreting the magnitude and chronology of renal changes together with baseline renal function, fluid overload status, and clinical response to therapy might help clinicians to unravel the clinical meaning of renal function changes that occur during an episode of heart failure decompensation. In this article, we critically review the contemporary evidence on the pathophysiology and clinical aspects of worsening renal function in acute heart failure. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Chilton, J; Wilcox, A; Lammey, M; Meyer, D
Cardiorenal syndrome involves disease and dysfunction of the heart that leads to progressive renal dysfunction. This study investigated the relationship between cardiac and renal disease in 91 aged chimpanzees at the Alamogordo Primate Facility by evaluation of the medical histories, metabolic parameters, functional measurements of the cardiovascular system, clinical pathology, and histopathology focused on the heart and kidney. Cardiac fibrosis was the most frequent microscopic finding in 82 of 91 animals (90%), followed by glomerulosclerosis with tubulointerstitial fibrosis in 63 of 91 (69%). Cardiac fibrosis with attendant glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis was observed in 58 of 91 animals (63%); there was a statistically significant association between the 2 conditions. As the severity of cardiac fibrosis increased, there was corresponding increase in severity of glomerulosclerosis with tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Altered metabolic, cardiovascular, and clinical pathology parameters indicative of heart and kidney failure were commonly associated with the moderate to severe microscopic changes, and concurrent heart and kidney failure were considered the cause of death. The constellation of findings in the chimpanzees were similar to cardiorenal syndrome in humans. © The Author(s) 2016.
Vallabhajosyula, Saraschandra; Sakhuja, Ankit; Geske, Jeffrey B; Kumar, Mukesh; Kashyap, Rahul; Kashani, Kianoush; Jentzer, Jacob C
To evaluate the clinical features and outcomes of acute cardiorenal syndrome type-5 in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Historical cohort study of all adult patients with severe sepsis and septic shock admitted to the intensive care units (ICU) at Mayo Clinic Rochester from January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2014. Patients with prior renal or cardiac dysfunction were excluded. Patients were divided into groups with and without cardiorenal syndrome type-5. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) was defined by both serum creatinine and urine output criteria of the AKI Network and the cardiac injury was determined by troponin-T levels. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality, ICU and hospital length of stay, and one-year survival. Of 602 patients meeting the study inclusion criteria, 430 (71.4%) met criteria for acute cardiorenal syndrome type-5. Patients with cardiorenal syndrome type-5 had higher severity of illness, greater vasopressor and mechanical ventilation use. Cardiorenal syndrome type-5 was associated higher unadjusted in-hospital mortality, ICU and hospital lengths of stay, and lower one-year survival. When adjusted for age, gender, severity of illness and mechanical ventilation, cardiorenal syndrome type-5 was independently associated with 1.7-times greater odds of in-hospital mortality (p = .03), but did not predict one-year survival (p = .06) compared to patients without cardiorenal syndrome. In sepsis, acute cardiorenal syndrome type-5 is associated with worse in-hospital mortality compared to patients without cardiorenal syndrome.
Distinct Endothelial Cell Responses in the Heart and Kidney Microvasculature Characterize the Progression of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction in the Obese ZSF1 Rat With Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome.
van Dijk, Christian G M; Oosterhuis, Nynke R; Xu, Yan Juan; Brandt, Maarten; Paulus, Walter J; van Heerebeek, Loek; Duncker, Dirk J; Verhaar, Marianne C; Fontoura, Dulce; Lourenço, André P; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Falcão-Pires, Inês; Joles, Jaap A; Cheng, Caroline
The combination of cardiac and renal disease driven by metabolic risk factors, referred to as cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRMS), is increasingly recognized as a critical pathological entity. The contribution of (micro)vascular injury to CRMS is considered to be substantial. However, mechanistic studies are hampered by lack of in vivo models that mimic the natural onset of the disease. Here, we evaluated the coronary and renal microvasculature during CRMS development in obese diabetic Zucker fatty/Spontaneously hypertensive heart failure F1 hybrid (ZSF1) rats. Echocardiographic, urine, and blood evaluations were conducted in 3 groups (Wistar-Kyoto, lean ZSF1, and obese ZSF1) at 20 and 25 weeks of age. Immunohistological evaluation of renal and cardiac tissues was conducted at both time points. At 20 and 25 weeks, obese ZSF1 rats showed higher body weight, significant left ventricular hypertrophy, and impaired diastolic function compared with all other groups. Indices of systolic function did not differ between groups. Obese ZSF1 rats developed hyperproliferative vascular foci in the subendocardium, which lacked microvascular organization and were predilection sites of inflammation and fibrosis. In the kidney, obese ZSF1 animals showed regression of the peritubular and glomerular microvasculature, accompanied by tubulointerstitial damage, glomerulosclerosis, and proteinuria. The obese ZSF1 rat strain is a suitable in vivo model for CRMS, sharing characteristics with the human syndrome during the earliest onset of disease. In these rats, CRMS induces microvascular fibrotic responses in heart and kidneys, associated with functional impairment of both organs. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Aronson, Doron; Darawsha, Wisam; Promyslovsky, Marina; Kaplan, Marielle; Abassi, Zaid; Makhoul, Badira F; Goldberg, Alexander; Azzam, Zaher S
The acute (type 1) cardio-renal syndrome (CRS) refers to an acute worsening of heart function leading to worsening renal function (WRF), and frequently complicates acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of this study was to investigate whether hyponatraemia, a surrogate marker of congestion and haemodilution and of neurohormonal activation, could identify patients at risk for WRF. We studied the association between hyponatraemia (sodium <136 mmol/L) and WRF (defined as an increase of >0.3 mg/dL in creatinine above baseline) in two separate cohorts: patients with ADHF (n = 525) and patients with AMI (n = 2576). Hyponatraemia on admission was present in 156 patients (19.7%) with ADHF and 461 patients (17.7%) with AMI. Hyponatraemia was more frequent in patients who subsequently developed WRF as compared with patients who did not, in both the ADHF (34.6% vs. 22.2%, P = 0.0003) and AMI (29.7% vs. 21.8%, P<0.01) cohorts. In a multivariable logistic regression model, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio for WRF was 1.90 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-2.88; P = 0.003] and 1.56 (95% CI 1.13-2.16; P = 0.002) in the ADHF and AMI cohorts, respectively. The mortality risk associated with hyponatraemia was attenuated in the absence of WRF. Hyponatraemia predicts the development of WRF in two clinical scenarios that frequently lead to the type I CRS. These data are consistent with the concept that congestion and neurohormonal activation play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of acute cardio-renal failure. First published online by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2013.
Johnson, Richard J; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Gaucher, Eric A
All humans are uricase knockouts; we lost the uricase gene due to a mutation that occurred in the mid Miocene approximately 15 million years ago. The consequence of being a uricase knockout is that we have higher serum uric acid levels that are less regulatable and can be readily influenced by diet. This increases our risk for gout and kidney stones, but there is also increasing evidence that uric acid increases our risk for hypertension, kidney disease, obesity and diabetes. This raises the question of why this mutation occurred. In this paper we review current hypotheses. We suggest that uric acid is a danger and survival signal carried over from the RNA world. The mutation of uricase that occurred during the food shortage and global cooling that occurred in the Miocene resulted in a survival advantage for early primates, particularly in Europe. Today, the loss of uricase functions as a thrifty gene, increasing our risk for obesity and cardiorenal disease. PMID:22000645
Summary Cardiorenal syndromes (CRSs) with bidirectional heart-kidney signaling are increasingly being recognized for their association with increased morbidity and mortality. In acute CRS, recognition of the importance of worsening kidney function complicating management of acute decompensated heart failure has led to the examination of this specific outcome in the context of acute heart failure clinical trials. In particular, the role of fluid overload and venous congestion has focused interest in the most effective use of diuretic therapy to relieve symptoms of heart failure while at the same time preserving kidney function. Additionally, many novel vasoactive therapies have been studied in recent years with the hopes of augmenting cardiac function, improving symptoms and patient outcomes, while maintaining or improving kidney function. Similarly, recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic CRS have led to reanalysis of kidney outcomes in pivotal trials in chronic congestive heart failure, and newer trials are including changes in kidney function as well as kidney injury biomarkers as prospectively monitored and adjudicated outcomes. This paper provides an overview of some new developments in the pharmacologic management of acute and chronic CRS, examines several reports that illustrate a key management principle for each subtype, and discusses opportunities for future research. PMID:23929925
House, Andrew A
Cardiorenal syndromes (CRSs) with bidirectional heart-kidney signaling are increasingly being recognized for their association with increased morbidity and mortality. In acute CRS, recognition of the importance of worsening kidney function complicating management of acute decompensated heart failure has led to the examination of this specific outcome in the context of acute heart failure clinical trials. In particular, the role of fluid overload and venous congestion has focused interest in the most effective use of diuretic therapy to relieve symptoms of heart failure while at the same time preserving kidney function. Additionally, many novel vasoactive therapies have been studied in recent years with the hopes of augmenting cardiac function, improving symptoms and patient outcomes, while maintaining or improving kidney function. Similarly, recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic CRS have led to reanalysis of kidney outcomes in pivotal trials in chronic congestive heart failure, and newer trials are including changes in kidney function as well as kidney injury biomarkers as prospectively monitored and adjudicated outcomes. This paper provides an overview of some new developments in the pharmacologic management of acute and chronic CRS, examines several reports that illustrate a key management principle for each subtype, and discusses opportunities for future research.
Aspromonte, Nadia; Cruz, Dinna N; Ronco, Claudio; Valle, Roberto
The cardio-renal syndromes (CRS) are the result of complex bidirectional organ cross-talk between the heart and kidney, with tremendous overlap of diseases such as coronary heart disease, heart failure (HF), and renal dysfunction in the same patient. Volume overload plays an important role in the pathophysiology of CRS. The appropriate treatment of overhydration, particularly in HF and in chronic kidney disease, has been associated with improved outcomes and blood pressure control. Clinical examination alone is often insufficient for accurate assessment of volume status because significant volume overload can exist even in the absence of peripheral or pulmonary edema on physical examination or radiography. Bioelectrical impedance techniques increasingly are being used in the management of patients with HF and those on chronic dialysis. These methods provide more objective estimates of volume status in such patients. Used in conjunction with standard clinical assessment and biomarkers such as the natriuretic peptides, bioimpedance analysis may be useful in guiding pharmacologic and ultrafiltration therapies and subsequently restoring such patients to a euvolemic or optivolemic state. In this article, we review the use of these techniques in CRS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cruz, Dinna N; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Palazzuoli, Alberto; Palazuolli, Alberto; Ronco, Claudio; Bagshaw, Sean M
Cardiac and kidney disease are common, increasingly encountered and often co-exist. Recently, the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) Working Group convened a consensus conference to develop a classification scheme for the CRS and for five discrete subtypes. These CRS subtypes likely share pathophysiologic mechanisms, however, also have distinguishing clinical features, in terms of precipitating events, risk identification, natural history and outcomes. Knowledge of the epidemiology of heart-kidney interaction stratified by the proposed CRS subtypes is increasingly important for understanding the overall burden of disease for each CRS subtype, along with associated morbidity, mortality and health resource utilization. Likewise, an understanding of the epidemiology of CRS is necessary for characterizing whether there exists important knowledge gaps and to aid the in the design of clinical studies. In the most recent European and American guidelines for heart failure management, acute kidney injury and dysfunction were considered an index of poor prognosis. Paradoxically, however, in many randomized trials of interventions for patients with heart failure, those with kidney injury or dysfunction are often excluded. This review will provide a summary of the epidemiology of the cardio-renal syndrome and its subtypes.
"Cardio-renal syndromes" (CRS) are disorders of the heart and kidneys whereby acute or chronic dysfunction in one organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction of the other. The current definition has been expanded into five subtypes whose etymology reflects the primary and secondary pathology, the time-frame and simultaneous cardiac and renal co-dysfunction secondary to systemic disease: CRS type I: acute worsening of heart function (AHF-ACS) leading to kidney injury and/or dysfunction. CRS type II: chronic abnormalities in heart function (CHF-CHD) leading to kidney injury or dysfunction. CRS type III: acute worsening of kidney function (AKI) leading to heart injury and/or dysfunction. CRS type IV: chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to heart injury, disease and/or dysfunction. CRS type V: systemic conditions leading to simultaneous injury and/or dysfunction of heart and kidney. These different subtypes may have a different pathophysiological mechanism and they may represent separate entities in terms of prevention and therapy.
Efremova, E V; Shutov, A M; Borodulina, E O
To study treatment motivation in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and in those with CHF concurrent with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A total of 203 patients (130 men and 73 women; mean age, 61.8±9.6 years) with CHF diagnosed and assessed in accordance with the National Guidelines of the All-Russian Research Society of Cardiology and the Heart Failure Society for the diagnosis and treatment of CHF (third edition, 2009) were examined. CKD was diagnosed according to the 2012 National Guidelines of the Research Nephrology Society of Russia. A group of patients with chronic cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) included those with CHF and CKD with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. The clinical course of CHF, personality profile, and motivation for non-drug and drug treatments were assessed in patients with chronic CRS. CFR was 67.7±17.2 ml/min/1.73 m2; chronic CRS was observed in 89 (44%) patients. Psychological functioning assessment showed that the patients with chronic CRS as compared with those with CHF without CKD had high anxiety and maladaptive disease attitudes. CHF treatment motivation (compliance with lifestyle modification and medication) was proved inadequate and detected only in 31 (15.3%) patients with CHF regardless of the presence of CKD. The specific features of psychological functioning, which affected treatment motivation, were seen in patients with chronic CRS: those who were lowly motivated had a euphoric attitude towards their disease (p=0.03); those who were satisfactorily motivated showed an emotive accentuation of character (p=0.002). The presence of CKD aggravates the clinical course of CHF and negatively affects the psychological functioning of patients with CHF. The patients with chronic CRS are characterized by a low level of motivation for both drug and non-drug treatments, which should be taken into account when managing this cohort of patients.
Breglia, Andrea; Virzì, Grazia Maria; Pastori, Silvia; Brocca, Alessandra; de Cal, Massimo; Bolin, Chiara; Vescovo, Giorgio; Ronco, Claudio
Cardiorenal syndrome type 1 (CRS type 1) is characterized by a rapid worsening of cardiac function leading to acute kidney injury (AKI). Its pathophysiology is complex and not completely understood. In this study, we examined the role of apoptosis and the caspase pathways involved. We enrolled 40 acute heart failure (AHF) patients, 11 of whom developed AKI characterizing CRS type 1. We exposed the human cell line U937 to plasma from the CRS type 1 and AHF groups and then we evaluated apoptotic activity by annexin-V evaluation, determination of caspase-3, -8 and -9 levels, and BAX, BAD, and FAS gene expression. We observed significant upregulation of apoptosis in monocytes exposed to CRS type 1 plasma compared to AHF, with increased levels of caspase-3 (p < 0.01), caspase-9 (p < 0.01), and caspase-8 (p < 0.03) showing activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Furthermore, monocytes exposed to CRS type 1 plasma had increased gene expression of BAX and BAD (intrinsic pathways) (p = 0.010 for both). Furthermore, strong significant correlations between the caspase-9 levels and BAD and BAX gene expression were observed (Spearman ρ = - 0.76, p = 0.011, and ρ = - 0.72, p = 0.011). CRS type 1 induces dual apoptotic pathway activation in monocytes; the two pathways converged on caspase-3. Many factors may induce activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in CRS type 1 patients, such as upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and hypoxia/ischemia. Further investigations are necessary to corroborate the present findings, and to better understand the pathophysiological mechanism and consequent therapeutic and prognostic implications for CRS type 1. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Lubas, Arkadiusz; Ryczek, Robert; Kade, Grzegorz; Niemczyk, Stanisław
Cardiac dysfunction can modify renal perfusion, which is crucial to maintain sufficient kidney tissue oxygenation. Renal cortex perfusion assessed by dynamic ultrasound method is related both to renal function and cardiac hemodynamics. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that Renal Perfusion Index (RPI) can more closely reflect cardiac hemodynamics and differentiate etiology of chronic cardio-renal syndrome. Twenty-four patients with hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) at 2-4 stage (12 with hypertensive nephropathy and 12 with CKD prior to hypertension) were enrolled in the study. Blood tests, 24-h ABPM, echocardiography, and ultrasonography with estimation of Total renal Cortical Perfusion intensity and Renal Perfusion Index (RPI) were performed. In the group of all patients, RPI correlated with left ventricular stoke volume (LVSV), and cardiac index, but not with markers of renal function. In multiple stepwise regression analysis CKD-EPI(Cys-Cr) (b=-0.360), LVSV (b=0.924) and MAP (b=0.376) together independently influenced RPI (R2=0.74; p<0.0001). RPI<0.567 allowed for the identification of patients with chronic cardio-renal syndrome with sensitivity of 41.7% and specificity of 83.3%. Renal perfusion index relates more strongly to cardiac output than to renal function, and could be helpful in recognizing chronic cardio-renal syndrome. Applicability of RPI in diagnosing early abnormalities in the cardio-renal axis requires further investigation.
Hayden, Melvin R.; Sowers, James R.
Background/Aims Childhood-adolescent overweight and obesity have grown to pandemic proportions during the past decade. The onset of obesity in younger adults will likely be manifested as earlier onset of myocardial and renal end-organ disease in younger adults. For the first time, it is estimated that the current generation may not live to be as old as their parents. Thus, it is important to develop animal models of childhood obesity to understand fundamental pathological organ changes. Methods In this regard, we utilize transmission electron microscopy evaluation to evaluate early remodeling changes of two adolescent rodent obesity models: the Zucker obese (fa/fa) rat and the db/db mouse models of obesity. We have concentrated on the initial ultrastructural remodeling (obese adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and islet remodeling) and the associated changes in target end organs (including the myocardium and kidney) in young rodent models of obesity and insulin resistance, collectively manifesting as the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS). Results Briefly, tissues revealed the following ultrastructural remodeling abnormalities: inflammation, hypertrophy, and early fibrosis in adipose tissue; loss of mitochondria in skeletal muscles, hyperplasia, fibrosis, and depletion of insulin-secretory granules in pancreatic islets; increased intramyocardial lipid accumulation, fibrosis, and mitochondrial deposition in the myocardium, and obesity-related glomerulopathy and tubulopathy in the kidney. Conclusion Based on the current knowledge and ultrastructural observations of organ pathology, we propose mechanisms whereby obesity appears to be the driving force behind the development of the CRS. PMID:22294984
Preeti, Jois; Alexandre, Mebazaa; Pupalan, Iyngkaran; Merlin, Thomas C.; Claudio, Ronco
The most important advancements in the Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) are its definition and subsequent classifications. When the predominant pathology and pathophysiology is the heart, i.e. chronic heart failure (CHF), and where any renal impairment (RI) subsequent to this is secondary, the classification is type 2 CRS. There are unique differences in the pathophysiology and progression of individual subclasses. It is important to understand the evolution of CHF and consequences of subsequent RI as they are becoming increasingly prevalent, aggravate morbidity and mortality and limit many therapeutic options. In this paper we discuss the significance of the type 2 CRS patients in the context of the thematic series. PMID:27280302
Buglioni, Alessia; Cannone, Valentina; Cataliotti, Alessandro; Sangaralingham, S. Jeson; Heublein, Denise M.; Scott, Christopher G.; Bailey, Kent R.; Rodeheffer, Richard J.; Dessì-Fulgheri, Paolo; Sarzani, Riccardo; Burnett, John C.
We sought to investigate the role of aldosterone as a mediator of disease and its relationship with the counter-regulatory natriuretic peptide (NP) system. We measured plasma aldosterone (n=1674; age ≥45 years old) in a random sample of the general population from Olmsted County, MN. In a multivariate logistic regression model, aldosterone analyzed as a continuous variable was associated with hypertension (HTN) (OR=1.75, 95%CI= 1.57,1.96; p<0.0001), obesity (OR=1.34, 95%CI= 1.21,1.48; p<0.0001), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR=1.39, 95%CI= 1.22,1.60; p<0.0001), central obesity (OR=1.47, 95%CI=1.32,1.63; p<0.0001), metabolic syndrome (MetS) (OR=1.41, 95%CI= 1.26,1.58; p<0.0001), high triglycerides (OR=1.23, 95%CI=1.11,1.36; p<0.0001), concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (cLVH) (OR=1.22, 95%CI= 1.09,1.38; p=0.0007) and atrial fibrillation (OR=1.24, 95%CI= 1.01,1.53; p=0.04), after adjusting for age and sex. The associations with HTN, central obesity, MetS, triglycerides and cLVH remained significant after further adjustment for BMI, NPs, and renal function. Furthermore, aldosterone in the highest tertile correlated with lower NP levels and increased mortality. Importantly, most of these associations remained significant even after excluding subjects with aldosterone levels above the normal range. In conclusion, we report that aldosterone is associated with HTN, CKD, obesity, MetS, cLVH, and lower NPs in the general community. Our data suggests that aldosterone, even within the normal range, may be a biomarker of cardiorenal and metabolic disease. Further studies are warranted to evaluate a therapeutic and preventive strategy to delay the onset and/or progression of disease, using mineralocorticoid antagonists or chronic NP administration in high risk subjects identified by plasma aldosterone. PMID:25368032
Fenske, Wiebke; Athanasiou, Thanos; Harling, Leanne; Drechsler, Christiane; Darzi, Ara; Ashrafian, Hutan
The inexorable increase in the prevalence of obesity is a global health concern, which will result in a concomitant escalation in health-care costs. Obesity-related metabolic syndrome affects approximately 25% of adults and is associated with cardiovascular and renal disease. The heart and kidneys are physiologically interdependent, and the pathological effects of obesity can lead to cardiorenal syndrome and, ultimately, kidney and heart failure. Weight loss can prevent or ameliorate obesity-related cardiorenal syndrome, but long-term maintenance of a healthy weight has been difficult to achieve through lifestyle changes or pharmacotherapy. Bariatric surgery offers both sustained weight loss and favourable metabolic changes, including dramatic improvements in glycaemic control and symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Procedures such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass offer immediate multisystemic benefits, including bile flow alteration, reduced gastric size, anatomical gut rearrangement and altered flow of nutrients, vagal manipulation and enteric hormone modulation. In patients with cardiorenal syndrome, bariatric surgery also offers renoprotection and cardioprotection, and attenuates both kidney and heart failure by improving organ perfusion and reversing metabolic dysfunction. However, further research is required to understand how bariatric surgery acts on the cardiorenal axis, and its pioneering role in novel treatments and interventions for cardiorenal disease.
Palazzuoli, Alberto; Ronco, Claudio
Heart failure may lead to acute kidney injury and vice versa. Chronic kidney disease may affect the clinical outcome in terms of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality while chronic heart failure may cause CKD. All these disorders contribute to the composite definition of cardio-renal syndromes. Renal impairment in HF patients has been increasingly recognized as an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality; however, the most important clinical trials in HF tend to exclude patients with significant renal dysfunction. The mechanisms whereby renal insufficiency worsens the outcome in HF are not known, and several pathways could contribute to the "vicious heart/kidney circle." Traditionally, renal impairment has been attributed to the renal hypoperfusion due to reduced cardiac output and decreased systemic pressure. The hypovolemia leads to sympathetic activity, increased renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathways and arginine-vasopressin release. All these mechanisms cause fluid and sodium retention, peripheral vasoconstriction and an increased congestion as well as cardiac workload. Therapy addressed to improve renal dysfunction, reduce neurohormonal activation and ameliorate renal blood flow could lead to a reduction in mortality and hospitalization in patients with cardio-renal syndrome.
Ronco, Claudio; Ronco, Federico
The "Cardio-Renal Syndrome" (CRS) is a disorder of the heart and kidneys whereby acute or chronic dysfunction in one organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction of the other. The general definition has been expanded to five subtypes reflecting the primacy of organ dysfunction and the time-frame of the syndrome: CRS type I: acute worsening of heart function (AHF-ACS) leading to kidney injury and/or dysfunction. CRS type II: chronic abnormalities in heart function (CHF-CHD) leading to kidney injury or dysfunction. CRS type III: acute worsening of kidney function (AKI) leading to heart injury and/or dysfunction. CRS type IV: chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to heart injury, disease and/or dysfunction. CRS type V: systemic conditions leading to simultaneous injury and/or dysfunction of heart and kidney. Different pathophysiological mechanisms are involved in the combined dysfunction of heart and kidney in these five types of the syndrome.
Preza, Paul M; Hurtado, Abdías; Armas, Victoria; Cárcamo, César P
This study sought to evaluate the incidence of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) type 1 in a coronary care unit and its association with hospital mortality within 30 days of admission, as well as other epidemiological characteristics. The medical records of all the patients who were hospitalized with the diagnosis of acute heart failure in a 4-year period were reviewed. CRS type 1 was characterized by the presence of acute heart failure and an elevation of serum creatinine ≥0.3mg/dL in comparison to the baseline creatinine calculated by the MDRD75 equation and/or the elevation of ≥50% of the admission serum creatinine within a 48 h period. The incidence of CRS type 1 was 27.87%, 95% CI: 20.13-36.71 (34 of 122). There was a higher frequency of CRS type 1 in those patients who were admitted with the diagnosis of cardiogenic shock (adjusted RR 2.02, 95% CI: 1.20-3.93, p=0.0378) and in those with higher hemoglobin levels (p=0.0412). The CRS type 1 was associated with an increase of 30-day mortality (HR: 4.11, 95% CI: 1.20-14.09, p=0.0244). The incidence of CRS type 1 in the coronary care unit found in our study is similar to those found in foreign studies. The history of stroke and the higher values of hemoglobin were associated with a higher incidence of cardiorenal syndrome type 1. Patients with CRS type 1 had a higher hospital mortality within 30 days of admission. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Otaki, Yoichiro; Watanabe, Tetsu; Takahashi, Hiroki; Narumi, Taro; Kadowaki, Shinpei; Honda, Yuki; Arimoto, Takanori; Shishido, Tetsuro; Miyamoto, Takuya; Konta, Tsuneo; Kubota, Isao
Cardio-renal anemia syndrome (CRAS) has begun to gather attention as a vicious circle since chronic heart failure (CHF), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and anemia are all able to be caused and exacerbated by each other. However, it remains unclear whether renal tubular damage (RTD), another type of kidney dysfunction, is associated with this vicious circle. The aim of the present study was to assess the association of RTD with CRAS in patients with CHF. We included 300 consecutive patients with CHF. RTD was defined as a urinary β2-microglobulin to creatinine ratio ≥ 300 μg/g. Patients with RTD had lower serum iron and higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein than those without it. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that RTD was closely associated with anemia in patients with CHF, after adjustment for confounding factors. During a median period of 1,098 days, there were 86 cardiac events, including 14 cardiac deaths and 72 re-hospitalizations for worsening heart failure. Net reclassification improvement was significantly improved by addition of RTD to the model including age, New York Heart Association functional class, brain natriuretic peptide, anemia, and CKD. All patients were divided into 3 groups: CRAS+RTD group, CRAS group, and control group. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that CRAS+RTD had the greatest risk in patients with CHF. RTD was associated with normocytic anemia, accompanying iron deficiency and inflammation. RTD added prognostic information to conventional CRAS, suggesting the importance of RTD in cardio-renal anemia interaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone your body produces to help ... into energy for your body. If you are insulin resistant, too much sugar builds up in your ...
Virzì, Grazia Maria; Clementi, Anna; Brocca, Alessandra; de Cal, Massimo; Marcante, Stefano; Ronco, Claudio
Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 5 (CRS Type 5) is characterized by concomitant cardiac and renal dysfunction in the setting of different systemic disorders, such as sepsis. In this study, we investigated the possible relationship between endotoxin levels, renal cell death and inflammation in septic patients with CRS Type 5. We enrolled 11 patients with CRS Type 5. CRS Type 5 was defined according to the current classification system. AKI was defined by Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. Acute cardiac dysfunction was documented by echocardiography as acute left and/or right ventricular dysfunction leading to decreased ejection fraction. Endotoxin activity was measured by the Endotoxin Activity Assay (EAA). Plasma from CRS Type 5 patients was incubated with renal tubular cells (RTCs) and cell death levels were evaluated. Plasma cytokines levels were measured as well. Accordingly to EAA levels, patients were divided into two groups: 45.4% of patients had low endotoxin activity level (negative EAA), while 54.5% of patients showed high endotoxin activity (positive EAA). RTCs incubated with plasma from EAA positive patients showed significantly higher apoptosis levels and higher caspase-3 activation compared to cells incubated with plasma from EAA negative patients, and a significant positive correlation was observed between EAA levels and RTC apoptosis levels. Furthermore, IL-6 and IFN-γ levels were significantly higher in CRS Type 5 patients with positive EAA. Our data suggest a possible relationship between endotoxin levels and renal cell death in septic patients with CRS Type 5. Furthermore, this study highlights the presence of renal apoptosis, the immune deregulation and the strong inflammation in CRS Type 5 patients, especially in those with high endotoxin activity. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Darabian, Sirous; Rattanasompattikul, Manoch; Hatamizadeh, Parta; Bunnapradist, Suphamai; Budoff, Matthew J.; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar
Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) refers to a constellation of conditions whereby heart and kidney diseases are pathophysiologically connected. For clinical purposes, it would be more appropriate to emphasize the pathophysiological pathways to classify CRS into: (1) hemodynamic, (2) atherosclerotic, (3) uremic, (4) neurohumoral, (5) anemic–hematologic, (6) inflammatory–oxidative, (7) vitamin D receptor (VDR) and/or FGF23-, and (8) multifactorial CRS. In recent years, there have been a preponderance data indicating that vitamin D and VDR play an important role in the combination of renal and cardiac diseases. This review focuses on some important findings about VDR activation and its role in CRS, which exists frequently in chronic kidney disease patients and is a main cause of morbidity and mortality. Pathophysiological pathways related to suboptimal or defective VDR activation may play a role in causing or aggravating CRS. VDR activation using newer agents including vitamin D mimetics (such as paricalcitol and maxacalcitol) are promising agents, which may be related to their selectivity in activating VDR by means of attracting different post-D-complex cofactors. Some, but not all, studies have confirmed the survival advantages of D-mimetics as compared to non-selective VDR activators. Higher doses of D-mimetic per unit of parathyroid hormone (paricalcitol to parathyroid hormone ratio) is associated with greater survival, and the survival advantages of African American dialysis patients could be explained by higher doses of paricalcitol (>10 μg/week). More studies are needed to verify these data and to explore additional avenues for CRS management via modulating VDR pathway. PMID:26889405
Madeira, Marta; Caetano, Francisca; Almeida, Inês; Fernandes, Andreia; Reis, Liliana; Costa, Marco; Gonçalves, Lino
Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is common in acute heart failure (AHF), and is associated with dire prognosis. Levosimendan, a positive inotrope that also has diuretic effects, may improve patients' renal profile. Published results are conflicting. We aimed to assess the incidence of CRS in AHF patients according to the inotrope used and to determine its predictors in order to identify patients who could benefit from the most renoprotective inotrope. In a retrospective study, 108 consecutive patients with AHF who required inotropes were divided into two groups according to the inotrope used (levosimendan vs. dobutamine). The primary endpoint was CRS incidence. Follow-up for mortality and readmission for AHF was conducted. Seventy-one percent of the study population were treated with levosimendan and the remainder with dobutamine. No differences were found in heart failure etiology or chronic kidney disease. At admission, the dobutamine group had lower blood pressure; there were no differences in estimated glomerular filtration rate or cystatin C levels. The levosimendan group had lower left ventricular ejection fraction. CRS incidence was higher in the dobutamine group, and they more often had incomplete recovery of renal function at discharge. In multivariate analysis, cystatin C levels predicted CRS. The dobutamine group had higher in-hospital mortality, of which CRS and the inotrope used were predictors. Levosimendan appears to have some renoprotective effect, as it was associated with a lower incidence of CRS and better recovery of renal function at discharge. Identification of patients at increased risk of renal dysfunction by assessing cystatin C may enable more tailored therapy, minimizing the incidence of CRS and its negative impact on outcome in AHF. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Gigante, A; Rosato, E; Barbano, B; Di Mario, F; Di Lazzaro-Giraldi, G; Gasperini, M L; Pofi, R; Laviano, A
Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) describes the concurrent failure of cardiac and renal function, each influencing the other. Malnutrition and cachexia frequently develop in patients with heart failure or kidney failure. However, no information is currently available on the prevalence of malnutrition in CRS patients. We studied CRS patients admitted to an internal medicine ward during a 5-month period and evaluated their clinical characteristics and nutritional status. Malnutrition risk was assessed by using the validated screening tool NRS-2002 whilst body composition was assessed by bioimpedance analysis and muscle function was measured by handgrip (HG) strength. Cardiac mass was also recorded. Length of stay, hospital readmission and 6-month mortality were registered. During the study period, 22 CRS patients were studied. Twenty patients were diagnosed with either CRS type 1 or CRS type 5. In CRS patients, fat-free mass showed a trend toward representing a protective factor for 6-month mortality (OR=0.904; p=0.06). Also, fat-free mass correlated with HG strength and cardiac ejection fraction. Malnutrition risk was diagnosed in 45% of the patients, whereas 8 patients met the definition of cachexia. Even without statistical significance, CRS patients with malnutrition had lower BMI (Body Mass Index) (p=0.038) and fat-free mass (p= n.s.). However, CRS malnutrition was associated to higher 6-month mortality (p= 0.05), and appears to negatively influence the outcome in CRS (OR= 9; p= 0.06). Our results show that malnutrition is prevalent in CRS patients and influences the clinical outcome. The assessment of nutritional status, and particularly body composition, should be implemented in daily practice of patients with CRS.
Naito, Yoshiro; Sawada, Hisashi; Oboshi, Makiko; Okuno, Keisuke; Yasumura, Seiki; Okuhara, Yoshitaka; Eguchi, Akiyo; Nishimura, Koichi; Soyama, Yuko; Asakura, Masanori; Ishihara, Masaharu; Tsujino, Takeshi; Masuyama, Tohru
The interaction among heart failure (HF), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and anemia is called cardio-renal anemia syndrome. The mechanism of anemia in cardio-renal anemia syndrome is complex and remains completely unknown. We have previously reported that impaired intestinal iron transporters may contribute to the mechanism of anemia in HF using in vivo HF model rats. In this study, we assessed intestinal iron transporters in CKD model rats to investigate the association of intestinal iron transporters in the mechanism of cardio-renal anemia syndrome. CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy in Sprague-Dawley rats. Sham-operated rats served as a control. After 24-week surgery, CKD rats exhibited normocytic normochromic anemia and normal serum erythropoietin levels despite of anemia. Serum iron levels were decreased in CKD rats compared with the controls. Of interest, intestinal expression of critical iron importers, such as duodenal cytochrome b (Dcyt-b) and divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT-1), was decreased in CKD rats compared with the controls. On the other hand, intestinal expression of ferroportin, an intestinal iron exporter, was not different in the control and CKD groups. Moreover, hepatic expression of hepcidin, a regulator of iron homeostasis, did not differ between the control and CKD groups. These results suggest that impaired intestinal expression of Dcyt-b and DMT-1 might be associated with the reduction of an iron uptake in CKD. Taken together, impaired these intestinal iron transporters may become a novel therapeutic target for cardio-renal anemia syndrome.
Larina, V N; Bart, B Ia; Raspopova, T N; Larin, V G
to assess impact of anemia on chronic heart failure (CHF) course in elderly patients in primary care setting. Methods. We examined 164 outpatients (n=164) aged 60-85 years with clinically stable CHF due to ischemic heart disease and arterial hypertension. All patients underwent clinical, laboratorial evaluation, ECG, EchoCG measurements, 6 min walk test. Patients were categorized according to the presence of anemia, as defined by the WHO criteria (hemoglobin levels <13 g/dl in men and <12 g/dl in women). Median duration of follow up was 1.85 (1.0-4.75) years. Results. Anemia was found in 32.9%, cardio-renal anemic syndrome (CRAS) in 23.2% of patients. In all patients anemia was mild (Hb>9 g/dl). It was associated with diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [R] 2.2, 95% CI 1.03-4.69, =0.041), high creatinine level (R 2.76, 95% CI 1.25-6.12, =0.012) and chronic kidney disease (R 5.66, 95% CI 2.51-12.77, <0.001). During follow-up mortality rate was similar among anemic and non-anemic patients (27.8 vs 30%, =0.768). Patients with CRAS had worse survival compared with patients of the same age without anemia and preserved kidney function (=0.004). Age >75 years (R 3.58, 95% CI 1.59-7.99, =0.002), diabetes (R 2.68, 95% CI 1.19-6.04, =0.018), history of myocardial infarction (R 2.7, 95% CI 1.24-6.04, =0.013), systolic blood pressure <110 mm Hg (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.09-5.71, =0.030), complete left bundle branch block (LBBB) (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.26-8.22, =0.012), creatinine >130 mmol/l (OR 3.53, 95% CI 1.51-8.22, =0.004) were predictors of mortality of elderly patients with CRAS. Conclusions. CHF patients with and without anemia had similar survival but survival of those with CRAS was worse compared with patients without anemia and preserved kidney function. Age >75 years, diabetes mellitus, history of myocardial infarction, low systolic blood pressure, complete LBBB, high creatinine level were predictors of mortality in patients with CRAS.
Sherling, Dawn Harris; Perumareddi, Parvathi; Hennekens, Charles H
The United States is experiencing its greatest life expectancy ever. Nonetheless, the general health of the US population is far from at an all-time high. An important contributor to the pandemic of cardiovascular disease is that overweight and obesity are also the major determinants of metabolic syndrome, an all too common and all too serious clinical and public health challenge. Clinicians have traditionally evaluated each of the major risk factors contributing to metabolic syndrome on an individual basis. There is evidence, however, that the risk factors are more than additive. The overlap of these factors in each disease state, resulting in increased atherogenic risks, is worth examining as a broader entity rather than separately. While therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) should be strongly recommended, clinicians should not let the perfect be the enemy of the possible. Evidence-based doses of statins, aspirin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin II receptor blockers should be prescribed as adjuncts, not alternatives, to TLCs. In fact, there is cogent evidence that the benefits of these pharmacologic therapies may also be at least additive.
Rojas, Edward; Velasco, Manuel; Bermúdez, Valmore; Israili, Zafar; Bolli, Peter
Diabetes mellitus coexisting with hypertension is greater than chance alone would predict. Hypertensive patients have been shown to have altered composition of skeletal muscle tissue, decreased blood flow to skeletal muscle and post-receptor signaling alterations in the IRS insulin pathway, all inducing insulin resistance states, which partially explains why blood pressure goals in DM patients are lower than in normoglycemic patients. Although optimal first-step antihypertensive drug therapy in type 2 DM or impaired fasting glucose levels (IFG) should be individualized for each patient, converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been demonstrated in some but not all studies to decrease the rate of development of proteinuria and diabetic renal disease. According to the ACCF/AHA 2011 Expert Consensus, elderly persons with diabetes, hypertension, and nephropathy should be initially treated with ACEIs or ARBs, although the choice of a specific antihypertensive may also depend on other associated comorbidities.
Jung, Han-Byeol; Kang, Min-Hee; Park, Hee-Myung
Worsening renal function and azotemia in patients with heart failure (HF) are strongly associated with disease severity and poor prognosis. Increasing interest in this correlation led to the description and classification of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). We evaluated the role of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in the early detection of CRS in dogs with HF. Ten healthy dogs and 31 dogs admitted with HF were included in our study. NGAL and troponin-I were measured on samples collected on the day of admission; creatinine was measured on admission and again on day 7. The CRS group was defined as subsequently developing renal azotemia. Of 31 dogs with HF, 20 were included in the HF group, and 11 were included in the CRS group. The admission NGAL concentrations of the CRS group were significantly higher than those of other groups ( p < 0.001). The severity of HF evaluation based on the modified New York Heart Association classification showed significant correlation with NGAL ( p < 0.001) and troponin-I ( p = 0.009) concentration. However, only serum NGAL concentration at admission was significantly associated with the development of CRS in dogs with HF ( p = 0.021). The admission serum NGAL ≥ 16.0 ng/mL (optimal cutoff value) had a sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 90.0% in predicting the development of CRS.
Ronco, Claudio; Kaushik, Manish; Valle, Roberto; Aspromonte, Nadia; Peacock, W Frank
Cardio-Renal syndrome may occur as a result of either primarily renal or cardiac dysfunction. This complex interaction requires a tailored approach to manage the underlying pathophysiology while optimizing the patient's symptoms and thus providing the best outcomes. Patients often are admitted to the hospital for signs and symptoms of congestion and fluid overload is the most frequent cause of subsequent re-admission. Fluid management is of paramount importance in the strategy of treatment for heart failure patients. Adequate fluid status should be obtained but a target value should be set according to objective indicators and biomarkers. Once the fluid excess is identified, a careful prescription of fluid removal by diuretics or extracorporeal therapies must be made. While delivering these therapies, adequate monitoring should be performed to prevent unwanted effects such as worsening of renal function or other complications. There is a very narrow window of optimal hydration for heart failure patients. Overhydration can result in myocardial stretching and potential decompensation. Inappropriate dehydration or relative reduction of circulating blood volume may result in distant organ damage caused by inadequate perfusion. We suggest consideration of the "5B" approach. This stands for balance of fluids (reflected by body weight), blood pressure, biomarkers, bioimpedance vector analysis, and blood volume. Addressing these parameters ensures that the most important issues affecting symptoms and outcomes are addressed. Furthermore, the patient is receiving the best possible care while avoiding unwanted side effects of the treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Palazzuoli, Alberto; McCullough, Peter A; Ronco, Claudio; Nuti, Ranuccio
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in heart failure (HF) has been recognized as an independent risk factor for adverse outcome, although the most important clinical trials tend to exclude patients with moderate and severe renal insufficiency. Despite this common association, the precise pathophysiological connection and liaison between heart and kidney is partially understood. Moreover, is it not enough considering how much cardio-renal syndrome type 1 is attributable to previous CKD, and how much to new-onset acute kidney injury (AKI). Neither development of AKI, its progression and time nor duration is related to an adverse outcome. An AKI definition is not universally recognized, and many confounding terms have been used in literature: "worsening renal function", "renal impairment", "renal dysfunction", etc., are all names that contribute to misunderstanding, and do not facilitate an universal classification. Therefore, AKI development should be the consequence of the basal clinical characteristics of patients, different primitive kidney disease and hemodynamic status. AKI could also be the mirror of several underlying associated diseases poorly controlled. Finally, it is not clear which is the optimal laboratory tool for identifying patients with an increased risk of AKI. In the current report, we review the different kidney diseases' impact in HF, and we analyze the modalities for AKI recognition during HF focusing our attention about some new biomarkers with potential application in the current setting.
Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disorders that increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Type 2 diabetes, elevated blood pressure, and atherogenic dyslipidemia are among the metabolic alterations that predispose the individual to several adverse cardiovascular complications. The hea...
Zhang, M-J; Gu, Y; Wang, H; Zhu, P-F; Liu, X-Y; Wu, J
Aortocaval fistula (AV) induced chronic volume overload in rats with preexisting mild renal dysfunction (right kidney remove: UNX) could mimic the type 4 cardiorenal syndrome (CRS): chronic renocardiac syndrome. Galectin-3, a β-galactoside binding lectin, is an emerging biomarker in cardiovascular as well as renal diseases. We observed the impact of valsartan on cardiac and renal hypertrophy and galectin-3 changes in this model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (200-250 g) were divided into S (Sham, n = 7), M (UNX+AV, n = 7) and M+V (UNX+AV+valsartan, n = 7) groups. Eight weeks later, cardiac function was measured by echocardiography. Renal outcome was measured by glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, renal blood flow and 24 hours albuminuria. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were used to evaluate the expressions of galectin-3 in heart and renal. Cardiac hypertrophy and renal hypertrophy as well as cardiac enlargement were evidenced in this AV shunt induced chronic volume overload rat model with preexisting mild renal dysfunction. Cardiac and renal hypertrophy were significantly attenuated but cardiac enlargement was unaffected by valsartan independent of its blood pressure lowering effect. 24 hours urine albumin was significantly increased, which was significantly reduced by valsartan in this model. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR evidenced significantly up-regulated galectin-3 expression in heart and kidney and borderline increased myocardial collagen I expression, which tended to be lower post valsartan treatment. Up-regulated galectin-3 signaling might also be involved in the pathogenesis in this CRS model. The beneficial effects of valsartan in terms of attenuating cardiac and renal hypertrophy and reducing 24 hours albumin in this model might partly be mediated through down-regulating galectin-3 signal pathway.
Cheong, Jean N; Cuffe, James S M; Jefferies, Andrew J; Moritz, Karen M; Wlodek, Mary E
Women born small are at an increased risk of developing pregnancy complications. Stress may further increase a woman's likelihood for an adverse pregnancy. Adverse pregnancy adaptations can lead to long-term diseases even after her pregnancy. The current study investigated the effects of stress during pregnancy on the long-term adrenal, metabolic and cardio-renal health of female rats that were born small. Stress programmed increased adrenal Mc2r gene expression, a higher insulin secretory response to glucose during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (+36%) and elevated renal creatinine clearance after pregnancy. Females that were born small had increased homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance and elevated systolic blood pressure after pregnancy, regardless of stress exposure. These findings suggest that being born small or being stressed during pregnancy programs long-term adverse health outcomes after pregnancy. However, stress in pregnancy does not exacerbate the long-term adverse health outcomes for females that were born small. Females born small are more likely to experience complications during their pregnancy, including pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes. The risk of developing complications is increased by stress exposure during pregnancy. In addition, pregnancy complications may predispose the mother to diseases after pregnancy. We determined whether stress during pregnancy would exacerbate the adrenal, metabolic and cardio-renal dysfunction of growth-restricted females in later life. Late gestation bilateral uterine vessel ligation was performed in Wistar Kyoto rats to induce growth restriction. At 4 months, growth-restricted and control female offspring were mated with normal males. Those allocated to the stressed group had physiological measurements [metabolic cage, tail cuff blood pressure, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT)] conducted during pregnancy whilst the unstressed groups were
Telles-Correia, Diogo; Guerreiro, Diogo F; Coentre, Ricardo; Coentre, Rui; Góis, C; Figueira, Luísa
Metabolic Syndrome consists in a group of metabolic changes, being the most important problem insulin resistence. Other important components of this syndrome are abdominal obesity, hypertension and hyperlipidemia /hypercholestrolemia. It was demonstrated that psychiatric patients have a greater risk to develop metabolic syndrome with a prevalence of 41%. Prevalence of this syndrome in psychiatric male patients is 138% higher than in general population and in female patients 251% higher. Some of the factors that can explain this increase of metabolic risk in psychiatric patients are psychiatric drugs. We preformed a systematic review of literature published until June, 2007, by means of MEDLINE. Studies reviewed include clinical cases, reviews, analytic and observational studies. We selected 72 articles. Authors pretend to understand the mechanisms, by which, different psychiatric drugs can influence metabolic syndrome, and strategies for prevention of this situation.
Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi
The specific sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2 inhibitors) inhibit glucose reabsorption in proximal renal tubular cells, and both fasting and postprandial glucose significantly decrease because of urinary glucose loss. As a result, pancreatic β-cell function and peripheral insulin action significantly improve with relief from glucose toxicity. Furthermore, whole-body energy metabolism changes to relative glucose deficiency and triggers increased lipolysis in fat cells, and fatty acid oxidation and then ketone body production in the liver during treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors. In addition, SGLT2 inhibitors have profound hemodynamic effects including diuresis, dehydration, weight loss and lowering blood pressure. The most recent findings on SGLT2 inhibitors come from results of the Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes trial. SGLT2 inhibitors exert extremely unique and cardio-renal protection through metabolic and hemodynamic effects, with long-term durability on the reduction of blood glucose, bodyweight and blood pressure. Although a site of action of SGLT2 inhibitors is highly specific to inhibit renal glucose reabsorption, whole-body energy metabolism, and hemodynamic and renal functions are profoundly modulated during the treatment of SGLT2 inhibitors. Previous studies suggest multifactorial clinical benefits and safety concerns of SGLT2 inhibitors. Although ambivalent clinical results of this drug are still under active discussion, the present review summarizes promising recent evidence on the cardio-renal and metabolic benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Gallo, Linda A; Tran, Melanie; Moritz, Karen M; Mazzuca, Marc Q; Parry, Laura J; Westcott, Kerryn T; Jefferies, Andrew J; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A; Wlodek, Mary E
Intrauterine growth restriction caused by uteroplacental insufficiency increases risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in offspring. Cardio-renal and metabolic responses to pregnancy are critical determinants of immediate and long-term maternal health. However, no studies to date have investigated the renal and metabolic adaptations in growth restricted offspring when they in turn become pregnant. We hypothesised that the physiological challenge of pregnancy in growth restricted females exacerbates disease outcome and compromises next generation fetal growth. Uteroplacental insufficiency was induced by bilateral uterine vessel ligation (Restricted) or sham surgery (Control) on day 18 of gestation in WKY rats and F1 female offspring birth and postnatal body weights were recorded. F1 Control and Restricted females were mated at 4 months and blood pressure, renal and metabolic parameters were measured in late pregnancy and F2 fetal and placental weights recorded. Age-matched non-pregnant Control and Restricted F1 females were also studied. F1 Restricted females were born 10-15% lighter than Controls. Basal insulin secretion and pancreatic β-cell mass were reduced in non-pregnant Restricted females but restored in pregnancy. Pregnant Restricted females, however, showed impaired glucose tolerance and compensatory glomerular hypertrophy, with a nephron deficit but normal renal function and blood pressure. F2 fetuses from Restricted mothers exposed to physiological measures during pregnancy were lighter than Controls highlighting additive adverse effects when mothers born small experience stress during pregnancy. Female rats born small exhibit mostly normal cardio-renal adaptations but altered glucose control during late pregnancy making them vulnerable to lifestyle challenges.
Schwenger, V; Remppis, B A; Westenfeld, R; Weinreich, T; Brunkhorst, R; Schieren, G; Krumme, B; Haller, H; Schmieder, R; Schlieper, G; Frye, B; Hoppe, U C; Hoyer, J; Keller, T; Blumenstein, M; Schunkert, H; Mahfoud, F; Rump, L C
Renal failure is common in patients with severe heart failure. This complex pathophysiological interaction has been classified as cardio-renal syndrome. In these patients hydropic decompensation is the main cause of hospitalization. In patients with refractory heart failure, characterized by diuretic resistance and congestion due to volume overload, ultrafiltration has to be considered. In acute decompensated heart failure with worsening of renal function, extracorporeal ultrafiltration is the preferred treatment modality. On the other hand, patients suffering from chronic decompensated heart failure, particularly patients with ascites, will profit from the treatment specific advantages of peritoneal ultrafiltration. Prerequisite for an optimized care of patients with cardio-renal syndrome is the close collaboration among intensive care doctors, cardiologists and nephrologists. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Sales, Rita; Torres, Tiago
Psoriasis is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disease associated with several cardiometabolic comorbidities, such as obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, and with clinically significant increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular mortality. These comorbidities are components of the metabolic syndrome. Multiple epidemiologic studies have revealed a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis compared with other skin diseases. Genetic susceptibility and overlapping inflammatory pathways may be potential biologic links underlying this association. Understanding the interrelationship between these conditions is important for the management of psoriasis and its associated comorbidities. This review will focus on the range of these comorbidities, with emphasis on the metabolic syndrome, aiming to encourage physicians to screen patients with psoriasis for cardiometabolic disorders and risk factors.
Mohamed, Miski; Kouwenberg, Dorus; Gardeitchik, Thatjana; Kornak, Uwe; Wevers, Ron A; Morava, Eva
Cutis laxa is a rare skin disorder characterized by wrinkled, redundant, inelastic and sagging skin due to defective synthesis of elastic fibers and other proteins of the extracellular matrix. Wrinkled, inelastic skin occurs in many cases as an acquired condition. Syndromic forms of cutis laxa, however, are caused by diverse genetic defects, mostly coding for structural extracellular matrix proteins. Surprisingly a number of metabolic disorders have been also found to be associated with inherited cutis laxa. Menkes disease was the first metabolic disease reported with old-looking, wrinkled skin. Cutis laxa has recently been found in patients with abnormal glycosylation. The discovery of the COG7 defect in patients with wrinkled, inelastic skin was the first genetic link with the Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG). Since then several inborn errors of metabolism with cutis laxa have been described with variable severity. These include P5CS, ATP6V0A2-CDG and PYCR1 defects. In spite of the evolving number of cutis laxa-related diseases a large part of the cases remain genetically unsolved. In metabolic cutis laxa syndromes the clinical and laboratory features might partially overlap, however there are some distinct, discriminative features. In this review on metabolic diseases causing cutis laxa we offer a practical approach for the differential diagnosis of metabolic cutis laxa syndromes.
Mortada, Rami; Williams, Tracy
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. It is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, affecting between 6.5% and 8% of women, and is the most common cause of infertility. Insulin resistance is almost always present in women with PCOS, regardless of weight, and they often develop diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The Rotterdam criteria are widely used for diagnosis. These criteria require that patients have at least two of the following conditions: hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The diagnosis of PCOS also requires exclusion of other potential etiologies of hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction. The approach to PCOS management differs according to the presenting symptoms and treatment goals, particularly the patient's desire for pregnancy. Weight loss through dietary modifications and exercise is recommended for patients with PCOS who are overweight. Oral contraceptives are the first-line treatment for regulating menstrual cycles and reducing manifestations of hyperandrogenism, such as acne and hirsutism. Clomiphene is the first-line drug for management of anovulatory infertility. Metformin is recommended for metabolic abnormalities such as prediabetes, and a statin should be prescribed for cardioprotection if the patient meets standard criteria for statin therapy. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
Hardwick, James P.; Eckman, Katie; Lee, Yoon Kwang; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Esterle, Andrew; Chilian, William M.; Chiang, John Y.; Song, Byoung-Joon
Chronic persistent inflammation plays a significant role in disease pathology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS is a constellation of diseases that include obesity, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with many of the MetS diseases. These metabolic derangements trigger a persistent inflammatory cascade, which includes production of lipid autacoids (eicosanoids) that recruit immune cells to the site of injury and subsequent expression of cytokines and chemokines that amplify the inflammatory response. In acute inflammation, the transcellular synthesis of antiinflammatory eicosanoids resolve inflammation, while persistent activation of the autacoid-cytokine-chemokine cascade in metabolic disease leads to chronic inflammation and accompanying tissue pathology. Many drugs targeting the eicosanoid pathways have been shown to be effective in the treatment of MetS, suggesting a common linkage between inflammation, MetS and drug metabolism.The cross-talk between inflammation and MetS seems apparent because of the growing evidence linking immune cell activation and metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Thus modulation of lipid metabolism through either dietary adjustment or selective drugs may become a new paradigm in the treatment of metabolic disorders. This review focuses on the mechanisms linking eicosanoid metabolism to persistent inflammation and altered lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in MetS. PMID:23433458
Panchal, Sunil K; Bliss, Edward; Brown, Lindsay
Capsaicin, the major active constituent of chilli, is an agonist on transient receptor potential vanilloid channel 1 (TRPV1). TRPV1 is present on many metabolically active tissues, making it a potentially relevant target for metabolic interventions. Insulin resistance and obesity, being the major components of metabolic syndrome, increase the risk for the development of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In vitro and pre-clinical studies have established the effectiveness of low-dose dietary capsaicin in attenuating metabolic disorders. These responses of capsaicin are mediated through activation of TRPV1, which can then modulate processes such as browning of adipocytes, and activation of metabolic modulators including AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Modulation of these pathways by capsaicin can increase fat oxidation, improve insulin sensitivity, decrease body fat, and improve heart and liver function. Identifying suitable ways of administering capsaicin at an effective dose would warrant its clinical use through the activation of TRPV1. This review highlights the mechanistic options to improve metabolic syndrome with capsaicin.
Capsaicin, the major active constituent of chilli, is an agonist on transient receptor potential vanilloid channel 1 (TRPV1). TRPV1 is present on many metabolically active tissues, making it a potentially relevant target for metabolic interventions. Insulin resistance and obesity, being the major components of metabolic syndrome, increase the risk for the development of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In vitro and pre-clinical studies have established the effectiveness of low-dose dietary capsaicin in attenuating metabolic disorders. These responses of capsaicin are mediated through activation of TRPV1, which can then modulate processes such as browning of adipocytes, and activation of metabolic modulators including AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Modulation of these pathways by capsaicin can increase fat oxidation, improve insulin sensitivity, decrease body fat, and improve heart and liver function. Identifying suitable ways of administering capsaicin at an effective dose would warrant its clinical use through the activation of TRPV1. This review highlights the mechanistic options to improve metabolic syndrome with capsaicin. PMID:29772784
Wagh, Arati; Stone, Neil J
The metabolic syndrome is intended to identify patients who have increased risk of diabetes and/or a cardiac event due to the deleterious effects of weight gain, sedentary lifestyle, and/or an atherogenic diet. The National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III definition uses easily measured clinical findings of increased abdominal circumference, elevated triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, elevated fasting blood glucose and/or elevated blood pressure. Three of these five are required for diagnosis. The authors also note that other definitions of metabolic syndrome focus more on insulin resistance and its key role in this syndrome. This review focuses on how treatment might affect each of the five components. Abdominal obesity can be treated with a variety of lower calorie diets along with regular exercise. Indeed, all of the five components of the metabolic syndrome are improved by even modest amounts of weight loss achieved with diet and exercise. For those with impaired fasting glucose tolerance, there is good evidence that a high fiber, low saturated fat diet with increased daily exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes by almost 60%. Of note, subjects who exercise the most, gain the most benefit. Metformin has also been shown to be helpful in these subjects. Thiazolidinedione drugs may prove useful, but further studies are needed. Although intensified therapeutic lifestyle change will help the abnormal lipid profile, some patients may require drug therapy. This review also discusses the use of statins, fibrates, and niacin. Likewise, while hypertension in the metabolic syndrome benefits from therapeutic lifestyle change, physicians should also consider angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor drugs or angiotensin receptor blockers, due to their effects on preventing complications of diabetes, such as progression of diabetic nephropathy and due to their effects on regression of left ventricular hypertrophy. Aspirin
Essah, P A; Nestler, J E
Much overlap is present between the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the metabolic syndrome. This article reviews the existing data regarding the prevalence, characteristics, and treatment of the metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in PCOS is approximately 43-47%, a rate 2-fold higher than that for women in the general population. High body mass index and low serum HDL cholesterol are the most frequently occurring components of the metabolic syndrome in PCOS. The pathogenic link between the metabolic syndrome and PCOS is most likely insulin resistance. Therefore, the presence of the metabolic syndrome in PCOS suggests a greater degree of insulin resistance compared to PCOS without the metabolic syndrome. Obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hypertension, impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance, and vascular abnormalities are all common metabolic abnormalities present in PCOS. Lifestyle modification has proven benefit and pharmacological therapy with insulin-sensitizing agents has potential benefit in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS.
Altuntaş, Yüksel; Batman, Adnan
The role of gut bacteria in the pathogenesis and treatment of various diseases has been a focus of attention in the last 10 years. Prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases continues to increase, in spite of technological developments and treatment alternatives. Microbial dysbiosis, described as the decrease of useful bacteria and the increase of harmful bacteria, has been associated with diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, and metabolic syndrome. In microbial dysbiosis, increase of harmful metabolites and changes to composition of bile acids occur via carbohydrate and protein fermentation. As a result, insulin resistance pathways are activated, which initiate the processes of obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Healthy diet recommendations, including prebiotic and probiotic foods and the use of probiotic agents, look promising for future treatment of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.
Garmendia, Jenny V; Moreno, Dolores; Garcia, Alexis H; De Sanctis, Juan B
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a syndrome that involves at least three disorders dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity and/or hypertension. MetS has been associated with several chronic diseases in the adulthood; however, in the recent years, the syndrome was redefined in children. Girls with early menarche and asthma, and children with MetS and asthma that reach adulthood appear to have higher risk to develop severe or difficult to control asthma and a higher probability to suffer cardiovascular diseases. It has been proposed that patients with MetS and endocrinological disorders should be considered a different entity in which pharmacologic treatment should be adjusted according to the individual. Recent patents on the field have addressed new issues on how endocrine control should be managed along with asthma therapeutics. In the near future, new approaches should decrease the high morbidity and mortality associated to these types of patients.
Poyrazoglu, Sukran; Bas, Firdevs; Darendeliler, Feyza
The prevalence of obesity is on the increase, and consequently metabolic syndrome is also becoming a serious health problem in children and adolescents all over the world. This review attempts to summarize the recent literature on metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. To date, a standard definition of metabolic syndrome for the pediatric population is not available. Recently, the International Diabetes Federation has proposed a new set of criteria to define metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents aged 6-16 years. The relationships between obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome may be explained by the pattern of lipid partitioning. Fatty liver plays a central role in the insulin-resistant state in obese adolescents. Although insulin resistance has been proposed as the central factor leading to the abnormalities observed in metabolic syndrome, most definitions of metabolic syndrome use impaired fasting glucose as a marker. Nutrition impairment during both prenatal and early postnatal life can cause metabolic disturbances leading to insulin-resistance, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome prevalence in children and adolescents is on the increase. Therefore, the emphasis in all studies and programs related to metabolic syndrome should be focused on prevention, early detection of metabolic risk factors and interventions that will have a significant impact on future adult health.
Moulana, Mohadetheh; Lima, Roberta; Reckelhoff, Jane F.
Obesity is one of the constellation of factors that make up the definition of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is also associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The presence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in men and women is also associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. In men, obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with reductions in testosterone levels. In women, obesity and metabolic syndrome is associated with increases in androgen levels. In men reductions in androgen levels is associated with inflammation. Androgen supplements reduce inflammation in men. In women, increases in androgens are associated with increases in inflammatory cytokines, and reducing androgens reduces inflammation. In this review the possibility that androgens may have different effects on metabolic syndrome and its sequelae in males and females will be discussed. PMID:21274756
Bassareo, Pier Paolo; Fanos, Vassilios; Mussap, Michele; Flore, Giovanna; Noto, Antonio; Puddu, Melania; Saba, Luca; Mercuro, Giuseppe
Prematurity at birth is a known risk factor for the development of an early chronic renal disease. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a well established biomarker of kidney injury, while high blood levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are associated with the future development of adverse cardiovascular events and cardiac death. (1) to verify the presence of statistically significant differences between urinary NGAL and hematic ADMA levels in young adults born preterm at extremely low birth weight (<1000 g; ex-ELBW) and those of a control group of healthy adults born at term (C) (2) to seek correlations between NGAL and ADMA levels, which would indicate the presence of an early cardio-renal involvement in ex-ELBW. Twelve ex-ELBW subjects (six males and six female, mean age: 23.9 ± 3.2 years) were compared with 12 C (six males and six female). Urinary NGAL and hematic ADMA levels were assessed. Urinary NGAL levels were higher in ex- ELBW subjects compared to C (p < 0.05), as well as hematic ADMA concentrations (p < 0.05). A statistically significant correlation was found between urinary NGAL and ADMA (r = -0.60, p < 0.04). Our preliminary findings support the hypothesis that in ex-ELBW subjects the development of an early chronic kidney disease contributes towards inducing an increase in the atherosclerotic process and in the risk of future adverse cardiovascular events.
Miñambres, Inka; de Leiva, Alberto; Pérez, Antonio
Metabolic syndrome and hypovitaminosis D are 2 diseases with high prevalence that share several risk factors, while epidemiological evidence shows they are associated. Although the mechanisms involved in this association are not well established, hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance, decreased insulin secretion and activation of the renin-angiotensin system, mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. However, the apparent ineffectiveness of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic syndrome components, as well as the limited information about the effect of improving metabolic syndrome components on vitamin D concentrations, does not clarify the direction and the mechanisms involved in the causal relationship between these 2 pathologies. Overall, because of the high prevalence and the epidemiological association between both diseases, hypovitaminosis D could be considered a component of the metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Symptoms and Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome Updated:Apr 13,2017 What are the symptoms ... Syndrome? This content was last reviewed August 2016. Metabolic Syndrome • Home • About Metabolic Syndrome • Why Metabolic Syndrome Matters • ...
Siegenthaler, M; Huynh-Do, U; Krayenbuehl, P; Pollock, E; Widmer, U; Debaix, H; Olinger, E; Frank, M; Namdar, M; Ruschitzka, F; Nowak, A
Fabry disease (FD) is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disease with a deficiency of α-galactosidase A leading to progressive sphingolipid accumulation in different organs, among them heart and kidney. We evaluated the impact of cardio-renal syndrome (CRS) on the incidence of major cardiovascular complications and death in a prospective FD cohort. A total of 104 genetically proven FD patients were annually followed at the University Hospitals Zurich and Bern. The main outcome was a composite of incident renal replacement therapy (RRT), hospitalisation due to decompensated Heart Failure, new onset atrial fibrillation, pacemaker/ICD implantation, stroke/TIA and death. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and left ventricular myocardial mass index (LVMMI) where explored as the primary exposure variables. During the median follow-up of 103 [59-155] months, events occurred in 27 patients. In a Cox regression analysis, both higher LVMMI and lower eGFR were independently associated with a greater risk of developing adverse events after adjustment for multiple confounders (HR 1.67 [1.04-2.73] P=0.03 per SD increase in LVMMI, HR 0.45 [0.25-0.83], P=0.01 per SD decrease in eGFR). In patients with CRS, the risk to develop events was significantly increased if adjusted for demographics and RRT (HR 4.46 [1.07-18.62], P=0.04), approaching significance if additionally adjusted for hypertension (HR 4.05 [0.95-17.29], P=0.06). In Kaplan-Meier-Analysis, the poorest event-free survival was observed among patients with CRS. CRS was associated with a high risk to develop cardiovascular complications and death, emphasizing the importance of its prevention and early recognition. A focus on cardio-reno-protective therapies is crucial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ali, Aus Tariq
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder, where the main clinical features include menstrual irregularities, sub-fertility, hyperandrogenism, and hirsutism. The prevalence of PCOS depends on ethnicity, environmental and genetic factors, as well as the criteria used to define it. On the other hand, metabolic syndrome is a constellation of metabolic disorders which include mainly abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose metabolism, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. These associated disorders directly increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2), coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and endometrial cancer. Many patients with PCOS have features of metabolic syndrome such as visceral obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. These place patients with PCOS under high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), Type 2 diabetes (DMT2) and gynecological cancer, in particular, endometrial cancer. Metabolic syndrome is also increased in infertile women with PCOS. The aim of this review is to provide clear and up to date information about PCOS and its relationship with metabolic syndrome, and the possible interaction between different metabolic disorders.
Courties, Alice; Sellam, Jérémie; Berenbaum, Francis
Interest in the metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis phenotype is increasing. Here, we summarize recently published significant findings. Meta-analyses confirmed an association between type 2 diabetes and osteoarthritis and between cardiovascular diseases and osteoarthritis. Recent advances in the study of metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis have focused on a better understanding of the role of metabolic diseases in inducing or aggravating joint damage. In-vivo models of obesity, diabetes, or dyslipidemia have helped to better decipher this association. They give emerging evidence that, beyond the role of common pathogenic mechanisms for metabolic diseases and osteoarthritis (i.e., low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress), metabolic diseases have a direct systemic effect on joints. In addition to the impact of weight, obesity-associated inflammation is associated with osteoarthritis severity and may modulate osteoarthritis progression in mouse models. As well, osteoarthritis synovium from type 2 diabetic patients shows insulin-resistant features, which may participate in joint catabolism. Finally, exciting data are emerging on the association of gut microbiota and circadian rhythm and metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis. The systemic role of metabolic syndrome in osteoarthritis pathophysiology is now better understood, but new avenues of research are being pursued to better decipher the metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis phenotype.
Muraleedharan, Vakkat; Jones, T Hugh
Metabolic syndrome and testosterone deficiency in men are closely Linked. Epidemiological studies have shown that Low testosterone Levels are associated with obesity, insulin resistance and an adverse Lipid profile in men. Conversely in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes have a high prevalence of hypogonadism. Metabolic syndrome and Low testosterone status are both independently associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Observational and experimental data suggest that physiological replacement of testosterone produces improvement in insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidae-mia and sexual dysfunction along with improved quality of Life. However, there are no Long-term interventional studies to assess the effect of testosterone replacement on mortality in men with Low testosterone Levels. This article reviews the observational and interventional clinical data in relation to testosterone and metabolic syndrome.
Muraleedharan, Vakkat; Jones, T. Hugh
Metabolic syndrome and testosterone deficiency in men are closely Linked. Epidemiological studies have shown that Low testosterone Levels are associated with obesity, insulin resistance and an adverse Lipid profile in men. Conversely in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes have a high prevalence of hypogonadism. Metabolic syndrome and Low testosterone status are both independently associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Observational and experimental data suggest that physiological replacement of testosterone produces improvement in insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidae-mia and sexual dysfunction along with improved quality of Life. However, there are no Long-term interventional studies to assess the effect of testosterone replacement on mortality in men with Low testosterone Levels. This article reviews the observational and interventional clinical data in relation to testosterone and metabolic syndrome. PMID:23148165
Morgan, R.; Keen, J.; McGowan, C.
Laminitis is one of the most common and frustrating clinical presentations in equine practice. While the principles of treatment for laminitis have not changed for several decades, there have been some important paradigm shifts in our understanding of laminitis. Most importantly, it is essential to consider laminitis as a clinical sign of disease and not as a disease in its own right. Once this shift in thinking has occurred, it is logical to then question what disease caused the laminitis. More than 90 per cent of horses presented with laminitis as their primary clinical sign will have developed it as a consequence of endocrine disease; most commonly equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Given the fact that many horses will have painful protracted and/or chronic recurrent disease, a good understanding of the predisposing factors and how to diagnose and manage them is crucial. Current evidence suggests that early diagnosis and effective management of EMS should be a key aim for practising veterinary surgeons to prevent the devastating consequences of laminitis. This review will focus on EMS, its diagnosis and management. PMID:26273009
Obesity and metabolic syndrome are examples whereby excess energy consumption and energy flux disruptions are causative agents of increased fatness. Because other, as yet elucidated, cellular factors may be involved and because potential treatments of these metabolic problems involve systemic agents...
De Sousa, Sunita M C; Norman, Robert J
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with a range of metabolic complications including insulin resistance (IR), obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. These compound risks result in a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and possibly increased cardiovascular (CV) disease. As the cardiometabolic risk of PCOS is shared amongst the different diagnostic systems, all women with PCOS should undergo metabolic surveillance though the precise approach differs between guidelines. Lifestyle interventions consisting of increased physical activity and caloric restriction have been shown to improve both metabolic and reproductive outcomes. Pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery may be considered in resistant metabolic disease. Issues requiring further research include the natural history of PCOS-associated metabolic disease, absolute CV risk and comparative efficacy of lifestyle interventions. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Krug, S; Michl, P
Paraneoplastic syndromes are characterized by the tumor-induced release of peptide hormones and/or the initiation of immune phenomena, which elicit clinical changes and alterations in laboratory parameters independent of the tumor size and spread. In addition to neurological, endocrinal and rheumatological phenotypes, metabolic alterations play a special role in the clinical routine as they commonly present with acute symptoms in an emergency situation and necessitate immediate diagnosis and prompt initiation of treatment. Metabolic alterations within the framework of malignant diseases should be treated in a multidisciplinary team and it is often necessary to perform monitoring and treatment in an intensive care unit. This article focuses on the diagnostic and therapeutic options for metabolic disorders due to paraneoplastic syndromes, such as hypercalcemia, hypocalcemia, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia and a special variant of tumor-induced metabolic disorders due to tumor lysis syndrome.
Bhatheja, Rohit; Bhatt, Deepak L
Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors. Its definition is the presence of any 3 of the following: obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein, hypertension, and impaired fasting glucose. The development of coronary artery disease is the most dreaded complication of this disease. In the United States, Mexican Americans and African American women are the most affected. Management of this syndrome includes physical exercise, weight loss, and effective drug treatment of dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, and impaired fasting blood glucose. Because of the increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes, there is a rise in fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. With the development of effective antiplatelet medication and newer drug-eluting stents, percutaneous coronary intervention has become an effective revascularization strategy for those with coronary artery disease. Rates of stent restenosis and target-lesion revascularization have been reduced. Oral hypoglycemic drugs like thiazolidinediones improve insulin resistance and may have a favorable effect in those with metabolic syndrome. Diagnosis and appropriate management of metabolic syndrome are challenges as the presence of risk factors predates the coronary event.
The metabolic syndrome--the cluster of obesity, impaired fasting glucose, elevated triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and hypertension--may not be a "real" syndrome in the strict sense. It can, however, still be a useful concept if it prompts a physician to look for and treat additional risk factors when a patient is found to have one risk factor, or if it helps persuade patients to undertake healthy lifestyle changes before they develop overt diabetes mellitus or coronary artery disease.
Cornier, Marc-Andre; Dabelea, Dana; Hernandez, Teri L.; Lindstrom, Rachel C.; Steig, Amy J.; Stob, Nicole R.; Van Pelt, Rachael E.; Wang, Hong; Eckel, Robert H.
The “metabolic syndrome” (MetS) is a clustering of components that reflect overnutrition, sedentary lifestyles, and resultant excess adiposity. The MetS includes the clustering of abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and elevated blood pressure and is associated with other comorbidities including the prothrombotic state, proinflammatory state, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and reproductive disorders. Because the MetS is a cluster of different conditions, and not a single disease, the development of multiple concurrent definitions has resulted. The prevalence of the MetS is increasing to epidemic proportions not only in the United States and the remainder of the urbanized world but also in developing nations. Most studies show that the MetS is associated with an approximate doubling of cardiovascular disease risk and a 5-fold increased risk for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although it is unclear whether there is a unifying pathophysiological mechanism resulting in the MetS, abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance appear to be central to the MetS and its individual components. Lifestyle modification and weight loss should, therefore, be at the core of treating or preventing the MetS and its components. In addition, there is a general consensus that other cardiac risk factors should be aggressively managed in individuals with the MetS. Finally, in 2008 the MetS is an evolving concept that continues to be data driven and evidence based with revisions forthcoming. PMID:18971485
Cantaluppi, Vincenzo; Dellepiane, Sergio; Quercia, Alessandro D; Ferrario, Silvia
In critically ill patients, any acute organ injury is associated with a sudden change of circulating factors that may play a role in distant organ dysfunction through a complex cross-talk. In this issue, Virzì and colleagues discuss the relevance of humoral signalling between heart and kidney, focusing on type 1 and type 3 cardio-renal syndrome. We herein review the mechanisms of heart-kidney cross-talk, discussing the role of circulating detrimental mediators in the pathogenetic mechanisms of cardio-renal syndrome.
Wani, Burhan; Aziz, Shiekh Aejaz; Ganaie, Mohammad Ashraf; Mir, Mohammad Hussain
The study was meant to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with breast cancer and to establish its role as an independent risk factor on occurrence of breast cancer. Fifty women aged between 40 and 80 years with breast cancer and fifty controls of similar age were assessed for metabolic syndrome prevalence and breast cancer risk factors, including age at menarche, reproductive status, live births, breastfeeding, and family history of breast cancer, age at diagnosis of breast cancer, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome parameters. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was found in 40.0% of breast cancer patients, and 18.0% of those in control group ( P = 0.02). An independent and positive association was seen between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer risk (odds ratio = 3.037; 95% confidence interval 1.214-7.597). Metabolic syndrome is more prevalent in breast cancer patients and is an independent risk factor for breast cancer.
Festi, Davide; Schiumerini, Ramona; Eusebi, Leonardo Henry; Marasco, Giovanni; Taddia, Martina; Colecchia, Antonio
Gut microbiota exerts a significant role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, as confirmed by studies conducted both on humans and animal models. Gut microbial composition and functions are strongly influenced by diet. This complex intestinal "superorganism" seems to affect host metabolic balance modulating energy absorption, gut motility, appetite, glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as hepatic fatty storage. An impairment of the fine balance between gut microbes and host's immune system could culminate in the intestinal translocation of bacterial fragments and the development of "metabolic endotoxemia", leading to systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Diet induced weight-loss and bariatric surgery promote significant changes of gut microbial composition, that seem to affect the success, or the inefficacy, of treatment strategies. Manipulation of gut microbiota through the administration of prebiotics or probiotics could reduce intestinal low grade inflammation and improve gut barrier integrity, thus, ameliorating metabolic balance and promoting weight loss. However, further evidence is needed to better understand their clinical impact and therapeutic use.
Festi, Davide; Schiumerini, Ramona; Eusebi, Leonardo Henry; Marasco, Giovanni; Taddia, Martina; Colecchia, Antonio
Gut microbiota exerts a significant role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, as confirmed by studies conducted both on humans and animal models. Gut microbial composition and functions are strongly influenced by diet. This complex intestinal “superorganism” seems to affect host metabolic balance modulating energy absorption, gut motility, appetite, glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as hepatic fatty storage. An impairment of the fine balance between gut microbes and host’s immune system could culminate in the intestinal translocation of bacterial fragments and the development of “metabolic endotoxemia”, leading to systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Diet induced weight-loss and bariatric surgery promote significant changes of gut microbial composition, that seem to affect the success, or the inefficacy, of treatment strategies. Manipulation of gut microbiota through the administration of prebiotics or probiotics could reduce intestinal low grade inflammation and improve gut barrier integrity, thus, ameliorating metabolic balance and promoting weight loss. However, further evidence is needed to better understand their clinical impact and therapeutic use. PMID:25473159
Ferraz-Amaro, Iván; González-Juanatey, Carlos; López-Mejias, Raquel; Riancho-Zarrabeitia, Leyre; González-Gay, Miguel A.
Insulin resistance is an essential feature of the metabolic syndrome that has been linked to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Understanding how inflammation arising in one tissue affects the physiology and pathology of other organs remains an unanswered question with therapeutic implications for chronic conditions including obesity, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, and RA. Adipokines may play a role in the development of atherogenesis in patients with RA. Biologic therapies, such as TNF-α antagonists, that block proinflammatory cytokines have beneficial effects on the insulin resistance that is often observed in patients with RA. PMID:23431244
Ziegler, Michael G; Elayan, Hamzeh; Milic, Milos; Sun, Ping; Gharaibeh, Munir
Epinephrine is the prototypical stress hormone. Its stimulation of all α and β adrenergic receptors elicits short-term systolic hypertension, hyperglycemia, and other aspects of the metabolic syndrome. Acute epinephrine infusion increases cardiac output and induces insulin resistance, but removal of the adrenal medulla has no consistent effect on blood pressure. Epinephrine is the most effective endogenous agonist at the β2 receptor. Transgenic mice that cannot make epinephrine and mice that lack the β2 receptor become hypertensive during exercise, presumably owing to the absence of β2-mediated vasodilatation. Epinephrine-deficient mice also have cardiac remodeling and poor cardiac responses to stress, but do not develop resting hypertension. Mice that cannot make epinephrine have a normal metabolism on a regular 14% fat diet but become hyperglycemic and insulin resistant when they eat a high fat diet. Vigorous exercise prevents diabetes in young mice and humans that overeat. However, exercise is a less effective treatment in older type 2 human diabetics and had no effect on glucose or insulin responses in older, diabetic mice. Sensitivity of the β2 receptor falls sharply with advancing age, and adrenal epinephrine release also decreases. However, treatment of older diabetic mice with a β2 adrenergic agonist improved insulin sensitivity, indicating that β2 subsensitivity can be overcome pharmacologically. Recent studies show that over the long term, epinephrine prevents hypertension during stress and improves glucose tolerance. The hyperglycemic influence of epinephrine is short-lived. Chronic administration of epinephrine and other β2 agonists improves cellular glucose uptake and metabolism. Overall, epinephrine counteracts the metabolic syndrome.
Kosola, Silja; Lampela, Hanna; Makisalo, Heikki; Lohi, Jouko; Arola, Johanna; Jalanko, Hannu; Pakarinen, Mikko
Half of adult liver transplantation (LT) recipients develop metabolic syndrome, but the prevalence after childhood LT remains unknown. We conducted a national cross-sectional study of all living patients who had undergone LT between 1987 and 2007 at an age less than 18 years. We gathered information on blood pressure, body composition, serum lipids, glucose metabolism, and histological liver fat content. The diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome of the American Heart Association and the International Diabetes Federation were used. After a median post-LT follow-up time of 12 years, half of all patients had no components of metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 20%, and the prevalence of hypertension was 24%. Serum triglycerides were high in 9%, and high-density lipoprotein levels were low in 23%. Fasting glucose levels were impaired in 14%, but none had diabetes. Altogether, 9 patients (14%) had metabolic syndrome. Moderate liver steatosis found in protocol liver biopsy samples was associated with the accumulation of metabolic syndrome features (P = 0.01). No significant associations were found between immunosuppressive medications and metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome after childhood LT is similar to the prevalence in the general population of the same age. Guidelines for the general population, therefore, seem valid for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome after pediatric LT as well. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Kendall, Cyril W C; Josse, Andrea R; Esfahani, Amin; Jenkins, David J A
The ability of nuts to improve the blood lipid profile and reduce the risk of CHD is now well established. The interest that health effects of nuts have gained recently has brought the possible benefits of consuming nuts, such as improvement in the conditions of the metabolic syndrome, and their potential to prevent and control diabetes into focus. Results from cohort studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced risk of developing diabetes and CVD. However, few randomised controlled trials have assessed the effect of nuts on diabetes control, and those that have been undertaken have shown improvements in blood lipids but not in the glycaemic control. Diabetes agencies are increasingly recognising the importance of controlling postprandial glycaemia fluctuations. Acute feeding studies indicate that nuts have minimal effects on rising postprandial blood glucose levels when eaten alone, and diminish the postprandial glycaemic response when consumed with high-glycaemic index carbohydrate foods in both normoglycaemic and type 2 diabetic individuals. Nuts have a healthy nutritional profile, high in MUFA and PUFA, are a good source of vegetable protein and are rich in fibre, vitamins and minerals. Incorporation of nuts in the diet may therefore improve the overall nutritional quality of the diet. While more research is required to establish the ability of nuts to improve glycaemic control in the long run, early data indicate that the inclusion of nuts in the diets of individuals with diabetes and the metabolic syndrome is warranted, in view of their potential to reduce CHD risk.
Wang, Junjun; Wu, Zhenlong; Li, Defa; Li, Ning; Dindot, Scott V.; Satterfield, M. Carey; Bazer, Fuller W.
Significance: Epidemiological and animal studies have demonstrated a close link between maternal nutrition and chronic metabolic disease in children and adults. Compelling experimental results also indicate that adverse effects of intrauterine growth restriction on offspring can be carried forward to subsequent generations through covalent modifications of DNA and core histones. Recent Advances: DNA methylation is catalyzed by S-adenosylmethionine-dependent DNA methyltransferases. Methylation, demethylation, acetylation, and deacetylation of histone proteins are performed by histone methyltransferase, histone demethylase, histone acetyltransferase, and histone deacetyltransferase, respectively. Histone activities are also influenced by phosphorylation, ubiquitination, ADP-ribosylation, sumoylation, and glycosylation. Metabolism of amino acids (glycine, histidine, methionine, and serine) and vitamins (B6, B12, and folate) plays a key role in provision of methyl donors for DNA and protein methylation. Critical Issues: Disruption of epigenetic mechanisms can result in oxidative stress, obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and vascular dysfunction in animals and humans. Despite a recognized role for epigenetics in fetal programming of metabolic syndrome, research on therapies is still in its infancy. Possible interventions include: 1) inhibition of DNA methylation, histone deacetylation, and microRNA expression; 2) targeting epigenetically disturbed metabolic pathways; and 3) dietary supplementation with functional amino acids, vitamins, and phytochemicals. Future Directions: Much work is needed with animal models to understand the basic mechanisms responsible for the roles of specific nutrients in fetal and neonatal programming. Such new knowledge is crucial to design effective therapeutic strategies for preventing and treating metabolic abnormalities in offspring born to mothers with a previous experience of malnutrition. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 282–301. PMID
Rafeeinia, Arash; Tabandeh, Afsaneh; Khajeniazi, Safoura; Marjani, Abdoljalal
The aim of study was to assess the metabolic syndrome in preeclampsia women. The study was performed on 50 women. The metabolic syndrome prevalence was 66%. Serum glucose, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels significantly were increased and HDL- cholesterol level significantly was decreased in metabolic syndrome patients. These patients showed high prevalence of components of the syndrome. Our results show the importance of dyslipidemia in preeclampsia in overweight and obese women. Preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease are important problems for the health of women. It may be useful to give a treat to people with a high-normal blood pressure in early pregnancy. PMID:25553139
Caserta, Donatella; Adducchio, Gloria; Picchia, Simona; Ralli, Eleonora; Matteucci, Eleonora; Moscarini, Massimo
Metabolic syndrome is an increasing pathology in adults and in children, due to a parallel rise of obesity. Sedentary lifestyle, food habits, cultural influences and also a genetic predisposition can cause dyslipidemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity and insulin resistance which are the two main features of metabolic syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition directly associated with obesity, insulin resistance (HOMA index) and metabolic syndrome, and it is very interesting for its relationship and overlap with the metabolic syndrome. The relationship between the two syndromes is mutual: PCOS women have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome and also women with metabolic syndrome commonly present the reproductive/endocrine trait of PCOS. Prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome and PCOS are similar for various aspects. It is necessary to treat excess adiposity and insulin resistance, with the overall goals of preventing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes and improving reproductive failure in young women with PCOS. First of all, lifestyle changes, then pharmacological therapy, bariatric surgery and laparoscopic ovarian surgery represent the pillars for PCOS treatment.
Sirtori, Cesare R; Pavanello, Chiara; Calabresi, Laura; Ruscica, Massimiliano
Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), affecting at least 30% of adults in the Western World, is characterized by three out of five variables, from high triglycerides, to elevated waist circumference and blood pressure. MetS is not characterized by elevated cholesterolemia, but is rather the consequence of a complex interaction of factors generally leading to increased insulin resistance. Drug treatments are of difficult handling, whereas well-characterized nutraceuticals may offer an effective alternative. Among these, functional foods, e.g. plant proteins, have been shown to improve insulin resistance and reduce triglyceride secretion. Pro- and pre-biotics, that are able to modify intestinal microbiome, reduce absorption of specific nutrients and improve the metabolic handling of energy-rich foods. Finally, specific nutraceuticals have proven to be of benefit, in particular, red-yeast rice, berberine, curcumin as well as vitamin D. All these can improve lipid handling by the liver as well as ameliorate insulin resistance. While lifestyle approaches, such as with the Mediterranean diet, may prove to be too complex for the single patient, better knowledge of selected nutraceuticals and more appropriate formulations leading to improved bioavailability will certainly widen the use of these agents, already in large use for the management of these very frequent patient groups. Key messages Functional foods, e.g. plant proteins, improve insulin resistance. Pro- and pre-biotics improve the metabolic handling of energy-rich foods. Nutraceutical can offer a significant help in handling MetS patients being part of lifestyle recommendations.
Cussons, Andrea J; Stuckey, Bronwyn G A; Watts, Gerald F
The cardiovascular risk associated with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has recently attracted much interest. Women with PCOS are more likely to fulfill the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of related cardiometabolic factors known to predict long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. We review the literature pertaining to the link between the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and PCOS. We focus on the influence of obesity and hyperandrogenemia, and on strategies for identifying cardiovascular risk in PCOS.
Canuto, Raquel; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo
OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (sex, skin color, age and marital status), socioeconomic (educational level, income and work shift), and behavioral characteristics (smoking, alcohol intake, leisure time physical activity, number of meals and sleep duration) of the sample. The multivariate analysis followed a theoretical framework for identifying metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers. RESULTS The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the sample was 9.3% (95%CI 7.4;11.2). The most frequently altered component was waist circumference (PR 48.4%; 95%CI 45.5;51.2), followed by high-density lipoprotein. Work shift was not associated with metabolic syndrome and its altered components. After adjustment, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was positively associated with women (PR 2.16; 95%CI 1.28;3.64), workers aged over 40 years (PR 3.90; 95%CI 1.78;8.93) and those who reported sleeping five hours or less per day (PR 1.70; 95%CI 1.09;2.24). On the other hand, metabolic syndrome was inversely associated with educational level and having more than three meals per day (PR 0.43; 95%CI 0.26;0.73). CONCLUSIONS Being female, older and deprived of sleep are probable risk factors for metabolic syndrome, whereas higher educational level and higher number of meals per day are protective factors for metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers.
Mahalingaiah, Shruthi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia
Introduction Metabolic syndrome is comprised of a combination of the following states: increased insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, and increased abdominal obesity. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome over the course of their lives. Metabolic syndrome increases risk of major cardiovascular events, morbidity, quality of life, and overall health care costs. Though metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS is an area of great concern, there is no effective individual medical therapeutic to adequately treat this issue. Areas Covered This article will review key aspects of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. We will discuss classic and novel therapeutics to address metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS. We will conclude with the importance of developing strategic interventions to increase the compliance to lifestyle and dietary modification, in addition to appreciation of the emerging pharmaceutical therapeutics available. Expert Opinion Innovation in lifestyle modification, including diet, exercise, with and without dedicated stress reduction techniques is the future in treatment of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. Application of novel interventions, such as group medical care, may improve future adherence to lifestyle modification recommendations, in addition to or in combination with pharmaceutical therapeutics. PMID:26488852
Pandit, Kaushik; Goswami, Soumik; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Pradip; Chowdhury, Subhankar
South Asia is home to one of the largest population of people with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The prevalence of MetS in South Asians varies according to region, extent of urbanization, lifestyle patterns, and socioeconomic/cultural factors. Recent data show that about one-third of the urban population in large cities in India has the MetS. All classical risk factors comprising the MetS are prevalent in Asian Indians residing in India. The higher risk in this ethnic population necessitated a lowering of the cut-off values of the risk factors to identify and intervene for the MetS to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions are underway in MetS to assess the efficacy in preventing the diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this ethnic population. PMID:22276252
Ezzaher, A; Haj, Mouhamed D; Mechri, A; Neffati, F; Douki, W; Gaha, L; Najjar, M F
The metabolic syndrome is a growing global public health problem which is frequently associated with psychiatric illness. To evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and to study its profile in Tunisian bipolar I patients. Our study included 130 patients with bipolar I disorder diagnosed according to the DSM-IV and assessed for metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III modified criteria. The mean age was 37.9 ± 12.1 years, 45 were women (mean age 37.5 ± 13.4 years) and 85 were men (mean age 38.1 ± 11.4 years). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 26.1%.The highest prevalence of this syndrome was obtained by association between obesity, low c-HDL and hypertriglyceridemia (44.1%). In the total sample, 59.2% met the criteria for low c-HDL, 53.1% for hypertriglyceridemia, 33.8% for obesity, 16.1% for high fasting glucose and 5.4% for hypertension. Gender, age, illness episode and treatment were not significantly associated with metabolic syndrome, while patients under lithium had higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than those under valproic acid, carbamazepine or antipsychotics. Patients with metabolic syndrome had significant higher levels of HOMA-IR and uric acid than metabolic syndrome free patients (p< 0.001). Bipolar patients have high prevalence of metabolic syndrome which is associated with insulin resistance and an increase of uric acid values that raise the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Hsu, Isabel R; Kim, Stella P; Kabir, Morvarid; Bergman, Richard N
The term metabolic syndrome describes the association between obesity, insulin resistance, and the risk of several prominent chronic diseases, including cancer. The causal link between many of these components remains unexplained, however. What is clear are the events that precede the development of the syndrome itself. In animal models, a fat-supplemented diet causes 1) lipid deposition in adipose depots, 2) insulin resistance of liver and skeletal muscle, and 3) hyperinsulinemia. One hypothesis relating fat deposition and insulin resistance involves enhanced lipolysis in the visceral depot, which leads to an increase in free fatty acid (FFA) flux. Increased mass of stored lipid and insulin resistance of visceral adipocytes favors lipolysis. Additionally, hypersensitivity of visceral adipose cells to sympathetic nervous system stimulation leads to increased lipolysis in the obese state. However, little evidence is available for enhanced plasma FFA concentrations in the fasting state. We measured FFA concentrations over a 24-h day in obese animals and found that plasma FFAs are elevated in the middle of the night, peaking at 0300. Therefore, it is possible that nocturnal lipolysis increases exposure of liver and muscle to FFAs at night, thus causing insulin resistance, which may play a role in hyperinsulinemic compensation to insulin resistance. Nocturnal lipolysis secondary to sympathetic stimulation may not only cause insulin resistance but also be responsible for hyperinsulinemia by stimulating secretion and reducing clearance of insulin by the liver. The resulting syndrome-elevated nocturnal FFAs and elevated insulin-may synergize and increase the risk of some cancers. This possible scenario needs further study.
Galajda, P; Mokáň, Michal; Mokáň, Marián
Metabolic syndrome is defined as cluster of independent risk factors of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus including prediabetic glucose metabolism disorders associated with insulin resistance as impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and/ or borderline increasing of glycosylated haemoglobin; central obesity, atherogenic dyslipidaemia with increasing of triglyceride levels and decreasing of high density lipoprotein levels and hypertension. In diagnosis of prediabetic states there are used fasting glycaemia, 2 hours glycaemia during oral glucose tolerant test and HbA1c level, which importance in diagnostic is discussed. In DM2 prevention there is important mainly physical activity at least 30 min daily. In the case of pharmacotherapy there was confirmed efficiency of metformin, which could be used in states with high risk of DM2 conversion and some antihypertensive drugs, mainly sartans. In the case of treatment of dyslipidaemia by statins there is moderate increased risk of DM2 in prediabetic states, but cardiovascular benefit from treatment some times exceeds this risk.
Naifar, M; Rekik, N; Messedi, M; Chaabouni, K; Lahiani, A; Turki, M; Abid, M; Ayedi, F; Jamoussi, K
The role of androgens in cardiovascular disease is still controversial in men. In this study, we investigated metabolic disorders in Tunisian hypogonadal men compared with healthy controls. Forty hypogonadal men and 80 control subjects were enrolled. Patients with a history of pre-existing panhypopituitarism, thyroid dysfunction or inflammatory disease were excluded. Glycaemia, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), lipid profile, insulin, testosterone and gonadotrophins were measured. Insulin resistance was assessed by homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (Homa IR). Waist circumference, body mass index and blood pressure were significantly higher in patients compared with controls. Glycemia, HbA1c, fasting serum insulin and Homa IR were significantly increased among hypogonadal men. In univariate analysis, testosterone levels were inversely correlated with body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, glycaemia, HbA1C, insulin, Homa IR and hsCRP. In multivariate analysis including all significant variables, initial testosterone level was the only independent risk factor for developing dyslipidaemia. With logistic regression, male hypogonadism was an independent risk factor for MS (P < 0.001). We conclude that low testosterone level plays a central role in the development of metabolic syndrome. Further prospective data are required to establish the causative link. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Rastrelli, Giulia; Filippi, Sandra; Sforza, Alessandra; Maggi, Mario; Corona, Giovanni
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and hypogonadism (HG) are frequently comorbid. In this review, we summarize interconnections between the construct of MetS and the presence of HG, as well as the effect of specific treatments for each condition on this association. Data from meta-analytic studies suggest a bidirectional pathogenic relationship. In fact, reduced T (-2.21 [-2.43 to -1.98] nmol/L) at baseline predicts incident MetS. On the other hand, MetS at study entry increases the risk of developing HG (OR 2.46 [1.77-3.42]). The bidirectional pathogenic link between MetS and HG is further confirmed by the fact that treating MetS with insulin sensitizer is associated with an increase in T. In addition, a huge effect on increasing T is found in obese men undergoing procedures for losing weight, with more dramatic results obtained after bariatric surgery than after low calorie diet (increase in T 8.73 [6.51-10.95] nmol/L and 2.87 [1.68-4.07] nmol/L, respectively, according to a recent meta-analysis). On the other hand, there is evidence of an improvement in several metabolic derangements characterizing MetS in subjects treated with T. However, the latter results are still not conclusive and need further evidence from randomized clinical trials. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Mehrdad, Ramin; Pouryaghoub, Gholamreza; Moradi, Mahboubeh
The occupation of the people can influence the development of metabolic syndrome. To determine the association between metabolic syndrome and its determinants with the job rank in workers of a large car factory in Iran. 3989 male workers at a large car manufacturing company were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Demographic and anthropometric data of the participants, including age, height, weight, and abdominal circumference were measured. Blood samples were taken to measure lipid profile and blood glucose level. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in each participant based on ATPIII 2001 criteria. The workers were categorized based on their job rank into 3 groups of (1) office workers, (2) workers with physical exertion, and (3) workers with chemical exposure. The study characteristics, particularly the frequency of metabolic syndrome and its determinants were compared among the study groups. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our study was 7.7% (95% CI 6.9 to 8.5). HDL levels were significantly lower in those who had chemical exposure (p=0.045). Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in those who had mechanical exertion (p=0.026). The frequency of metabolic syndrome in the office workers, workers with physical exertion, and workers with chemical exposure was 7.3%, 7.9%, and 7.8%, respectively (p=0.836). Seemingly, there is no association between metabolic syndrome and job rank.
Persson, Pontus B; Bondke Persson, Anja
The current obesity epidemic has not only spread from Western to developing economies, but is affecting ever younger individuals. While oftentimes blamed on a slow metabolism or a hereditary component, one might consider whether family recipes and dietary habits are hereditary to a much higher degree than slow metabolism or big bones could ever be. Education is critical, so how do we explain metabolism to a layman, e.g. a parent of an obese child? - Metabolism denotes all the processes, which turn nutrients from our food into energy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Shah, D; Rasool, S
By virtue of insulin resistance being the common etiology for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and metabolic syndrome, the cardiometabolic risks of these two syndromes are shared. The usual concerns of a PCOS patient are cosmetic or reproductive. However, there are more serious concerns past the reproductive age. Early treatment of insulin resistance, hypertension and hyperlipidemia reduces the long-term risk. This review highlights the unhealthy association of metabolic syndrome with PCOS and emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis, patient education and long-term follow-up beyond the reproductive age into menopause to prevent the long-term serious co-morbidities.
Fomenko, Ekaterina Vladimirovna; Chi, Yuling
The recent emergence of a worldwide epidemic of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes, demands effective strategy to develop nutraceuticals or pharmaceuticals to halt this trend. Natural products have long been and continue to be an attractive source of nutritional and pharmacological therapeutics. One such natural product is mangiferin (MGF), the predominant constituent of extracts of the mango plant Mangifera indica L. Reports on biological and pharmacological effects of MGF increased exponentially in recent years. MGF has documented antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Recent studies indicate that it modulates multiple biological processes involved in metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. MGF has been shown to improve metabolic abnormalities and disorders in animal models and humans. This review focuses on the recently reported biological and pharmacological effects of MGF on metabolism and metabolic disorders. PMID:27534809
Ohseto, Hisashi; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Obara, Taku; Igarashi, Yuko; Takahashi, Satomi; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Shigihara, Michiko; Yamanaka, Chizuru; Miyashita, Masako; Mizuno, Satoshi; Nagai, Masato; Matsubara, Hiroko; Sato, Yuki; Metoki, Hirohito; Tachibana, Hirofumi; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Kuriyama, Shinichi
Metabolic syndrome and the presence of metabolic syndrome components are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the association between personality traits and metabolic syndrome remains controversial, and few studies have been conducted in East Asian populations. We measured personality traits using the Japanese version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Revised Short Form) and five metabolic syndrome components-elevated waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, and elevated fasting glucose-in 1322 participants aged 51.1±12.7years old from Kakegawa city, Japan. Metabolic syndrome score (MS score) was defined as the number of metabolic syndrome components present, and metabolic syndrome as having the MS score of 3 or higher. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to examine the relationship between personality traits and metabolic syndrome components and multiple regression analyses to examine the relationship between personality traits and MS scores adjusted for age, sex, education, income, smoking status, alcohol use, and family history of CVD and diabetes mellitus. We also examine the relationship between personality traits and metabolic syndrome presence by multiple logistic regression analyses. "Extraversion" scores were higher in those with metabolic syndrome components (elevated waist circumference: P=0.001; elevated triglycerides: P=0.01; elevated blood pressure: P=0.004; elevated fasting glucose: P=0.002). "Extraversion" was associated with the MS score (coefficient=0.12, P=0.0003). No personality trait was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Higher "extraversion" scores were related to higher MS scores, but no personality trait was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Camuglia, Anthony C; Maeder, Micha T; Starr, Jennifer; Farrington, Catherine; Kaye, David M
Both heart and renal failure are characterised by increased systemic oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction and occur in the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, on endothelial function, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and renal function in patients with CRS. In a double blind, placebo controlled manner, we randomised nine stable outpatients with both heart failure (LVEF<40% and NYHA class II or III) and renal failure (Cockroft Gault clearance of 20-60ml/min) to placebo or NAC (500mg orally twice daily) for 28 days followed by a wash out period (>7 days) and crossover to the other treatment. Eight patients completed the study and all data (N=9) was used in the analysis. Mean forearm blood flow improved significantly with NAC with mean ratio of improvement of 1.99 (SEM: ±0.49) for NAC and 0.73 (SEM: ±0.23) for placebo with a p-value of 0.047. There was no significant difference in BNP (p=0.25), renal function (p=0.71) or NYHA class (p=0.5). No deaths occurred during the trial. In this pilot trial of patients with CRS, NAC therapy was associated with improved forearm blood flow. This may represent a general improvement in endothelial function and warrants further investigation of antioxidant therapy in these patients. Copyright © 2012 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Esposito, Katherine; Chiodini, Paolo; Colao, Annamaria; Lenzi, Andrea; Giugliano, Dario
OBJECTIVE Available evidence supports the emerging hypothesis that metabolic syndrome may be associated with the risk of some common cancers. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between metabolic syndrome and risk of cancer at different sites. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted an electronic search for articles published through October 2011 without restrictions and by reviewing reference lists from retrieved articles. Every included study was to report risk estimates with 95% CIs for the association between metabolic syndrome and cancer. RESULTS We analyzed 116 datasets from 43 articles, including 38,940 cases of cancer. In cohort studies in men, the presence of metabolic syndrome was associated with liver (relative risk 1.43, P < 0.0001), colorectal (1.25, P < 0.001), and bladder cancer (1.10, P = 0.013). In cohort studies in women, the presence of metabolic syndrome was associated with endometrial (1.61, P = 0.001), pancreatic (1.58, P < 0.0001), breast postmenopausal (1.56, P = 0.017), rectal (1.52, P = 0.005), and colorectal (1.34, P = 0.006) cancers. Associations with metabolic syndrome were stronger in women than in men for pancreatic (P = 0.01) and rectal (P = 0.01) cancers. Associations were different between ethnic groups: we recorded stronger associations in Asia populations for liver cancer (P = 0.002), in European populations for colorectal cancer in women (P = 0.004), and in U.S. populations (whites) for prostate cancer (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk of common cancers; for some cancers, the risk differs betweens sexes, populations, and definitions of metabolic syndrome. PMID:23093685
Tune, Johnathan D.; Goodwill, Adam G.; Sassoon, Daniel J.; Mather, Kieren J.
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as the concurrence of obesity-associated cardiovascular risk factors including abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, decreased HDL cholesterol, and/or hypertension. Earlier conceptualizations of the MetS focused on insulin resistance as a core feature, and it is clearly coincident with the above list of features. Each component of the MetS is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the combination of these risk factors elevates rates and severity of cardiovascular disease, related to a spectrum of cardiovascular conditions including microvascular dysfunction, coronary atherosclerosis and calcification, cardiac dysfunction, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. While advances in understanding the etiology and consequences of this complex disorder have been made, the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms remain incompletely understood, and it is unclear how these concurrent risk factors conspire to produce the variety of obesity-associated adverse cardiovascular diseases. In this review we highlight current knowledge regarding the pathophysiologic consequences of obesity and the MetS on cardiovascular function and disease, including considerations of potential physiologic and molecular mechanisms that may contribute to these adverse outcomes. PMID:28130064
Thottam, Gabrielle E; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Pillinger, Michael H
The complexity of gout continues to unravel with each new investigation. Gout sits at the intersection of multiple intrinsically complex processes, and its prevalence, impact on healthcare costs, and association with important co-morbidities make it increasingly relevant. The association between gout and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease, renal disease, and obesity suggest that either gout, or its necessary precursor hyperuricemia, may play an important role in the manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. In this review, we analyze the complex interconnections between gout and metabolic syndrome, by reviewing gout's physiologic and epidemiologic relationships with its major co-morbidities. Increasing evidence supports gout's association with metabolic syndrome. More specifically, both human studies and animal models suggest that hyperuricemia may play a role in promoting inflammation, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, adipogenesis and lipogenesis, insulin and glucose dysregulation, and liver disease. Fructose ingestion is associated with increased rates of hypertension, weight gain, impaired glucose tolerance, and dyslipidemia and is a key driver of urate biosynthesis. AMP kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of processes that tend to mitigate against the metabolic syndrome. Within hepatocytes, leukocytes, and other cells, a fructose/urate metabolic loop drives key inhibitors of AMPK, including AMP deaminase and fructokinase, that may tilt the balance toward metabolic syndrome progression. Preliminary evidence suggests that agents that block the intracellular synthesis of urate may restore AMPK activity and help maintain metabolic homeostasis. Gout is both an inflammatory and a metabolic disease. With further investigation of urate's role, the possibility of proper gout management additionally mitigating metabolic syndrome is an evolving and important question.
Di Lullo, Luca; Ronco, Claudio
According to the recent definition proposed by the Consensus conference on Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative Group, the term cardio-renal syndrome CRS has been used to define different clinical conditions in which heart and kidney dysfunction overlap. Type 1 CRS acute cardio - renal syndrome is characterized by acute worsening of cardiac function leading to AKI in the setting of active cardiac disease such as ADHF, while type - 2 CRS occurs in a setting of chronic heart disease. Type 3 CRS is closely link to acute kidney injury, while type 4 represent cardiovascular involvement in chronic kidney disese patients. Type 5 CRS represent cardiac and renal involvement in several diseases such as sepsis, hepato - renal syndrome and immune - mediated diseases. Copyright by Società Italiana di Nefrologia SIN, Rome, Italy.
The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of metabolic abnormalities that result in an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in adults. It emerges when a person’s predisposition for insulin resistance is worsened by increasing central obesity and is largely confined to the overweight population. The United States National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III report proposed a set of criteria for the clinical diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in the adult population. A uniform definition for the paediatric population is lacking. Despite this, several studies have demonstrated that features of the syndrome develop in childhood and that the syndrome is present in up to 30% of obese children (body mass index at or above the 95th percentile). Ninety per cent of obese children meet at least one of the five criteria. The degree of abnormality is related to the body mass index, waist circumference and fasting insulin levels. There appears to be a genetic predisposition to the development of the syndrome and certain ethnic groups are at increased risk. The intrauterine environment also appears to play a role. Insulin resistance should be targeted for treatment through exercise and dietary intervention. The role of pharmacotherapeutic agents remains unclear. A uniform definition of the metabolic syndrome for paediatric patients needs to be created. Early intervention should be instituted because many of the features of the syndrome track from childhood into adulthood. PMID:19657446
Muñoz-Diosdado, A.; Ramírez-Hernández, L.; Aguilar-Molina, A. M.; Zamora-Justo, J. A.; Gutiérrez-Calleja, R. A.; Virgilio-González, C. D.
There is a relationship between the state of the cardiovascular system and metabolic syndrome (MS). A way to diagnose the heart state of a person is to monitor the electrical activity of the heart using a 24 hours Holter monitor. Scanned ECG signal can be analyzed beat-by-beat by algorithms that separate normal of abnormal heartbeats. If the percentage of abnormal heartbeats is too high it could be argued that the patient has heart problems. We have algorithms that can not only identify the abnormal heartbeats, but they can also classify them, so we classified and counted abnormal heartbeats in patients with MS and subjects without MS. Most of our patients have large waist circumference, high triglycerides and high levels of LDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol although some of them have high blood pressure. We enrolled adult patients with MS free of diabetes in a four month lifestyle intervention program including diet and physical aerobic exercise, and compared with healthy controls. We made an initial registration with a Holter, and 24 hours ECG signal is analyzed to identify and classify the different types of heartbeats. The patients then begin with diet or exercise (at least half an hour daily). Periodically Holter records were taken up and we describe the evolution in time of the number and type of abnormal heartbeats. Results show that the percentage of abnormal heartbeats decreases over time, in some cases the decline is very significant, and almost a reduction to half or less of abnormal heartbeats after several months since the patients changed their eating or physical activity habits.
El-Aty, Mahmoud Abd; Mabry, Ruth; Morsi, Magdi; Al-Lawati, Jawad; Al-Riyami, Asya; El-Sayed, Medhat
Objectives: The study aimed to describe the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components among Omani adults. Methods: The 2008 Oman World Health Survey dataset was used to determine the national prevalence of MS. Logistic regression using all key sociodemographic, clinical and behavioural variables was used to identify the associations of independent variables with MS. Results: The age-adjusted prevalence of MS was 23.6%. MS was significantly associated with age, marital and work status and wealth level. MS was more common for people aged 50 years and older compared to the youngest cohort (OR 3.6, CI: 2.4–5.3; P <0.001) and in people who were married or employed (OR 1.6, CI: 1.3–2.1; P <0.001 and OR 1.3, CI: 1.1–1.8; P = 0.043, respectively) compared to their unmarried and unemployed counterparts. MS was also more common in people in the second lowest wealth quintile (OR 1.6, CI: 1.2–2.2; P = 0.05) compared to the lowest quintile and in those who sat for more than six hours per day (OR 1.3, CI: 1.1–1.7; P = 0.035). Conclusion: One in four adults had MS in Oman. This may fuel the epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Oman, particularly given the increasingly elderly population. Urgent action is required to ensure quality patient care at all levels of the healthcare system. Further research on behavioural risk factors is needed. Developing and implementing a multisectoral strategy to prevent NCDs should be at the top of the current health agenda for Oman. PMID:25364547
Loevinger, Barbara L; Muller, Daniel; Alonso, Carmen; Coe, Christopher L
Fibromyalgia is a prevalent syndrome characterized by chronic pain, fatigue, and insomnia. Patients with fibromyalgia commonly have an elevated body mass index and are physically inactive, 2 major risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Yet little is known about the relationship between chronic pain conditions and metabolic disturbances. Our study evaluated the risk for, and neuroendocrine correlates of, metabolic syndrome in this patient population. Women with fibromyalgia (n = 109) were compared with control healthy women (n = 46), all recruited from the community. Metabolic syndrome was identified by using criteria from the Adult Treatment Panel III with glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations substituted for serum glucose. Catecholamine and cortisol levels were determined from 12-hour overnight urine collections. Women with fibromyalgia were 5.56 times more likely than healthy controls to have metabolic syndrome (95% confidence interval, 1.25-24.74). Fibromyalgia was associated with larger waist circumference (P = .04), higher glycosylated hemoglobin (P = .01) and serum triglyceride (P < .001) levels, and higher systolic (P = .003) and diastolic (P = .002) blood pressure. Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also significantly higher in women with fibromyalgia (P = .001 and .02, respectively), although high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was in the reference range. These associations were not accounted for by age or body mass index. Meeting criteria for more metabolic syndrome components was related to higher urinary norepinephrine (NE)/epinephrine and NE/cortisol ratios (P < .001 and P = .009, respectively). Women with chronic pain from fibromyalgia are at an increased risk for metabolic syndrome, which may be associated with relatively elevated NE levels in conjunction with relatively reduced epinephrine and cortisol secretion.
Deedwania, P C; Gupta, R
The metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular dysmetabolic syndrome is characterized by obesity, central obesity, insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The major risk factors leading to this syndrome are physical inactivity and an atherogenic diet and cornerstone clinical feature is abdominal obesity or adiposity. In addition, patients usually have elevated triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, elevated LDL cholesterol, other abnormal lipid parameters, hypertension, and elevated fasting blood glucose. Impaired fibrinolysis, increased susceptibility to thrombotic events, and raised inflammatory markers are also observed. Given that India has the largest number of subjects with type-2 diabetes in the world it can be extrapolated that this country also has the largest number of patients with the metabolic syndrome. Epidemiological studies confirm a high prevalence. Therapeutic approach involves intervention at a macro-level and control of multiple risk factors using therapeutic lifestyle approaches (diet control and increased physical activity, pharmacotherapy - anti-obesity agents) for control of obesity and visceral obesity, and targeted approach for control of individual risk factors. Pharmacological therapy is a critical step in the management of patients with metabolic syndrome when lifestyle modifications fail to achieve the therapeutic goals. Anti-obesity drugs such as sibutramine and orlistat can be tried to reduce weight and central obesity and jointly control the metabolic syndrome components. Other than weight loss, there is no single best therapy and treatment should consist of treatment of individual components of the metabolic syndrome. Newer drugs such as the endocannabinoid receptor blocker,rimonabant, appear promising in this regard. Atherogenic dyslipidemia should be controlled initially with statins if there is an increase in LDL cholesterol. If there are other lipid abnormalities then combination therapy of statin with fibrates
Longo-Mbenza, B; Kasiam Lasi On'kin, J B; Nge Okwe, A; Kangola Kabangu, N
Metabolic syndrome defined by International cut-off values are limited to detect people at high cardiometabolic risk in Central Africans in comparison with metabolic syndrome defined by ethnic-specific definition. We examined the relationship between metabolic syndromes, diabetes control, abdominal obesity, HDL-cholesterol groups and atherosclerotic complications. A representative sample of type-2 diabetic central Africans from Kinshasa were studied. Outcome measures included control of diabetes, atherosclerosis, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, metabolic syndromes and atherosclerosis. Of 1266 type-2 diabetic patients (48.8%), (61.8%), (27.1%) and (81%) had uncontrolled diabetes, atherosclerotics, metabolic syndrome (IDF/Europe), and metabolic syndrome (IDF/local) respectively. There was a significant U-shaped relationship between atherosclerotics complications, insulin resistance, delta postprandial glycaemia and HDL-cholesterol stratification. There was also a significant U-shaped relationship between cardiometabolic risk (P<0.01) and atherosclerotic complications. Type-2 diabetic Central Africans exhibit very high rates of uncontrolled diabetes, atherosclerotic complications and metabolic syndrome. Both, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, low and very high HDL-cholesterol levels are cardiometabolic risk factors. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cárdenas Villarreal, Velia Margarita; Rizo-Baeza, María M; Cortés Castell, Ernesto
In spite of the lack of a uniform definition for metabolic syndrome in pediatry, recent studies have shown that it develops during childhood and is highly prevalent among children and adolescents who suffer from obesity. In light of the current epidemic of obesity in this age category in western countries, and specifically in Mexico, it becomes essential to know the means to prevent, detect and treat this syndrome. Nurses play an important role in promoting childhood health with regards to metabolic syndrome. To put into practice the strategies which resolve underlying problems related with this syndrome is a priority for the well-being of this age group. These strategies should include the application and management of public policies; the collaboration by health services, social services and schools; but, furthermore, the prevention and the management of this syndrome require a family commitment, while the changes in living habits benefit the entire family. This review article proposes to introduce prevention, diagnostic and treatment strategies which nursing personnel can carry out while dealing with metabolic syndrome in adolescents.
Metabolic syndrome is a relatively new definition, designed to help the health care practitioner to easily identify people at risk for the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. With the obesity epidemic, we are witnessing an epidemic of multiple-risk patients. Insulin resistance is the perceived pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and defines its clinical presentation. Hypertension, dyslipedemia, polycystic ovarian syndrome, fatty liver disease, pre-diabetes, sleep and breathing disorder, certain cancers, and cognitive impairment are many of the presentations of the syndrome; patients with any of these conditions are at a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The metabolic syndrome helps identify people at risk to allow early intervention for prevention. Lifestyle modification is the most important part of the management of people with the syndrome. Lately medications--though none approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)--have been recommended by major medical societies when lifestyle modification is not enough or when it fails.
Yoon, Hyun; Gi, Mi Young; Cha, Ju Ae; Yoo, Chan Uk; Park, Sang Muk
This study assessed the association of metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score with the predicted forced vital capacity and predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s) values in Korean non-smoking adults. We analysed data obtained from 6684 adults during the 2013-2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjustment for related variables, metabolic syndrome ( p < 0.001) and metabolic syndrome score ( p < 0.001) were found to be inversely associated with the predicted forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s values. The odds ratios of restrictive pulmonary disease (the predicted forced vital capacity < 80.0% with forced expiratory volume in 1 s/FVC ⩾ 70.0%) by metabolic syndrome score with metabolic syndrome score 0 as a reference group showed no significance for metabolic syndrome score 1 [1.061 (95% confidence interval, 0.755-1.490)] and metabolic syndrome score 2 [1.247 (95% confidence interval, 0.890-1.747)], but showed significant for metabolic syndrome score 3 [1.433 (95% confidence interval, 1.010-2.033)] and metabolic syndrome score ⩾ 4 [1.760 (95% confidence interval, 1.216-2.550)]. In addition, the odds ratio of restrictive pulmonary disease of the metabolic syndrome [1.360 (95% confidence interval, 1.118-1.655)] was significantly higher than those of non-metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score were inversely associated with the predicted forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s values in Korean non-smoking adults. In addition, metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score were positively associated with the restrictive pulmonary disease.
Litvinova, Larisa; Atochin, Dmitriy N.; Fattakhov, Nikolai; Vasilenko, Mariia; Zatolokin, Pavel; Kirienkova, Elena
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders that collectively increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a crucial role in the pathogeneses of MS components and is involved in different mitochondrial signaling pathways that control respiration and apoptosis. The present review summarizes the recent information regarding the interrelations of mitochondria and NO in MS. Changes in the activities of different NO synthase isoforms lead to the formation of metabolic disorders and therefore are highlighted here. Reduced endothelial NOS activity and NO bioavailability, as the main factors underlying the endothelial dysfunction that occurs in MS, are discussed in this review in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction. We also focus on potential therapeutic strategies involving NO signaling pathways that can be used to treat patients with metabolic disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The article may help researchers develop new approaches for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of MS. PMID:25741283
Delitala, Alessandro P; Capobianco, Giampiero; Delitala, Giuseppe; Cherchi, Pier Luigi; Dessole, Salvatore
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder that affects women of reproductive age and is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction and/or androgen excess or polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS present a number of systemic symptoms in addition to those related to the reproductive system. It has been associated with functional derangements in adipose tissue, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A detailed literature search on Pubmed was done for articles about PCOS, adipokines, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Original articles, reviews, and meta-analysis were included. PCOS women are prone to visceral fat hypertrophy in the presence of androgen excess and the presence of these conditions is related to insulin resistance and worsens the PCO phenotype. Disturbed secretion of many adipocyte-derived substances (adipokines) is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and contributes to insulin resistance. Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance stimulate ovarian and adrenal androgen production, and may further increase abdominal obesity and inflammation, thus creating a vicious cycle. The high prevalence of metabolic disorders mainly related to insulin resistance and CVD risk factors in women with PCOS highlight the need for early lifestyle changes for reducing metabolic risks in these patients.
Kamkar, Mohammad Zaman; Sanagoo, Akram; Zargarani, Fatemeh; Jouybari, Leila; Marjani, Abdoljalal
Background: Metabolic syndrome is commonly associated with cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric mental illness. Hence, we aimed to assess the metabolic syndrome among severe mental illness (SMI). Materials and Methods: The study included 267 patients who were referred to the psychiatric unit at 5th Azar Education Hospital of Golestan University of Medical Sciences in Gorgan, Iran. Results: The mean waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the SMI with metabolic syndrome, but the high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was significantly lower. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in SMI patients was 20.60%. There were significant differences in the mean of waist circumference, systolic (except for women) and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and fasting blood glucose in men and women with metabolic syndrome when compared with subjects without metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in SMI women was higher than men. The most age distribution was in range of 30-39 years old. The most prevalence of metabolic syndrome was in age groups 50-59 years old. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was increased from 30 to 59 years old. Conclusion: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with SMI in Gorgan is almost similar to those observed in Asian countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was lower than western countries. These observations may be due to cultural differences in the region. It should be mention that the families of mental illness subjects in our country believe that their patients must be cared better than people without mental illness. These findings of this study suggest that mental illness patients are at risk of metabolic syndrome. According to our results, risk factors such as age and gender differences may play an important role in the presence of metabolic syndrome. In our country, women do less
Buell, Jackie L; Calland, Doug; Hanks, Fiona; Johnston, Bruce; Pester, Benjamin; Sweeney, Robert; Thorne, Robert
Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of symptoms associated with abdominal obesity that demonstrates a high risk for cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. To evaluate football linemen in National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions I, II, and III schools for the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria as well as to document other related biomarkers. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Three university locations on the first full day of football camp in early morning. Of 76 football linemen, 70 were able to provide blood samples. Height, mass, blood pressure, upper-body skinfolds, and waist circumference were measured at various stations. Two small venous samples of blood were collected and analyzed in a hospital laboratory for fasting insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and glycosylated hemoglobin. The last station was a verbal family history for cardiovascular disease and diabetes; also, athletes filled out a nutrition attitudes questionnaire. Of the 70 athletes, 34 were identified as having metabolic syndrome according to measures of blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides. The mean total cholesterol-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio for the group was 4.95, with 32 participants displaying values higher than 5.0. Twelve volunteers had total cholesterol levels greater than 200 mmol/L, 15 had high levels of C-reactive protein, and 9 had slightly elevated levels of glycosylated hemoglobin. Although athletes might be assumed to be protected from risks of cardiovascular disease, we found a high incidence of metabolic syndrome and other associated adverse biomarkers for heart disease in collegiate football linemen. Early screening, awareness, and intervention may have favorable effects on the overall health outcomes of football linemen.
Saklayen, Mohammad G
Metabolic syndrome, variously known also as syndrome X, insulin resistance, etc., is defined by WHO as a pathologic condition characterized by abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Though there is some variation in the definition by other health care organization, the differences are minor. With the successful conquest of communicable infectious diseases in most of the world, this new non-communicable disease (NCD) has become the major health hazard of modern world. Though it started in the Western world, with the spread of the Western lifestyle across the globe, it has become now a truly global problem. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is often more in the urban population of some developing countries than in its Western counterparts. The two basic forces spreading this malady are the increase in consumption of high calorie-low fiber fast food and the decrease in physical activity due to mechanized transportations and sedentary form of leisure time activities. The syndrome feeds into the spread of the diseases like type 2 diabetes, coronary diseases, stroke, and other disabilities. The total cost of the malady including the cost of health care and loss of potential economic activity is in trillions. The present trend is not sustainable unless a magic cure is found (unlikely) or concerted global/governmental/societal efforts are made to change the lifestyle that is promoting it. There are certainly some elements in the causation of the metabolic syndrome that cannot be changed but many are amenable for corrections and curtailments. For example, better urban planning to encourage active lifestyle, subsidizing consumption of whole grains and possible taxing high calorie snacks, restricting media advertisement of unhealthy food, etc. Revitalizing old fashion healthier lifestyle, promoting old-fashioned foods using healthy herbs rather than oil and sugar, and educating people about choosing healthy/wholesome food over junks
Mesquita de Carvalho, Cláudia; Dias Mendonça, Dayana; Haas Piovesan, Carla; Edler Macagnan, Fabrício; Pandolfo Feoli, Ana Maria
The nutritional approach in the treatment of metabolic syndrome is a fundamental factor. It is important to raise awareness to patients about the benefits of following the treatments when you want to promote changes in lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess nutritional adequacy in subjects with metabolic syndrome according to the dietary recommendations prescribed. Quasi-experimental research with 72 subjects with metabolic syndrome, held in southern Brazil. A nutritional orientation was conducted, related or not with physical exercise for three months. A 24-hour recall and two-day food record, were the reference method of dietary intake assessment. Nutritional adequacy was determined by the energy and nutrient intakes as defined by the Brazilian Food Guide Pyramid groups. Volunteers reached on average 80% of the energy consumption recommended. Protein and lipid intake was higher, and carbohydrate consumption was lower than recommended levels. There was a low intake of cereals, vegetables, dairy product and beans (p<0.001) as compared with the recommended servings. A high consumption of meat (p<0.001) and an adequate intake of fruit (p=0.149) were observed. The dietary intake was insufficient to meet the recommendation of energy, although the goal for weight loss was achieved. Still, the results show the need for a balance in food intake and quality of the diet to achieve nutritional adequacy. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Vendrame, Stefano; Del Bo’, Cristian; Ciappellano, Salvatore; Riso, Patrizia; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy
Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of risk factors which often includes central obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, as well as a pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant, and pro-thrombotic environment. This leads to a dramatically increased risk of developing type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death both in the United States and worldwide. Increasing evidence suggests that berry fruit consumption has a significant potential in the prevention and treatment of most risk factors associated with Metabolic Syndrome and its cardiovascular complications in the human population. This is likely due to the presence of polyphenols with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, such as anthocyanins and/or phenolic acids. The present review summarizes the findings of recent dietary interventions with berry fruits on human subjects with or at risk of Metabolic Syndrome. It also discusses the potential role of berries as part of a dietary strategy which could greatly reduce the need for pharmacotherapy, associated with potentially deleterious side effects and constituting a considerable financial burden. PMID:27706020
Makhsida, Nawras; Shah, Jay; Yan, Grace; Fisch, Harry; Shabsigh, Ridwan
Metabolic syndrome, characterized by central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension, is highly prevalent in the United States. When left untreated, it significantly increases the risk of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. It has been suggested that hypogonadism may be an additional component of metabolic syndrome. This has potential implications for the treatment of metabolic syndrome with testosterone. We reviewed the available literature on metabolic syndrome and hypogonadism with a particular focus on testosterone therapy. A comprehensive MEDLINE review of the world literature from 1988 to 2004 on hypogonadism, testosterone and metabolic syndrome was performed. Observational data suggest that metabolic syndrome is strongly associated with hypogonadism in men. Multiple interventional studies have shown that exogenous testosterone has a favorable impact on body mass, insulin secretion and sensitivity, lipid profile and blood pressure, which are the parameters most often disturbed in metabolic syndrome. Hypogonadism is likely a fundamental component of metabolic syndrome. Testosterone therapy may not only treat hypogonadism, but may also have tremendous potential to slow or halt the progression from metabolic syndrome to overt diabetes or cardiovascular disease via beneficial effects on insulin regulation, lipid profile and blood pressure. Furthermore, the use of testosterone to treat metabolic syndrome may also lead to the prevention of urological complications commonly associated with these chronic disease states, such as neurogenic bladder and erectile dysfunction. Physicians must be mindful to evaluate hypogonadism in all men diagnosed with metabolic syndrome as well as metabolic syndrome in all men diagnosed with hypogonadism. Future research in the form of randomized clinical trials should focus on further defining the role of testosterone for metabolic syndrome.
Udenze, Ifeoma; Nnaji, Ilochi; Oshodi, Temitope
Metabolic syndrome and thyroid dysfunction are two common disorders encountered in the metabolic clinic. Recently, there has been increased interest in the association between the two disorders because of the similarities between symptoms of hypothyroidism and components of the metabolic syndrome. While some reports suggest that metabolic syndrome is associated with subclinical hypothyroidism, this concept is largely under investigated in Nigerian adults with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the thyroid function status of adult Nigerians with metabolic syndrome and determine the association, if any, between metabolic syndrome and thyroid function. This was a cross sectional study of one hundred and fifty adults, members of staff of the College of Medicine of the University of Lagos. The participants were recruited using a cluster random sampling method. The Ethical Research & Review Committee of the institution approved the study protocol and signed informed consent was obtained from the participants. The statistics was analysed using the IBM SPSS Software of version 19.0. The Student's t test, Chi square test and multivariate regression analysis were employed for the analysis. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Thirty nine (twenty-six percent) of the study participants had metabolic syndrome and one hundred and eleven (seventy-four percent) of the study participants did not have metabolic syndrome, served as controls. Those who had metabolic syndrome group were significantly older (p = 0.03), metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with the female gender (p = 0.0002), higher systolic blood pressure (p = 0.0034), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.0009), waist circumference (p < 0.0001), body mass index (p < 0.0001), waist-hip ratio (p = 0.003), fasting serum glucose (p = 0.0457) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels (p = 0.0496). Those with metabolic syndrome had significantly lower HDL (P = 0.004) and free triiodothyronine (fT3
Cardinali, Daniel P; Vigo, Daniel E
A number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease including hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, obesity, and elevated blood pressure are collectively known as metabolic syndrome (MS). Since mitochondrial activity is modulated by the availability of energy in cells, the disruption of key regulators of metabolism in MS not only affects the activity of mitochondria but also their dynamics and turnover. Therefore, a link of MS with mitochondrial dysfunction has been suspected since long. As a chronobiotic/cytoprotective agent, melatonin has a special place in prevention and treatment of MS. Melatonin levels are reduced in diseases associated with insulin resistance like MS. Melatonin improves sleep efficiency and has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, partly for its role as a metabolic regulator and mitochondrial protector. We discuss in the present review the several cytoprotective melatonin actions that attenuate inflammatory responses in MS. The clinical data that support the potential therapeutical value of melatonin in human MS are reviewed.
Kawada, Tomoyuki; Okada, Kyoji
The aim of this study was to examine the relation of lifestyle to the metabolic syndrome in Japanese male workers. The association of 6 lifestyle factors with the metabolic syndrome and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, as defined by the modified International Diabetes Federation criteria for Japanese people, were evaluated in 4941 men at a workplace participating in the annual health examination mandated by law; the subjects ranged in age from 36 to 60 years. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the sample was 9.1%. The prevalence was the highest in subjects aged 46-50 years. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of the metabolic syndrome in current smokers and ex-smokers compared with non-smokers were 1.381 (1.088-1.752) (P=.008) and 1.812 (1.365-2.407) (P<.001), respectively. In contrast, no preventive effect of alcohol on the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome was noted.
Dai, Meng; Li, Mian; Yang, Zhi; Xu, Min; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Chen, Yuhong; Liu, Jianmin; Ning, Guang; Bi, Yufang
Background Clinical diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome is time-consuming and invasive. Convenient instruments that do not require laboratory or physical investigation would be useful in early screening individuals at high risk of metabolic syndrome. Examination of the autonomic function can be taken as a directly reference and screening indicator for predicting metabolic syndrome. Methodology and Principal Findings The EZSCAN test, as an efficient and noninvasive technology, can access autonomic function through measuring electrochemical skin conductance. In this study, we used EZSCAN value to evaluate autonomic function and to detect metabolic syndrome in 5,887 participants aged 40 years or older. The EZSCAN test diagnostic accuracy was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves. Among the 5,815 participants in the final analysis, 2,541 were diagnosed as metabolic syndrome and the overall prevalence was 43.7%. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increased with the elevated EZSCAN risk level (p for trend <0.0001). Moreover, EZSCAN value was associated with an increase in the number of metabolic syndrome components (p for trend <0.0001). Compared with the no risk group (EZSCAN value 0–24), participants at the high risk group (EZSCAN value: 50–100) had a 2.35 fold increased risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome after the multiple adjustments. The area under the curve of the EZSCAN test was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61–0.64) for predicting metabolic syndrome. The optimal operating point for the EZSCAN value to detect a high risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome was 30 in this study, while the sensitivity and specificity were 71.2% and 46.7%, respectively. Conclusions and Significance In conclusion, although less sensitive and accurate when compared with the clinical definition of metabolic syndrome, we found that the EZSCAN test is a good and simple screening technique for early predicting metabolic syndrome. PMID:22916265
Although nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is not one of the defining criteria for metabolic syndrome, it is a common hepatic manifestation. NAFLD includes a spectrum of histologic findings ranging from simple steatosis, known as nonalcoholic fatty liver, to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). To make the diagnosis of NAFLD, other etiologies of steatosis or hepatitis, such as hepatotoxic drugs, excessive alcohol intake, congenital errors of metabolism, or viral hepatitis, must be ruled out. After ruling out other conditions, the diagnosis of NAFLD often is made clinically, but a definitive diagnosis of NASH requires liver biopsy. As with other complications of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance is thought to be an underlying etiology of NAFLD. Management strategies attempt to reverse or improve insulin resistance while minimizing liver damage. The strongest evidence supports lifestyle modifications with weight loss, but there is some evidence to support bariatric surgery, medical therapy with insulin-sensitizing agents, and/or pharmacotherapy to promote weight loss. Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality in patients with NAFLD, so management must include modification of cardiovascular risk factors. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
Barik, Anamitra; Das, Kausik; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Rai, Rajesh Kumar
To prevent an increasing level of mortality due to type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease among the rural Indian population, a management strategy of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) should be devised. This study aims to estimate the burden of MetS and its associated risk factors. Data from the Birbhum Population Project covering 9886 individuals (4810 male and 5076 female population) aged ≥18 years were used. The burden of metabolic syndrome, as defined by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel, was determined. Bivariate and multivariate (logistic regression) analyses were used to attain the study objective. Over 10.7% of the males and 20.3% of the females were diagnosed with MetS. Irrespective of sex, older individuals, being overweight/obese (body mass index of ≥23 kg/m 2 ) had higher probability of developing MetS, whereas being underweight is deemed a protective factor against MetS. Low physical activity among women appeared to be a risk factor for MetS. The prevalence of MetS is concerning even in rural India. Any intervention designed to address the issue could emphasize on weight loss, and physical activity, focusing on women and people at an advanced stage of life. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions that synergistically increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and premature mortality. The components are abdominal obesity, impaired glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Prediabetes, which is a combination of excess body fat and insulin resistance, is considered an underlying etiology of metabolic syndrome. Prediabetes manifests as impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance. Impaired fasting glucose is defined as a fasting blood glucose level of 100 to 125 mg/dL; impaired glucose tolerance requires a blood glucose level of 140 to 199 mg/dL 2 hours after a 75-g oral intake of glucose. In patients with prediabetes, the rate of progression to diabetes within 3 years can be decreased by approximately 58% with lifestyle modifications. These include weight loss through exercise (30 minutes or more of moderate physical activity on most, preferably all, days of the week) and dietary modifications. Recommended diets are high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fish. Consumption of sweetened beverages, including diet soda, should be avoided. For patients who do not achieve goals with lifestyle modifications, metformin can be considered. Weight loss drugs and bariatric surgery are appropriate for select patients. Hypertension and dyslipidemia should be managed according to current guidelines. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
Chueh, Hee Won; Yoo, Jae Ho
The number of childhood cancer survivors is increasing as survival rates improve. However, complications after treatment have not received much attention, particularly metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome comprises central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, and cancer survivors have higher risks of cardiovascular events compared with the general population. The mechanism by which cancer treatment induces metabolic syndrome is unclear. However, its pathophysiology can be categorized based on the cancer treatment type administered. Brain surgery or radiotherapy may induce metabolic syndrome by damaging the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which may induce pituitary hormone deficiencies. Local therapy administered to particular endocrine organs directly damages the organs and causes hormone deficiencies, which induce obesity and dyslipidemia leading to metabolic syndrome. Chemotherapeutic agents interfere with cell generation and growth, damage the vascular endothelial cells, and increase the cardiovascular risk. Moreover, chemotherapeutic agents induce oxidative stress, which also induces metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity caused by cancer treatment or the cancer itself, dietary restrictions, and the frequent use of antibiotics may also be risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Since childhood cancer survivors with metabolic syndrome have higher risks of cardiovascular events at an earlier age, early interventions should be considered. The optimal timing of interventions and drug use has not been established, but lifestyle modifications and exercise interventions that begin during cancer treatment might be beneficial and tailored education and interventions that account for individual patients' circumstances are needed. This review evaluates the recent literature that describes metabolic syndrome in cancer survivors, with a focus on its pathophysiology.
Lo, Wai Kei
Metabolic syndrome (MS) refers to clustering of features related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which include obesity or central obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus or insulin resistance, together with hypertension. The prevalence of MS in end-stage renal failure patients on peritoneal dialysis is quite common, ranging from 40% to 60%, depending on the population studied and the definition used. However, there are controversies about the clinical outcome of patients with MS, particularly in the area of obesity. Whether peritoneal dialysis predisposes patients to MS is another unsolved issue. Despite these controversies, preventing patients from developing MS is important, at least from a theoretical point of view.
Boyle, J A; Cunningham, J; Norman, R J; Dunbar, T; O'Dea, K
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects around 15% of Indigenous women who are also a group at high risk of cardiometabolic disease. To explore the impact of PCOS on metabolic syndrome in Indigenous women. A cross-sectional reproductive health questionnaire, biochemical and anthropometric assessments, of 109 Indigenous women (35 with PCOS and 74 without PCOS) aged 15-44 years in and around Darwin between 2003 and 2005. PCOS was defined using the National Institutes of Health criteria, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) using the National Cholesterol Education Programme Adult Treatment Programme III criteria. The outcome was prevalence of MetS by PCOS status; relationship of PCOS with MetS before and after adjustment for markers of obesity and insulin resistance. Women with PCOS had a significantly higher body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.0001) and MetS was more frequent in women with PCOS (51%) than those without PCOS (23%) (P = 0.003). The most frequent components of MetS in both groups were a high density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤1.29 mmol/L (80% PCOS, 55% non-PCOS) and a waist circumference >88 cm (77% PCOS, 41% non-PCOS); these were significantly more frequent in women with PCOS (P = 0.01). In logistic regression models, PCOS was significantly associated with MetS by itself but not after adjustment for BMI or sex hormone binding globulin. While MetS was more common in Indigenous women with PCOS, PCOS was not an independent predictor of MetS. This may be because obesity and insulin resistance are integral parts of PCOS and are the mechanisms through which PCOS exerts metabolic effects. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Dumas, Marc-Emmanuel; Kinross, James; Nicholson, Jeremy K
Metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, is becoming an increasing global health concern. Insulin resistance is often associated with metabolic syndrome and also typical hepatic manifestations such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Profiling of metabolic products (metabolic phenotyping or metabotyping) has provided new insights into metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Data from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry combined with statistical modeling and top-down systems biology have allowed us to analyze and interpret metabolic signatures in terms of metabolic pathways and protein interaction networks and to identify the genomic and metagenomic determinants of metabolism. For example, metabolic phenotyping has shown that relationships between host cells and the microbiome affect development of the metabolic syndrome and fatty liver disease. We review recent developments in metabolic phenotyping and systems biology technologies and how these methodologies have provided insights into the mechanisms of metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We discuss emerging areas of research in this field and outline our vision for how metabolic phenotyping could be used to study metabolic syndrome and fatty liver disease. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Naveed, Bushra; Weiden, Michael D.; Kwon, Sophia; Gracely, Edward J.; Comfort, Ashley L.; Ferrier, Natalia; Kasturiarachchi, Kusali J.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Aldrich, Thomas K.; Rom, William N.; Kelly, Kerry; Prezant, David J.
Rationale: Cross-sectional studies demonstrate an association between metabolic syndrome and impaired lung function. Objectives: To define if metabolic syndrome biomarkers are risk factors for loss of lung function after irritant exposure. Methods: A nested case-control study of Fire Department of New York personnel with normal pre–September 11th FEV1 and who presented for subspecialty pulmonary evaluation before March 10, 2008. We correlated metabolic syndrome biomarkers obtained within 6 months of World Trade Center dust exposure with subsequent FEV1. FEV1 at subspecialty pulmonary evaluation within 6.5 years defined disease status; cases had FEV1 less than lower limit of normal, whereas control subjects had FEV1 greater than or equal to lower limit of normal. Measurements and Main Results: Clinical data and serum sampled at the first monitoring examination within 6 months of September 11, 2001, assessed body mass index, heart rate, serum glucose, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), leptin, pancreatic polypeptide, and amylin. Cases and control subjects had significant differences in HDL less than 40 mg/dl with triglycerides greater than or equal to 150 mg/dl, heart rate greater than or equal to 66 bpm, and leptin greater than or equal to 10,300 pg/ml. Each increased the odds of abnormal FEV1 at pulmonary evaluation by more than twofold, whereas amylin greater than or equal to 116 pg/ml decreased the odds by 84%, in a multibiomarker model adjusting for age, race, body mass index, and World Trade Center arrival time. This model had a sensitivity of 41%, a specificity of 86%, and a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.77. Conclusions: Abnormal triglycerides and HDL and elevated heart rate and leptin are independent risk factors of greater susceptibility to lung function impairment after September 11, 2001, whereas elevated amylin is protective. Metabolic biomarkers are predictors of lung disease, and may be useful for assessing
The metabolic syndrome is often a precursor of chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. Since the metabolic syndrome is multi-factorial, strategies for reducing its incidence and consequences must also be mult...
Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Lai, Betty S.; Brancati, Frederick L.; Golden, Sherita H.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia
OBJECTIVE Although African American adolescents have the highest prevalence of obesity, they have the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome across all definitions used in previous research. To address this paradox, we sought to develop a model of the metabolic syndrome specific to African American adolescents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2010) of 822 nonpregnant, nondiabetic, African American adolescents (45% girls; aged 12 to 17 years) who underwent physical examinations and fasted at least 8 h were analyzed. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to model metabolic syndrome and then used latent profile analysis to identify metabolic syndrome risk groups among African American adolescents. We compared the risk groups on probability of prediabetes. RESULTS The best-fitting metabolic syndrome model consisted of waist circumference, fasting insulin, HDL, and systolic blood pressure. We identified three metabolic syndrome risk groups: low, moderate, and high risk (19% boys; 16% girls). Thirty-five percent of both boys and girls in the high-risk groups had prediabetes, a significantly higher prevalence compared with boys and girls in the low-risk groups. Among adolescents with BMI higher than the 85th percentile, 48 and 36% of boys and girls, respectively, were in the high-risk group. CONCLUSIONS Our findings provide a plausible model of the metabolic syndrome specific to African American adolescents. Based on this model, approximately 19 and 16% of African American boys and girls, respectively, are at high risk for having the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23093663
Sarti, Cinzia; Gallagher, John
An increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality is associated with the metabolic syndrome, a condition characterized by the concomitant presence of several abnormalities, including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance (with or without glucose intolerance or diabetes), microalbuminuria, prothrombotic, and proinflammatory states. Estimates of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome indicate that this condition is now common and likely to increase dramatically over the coming decades, in parallel with greater rates of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Risk factors for the metabolic syndrome are already present in obese children and adolescents. Thus, identifying and treating all affected individuals promptly and optimally are critical to ensure that this potentially challenging healthcare burden is minimized. Here, we review the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemias, and CHD risk. Although changes in lifestyle are fundamental to reducing many of the CHD risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome, pharmacologic interventions also play an important role. Retrospective subanalyses of the effects of statins on coronary event rates and lipid levels in patients with the metabolic syndrome included in clinical trials indicate that these agents are beneficial in correcting the extensive lipid abnormalities that are frequently present in these individuals. However, the optimal management of metabolic syndrome dyslipidemia will depend on the outcomes of future prospective clinical trials. This review examines the underlying causes and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its impact on CHD morbidity and mortality and discusses the role of statins in optimizing its management.
Zarzavadjian Le Bian, Alban; Fuks, David; Chopinet, Sophie; Gaujoux, Sébastien; Cesaretti, Manuela; Costi, Renato; Belgaumkar, Ajay P; Smadja, Claude; Gayet, Brice
To analyze immediate postoperative outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy regarding metabolic syndrome. In two academic centers, postoperative outcomes of patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy from 2002 to 2014 were prospectively recorded. Patients presenting with metabolic syndrome [defined as at least three criteria among overweight (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m²), diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia] were compared to patients without metabolic syndrome. Among 270 consecutive patients, 29 (11%) presented with metabolic syndrome. In univariable analysis, patients with metabolic syndrome were significantly older (69.4 years vs 62.5 years, P = 0.003) and presented more frequently with soft pancreas (72% vs 22%, P = 0.0001). In-hospital morbidity (83% vs 71%) and mortality (7% vs 6%) did not differ in the two groups so as pancreatic fistula rate (45% vs 30%, P = 0.079) and severity of pancreatic fistula ( P = 0.257). In multivariable analysis, soft pancreas texture ( P = 0.001), pancreatic duct diameter < 3 mm ( P = 0.025) and BMI > 30 kg/m² ( P = 0.041) were identified as independent risk factors of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy, but not metabolic syndrome. In spite of logical reasoning and appropriate methodology, present series suggests that metabolic syndrome does not jeopardize postoperative outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Therefore, definition of metabolic syndrome seems to be inappropriate and fatty pancreas needs to be assessed with an international consensual histopathological classification.
Naviaux, Robert K.; Naviaux, Jane C.; Li, Kefeng; Bright, A. Taylor; Alaynick, William A.; Wang, Lin; Baxter, Asha; Nathan, Neil; Anderson, Wayne; Gordon, Eric
More than 2 million people in the United States have myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). We performed targeted, broad-spectrum metabolomics to gain insights into the biology of CFS. We studied a total of 84 subjects using these methods. Forty-five subjects (n = 22 men and 23 women) met diagnostic criteria for ME/CFS by Institute of Medicine, Canadian, and Fukuda criteria. Thirty-nine subjects (n = 18 men and 21 women) were age- and sex-matched normal controls. Males with CFS were 53 (±2.8) y old (mean ± SEM; range, 21–67 y). Females were 52 (±2.5) y old (range, 20–67 y). The Karnofsky performance scores were 62 (±3.2) for males and 54 (±3.3) for females. We targeted 612 metabolites in plasma from 63 biochemical pathways by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization, and tandem mass spectrometry in a single-injection method. Patients with CFS showed abnormalities in 20 metabolic pathways. Eighty percent of the diagnostic metabolites were decreased, consistent with a hypometabolic syndrome. Pathway abnormalities included sphingolipid, phospholipid, purine, cholesterol, microbiome, pyrroline-5-carboxylate, riboflavin, branch chain amino acid, peroxisomal, and mitochondrial metabolism. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed diagnostic accuracies of 94% [95% confidence interval (CI), 84–100%] in males using eight metabolites and 96% (95% CI, 86–100%) in females using 13 metabolites. Our data show that despite the heterogeneity of factors leading to CFS, the cellular metabolic response in patients was homogeneous, statistically robust, and chemically similar to the evolutionarily conserved persistence response to environmental stress known as dauer. PMID:27573827
Bähr, V; Pfeiffer, A F; Diederich, S
The metabolic syndrome X and Cushing's syndrome show similar symptoms but one major difference: Plasma cortisol is not elevated in the metabolic syndrome. Evidence is presented, that by the action of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11 beta HSD1) higher intracellular cortisol concentration may be created that may be relevant to induce insulin resistance and metabolic disturbances. Regulation of 11 beta HSD1 expression by hormones, growth factors, cytokines and transcription factors enables tissue specific adjustments of glucocorticoid receptor activation by cortisol. Specific inhibition of 11 beta HSD1 would help to understand aspects of the pathogenesis of syndrome X and to develop new therapeutic perspectives.
Finan, Brian; Yang, Bin; Ottaway, Nickki; Stemmer, Kerstin; Müller, Timo D; Yi, Chun-Xia; Habegger, Kirk; Schriever, Sonja C; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Kabra, Dhiraj G; Hembree, Jazzminn; Holland, Jenna; Raver, Christine; Seeley, Randy J; Hans, Wolfgang; Irmler, Martin; Beckers, Johannes; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Tiano, Joseph P; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Pfluger, Paul; Zhang, Lianshan; Gelfanov, Vasily; DiMarchi, Richard D; Tschöp, Matthias H
We report the development of a new combinatorial approach that allows for peptide-mediated selective tissue targeting of nuclear hormone pharmacology while eliminating adverse effects in other tissues. Specifically, we report the development of a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-estrogen conjugate that has superior sex-independent efficacy over either of the individual hormones alone to correct obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in mice. The therapeutic benefits are driven by pleiotropic dual hormone action to improve energy, glucose and lipid metabolism, as shown by loss-of-function models and genetic action profiling. Notably, the peptide-based targeting strategy also prevents hallmark side effects of estrogen in male and female mice, such as reproductive endocrine toxicity and oncogenicity. Collectively, selective activation of estrogen receptors in GLP-1–targeted tissues produces unprecedented efficacy to enhance the metabolic benefits of GLP-1 agonism. This example of targeting the metabolic syndrome represents the discovery of a new class of therapeutics that enables synergistic co-agonism through peptide-based selective delivery of small molecules. Although our observations with the GLP-1–estrogen conjugate justify translational studies for diabetes and obesity, the multitude of other possible combinations of peptides and small molecules may offer equal promise for other diseases. PMID:23142820
Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Hamarneh, Sulaiman R; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P; Nasrin Alam, Sayeda; Moaven, Omeed; Patel, Palak; Malo, Nondita S; Ray, Madhury; Abtahi, Seyed M; Muhammad, Nur; Raychowdhury, Atri; Teshager, Abeba; Mohamed, Mussa M Rafat; Moss, Angela K; Ahmed, Rizwan; Hakimian, Shahrad; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, José Luis; Hohmann, Elizabeth; Warren, H Shaw; Bhan, Atul K; Malo, Madhu S; Hodin, Richard A
Metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of related disorders that includes obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver. Recently, gut-derived chronic endotoxemia has been identified as a primary mediator for triggering the low-grade inflammation responsible for the development of metabolic syndrome. In the present study we examined the role of the small intestinal brush-border enzyme, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), in preventing a high-fat-diet-induced metabolic syndrome in mice. We found that both endogenous and orally supplemented IAP inhibits absorption of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides) that occurs with dietary fat, and oral IAP supplementation prevents as well as reverses metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, IAP supplementation improves the lipid profile in mice fed a standard, low-fat chow diet. These results point to a potentially unique therapy against metabolic syndrome in at-risk humans.
Ermolaeva, L A; Shishkin, A N; Sheveleva, N A; Penkovoi, E A; Sheveleva, M A; Sokolovich, N A; Khabarova, O V; Mihailova, E S
The purpose of this article is to familiarize readers on the relationship between metabolic syndrome and periodontitis, as well as common pathogenetic processes underlying these diseases. The data of modern researches, devoted to the correlation of lesions of periodontal and systemic diseases associated with metabolic syndrome. In the article analyzed also the data of the original study of the interaction of periodontitis and metabolic syndrome, which also used special methods of examination like Doppler ultrasound microcirculatory vasculature of the periodontal tissues and ultrasound densitometry. The possible methods of diagnostics of a condition of periodontal tissues in patients with metabolic syndrome are considered. Conclusions about the relationship of each component of metabolic syndrome with periodontitis are made.
Pavlić-Renar, Ivana; Poljicanin, Tamara; Metelko, Zeljko
Although first knowledge on the joint onset of cardiovascular risk factors had been gained earlier, the first systematic review of this condition was made by G. Reaven in 1988 with his thesis on syndrome X, today known as the metabolic syndrome, with insulin resistance as the common denominator. Four elements have been identified: central obesity, dyslipoproteinemia (increased triglycerides, reduced HDL cholesterol), hypertension and glucose intolerance. There are two most influential definitions: one by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and the other by the International Diabetes Federation (/IDF). NCEP requires the presence of at least three of the following factors: abdominal obesity as assessed by waist circumference >102 cm (m) or >88 cm (f), dyslipoproteinemia defined as triglyceridemia > or =1.7 mmol/L and/or HDL cholesterol <1.03 mmol/L (m); <1.29 mmol/L (f), hypertension (blood pressure > or =30/85 mmHg) and fasting glycemia > or =5.6 mmol/L (previously 6.1). IDF focuses on central obesity defined as waist circumference, taking into consideration sex and ethnic group specificities, with the presence of at least two additional factors (dyslipoproteinemia, hypertension, or increased fasting glycemia - all criteria virtually the same as in NCEP definition). Both IDF and NCEP define abdominal obesity by waist circumference, taking account of sex differences, and, in case of IDF, ethnic ones as well. The idea is to identify the simplest measure to indirectly determine the accumulation of visceral fat, which is, contrary to subcutaneous fat, a significant cardiovascular risk factor. However, waist circumference as the only criterion seems to be less specific than the waist-to-hip circumference ratio, which defines the risk more specifically and also better reflects insulin resistance. There is broad discussion as to whether the term metabolic syndrome contributes to the identification of persons at risk of cardiovascular disease better than its
Enkh-Oyun, Tsogzolbaatar; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Davaa, Gombojav; Ganchimeg, Ulziibayar; Angarmurun, Dayan; Khuderchuluun, Nanjid; Batzorig, Bayartsogt; Tsuboi, Satoshi; Ae, Ryusuke; Aoyama, Yasuko; Nakamura, Yosikazu
Although cardiovascular health is a crucial problem for Mongolian people, little information about metabolic syndrome, which is well known to be associated with the development of cardiovascular disease, is available in Mongolia. The aim of this study was to observe the epidemiological features of metabolic syndrome in a general Mongolian population. This cross-sectional study was performed in 1911 general Mongolian subjects (717 men, 1194 women), who were ≥40 years old and free of ischemic heart disease, by using a dataset from a nationwide population-based cohort study in Mongolia. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, as defined by International Diabetes Federation criteria, was determined. Alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and physical activity were evaluated. Education, marital status, income, and occupation were also examined as factors of socioeconomic status (SES). Their association with metabolic syndrome was determined by logistic regression models. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in women (n=488, 40.6%) than in men (n=138, 19.4%). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was high, especially in the Khangai region, in women. Moderate-to-high alcohol consumption was a significantly positively associated factor of metabolic syndrome in men [odds ratio (OR)=2.01; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-3.51; adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.41; 95% CI 1.31-4.44] and widowed status was a significantly positively associated factor of metabolic syndrome in women (OR=1.61, 95% CI 1.18-2.18; AOR=1.49, 95% CI 1.07-2.08). Metabolic syndrome was prevalent in women compared with men among Mongolian adults. Preventive strategies aimed at men with a higher alcohol consumption and women with widowed status may help reduce metabolic syndrome, thereby improving cardiovascular health conditions in Mongolia.
Pratyush, Daliparthy D; Tiwari, Shalbha; Singh, Saurabh; Singh, Surya K
Metabolic syndrome progresses to diabetes and determinants of this progression like hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and genetic factors have been speculative. The present study was aimed at quantifying the insulin resistance and influence of family history of diabetes in subjects with metabolic syndrome developing prediabetes and diabetes. Consecutive subjects attending the endocrine clinic were evaluated for metabolic syndrome as per definition of International Diabetes Federation, 2005. The family history of diabetes in their first degree relatives was ascertained and Homeostasis model assessment of Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), Homeostasis model assessment for beta cell function (HOMA-B) and Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated in 163 subjects enrolled. HOMA-IR was higher (p<0.05) but HOMA-B and QUICKI were lower (p<0.0001) in subjects with metabolic syndrome+prediabetes or diabetes compared to metabolic syndrome with normal glucose tolerance. HOMA-B was lower and prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes was higher in metabolic syndrome subjects with family history of diabetes than in those without such family history (p<0.05). subjects with metabolic syndrome having prediabetes and diabetes had more severe insulin resistance than those with metabolic syndrome only. Beta cell dysfunction was remarkable and prevalence of prediabetes was high in metabolic syndrome subjects with family history of diabetes. Both the severity of the insulin resistance and family history of diabetes are therefore proposed to be determinants of diminished Beta cell function leading to diabetes in metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ramírez-Arriola, Maria Cleofas; Mendoza-Romo, Margarita Paz; González-Rubio, Marco Vinicio; López-Esqueda, Francisco Javier; Mendoza-Romo, Miguel Angel; Velasco-Chávez, José Fernando
In woman aged over 60 years, body changes occur and might cause insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. To determine the relationship between the components of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and body mass index in women over 60 years, attended at the Geriatric Services in the Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto Hospital in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. We performed an observational, descriptive and transversal study with non-probability sampling, selecting 61 women aged 60 years attended from 2006 to 2008, who have measured the body mass index (BMI), insulin resistance and homeostasis model (HOMA2), and identifying the components of metabolic syndrome according to the criteria of the World Health Organization. We used descriptive and inferential statistics with r Pearson and Chi Square. The mean age was 68 years. The average HOMA2 were 1.4 and 75 percentile 1.9. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was present in 23%. The association test with a p < 0.05 was considered significant for metabolic syndrome dysglucemia and obesity, but not for other components of metabolic syndrome. The triglycerides level correlated with insulin resistance (r = 0.325, p = 0.011), insulin resistance with glucose (r = 0.535, p = 0.000) and insulin resistance with BMI (r = 0.282, p = 0.28). It is important to properly define the components for the presence of metabolic syndrome in older women due to not all who qualify as obese have metabolic syndrome, and neither all the metabolic syndrome are associated with insulin resistance. The single alteration of one of the components of metabolic syndrome is not sufficient to cause insulin resistance.
Graf, Brittany L; Raskin, Ilya; Cefalu, William T; Ribnicky, David M
Metabolic syndrome is defined as a set of coexisting metabolic disorders that increase an individual's likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Medicinal plants, some of which have been used for thousands of years, serve as an excellent source of bioactive compounds for the treatment of metabolic syndrome because they contain a wide range of phytochemicals with diverse metabolic effects. In order for botanicals to be effectively used against metabolic syndrome, however, botanical preparations must be characterized and standardized through the identification of their active compounds and respective modes of action, followed by validation in controlled clinical trials with clearly defined endpoints. This review assesses examples of commonly known and partially characterized botanicals to describe specific considerations for the phytochemical, preclinical and clinical characterization of botanicals associated with metabolic syndrome.
Palacios-Verdú, María Gabriela; Segura-Puimedon, Maria; Borralleras, Cristina; Flores, Raquel; Del Campo, Miguel; Campuzano, Victoria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis Alberto
Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS, OMIM-194050) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with multisystemic manifestations caused by a 1.55-1.83 Mb deletion at 7q11.23 including 26-28 genes. Reported endocrine and metabolic abnormalities include transient hypercalcaemia of infancy, subclinical hypothyroidism in ∼ 30% of children and impaired glucose tolerance in ∼ 75% of adult individuals. The purpose of this study was to further study metabolic alterations in patients with WBS, as well as in several mouse models, to establish potential candidate genes. We analysed several metabolic parameters in a cohort of 154 individuals with WBS (data available from 69 to 151 cases per parameter), as well as in several mouse models with complete and partial deletions of the orthologous WBS locus, and searched for causative genes and potential modifiers. Triglyceride plasma levels were significantly decreased in individuals with WBS while cholesterol levels were slightly decreased compared with controls. Hyperbilirubinemia, mostly unconjugated, was found in 18.3% of WBS cases and correlated with subclinical hypothyroidism and hypotriglyceridemia, suggesting common pathogenic mechanisms. Haploinsufficiency at MLXIPL and increased penetrance for hypomorphic alleles at the UGT1A1 gene promoter might underlie the lipid and bilirubin alterations. Other disturbances included increased protein and iron levels, as well as the known subclinical hypothyroidism and glucose intolerance. Our results show that several unreported biochemical alterations, related to haploinsufficiency for specific genes at 7q11.23, are relatively common in WBS. The early diagnosis, follow-up and management of these metabolic disturbances could prevent long-term complications in this disorder. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Porporato, P E
Metabolic reprogramming occurs in tumors to foster cancer cell proliferation, survival and metastasis, but as well at a systemic level affecting the whole organism, eventually leading to cancer cachexia. Indeed, as cancer cells rely on external sources of nitrogen and carbon skeleton to grow, systemic metabolic deregulation promoting tissue wasting and metabolites mobilization ultimately supports tumor growth. Cachectic patients experience a wide range of symptoms affecting several organ functions such as muscle, liver, brain, immune system and heart, collectively decreasing patients' quality of life and worsening their prognosis. Moreover, cachexia is estimated to be the direct cause of at least 20% of cancer deaths. The main aspect of cachexia syndrome is the unstoppable skeletal muscle and fat storage wasting, even with an adequate caloric intake, resulting in nutrient mobilization – both directly as lipid and amino acids and indirectly as glucose derived from the exploitation of liver gluconeogenesis – that reaches the tumor through the bloodstream. From a metabolic standpoint, cachectic host develops a wide range of dysfunctions, from increased insulin and IGF-1 resistance to induction of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and fat tissue browning resulting in an increased energy expenditure and heat generation, even at rest. For a long time, cachexia has been merely considered an epiphenomenon of end-stage tumors. However, in specific tumor types, such as pancreatic cancers, it is now clear that patients present markers of tissue wasting at a stage in which tumor is not yet clinically detectable, and that host amino acid supply is required for tumor growth. Indeed, tumor cells actively promote tissue wasting by secreting specific factors such as parathyroid hormone-related protein and micro RNAs. Understanding the molecular and metabolic mediators of cachexia will not only advance therapeutic approaches against cancer, but also improve patients' quality of
Retondario, Anabelle; Fernandes, Ricardo; Rockenbach, Gabriele; Alves, Mariane de Almeida; Bricarello, Liliana Paula; Trindade, Erasmo Benicio Santos de Moraes; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de
Metabolic syndrome is a multi-causal disease. Its treatment includes lifestyle changes with a focus on weight loss. This systematic review assessed the association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected mainly from four databases: PubMed, CENTRAL (Cochrane), Scopus and Web of Knowledge. Keywords related to metabolic syndrome, selenium, as well as metabolic syndrome features were searched. This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement. A systematic review protocol was registered at PROSPERO (n. 42016046321). Two reviewers independently screened 2957 abstracts. Six studies were included to perform data extraction with standardized spreadsheets. The risk of bias was assessed by using specific tools according to the design of the relevant studies. An assessment was carried out based on the appropriateness of the study reports accordingly to STROBE and the CONSORT-based checklist for each study design. Three studies found no association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome; two of them found an inverse association; and one study found a direct association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome. One study also showed an inverse association between Selenium intake and the prevalence of high waist circumference, high diastolic blood pressure, and hyperglycaemia in women. Overall, based on the argumentation and results of this study, it is possible to conclude that Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome are not clearly associated in adults and elderly. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Ren, Sidney Y.; Xu, Xihui
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of multiple metabolic risk factors including abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Over the past decades, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome has increased dramatically, imposing a devastating, pandemic health threat. More importantly, individuals with metabolic syndrome are at an increased risk of diabetes mellitus and overall cardiovascular diseases. One of the common comorbidities of metabolic syndrome is heart anomalies leading to the loss of cardiomyocytes, cardiac dysfunction and ultimately heart failure. Up-to-date, a plethora cell signaling pathways have been postulated for the pathogenesis of cardiac complications in obesity including lipotoxicity, inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and sympathetic overactivation although the precise mechanism of action underscoring obesity-associated heart dysfunction remains elusive. Recent evidence has indicated a potential role of protein quality control in components of metabolic syndrome. Within the protein quality control system, the autophagy-lysosome pathway is an evolutionarily conserved pathway responsible for bulk degradation of large intracellular organelles and protein aggregates. Autophagy has been demonstrated to play an indispensible role in the maintenance of cardiac geometry and function under both physiological and pathological conditions. Accumulating studies have demonstrated that autophagy plays a pivotal role in the etiology of cardiac anomalies under obesity and metabolic syndrome. In this mini review, we will discuss on how autophagy is involved in the regulation of cardiac function in obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:24810277
Kraja, Aldi T.; Chasman, Daniel I.; North, Kari E.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Dehghan, Abbas; Dupuis, Josée; Johnson, Andrew D.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Chu, Audrey Y.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Dastani, Zari; Morris, Andrew; Pendergrass, Sarah A.; Sun, Yan V.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Vaez, Ahmad; Lin, Honghuang; Ligthart, Symen; Marullo, Letizia; Rohde, Rebecca; Shao, Yaming; Ziegler, Mark A.; Im, Hae Kyung; Schnabel, Renate B.; Jørgensen, Torben; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Stolk, Ronald P.; Snieder, Harold; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Franco, Oscar H.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Richards, J. Brent; Rotimi, Charles; Wilson, James G.; Lange, Leslie; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Nalls, Mike; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Pankow, James S.; Coresh, Josef; Tang, Weihong; Kao, W.H. Linda; Boerwinkle, Eric; Morrison, Alanna C.; Ridker, Paul M.; Becker, Diane M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Larson, Martin G.; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Province, Michael A.; Tracy, Russell; Voight, Benjamin F.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; O’Donnell, Christopher; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Prokopenko, Inga; Meigs, James B.; Borecki, Ingrid B.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become a health and financial burden worldwide. The MetS definition captures clustering of risk factors that predict higher risk for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Our study hypothesis is that additional to genes influencing individual MetS risk factors, genetic variants exist that influence MetS and inflammatory markers forming a predisposing MetS genetic network. To test this hypothesis a staged approach was undertaken. (a) We analyzed 17 metabolic and inflammatory traits in more than 85,500 participants from 14 large epidemiological studies within the Cross Consortia Pleiotropy Group. Individuals classified with MetS (NCEP definition), versus those without, showed on average significantly different levels for most inflammatory markers studied. (b) Paired average correlations between 8 metabolic traits and 9 inflammatory markers from the same studies as above, estimated with two methods, and factor analyses on large simulated data, helped in identifying 8 combinations of traits for follow-up in meta-analyses, out of 130,305 possible combinations between metabolic traits and inflammatory markers studied. (c) We performed correlated meta-analyses for 8 metabolic traits and 6 inflammatory markers by using existing GWAS published genetic summary results, with about 2.5 million SNPs from twelve predominantly largest GWAS consortia. These analyses yielded 130 unique SNPs/genes with pleiotropic associations (a SNP/gene associating at least one metabolic trait and one inflammatory marker). Of them twenty-five variants (seven loci newly reported) are proposed as MetS candidates. They map to genes MACF1, KIAA0754, GCKR, GRB14, COBLL1, LOC646736-IRS1, SLC39A8, NELFE, SKIV2L, STK19, TFAP2B, BAZ1B, BCL7B, TBL2, MLXIPL, LPL, TRIB1, ATXN2, HECTD4, PTPN11, ZNF664, PDXDC1, FTO, MC4R and TOMM40. Based on large data evidence, we conclude that inflammation is a feature of MetS and several gene variants show pleiotropic genetic
Kraja, Aldi T; Chasman, Daniel I; North, Kari E; Reiner, Alexander P; Yanek, Lisa R; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Smith, Jennifer A; Dehghan, Abbas; Dupuis, Josée; Johnson, Andrew D; Feitosa, Mary F; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Chu, Audrey Y; Nolte, Ilja M; Dastani, Zari; Morris, Andrew; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Sun, Yan V; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Vaez, Ahmad; Lin, Honghuang; Ligthart, Symen; Marullo, Letizia; Rohde, Rebecca; Shao, Yaming; Ziegler, Mark A; Im, Hae Kyung; Schnabel, Renate B; Jørgensen, Torben; Jørgensen, Marit E; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Stolk, Ronald P; Snieder, Harold; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Franco, Oscar H; Ikram, M Arfan; Richards, J Brent; Rotimi, Charles; Wilson, James G; Lange, Leslie; Ganesh, Santhi K; Nalls, Mike; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Pankow, James S; Coresh, Josef; Tang, Weihong; Linda Kao, W H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Morrison, Alanna C; Ridker, Paul M; Becker, Diane M; Rotter, Jerome I; Kardia, Sharon L R; Loos, Ruth J F; Larson, Martin G; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Province, Michael A; Tracy, Russell; Voight, Benjamin F; Vaidya, Dhananjay; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Benjamin, Emelia J; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Prokopenko, Inga; Meigs, James B; Borecki, Ingrid B
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become a health and financial burden worldwide. The MetS definition captures clustering of risk factors that predict higher risk for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Our study hypothesis is that additional to genes influencing individual MetS risk factors, genetic variants exist that influence MetS and inflammatory markers forming a predisposing MetS genetic network. To test this hypothesis a staged approach was undertaken. (a) We analyzed 17 metabolic and inflammatory traits in more than 85,500 participants from 14 large epidemiological studies within the Cross Consortia Pleiotropy Group. Individuals classified with MetS (NCEP definition), versus those without, showed on average significantly different levels for most inflammatory markers studied. (b) Paired average correlations between 8 metabolic traits and 9 inflammatory markers from the same studies as above, estimated with two methods, and factor analyses on large simulated data, helped in identifying 8 combinations of traits for follow-up in meta-analyses, out of 130,305 possible combinations between metabolic traits and inflammatory markers studied. (c) We performed correlated meta-analyses for 8 metabolic traits and 6 inflammatory markers by using existing GWAS published genetic summary results, with about 2.5 million SNPs from twelve predominantly largest GWAS consortia. These analyses yielded 130 unique SNPs/genes with pleiotropic associations (a SNP/gene associating at least one metabolic trait and one inflammatory marker). Of them twenty-five variants (seven loci newly reported) are proposed as MetS candidates. They map to genes MACF1, KIAA0754, GCKR, GRB14, COBLL1, LOC646736-IRS1, SLC39A8, NELFE, SKIV2L, STK19, TFAP2B, BAZ1B, BCL7B, TBL2, MLXIPL, LPL, TRIB1, ATXN2, HECTD4, PTPN11, ZNF664, PDXDC1, FTO, MC4R and TOMM40. Based on large data evidence, we conclude that inflammation is a feature of MetS and several gene variants show pleiotropic genetic
Grugni, G; Crinò, A; Bedogni, G; Cappa, M; Sartorio, A; Corrias, A; Di Candia, S; Gargantini, L; Iughetti, L; Pagano, C; Ragusa, L; Salvatoni, A; Spera, S; Vettor, R; Chiumello, G; Brambilla, P
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), the most common genetic cause of obesity, is characterized by elevated morbility and mortality in all ages. In this context, non-obese PWS children showed low frequency of metabolic syndrome (MetS), while a comparable prevalence was observed in obese PWS and obese controls. Aim of this study was to estimate the occurrence of MetS and its components in a large group of PWS adults, according to obesity status. A cross-sectional study was performed in 108 PWS aged 18.0-43.2 years (87 obese and 21 non-obese) and in 85 controls with nonsyndromic obesity matched for age, gender, and BMI with obese PWS. Non-obese PWS showed lower waist circumference, insulin, HOMA-index, triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure, and higher HDL-C than both obese PWS and obese controls (p < 0.017). Obese PWS showed higher glucose and systolic blood pressure than both non-obese PWS and obese controls (p < 0.017). MetS was found in 1/21 (4.8%) non-obese PWS, 36/87 (41.4%) obese PWS and 39/85 (45.9%) obese controls. Non-obese PWS showed lower frequency for each MetS component as compared with obese PWS and obese controls. PWS patients with deletion of the chromosome 15q11-13 showed a lower risk for low HDL-C (p < 0.01) and a trend towards a lower MetS risk (p < 0.06) compared to subjects without deletion. Our findings suggest the main role that obesity status plays on the individual metabolic risk clustering in PWS adults. Early identification of MetS could be helpful to improve morbidity and prevent mortality in such patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Obeid, O A; Hachem, D H; Ayoub, J J
Refeeding syndrome describes the metabolic and clinical changes attributed to aggressive rehabilitation of malnourished subjects. The metabolic changes of refeeding are related to hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, sodium retention and hyperglycemia, and these are believed to be mainly the result of increased insulin secretion following high carbohydrate intake. In the past few decades, increased consumption of processed food (refined cereals, oils, sugar and sweeteners, and so on) lowered the intake of several macrominerals (mainly phosphorus, potassium and magnesium). This seems to have compromised the postprandial status of these macrominerals, in a manner that mimics low grade refeeding syndrome status. At the pathophysiological level, this condition favored the development of the different components of the metabolic syndrome. Thus, it is reasonable to postulate that metabolic syndrome is the result of long term exposure to a mild refeeding syndrome. PMID:24979149
Johnson, Philip J; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; LaCarrubba, Alison; Ganjam, V K Seshu; Messer, Nat T
Although much has been written about laminitis in the context of its association with inflammatory processes, recognition is growing that most cases of laminitis examined by veterinarians in private practice are those associated with pasture grazing, obesity, and insulin resistance (IR). The term 'endocrinopathic laminitis' has been adopted to classify the instances of laminitis in which the origin seems to be more strongly associated with an underlying endocrinopathy, such as either IR or the influence of corticosteroids. Results of a recent study suggest that obesity and IR represent the most common metabolic and endocrinopathic predispositions for laminitis in horses. IR also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of laminitis that develops when some horses or ponies are allowed to graze pastures at certain times of the year. The term equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) has been proposed as a label for horses whose clinical examination results (including both physical examination and laboratory testing) suggest heightened risk for developing laminitis as a result of underlying IR. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Phillips, Catherine M; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of metabolic risk factors reflecting overnutrition and sedentary lifestyle and its increasing prevalence is reaching epidemic proportions. The importance of MetS lies in its close association with the risk of cardiometabolic disease. In this scenario, the principal goals of pharmacological therapy for these patients are to achieve and maintain an optimal cardiometabolic control, including lipids, blood glucose and blood pressure; in order to prevent and treat potential complications. Moreover nutrition has commonly been accepted as a cornerstone of treatment for MetS, with the expectation that an appropriate intake of energy and nutrients will improve its control. However the question arises as to whether dietary therapy may require a more personalised approach. In this regard improvements in genetic analysis have enhanced our understanding of the role of genetics in this dietrelated condition. In this review we will present recent data highlighting the importance of gene-nutrient interactions in the context of MetS risk.
Araujo, Paula A O; Silva, Marilda Guimarães; Borba, Eduardo Ferreira; Shinjo, Samuel K
A high frequency of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been recently described in different idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, but not in antisynthetase syndrome (ASS). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of MetS in ASS and also its possible association with cardiovascular the risk factors and ASS-related disease characteristics. A cross-sectional single centre study of 42 consecutive ASS patients was conducted from 2012 to 2015 and compared to 84 healthy individuals matched for gender, age, ethnicity and body mass index-matched (control group). MetS was defined according to the 2009 Join Interim Statement. Clinical and laboratory data were assessed according to a standardised protocol. ASS patients had a median age of 41.1 years with a predominance of female gender and white race. ASS patients had a higher frequency of MetS (42.9% vs. 13.1%; p<0.001) as well as of insulin resistance than controls. Moreover, ASS patients had higher resistin, lower leptin and similar adiponectin levels in serum than controls. Further analysis of ASS patients with (n=18) and without (n=24) MetS revealed that older age at disease onset (48.7 vs. 35.4 years; p<0.001) was identified in those with the syndrome but were similar regarding disease duration, disease status, treatment, insulin resistance and serum adipocytokine levels. The prevalence of MetS was high in ASS patients that also had serum resistin and low leptin levels. As also identified in other idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, MetS in ASS is more prevalent in older patients.
Hastert, Theresa A.; Gong, Jian; Campos, Hannia; Baylin, Ana
Objective To examine whether total physical activity or activity patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. Methods Participants include 1,994 controls from a case-control study of non-fatal myocardial infarction in Costa Rica (1994–2004). Physical activity was assessed via self-administered questionnaire and patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was assessed via blood samples and anthropometry measurements from in-home study visits. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using log binomial regression. Adjusted least squares means of metabolic syndrome components were calculated by quintile of total activity and pattern scores. Results Four activity patterns were identified: rest/sleep, agricultural, light indoor activity, and manual labor. Total activity was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was 20% lower in participants with the highest scores on the agricultural job pattern compared to those with the lowest (PR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.68–0.94). Higher total activity was associated with lower triglycerides and lower HDL cholesterol. Higher scores on each pattern were inversely associated with metabolic syndrome components, particularly waist circumference and fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Patterns or types of physical activity may be more strongly associated with metabolic syndrome and its components than total activity levels. PMID:25445330
Gobato, Amanda Oliva; Vasques, Ana Carolina J; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Barros Filho, Antonio de Azevedo; Hessel, Gabriel
To verify the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents and its relationship with different body composition indicators. A cross-sectional study comprising 79 adolescents aged ten to 18 years old. The assessed body composition indicators were: body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, abdominal circumference, and subcutaneous fat. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Cook et al. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index for values above 3.16. The analysis of ROC curves was used to assess the BMI and the abdominal circumference, aiming to identify the subjects with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The cutoff point corresponded to the percentage above the reference value used to diagnose obesity. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 45.5% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29.1%. Insulin resistance showed association with HDL-cholesterol (p=0.032) and with metabolic syndrome (p=0.006). All body composition indicators were correlated with insulin resistance (p<0.01). In relation to the cutoff point evaluation, the values of 23.5 and 36.3% above the BMI reference point allowed the identification of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The best cutoff point for abdominal circumference to identify insulin resistance was 40%. All body composition indicators, HDL-cholesterol and metabolic syndrome showed correlation with insulin resistance. The BMI was the most effective anthropometric indicator to identify insulin resistance.
Mathiew-Quirós, Alvaro; Salinas-Martínez, Ana María; Hernández-Herrera, Ricardo Jorge; Gallardo-Vela, José Alberto
People with metabolic syndrome (20-25 % of the world population) are three times more likely to suffer a heart attack or stroke and twice as likely to die from this cause. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in workers of a second level hospital. This was a cross-sectional study with 160 healthcare workers in Monterrey, México. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical data were obtained to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were carried out in order to assess the relationship between metabolic syndrome and sociodemographic and occupational variables. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among workers was 38.1 %. Nurses were more affected with 32.8 %. Overweight and obesity were prevalent in 78 %. In the logistic regression there was a significant association between metabolic syndrome and not having partner (OR 3.98, 95 % CI [1.54-10.25]) and obesity (OR 4.69, 95 % CI [1.73-12.73]). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity is alarming. Appropriate and prompt actions must be taken in order to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in this population.
Misra, Anoop; Khurana, Lokesh; Vikram, Naval K; Goel, Ashish; Wasir, Jasjeet S
The objective of this review is to discuss definition, determinants, and management issues of the metabolic syndrome in children with a focus on South Asians. The literature search was done using the PubMed search engine (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA). Manual searches for other important references and medical databases were also done. There is a need for an integrated definition of the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents, taking cognizance of the ethnic-specific variations. Obesity and body fat patterning are important determinants of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in children and ethnic variations in these parameters are seen. Excess body fat and thicker truncal subcutaneous fat are important predisposing factors for development of insulin resistance in South Asian children. Because the metabolic syndrome tracks into adulthood, its manifestations need to be recognized early for prevention of diabetes and coronary heart disease. Therapeutic lifestyle changes, maintenance of high levels of physical activity and normal weight are most important strategies; pharmacologic therapy for individual components of the metabolic syndrome is occasionally needed. The metabolic syndrome in children is an important clinical marker of diabetes and coronary heart disease in adults. In view of the rapid increase in the metabolic syndrome in most populations, high-risk screening and effective public-intervention educational programs are urgently needed.
Standeven, Kristina F.; Hess, Katharina; Carter, Angela M.; Rice, Gillian I.; Cordell, Paul A.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Lu, Bao; Scott, D. Julian; Turner, Anthony J.; Hooper, Nigel M.; Grant, Peter J.
Objective Neprilysin (NEP), a zinc metallo-endopeptidase, has a role in blood pressure control and lipid metabolism. The present study tested the hypothesis that NEP is associated with insulin resistance and features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a study of 318 healthy human subjects and in murine obesity and investigated NEP production by adipocytes in-vitro. Methods and Results In 318 white European males, plasma NEP was elevated in the MetS and increased progressively with increasing MetS components. Plasma NEP activity correlated with insulin, homeostasis model assessment and body mass index in all subjects (p<0.01). Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting showed that in human pre-adipocytes NEP expression is upregulated 25-30 fold during differentiation into adipocytes. Microarray analysis of mRNA from differentiated human adipocytes confirmed high NEP expression comparable to adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. In a murine model of diet-induced insulin resistance, plasma NEP levels were significantly higher in high fat diet (HFD)-fed compared with normal chow diet (NCD)-fed animals (1642±529 and 820±487 pg/μl, respectively; p<0.01). Tissue NEP was increased in mesenteric fat in HFD compared with NCD-fed mice (p<0.05). NEP knock out mice did not display any changes in insulin resistance, glucose tolerance or body and epididymal fat pad weight compared to wild type mice. Conclusions In humans, NEP activity correlated with body mass index and measures of insulin resistance with increasing levels in subjects with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. NEP protein production in human adipocytes increased during cell differentiation and plasma and adipose tissue levels of NEP were increased in obese insulin resistant mice. Our results indicate that NEP associates with cardio-metabolic risk in the presence of insulin resistance and increases in obesity. PMID:21042321
Rhee, Sang Jin; Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Se Hyun; Lee, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Bora; Ha, Kyooseob; Yoon, Dae Hyun; Ahn, Yong Min
The evidence of the association between depression and metabolic syndrome is increasing, but the existence of sex differences in this association remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between subjective depressive symptoms and metabolic syndrome and each of its components by sex in the Korean population. The study sample comprised 15,073 men and 15,034 women who underwent routine health examinations. They completed the Beck Depression Inventory for depressive symptoms, and medical examinations provided data regarding metabolic syndrome. Adjustments for age, marriage, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, exercise, education, cancer, stroke, angina, and thyroid disease were performed. The association between depressive symptoms and metabolic syndrome and each of its components was analyzed by multiple logistic regression. In women, depressive symptoms were associated with metabolic syndrome (OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.11-1.64, p=0.002) and the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol component (OR=1.26, 95% CI=1.09-1.46, p=0.002) of metabolic syndrome. There was also an association between the severity of depressive symptoms and metabolic syndrome in women (OR=1.046, 95% CI=1.002-1.091, p=0.039). In men, depressive symptoms were inversely associated with the hypertension component of metabolic syndrome (OR=0.73, 95% CI=0.58-0.91, p=0.005). Subjective depressive symptoms were associated with metabolic syndrome only in women. Further research should consider sex differences and dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rice, Megan; Biessy, Carine; Lajous, Martin; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Romieu, Isabelle
Background Metabolic syndrome has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer; however little is known about the association between metabolic syndrome and percent mammographic density, a strong predictor of breast cancer. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 789 premenopausal and 322 postmenopausal women in the Mexican Teacher's Cohort (ESMaestras). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition. We measured percent density on mammograms using a computer-assisted thresholding method. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the association between density and metabolic syndrome, as well as its components by state (Jalisco, Veracruz) and menopausal status (premenopausal, postmenopausal). Results Among premenopausal women in Jalisco, women with metabolic syndrome had higher percent density compared to those without after adjusting for potential confounders including BMI (difference = 4.76, 95%CI: 1.72, 7.81). Among the metabolic syndrome components, only low high-density lipoprotein levels (<50mg/dl) were associated with significantly higher percent density among premenopausal women in Jalisco (difference=4.62, 95%CI: 1.73, 7.52). Metabolic syndrome was not associated with percent density among premenopausal women in Veracruz (difference=-2.91, 95% CI: -7.19, 1.38), nor among postmenopausal women in either state. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome was associated with higher percent density among premenopausal women in Jalisco, Mexico, but was not associated with percent density among premenopausal women in Veracruz, Mexico or among postmenopausal women in either Jalisco or Veracruz. These findings provide some support for a possible role of metabolic syndrome in mammographic density among premenopausal women; however results were inconsistent across states and require further confirmation in larger studies. PMID:23682074
Bernabé García, Juana; Zafrilla Rentero, Pilar; Mulero Cánovas, Juana; Gómez Jara, Purificación; Leal Hernández, Mariano; Abellán Alemán, José
1) Nutritional assessment of the diet followed by patients with metabolic syndrome, and 2) biochemical analysis of the oxidation-reduction level in patients with metabolic syndrome. A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients with metabolic syndrome in Murcia. Fifty-three patients, 33 with and 20 without (control group) metabolic syndrome, were selected. The intervention consisted of completion of a recall survey and a test to nutritionally assess dietary intake. Anthropometric and laboratory variables, including those related to antioxidant activity, were also tested. Antioxidant activity was within normal limits in both groups (1.7 ± 0.2 mmol/L in the control group and 1.8 ± 0.1 mmol/L in the metabolic syndrome group) (NS). Superoxide dismutase levels were not significantly different between the groups. Mean glutathione reductase levels (U/L) were higher in the control group as compared to patients with metabolic syndrome (P<.05). As regards oxidative stress biomarkers, mean isoprostane levels were higher in the control group (4.9 ± 6.2 ng/mL) than in metabolic syndrome patients (3.5 ± 3.9 ng/mL) (P<.05). Oxidized LDL values tended to be higher in metabolic syndrome patients (96 ± 23.2U/L) as compared to the control group (86.2 ± 17.3 U/L), but differences were not significant. There is a trend to a poorer nutritional and biochemical profile in patients with metabolic syndrome, who also tend to have a greater degree of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Cho, Sung Tae; Jung, Seung Il; Myung, Soon Chul; Kim, Tae Hyoung
To determine the correlation between metabolic syndrome and the distribution of stone components in patients with urolithiasis. Between January 2007 and December 2010, renal or ureteral stones were collected from 712 patients (432 males, 280 females) who underwent surgical intervention at three hospitals in South Korea. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the latest definition of the International Diabetes Federation, using ethnicity- and sex-specific cut-off values for central obesity. Patients were assessed by factors used in metabolic syndrome. All urinary stones were analyzed using infrared spectrophotometry and categorized according to their main component. The patients' mean age was 55.9 years (range 19-93 years). Of the 712 patients, 347 (48.7%; 205 males, 142 females) had a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Calcium oxalate (71.5%), uric acid (15.3%), carbonate apatite (8.0%) and struvite (4.1%) calculi were found as the main stone components. Overall, the proportion of uric acid calculi was markedly higher in patients with rather than without metabolic syndrome (19.6 vs 11.2%; P=0.002). However, the proportion of calcium oxalate, carbonate apatite and struvite calculi did not differ between the two groups. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for uric acid calculi according to the metabolic syndrome components indicated that the presence of metabolic syndrome was associated with a 93% increased odds ratio of uric acid calculi compared with the absence of metabolic syndrome. Impaired fasting glucose and hypertriglyceridemia were independent risk factors for uric acid calculi. Metabolic syndrome is associated with a significantly increased risk of uric acid calculi development, especially those with impaired fasting glucose and hypertriglyceridemia. © 2012 The Japanese Urological Association.
Bassi, Nikhil; Karagodin, Ilya; Wang, Serena; Vassallo, Patricia; Priyanath, Aparna; Massaro, Elaine; Stone, Neil J
All 5 components of metabolic syndrome have been shown to improve with lifestyle and diet modification. New strategies for achieving adherence to meaningful lifestyle change are needed to optimize atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk reduction. We performed a systematic literature review, based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses framework (PRISMA), investigating optimal methods for achieving lifestyle change in metabolic syndrome. We submitted standardized search terms to the PubMed Central, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Ovid databases. Within those results, we selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) presenting unique methods of achieving lifestyle change in patients with one or more components of the metabolic syndrome. Data extraction using the population, intervention, comparator, outcome, and risk of bias framework (PICO) was used to compare the following endpoints: prevalence of metabolic syndrome, prevalence of individual metabolic syndrome components, mean number of metabolic syndrome components, and amount of weight loss achieved. Twenty-eight RCTs (6372 patients) were included. Eight RCTs demonstrated improvement in metabolic syndrome risk factors after 1 year. Team-based, interactive approaches with high-frequency contact with patients who are motivated made the largest and most lasting impact. Technology was found to be a useful tool in achieving lifestyle change, but ineffective when compared with personal contact. Patient motivation leading to improved lifestyle adherence is a key factor in achieving reduction in metabolic syndrome components. These elements can be enhanced via frequent encounters with the health care system. Use of technologies such as mobile and Internet-based communication can increase the effectiveness of lifestyle change in metabolic syndrome, but should not replace personal contact as the cornerstone of therapy. Our ability to derive quantitative conclusions is limited by inconsistent
Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Sacco, Ralph L; Lee, Hye-Sueng; Grahame-Clarke, Cairistine; Rundek, Tanja; Elkind, Mitchell V; Wright, Clinton; Giardina, Elsa-Grace V; DiTullio, Marco R; Homma, Shunichi; Paik, Myunghee C
More than 47 million individuals in the United States meet the criteria for the metabolic syndrome. The relation between the metabolic syndrome and stroke risk in multiethnic populations has not been well characterized. As part of the Northern Manhattan Study, 3298 stroke-free community residents were prospectively followed up for a mean of 6.4 years. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to guidelines established by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for ischemic stroke and vascular events (ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death). The etiologic fraction estimates the proportion of events attributable to the metabolic syndrome. More than 44% of the cohort had the metabolic syndrome (48% of women vs 38% of men, P<0.0001), which was more prevalent among Hispanics (50%) than whites (39%) or blacks (37%). The metabolic syndrome was associated with increased risk of stroke (HR=1.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.2) and vascular events (HR=1.6; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.0) after adjustment for sociodemographic and risk factors. The effect of the metabolic syndrome on stroke risk was greater among women (HR=2.0; 95% CI, 1.3 to 3.1) than men (HR=1.1; 95% CI, 0.6 to 1.9) and among Hispanics (HR=2.0; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.4) compared with blacks and whites. The etiologic fraction estimates suggest that elimination of the metabolic syndrome would result in a 19% reduction in overall stroke, a 30% reduction of stroke in women; and a 35% reduction of stroke among Hispanics. The metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for ischemic stroke, with differential effects by sex and race/ethnicity.
Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Sacco, Ralph L.; Lee, Hye-Sueng; Grahame-Clarke, Cairistine; Rundek, Tanja; Elkind, Mitchell V.; Wright, Clinton; Giardina, Elsa-Grace V.; DiTullio, Marco R.; Homma, Shunichi; Paik, Myunghee C.
Background and Purpose More than 47 million individuals in the United States meet the criteria for the metabolic syndrome. The relation between the metabolic syndrome and stroke risk in multiethnic populations has not been well characterized. Methods As part of the Northern Manhattan Study, 3298 stroke-free community residents were prospectively followed up for a mean of 6.4 years. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to guidelines established by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for ischemic stroke and vascular events (ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death). The etiologic fraction estimates the proportion of events attributable to the metabolic syndrome. Results More than 44% of the cohort had the metabolic syndrome (48% of women vs 38% of men, P<0.0001), which was more prevalent among Hispanics (50%) than whites (39%) or blacks (37%). The metabolic syndrome was associated with increased risk of stroke (HR=1.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.2) and vascular events (HR=1.6; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.0) after adjustment for sociodemographic and risk factors. The effect of the metabolic syndrome on stroke risk was greater among women (HR=2.0; 95% CI, 1.3 to 3.1) than men (HR=1.1; 95% CI, 0.6 to 1.9) and among Hispanics (HR=2.0; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.4) compared with blacks and whites. The etiologic fraction estimates suggest that elimination of the metabolic syndrome would result in a 19% reduction in overall stroke, a 30% reduction of stroke in women; and a 35% reduction of stroke among Hispanics. Conclusions The metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for ischemic stroke, with differential effects by sex and race/ethnicity. PMID:18063821
Rutters, Femke; Pilz, Stefan; Koopman, Anitra D M; Rauh, Simone P; Pouwer, Frans; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Elders, Petra J; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M
Stressful life events are associated with the metabolic syndrome in cross-sectional studies, but prospective studies addressing this issue are rare and limited. We therefore evaluated whether the number of stressful life events is associated with incident metabolic syndrome. We assessed the association between the number of stressful life events experienced in the 5 years up until baseline and incident metabolic syndrome after 6.5 years at follow-up in the Hoorn study, a middle-aged and elderly population-based cohort. Participants with prevalent metabolic syndrome at baseline were excluded. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III, including fasting plasma glucose levels, HDL-C levels, triglyceride levels, waist circumference and hypertension. We included 1099 participants (47% male; age 60 ± 7 years). During 6.5 years of follow-up, 238 participants (22%) developed the metabolic syndrome. Logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, education level and follow-up duration showed a positive association between the number of stressful life events at baseline and incident metabolic syndrome [OR 1.13 (1.01-1.27) per event, p = 0.049]. In addition, a Poisson model showed a significant positive association between the number of stressful life events at baseline and the number of metabolic syndrome factors at follow-up [OR 1.05 (1.01-1.11) per event, p = 0.018]. Finally, we observed a significant association between the number of stressful life events at baseline and waist circumference at follow-up [adjusted for confounders β 0.86 (0.39-1.34) cm per event, p < 0.001]. Overall, we concluded that persons who reported more stressful life events at baseline had a significantly increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome during 6.5 years of follow-up, in a middle-aged and elderly population-based cohort.
Singleton, J Robinson; Marcus, Robin L; Lessard, Margaret K; Jackson, Justin E; Smith, A Gordon
Unmyelinated cutaneous axons are vulnerable to physical and metabolic injury, but also capable of rapid regeneration. This balance may help determine risk for peripheral neuropathy associated with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Capsaicin application for 48 hours induces cutaneous fibers to die back into the dermis. Regrowth can be monitored by serial skin biopsies to determine intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). We used this capsaicin axotomy technique to examine the effects of exercise on cutaneous regenerative capacity in the setting of metabolic syndrome. Baseline ankle IENFD and 30-day cutaneous regeneration after thigh capsaicin axotomy were compared for participants with type 2 diabetes (n = 35) or metabolic syndrome (n = 32) without symptoms or examination evidence of neuropathy. Thirty-six participants (17 with metabolic syndrome) then joined twice weekly observed exercise and lifestyle counseling. Axotomy regeneration was repeated in month 4 during this intervention. Baseline distal leg IENFD was significantly reduced for both metabolic syndrome and diabetic groups. With exercise, participants significantly improved exercise capacity and lower extremity power. Following exercise, 30-day reinnervation rate improved (0.051 ± 0.027 fibers/mm/day before vs 0.072 ± 0.030 after exercise, p = 0.002). Those who achieved improvement in more metabolic syndrome features experienced a greater degree of 30-day reinnervation (p < 0.012). Metabolic syndrome was associated with reduced baseline IENFD and cutaneous regeneration capacity comparable to that seen in diabetes. Exercise-induced improvement in metabolic syndrome features increased cutaneous regenerative capacity. The results underscore the potential benefit to peripheral nerve function of a behavioral modification approach to metabolic improvement. © 2014 American Neurological Association.
Ganne, Sudha; Arora, Surender; Karam, Jocelyne; McFarlane, Samy I
Hypertension is a major component of the metabolic syndrome and a major cardiovascular risk factor. Both disorders are rapidly increasing in frequency, with hypertension affecting nearly 60 million Americans and over 1 billion people worldwide, and metabolic syndrome affecting 44% of the US population above the age of 60 years. Sedentary lifestyle, together with obesity and aging of the population, are the major contributing factors for this growing epidemic. Hypertension in metabolic syndrome possesses unique pathophysiological aspects that have considerable implications on therapy of this disease. In this article, we review the pathophysiology and provide a rationale for the current therapeutic options in light of the most recent clinical trials in the field.
Masson, Walter; Epstein, Teo; Huerín, Melina; Lobo, Lorenzo Martín; Molinero, Graciela; Angel, Adriana; Masson, Gerardo; Millán, Diana; De Francesca, Salvador; Vitagliano, Laura; Cafferata, Alberto; Losada, Pablo
The estimated cardiovascular risk determined by the different risk scores, could be heterogeneous in patients with metabolic syndrome without diabetes or vascular disease. This risk stratification could be improved by detecting subclinical carotid atheromatosis. To estimate the cardiovascular risk measured by different scores in patients with metabolic syndrome and analyze its association with the presence of carotid plaque. Non-diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III definition) without cardiovascular disease were enrolled. The Framingham score, the Reynolds score, the new score proposed by the 2013 ACC/AHA Guidelines and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator were calculated. Prevalence of carotid plaque was determined by ultrasound examination. A Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis was performed. A total of 238 patients were enrolled. Most patients were stratified as "low risk" by Framingham score (64%) and Reynolds score (70.1%). Using the 2013 ACC/AHA score, 45.3% of the population had a risk ≥7.5%. A significant correlation was found between classic scores but the agreement (concordance) was moderate. The correlation between classical scores and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator was poor. Overall, the prevalence of carotid plaque was 28.2%. The continuous metabolic syndrome score used in our study showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque (area under the curve 0.752). In this population, the calculated cardiovascular risk was heterogenic. The prevalence of carotid plaque was high. The Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque.
Metabolic syndrome is one of the most important risk factors of atherosclerotic disease, and visceral obesity is regarded as a principle component of metabolic syndrome. Medical checkups for metabolic syndrome were started in 2008 for the purpose of promoting lifestyle modification through health guidance. The original diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in Japan was presented by the Examination Committee of Criteria for Metabolic Syndrome in April 2005. This guideline defines the waist circumference measurement as an essential component, accompanied by at least two of the following three risk factors: dyslipidemia, a raised blood pressure, and glucose intolerance, and these risk factors were based on multiple representative Japanese cohort studies. However, there are some problems with these standards. For example, it is often the case that accurate evaluation is difficult because variable factors such as meals influence the serum triglyceride level. This influences the reliability of the results of cohort studies. In this symposium, problems with this guideline were presented along with an introduction to the cohort study on which the concept of the syndrome was based. I compiled a cohort study related to metabolic syndrome, and pointed out some problems from the viewpoint of clinical laboratory medicine.
The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of interrelated metabolic risk factors that appear to directly promote the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, in 2005, the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes jointly stated that no existing definition of the metabolic syndrome meets the criteria of a syndrome, and there have been endless debates on the pros and cons of using the concept of this syndrome. The controversy may stem from confusion between the syndrome and obesity. Obesity is an epidemic, essentially contagious disease caused by an environment of excess nutritional energy and reinforced by deeply rooted social norms. The epidemic of obesity should be prevented or controlled by social and political means, similar to the approaches now being taken to combat global warming. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome is useless for this public purpose. The purpose of establishing criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome is to find individuals who are at increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease and who require specific therapy including diet and exercise. The syndrome may be an adipose tissue disease different from obesity; in that case, it would be characterized by inflammation clinically detected through systemic inflammatory markers such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and insulin resistance reflecting histological changes in adipose tissue. However, many problems in defining the optimal diagnostic criteria remain unresolved.
Hromnats'ka, N M
To study dyslipidemia types in children with metabolic syndrome. From 1520 children of total population 155 children aged from 9 to 18 years were selected, who formed 2 groups: 1 group--85 children with metabolic syndrome, 2 group--54 children with normal body mass. Anthropometry, blood pressure measurement, estimation of total cholesterol, low density cholesterol, very low density cholesterol, high density cholesterol, tryglicerides in blood were done. The total cholesterol level was 1,1 times higher (p = 0.001), low density cholesterol 1,4 times higher (p = 0.001), very low density cholesterol 1,1 times higher (p= 0.015), tryglicerides 1,1 times higher (p = 0.020) in children with metabolic syndrome than in children of control group. In children with metabolic syndrome sensitively more often IIa, IV dislipidemia types and isolated hypercholesterolemia and less often IIb, III dislipidemia types and high density cholesterol isolated decrease were diagnosed. So children with metabolic syndrome were characterized by atherogenic types of dislipidemias which determine early atherosclerosis development. Children with metabolic syndrome must be examined on the lipid metabolism violation with the aim of its prevention and correction.
Zaliūnas, Remigijus; Slapikas, Rimvydas; Luksiene, Dalia; Slapikiene, Birute; Statkeviciene, Audrone; Milvidaite, Irena; Gustiene, Olivija
Many studies report that the components of the metabolic syndrome--arterial hypertension, abdominal obesity, diabetes mellitus, and atherogenic dyslipidemia--are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the prevalence of different components of the metabolic syndrome and frequency of their combinations and acute hyperglycemia among patients with acute coronary syndromes. The study population consisted of 2756 patients (1670 men and 1086 women with a mean age of 63.3+/-11.3 years) with acute coronary syndromes: Q-wave myocardial infarction was present in 41.8% of patients; non-Q-wave MI, in 30.7%; and unstable angina pectoris, in 27.5%. The metabolic syndrome was found in 59.6% of the patients according to modified NCEP III guidelines. One component of the metabolic syndrome was found in 13.5% of patients; two, in 23.0%; and none, in 3.9%. Less than one-third (29.2%) of the patients had three components of the metabolic syndrome, and 30.4% of the patients had four or five components. Arterial hypertension and abdominal obesity were the most common components of the metabolic syndrome (82.2% and 65.8%, respectively). Nearly half of the patients had hypertriglyceridemia and decreased level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (55.0% and 51.1%, respectively), and 23.9% of patients had diabetes mellitus. Acute hyperglycemia (> or =6.1 mmol/L) without known diabetes mellitus was found in 38.1% of cases. The combination of arterial hypertension and abdominal obesity was reported in 57.8% of patients in the case of combinations of two-five metabolic syndrome components. More than half of patients with acute coronary syndromes had three or more components of the metabolic syndrome, and arterial hypertension and abdominal obesity were the most prevalent components of the metabolic syndrome.
Harville, Emily W; Srinivasan, Sathanur; Chen, Wei; Berenson, Gerald S
Metabolic syndrome has been called a "small baby syndrome," but other analyses suggest that postnatal growth is more important than birthweight, or that large babies are also at risk. The aim of this analysis was to examine whether there was a relationship between both low and high birthweight and metabolic syndrome, using multiple definitions of metabolic syndrome, and to determine whether this relationship varied by body size across the life course. Data from the Bogalusa Heart Study, a study of cardiovascular disease in children and young adults, were linked to birth certificate data. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program, the International Diabetes Foundation, and the World Health Organization (WHO) definition. Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) was defined as birthweight <10(th) percentile by sex for gestational age and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) as birthweight >90(th) percentile. Birthweight-for-gestational-age was also examined as a continuous predictor. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used to examine the relationship between birth size and metabolic syndrome. Higher birthweight-for-gestational-age was associated with a reduced risk of metabolic syndrome, especially by the WHO definition. After adjustment for body mass index (BMI), categorized birthweight was associated with metabolic syndrome, with the protective associations with LGA being stronger than the positive associations with SGA. Among the individual components of metabolic syndrome, higher waist circumference was associated with both SGA and LGA after BMI was controlled for. Effects of SGA and BMI at any age were largely independent rather than interactive. SGA is associated with some, but not all, components of metabolic syndrome. The relationship between SGA and metabolic syndrome is partially confounded by later BMI.
Baños, G; Pérez-Torres, I; El Hafidi, M
The metabolic syndrome (MS) has become a worldwide health problem. It is difficult for patients to follow a diet/exercise regime that would improve their symptoms, therefore the investigation of agents that may deal with its more serious aspects is an important medical field for research. The cardiovascular consequences associated with the syndrome and some of the therapeutic approaches are discussed. The different agents can be divided into several groups: Inorganic/ organic: Zinc complexes with garlic components as insulino-mimetics; Selenium as antioxidant; Copper, Zinc and Manganese as microcomponents of antioxidant enzymes. Organic: Natural or Synthetic: Glycine is effective in lowering blood pressure, TBARS, intra-abdominal fat tissue and triglycerides in sucrose-fed rats. Pharmaceutical products: Fibrates, Lipid-lowering drugs. Antidiabetics. Anti-gout agents. On the other hand there are natural products such as those of animal origin: Sex hormones (also synthetic) used in the problems of menopause and hypoandrogenism frequently found in the MS, antioxidant Omega-3-oils (fish oils) or Vegetal: for example Digitalis pupurea, century-old cardiovascular medication as well as Magnolia officinalis; Spirulina maxima with beneficial effects as antioxidant and lipid-lowering agent, among others. Prickly Pear Cacti. (Opuntia Ficus- Indica Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd.) Spreng) whose many properties against diabetes and hypercholesterolemia have been empirically known for many years. Perezone (from Perezia plants, a.k.a. Peonia) described as an antiplatelet aggregating agent. The mixed elements in the Mediterranean diet: Fish, salads (peppers, tomatoes), olive oil, garlic, red wine which combines fish oils, garlic and avocado as well as antioxidants from the rest of its components.
Calcaterra, Valeria; Brambilla, Paola; Maffè, Gabriella Carnevale; Klersy, Catherine; Albertini, Riccardo; Introzzi, Francesca; Bozzola, Elena; Bozzola, Mauro; Larizza, Daniela
An increased relative risk of diabetes, ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis, and hypertension have been reported in Turner syndrome (TS) patients. No data are currently available on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in TS subjects. We evaluated the frequency of metabolic syndrome in obese and nonobese patients with TS. We evaluated 85 TS patients (27.05 ± 11.17 years). Obesity was defined as standard deviation score body mass index (SDS-BMI) ≥ 2 or BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) in adult patients. We classified metabolic syndrome according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Hepatic ultrasound was performed in all girls. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 4.7% (12.5% obese and 4.3% nonobese, P=0.16) and associated with visceral adiposity (P=0.008). Abnormalities in glucose metabolism and hypertension were not associated with genetic or therapeutic factors. The karyotype 45,X was associated with atherogenic profile. Pathological waist circumference was more frequent in girls treated with estro-progestin (P=0.03). Evidence of fatty liver was associated with metabolic syndrome (P=0.03) and insulin resistance (P=0.05). Elevated liver enzymes were found in 15 subjects and were not related to treatment or ultrasound abnormalities. Prevalence of each component of metabolic syndrome in TS patients is partially influenced by genetic makeup and treatment. Hepatosteatosis was associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, but not to elevated liver enzymes.
Nugent, Clare; Bai, Chunhong; Elariny, Hazem; Gopalakrishnan, Priya; Quigley, Caitlin; Garone, Michael; Afendy, Mariam; Chan, Oscar; Wheeler, Angela; Afendy, Arian; Younossi, Zobair M
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is common among morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the impact and predictors of bariatric surgery on the resolution of MS. Subjects included 286 patients [age 44.0 +/- 11.5, female 78.2%, BMI 48.7 +/- 9.4, waist circumference 139 +/- 20 cm, AST 23.5 +/- 14.9, ALT 30.0 +/- 20.1, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) 30.1% and MS 39.2%] who underwent bariatric surgery. Of the entire cohort, 27.3% underwent malabsorptive surgery, 55.9% underwent restrictive surgery, and 16.8% had combination restrictive-malabsorptive surgery. Mean weight loss was 33.7 +/- 20.1 kg after restrictive surgery (follow up period 298 +/- 271 days), 39.4 +/- 22.9 kg after malabsorptive surgery (follow-up period 306 +/- 290 days), and 28.3 +/- 14.1 kg after combination surgery (follow-up period 281 +/- 239 days). Regardless of the type of bariatric surgery, significant improvements were noted in MS (p values from <0.0001-0.01) as well as its components such as DM (p values from <0.0001-0.0005), waist circumference (p values <0.0001), BMI (p values <0.0001), fasting serum triglycerides (p values <0.0001 to 0.001), and fasting serum glucose (p values <0.0001). Additionally, a significant improvement in AST/ALT ratio (p value = 0.0002) was noted in those undergoing restrictive surgery. Multivariate analysis showed that patients who underwent malabsorptive bariatric procedures experienced a significantly greater percent excess weight loss than patients who underwent restrictive procedures (p value = 0.0451). Percent excess weight loss increased with longer postoperative follow-up (p value <0.0001). Weight loss after bariatric surgery is associated with a significant improvement in MS and other metabolic factors.
García-Lara, Juan Miguel Antonio; Aguilar-Navarro, Sara; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Avila-Funes, José Alberto
The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that has been controversially associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), so the purpose of this report was to investigate the association between these two chronic diseases a sample of older persons. Case-control study of 90 consecutive outpatients with AD and 180 non-demented controls from a dementia clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. Probable or possible AD was diagnosed according to the guidelines of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease, whereas control participants where those classified as normal by the same instrument. MS was defined according to the World Health Organization criteria. Patients were matched 1:2 by age, sex, and years of education. Conditional regression analysis was used to test the association between MS and AD. Compared to controls, MS was more frequent among AD patients (72.2% vs. 23.3%; P < 0.01). While all components of MS were more frequent among cases than control patients, only diabetes was statistically significant, whereas hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL cholesterol were marginally associated. Conditional regression analysis showed that among AD participants, the probability of having MS was about sevenfold higher than for their non-demented counterparts (OR 6.72, 95% CI 3.72-12.13; P < 0.01). The MS is a clinical entity that encompasses a diverse range of chronic diseases, which could be a better risk indicator than any individual MS component for adverse health outcomes, like AD. Our findings underscore the harmful role of MS in the health status of the elderly.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) defines the clustering in an individual of multiple metabolic abnormalities, based on central obesity and insulin resistance. In addition to its five components, prothrombotic and proinflammatory states are essential features. The significance of MetS lies in its close association with the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This field being an evolving one necessitated the current review. The areas covered in this review include the so far unproven concept that enhanced low-grade inflammation often leads to dysfunction of the anti-inflammatory and atheroprotective properties of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and HDL particles, which further increases the risk of diabetes and CVD. It was emphasized that lifestyle modification is essential in the prevention and management of MetS, which includes maintenance of optimal weight by caloric restriction, adherence to a diet that minimizes postprandial glucose and triglyceride fluctuations, restricting alcohol consumption, smoking cessation and engaging in regular exercise. Drug therapy should target the dyslipoproteinemia and the often associated hypertension or dysglycemia.Statins are the drugs of first choice, to be initiated in patients with MetS at high 10-year cardiovascular risk. Such treatment is inadequate if fasting serum triglycerides remain at > 150 mg/dl, when niacin should be combined. Fibrates, omega 3 fatty acids, metformin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and pioglitazone are additional options in drug therapy. Research on MetS in subpopulations prone to impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance has indicated that proinflammatory state and oxidative stress are often prominently involved in MetS, to the extent that evidence of impaired function of HDL and apo A-I particles is discernible by biological evidence of functional defectiveness via outcomes studies and/or correlations with inflammatory and anti-inflammatory biomarkers. A sex difference
Mancini, Marcio C
In recent years, there has been a greater concern about the presence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. However, there is no consensus regarding the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. It is evident that each component of the syndrome must be identified as early as possible in order to prevent definitive lesions. The question is how to do this and which cut-offs must be adopted for this diagnosis. For a matter of convenience, the definition chosen as the most appropriate is the one proposed by the IDF, with cut-offs fixed for pressure, lipids and glycemia, and abdominal circumference points assessed by percentile. Although on the one hand this definition could fail to include some children in the diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome, on the other hand, it would be of easier acceptance as it does not use multiple tables to assess several anthropometric and metabolic criteria. PMID:19840386
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. The risk of developing it is significantly increased by the metabolic syndrome cluster of risk factors: waist measurement and other factors, such as blood pressure and cholesterol levels.
The metabolic syndrome is a term used to indicate the presence of a cluster of conditions associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, stroke, and early mortality. A fairly common condition in the elderly, it is caused primarily by physical inactivity and excessive calorie intake and characterized by abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, impaired fasting glucose, dyslipidemia, and prehypertension. Numerous clinical trials have demonstrated that a lifestyle of moderate-intensity, physical activity for 30 minutes a day, most days of the week, combined with weight loss of 5-7%, can reverse individual components of the metabolic syndrome. When lifestyle modifications are insufficient, a multidrug regimen may be necessary to treat different components of the metabolic syndrome. This paper reviews current literature on the metabolic syndrome, including its causes, incidence and approaches for successful treatment.
This study identified factors associated with unhealthy lifestyle behaviors in people with metabolic syndrome in South Korea. The sample consisted of 1,207 subjects with metabolic syndrome from the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2014. High-risk alcohol consumption, smoking, aerobic physical activity, leisure physical activity, excessive carbohydrate intake, and fat intake were measured. A secondary data analysis was performed using chi-square tests and logistic regression. Gender was associated with all unhealthy behaviors. The number of metabolic syndrome components, a poor perceived health status, and attempts to control weight were associated with physical inactivity. Those findings may be helpful to develop a tailored lifestyle modification programs for people with metabolic syndrome.
Kozumplik, Oliver; Uzun, Suzana
Depression is associated with increased physical morbidity and overall mortality. The results of a previous investigation on the relationship of the metabolic syndrome and its single components with coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and all-cause mortality suggested that the metabolic syndrome is a marker of CVD risk, but not above and beyond the risk associated with its individual components. The aim of this article is to review literature regarding prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with depressive disorder, and association between metabolic syndrome and depression. Literature research included structured searches of Medline and other publications on the subject of metabolic syndrome, particularly prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with depressive disorder, and association between metabolic syndrome and depression. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with depression is high and varies among the analysed studies. Some investigations showed association between metabolic syndrome and depression. Further investigations are necessary in order to clarify the association between metabolic syndrome and depression.
Mbugua, Samuel Mungai; Kimani, Samuel Thuo; Munyoki, Gilbert
Metabolic syndrome refers to a cluster of interrelated disorders which occur together causing an increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The university population is an understudied group despite the increase in the frequency of related disorders and metabolic risk factors e.g. obesity and diabetes, majorly due to the assumption that they are in their most active phase of life therefore healthy. This study looked at metabolic syndrome, the sedentary lifestyles and dietary habits present among university students attending Mount Kenya University, main campus. Stratified sampling was used to select participants. Self-administered questionnaires were issued to participants after a signed consent had been obtained following which clinical assessments and biochemical measures were performed. They included blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, anthropometric measurements; height, weight, BMI and waist circumference. Pearson's chi-square tests and non-parametric independent t-test were used to analyze the prevalence of metabolic syndrome criteria per gender, the number of metabolic syndrome criteria per BMI and prevalence of metabolic syndrome criteria per BMI category. The study established that 1.9% of the participants met the criteria for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome according to HJSS criteria. Among the elements, there was statistical difference in gender BMI and waist circumference. 11.8% of subjects had two metabolic syndrome components while 3.1% had three components while none of the subjects had all six components. Elevated triglycerides was the most prevalent defining component for metabolic syndrome. There is a statistically significant relationship between sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits as risk factors to metabolic syndrome. Young adults in university have begun developing metabolic syndrome and the risk of developing the syndrome continues to increase with the
Worm, Signe W; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Rickenbach, Martin; Reiss, Peter; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Phillips, Andrew; Lundgren, Jens; Sabin, Caroline
This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time. We described the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients under follow-up at the end of six calendar periods from 2000 to 2007. The definition that was used for the metabolic syndrome was modified to take account of the use of lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medication, measurement variability and missing values, and assessed the impact of these modifications on the estimated prevalence. For all definitions considered, there was an increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome over time, although the prevalence estimates themselves varied widely. Using our primary definition, we found an increase in prevalence from 19.4% in 2000/2001 to 41.6% in 2006/2007. Modification of the definition to incorporate antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medication had relatively little impact on the prevalence estimates, as did modification to allow for missing data. In contrast, modification to allow the metabolic syndrome to be reversible and to allow for measurement variability lowered prevalence estimates substantially. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in cohort studies is largely based on the use of nonstandardized measurements as they are captured in daily clinical care. As a result, bias is easily introduced, particularly when measurements are both highly variable and may be missing. We suggest that the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in cohort studies should be based on two consecutive measurements of the laboratory components in the syndrome definition.
Rubio-Guerra, Alberto F; Morales-López, Herlinda; Garro-Almendaro, Ana K; Vargas-Ayala, German; Durán-Salgado, Montserrat B; Huerta-Ramírez, Saul; Lozano-Nuevo, Jose J
Hyperuricemia leads to insulin resistance, whereas insulin resistance decreases renal excretion of uric acid, both mechanisms link elevated serum uric acid with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the probability for the development of metabolic syndrome in low-income young adults with hyperuricaemia. We evaluated 103 patients less than 40 years of age, from a low-income population, and without history of cardiovascular disease, in all of them the presence of metabolic syndrome was assessed in accordance with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. In all patients, fasting serum uric acid levels were measured; hyperuricaemia was defined as serum uric acid values 6.5 mg/dl in men and 5.1 mg/dl in women. Statistical analysis was performed with odds ratio. 83 of our patients (80.5%) suffered metabolic syndrome, the odds ratio for the presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with hyperuricaemia was 5.1 (p=0.002, I.C 1.8- 14.5). When patients were evaluated by gender a significantly association between hyperuricaemia and metabolic syndrome was found in women (odds ratio 3.6, p=0.048, C.I. 1.0-12.9), and men (odds ratio 10.2, p= 0.015, IC 1.5-13.2). When uric acid was correlated with the components of metabolic syndrome, we only found a positive correlation with waist circumference (r=0.483). Our results showed a significant association between hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome in low-income young adults in Mexico. DR is associated with estimated risk of CVD in type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Guilbert, Lizbeth; Ortiz, Cristian J; Espinosa, Omar; Sepúlveda, Elisa M; Piña, Tatiana; Joo, Paul; Zerrweck, Carlos
The latest diabetes consensus identified obesity as key component of the metabolic syndrome. The role of bariatric surgery over such syndrome has been less explored with a lack of long term studies, and especially among Mexicans. Retrospective study including patients with metabolic syndrome submitted to laparoscopic gastric bypass at a single institution with complete data after 24 months. The objective was to analyze the improvement of the syndrome and each component. Demographic, anthropometric, biochemical and clinical parameters were analyzed at 12 and 24 months. Secondarily weight loss and other parameters were also analyzed. Finally, an analysis of syndrome improvement related to weight loss was performed. Sixty-three patients were included. The 2 most common components associated with obesity were reduced HDL and raised glucose or Type 2 diabetes. There was a significant improvement of metabolic syndrome and its components, as well as for the rest of the analyzed data, from the first check point and throughout follow-up. Prevalence of such syndrome was 6.3% at 12 and 24 months. Hypertension and raised glucose or Type 2 diabetes were the components with the greatest and fastest improvement; HDL levels and obesity were the least improved. There was a direct relationship between percentage of excess weight loss or percentage of excess BMI loss, and syndrome's improvement. Patients with metabolic syndrome improved after gastric bypass, with results lasting after 2 years; other metabolic parameters important for cardiovascular risk were also positively affected. There was a relationship between the amount of weight loss and improvement of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Sangjin; Ko, Young; Kwak, Chanyeong; Yim, Eun-Shil
Gender is thought to be an important factor in metabolic syndrome and its outcomes. Despite a number of studies that have demonstrated differences in metabolism and its components that are dependent on gender, limited information about gender differences on the characteristics of metabolic syndrome and its components is available regarding the Korean old adult population. This study aimed to identify gender differences in characteristics of the metabolic syndrome and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Secondary analysis of data from a nationwide cross-sectional survey for health examination at the time of transitioning from midlife to old age was performed. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for gender differences among the Korean 66-year-old population with metabolic syndrome. Gender differences in metabolic syndrome components that contributed to the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome were identified. In males, the most common component was high blood sugar levels (87.5%), followed by elevated triglyceride levels (83.5%) and high blood pressure (83.1%). In females, the most commonly identified component was elevated triglyceride levels (79.0%), followed by high blood sugar levels (78.6%) and high blood pressure (78.5%). Gender differences for other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including family history, health habits, and body mass index were observed. Gender-specific public health policies and management strategies to prevent cardiovascular disease among the older adult population should be developed for Koreans undergoing the physiological transition to old age.
Mansilla, Eduardo; Díaz Aquino, Vanina; Zambón, Daniel; Marin, Gustavo Horacio; Mártire, Karina; Roque, Gustavo; Ichim, Thomas; Riordan, Neil H; Patel, Amit; Sturla, Flavio; Larsen, Gustavo; Spretz, Rubén; Núñez, Luis; Soratti, Carlos; Ibar, Ricardo; van Leeuwen, Michiel; Tau, José María; Drago, Hugo; Maceira, Alberto
One of the most important and complex diseases of modern society is metabolic syndrome. This syndrome has not been completely understood, and therefore an effective treatment is not available yet. We propose a possible stem cell mechanism involved in the development of metabolic syndrome. This way of thinking lets us consider also other significant pathologies that could have similar etiopathogenic pathways, like lipodystrophic syndromes, progeria, and aging. All these clinical situations could be the consequence of a progressive and persistent stem cell exhaustion syndrome (SCES). The main outcome of this SCES would be an irreversible loss of the effective regenerative mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) pools. In this way, the normal repairing capacities of the organism could become inefficient. Our point of view could open the possibility for a new strategy of treatment in metabolic syndrome, lipodystrophic syndromes, progeria, and even aging: stem cell therapies.
Mansilla, Eduardo; Díaz Aquino, Vanina; Zambón, Daniel; Marin, Gustavo Horacio; Mártire, Karina; Roque, Gustavo; Ichim, Thomas; Riordan, Neil H.; Patel, Amit; Sturla, Flavio; Larsen, Gustavo; Spretz, Rubén; Núñez, Luis; Soratti, Carlos; Ibar, Ricardo; van Leeuwen, Michiel; Tau, José María; Drago, Hugo; Maceira, Alberto
One of the most important and complex diseases of modern society is metabolic syndrome. This syndrome has not been completely understood, and therefore an effective treatment is not available yet. We propose a possible stem cell mechanism involved in the development of metabolic syndrome. This way of thinking lets us consider also other significant pathologies that could have similar etiopathogenic pathways, like lipodystrophic syndromes, progeria, and aging. All these clinical situations could be the consequence of a progressive and persistent stem cell exhaustion syndrome (SCES). The main outcome of this SCES would be an irreversible loss of the effective regenerative mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) pools. In this way, the normal repairing capacities of the organism could become inefficient. Our point of view could open the possibility for a new strategy of treatment in metabolic syndrome, lipodystrophic syndromes, progeria, and even aging: stem cell therapies. PMID:21716667
Wang, Xin; Yang, Fang; Bots, Michiel L; Guo, Wei-Ying; Zhao, Bing; Hoes, Arno W; Vaartjes, Ilonca
Background: The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of metabolic abnormalities and has been associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among employees in Northeast China. Methods: Totally, 33,149 employees who received health screening in the International Health Promotion Center in the First Hospital of Jilin University were enrolled. Height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein were recorded. Three definitions for the metabolic syndrome were applied, revised National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria, and the Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS) criteria. Results: Overall, the age-standardized prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 22.9%, 20.6%, and 15.3% based on definitions of revised NCEP ATP III criteria, the IDF criteria, and the CDS criteria, respectively. Men had higher age-standardized prevalence than women in all three definitions (P < 0.05). The prevalence was 27.1%, 24.5%, and 20.4% for men; 17.1%, 15.4%, and 8.3% for women, respectively. The most common metabolic component with the metabolic syndrome was overweight (54.7% of men had an elevated body mass index, and 35.9% of women had central obesity). Conclusions: A large proportion of employees among Northeast China have the metabolic syndrome. These findings place emphasis on the need to develop aggressive lifestyle modification for patients with the metabolic syndrome and population level strategies for the prevention, detection, and treatment of cardiovascular risk. PMID:26228207
Abella, Vanessa; Scotece, Morena; López, Verónica; Lazzaro, Verónica; Pino, Jesús; Gómez-Reino, Juan J.; Gualillo, Oreste
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic disorders that result from the increasing prevalence of obesity. The major components of MetS include insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. MetS identifies the central obesity with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitis, have increased prevalence of CVDs. Moreover, CVD risk is increased when obesity is present in these patients. However, traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not completely explain the enhanced cardiovascular risk in this population. Thus, MetS and the altered secretion patterns of proinflammatory adipokines present in obesity could be the link between CVDs and rheumatic diseases. Furthermore, adipokines have been linked to the pathogenesis of MetS and its comorbidities through their effects on vascular function and inflammation. In the present paper, we review recent evidence of the role played by adipokines in the modulation of MetS in the general population, and in patients with rheumatic diseases. PMID:24741591
Castro Vilela, María Elena; Quílez Pina, Raquel María; Bonafonte Marteles, José Luis; Morlanes Navarro, Teresa; Calvo Gracia, Fernando
To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) according to the definitions of the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and its relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in hospitalized elderly patients. This descriptive and prospective study (February-March 2011) included 200 consecutive patients hospitalized in a Geriatric Department. Sociodemographic, clinical and biochemical data was collected. The prevalence of MS was 65% (NCEP-ATP III) and 67.5% (IDF) and was greater in women (NCEP-ATP III=72.8%, IDF=73.6%) than in men (NCEP-ATP III=50.7%; IDF=56.3%). The mean age of patients diagnosed with MS by both diagnostic criteria were similar: 84.7 years. MS was not associated with an increased prevalence of CVD. MS is highly prevalent in elderly hospitalized patients, being higher in women, with both diagnostic criteria (NCEP- ATP III and IDF). In our population the MS was not associated with an increased prevalence of CVD. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Strath, Scott; Swartz, Ann; Parker, Sarah; Miller, Nora; Cieslik, Linda
Background Little data exists describing the impact that walking has on metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a multicultural sample of older adults. Methods Walking was measured via pedometer in 150 older adults from 4 different ethnic categories. Steps per day were classified as low (<3100 steps/d) or high (≥3100 steps/d) for statistical analyses. Results Occurrence of MetS was lower in the white (33%) versus non-white population (50%). Low steps/d were related to an increase in MetS for both white (OR = 96.8, 95% CI 12.3–764.6) and non-white individuals (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.8–11.3). Low steps/d also increased the odds for selected components of MetS in both the white and non-white groups. Conclusion Low levels of walking increase the likelihood of having MetS in both white and non-white older adults. Efforts to increase walking in older adults may decrease the likelihood of developing this clustering of disease risk factors. PMID:18209231
Milionis, Haralampos J; Kalantzi, Kallirroi J; Papathanasiou, Athanasios J; Kosovitsas, Athanasios A; Doumas, Michael T; Goudevenos, John A
There is a paucity of data with regard to the association of the metabolic syndrome with cardiovascular risk in young adults. We investigated the association of the metabolic syndrome with acute coronary syndrome in adults aged 45 years or younger. A total of 136 consecutive patients (128 men and eight women; mean age, 41.2+/-3.7 years) presenting with a first-ever acute coronary syndrome, and 136 age-matched and sex-matched controls were evaluated. The diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome was established according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the patients' group compared with the control group (40.4 versus 23.5%; P=0.003). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that smoking, positive family history of premature coronary artery disease, and the metabolic syndrome were associated with odds ratios 4.46 (95% confidence interval, 2.30-8.66; P<0.001), 3.11 (95% confidence interval, 1.71-5.66; P<0.001), and 1.97 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-3.56; P=0.02) higher odds, respectively, of having an acute coronary syndrome, after taking into account the matching for age and sex and controlling for potential confounders. Moreover, a 10-mg/dl increase in total cholesterol was associated with 1.06 higher odds of having an acute coronary syndrome. Analysis of interaction showed that smoking and a positive family history of premature coronary artery disease in young individuals with metabolic syndrome had an incremental effect on the odds of suffering an acute coronary syndrome (odds ratio, 7.12; 95% confidence interval, 2.42-20.96; P<0.001). The metabolic syndrome is highly associated with acute coronary syndrome in patients younger than 45 years of age, indicating the need for early and intensive preventive measures.
Dağdelen, Selçuk; Erbaş, Tomris
Metabolic syndrome is generally considered as a complication of modernity. Here we searched for the presence of metabolic syndrome components among the Ottoman emperors who lived between 1258 and 1926. Collections of historical archives, which were published as books specifically about morbidity and mortality of Ottoman emperors were reviewed to diagnose metabolic syndrome according to modified criteria by American College of Endocrinology and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Nineteen of 36 dynasty members (53%) had fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular events. Twenty-nine of the dynasty (81%) members were either depicted as truncal obese or reported to have obesity. Thirteen emperors (36%) satisfied diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome, retrospectively. Overall, 42% of non-commanding emperors, but 26% of commanding-emperors (who were assumed to be athletically grown and physically more active) were found to have metabolic syndrome (p=0.553). We suggest firstly here that sedentary palace lifestyle exacerbated metabolic syndrome in Ottoman dynasty especially in elderly members, thereafter complicated by cardiovascular events, even in pre-modern era.
Lee, Kang Soo; Eom, Jin-Sup; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Oh, Byoung Hoon; Hong, Chang Hyung
Brain volume progressively decreases with an increase in atrophy, and the brain becomes more susceptible to degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Metabolic syndrome has also been associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline in the elderly. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of head circumference and metabolic syndrome on cognitive decline. This study was part of a longitudinal study conducted on Koreans aged 60 years or older. We analyzed a final sample of 596 Korean participants with complete baseline and 2-year follow-up data. The cognitive function of the subjects was assessed using the Korean version of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Head circumference was measured from the glabella to the occipital protuberance using a measuring tape. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the NCEP-ATP III standards. Central obesity was assessed on the basis of waist-circumference values, in accordance with the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region report on Asians. We used a longitudinal factorial design in which the MMSE score was the dependent variable, and head circumference and metabolic syndrome were considered as factors. After adjusting the results for age, gender, education, height, weight, baseline MMSE, and number of follow-up years, we observed that smaller head circumference and the presence of metabolic syndrome were independently associated with rapid cognitive decline. All these findings suggest that smaller head circumference and the presence of metabolic syndrome have additive effects on cognitive decline. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Weiss, Ram; Bremer, Andrew A; Lustig, Robert H
Metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, altered glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, and abdominal obesity) that occur in obese children. However, metabolic syndrome can also occur in lean individuals, suggesting that obesity is a marker for the syndrome, not a cause. Metabolic syndrome is difficult to define, due to its nonuniform classification and reliance on hard cutoffs in the evaluation of disorders with non-Gaussian distributions. Defining the syndrome is even more difficult in children, owing to racial and pubertal differences and lack of cardiovascular events. Lipid partitioning among specific fat depots is associated with insulin resistance, which can lead to mitochondrial overload and dysfunctional subcellular energy use and drive the various elements of metabolic syndrome. Multiple environmental factors, in particular a typical Western diet, drive mitochondrial overload, while other changes in Western society, such as stress and sleep deprivation, increase insulin resistance and the propensity for food intake. These culminate in an adverse biochemical phenotype, including development of altered glucose metabolism and early atherogenesis during childhood and early adulthood. PMID:23356701
Yoshinaga, Masao; Tanaka, Satoru; Shimago, Atsushi; Sameshima, Koji; Nishi, Junichiro; Nomura, Yuichi; Kawano, Yoshifumi; Hashiguchi, Jun; Ichiki, Takeo; Shimizu, Shinichiro
To determine the prevalence of and sex differences related to the metabolic syndrome among obese and overweight elementary school children. Subjects were 471 overweight or obese Japanese children. Children meeting at least three of the following five criteria qualified as having the metabolic syndrome: abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, high triglyceride levels, and high fasting glucose levels. Fasting insulin levels were also examined. Japanese obese children were found to have a significantly lower prevalence (17.7%) of the metabolic syndrome than U.S. obese adolescents (28.7%, p = 0.0014). However, Japanese overweight children had a similar incidence (8.7%) of the metabolic syndrome compared with U.S. overweight adolescents (6.8%). Hyperinsulinemia in girls and abdominal obesity in boys are characteristic features of individual metabolic syndrome factors in Japanese children. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is not lower in preteen Japanese overweight children than in U.S. overweight adolescents, although it is significantly lower in Japanese obese preteen children than in U.S. obese adolescents. Primary and secondary interventions are needed for overweight preteen children in Japan.
Sánchez-Chaparro, Miguel-Angel; Calvo-Bonacho, Eva; González-Quintela, Arturo; Fernández-Labandera, Carlos; Cabrera, Martha; Sáinz, Juan-Carlos; Fernández-Meseguer, Ana; Banegas, José R; Ruilope, Luis-Miguel; Valdivielso, Pedro; Román-García, Javier
To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Spanish working population and determine how the prevalence varies according to occupation and sex. This was a cross-sectional study of 259,014 workers (mean age 36.4 years, range [16-74]; 72.9% male) who underwent a routine medical checkup. The Adult Treatment Panel III (2001) definition for metabolic syndrome was used. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 11.6% (95% CI 11.5-11.7) in male subjects and 4.1% (4.0-4.2) in female subjects and increased with age. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varied in the different categories of occupational activity depending on the sex considered. Among female subjects, the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in blue-collar than in white-collar workers, but this difference was not evident among male workers. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varies in the different categories of occupational activity in the Spanish working population. This variation also depends on sex.
Trompeter, Susan E; Bettencourt, Ricki; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth
Limited literature suggests that sexual dysfunction in women covaries with the metabolic syndrome. This study examined the association of sexual function with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in healthy older women. There were 376 postmenopausal, community-dwelling women from the Rancho Bernardo Study (mean baseline age = 73 years) that completed a clinic visit during 1999-2002 and returned the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire mailed in 2002. Thirty-nine percent reported being sexually active; 41.5% met a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. The number of metabolic syndrome components was strongly associated with decreased sexual activity, desire, and low sexual satisfaction. Waist girth, diabetes, and hypertension were associated with decreased sexual activity. Elevated triglycerides were associated with low desire. Among the cardiovascular endpoints, heart attack, coronary artery bypass, and angina were associated with decreased sexual activity, but not with sexual desire or satisfaction. Past diagnosis of heart failure, poor circulation, and stroke were not associated with sexual function. Sexually active women with metabolic syndrome met criteria for sexual dysfunction in desire, arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction domains. The FSFI Total Score did not differ significantly between sexually active and inactive women. Metabolic syndrome was associated with decreased sexual activity, desire, and satisfaction in all women and with sexual dysfunction in most domains in sexually active women. Coronary artery disease was more prevalent in women with low sexual activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Esmailnasab, N; Moradi, G; Delaveri, A
Background Metabolic syndrome is a common nmetabolic ndisorder, which leads to early Cardio Vascular Disease and diabetes type II. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors in Kurdistan, Iran. Method: The data was extracted from provincial section of Iranian national non-communicable surveillance survey conducted in 2005. The study was a population-based survey with multi-stage cluster sampling method. Adult Treatment Panel-III measures were used for assessing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among residents of Kurdistan Province aged 25 to 64 yr. EPI-Info 6 was used to enter the data and the data was analyzed using SPSS 11.5. Results: Totally, 1194 participants were recruited in our survey. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 29.1%. The prevalence was 41.3% among women and 17.1% among men (P= 0.001). As we go higher among age groups, the prevalence increases. Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate the metabolic syndrome in Kurdistan and Kurd ethnicity. The high level of metabolic syndromes prevalence especially among women shows the need and importance of suitable and effective preventive programs. These preventive programs must promote changes in lifestyle, especially with respect to nutrition, physical activities, and control of blood pressure. PMID:23113214
Sánchez-Chaparro, Miguel-Angel; Calvo-Bonacho, Eva; González-Quintela, Arturo; Fernández-Labandera, Carlos; Cabrera, Martha; Sáinz, Juan-Carlos; Fernández-Meseguer, Ana; Banegas, José R.; Ruilope, Luis-Miguel; Valdivielso, Pedro; Román-García, Javier
OBJECTIVE—To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Spanish working population and determine how the prevalence varies according to occupation and sex. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This was a cross-sectional study of 259,014 workers (mean age 36.4 years, range [16–74]; 72.9% male) who underwent a routine medical checkup. The Adult Treatment Panel III (2001) definition for metabolic syndrome was used. RESULTS—The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 11.6% (95% CI 11.5–11.7) in male subjects and 4.1% (4.0–4.2) in female subjects and increased with age. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varied in the different categories of occupational activity depending on the sex considered. Among female subjects, the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in blue-collar than in white-collar workers, but this difference was not evident among male workers. CONCLUSIONS—The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varies in the different categories of occupational activity in the Spanish working population. This variation also depends on sex. PMID:18753667
Bil, Enes; Dilbaz, Berna; Cirik, Derya Akdag; Ozelci, Runa; Ozkaya, Enis; Dilbaz, Serdar
It is unknown which phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has a greater metabolic risk and how to detect this risk. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic risk profile (MRP) for different phenotypes. A total of 100 consecutive newly diagnosed PCOS women in a tertiary referral hospital were recruited. Patients were classified into four phenotypes according to the Rotterdam criteria, on the presence of at least two of the three criteria hyperandrogenism (H), oligo/anovulation (O) and PCO appearance (P): phenotype A, H + O + P; phenotype B, H + O; phenotype C, H + P; phenotype D, O + P. Prevalence of MetS and MRP were compared among the four groups. Based on Natural Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III diagnostic criteria, MetS prevalence was higher in phenotypes A and B (29.6% and 34.5%) compared with the other phenotypes (10.0% and 8.3%; P < 0.001). Although the prevalence of obesity was similar, the number of patients with homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) >3.8 was significantly higher in androgenic PCOS phenotypes. After logistic regression analysis, visceral adiposity index (VAI) was the only independent predictor of MetS in PCOS (P = 0.002). VAI was also significantly higher in phenotype B, when compared with the others (P < 0.01). Phenotypes A and B had the highest risk of MetS among the four phenotypes, and VAI may be a predictor of metabolic risk in PCOS women. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Mahbuba, Sharmin; Mohsin, Fauzia; Rahat, Farhana; Nahar, Jebun; Begum, Tahmina; Nahar, Nazmun
The study was done to assess the magnitude of problems of metabolic syndrome among obese adolescents. It was a cross-sectional study done from January 2013 to June 2014 in paediatric endocrine outpatient department in BIRDEM General Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Total 172 adolescents having exogenous obesity aged 10-18 years were included. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) were defined as per WHO criteria.The adolescents having Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥95th centile were classified as obese.Waist circumference was measured at the level midway between the lower rib margin & the iliac crest, at the level of umbilicus with the person breathing out gently in centimeter. Hip circumference was measured at the maximum width over the buttocks at the level of the greater trochanters in centimeter. Among 172 obese adolescents, metabolic syndrome was found in 66 patients (38.4%). The commonest metabolic abnormality among those having metabolic syndrome was low HDL level (77.3%) followed by high triglyceride level(71.2%). Glucose intolerance (IFG and/or IGT) was found in 16.7%, Type 2 DM in 10.6%, systolic hypertension in 10.7% and diastolic hypertension in 12.1%. Triglyceride (p = 0.042) and Cholesterol level (p = 0.016) were significantly higher and HDL-cholesterol level (p = 0.000) was significantly lower among obese adolescents having metabolic syndrome. Less physical activity (p = 0.04) was significantly related to the development of metabolic syndrome. On logistic regression analysis male sex, family history of obesity and low HDL-cholesterol correlated to metabolic syndrome. The High rate of metabolic syndrome among obese adolescents is alarming. Copyright © 2018 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Watanabe, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Naohito; Watanabe, Toru; Darbar, Dawood; Roden, Dan M.; Sasaki, Shigeru; Aizawa, Yoshifusa
Background The metabolic syndrome consists of a cluster of atherosclerotic risk factors, many of which also have been implicated in the genesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the precise role of the metabolic syndrome in the development of AF is unknown. Methods and Results This prospective, community-based, observational cohort study was based on an annual health check-up program in Japan. We studied 28 449 participants without baseline AF. We used 2 different criteria for the metabolic syndrome—the guidelines of the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III) and those of the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI)—to study the risk of development of new-onset AF. The metabolic syndrome was present in 3716 subjects (13%) and 4544 subjects (16%) using the NCEP-ATP III and AHA/NHLBI definitions, respectively. During a mean follow-up of 4.5 years, AF developed in 265 subjects (105 women). Among the metabolic syndrome components, obesity (age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.64), elevated blood pressure (HR, 1.69), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HR, 1.52), and impaired insulin tolerance (HR, 1.44 [NCEP-ATP III] and 1.35 [AHA/NHLBI]) showed an increased risk for AF. The association between the metabolic syndrome and AF remained significant in subjects without treated hypertension or diabetes by the NCEP-ATP III definition (HR, 1.78) but not by the AHA/NHLBI definition (HR, 1.28). Conclusions The metabolic syndrome was associated with increased risk of AF. The metabolic derangements of the syndrome may be important in the pathogenesis of AF. PMID:18285562
Ataş, Hatice; Gönül, Müzeyyen
Background: Inflammatory and immune processes can be triggered in vitiligo due to a decreased number of melanocytes and their anti-inflammatory effects. Because of the systemic nature of vitiligo, metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance and lipid profile disturbances as well as skin involvement may be observed in vitiligo. Aims: To investigate the association between metabolic syndrome and vitiligo. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: The demographic, clinical and laboratory features in the subjects were compared according to presence of vitiligo and metabolic syndrome [patients (n=63) vs. gender-age matched controls (n=65) and metabolic syndrome positive (n=38) vs. negative (n=90)]. A logistic regression analysis was also used. Results: We identified metabolic syndrome in 24 (38.1%) subjects with vitiligo and 14 (21.5%) subjects without vitiligo (p=0.04). Active vitiligo, segmental vitiligo, an increased duration of vitiligo and an increased percentage in the affected body surface area were determined to be independent predictors of metabolic syndrome [activity of vitiligo: p=0.012, OR (95% CI)=64.4 (2.5-1672); type of vitiligo: p=0.007, OR (95% CI)=215.1 (4.3-10725.8); duration of vitiligo: p=0.03, OR (95% CI)=1.4 (1.1-2.0); percentage of affected body surface area: p=0.07, OR (95% CI)=1.2 (0.98-1.5)]. Conclusion: The risk of developing metabolic syndrome is increased in patients with vitiligo. The poor clinical features of vitiligo, such as active, extended and segmental vitiligo with an increased duration of time, are independent predictors for developing metabolic syndrome. PMID:28443562
Ataş, Hatice; Gönül, Müzeyyen
Inflammatory and immune processes can be triggered in vitiligo due to a decreased number of melanocytes and their anti-inflammatory effects. Because of the systemic nature of vitiligo, metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance and lipid profile disturbances as well as skin involvement may be observed in vitiligo. To investigate the association between metabolic syndrome and vitiligo. Case-control study. The demographic, clinical and laboratory features in the subjects were compared according to presence of vitiligo and metabolic syndrome [patients (n=63) vs. gender-age matched controls (n=65) and metabolic syndrome positive (n=38) vs. negative (n=90)]. A logistic regression analysis was also used. We identified metabolic syndrome in 24 (38.1%) subjects with vitiligo and 14 (21.5%) subjects without vitiligo (p=0.04). Active vitiligo, segmental vitiligo, an increased duration of vitiligo and an increased percentage in the affected body surface area were determined to be independent predictors of metabolic syndrome [activity of vitiligo: p=0.012, OR (95% CI)=64.4 (2.5-1672); type of vitiligo: p=0.007, OR (95% CI)=215.1 (4.3-10725.8); duration of vitiligo: p=0.03, OR (95% CI)=1.4 (1.1-2.0); percentage of affected body surface area: p=0.07, OR (95% CI)=1.2 (0.98-1.5)]. The risk of developing metabolic syndrome is increased in patients with vitiligo. The poor clinical features of vitiligo, such as active, extended and segmental vitiligo with an increased duration of time, are independent predictors for developing metabolic syndrome.
Dubé, L; Daenen, S; Kouatchet, A; Soltner, C; Alquier, P
Metabolic alkalosis is frequently observed in critically ill patients. Etiologies are numerous but endocrinal causes are rare. We report a case of a patient with severe respiratory insufficiency, metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia. The evolution was fatal. Further explorations revealed an ectopic Adrenocorticotropine Hormone syndrome. The initial tumor was probably a small cell lung carcinoma.
González-Molero, Inmaculada; Rojo, Gemma; Morcillo, Sonsoles; Pérez-Valero, Vidal; Rubio-Martín, Eleazara; Gutierrez-Repiso, Carolina; Soriguer, Federico
Vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome are 2 very common health problems in the Spanish population. It has been suggested that patients with metabolic syndrome may be vitamin D deficient more often than subjects without it and that low vitamin D levels may predispose to metabolic syndrome development. However, the results of prospective and intervention studies have been different and such relationship remains unclear. We assessed the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the prevalence and incidence of metabolic syndrome. We undertook a population-based cohort study in Spain. At baseline (1996-1998), 1,226 subjects were evaluated. Follow-up visits were performed in 2002-2004 and 2005-2007.At baseline and follow-up, participants underwent an interview and a standardized clinical examination with an oral glucose tolerance test in those subjects without known diabetes. At the second visit, 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and intact parathyroid hormone levels were measured. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome at the second and third visit was 29.4 and 42.5%, respectively. Mean levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were lower in subjects with metabolic syndrome: 21.7 (6.21) vs 23.35 (6.29) ng/ml, P<.001.The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D<20 ng/ml) at the second evaluation was 34.7%, with significant differences between subjects with and without metabolic syndrome(34.6 vs 26.5%, P<.01). Men with vitamin D deficiency had more frequently hypertension and metabolic syndrome than men with normal levels. Women with vitamin D deficiency had more frequently hyperglycemia, hypertension, increased waist circumference and hypertriglyceridemia. In a prospective study, 25-hydroxyvitamin D values<20 ng/ml were not significantly associated with an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome in the next 5 years (odds ratio 0,99, 95% confidence interval 0.57-1.7, P=.97) after adjusting by sex and age. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an
Chakraborty, Sasthi Narayan; Roy, Sunetra Kaviraj; Rahaman, Md Abdur
Metabolic syndrome is one of the emerging health problems of the world. Its prevalence is high in urban areas. Though pathogenesis is complex, but the interaction of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, dietary, and genetic factors are known as contributing factors. Community-based studies were very few to find out the prevalence or predictors of the syndrome. To ascertain the prevalence and epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome. A total of 690 study subjects were chosen by 30 clusters random sampling method from 43 wards of Durgapur city. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 20 software and binary logistic regression was done to find out statistical significance of the predictors. Among 32.75% of the study population was diagnosed as metabolic syndrome according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition with a modification for Asia Pacific cut-off of waist circumference. Odds were more among females (2.43), upper social class (14.89), sedentary lifestyle (17.00), and positive family history. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was high in urban areas of Durgapur. Increased age, female gender, higher social status, sedentary lifestyle, positive family history, and higher education were the statistically significant predictors of metabolic syndrome.
Rask-Madsen, Christian; Kahn, C. Ronald
Summary Impaired insulin signaling is central to the development of the metabolic syndrome and can promote cardiovascular disease indirectly through development of abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism, hypertension and a proinflammatory state. However, insulin action directly on vascular endothelium, atherosclerotic plaque macrophages, and in the heart, kidney, and retina has now been described, and impaired insulin signaling in these locations can alter progression of cardiovascular disease in the metabolic syndrome and affect development of microvascular complications of diabetes. Recent advances in our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of insulin’s effects on vascular tissues offer new opportunities for preventing these cardiovascular disorders. PMID:22895666
de Leeuw, Christiaan; Goudriaan, Andrea; Smit, August B; Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Verheijen, Mark H G; Posthuma, Danielle
Tourette syndrome is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder whose pathophysiology remains unknown. Recent genome-wide association studies suggest that it is a polygenic disorder influenced by many genes of small effect. We tested whether these genes cluster in cellular function by applying gene-set analysis using expert curated sets of brain-expressed genes in the current largest available Tourette syndrome genome-wide association data set, involving 1285 cases and 4964 controls. The gene sets included specific synaptic, astrocytic, oligodendrocyte and microglial functions. We report association of Tourette syndrome with a set of genes involved in astrocyte function, specifically in astrocyte carbohydrate metabolism. This association is driven primarily by a subset of 33 genes involved in glycolysis and glutamate metabolism through which astrocytes support synaptic function. Our results indicate for the first time that the process of astrocyte-neuron metabolic coupling may be an important contributor to Tourette syndrome pathogenesis.
de Leeuw, Christiaan; Goudriaan, Andrea; Smit, August B; Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Scharf, J M; Pauls, D L; Yu, D; Illmann, C; Osiecki, L; Neale, B M; Mathews, C A; Reus, V I; Lowe, T L; Freimer, N B; Cox, N J; Davis, L K; Rouleau, G A; Chouinard, S; Dion, Y; Girard, S; Cath, D C; Posthuma, D; Smit, J H; Heutink, P; King, R A; Fernandez, T; Leckman, J F; Sandor, P; Barr, C L; McMahon, W; Lyon, G; Leppert, M; Morgan, J; Weiss, R; Grados, M A; Singer, H; Jankovic, J; Tischfield, J A; Heiman, G A; Verheijen, Mark H G; Posthuma, Danielle
Tourette syndrome is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder whose pathophysiology remains unknown. Recent genome-wide association studies suggest that it is a polygenic disorder influenced by many genes of small effect. We tested whether these genes cluster in cellular function by applying gene-set analysis using expert curated sets of brain-expressed genes in the current largest available Tourette syndrome genome-wide association data set, involving 1285 cases and 4964 controls. The gene sets included specific synaptic, astrocytic, oligodendrocyte and microglial functions. We report association of Tourette syndrome with a set of genes involved in astrocyte function, specifically in astrocyte carbohydrate metabolism. This association is driven primarily by a subset of 33 genes involved in glycolysis and glutamate metabolism through which astrocytes support synaptic function. Our results indicate for the first time that the process of astrocyte-neuron metabolic coupling may be an important contributor to Tourette syndrome pathogenesis. PMID:25735483
Ortiz-Rodríguez, María Araceli; Yáñez-Velasco, Lucía; Carnevale, Alessandra; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Bernal, Demetrio; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Rojas, Rosalba; Villa, Antonio; Tur, Josep A
One of the most prevalent chronic diseases among elderly population is the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MetS and associated factors among Mexican elderly people. Cross-sectional survey carried out in Mexico (2007). A random sample (n=516) of the elderly population (≥65years; 277 female, 239 male) was interviewed. Anthropometric and analytical measurements, and a general questionnaire incorporating questions related to socio-demographic and life-style factors were used. MetS definition AHA/NHLBI/IDF was applied. The prevalence of MetS in the elderly (≥65years) was of 72.9% (75.7% men; 70.4% women). Participants with values above MetS cut-off points were 92.4% (hypertension), 77.8% (hypertriglyceridemia), 77.1% (low HDL-cholesterol), 71.1% (hyperglycaemia), and 65.4% (central obesity). People with MetS showed higher values of anthropometric and biochemical variables than those without MetS, except for the height, cholesterol and creatinine. Mid-high education level (9-12 years), no smokers and former smokers, and Central-Western inhabitants of Mexico were associated with MetS components. BMI status was the main determinant of MetS prevalence and MetS components. The reported prevalence of MetS among the elderly Mexican population was higher than those previously obtained in the geographical area, showing a major public health problem in Mexican elders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gardner, Andrew W.; Parker, Donald E.; Krishnan, Sowmya; Chalmers, Laura J.
Objective To compare arterial elasticity in children, adolescents, and young adults with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS), and to assess which MetS components, demographic measures, and body composition measures are associated with arterial elasticity. Materials/Methods Two-hundred six subjects (107 females and 99 males) between the ages of 10 and 20 years were recruited by local newspaper advertisements, university email advertisements, and informational flyers. Subjects were assessed on MetS components, demographic measures, body composition measures, and arterial elasticity via radial tonometry. Forty-five subjects (22%) had MetS, as defined by the International Diabetes Federation, and 161 subjects (78%) did not. Results The primary novel finding was that group differences were not observed for large artery elasticity index (LAEI) (MetS = 16.1±4.4 (ml × mmHg−1) × 10 (mean±SD), control = 15.4±4.9, (ml × mmHg−1) × 10, p=0.349), and small artery elasticity index (SAEI) (MetS = 9.2±2.7 (ml × mmHg−1) × 100, control = 8.4±2.9, (ml × mmHg−1) × 100, p=0.063). In the MetS group, fat free mass was positively associated with arterial elasticity, and was the strongest multivariate predictor of LAEI (partial R2=0.41) and SAEI (partial R2=0.41). Conclusions Youth with MetS did not exhibit differences in LAEI and SAEI compared to controls. Furthermore, fat free mass of youth with MetS was positively associated with arterial elasticity, and was the strongest predictor of both LAEI and SAEI. The clinical implication is that exercise intervention designed to increase fat free mass might increase arterial elasticity in youth, particularly in youth with MetS. PMID:23142161
Lean, Mike EJ
The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by a special constellation of reversible major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The main, diagnostic, components are reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose, all of which are related to weight gain, specifically intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation and a large waist circumference. Using internationally adopted arbitrary cut-off values for waist circumference, having metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease, but offers an effective treatment approach through weight management. Metabolic syndrome now affects 30–40% of people by age 65, driven mainly by adult weight gain, and by a genetic or epigenetic predisposition to intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation related to poor intra-uterine growth. Metabolic syndrome is also promoted by a lack of subcutaneous adipose tissue, low skeletal muscle mass and anti-retroviral drugs. Reducing weight by 5–10%, by diet and exercise, with or without, anti-obesity drugs, substantially lowers all metabolic syndrome components, and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Other cardiovascular disease risk factors such as smoking should be corrected as a priority. Anti-diabetic agents which improve insulin resistance and reduce blood pressure, lipids and weight should be preferred for diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. Bariatric surgery offers an alternative treatment for those with BMI ≥ 40 or 35–40 kg/m2 with other significant co-morbidity. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease is expected to rise along with the global obesity epidemic: greater emphasis should be given to effective early weight-management to reduce risk in pre-symptomatic individuals with large waists. PMID:26998259
Han, Thang S; Lean, Mike Ej
The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by a special constellation of reversible major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The main, diagnostic, components are reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose, all of which are related to weight gain, specifically intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation and a large waist circumference. Using internationally adopted arbitrary cut-off values for waist circumference, having metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease, but offers an effective treatment approach through weight management. Metabolic syndrome now affects 30-40% of people by age 65, driven mainly by adult weight gain, and by a genetic or epigenetic predisposition to intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation related to poor intra-uterine growth. Metabolic syndrome is also promoted by a lack of subcutaneous adipose tissue, low skeletal muscle mass and anti-retroviral drugs. Reducing weight by 5-10%, by diet and exercise, with or without, anti-obesity drugs, substantially lowers all metabolic syndrome components, and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Other cardiovascular disease risk factors such as smoking should be corrected as a priority. Anti-diabetic agents which improve insulin resistance and reduce blood pressure, lipids and weight should be preferred for diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. Bariatric surgery offers an alternative treatment for those with BMI ≥ 40 or 35-40 kg/m(2) with other significant co-morbidity. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease is expected to rise along with the global obesity epidemic: greater emphasis should be given to effective early weight-management to reduce risk in pre-symptomatic individuals with large waists.
Gobato, Amanda Oliva; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Barros, Antonio de Azevedo; Hessel, Gabriel
Objective: To verify the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents and its relationship with different body composition indicators. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 79 adolescents aged ten to 18 years old. The assessed body composition indicators were: body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, abdominal circumference, and subcutaneous fat. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Cook et al. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index for values above 3.16. The analysis of ROC curves was used to assess the BMI and the abdominal circumference, aiming to identify the subjects with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The cutoff point corresponded to the percentage above the reference value used to diagnose obesity. Results: The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 45.5% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29.1%. Insulin resistance showed association with HDL-cholesterol (p=0.032) and with metabolic syndrome (p=0.006). All body composition indicators were correlated with insulin resistance (p<0.01). In relation to the cutoff point evaluation, the values of 23.5 and 36.3% above the BMI reference point allowed the identification of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The best cutoff point for abdominal circumference to identify insulin resistance was 40%. Conclusions: All body composition indicators, HDL-cholesterol and metabolic syndrome showed correlation with insulin resistance. The BMI was the most effective anthropometric indicator to identify insulin resistance. PMID:24676191
Jaber, Linda A; Brown, Morton B; Hammad, Adnan; Zhu, Qian; Herman, William H
To estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Arab Americans by age, sex, and BMI and to examine the association between insulin resistance and each of the components of the metabolic syndrome. We studied a representative, cross-sectional, population-based sample of 542 Arab Americans aged 20-75 years. The metabolic syndrome was defined by Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) and World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria. Insulin resistance was estimated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). The age-adjusted prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 23% (95% CI 19-26%) by the ATP III definition and 28% (24-32%) by the WHO definition. Although the prevalence increased significantly with age and BMI in both sexes by both definitions, differences in estimates were noted. With ATP III, the age-specific rates were similar for men and women aged 20-49 years but were significantly higher for women aged >/=50 years. With WHO, rates were higher for men than women aged 20-49 years and similar for those aged >/=50 years. The most common component of the metabolic syndrome in men and women was low HDL cholesterol with the ATP III and the presence of glucose intolerance and HOMA-IR with the WHO. Strong associations between HOMA-IR and individual components of the metabolic syndrome were observed. After fitting a model with HOMA-IR as the outcome, waist circumference, triglyceride level, and fasting plasma glucose level were significantly associated with HOMA-IR. The metabolic syndrome is common among Arab Americans and is related to modifiable risk factors.
Paul, Abi Albon; Dkhar, Steven Aibor; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Thabah, Molly Mary; George, Melvin; Chandrasekaran, Indumathi; Gunaseelan, Vikneswaran; Selvarajan, Sandhiya
Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors with increased predilection towards occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. Currently physical exercise and management with metformin are the prevailing treatment modalities for metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome have been found to have reduced exercise capacity over a period of time. Likewise metformin has been shown to decrease exercise capacity among healthy volunteers. Hence this study aims to evaluate the effect of metformin on the exercise capacity of patients with metabolic syndrome. Prospective study with 6 weeks follow up. Newly diagnosed patients with metabolic syndrome and to be started on Table Metformin 500mg twice a day were recruited for the study after obtaining written informed consent. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (CPET) was done at baseline before the subjects were started on metformin and after 6 weeks of treatment using cardiopulmonary exercise testing apparatus (ZAN600). Fifteen treatment naïve patients with metabolic syndrome completed six weeks of therapy with metformin. In these patients oxygen uptake [VO2] showed statistically significant decrease from 1.10±0.44 at baseline to 0.9±0.39 (l/min) after six weeks of treatment with metformin [mean difference of -0.20 (-0.31 to -0.09); P=0.001]. Similarly oxygen uptake/kg body weight [VO2/Kg] showed a significant decrease from 14.10±4.73 to 11.44±3.81 (mlkg -1 min -1 ) at the end of six weeks of treatment [mean difference of -2.66 (-4.06 to -1.26); P=0.001]. Six weeks of treatment with metformin significantly decreases exercise capacity in newly diagnosed patients with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rudomanova, Valeria; Blaxall, Burns C
The pathologic crosstalk between the heart and kidney is known as cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). While the specific mechanisms underlying this crosstalk remain poorly understood, CRS is associated with exacerbated dysfunction of either or both organs and reduced survival. Maladaptive fibrotic remodeling is a key component of both heart and kidney failure pathogenesis and progression. G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling is a crucial regulator of cardiovascular and renal function. Chronic/pathologic GPCR signaling elicits the interaction of the G-protein Gβγ subunit with GPCR kinase 2 (GRK2), targeting the receptor for internalization, scaffolding to pathologic signals, and receptor degradation. Targeting this pathologic Gβγ-GRK2 interaction has been suggested as a possible strategy for the treatment of HF. In the current review, we discuss recent updates in understanding the role of GPCR-Gβγ-GRK2 signaling as a crucial mediator of maladaptive organ remodeling detected in HF and kidney dysfunction, with specific attention to small molecule-mediated inhibition of pathologic Gβγ-GRK2 interactions. Further, we explore the potential of GPCR-Gβγ-GRK2 signaling as a possible therapeutic target for cardiorenal pathologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Edwards, M J
THE BARKER HYPOTHESIS: Is an excellent explanation of the process where human and animal foetuses exposed to malnutrition, either by maternal malnutrition or placental insufficiency, are metabolically programmed, with selective stunting of cell differentiation and organ growth. With the postnatal excess of nutrition observed in developed countries, this irreversible programming causes metabolic syndrome, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. Metabolic programming involves epigenetic changes including imprinting which might be transmitted through more than one generation rather than being completely re-set or erased during reproduction. The Barker hypothesis was supported by epidemiological data that recognised no excess fetal or postnatal mortality when pregnant women were starved during the Dutch famine in World War II. This argued against the "thrifty genotype" theory introduced in 1962, which proposed that starvation selected against members of the population with less "thrifty" genes, but the survivors who had "thrifty" genes developed metabolic syndrome if they were subsequently over-nourished. EMBRYONIC/FETAL SELECTION: Embryos or early foetuses could be selected very early in pregnancy on the basis of their genotype, by maternal malnutrition, hypertension, obesity or other causes of placental insufficiency. The genotype that allows embryos, or cells within them, to survive a less hospitable environment in the decidua after implantation might contribute to the later development of metabolic syndrome. This article hypothesises that an adverse intrauterine environment, caused by maternal malnutrition or placental insufficiency, kills a proportion of embryos and selects a surviving population of early embryos whose growth in utero is retarded by their genotype, their environment or a combination of both. The metabolic syndrome follows if the offspring is over-nourished later in life. The embryonic selection hypothesis presented here could be
Pergher, Rafael Nardini Queiroz; Melo, Maria Edna de; Halpern, Alfredo; Mancini, Marcio Corrêa
To present the components of the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents and to discuss how they are assessed in the pediatric population in addition to presenting the major metabolic syndrome classifications for the age group. A review of literature published from 1986 to 2008 and found on MEDLINE databases. The prevalence of childhood obesity has been increasing globally over recent decades and as a result its complications, such as diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia, have also increased. The concept of metabolic syndrome, already common with adults, is now beginning to be applied to children through classifications using the criteria for adults modified for the younger age group. Notwithstanding, these classifications differ in terms of the cutoff points used and whether they employ body mass index or waist circumference to define obesity. The review presents these classifications, highlighting the points on which they differ and the debate about them. If childhood obesity goes untreated, it will have severe consequences in the future. A number of models for classifying metabolic syndrome in children have been published, but there is considerable diversions between them. The criteria for classifying metabolic syndrome in children therefore need to be standardized in order to identify those people at greatest risk of future complications.
Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo C; Yamamoto-Kimura, Liria; Medina-Urrutia, Aida; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Caracas-Portilla, Nacú A; Posadas-Romero, Carlos
aim: To know the metabolic syndrome and its components prevalence in Mexico City adolescents sample. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 772 men and 1078 women, 12 to 16 years old, from 8 randomly selected public junior high schools in Mexico City. Anthropometric variables, lipids, lipoproteins, Apo AI and B, glucose and insulin were determined. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 12.5%, 11.15% in men and 13.5% en women (p ns). The most frequently metabolic syndrome component found in México City adolescents was low HDL-C levels (38%), followed by hypertriglyceridemia (25.5%), hypertension (19.2%), central obesity (11.8%) and elevated fasting glucose (1.7). Except by the hypertriglyceridemia, higher in woman than in men, 28.2% vs. 21.6%, p < 0.001, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome components was similar between males and females. The high prevalence of biochemical and physiological factors of metabolic syndrome, associated with overweight and obesity in Mexico City adolescents, increases the risk of premature development of coronary atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus in this population.
Baspinar, B; Eskici, G; Ozcelik, A O
Metabolic syndrome, with its increasing prevalence, is becoming a major public health problem throughout the world. Many risk factors including nutrition play a role in the emergence of metabolic syndrome. Of the most-consumed beverages in the world, coffee contains more than 1000 components such as caffeine, chlorogenic acid, diterpenes and trigonelline. It has been proven in many studies that coffee consumption has a positive effect on chronic diseases. In this review, starting from the beneficial effects of coffee on health, the relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome and its components has been investigated. There are few studies investigating the relationship between coffee and metabolic syndrome, and the existing ones put forward different findings. The factors leading to the differences are thought to stem from coffee variety, the physiological effects of coffee elements, and the nutritional ingredients (such as milk and sugar) added to coffee. It is reported that consumption of coffee in adults up to three cups a day reduces the risk of Type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.
Vicente-Herrero, María Teófila; López González, Ángel Arturo; Ramírez-Iñiguez de la Torre, María Victoria; Capdevila-García, Luisa; Terradillos-García, María Jesús; Aguilar-Jiménez, Encarna
Prevalence of alcohol consumption is high in the general population and generates specific problems at the workplace. To establish benchmarks between levels of alcohol consumption and cardiovascular risk variables and metabolic syndrome. A cross-sectional study of 7,644 workers of Spanish companies (2,828 females and 4,816 males). Alcohol consumption and its relation to cardiovascular risk was assessed using Framingham calibrated for the Spanish population (REGICOR) and SCORE, and metabolic syndrome was assessed using modified ATPIII and IDF criteria and Castelli and atherogenic index and triglycerides/HDL ratio. A multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression and odds ratios were estimated. Statistically significant differences were seen in the mean values of the different parameters studied in prevalence of metabolic syndrome, for both sexes and with modified ATPIII, IDF and REGICOR and SCORE. The sex, age, alcohol, and smoking variables were associated to cardiovascular risk parameters and metabolic syndrome. Physical exercise and stress are only associated to with some of them. The alcohol consumption affects all cardiovascular risk parameters and metabolic syndrome, being more negative the result in high level drinkers. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Mbata, Osinakachukwu; Abo El-Magd, Nada Fawzy; El-Remessy, Azza Bahram
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most feared ocular manifestation of diabetes. DR is characterized by progressive retinal damage that may eventually result in blindness. Clinically, this blindness is caused by progressive damage to the retinal microvasculature, which leads to ischemia, retinal swelling, and neovascularization. Retinopathy is associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, with DR being the leading cause of new onset blindness in United States adults. Despite this strong association with diabetes, it must be noted that the development of retinopathy lesions is multifactorial and may occur in individuals without an established history of diabetes. Metabolic syndrome is a multifactorial condition of central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, fasting hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance. Although several studies examined the individual components observed in the metabolic syndrome in relation to the development of DR, there is conflicting data as to the association of the metabolic syndrome with the development of retinopathy lesions in non-diabetic subjects. This review will summarize the current literature on the evidence of the metabolic syndrome on retinopathy in subjects with and without an established history of diabetes. This review will also discuss some of the mechanisms through which metabolic syndrome can contribute to the development of retinopathy. PMID:28751954
Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Li, Da; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Cao, Ji-Min
The body's total antioxidant capacity represents a sum of the antioxidant capacity of various tissues/organs. A decrease in the body's antioxidant capacity may induce oxidative stress and subsequent metabolic syndrome, a clustering of risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The skin, the largest organ of the body, is one of the major components of the body's total antioxidant defense system, primarily through its xenobiotic/drug biotransformation system, reactive oxygen species-scavenging system, and sweat glands- and sebaceous glands-mediated excretion system. Notably, unlike other contributors, the skin contribution is variable, depending on lifestyles and ambient temperature or seasonal variations. Emerging evidence suggests that decreased skin's antioxidant and excretory functions (e.g., due to sedentary lifestyles and low ambient temperature) may increase the risk for metabolic syndrome. This review focuses on the relationship between the variability of skin-mediated detoxification and elimination of exogenous and endogenous toxic substances and the development of metabolic syndrome. The potential role of sebum secretion in lipid and cholesterol homeostasis and its impact on metabolic syndrome, and the association between skin disorders (acanthosis nigricans, acne, and burn) and metabolic syndrome are also discussed.
Lewis, John E; Cutrono, Stacy E; Hodgson, Nicole; LeBlanc, William G; Arheart, Kristopher L; Fleming, Lora E; Lee, David J
To explore the association between cardiovascular fitness and metabolic syndrome across occupational groups using a nationally representative sample of the US population. Respondents aged 18 to 49 years from the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were evaluated for cardiovascular fitness and classified with regard to metabolic syndrome. Comparisons were made across 40 occupational categories. For all occupations with and without metabolic syndrome, the estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was 38.8 mL/kg/min (standard error = 0.5) and 41.1 mL/kg/min (standard error = 0.2), respectively. The estimated VO2max was higher for those without metabolic syndrome for most occupational groups, particularly for sales supervisors and proprietors, sales representatives, finance, business, and commodities, and freight, stock, and material movers. Low estimated VO2max among workers with metabolic syndrome can be addressed, in part, by workplace interventions designed to increase fitness. This study identifies priority occupational groups for these interventions.
Gimeno, David; Tabák, Ádám G.; Ferrie, Jane E.; Shipley, Martin J.; De Vogli, Roberto; Elovainio, Marko; Vahtera, Jussi; Marmot, Michael G.; Kivimäki, Mika
Objectives Growing evidence shows that high levels of justice are beneficial for employee health, although biological mechanisms underlying this association are yet to be clarified. We aim to test whether high justice at work protects against metabolic syndrome. Methods A prospective cohort study of 20 civil service departments in London (the Whitehall II study) including 6123 male and female British civil servants aged 35 to 55 years without prevalent CHD at baseline (1985-1990). Perceived justice at work was determined by means of questionnaire on two occasions between 1985 and 1990. Follow-up for metabolic syndrome and its components occurring from 1990 through 2004 was based on clinical assessments on three occasions over more than 18 years. Results Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for age, ethnicity and employment grade showed that men who experienced a high level of justice at work had a lower risk of incident metabolic syndrome than employees with a low level of justice (hazard ratio 0.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.63-0.89). There was little evidence of an association between organizational justice and metabolic syndrome or its components in women (hazard ratio 0.88; 95%CI: 0.67-1.17). Conclusions Our prospective findings provide evidence of an association between high levels of justice at work and the development of metabolic syndrome in men. PMID:19819861
Gimeno, David; Tabák, Adám G; Ferrie, Jane E; Shipley, Martin J; De Vogli, Roberto; Elovainio, Marko; Vahtera, Jussi; Marmot, Michael G; Kivimäki, Mika
Growing evidence shows that high levels of justice are beneficial for employee health, although biological mechanisms underlying this association are yet to be clarified. We aim to test whether high justice at work protects against metabolic syndrome. A prospective cohort study of 20 civil service departments in London (the Whitehall II study) including 6123 male and female British civil servants aged 35-55 years without prevalent coronary heart disease at baseline (1985-1990). Perceived justice at work was determined by means of questionnaire on two occasions between 1985 and 1990. Follow-up for metabolic syndrome and its components occurring from 1990 to 2004 was based on clinical assessments on three occasions over more than 18 years. Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for age, ethnicity and employment grade showed that men who experienced a high level of justice at work had a lower risk of incident metabolic syndrome than employees with a low level of justice (HR 0.75; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.89). There was little evidence of an association between organisational justice and metabolic syndrome or its components in women (HR 0.88; 95% CI 0.67 to 1.17). Our prospective findings provide evidence of an association between high levels of justice at work and the development of metabolic syndrome in men.
Płaczkowska, Sylwia; Pawlik-Sobecka, Lilla; Kokot, Izabela; Piwowar, Agnieszka
Civilization changes over the past decades have been associated with an increase in the incidence of various metabolic disorders, especially in the carbohydrate-lipid metabolism, which are not always associated with obesity. Metabolic syndrome, despite changing criteria of recognition, is a clinically established risk factor for civilization diseases development. On the other side, the incidence of complex metabolic disorders in non-obese people is increasing, which is referred to in the literature as metabolic obesity with normal body mass. Both, excess visceral fatty tissue and insulin resistance are common components in the diagnosis of these syndromes and their occurrence is associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some researchers also point out the possibility of occurrence of so-called metabolically healthy obesity. Identify people with such a constellation of disorders is still difficult in clinical practice because of different and changing diagnostic criteria. Data from the literature about epidemiology of these disorders are inconclusive and do not allow for a reliable assessment of such disorders prevalence in population. The increasing rate of the metabolic syndrome and metabolic obesity with normal body weight occurrence in the general population pays attention to the importance of this problem, especially in primary health care. Preventive programs are primarily aimed at older people with high risk of cardiovascular diseases development and focused on detecting metabolic syndrome traits. Nevertheless, very often, young, potentially healthy individuals, are not subject to screening programs, even though incidence of metabolic obesity with normal body weight in this population is very high nowadays.
Rodilla, E; Costa, J A; Mares, S; Miralles, A; González, C; Sánchez, C; Pascual, J M
C-reactive protein (CRP) is considered a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. The aim of the study was to assess whether the metabolic syndrome (MS) and parameters involved in its diagnosis might influence serum CRP values. Cross-sectional study in outpatients of a HTA and Vascular Risk clinic. MS was diagnosed according to National Cholesterol Educational Program ATP-III guidelines, and hs-CRP was analyzed by nephelometry. A total of 1,969 patients (47% male) were evaluated and distributed into four groups: 1) 1,220 non-diabetics without MS; 2) 384 non-diabetics with MS; 3) 153 diabetics without MS, and 4) 212 diabetics with MS. Patients with MS had higher CRP in both non-diabetic 3.0 (1.7-4.4) mg/l vs. 1.7 (0.9-3.4) mg/l; p=0.001 (MW), and diabetic patients: 2.8 (1.5-4.6) mg/l vs. 2.2 (0.9-4.3) mg/l; p=0.01 (MW). Diabetic patients without MS had CRP values not different to non-diabetic without MS. CRP values increased in relation to the number of parameters included in the MS from 1.7 (2.2) mg/l, in patients without any parameters, to 4.2 (2.8) mg/l in patients who fulfilled five parameters (p=0.001) (KW). In multiple regression analysis abdominal obesity (p=0.001), TG (p=0.001) and glucose (p=0.02) were associated with CRP levels after correcting for other factors. Abdominal obesity (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.5-2.4; p=0.001) and TG (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1 -1.7; p=0.003), but not glucose were independent factors related to the presence of high levels of CRP (>3 mg/l) in a logistic regression analysis. Diabetic and non-diabetic patients with MS have high CRP levels. Of the five components of MS, the most closely related to CRP is abdominal obesity.
Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Schaan, Beatriz; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; de Vasconcellos, Maurício T L
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated 37,504 adolescents who were participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, school-based, national study. The adolescents, aged from 12 to 17 years, lived in cities with populations greater than 100,000 inhabitants. The sample was stratified and clustered into schools and classes. The criteria set out by the International Diabetes Federation were used to define metabolic syndrome. Prevalences of metabolic syndrome were estimated according to sex, age group, school type and nutritional status. RESULTS Of the 37,504 adolescents who were evaluated: 50.2% were female; 54.3% were aged from 15 to 17 years, and 73.3% were from public schools. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6% (95%CI 2.3-2.9), slightly higher in males and in those aged from 15 to 17 years in most macro-regions. The prevalence was the highest in residents from the South macro-region, in the younger female adolescents and in the older male adolescents. The prevalence was higher in public schools (2.8% [95%CI 2.4-3.2]), when compared with private schools (1.9% [95%CI 1.4-2.4]) and higher in obese adolescents when compared with nonobese ones. The most common combinations of components, referring to 3/4 of combinations, were: enlarged waist circumference (WC), low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) and high blood pressure; followed by enlarged WC, low HDL-c and high triglycerides; and enlarged WC, low HDL-c, high triglycerides and blood pressure. Low HDL was the second most frequent component, but the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (26.8%) was observed in the presence of high triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS ERICA is the first Brazilian nation-wide study to present the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and describe the role of its components. Despite the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome being low, the high prevalences of some
Carroll, Sean; Dudfield, Mike
Prevention of the metabolic syndrome and treatment of its main characteristics are now considered of utmost importance in order to combat the epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus and to reduce the increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Insulin resistance/hyperinsulinaemia are consistently linked with a clustering of multiple clinical and subclinical metabolic risk factors. It is now widely recognised that obesity (especially abdominal fat accumulation), hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and hypertension are common metabolic traits that, concurrently, constitute the distinctive insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome. Cross-sectional and prospective data provide an emerging picture of associations of both physical activity habits and cardiorespiratory fitness with the metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome, is a disorder that requires aggressive multi-factorial intervention. Recent treatment guidelines have emphasised the clinical utility of diagnosis and an important treatment role for 'therapeutic lifestyle change', incorporating moderate physical activity. Several previous narrative reviews have considered exercise training as an effective treatment for insulin resistance and other components of the syndrome. However, the evidence cited has been less consistent for exercise training effects on several metabolic syndrome variables, unless combined with appropriate dietary modifications to achieve weight loss. Recently published randomised controlled trial data concerning the effects of exercise training on separate metabolic syndrome traits are evaluated within this review. Novel systematic review and meta-analysis evidence is presented indicating that supervised, long-term, moderate to moderately vigorous intensity exercise training, in the absence of therapeutic weight loss, improves the dyslipidaemic profile by raising high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lowering triglycerides in overweight and obese adults with characteristics
Gibson, Todd M; Ehrhardt, Matthew J; Ness, Kirsten K
Treatment-related obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Both conditions often begin during therapy. Preventive measures, including dietary counseling and tailored exercise, should be initiated early in the course of survivorship, with referral to specialists to optimize success. However, among adults who develop obesity or the metabolic syndrome and who do not respond to lifestyle therapy, medical intervention may be indicated to manage underlying pathology, such as growth hormone deficiency, or to mitigate risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Because no specific clinical trials have been done in this population to treat metabolic syndrome or its components, clinicians who follow adult survivors of childhood ALL should use the existing American Heart Association/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Scientific Statement to guide their approach.
de Groot, P. F.; de Clercq, N. C.; Nieuwdorp, M.
ABSTRACT The history of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) dates back even to ancient China. Recently, scientific studies have been looking into FMT as a promising treatment of various diseases, while in the process teaching us about the interaction between the human host and its resident microbial communities. Current research focuses mainly on Clostridium difficile infections, however interest is rising in other areas such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the metabolic syndrome. With regard to the latter, the intestinal microbiota might be causally related to the progression of insulin resistance and diabetes. FMT in metabolic syndrome has proven to be an intriguing method to study the role of the gut microbiota and open the way to new therapies by dissecting in whom insulin resistance is driven by microbiota. In this article we review the history of FMT, the present evidence on its role in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and its efficacy, limitations and future prospects. PMID:28609252
de Groot, P F; Frissen, M N; de Clercq, N C; Nieuwdorp, M
The history of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) dates back even to ancient China. Recently, scientific studies have been looking into FMT as a promising treatment of various diseases, while in the process teaching us about the interaction between the human host and its resident microbial communities. Current research focuses mainly on Clostridium difficile infections, however interest is rising in other areas such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the metabolic syndrome. With regard to the latter, the intestinal microbiota might be causally related to the progression of insulin resistance and diabetes. FMT in metabolic syndrome has proven to be an intriguing method to study the role of the gut microbiota and open the way to new therapies by dissecting in whom insulin resistance is driven by microbiota. In this article we review the history of FMT, the present evidence on its role in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and its efficacy, limitations and future prospects.
Wang, Bing; Xiao, Tiegang; Ruan, Jun; Liu, Wensheng
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a very common medical problem worldwide. It includes obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and abnormal levels of triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. It is closely associated with insulin resistance and may lead to diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, or cardiovascular diseases. Corn silk (CS), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been reported to have multiple beneficial effects, including hypotensive, anti-diabetic, and hypolipidemic properties. This suggests that corn silk could be used to treat or prevent metabolic syndrome. In this review, we will discuss the potential role of corn silk in different components of metabolic syndrome. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Savinova, Olga V.; Fillaus, Kristi; Jing, Linhong; Harris, William S.; Shearer, Gregory C.
Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the apolipoprotein composition of the three major lipoprotein classes in patients with metabolic syndrome to healthy controls. Methods Very low density (VLDL), intermediate/low density (IDL/LDL, hereafter LDL), and high density lipoproteins (HDL) fractions were isolated from plasma of 56 metabolic syndrome subjects and from 14 age-sex matched healthy volunteers. The apolipoprotein content of fractions was analyzed by one-dimensional (1D) gel electrophoresis with confirmation by a combination of mass spectrometry and biochemical assays. Results Metabolic syndrome patients differed from healthy controls in the following ways: (1) total plasma - apoA1 was lower, whereas apoB, apoC2, apoC3, and apoE were higher; (2) VLDL - apoB, apoC3, and apoE were increased; (3) LDL - apoC3 was increased, (4) HDL -associated constitutive serum amyloid A protein (SAA4) was reduced (p<0.05 vs. controls for all). In patients with metabolic syndrome, the most extensively glycosylated (di-sialylated) isoform of apoC3 was reduced in VLDL, LDL, and HDL fractions by 17%, 30%, and 25%, respectively (p<0.01 vs. controls for all). Similarly, the glycosylated isoform of apoE was reduced in VLDL, LDL, and HDL fractions by 15%, 26%, and 37% (p<0.01 vs. controls for all). Finally, glycosylated isoform of SAA4 in HDL fraction was 42% lower in patients with metabolic syndrome compared with controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Patients with metabolic syndrome displayed several changes in plasma apolipoprotein composition consistent with hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL cholesterol levels. Reduced glycosylation of apoC3, apoE and SAA4 are novel findings, the pathophysiological consequences of which remain to be determined. PMID:25118169
Millán, S; Samaniego-Sánchez, C; Romero, A; Quesada-Granados, J J; López-García de la Serrana, H
The metabolic syndrome (MS) is described as an association of health problems that a given person may simultaneously or successively develop, and it is considered a serious condition because it is related to a significantly increased risk of suffering diabetes, coronary disease and brain damage. Nutrition, along with other factors such as physical activity and genetic inheritance, has an influence on preventing MS. The aim of this research is to demonstrate important aspects concerning the diagnosis, the prevalence, and the prevention of metabolic syndrome among the population of the tropical coast of Granada. 119 individuals from the tropical coast of Granada were studied to collect personal data such as their body mass index, body fat percentage, glycaemia, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and food intake (through nutritional survey). As a result of this research, a metabolic syndrome prevalence of 20,2% was obtained, 58,3% of which was related to women. The results obtained show significant statistical differences between individuals having metabolic syndrome and the control group. Particularly, these differences can be noted in parameters such as the BMI or the % of body fat. Nevertheless, there are no significant differences between the two groups concerning parameters related to nutrition such as % of fat, carbohydrates, proteins and kcal/day. As a conclusion from the research, we can state that the metabolic syndrome prevalence among the population of the tropical coast of Granada is similar to the figure obtained for the population in the US and in other areas of Spain. In addition, this research shows that metabolic syndrome is more frequent among individuals whose BMI and % of body fat is higher than 30. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Kaduka, Lydia U; Kombe, Yeri; Kenya, Eucharia; Kuria, Elizabeth; Bore, John K; Bukania, Zipporah N; Mwangi, Moses
Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiologic transition accompanied by increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) linked to urbanization and lifestyle modifications. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of CVD risk factors whose extent in Kenya remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and factors associated with its occurrence among an urban population in Kenya. This was a household cross-sectional survey comprising 539 adults (aged ≥18 years) living in Nairobi, drawn from 30 clusters across five socioeconomic classes. Measurements included waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAGs), fasting glucose, and blood pressure. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 34.6% and was higher in women than in men (40.2 vs. 29%; P < 0.001). The most frequently observed features were raised blood pressure, a higher waist circumference, and low HDL cholesterol (men: 96.2, 80.8, and 80%; women: 89.8, 97.2, and 96.3%, respectively), whereas raised fasting glucose and TAGs were observed less frequently (men: 26.9 and 63.3%; women: 26.9 and 30.6%, respectively). The main factors associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome were increasing age, socioeconomic status, and education. Metabolic syndrome is prevalent in this urban population, especially among women, but the incidence of individual factors suggests that poor glycemic control is not the major contributor. Longitudinal studies are required to establish true causes of metabolic syndrome in Kenya. The Kenyan government needs to create awareness, develop prevention strategies, and strengthen the health care system to accommodate screening and management of CVDs.
Kaduka, Lydia U.; Kombe, Yeri; Kenya, Eucharia; Kuria, Elizabeth; Bore, John K.; Bukania, Zipporah N.; Mwangi, Moses
OBJECTIVE Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiologic transition accompanied by increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) linked to urbanization and lifestyle modifications. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of CVD risk factors whose extent in Kenya remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and factors associated with its occurrence among an urban population in Kenya. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a household cross-sectional survey comprising 539 adults (aged ≥18 years) living in Nairobi, drawn from 30 clusters across five socioeconomic classes. Measurements included waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAGs), fasting glucose, and blood pressure. RESULTS The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 34.6% and was higher in women than in men (40.2 vs. 29%; P < 0.001). The most frequently observed features were raised blood pressure, a higher waist circumference, and low HDL cholesterol (men: 96.2, 80.8, and 80%; women: 89.8, 97.2, and 96.3%, respectively), whereas raised fasting glucose and TAGs were observed less frequently (men: 26.9 and 63.3%; women: 26.9 and 30.6%, respectively). The main factors associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome were increasing age, socioeconomic status, and education. CONCLUSIONS Metabolic syndrome is prevalent in this urban population, especially among women, but the incidence of individual factors suggests that poor glycemic control is not the major contributor. Longitudinal studies are required to establish true causes of metabolic syndrome in Kenya. The Kenyan government needs to create awareness, develop prevention strategies, and strengthen the health care system to accommodate screening and management of CVDs. PMID:22374643
Paley, Carole A; Johnson, Mark I
Metabolic syndrome is defined as a cluster of at least three out of five clinical risk factors: abdominal (visceral) obesity, hypertension, elevated serum triglycerides, low serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and insulin resistance. It is estimated to affect over 20% of the global adult population. Abdominal (visceral) obesity is thought to be the predominant risk factor for metabolic syndrome and as predictions estimate that 50% of adults will be classified as obese by 2030 it is likely that metabolic syndrome will be a significant problem for health services and a drain on health economies.Evidence shows that regular and consistent exercise reduces abdominal obesity and results in favourable changes in body composition. It has therefore been suggested that exercise is a medicine in its own right and should be prescribed as such. This review provides a summary of the current evidence on the pathophysiology of dysfunctional adipose tissue (adiposopathy). It describes the relationship of adiposopathy to metabolic syndrome and how exercise may mediate these processes, and evaluates current evidence on the clinical efficacy of exercise in the management of abdominal obesity. The review also discusses the type and dose of exercise needed for optimal improvements in health status in relation to the available evidence and considers the difficulty in achieving adherence to exercise programmes. There is moderate evidence supporting the use of programmes of exercise to reverse metabolic syndrome although at present the optimal dose and type of exercise is unknown. The main challenge for health care professionals is how to motivate individuals to participate and adherence to programmes of exercise used prophylactically and as a treatment for metabolic syndrome.
Uyar, Meral; Davutoğlu, Vedat; Aydın, Neriman; Filiz, Ayten
The aim of this study is to compare metabolic syndrome with syndrome Z growing epidemic in terms of risk factors, demographic variables, and gender differences in our large cohort at southeastern area in Turkey. Data of patients admitted to sleep clinic in University of Gaziantep from January 2006 to January 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. ATP III and JNC 7 were used for defining metabolic syndrome and hypertension. Data of 761 patients were evaluated. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, pulmonary hypertension, and left ventricular hypertrophy were more common in patients with syndrome Z than in patients without metabolic syndrome. Age, waist/neck circumferences, BMI, triglyceride, glucose, and Epworth sleepiness scale score were detected higher, whereas the minimum oxygen saturation during sleep was lower in patients with syndrome Z. Metabolic syndrome was more common in sleep apneic subjects than in controls (58 versus 30 %). Female sleep apneics showed higher rate of metabolic syndrome than those of males (74 versus 52 %). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and left ventricular hypertrophy were detected higher in males with syndrome Z than in males without metabolic syndrome. Snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness were detected higher in females with syndrome Z than in females without metabolic syndrome. Systemic/pulmonary hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and left ventricular hypertrophy were more common in females with syndrome Z than in females without metabolic syndrome. Complaints of headache and systemic/pulmonary hypertension were more common among females than males with syndrome Z. Female syndrome Z patients had lower minimum oxygen saturation than male patients with syndrome Z. Metabolic syndrome in sleep apneic patients is more prevalent than in controls. All metabolic syndrome parameters were significantly different among obstructive sleep apneic patients with respect to gender with more severe
Desai, M; Jellyman, J K; Ross, M G
Epigenetic mechanisms are emerging as mediators linking early environmental exposures during pregnancy with programmed changes in gene expression that alter offspring growth and development. There is irrefutable evidence from human and animal studies that nutrient and environmental agent exposures (for example, endocrine disruptors) during pregnancy may affect fetal/newborn development resulting in offspring obesity and obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities (metabolic syndrome). This concept of 'gestational programming' is associated with alterations to the epigenome (nongenomic) rather than changes in the DNA sequence (genomic). Epigenetic alterations induced by suboptimal maternal nutrition/endocrine factors include DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling and/or regulatory feedback by microRNAs, all of which have the ability to modulate gene expression and promote the metabolic syndrome phenotype. Recent studies have shown tissue-specific transcriptome patterns and phenotypes not only in the exposed individual, but also in subsequent progeny. Notably, the transmission of gestational programming effects to subsequent generations occurs in the absence of continued adverse environmental exposures, thus propagating the cycle of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This phenomenon may be attributed to an extrinsic process resulting from the maternal phenotype and the associated nutrient alterations occurring within each pregnancy. In addition, epigenetic inheritance may occur through somatic cells or through the germ line involving both maternal and paternal lineages. Since epigenetic gene modifications may be reversible, understanding how epigenetic mechanisms contribute to transgenerational transmission of obesity and metabolic dysfunction is crucial for the development of novel early detection and prevention strategies for programmed metabolic syndrome. In this review we discuss the evidence in human and animal studies for the role of
Cavallari, Ilaria; Cannon, Christopher P; Braunwald, Eugene; Goodrich, Erica L; Im, KyungAh; Lukas, Mary Ann; O'Donoghue, Michelle L
Background The incremental prognostic value of assessing the metabolic syndrome has been disputed. Little is known regarding its prognostic value in patients after an acute coronary syndrome. Design and methods The presence of metabolic syndrome (2005 International Diabetes Federation) was assessed at baseline in SOLID-TIMI 52, a trial of patients within 30 days of acute coronary syndrome (median follow-up 2.5 years). The primary endpoint was major coronary events (coronary heart disease death, myocardial infarction or urgent coronary revascularization). Results At baseline, 61.6% ( n = 7537) of patients met the definition of metabolic syndrome, 34.7% (n = 4247) had diabetes and 29.3% had both ( n = 3584). The presence of metabolic syndrome was associated with increased risk of major coronary events (adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR) 1.29, p < 0.0001) and recurrent myocardial infarction (adjHR 1.30, p < 0.0001). Of the individual components of the definition, only diabetes (adjHR 1.48, p < 0.0001) or impaired fasting glucose (adjHR 1.21, p = 0.002) and hypertension (adjHR 1.46, p < 0.0001) were associated with the risk of major coronary events. In patients without diabetes, metabolic syndrome was numerically but not significantly associated with the risk of major coronary events (adjHR 1.13, p = 0.06). Conversely, diabetes was a strong independent predictor of major coronary events in the absence of metabolic syndrome (adjHR 1.57, p < 0.0001). The presence of both diabetes and metabolic syndrome identified patients at highest risk of adverse outcomes but the incremental value of metabolic syndrome was not significant relative to diabetes alone (adjHR 1.07, p = 0.54). Conclusions After acute coronary syndrome, diabetes is a strong and independent predictor of adverse outcomes. Assessment of the metabolic syndrome provides only marginal incremental value once the presence or absence of diabetes is established.
Cartwright, Martina M; Hajja, Waddah; Al-Khatib, Sofian; Hazeghazam, Maryam; Sreedhar, Dharmashree; Li, Rebecca Na; Wong-McKinstry, Edna; Carlson, Richard W
Ketoacidotic syndromes are frequently encountered in acute care medicine. This article focuses on ketosis and ketoacidotic syndromes associated with intoxications, alcohol abuse, starvation, and certain dietary supplements as well as inborn errors of metabolism. Although all of these various processes are characterized by the accumulation of ketone bodies and metabolic acidosis, there are differences in the mechanisms, clinical presentations, and principles of therapy for these heterogeneous disorders. Pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for these disorders are presented, as well as guidance regarding identification and management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
James, Benjamin D; Jones, Amy V; Trethewey, Ruth E; Evans, Rachael A
Approximately half of all patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attending pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programmes are overweight or obese which negatively impacts upon dyspnoea and exercise tolerance particularly when walking. Within the obese population (without COPD), the observed heterogeneity in prognosis is in part explained by the variability in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease or diabetes (cardiometabolic risk) leading to the description of metabolic syndrome. In obesity alone, high-intensity aerobic training can support healthy weight loss and improve the constituent components of metabolic syndrome. Those with COPD, obesity and/or metabolic syndrome undergoing PR appear to do as well in traditional outcomes as their normal-weight metabolically healthy peers in terms of improvement of symptoms, health-related quality of life and exercise performance, and should therefore not be excluded. To broaden the benefit of PR, for this complex population, we should learn from the extensive literature examining the effects of exercise in obesity and metabolic syndrome discussed in this review and optimize the exercise strategy to improve these co-morbid conditions. Standard PR outcomes could be expanded to include cardiometabolic risk reduction to lower future morbidity and mortality; to this end exercise may well be the answer.
James, Benjamin D; Jones, Amy V; Trethewey, Ruth E; Evans, Rachael A
Approximately half of all patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attending pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programmes are overweight or obese which negatively impacts upon dyspnoea and exercise tolerance particularly when walking. Within the obese population (without COPD), the observed heterogeneity in prognosis is in part explained by the variability in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease or diabetes (cardiometabolic risk) leading to the description of metabolic syndrome. In obesity alone, high-intensity aerobic training can support healthy weight loss and improve the constituent components of metabolic syndrome. Those with COPD, obesity and/or metabolic syndrome undergoing PR appear to do as well in traditional outcomes as their normal-weight metabolically healthy peers in terms of improvement of symptoms, health-related quality of life and exercise performance, and should therefore not be excluded. To broaden the benefit of PR, for this complex population, we should learn from the extensive literature examining the effects of exercise in obesity and metabolic syndrome discussed in this review and optimize the exercise strategy to improve these co-morbid conditions. Standard PR outcomes could be expanded to include cardiometabolic risk reduction to lower future morbidity and mortality; to this end exercise may well be the answer. PMID:29117797
Song, Byeng Chun; Joo, Nam-Seok; Aldini, Giancarlo; Yeum, Kyung-Jin
The rapid increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, which is associated with a state of elevated systemic oxidative stress and inflammation, is expected to cause future increases in the prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sugars produces reactive carbonyl species, which, due to their electrophilic nature, react with the nucleophilic sites of certain amino acids. This leads to formation of protein adducts such as advanced glycoxidation/lipoxidation end products (AGEs/ALEs), resulting in cellular dysfunction. Therefore, an effective reactive carbonyl species and AGEs/ALEs sequestering agent may be able to prevent such cellular dysfunction. There is accumulating evidence that histidine containing dipeptides such as carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) and anserine (β-alanyl-methyl-L-histidine) detoxify cytotoxic reactive carbonyls by forming unreactive adducts and are able to reverse glycated protein. In this review, 1) reaction mechanism of oxidative stress and certain chronic diseases, 2) interrelation between oxidative stress and inflammation, 3) effective reactive carbonyl species and AGEs/ALEs sequestering actions of histidine-dipeptides and their metabolism, 4) effects of carnosinase encoding gene on the effectiveness of histidine-dipeptides, and 5) protective effects of histidine-dipeptides against progression of metabolic syndrome are discussed. Overall, this review highlights the potential beneficial effects of histidine-dipeptides against metabolic syndrome. Randomized controlled human studies may provide essential information regarding whether histidine-dipeptides attenuate metabolic syndrome in humans.
Păvăleanu, Ioana; Gafiţanu, D; Popovici, Diana; Duceac, Letiţia Doina; Păvăleanu, Maricica
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy characterized by oligo ovulation or anovulation, signs of androgen excess and multiple small ovarian cysts. It includes various metabolic abnormalities: insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, visceral obesity, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, hypertension and dyslipidemia. All these metabolic abnormalities have long-term implications. Treatment should be individualized and must not address a single sign or symptom. Studies are still needed to determine the benefits and the associated risks of the medication now available to practitioners.
Increase in prevalence of obesity has become a worldwide major health problem in adults, as well as among children and adolescents. Furthermore, total adiposity and truncal subcutaneous fat accumulation during adolescence are positively and independently associated with atherosclerosis at adult ages. Centrally accumulation of body fat is associated with insulin resistance, whereas distribution of body fat in a peripheral pattern is metabolically less important. Obesity is associated with a large decrease in life expectancy. The effect of extreme obesity on mortality is greater among younger than older adults. In this respect, obesity is also associated with increased risk of several cancer types. However, up to 30% of obese patients are metabolically healthy with insulin sensitivity similar to healthy normal weight individuals, lower visceral fat content, and lower intima media thickness of the carotid artery than the majority of metabolically "unhealthy" obese patients.Abdominal obesity is the most frequently observed component of metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome; clustering of abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension, is a major public health challenge. The average prevalence of metabolic syndrome is 31%, and is associated with a two-fold increase in the risk of coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and a 1.5-fold increase in the risk of all-cause mortality.
Panchal, Sunil K; Wanyonyi, Stephen; Brown, Lindsay
Trace metals play an important role in the proper functioning of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Some of the trace metals are thus essential for maintaining homeostasis, while deficiency of these trace metals can cause disorders with metabolic and physiological imbalances. This article concentrates on three trace metals (selenium, vanadium, and chromium) that may play crucial roles in controlling blood glucose concentrations possibly through their insulin-mimetic effects. For these trace metals, the level of evidence available for their health effects as supplements is weak. Thus, their potential is not fully exploited for the target of metabolic syndrome, a constellation that increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Given that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing throughout the world, a simpler option of interventions with food supplemented with well-studied trace metals could serve as an answer to this problem. The oxidation state and coordination chemistry play crucial roles in defining the responses to these trace metals, so further research is warranted to understand fully their metabolic and cardiovascular effects in human metabolic syndrome.
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with and without weight loss (WL) on apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome. The diet of 19 men with metabolic syndrome (age, 24–62 years) was first standardized to a North America...
Kaya, Aysem; Uzunhasan, Isil; Baskurt, Murat; Ozkan, Alev; Ataoglu, Esra; Okcun, Baris; Yigit, Zerrin
Metabolic syndrome is associated with cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences of novel oxidative stress parameters and lipid profiles in men and women with metabolic syndrome. The study population included 88 patients with metabolic syndrome, consisting of 48 postmenauposal women (group I) and 40 men (group II). Premenauposal women were excluded. Plasma levels of total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidative status (TOS) were determined by using the Erel automated measurement method, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. To perform the calculation, the resulting unit of TAS, mmol Trolox equivalent/L, was converted to micromol equivalent/L and the OSI value was calculated as: OSI = [(TOS, micromol/L)/(TAS, mmol Trolox equivalent/L) x 100]. The Student t-test, Mann-Whitney-U test, and chi-squared test were used for statistical analysis; the Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman rank test were used for correlation analysis. P < or = 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Both women and men had similar properties regarding demographic characteristics and biochemical work up. Group II had significantly lower levels of antioxidant levels of TAS and lower levels of TOS and OSI compared with group I (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0035, and P = 0,0001). Apolipoprotein A (ApoA) levels were significantly higher in group I compared with group II. Our findings indicate that women with metabolic syndrome have a better antioxidant status and higher ApoA levels compared with men. Our findings suggest the existence of a higher oxidative stress index in men with metabolic syndrome. Considering the higher risk of atherosclerosis associated with men, these novel oxidative stress parameters may be valuable in the evaluation of patients with metabolic sydrome.
Ranasinha, S; Joham, A E; Norman, R J; Shaw, J E; Zoungas, S; Boyle, J; Moran, L; Teede, H J
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 12-21% of women. Women with PCOS exhibit clustering of metabolic features. We applied rigorous statistical methods to further understand the interplay between PCOS and metabolic features including insulin resistance, obesity and androgen status. Retrospective cross-sectional analysis. Women with PCOS attending reproductive endocrine clinics in South Australia for the treatment of PCOS (n = 172). Women without PCOS (controls) in the same Australian region (n = 335) from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab), a national population-based study (age- and BMI-matched within one standard deviation of the PCOS cohort). The factor structure for metabolic syndrome for women with PCOS and control groups was examined, specifically, the contribution of individual factors to metabolic syndrome and the association of hyperandrogenism with other metabolic factors. Women with PCOS demonstrated clustering of metabolic features that was not observed in the control group. Metabolic syndrome in the PCOS cohort was strongly represented by obesity (standardized factor loading = 0·95, P < 0·001) and insulin resistance factors (loading = 0·92, P < 0·001) and moderately by blood pressure (loading = 0·62, P < 0·001) and lipid factors (loading = 0·67, P = 0·002). On further analysis, the insulin resistance factor strongly correlated with the obesity (r = 0·70, P < 0·001) and lipid factors (r = 0·68, P < 0·001) and moderately with the blood pressure factor (loading = 0·43, P = 0·002). The hyperandrogenism factor was moderately correlated with the insulin resistance factor (r = 0·38, P < 0·003), but did not correlate with any other metabolic factors. PCOS women are more likely to display metabolic clustering in comparison with age- and BMI-matched control women. Obesity and insulin resistance, but not androgens, are independently and most strongly associated with metabolic syndrome in PCOS. © 2015 John Wiley
Benavides, Sandra; Kohler, Lisa A.; Souffrant, Garry
Purpose: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the pediatric population is increasing. Barriers, including the lack of consensus of a definition for metabolic syndrome and time constraints for the pediatrician, may limit the identification and diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in children. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the role…
Kardas, Fatih; Akın, Leyla; Kurtoglu, Selim; Kendirci, Mustafa; Kardas, Zehra
To assess the plasma Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) concentrations in obese children and to investigate the relationship between PTX3 levels and metabolic syndrome (MS) components. Seventy-seven obese patients aged 10-16 y (38 girls, 39 boys) were included in the study. PTX3 levels were compared between the groups with or without MS. In addition, PTX3 was analysed separately by subgroups according to the presence of specific MS components. Plasma PTX3 concentrations were significantly higher in obese children and adolescents with metabolic syndrome than in those without MS (2.1 ± 1.2 ng/ml and 1.4 ± 0.9 ng/ml respectively; P = 0.02). Patients with low HDL levels (<40 mg/dl) had higher plasma PTX3 concentrations than those with normal HDL levels (P = 0.05). Similarly, those who had high triglyceride levels (≥ 150 mg/dl) had higher PTX3 levels (P = 0.01). PTX3 levels were negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol (r = -0.32, P = 0.003) among all patients. PTX3 levels are higher in obese children and adolescents with metabolic syndrome than in those without MS. Thus, PTX3 levels might be a useful biomarker for children and adolescents with metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risks.
The presence of smaller low-density lipoproteins (LDL) has been associated with atherosclerosis risk, and the insulin resistance (IR) underlying the metabolic syndrome (MetS). In addition, some research has supported the association of very low-, low- and high-density lipoprotein (VLDL HDL) particle...
Moore, Justin B.; Davis, Catherine L.; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Lewis, Richard D.; Yin, Zenong
Background: Research suggests significant health differences between rural dwelling youth and their urban counterparts with relation to cardiovascular risk factors. This study was conducted to (1) determine relationships between physical activity and markers of metabolic syndrome, and (2) to explore factors relating to physical activity in a…
Repovich, Wendy E. S.; Babcock, Garth J.
The purpose of this study was to determine if body composition and blood pressure (BP), two markers for Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), were correlated in college football players. Height, weight, BMI, systolic (SBP) and Diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and body composition (three measures) were assessed in a Division IAA football team (N = 55). Data…
Fernandes, Jill; Lofgren, Ingrid E.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is present in young adults and because coronary heart disease (CHD) is likely, screening to determine MetS prevalence and its criteria is critical. Objective: To determine MetS prevalence and most prevalent criteria in a sample of first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students between 18 and 24…
Sang, Jae Hong; Ki, Nam Kyun; Cho, Jae Hwan; Ahn, Jae Ouk; Sunwoo, Jae Gun
[Purpose] This study investigated the serologic factors associated with metabolic syndrome and gallstones. [Subjects and Methods] The study evaluated subjects who visited a health promotion center in Seoul from March 2, 2013 to February 28, 2014, and had undergone abdominal ultrasonography. Height, weight, and blood pressure were measured. Blood sampling was performed for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting blood glucose, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thyroid stimulating hormone, and red and white blood cell counts. We conducted logistic regression analysis to assess the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. [Results] The risk factors for metabolic syndrome in men, in order of decreasing weight, were red blood cell count, body mass index, maximum size of gallstones, white blood cell count, waist circumference, and uric acid level. The factors in women, in order of decreasing weight, were red blood cell count, presence/absence of gallstones, uric acid level, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, and waist circumference. [Conclusion] Most serum biochemical factors and gallstone occurrence could be used to indicate the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome, independent of gender. PMID:27630427
Wahi, Gita; LeBlanc, Paul J.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.; O'Leary, Debra; Cairney, John
Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have higher rates of obesity compared to children with typical motor development, and, as a result may be at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of MetS and its components among children with and without DCD. This…
Gradidge, Philippe Jean-Luc; Crowther, Nigel J.
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in African populations, and is particularly high in Black South African women (42%) vs women in the United Kingdom (23%) and the United States of America (36%). This population group is also known to have the highest prevalence of obesity in the sub-Saharan African region (42%), and consequently, a high risk of non-communicable diseases. In this article, we discuss factors (abdominal subcutaneous fat, visceral fat, lean mass, adiponectin, leptin, vitamin D, smoking and menopausal status) that have been investigated for their possible association with metabolic syndrome in African women, and discuss some recommendations for management of the syndrome. In particular, the infrastructural development of HIV/AIDS clinics in South Africa provides an ideal integrated platform to cater to the treatment needs of patients with multiple chronic morbidities. PMID:28439190
da Silva, Inês Vieira; Rodrigues, Joana S; Rebelo, Irene; Miranda, Joana P G; Soveral, Graça
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) includes a group of medical conditions such as insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia and hypertension, all associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Increased visceral and ectopic fat deposition are also key features in the development of IR and MetS, with pathophysiological sequels on adipose tissue, liver and muscle. The recent recognition of aquaporins (AQPs) involvement in adipose tissue homeostasis has opened new perspectives for research in this field. The members of the aquaglyceroporin subfamily are specific glycerol channels implicated in energy metabolism by facilitating glycerol outflow from adipose tissue and its systemic distribution and uptake by liver and muscle, unveiling these membrane channels as key players in lipid balance and energy homeostasis. Being involved in a variety of pathophysiological mechanisms including IR and obesity, AQPs are considered promising drug targets that may prompt novel therapeutic approaches for metabolic disorders such as MetS. This review addresses the interplay between adipose tissue, liver and muscle, which is the basis of the metabolic syndrome, and highlights the involvement of aquaglyceroporins in obesity and related pathologies and how their regulation in different organs contributes to the features of the metabolic syndrome.
Noshad, Sina; Abbasi, Mehrshad; Etemad, Koorosh; Meysamie, Alipasha; Afarideh, Mohsen; Khajeh, Elias; Asgari, Fereshteh; Mousavizadeh, Mostafa; Rafei, Ali; Neishaboury, Mohamadreza; Ghajar, Alireza; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Esteghamati, Alireza
The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its individual components among the Iranian adult population in 2011 and to investigate changes between 2007 and 2011. Data from two rounds of the Surveillance of Risk Factors of Non-communicable Diseases national surveys conducted in 2007 and 2011 were pooled. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to International Diabetes Federation criteria. In 2007, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adults aged 25-64 years was 35.95 (95% confidence interval [CI] 34.27-37.63), which decreased to 32.96 (95% CI 30.73-35.18) in 2011 (P = 0.0108). Despite this overall decline, the prevalence of central obesity (P = 0.1383), raised triglycerides (P = 0.3058), and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; P = 0.5595) remained constant. There was a trend towards a decline in the proportion of individuals with increased blood pressure (P = 0.0978), and the proportion of adults with increased fasting plasma glucose (FPG) increased (P < 0.0001). In 2011, the prevalence of central obesity, raised triglycerides, reduced HDL-C, increased blood pressure and increased FPG was 51.88 (95% CI 48.97-54.79), 36.99 (95% CI 34.52-39.45), 54.72 (95% CI 50.87-58.57), 38.92 (95% CI 36.19-41.64), and 24.97 (95% CI 22.02-27.93) respectively. Over the period 2007-11, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome has decreased slightly in Iran, although prevalence of increased FPG has increased significantly. One-third of the Iranian adult population is diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
DiBello, Julia R; McGarvey, Stephen T; Kraft, Peter; Goldberg, Robert; Campos, Hannia; Quested, Christine; Laumoli, Tuiasina Salamo; Baylin, Ana
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has reached epidemic levels in the Samoan Islands. In this cross-sectional study conducted in 2002-2003, dietary patterns were described among American Samoan (n = 723) and Samoan (n = 785) adults (> or =18 y) to identify neo-traditional and modern eating patterns and to relate these patterns to the presence of metabolic syndrome using Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The neo-traditional dietary pattern, similar across both polities, was characterized by high intake of local foods, including crab/lobster, coconut products, and taro, and low intake of processed foods, including potato chips and soda. The modern pattern, also similar across both polities, was characterized by high intake of processed foods such as rice, potato chips, cake, and pancakes and low intake of local foods. The neo-traditional dietary pattern was associated with significantly higher serum HDL-cholesterol in American Samoa (P-trend = 0.05) and a decrease in abdominal circumference in American Samoa and Samoa (P-trend = 0.004 and 0.01, respectively). An inverse association was found with metabolic syndrome, although it did not reach significance (P = 0.23 in American Samoa; P = 0.13 in Samoa). The modern pattern was significantly positively associated with metabolic syndrome in Samoa (prevalence ratio = 1.21 for the fifth compared with first quintile; 95% CI: 0.93.1.57; P-trend = 0.05) and with increased serum triglyceride levels in both polities (P < 0.05). Reduced intake of processed foods high in refined grains and adherence to a neo-traditional eating pattern characterized by plant-based fiber, seafood, and coconut products may help to prevent growth in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Samoan islands.
de SOUZA, Maíra Danielle Gomes; VILAR, Lucio; de ANDRADE, Cinthia Barbosa; ALBUQUERQUE, Raíssa de Oliveira e; CORDEIRO, Lúcia Helena de Oliveira; CAMPOS, Josemberg Marins; FERRAZ, Álvaro Antônio Bandeira
Background - Overweight and obesity are associated with metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity, thereby increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. In Brazil, there are still no precise data on the prevalence of these disorders, especially among individuals who carry out some kind of physical activity in public spaces and there are no education and prevention programs for obesity. Aim: To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity among park users. Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 619 individuals assessed and stratified by profile according to a specific protocol. The group was characterized as follows: female (50.1%) and mean age =50.6±14.8, with predominance of individuals aged between 50 and 59 years (26.8%) and with higher education (68%) and a household income of between 4 and 10 minimum wages (29.2%). Results: Regular physical exercise was reported by 78% of the individuals and it was found that 70.7% were nevertheless of above normal weight: 45% overweight and 25.7% obese, of whom 20.7% had obesity grade I, 3.9% grade II and 1.1% grade III. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 4.3%, mostly in men (6.3%). Arterial hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus were detected in 17.8% and 5.5%, respectively. In view of the influence of obesity on the occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, it was found that this association was not significant for the two conditions (p=0.014 and 0.017, respectively). Conclusion : The findings demonstrate a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in the studied population, and metabolic syndrome in 4.3%, despite the fact that 70% reported engaging in regular physical activity. PMID:26537270
Steinberg, Gregory; Scott, Adam; Honcz, Joseph; Spettell, Claire; Pradhan, Susil
The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a targeted, personalized wellness program on reducing employees' future risk of metabolic syndrome. Aetna piloted a year-long program that included a limited genetic profile, a traditional psychosocial assessment, and high-intensity coaching in a randomized controlled study of Aetna employees with an increased risk for metabolic syndrome. Sustained employee engagement of 50% over the course of 1 year; 76% of participating employees lost an average of 10 pounds (4.5 kg) (P < 0.001 vs baseline weight), and there were trends in improved clinical outcomes relative to three of five metabolic factors. Average health care costs were reduced by $122 per participant per month, resulting in a positive return on investment in the program's first year. At scale, such programs would be expected to lead to significant downstream reduction in major clinical events and costs.
Wilson, Alexander D. M.; Szekeres, Petra; Violich, Mackellar; Gutowsky, Lee F. G.; Eliason, Erika J.; Cooke, Steven J.
Despite growing interest, the behavioural ecology of deep-sea organisms is largely unknown. Much of this scarcity in knowledge can be attributed to deepwater animals being secretive or comparatively 'rare', as well as technical difficulties associated with accessing such remote habitats. Here we tested whether two species of giant marine isopod (Bathynomus giganteus, Booralana tricarinata) captured from 653 to 875 m in the Caribbean Sea near Eleuthera, The Bahamas, exhibited an activity behavioural syndrome across two environmental contexts (presence/absence of food stimulus) and further whether this syndrome carried over consistently between sexes. We also measured routine metabolic rate and oxygen consumption in response to a food stimulus in B. giganteus to assess whether these variables are related to individual differences in personality. We found that both species show an activity syndrome across environmental contexts, but the underlying mechanistic basis of this syndrome, particularly in B. giganteus, is unclear. Contrary to our initial predictions, neither B. giganteus nor B. tricarinata showed any differences between mean expression of behavioural traits between sexes. Both sexes of B. tricarinata showed strong evidence of an activity syndrome underlying movement and foraging ecology, whereas only male B. giganteus showed evidence of an activity syndrome. Generally, individuals that were more active and bolder, in a standard open arena test were also more active when a food stimulus was present. Interestingly, individual differences in metabolism were not related to individual differences in behaviour based on present data. Our study provides the first measurements of behavioural syndromes and metabolism in giant deep-sea isopods.
Gaudreault, Valérie; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rhéaume, Caroline; Alméras, Natalie; Bergeron, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Poirier, Paul
Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased cardiac morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate exercise-induced hypertension (EIH) in men with metabolic syndrome and to explore potential associations with anthropometric and metabolic variables. A total of 179 normotensive men with metabolic syndrome underwent a maximal symptom-limited treadmill test. Blood pressure was measured at 5-min rest prior to exercise testing (anticipatory blood pressure), at every 3 min during the exercise, and during the recovery period. EIH was defined as maximum systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥220 mmHg and/or maximum diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥100 mmHg. Of the 179 men, 87 (47%) presented EIH. Resting blood pressure values at baseline were 127±10/83±6 mmHg in EIH and 119±9/80±6 mmHg (P=0.01 for both) in normal blood pressure responders to exercise. Anticipatory SBP and DPS were higher in the group with EIH (P=0.001). Subjects with EIH presented higher waist circumference (WC) (P<0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) levels as well as insulin resistance (all P<0.05). Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and total body fat mass were comparable between groups. Subjects with EIH had higher abdominal visceral adipose tissue (P<0.001). The best predictors of EIH were resting SBP and abdominal obesity. Each increment of 5 cm in WC was associated with an odds ratio of 1.30 (1.20-1.68) for EIH. About half of our subjects with metabolic syndrome showed EIH. These men are characterized by a worsened metabolic profile. Our data suggest that a treadmill exercise test may be helpful to identify a potentially higher risk metabolic syndrome subset of subjects.
Song, Yun-Mi; Sung, Joohon; Lee, Kayoung
We aimed to examine the relationships, including genetic and environmental correlations, between metabolic and weight phenotypes and factors related to diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Participants of the Healthy Twin Study without diabetes (n=2687; 895 monozygotic and 204 dizygotic twins, and 1588 nontwin family members; mean age, 42.5±13.1 years) were stratified according to body mass index (BMI) (<25 vs. ≥25 kg/m(2)) and metabolic syndrome categories at baseline. The metabolic traits, namely diabetes and metabolic syndrome, metabolic syndrome components, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), were assessed after 2.5±2.1 years. In a multivariate-adjusted model, those who had metabolic syndrome or overweight phenotypes at baseline were more likely to have higher HbA1C and HOMA-IR levels and abnormal metabolic syndrome components at follow-up as compared to the metabolically healthy normal weight subgroup. The incidence of diabetes was 4.4-fold higher in the metabolically unhealthy but normal weight individuals and 3.3-fold higher in the metabolically unhealthy and overweight individuals as compared with the metabolically healthy normal weight individuals. The heritability of the metabolic syndrome/weight phenotypes was 0.40±0.03. Significant genetic and environmental correlations were observed between the metabolic syndrome/weight phenotypes at baseline and the metabolic traits at follow-up, except for incident diabetes, which only had a significant common genetic sharing with the baseline phenotypes. The genetic and environmental relationships between the metabolic and weight phenotypes at baseline and the metabolic traits at follow-up suggest pleiotropic genetic mechanisms and the crucial role of lifestyle and behavioral factors.
Ohashi, Y.; Thomas, G.; Nurko, S.; Stephany, B.; Fatica, R.; Chiesa, A.; Rule, A. D.; Srinivas, T.; Schold, J. D.; Navaneethan, S. D.; Poggio, E. D.
The selection of living kidney donors is based on a formal evaluation of the state of health. However, this spectrum of health includes subtle metabolic derangements that can cluster as metabolic syndrome. We studied the association of metabolic syndrome with kidney function and histology in 410 donors from 2005 to 2012, of whom 178 donors were systematically followed after donation since 2009. Metabolic syndrome was defined as per the NCEP ATPIII criteria, but using a BMI > 25 kg/m2 instead of waist circumference. Following donation, donors received counseling on lifestyle modification. Metabolic syndrome was present in 50 (12.2%) donors. Donors with metabolic syndrome were more likely to have chronic histological changes on implant biopsies than donors with no metabolic syndrome (29.0% vs. 9.3%, p < 0.001). This finding was associated with impaired kidney function recovery following donation. At last follow-up, reversal of metabolic syndrome was observed in 57.1% of donors with predonation metabolic syndrome, while only 10.8% of donors developed de novo metabolic syndrome (p < 0.001). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome in donors is associated with chronic histological changes, and nephrectomy in these donors was associated with subsequent protracted recovery of kidney function. Importantly, weight loss led to improvement of most abnormalities that define metabolic syndrome. PMID:23865821
Ohashi, Y; Thomas, G; Nurko, S; Stephany, B; Fatica, R; Chiesa, A; Rule, A D; Srinivas, T; Schold, J D; Navaneethan, S D; Poggio, E D
The selection of living kidney donors is based on a formal evaluation of the state of health. However, this spectrum of health includes subtle metabolic derangements that can cluster as metabolic syndrome. We studied the association of metabolic syndrome with kidney function and histology in 410 donors from 2005 to 2012, of whom 178 donors were systematically followed after donation since 2009. Metabolic syndrome was defined as per the NCEP ATPIII criteria, but using a BMI > 25 kg/m(2) instead of waist circumference. Following donation, donors received counseling on lifestyle modification. Metabolic syndrome was present in 50 (12.2%) donors. Donors with metabolic syndrome were more likely to have chronic histological changes on implant biopsies than donors with no metabolic syndrome (29.0% vs. 9.3%, p < 0.001). This finding was associated with impaired kidney function recovery following donation. At last follow-up, reversal of metabolic syndrome was observed in 57.1% of donors with predonation metabolic syndrome, while only 10.8% of donors developed de novo metabolic syndrome (p < 0.001). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome in donors is associated with chronic histological changes, and nephrectomy in these donors was associated with subsequent protracted recovery of kidney function. Importantly, weight loss led to improvement of most abnormalities that define metabolic syndrome. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Salzano, Andrea; D'Assante, Roberta; Heaney, Liam M; Monaco, Federica; Rengo, Giuseppe; Valente, Pietro; Pasquali, Daniela; Bossone, Eduardo; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Lenzi, Andrea; Cittadini, Antonio; Marra, Alberto M; Napoli, Raffaele
Klinefelter syndrome (KS), the most frequent chromosomic abnormality in males, is associated with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The mechanisms involved in increasing risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are not completely understood. This review summarises the current understandings of the complex relationship between KS, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk in order to plan future studies and improve current strategies to reduce mortality in this high-risk population. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus for manuscripts published prior to November 2017 using key words "Klinefelter syndrome" AND "insulin resistance" OR "metabolic syndrome" OR "diabetes mellitus" OR "cardiovascular disease" OR "testosterone". Manuscripts were collated, studied and carried forward for discussion where appropriate. Insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes are more frequently diagnosed in KS than in the general population; however, the contribution of hypogonadism to metabolic derangement is highly controversial. Whether this dangerous combination of risk factors fully explains the CVD burden of KS patients remains unclear. In addition, testosterone replacement therapy only exerts a marginal action on the CVD system. Since fat accumulation and distribution seem to play a relevant role in triggering metabolic abnormalities, an early diagnosis and a tailored intervention strategy with drugs aimed at targeting excessive visceral fat deposition appear necessary in patients with KS.
Discusses the scope of the problem of obesity in the United States, noting the health risks associated with being overweight or obese (e.g., gallstones, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, and colon cancer); discussing the association of type-II diabetes mellitus with obesity; examining the effects of exercise on metabolic disease; and looking at…
Biological aging is typically associated with a progressive increase in body fat mass and a loss of lean body mass. Owing to the metabolic consequences of reduced muscle mass, it is understood that normal aging and/or decreased physical activity may lead to a higher prevalence of metabolic disorders. Lifestyle modification, specifically changes in diet, physical activity, and exercise, is considered the cornerstone of obesity management. However, for most overweight people it is difficult to lose weight permanently through diet or exercise. Thus, prevention of weight gain is thought to be more effective than weight loss in reducing obesity rates. A key question is whether physical activity can extenuate age-related weight gain and promote metabolic health in adults. Current guidelines suggest that adults should accumulate about 60 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity daily to prevent unhealthy weight gain. Because evidence suggests that resistance training may promote a negative energy balance and may change body fat distribution, it is possible that an increase in muscle mass after resistance training may be a key mediator leading to better metabolic control. PMID:23167451
Zohal, Mohammadali; Ghorbani, Azam; Esmailzadehha, Neda; Ziaee, Amir; Mohammadi, Zahrasadat
The aim of this study was to determine the association of sleep quality and sleep quantity with metabolic syndrome in Qazvin, Iran. this cross sectional study was conducted in 1079 residents of Qazvin selected by multistage cluster random sampling method in 2011. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria proposed by the national cholesterol education program third Adult treatment panel. Sleep was assessed using the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). A logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of sleep status and metabolic syndrome. Mean age was 40.08±10.33years. Of 1079, 578 (52.2%) were female, and 30.6% had metabolic syndrome. The total global PSQI score in the subjects with metabolic syndrome was significantly higher than subjects without metabolic syndrome (6.30±3.20 vs. 5.83±2.76, P=0.013). In logistic regression analysis, sleep disturbances was associated with 1.388 fold increased risk of metabolic syndrome after adjustment for age, gender, and body mass index. Sleep disturbances component was a predictor of metabolic syndrome in the present study. More longitudinal studies are necessary to understand the association of sleep quality and its components with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E; Werner, Lise; Mlisana, Koleka; Naicker, Nivashnee; Feinstein, Addi; Gray, Clive M; Masson, Lindi; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Williamson, Carolyn; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Garrett, Nigel J
Noncommunicable diseases are common among chronically infected patients with HIV in the developed world, but little is known about these conditions in African cohorts. We assessed the epidemiology of metabolic syndrome among young South African women during the first 3 years after HIV acquisition. A total of 160 women were followed prospectively in the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection study. Metabolic syndrome was defined as a constellation of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia/diabetes, and abdominal obesity. Time trends were assessed using generalized estimation equation models. Median age was 24 years and body mass index 27 kg/m. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome at infection was 8.7% increasing to 19.2% over 36 months (P = 0.001). The proportion of women with body mass index >30 kg/m increased from 34.4% to 47.7% (P = 0.004), those with abnormal waist circumference and elevated blood pressure increased from 33.5% to 44.3% (P = 0.060) and 23.8% to 43.9% (P < 0.001), respectively. Incidence of metabolic syndrome was 9.13/100 person-years (95% CI: 6.02 to 13.28). Predictors of metabolic syndrome were age (per year increase odds ratio (OR) = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.16), time postinfection (per year OR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.92), family history of diabetes (OR = 3.13; 95% CI: 1.71 to 5.72), and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*81:01 allele (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.21 to 7.17), whereas any HLA-B*57 or B*58:01 alleles were protective (OR = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.77). HIV-1 RNA (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.27) and CD4 count (OR = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.95 to 1.11) did not predict metabolic syndrome. The high burden of metabolic conditions in young South African HIV-infected women highlights the need to integrate noncommunicable disease and HIV care programs. Interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease must start at HIV diagnosis, rather than later during the disease course.
Kaye, E.K.; Chen, N.; Cabral, H.J.; Vokonas, P.; Garcia, R.I.
Metabolic syndrome, a cluster of 3 or more risk factors for cardiovascular disease, is associated with periodontal disease, but few studies have been prospective in design. This study’s aim was to determine whether metabolic syndrome predicts tooth loss and worsening of periodontal disease in a cohort of 760 men in the Department of Veterans Affairs Dental Longitudinal Study and Normative Aging Study who were followed up to 33 y from 1981 to 2013. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. Waist circumference was measured in units of 0.1 cm following a normal expiration. Fasting blood samples were measured in duplicate for glucose, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein. Calibrated periodontists served as dental examiners. Periodontal outcome events on each tooth were defined as progression to predefined threshold levels of probing pocket depth (≥5 mm), clinical attachment loss (≥5 mm), mobility (≥0.5 mm), and alveolar bone loss (≥40% of the distance from the cementoenamel junction to the root apex, on radiographs). Hazards ratios (95% confidence intervals) of tooth loss or a periodontitis event were estimated from tooth-level extended Cox proportional hazards regression models that accounted for clustering of teeth within individuals and used time-dependent status of metabolic syndrome. Covariates included age, education, smoking status, plaque level, and initial level of the appropriate periodontal disease measure. Metabolic syndrome as defined by the International Diabetes Federation increased the hazards of tooth loss (1.39; 1.08 to 1.79), pocket depth ≥5 mm (1.37; 1.14 to 1.65), clinical attachment loss ≥5 mm (1.19; 1.00 to 1.41), alveolar bone loss ≥40% (1.25; 1.00 to 1.56), and tooth mobility ≥0.5 mm (1.43; 1.07 to 1.89). The number of positive metabolic syndrome conditions was also associated with each of these outcomes. These findings suggest that the metabolic disturbances that
Kandasamy, Narayanan; Fugazzola, Laura; Evans, Mark; Chatterjee, Krishna; Karet, Fiona
Introduction Pendred syndrome, a combination of sensorineural deafness, impaired organification of iodide in the thyroid and goitre, results from biallelic defects in pendrin (encoded by SLC26A4), which transports chloride and iodide in the inner ear and thyroid respectively. Recently, pendrin has also been identified in the kidneys, where it is found in the apical plasma membrane of non-α-type intercalated cells of the cortical collecting duct. Here, it functions as a chloride–bicarbonate exchanger, capable of secreting bicarbonate into the urine. Despite this function, patients with Pendred syndrome have not been reported to develop any significant acid–base disturbances, except a single previous reported case of metabolic alkalosis in the context of Pendred syndrome in a child started on a diuretic. Case report We describe a 46-year-old female with sensorineural deafness and hypothyroidism, who presented with severe hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis during inter-current illnesses on two occasions, and who was found to be homozygous for a loss-of-function mutation (V138F) in SLC26A4. Her acid–base status and electrolytes were unremarkable when she was well. Conclusion This case illustrates that, although pendrin is not usually required to maintain acid–base homeostasis under ambient condition, loss of renal bicarbonate excretion by pendrin during a metabolic alkalotic challenge may contribute to life-threatening acid–base disturbances in patients with Pendred syndrome. PMID:21551164
Akter, Shamima; Jesmin, Subrina; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Islam, Md Majedul; Khatun, Most Tanzila; Yamaguchi, Naoto; Akashi, Hidechika; Mizutani, Taro
Parity increases the risk for coronary heart disease; however, its association with metabolic syndrome among women in low-income countries is still unknown. This study investigates the association between parity or gravidity and metabolic syndrome in rural Bangladeshi women. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,219 women aged 15-75 years from rural Bangladesh. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the standard NCEP-ATP III criteria. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between parity and gravidity and metabolic syndrome, with adjustment of potential confounding variables. Subjects with the highest gravidity (> = 4) had 1.66 times higher odds of having metabolic syndrome compared to those in the lowest gravidity (0-1) (P trend = 0.02). A similar association was found between parity and metabolic syndrome (P(trend) = 0.04), i.e., subjects in the highest parity (> = 4) had 1.65 times higher odds of having metabolic syndrome compared to those in the lowest parity (0-1). This positive association of parity and gravidity with metabolic syndrome was confined to pre-menopausal women (P(trend) <0.01). Among the components of metabolic syndrome only high blood pressure showed positive association with parity and gravidity (P(trend) = 0.01 and <0.001). Neither Parity nor gravidity was appreciably associated with other components of metabolic syndrome. Multi parity or gravidity may be a risk factor for metabolic syndrome.
Akter, Shamima; Jesmin, Subrina; Rahman, Md. Mizanur; Islam, Md. Majedul; Khatun, Most. Tanzila; Yamaguchi, Naoto; Akashi, Hidechika; Mizutani, Taro
Background Parity increases the risk for coronary heart disease; however, its association with metabolic syndrome among women in low-income countries is still unknown. Objective This study investigates the association between parity or gravidity and metabolic syndrome in rural Bangladeshi women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,219 women aged 15–75 years from rural Bangladesh. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the standard NCEP-ATP III criteria. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between parity and gravidity and metabolic syndrome, with adjustment of potential confounding variables. Results Subjects with the highest gravidity (> = 4) had 1.66 times higher odds of having metabolic syndrome compared to those in the lowest gravidity (0-1) (P trend = 0.02). A similar association was found between parity and metabolic syndrome (P trend = 0.04), i.e., subjects in the highest parity (> = 4) had 1.65 times higher odds of having metabolic syndrome compared to those in the lowest parity (0-1). This positive association of parity and gravidity with metabolic syndrome was confined to pre-menopausal women (P trend <0.01). Among the components of metabolic syndrome only high blood pressure showed positive association with parity and gravidity (P trend = 0.01 and <0.001). Neither Parity nor gravidity was appreciably associated with other components of metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Multi parity or gravidity may be a risk factor for metabolic syndrome. PMID:23936302
Di Daniele, Nicola; Noce, Annalisa; Vidiri, Maria Francesca; Moriconi, Eleonora; Marrone, Giulia; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; D'Urso, Gabriele; Tesauro, Manfredi; Rovella, Valentina; De Lorenzo, Antonino
Obesity symbolizes a major public health problem. Overweight and obesity are associated to the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome and to adipose tissue dysfunction. The adipose tissue is metabolically active and an endocrine organ, whose dysregulation causes a low-grade inflammatory state and ectopic fat depositions. The Mediterranean Diet represents a possible therapy for metabolic syndrome, preventing adiposopathy or "sick fat" formation.The Mediterranean Diet exerts protective effects in elderly subjects with and without baseline of chronic diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between cancer and obesity. In the US, diet represents amount 30-35% of death causes related to cancer. Currently, the cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases worldwide. Furthermore, populations living in the Mediterranean area have a decreased incidence of cancer compared with populations living in Northern Europe or the US, likely due to healthier dietary habits. The bioactive food components have a potential preventive action on cancer. The aims of this review are to evaluate the impact of Mediterranean Diet on onset, progression and regression of metabolic syndrome, cancer and on longevity.
Di Daniele, Nicola; Noce, Annalisa; Vidiri, Maria Francesca; Moriconi, Eleonora; Marrone, Giulia; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; D’Urso, Gabriele; Tesauro, Manfredi; Rovella, Valentina; De Lorenzo, Antonino
Obesity symbolizes a major public health problem. Overweight and obesity are associated to the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome and to adipose tissue dysfunction. The adipose tissue is metabolically active and an endocrine organ, whose dysregulation causes a low-grade inflammatory state and ectopic fat depositions. The Mediterranean Diet represents a possible therapy for metabolic syndrome, preventing adiposopathy or “sick fat” formation. The Mediterranean Diet exerts protective effects in elderly subjects with and without baseline of chronic diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between cancer and obesity. In the US, diet represents amount 30-35% of death causes related to cancer. Currently, the cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases worldwide. Furthermore, populations living in the Mediterranean area have a decreased incidence of cancer compared with populations living in Northern Europe or the US, likely due to healthier dietary habits. The bioactive food components have a potential preventive action on cancer. The aims of this review are to evaluate the impact of Mediterranean Diet on onset, progression and regression of metabolic syndrome, cancer and on longevity. PMID:27894098
Koyama, Satomi; Ichikawa, Go; Kojima, Megumi; Shimura, Naoto; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Arisaka, Osamu
The age of adiposity rebound (AR) is defined as the time at which BMI starts to rise after infancy and is thought to be a marker of later obesity. To determine whether this age is related to future occurrence of metabolic syndrome, we investigated the relationship of the timing of AR with metabolic consequences at 12 years of age. A total of 271 children (147 boys and 124 girls) born in 1995 and 1996 were enrolled in the study. Serial measurements of BMI were conducted at the ages of 4 and 8 months and 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 years, based on which age of AR was calculated. Plasma lipids and blood pressure were measured at 12 years of age. An earlier AR (<4 years of age) was associated with a higher BMI (≥ 20) and a lipoprotein phenotype representative of insulin resistance. This phenotype consists of elevated triglycerides, apolipoprotein B, and atherogenic index and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in boys and elevated apolipoprotein B in girls at 12 years of age. The earlier AR was also related to elevated blood pressure in boys. This longitudinal population-based study indicates that children who exhibit AR at a younger age are predisposed to future development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, monitoring of AR may be an effective method for the early identification of children at risk for metabolic syndrome.
Derosa, Giuseppe; Bonaventura, Aldo; Bianchi, Lucio; Romano, Davide; D'Angelo, Angela; Fogari, Elena; Maffioli, Pamela
Metabolic syndrome is becoming a common disease due to a rise in obesity rates among adults. The aim was to evaluate the effects of canrenone compared to placebo on metabolic and inflammatory parameters in patients affected by metabolic syndrome. A total of 145 patients were treated with placebo or canrenone, 50 mg/day, for 3 months and then 50 mg b.i.d. till the end of the study. Blood pressure, body weight, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting plasma insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, plasma aldosterone, brain natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and M value were evaluated. A decrease of blood pressure was observed in canrenone group compared to baseline; moreover, systolic blood pressure value recorded after 6 months of canrenone therapy was lower than the one recorded with placebo. Canrenone gave a significant decrease of FPI and HOMA index, and an increase of M value both compared to baseline and to placebo. Canrenone also decreased triglycerides and FPG was not observed with placebo. Canrenone also decreased plasma aldosterone, Hs-CRP and TNF-α compared to baseline and to placebo. Canrenone seems to be effective in reducing some factors involved in metabolic syndrome and in improving insulin-resistance and the inflammatory state observed in these patients.
Cameron, Isabelle; Alam, Mohammad Ashraful; Wang, Jianxiong; Brown, Lindsay
We have measured the responses to endurance exercise training on body composition and glucose regulation, as well as cardiovascular and liver structure and function in rats fed a high carbohydrate and high fat (HCHF) diet as a model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (9-10 weeks old) were randomly allocated into corn starch (CS) or HCHF diet groups for 16 weeks; half of each group were exercised on a treadmill for 20, 25, and then 30 min/day, 5 days/week, during the last 8 weeks of the protocol. Metabolic, cardiovascular, and liver parameters were monitored. The HCHF diet induced symptoms of metabolic syndrome, including obesity, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and increased systolic blood pressure associated with the development of cardiovascular remodeling and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Exercise in HCHF rats decreased body mass, abdominal fat pads and circumference, blood glucose concentrations, plasma lipid profiles, systolic blood pressure, left ventricular diastolic stiffness, collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration in the left ventricle, improved aortic contractile and relaxation responses, and decreased liver mass and hepatic fat accumulation. This study demonstrates that endurance exercise is effective in this rat model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome in improving body composition and glucose regulation, as well as cardiovascular and liver structure and function.
Han, Yejin; Lee, Hye-Jin; Oh, Jee-Young; Sung, Yeon-Ah
Purpose Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenic anovulation in women of reproductive age. We investigated the metabolic effects of lean and overweight adolescents with PCOS. Methods Anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were evaluated in 49 adolescents with PCOS and 40 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls. We further divided both PCOS and control groups into those having BMI within the normal range of less than 85th percentile and those being overweight and obese with a BMI greater than 85th percentile. Results Hemoglobin, gamma-glutamyl transferase (r-GT), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and 2-hour postglucose load plasma insulin levels were significantly elevated in the lean PCOS group than in the lean control group. In the overweight/obese PCOS group, hemoglobin and r-GT levels were significantly elevated than in the overweight/obese control group. In the normal weight group, none of the subjects had metabolic syndrome according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, but the incidence of metabolic syndrome in the overweight/obese PCOS group was 8.3% and that in the overweight/obese control group was 6.7%. Conclusion PCOS in adolescents causes metabolic abnormalities, underscoring the importance of early diagnosis of PCOS in oligomenorrheic adolescents. PMID:26512349
McCully, Kevin K.; Smith, Sinclair; Rajaei, Sheeva; Leigh, John S.; Natelson, Benjamin H.
The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is associated with reduced blood flow and muscle oxidative metabolism. Patients with CFS according to CDC criteria (n=19) were compared to normal sedentary subjects (n = 11). Muscle blood flow was measured in the femoral artery with Doppler ultrasound after exercise. Muscle metabolism was measured in the medial gastrocnemius muscle using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Muscle oxygen saturation and blood volume were measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. CFS and controls were not different in hyperemic blood flow or phosphocreatine recovery rate. Cuff pressures of 50,60,70,80,and 90 mmHg were used to partially restrict blood flow during recovery. All pressures reduced blood flow and oxidative metabolism, with 90 mmHg reducing blood flow by 46% and oxidative metabolism by 30.7% in CFS patients. Hyperemic blood flow during partial cuff occlusion was significantly reduced in CFS patients (P < 0.01), and recovery of oxygen saturation was slower (P < 0.05). No differences were seen in the amount of reduction in metabolism with partially reduced blood flow. In conclusion, CFS patients showed evidence of reduced hyperemic flow and reduced oxygen delivery, but no evidence that this impaired muscle metabolism. Thus, CFS patients might have altered control of blood flow, but this is unlikely to influence muscle metabolism. Further, abnormalities in muscle metabolism do not appear to be responsible for the CFS symptoms. PMID:14578362
Yu, Kyoung Hwa; Yi, Yu Hyeon; Kim, Yun Jin; Cho, Byung Mann; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Jeong, Dong Wook; Ji, So Yeon
Shift work is associated with health problems, including metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the association between shift work and metabolic syndrome in young workers. A total of 3,317 subjects aged 20-40 years enrolled in the 2011-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into shift and day workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study and calculated odds ratios using multivariate logistic regression analysis in order to examine the association between shift work and metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 14.3% and 7.1% among male and female shift workers, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, shift work was associated with metabolic syndrome in female workers (odds ratio, 2.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 5.70). Shift work was associated with metabolic syndrome in young women. Timely efforts are necessary to manage metabolic syndrome in the workplace.
Misra, Anoop; Khurana, Lokesh
The prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome is rapidly increasing in India and other south Asian countries, leading to increased morbidity and mortality due to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The literature search has been carried out using the key words "insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risk, diabetes, obesity, Asian Indians, and South Asians" in the medical search engine Pubmed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD) from 1966 to September 2009. A high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and associated cardiovascular risk factors has been observed not only in urban South Asian/Asian Indian adults and children but also in economically disadvantaged people residing in urban slums and rural areas. The main drivers are rapid nutrition, lifestyle, and socioeconomic transitions, consequent to increasing affluence, urbanization, mechanization, and rural-to-urban migration. Less investigated determinants of the metabolic syndrome include psychological stress in urban setting, genetic predisposition, adverse perinatal environment, and childhood "catch up" obesity. Data show atherogenic dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, thrombotic tendency, subclinical inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction are higher in South Asians than Caucasians. Many of these manifestations are more severe and are seen at an early age (childhood) in South Asians than Caucasians. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk in South Asians is also heightened by their higher body fat, truncal subcutaneous fat, intra-abdominal fat, and ectopic fat deposition (liver fat, etc.). Further, cardiovascular risk cluster manifests at a lower level of adiposity and abdominal obesity. The cutoffs of body mass index and waist circumference for defining obesity and abdominal obesity, respectively, have been lowered and the definition of the metabolic syndrome has been revised for Asian Indians in a recent consensus statement, so that
Vickers, Mark H
Metabolic disease results from a complex interaction of many factors, including genetic, physiological, behavioral and environmental influences. The recent rate at which these diseases have increased suggests that environmental and behavioral influences, rather than genetic causes, are fuelling the present epidemic. In this context, the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis has highlighted the link between the periconceptual, fetal and early infant phases of life and the subsequent development of adult obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Although the mechanisms are yet to be fully elucidated, this programming was generally considered an irreversible change in developmental trajectory. Recent work in animal models suggests that developmental programming of metabolic disorders is potentially reversible by nutritional or targeted therapeutic interventions during the period of developmental plasticity. This review will discuss critical windows of developmental plasticity and possible avenues to ameliorate the development of postnatal metabolic disorders following an adverse early life environment. PMID:21954418
Choi, Woo Suk; Heo, Nam Ju; Paick, Jae-Seung; Son, Hwancheol
To investigate the influence of metabolic syndrome on prostate-specific antigen levels by considering prostate volume and plasma volume. We retrospectively analyzed 4111 men who underwent routine check-ups including prostate-specific antigen and transrectal ultrasonography. The definition of metabolic syndrome was based on the modified Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Prostate-specific antigen mass density (prostate-specific antigen × plasma volume / prostate volume) was calculated for adjusting plasma volume and prostate volume. We compared prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific antigen mass density levels of participants with metabolic syndrome (metabolic syndrome group, n = 1242) and without metabolic syndrome (non-prostate-specific antigen metabolic syndrome group, n = 2869). To evaluate the impact of metabolic syndrome on prostate-specific antigen, linear regression analysis for the natural logarithm of prostate-specific antigen was used. Patients in the metabolic syndrome group had significantly older age (P < 0.001), larger prostate volume (P < 0.001), higher plasma volume (P < 0.001) and lower mean serum prostate-specific antigen (non-metabolic syndrome group vs metabolic syndrome group; 1.22 ± 0.91 vs 1.15 ± 0.76 ng/mL, P = 0.006). Prostate-specific antigen mass density in the metabolic syndrome group was still significantly lower than that in the metabolic syndrome group (0.124 ± 0.084 vs 0.115 ± 0.071 μg/mL, P = 0.001). After adjusting for age, prostate volume and plasma volume using linear regression model, the presence of metabolic syndrome was a significant independent factor for lower prostate-specific antigen (prostate-specific antigen decrease by 4.1%, P = 0.046). Prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with metabolic syndrome seem to be lower, and this finding might be affected by the prostate volume. © 2016 The Japanese Urological Association.
Brochard, H; Boudebesse, C; Henry, C; Godin, O; Leboyer, M; Étain, B
To examine the pathophysiologic mechanisms that may link circadian disorder and metabolic syndrome in bipolar disorder (BP). A systematic review of the literature was conducted from January 2013 to January 2015, using the Medline and Cochrane databases, using the keywords "metabolic syndrome", "obesity", "leptin" and "circadian disorders", "sleeping disorders" and cross-referencing them with "bipolar disorder". The following types of publications were candidates for review: (i) clinical trials; (ii) studies involving patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder; (iii) studies involving patients with sleeping disorder; or (iv) data about metabolic syndrome. Forty articles were selected. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in BP was significantly higher compared to the general population (from 36 to 49% in the USA [Vancampfort, 2013]), and could be explained by several factors including reduced exercise and poor diet, genetic vulnerability, frequent depressive episodes, psychiatric comorbidity and psychotropic treatment. This high frequency of metabolic syndrome worsens the prognosis of these patients, increasing morbidity and mortality. Secondly, patients with BP experienced circadian and sleep disturbance, including modification in melatonin secretion. These perturbations are known to persist in periods of mood stabilization and are found in patients' relatives. Circadian disturbances are factors of relapse in bipolar patients, and they may also have a role in the metabolic comorbidities of these patients. Recent studies show that in populations of patients with bipolar disorder, a correlation between circadian disturbance and metabolic parameters are found. To identify the pathophysiological pathway connecting both could lead to a better comprehension of the disease and new therapeutics. In the overall population, mechanisms have been identified linking circadian and metabolic disorder involving hormones like leptin and ghrelin. These hormones are keys to
Johnson, Richard J; Rivard, Chris; Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Otabachian-Smith, Silvia; Ishimoto, Takuji; Cicerchi, Christina; Cheeke, Peter R.; MacIntosh, Bridgett; Hess, Tanja
Fructose is a simple sugar present in honey and fruit, but can also exist as a polymer (fructans) in pasture grasses. Mammals are unable to metabolize fructans, but certain gram positive bacteria contain fructanases and can convert fructans to fructose in the gut. Recent studies suggest that fructose generated from bacteria, or directly obtained from the diet, can induce both increased intestinal permeability and features of metabolic syndrome, especially the development of insulin resistance. The development of insulin resistance is driven in part by the metabolism of fructose by fructokinase C in the liver, which results in oxidative stress in the hepatocyte. Similarly, the metabolism of fructose in the small bowel by intestinal fructokinase may lead to increased intestinal permeability and endotoxemia. While speculative, these observations raise the possibility that the mechanism by which fructans induce laminitis could involve intestinal and hepatic fructokinase. Further studies are indicated to determine the role of fructanases, fructose and fructokinase in equine metabolic syndrome and laminitis. PMID:23439477
Spritzer, Poli Mara
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition in women at reproductive age associated with reproductive and metabolic dysfunction. Proposed diagnosed criteria for PCOS include two out of three features: androgen excess, menstrual irregularity, and polycystic ovary appearance on ultrasound (PCO), after other causes of hyperandrogenism and dysovulation are excluded. Based on these diagnostic criteria, the most common phenotypes are the "classic PCOS"--hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea, with or without PCO; the "ovulatory phenotype"--hyperandrogenism and PCO in ovulatory women; and the "non-hyperandrogenic phenotype", in which there is oligomenorrhea and PCO, without overt hyperandrogenism. The presence of obesity may exacerbate the metabolic and reproductive disorders associated with the syndrome. In addition, PCOS women present higher risk for type 2 diabetes and higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors that seems to be associated with the classic phenotype. The main interventions to minimize cardiovascular and metabolic risks in PCOS are lifestyle changes, pharmacological therapy, and bariatric surgery. Treatment with metformin has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, lowering blood glucose and androgen levels. These effects are more potent when combined with lifestyle interventions. In conclusion, besides reproductive abnormalities, PCOS has been associated to metabolic comorbidities, most of them linked to obesity. Confounders, such as the lack of standard diagnostic criteria, heterogeneity of the clinical presentation, and presence of obesity, make management of PCOS difficult. Therefore, the approach to metabolic abnormalities should be tailored to the risks and treatment goals of each individual woman.
Carlsson, Axel C; Wändell, Per E; Halldin, Mats; de Faire, Ulf; Hellénius, Mai-Lis
There are three commonly used definitions of the metabolic syndrome, making scientific studies hard to compare. The aim of this study was to investigate agreement in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome defined by three different definitions and to analyze definition and gender differences. A population-based, cross-sectional study of a total of 4232 participants--2039 men and 2193 women, aged 60 years--was employed. Three different metabolic syndrome definitions were compared: European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR), International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III). Medical history, socioeconomic information, and lifestyle data were collected by a questionnaire. A medical examination including laboratory tests was performed. Significant factors for the metabolic syndrome were calculated by multivariate logistic regression. Forty five percent of men and 30% of women met the criteria for the metabolic syndrome by any definition, but only 17% of men and 9% of women met the criteria of all three definitions. The highest agreement was found between IDF and NCEP ATP III definition. Two significant associations were identified in both men and women by the three metabolic syndrome definitions; former smokers were highly associated with the metabolic syndrome (odds ratio [OR] congruent with 1.5), and regular physical activity (OR congruent with 0.6) was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome. Depending on the definition used, different individuals were identified as having the metabolic syndrome, which affects the reliability of interpretations to be made from scientific studies of the metabolic syndrome. Unified criteria are warranted. Physicians facing a physically inactive former smoker may consider diagnosing metabolic syndrome.
Koren, Dorit; Dumin, Magdalena; Gozal, David
Emerging evidence has assigned an important role to sleep as a modulator of metabolic homeostasis. The impact of variations in sleep duration, sleep-disordered breathing, and chronotype to cardiometabolic function encompasses a wide array of perturbations spanning from obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease risk and mortality in both adults and children. Here, we critically and extensively review the published literature on such important issues and provide a comprehensive overview of the most salient pathophysiologic pathways underlying the links between sleep, sleep disorders, and cardiometabolic functioning. PMID:27601926
Shi, Ping; Goodson, J Max; Hartman, Mor-Li; Hasturk, Hatice; Yaskell, Tina; Vargas, Jorel; Cugini, Maryann; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem; Welty, Francine
Binary definitions of the metabolic syndrome based on the presence of a particular number of individual risk factors are limited, particularly in the pediatric population. To address this limitation, we aimed at constructing composite and continuous metabolic syndrome scores (cmetS) to represent an overall measure of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a large cohort of metabolically at-risk children, focusing on the use of the usual clinical parameters (waist circumference (WC) and systolic blood pressure (SBP), supplemented with two salivary surrogate variables (glucose and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC). Two different approaches used to create the scores were evaluated in comparison. Data from 8,112 Kuwaiti children (10.00 ± 0.67 years) were used to construct two cmetS for each subject. The first cmetS (cmetS-Z) was created by summing standardized residuals of each variable regressed on age and gender; and the second cmetS (cmetS-PCA) was defined as the first principal component from gender-specific principal component analysis based on the four variables. There was a graded relationship between both scores and the number of adverse risk factors. The areas under the curve using cmetS-Z and cmetS-PCA as predictors for severe metabolic syndrome (defined as the presence of ≥3 metabolic risk factors) were 0.935 and 0.912, respectively. cmetS-Z was positively associated with WC, SBP, and glucose, but inversely associated with HDLC. Except for the lack of association with glucose, cmetS-PCA was similar to cmetS-Z in boys, but had minimum loading on HDLC in girls. Analysis using quantile regression showed an inverse association of fitness level with cmetS-PCA (p = 0.001 for boys; p = 0.002 for girls), and comparison of cmetS-Z and cmetS-PCA suggested that WC and SBP were main contributory components. Significant alterations in the relationship between cmetS and salivary adipocytokines were demonstrated in overweight and obese children as compared to
Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F
The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance and abnormal glucose tolerance. Iron overload may lead also to insulin resistance and diabetes. Serum ferritin levels are increased in PCOS, especially when glucose tolerance is abnormal, suggesting mild iron overload. Factors contributing to potential iron overload in PCOS include the iron sparing effect of chronic menstrual dysfunction, insulin resistance, and a decrease in hepcidin leading to increased iron absorption. Enhancement of erythropoiesis by androgen excess is unlikely, because soluble transferrin receptor levels are not increased in PCOS. Future venues of research should address the long-term effects of PCOS treatment on iron overload and, conversely, the possible effects of iron lowering strategies on the glucose tolerance of patients with PCOS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ayodele, Olugbenga Edward; Akinboro, Adeolu Oludayo; Akinyemi, Suliat Omolola; Adepeju, Akinlawon Adetiloye; Akinremi, Oluwaseun Akinsanmi; Alao, Christiana Adeola; Popoola, Adetoun Adedayo
Sub-Saharan Africa bears an inordinate burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Reports have shown increased prevalence of clustering of cardiovascular risk factors referred to as metabolic syndrome in treatment-naïve patients and patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In view of the fact that metabolic syndrome is a heterogeneous disorder with substantial variability in the prevalence and component traits within and across populations and the dearth of publications on the prevalence and clinical correlates of metabolic syndrome in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Nigeria, this study was carried out to determine the prevalence and clinical correlates of metabolic syndrome among an HIV-infected outpatient population using the National Cholesterol Education Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and the Joint Interim Statement (JIS) definitions. We also sought to determine if HAART use and CD4 count level were associated with metabolic syndrome. This cross-sectional study involved 291 (95 men, 196 women) consecutive PLWHA. Anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and lipid profile values were determined. The prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome according to the ATP III, IDF, and JIS criteria were 12.7%, 17.2%, and 21.0%, respectively. Metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with female gender (all definitions), body mass index (all definitions), increasing age, and CD4 count (IDF definition). There was no significant association between metabolic syndrome and HAART. The concordance [kappa coefficient (κ)] between the definitions of metabolic syndrome varied between 0.583 and 0.878. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varied with the criteria used and metabolic syndrome correlates with traditional cardiovascular risk factors rather than HAART-related factors.
El Khoury, D.; Cuda, C.; Luhovyy, B. L.; Anderson, G. H.
Despite the lack of international agreement regarding the definition and classification of fiber, there is established evidence on the role of dietary fibers in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Beta glucan (β-glucan) is a soluble fiber readily available from oat and barley grains that has been gaining interest due to its multiple functional and bioactive properties. Its beneficial role in insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity is being continuously documented. The fermentability of β-glucans and their ability to form highly viscous solutions in the human gut may constitute the basis of their health benefits. Consequently, the applicability of β-glucan as a food ingredient is being widely considered with the dual purposes of increasing the fiber content of food products and enhancing their health properties. Therefore, this paper explores the role of β-glucans in the prevention and treatment of characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, their underlying mechanisms of action, and their potential in food applications. PMID:22187640
Innes, Kim E.; Selfe, Terry Kit; Taylor, Ann Gill
Cardiovascular disease risk rises sharply with menopause, likely due to the coincident increase in insulin resistance and related atherogenic changes that together comprise the metabolic or insulin resistance syndrome, a cluster of metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalities strongly implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease. A growing body of research suggests that traditional mind-body practices such as yoga, tai chi, and qigong may offer safe and cost-effective strategies for reducing insulin resistance syndrome-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease in older populations, including postmenopausal women. Current evidence suggests that these practices may reduce insulin resistance and related physiological risk factors for cardiovascular disease; improve mood, well-being, and sleep; decrease sympathetic activation; and enhance cardiovagal function. However, additional rigorous studies are needed to confirm existing findings and to examine long-term effects on cardiovascular health. PMID:18779682
Linares Segovia, Benigno; Gutiérrez Tinoco, Maximiliano; Izquierdo Arrizon, Angeles; Guízar Mendoza, Juan Manuel; Amador Licona, Norma
Recent studies have reported an increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. However, few have focused how diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome together in parents can influence on obesity and metabolic disturbances in offspring. To know the risk obesity and metabolic disturbance in children, adolescents, and young adults whose parents have diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. A comparative survey was made in healthy children of parents with diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome compared with offspring of healthy parents. We performed anthropometry and evaluated blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels in plasma. We registered parent antecedents to diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome and investigated the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and metabolic disturbances in offspring. We studied 259 subjects of 7 to 20 years of age. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 27% and 37%, respectively. The highest proportion of BMI >95th of the entire group was found in offspring with both diabetic parents. Glucose and total cholesterol levels were lower in the group with healthy parents compared with the group with diabetic mother and metabolic syndrome but with healthy father. HDL cholesterol was higher in the group with both healthy parents than in the group with diabetic mother and metabolic syndrome but healthy father. The offspring of parents with diabetes plus metabolic syndrome showed higher proportion of variables related to metabolic syndrome compared with healthy parents.
Park, Do-Young; Ahn, Young-Tae; Huh, Chul-Sung; McGregor, Robin A; Choi, Myung-Sook
AIM: To investigate the effect of novel probiotics on the clinical characteristics of high-fructose induced metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Male Wistar rats aged 4 wk were fed a 70% w/w high-fructose diet (n = 27) or chow diet (n = 9) for 3 wk to induce metabolic syndrome, the rats were then randomized into groups and administered probiotic [Lactobacillus curvatus (L. curvatus) HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) KY1032] at 109 cfu/d or 1010 cfu/d or placebo by oral gavage for 3 wk. Food intake and body weight were measured once a week. After 6 wk, the rats were fasted for 12 h, then anesthetized with diethyl ether and sacrificed. Blood samples were taken from the inferior vena cava for plasma analysis of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, total-cholesterol, triglycerides and thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed using mouse-specific Taqman probe sets to assess genes related to fatty acid β-oxidation, lipogenesis and cholesterol metabolism in the liver. Target gene expression was normalized to the housekeeping gene, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. RESULTS: Rodents fed a high-fructose diet developed clinical characteristics of the metabolic syndrome including increased plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol and oxidative stress levels, as well as increased liver mass and liver lipids compared to chow fed controls. Probiotic treatment (L. curvatus HY7601 and L. plantarum KY1032) at high (1010 cfu/d) or low dosage (109 cfu/d) lowered plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides and oxidative stress levels. Only high-dose probiotic treatment reduced liver mass and liver cholesterol. Probiotic treatment reduced lipogenesis via down-regulation of SREBP1, FAS and SCD1 mRNA levels and increased β-oxidation via up-regulation of PPARα and CPT2 mRNA levels. CONCLUSION: Probiotic L. curvatus HY7601 and L. plantarum KY1032 combined suppressed the clinical characteristics of high
Su, Mei-Chen; Lin, Hung-Ru; Chu, Nain-Feng; Huang, Chih-Hsung; Tsao, Lee-Ing
To develop a descriptive theory for the weight loss experiences of obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Obesity and metabolic syndrome both pose a threat to the health of perimenopausal women; therefore, understanding perimenopausal women's subjective feelings and experiences is beneficial to establishing effective prevention strategies. However, studies have rarely explored these relevant experiences. A qualitative study using the grounded theory method to establish a descriptive theory. Eighteen obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome aged 45-60 years participated in comprehensive interviews. 'Crossing the gaps to making life modifications' was the core category, and 'the awareness of weight gain and health alarm' was the antecedent condition. In the weight loss experience, the following three interaction categories were identified: (1) 'experiencing bad feelings,' (2) 'encountering obstacles' and (3) 'making efforts to transition to a new life.' Some women adhered to new life habits through perceiving social support and by using self-incentives. Finally, women enjoyed and mastered self-monitoring of their health in their new life, and practiced new changes as part of their life. However, some participants felt that making changes to their life was too time-consuming. Therefore, these women chose to live with their abnormal health without making changes. Obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome experienced various gaps in their weight loss process. Although they struggled with many obstacles, these women were able to learn from their experiences and face their health challenges. These findings can guide healthcare professionals to provide appropriate interventions to understand the hidden health problems of this particular group of women. Healthcare professionals should develop a set of plans by which women receive a complete weight loss program and support from professionals and family. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Rojas, Rosalba; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J; Mehta, Roopa; Franco, Aurora; Olaiz, Gustavo; Rull, Juan A
The metabolic syndrome integrates, in a single diagnosis, the manifestations of insulin resistance that may lead to increased cardiovascular morbidity and precedes type 2 diabetes. Here we discuss the strengths and limitations of the definitions of the metabolic syndrome and the epidemiology of the syndrome including information from non-Caucasian populations. The definitions proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) are the most frequently used. The relative risk of having long-term complications is greater for the WHO definition; this is explained by the inclusion of the insulin resistance criteria. The cut-off points used in these definitions should be, but are not, adjusted for ethnicity; as a result, in non-Caucasian subjects, there is lack of agreement among these criteria. In a Mexican population-based survey the prevalence was 13.61% using the WHO definition and 26.6% using the NCEP-III criteria. Cases identified by the WHO criteria had a more severe form of the disease. We propose that the metabolic syndrome should be viewed as a progressive long-term process that leads to major complications. Its definition should reflect the continuous nature of the disease; the categorical approach of the current criteria oversimplifies the complexity of the syndrome. The threshold for defining abnormality should be based on the associated risk of the identified phenotype. Refinement of the definition of both affected and nonaffected subjects is required. The available definitions include, in each of these categories, heterogeneous groups with a broad range of risk of future complications.
Verit, Fatma Ferda
To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in clomiphene citrate (CC) resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. 58 CC resistant PCOS patients, 52 CC responders, 53 fertile PCOS and 53 age and body mass index-matched normoandrogenic ovulatory fertile women were evaluated for metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was 41.4% in CC resistants, in 23.1% of CC responders, in 11.3% of PCOS fertiles and 0% of controls (p < 0.0001). Waist circumference (WC) > 88 cm was 44.8%, systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥ 130 mmHg and diastolic BP ≥85 mmHg were 27.6%, TG (triglyceride) ≥150 mg/dL was 36.2%, HDL(high density lipoprotein) < 50 mg/dL was 63.8%, fasting glucose levels ≥ 100 mg/dL was 20.7% in CC resistant PCOS women. There were positive associations between CC resistance and WC >88 cm, BP ≥ 130 ≥ 85 mmHg, TG ≥ 150 mg/dL, HDL < 50 mg/dL, fasting glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL, and presence of metabolic syndrome (p < 0.05, for all). Moreover, WC > 88 cm, and HDL < 50 mg/dL were independent variables that were associated by CC resistance by multivariate regression analysis. CC resistant PCOS patients have high prevalence of metabolic syndrome. These women have an increased risk of future cardiovascular disease.
Fuentes-Pastor, J; Pellejero, P; Ortiz, I; Ramírez-Backhaus, M; de Gracia, A; Marrugo, C; Gomez-Ferrer, A; Calatrava, A; Rubio-Briones, J; Rodriguez-Torreblanca, C; Solsona-Narbón, E
To assess the relationship between prostate cancer (PC) and the presence of metabolic syndrome and late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) syndrome. A retrospective study was conducted on 686 patients who underwent prostate biopsy. We analysed the demographic variables, clinical data and biopsy results. To diagnose metabolic syndrome, we employed the criteria of the American Heart Association. For the diagnosis of LOH syndrome, we employed the Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male questionnaire and testosterone levels (TT). We evaluated the relationship between free testosterone (FT) and bioavailable testosterone (BT) on one hand and PC and its aggressiveness on the other, as well as the usefulness of the TT to prostate specific antigen (TT/PSA) ratio in the PC diagnosis. The patient's median age was 65 years. Metabolic syndrome is not associated with PC (39.4% vs. 35%; P=.1) but is associated with a PC Gleason score >7 (50.4% vs. 29.44%; P=.002). LOH, low FT and low BT are associated with an increased presence of PC (51% vs. 35%, P=.02; 44.86% vs. 33.33%, P=.03; and 46.46% vs. 33.08%, P=.01, respectively) and with an increased probability of a PC Gleason score >7 (61.54% vs. 37.5%, P=.02; 54.17% vs. 34.12%, P=.02; 54.35% vs. 34.48%, P=.02, respectively). Additionally, the median TT/PSA ratio was significantly lower in patients with positive biopsies (P=.022). Metabolic syndrome was not associated with the probability of having PC but was associated with a PC Gleason score >7. Moreover, LOH syndrome had a higher percentage of PC and a greater presence of PC Gleason scores >7, as did low levels of FT and low levels of BT. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Kishida, Ken; Nagaretani, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Hidehiko; Kobayashi, Hideki; Tanaka, Sachiyo; Maeda, Norikazu; Nagasawa, Azumi; Hibuse, Toshiyuki; Ohashi, Koji; Kumada, Masahiro; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Yoshihisa; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Kihara, Shinji; Funahashi, Tohru; Matsuzawa, Yuji
Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein, consists of collagen-like fibrous and complement C1q-like globular domains, and circulates in human plasma in a multimeric form. The protein exhibits anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic activities. However, adiponectin plasma concentrations are low in obese subjects, and hypoadiponectinemia is associated with the metabolic syndrome, which is a cluster of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. We have recently reported a missense mutation in the adiponectin gene, in which isoleucine at position 164 in the globular domain is substituted with threonine (I164T). Subjects with this mutation showed markedly low level of plasma adiponectin and clinical features of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we examined the molecular characteristics of the mutant protein associated with a genetic cause of hypoadiponectinemia. The current study revealed (1) the mutant protein showed an oligomerization state similar to the wild-type as determined by gel filtration chromatography and, (2) the mutant protein exhibited normal insulin-sensitizing activity, but (3) pulse-chase study showed abnormal secretion of the mutant protein from adipose tissues. Our results suggest that I164T mutation is associated with hypoadiponectinemia through disturbed secretion into plasma, which may contribute to the development of the metabolic syndrome.
Franch Pato, Clara M; Molina Rodríguez, Vicente; Franch Valverde, Juan I
Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders are associated with high morbidity and mortality, due to inherent health factors, genetic factors, and factors related to psychopharmacological treatment. Antipsychotics, like other drugs, have side-effects that can substantially affect the physical health of patients, with substantive differences in the side-effect profile and in the patients in which these side-effects occur. To understand and identify these risk groups could help to prevent the occurrence of the undesired effects. A prospective study, with 24 months follow-up, was conducted in order to analyse the physical health of severe mental patients under maintenance treatment with atypical antipsychotics, as well as to determine any predictive parameters at anthropometric and/or analytical level for good/bad outcome of metabolic syndrome in these patients. There were no significant changes in the physical and biochemical parameters individually analysed throughout the different visits. The baseline abdominal circumference (lambda Wilks P=.013) and baseline HDL-cholesterol levels (lambda Wilks P=.000) were the parameters that seem to be more relevant above the rest of the metabolic syndrome constituents diagnosis criteria as predictors in the long-term. In the search for predictive factors of metabolic syndrome, HDL-cholesterol and abdominal circumference at the time of inclusion were selected, as such that the worst the baseline results were, the higher probability of long-term improvement. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Fall, Tove; Ingelsson, Erik
Until just a few years ago, the genetic determinants of obesity and metabolic syndrome were largely unknown, with the exception of a few forms of monogenic extreme obesity. Since genome-wide association studies (GWAS) became available, large advances have been made. The first single nucleotide polymorphism robustly associated with increased body mass index (BMI) was in 2007 mapped to a gene with for the time unknown function. This gene, now known as fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) has been repeatedly replicated in several ethnicities and is affecting obesity by regulating appetite. Since the first report from a GWAS of obesity, an increasing number of markers have been shown to be associated with BMI, other measures of obesity or fat distribution and metabolic syndrome. This systematic review of obesity GWAS will summarize genome-wide significant findings for obesity and metabolic syndrome and briefly give a few suggestions of what is to be expected in the next few years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
McEvoy, Linda K.; Laughlin, Gail A.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Bergstrom, Jaclyn; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; von Mühlen, Denise
PURPOSE To determine whether metabolic syndrome is associated with accelerated cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS Longitudinal study of 993 adults (mean 66.8 ± 8.7 years) from the Rancho Bernardo Study. Metabolic syndrome components, defined by 2001 NCEP-ATP III criteria, were measured in 1984–87. Cognitive function was first assessed in 1988–92. Cognitive assessments were repeated approximately every four years, for a maximum 16-year follow-up. Mixed-effects models examined longitudinal rate of cognitive decline by metabolic syndrome status, controlling for factors plausibly associated with cognitive function (diabetes, inflammation). RESULTS Metabolic syndrome was more common in men than women (14% vs. 9%, p=0.01). In women, metabolic syndrome was associated with greater executive function and long term memory decline. These associations did not differ by inflammatory biomarker levels. Diabetes did not alter the association of metabolic syndrome with long-term recall but modified the association with executive function: metabolic syndrome was associated with accelerated executive function decline in diabetic women only. Metabolic syndrome was not related to rate of decline on any cognitive measure in men. CONCLUSIONS Metabolic syndrome was a risk factor for accelerated cognitive decline, but only in women. Prevention of metabolic syndrome may aid in maintenance of cognitive function with age. PMID:22285865
Xavier, Natasha P; Chaim, Rita C; Gimeno, Suely G A; Ferreira, Sandra R G; Hirai, Amelia T; Padovani, Carlos R; Okoshi, Marina P; Okoshi, Katashi
The American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI), revising the National Cholesterol Evaluation Program for Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) have proposed definitions of metabolic syndrome that take into account waist circumference thresholds according to ethnicity. In this study we estimated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a Japanese-Brazilian population using NCEP definitions for Westerners (NCEPwe) and Asians (NCEPas), and IDF for Japanese (IDF). A total of 650 Japanese-Brazilians living in a developed Brazilian city and aged 30-88 years were included. Metabolic syndrome prevalence according to NCEPwe, NCEPas, and IDF was, respectively, 46.5%, 56.5%, and 48.3%. Only 43.5% of subjects did not have metabolic syndrome by any of the 3 definitions, and 38.3% fulfilled metabolic syndrome criteria for all 3 definitions. Ten percent of subjects were positive for metabolic syndrome based on NCEPas and IDF, but not for NCEPwe. Because IDF requires abdominal obesity as a criterion, the frequency of subjects without metabolic syndrome according to IDF, but with metabolic syndrome by NCEPwe and NCEPas was 8.2%. Independent of the metabolic syndrome definition, Japanese-Brazilians present an elevated metabolic syndrome prevalence, which was higher when using NCEP criteria for Asians, followed by the IDF definition for Japanese.
Jeong, Jeonghee; Yu, Jungok
Metabolic syndrome is an important cluster of coronary heart disease risk factors. However, it remains unclear to what extent metabolic syndrome is associated with demographic and potentially modifiable lifestyle factors among Korean persons with physical disabilities. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and influencing factors of metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. The Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome influencing factors and prevalence, which were evaluated in a representative sample from the 2013 Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database. Characteristics were compared based on frequency using the χ 2 test. The associations between metabolic syndrome and its risk factors were estimated using logistic multivariable regression analysis. Metabolic syndrome was detected in 31.5% of the surveyed persons with physical disabilities. Female sex, age of ≥65 years, smoking, greater alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, higher body mass index, and a family history of diabetes were associated with increased risks of metabolic syndrome. The major risk factors for metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities were obesity and older age. Performing physical activity was associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we recommend using a continuous obesity management program and physical activity to prevent metabolic syndrome among persons with physical disabilities. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Background Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of the most dangerous cardiac risk factors and is associated with high mortality. Ethnic differences in metabolic syndrome (MS) criteria and prevalence rates have been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the MS prevalence among patients with schizophrenia in Palestine. Methods We recruited 250 patients with schizophrenia from 4 psychiatric primary healthcare centers in Northern Palestine. The MS prevalence was assessed based on National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III Adapted criteria. Results The overall MS prevalence was 43.6%, with 39% in male and 55.9% in female patients. On average, the study patients had 2.3 ± 1.3 metabolic abnormalities. Univariate analysis showed that MS was significantly higher with older age, female gender, longer duration of the illness, smoking, abdominal obesity, high systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high triglycerides, low HDL-C, and high fasting plasma glucose. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that only systolic blood pressure, high triglycerides, high fasting plasma glucose, and low HDL-C were significant predictors of MS in schizophrenic patients. Conclusions MS is common among Arab patients with schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia should receive regular monitoring and adequate treatment of cardio-metabolic risk factors. PMID:23270504
Sweileh, Waleed M; Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Dalal, Salah A; Ibwini, Sami; Sawalha, Ansam F; Ali, Iyad
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of the most dangerous cardiac risk factors and is associated with high mortality. Ethnic differences in metabolic syndrome (MS) criteria and prevalence rates have been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the MS prevalence among patients with schizophrenia in Palestine. We recruited 250 patients with schizophrenia from 4 psychiatric primary healthcare centers in Northern Palestine. The MS prevalence was assessed based on National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III Adapted criteria. The overall MS prevalence was 43.6%, with 39% in male and 55.9% in female patients. On average, the study patients had 2.3 ± 1.3 metabolic abnormalities. Univariate analysis showed that MS was significantly higher with older age, female gender, longer duration of the illness, smoking, abdominal obesity, high systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high triglycerides, low HDL-C, and high fasting plasma glucose. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that only systolic blood pressure, high triglycerides, high fasting plasma glucose, and low HDL-C were significant predictors of MS in schizophrenic patients. MS is common among Arab patients with schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia should receive regular monitoring and adequate treatment of cardio-metabolic risk factors.
Ishimoto, Takuji; Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Le, MyPhuong T.; Garcia, Gabriela E.; Diggle, Christine P.; MacLean, Paul S.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Asipu, Aruna; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A.; Kosugi, Tomoki; Rivard, Christopher J.; Maruyama, Shoichi; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G.; Bonthron, David T.; Sautin, Yuri Y.; Johnson, Richard J.
Fructose intake from added sugars correlates with the epidemic rise in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Fructose intake also causes features of metabolic syndrome in laboratory animals and humans. The first enzyme in fructose metabolism is fructokinase, which exists as two isoforms, A and C. Here we show that fructose-induced metabolic syndrome is prevented in mice lacking both isoforms but is exacerbated in mice lacking fructokinase A. Fructokinase C is expressed primarily in liver, intestine, and kidney and has high affinity for fructose, resulting in rapid metabolism and marked ATP depletion. In contrast, fructokinase A is widely distributed, has low affinity for fructose, and has less dramatic effects on ATP levels. By reducing the amount of fructose for metabolism in the liver, fructokinase A protects against fructokinase C-mediated metabolic syndrome. These studies provide insights into the mechanisms by which fructose causes obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:22371574
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that can predispose an individual to a greater risk of developing type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The cluster includes abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia – all of which are risk factors to public health. While searching for a link among the aforementioned malaises, clues have been focused on the cell membrane domain caveolae, wherein the MetS-associated active molecules are colocalized and interacted with to carry out designated biological activities. Caveola disarray could induce all of those individual metabolic abnormalities to be present in animal models and humans, providing a new target for therapeutic strategy in the management of MetS. PMID:24563731
Justice, Monica J; Buchovecky, Christie M; Kyle, Stephanie M; Djukic, Aleksandra
Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked neurological disorder caused by mutations in MECP2, may have a metabolic component. We reported a genetic suppressor screen in a Mecp2-null mouse model to identify pathways for therapeutic improvement of RTT symptoms. Of note, one suppressor mutation implied that cholesterol homeostasis was perturbed in Mecp2 null mice; indeed, cholesterol synthesis was elevated in the brain and body system. Remarkably, the genetic effect of downregulating the cholesterol pathway could be mimicked chemically by statin drugs, improving motor symptoms, and increasing longevity in the mouse. Our work linked cholesterol metabolism to RTT pathology for the first time. Both neurological and systemic effects of perturbed cholesterol homeostasis overlap with many RTT symptoms. Here we show in patients that peripheral cholesterol, triglycerides, and/or LDLs may be elevated early in RTT disease onset, providing a biomarker for patients that could be aided by therapeutic interventions that modulate lipid metabolism. PMID:25003017
Nair, Anand R; Mariappan, Nithya; Stull, April J; Francis, Joseph
Blueberries (BB) have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and endothelial function in obese and pre-diabetic humans, and decrease oxidative stress and inflammation, and ameliorate cardio-renal damage in rodents. This indicates that blueberries have a systemic effect and are not limited to a particular organ system. In order for blueberries to exert beneficial effects on the whole body, the mechanism would logically have to operate through modulation of cellular humoral factors. This study investigated the role of blueberries in modulating immune cell levels and attenuating circulatory and monocyte inflammation and oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome (MetS) subjects. A double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled study was conducted in adults with MetS, in which they received a blueberry (22.5 g freeze-dried) or placebo smoothie twice daily for six weeks. Free radical production in the whole blood and monocytes, dendritic cell (DC) levels, expression of cytokines in monocytes and serum inflammatory markers were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Baseline free radical levels in MetS subjects' samples were not different between groups. Treatment with blueberries markedly decreased superoxide and total reactive oxygen species (ROS) in whole blood and monocytes compared to the placebo (p ≤ 0.05). The baseline DC numbers in MetS subjects' samples in both groups were not different, however treatment with blueberries significantly increased myeloid DC (p ≤ 0.05) and had no effect on plasmacytoid cells. Blueberry treatment decreased monocyte gene expression of TNFα, IL-6, TLR4 and reduced serum GMCSF in MetS subjects when compared to the placebo treatment (p ≤ 0.05). The findings of the current study demonstrate that blueberries exert immunomodulatory effects and attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation in adults with MetS.
Zhu, Wan-Jun; Nakayama, Masaaki; Mori, Takefumi; Nakayama, Keisuke; Katoh, Junichiro; Murata, Yaeko; Sato, Toshinobu; Kabayama, Shigeru; Ito, Sadayoshi
Hydrogen (H(2)) reportedly produces an antioxidative effect by quenching cytotoxic oxygen radicals. We studied the biological effects of water with dissolved H(2) on ischemia-induced cardio-renal injury in a rat model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Dahl salt-sensitive rats (7 weeks old) were allowed ad libitum drinking of filtered water (FW: dissolved H(2), 0.00 ± 0.00 mg/L) or water with dissolved H(2) produced by electrolysis (EW: dissolved H(2), 0.35 ± 0.03 mg/L) for up to 6 weeks on a 0.5% salt diet. The rats then underwent ischemic reperfusion (I/R) of one kidney and were killed a week later for investigation of the contralateral kidney and the heart. In the rats given FW, unilateral kidney I/R induced significant increases in plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, methylglyoxal and blood urea nitrogen. Histologically, significant increases were found in glomerular adhesion, cardiac fibrosis, number of ED-1 (CD68)-positive cells and nitrotyrosine staining in the contralateral kidney and the heart. In rats given EW, those findings were significantly ameliorated and there were significant histological differences between rats given FW and those given EW. Consumption of EW by ad libitum drinking has the potential to ameliorate ischemia-induced cardio-renal injury in CKD model rats. This indicates a novel strategy of applying H(2) produced by water electrolysis technology for the prevention of CKD cardio-renal syndrome.
Camici, Marcella; Micheli, Vanna; Ipata, Piero Luigi; Tozzi, Maria Grazia
This review is devised to gather the presently known inborn errors of purine metabolism that manifest neurological pediatric syndromes. The aim is to draw a comprehensive picture of these rare diseases, characterized by unexpected and often devastating neurological symptoms. Although investigated for many years, most purine metabolism disorders associated to psychomotor dysfunctions still hide the molecular link between the metabolic derangement and the neurological manifestations. This basically indicates that many of the actual functions of nucleosides and nucleotides in the development and function of several organs, in particular central nervous system, are still unknown. Both superactivity and deficiency of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase cause hereditary disorders characterized, in most cases, by neurological impairments. The deficiency of adenylosuccinate lyase and 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide ribotide transformylase/IMP cyclohydrolase, both belonging to the de novo purine synthesis pathway, is also associated to severe neurological manifestations. Among catabolic enzymes, hyperactivity of ectosolic 5'-nucleotidase, as well as deficiency of purine nucleoside phosphorylase and adenosine deaminase also lead to syndromes affecting the central nervous system. The most severe pathologies are associated to the deficiency of the salvage pathway enzymes hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and deoxyguanosine kinase: the former due to an unexplained adverse effect exerted on the development and/or differentiation of dopaminergic neurons, the latter due to a clear impairment of mitochondrial functions. The assessment of hypo- or hyperuricemic conditions is suggestive of purine enzyme dysfunctions, but most disorders of purine metabolism may escape the clinical investigation because they are not associated to these metabolic derangements. This review may represent a starting point stimulating both scientists and physicians involved in the study of
Lebovitz, Harold E
Obese patients with the metabolic syndrome generally have a visceral (apple-shaped) fat distribution and are at an increased risk of macrovascular disease, while those with peripheral (pear-shaped) obesity tend not to have metabolic abnormalities and are at less risk. This difference appears to be related to the differing metabolic functions (and secretory products) of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), as well as the fact that VAT drains directly into the liver. Thus, it appears that increased VAT, but not SAT, is associated with both hepatic and peripheral biochemical abnormalities leading to insulin resistance and the associated metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance is associated with VAT products, such as free fatty acids and their metabolites, as well as cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). These factors may activate components of the inflammatory pathway such as nuclear factor kappa-B (NFkappaB), and inhibit insulin signalling. Insulin resistance is further associated with decreased levels of another tissue product, adiponectin. The incidence and prevalence of obesity is increasing at an unprecedented rate. The classic treatment of obesity is weight loss via lifestyle modification. However, prevention of obesity comorbidity can also be achieved by modifying the mechanisms by which obesity causes these comorbid conditions. For instance, it is now known that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family of transcriptional regulators are crucial in regulating adipose tissue development and metabolism; this helps explain why compounds with PPARgamma agonist activity, e.g. thiazolidinediones, increase insulin action through their effects in regulating adipose tissue metabolism.
Falkowski, Jed; Atchison, Timothy; Debutte-Smith, Maxine; Weiner, Myron F; O'Bryant, Sid
Decrements in cognitive functioning have been linked to the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a risk factor for cardiovascular disease defined by the presence of three of the following: elevated blood pressure, increased waist circumference, elevated blood glucose, elevated triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We examined the relationship between four measures of executive functioning (EF) and MetS as diagnosed by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-American Heart Association criteria. MetS was examined in a rural population of 395 persons with a mean age of 61.3 years, 71.4% women, 37.0% Hispanic, 53.7% White non-Hispanic. There was a 61.0% prevalence of MetS. We derived a factor score from the four executive function measures which was used to compare those with and without the syndrome, as well as any additive effects of components of the syndrome. Those with MetS exhibited significantly poorer performance than those without the syndrome. However, there was no additive effect, having more components of the syndrome was not related to lower performance. The presence of MetS was associated with poorer EF in this rural cohort of community dwelling volunteers.
Falkowski, Jed; Atchison, Timothy; DeButte-Smith, Maxine; Weiner, Myron F.; O'Bryant, Sid
Decrements in cognitive functioning have been linked to the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a risk factor for cardiovascular disease defined by the presence of three of the following: elevated blood pressure, increased waist circumference, elevated blood glucose, elevated triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We examined the relationship between four measures of executive functioning (EF) and MetS as diagnosed by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-American Heart Association criteria. MetS was examined in a rural population of 395 persons with a mean age of 61.3 years, 71.4% women, 37.0% Hispanic, 53.7% White non-Hispanic. There was a 61.0% prevalence of MetS. We derived a factor score from the four executive function measures which was used to compare those with and without the syndrome, as well as any additive effects of components of the syndrome. Those with MetS exhibited significantly poorer performance than those without the syndrome. However, there was no additive effect, having more components of the syndrome was not related to lower performance. The presence of MetS was associated with poorer EF in this rural cohort of community dwelling volunteers. PMID:24152591
Lui, Kingwai; Randhawa, Gagandeep; Totten, Vicken; Smith, Adam E.; Raese, Joachim
Objective: Metabolic syndrome is a common underdiagnosed condition among psychiatric patients exacerbated by second-generation antipsychotics, with the exception of aripiprazole and ziprasidone. This study evaluated the prescribing and treating behavior with regard to antipsychotics and metabolic syndrome of psychiatrists before and after implementation of a mandatory admission order set and electronic notification of results. Method: Baseline data from 9,100 consecutive psychiatric admissions to a mental health hospital (July 2013–July 2014) were compared to postintervention data (July 2014–January 2015), which included 1,499 consecutive patient records. The intervention initiated standardized admission testing with electronic notification to psychiatrists when patients met metabolic syndrome criteria (according to Axis III of the DSM-IV). Charts were examined for inclusion of this diagnosis at discharge and for treatment changes. Results: At baseline, only 2.4% of patients (n = 214) were evaluated for metabolic syndrome. Of these, 34.5% (0.8% of the total sample) met metabolic syndrome criteria. Only 15 patients (0.16%) were comprehensively treated. No chart listed metabolic syndrome under Axis III of the DSM-IV. After the intervention, the diagnosis of patients meeting the criteria for metabolic syndrome increased from 0% to 29.3%. Less than 3% of patients were switched to drugs with a more benign metabolic profile. All patients who continued on second-generation antipsychotics had metabolic retesting. Thirty-eight experienced a significant and rapid increase in triglyceride levels after only 3 to 17 days. Conclusions: Mandatory intake testing increases the number of patients evaluated for metabolic syndrome. Electronic alerts increase the inclusion of metabolic syndrome among discharge diagnoses but rarely affect prescribing practices. PMID:27247842
Lanaspa, Miguel A; Ishimoto, Takuji; Li, Nanxing; Cicerchi, Christina; Orlicky, David J.; Ruzicky, Philip; Rivard, Christopher; Inaba, Shinichiro; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A.; Bales, Elise S.; Diggle, Christine P.; Asipu, Aruna; Petrash, J. Mark; Kosugi, Tomoki; Maruyama, Shoichi; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura G.; McManaman, James L.; Bonthron, David T; Sautin, Yuri Y.; Johnson, Richard J.
Carbohydrates with high glycemic index are proposed to promote the development of obesity, insulin resistance and fatty liver, but the mechanism by which this occurs remains unknown. High serum glucose concentrations glucose are known to induce the polyol pathway and increase fructose generation in the liver. Here we show that this hepatic, endogenously-produced fructose causes systemic metabolic changes. We demonstrate that mice unable to metabolize fructose are protected from an increase in energy intake and body weight, visceral obesity, fatty liver, elevated insulin levels and hyperleptinemia after exposure to 10% glucose for 14 weeks. In normal mice, glucose consumption is accompanied by aldose reductase and polyol pathway activation in steatotic areas. In this regard, we show that aldose reductase deficient mice were protected against glucose-induced fatty liver. We conclude that endogenous fructose generation and metabolism in the liver represents an important mechanism whereby glucose promotes the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24022321
Shi, Danni; Dyck, Michael K; Uwiera, Richard R E; Russell, Jim C; Proctor, Spencer D; Vine, Donna F
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo-/anovulation, and polycystic ovarian morphology and is a complex endocrine disorder that also presents with features of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. These latter symptoms form cardiometabolic risk factors predisposing individuals to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). To date, animal models to study PCOS in the context of the metabolic syndrome and CVD risk have been lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the JCR:LA-cp rodent as an animal model of PCOS associated with the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic indices were measured at 6 and 12 wk, and reproductive parameters including ovarian morphology and estrous cyclicity were assessed at 12 wk or adulthood. At 6 wk of age, the cp/cp genotype of the JCR:LA-cp strain developed visceral obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia) compared with control animals. Serum testosterone concentrations were not significantly different between groups at 6 wk of age. However, at 12 wk, the cp/cp genotype had higher serum testosterone concentrations, compared with control animals, and presented with oligoovulation, a decreased number of corpora lutea, and an increased number of total follicles, in particular atretic and cystic follicles. The cardiometabolic risk factors in the cp/cp animals were exacerbated at 12 wk including obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. The results of this study demonstrate that the JCR:LA-cp rodent may be a useful PCOS-like model to study early mechanisms involved in the etiology of cardiometabolic risk factors in the context of both PCOS and the metabolic syndrome.
Feldman, Ross D; Anderson, Todd J; Touyz, Rhian M
The real promise of the metabolic syndrome concept was the opportunity to elucidate a singular common mechanism for its component abnormalities and consequently a singular therapy. That promise has not produced. This relates to the following considerations: (1) metabolic syndrome remains a syndrome not a disease, (2) its diagnosis offers little more than what can be determined by measuring waist circumference, (3) risk assessment is not improved by the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, (4) the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome does not impact the treatment of each component of the syndrome, and (5) there is no effective therapy for metabolic syndrome in its entirety. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Chun-Ja; Park, JeeWon; Kang, Se-Won
This study examined the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the risk level of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a vulnerable population of 407 subjects in Korea. This descriptive study was a part of the Tailed Health Visiting Service Program, using baseline data from public health centres in Suwon, Korea. The definition of metabolic syndrome was based on the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria, and risk of CVD was estimated according to the Framingham study equation. This study demonstrated that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 40.8% higher and the risk of CVD was significantly 3.1 times higher among those with metabolic syndrome than among those without it. Of those with metabolic syndrome, 50.6% overall and 81.1% of men had a high risk for CVD. These findings suggest a need to screen and prevent the risk of CVD in vulnerable populations with metabolic syndrome. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Legeza, Balázs; Marcolongo, Paola; Gamberucci, Alessandra; Varga, Viola; Bánhegyi, Gábor; Benedetti, Angiolo; Odermatt, Alex
The modern Western society lifestyle is characterized by a hyperenergetic, high sugar containing food intake. Sugar intake increased dramatically during the last few decades, due to the excessive consumption of high-sugar drinks and high-fructose corn syrup. Current evidence suggests that high fructose intake when combined with overeating and adiposity promotes adverse metabolic health effects including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and inflammation. Similarly, elevated glucocorticoid levels, especially the enhanced generation of active glucocorticoids in the adipose tissue due to increased 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) activity, have been associated with metabolic diseases. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that fructose stimulates the 11β-HSD1-mediated glucocorticoid activation by enhancing the availability of its cofactor NADPH. In adipocytes, fructose was found to stimulate 11β-HSD1 expression and activity, thereby promoting the adipogenic effects of glucocorticoids. This article aims to highlight the interconnections between overwhelmed fructose metabolism, intracellular glucocorticoid activation in adipose tissue, and their metabolic effects on the progression of the metabolic syndrome.
Legeza, Balázs; Marcolongo, Paola; Gamberucci, Alessandra; Varga, Viola; Bánhegyi, Gábor; Benedetti, Angiolo; Odermatt, Alex
The modern Western society lifestyle is characterized by a hyperenergetic, high sugar containing food intake. Sugar intake increased dramatically during the last few decades, due to the excessive consumption of high-sugar drinks and high-fructose corn syrup. Current evidence suggests that high fructose intake when combined with overeating and adiposity promotes adverse metabolic health effects including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and inflammation. Similarly, elevated glucocorticoid levels, especially the enhanced generation of active glucocorticoids in the adipose tissue due to increased 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) activity, have been associated with metabolic diseases. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that fructose stimulates the 11β-HSD1-mediated glucocorticoid activation by enhancing the availability of its cofactor NADPH. In adipocytes, fructose was found to stimulate 11β-HSD1 expression and activity, thereby promoting the adipogenic effects of glucocorticoids. This article aims to highlight the interconnections between overwhelmed fructose metabolism, intracellular glucocorticoid activation in adipose tissue, and their metabolic effects on the progression of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:28445389
Church, Timothy S.; Thompson, Angela M.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Sui, Xuemei; Johannsen, Neil; Earnest, Conrad P.; Blair, Steven N.
OBJECTIVE To examine cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk in men with diabetes only, metabolic syndrome only, and concurrent metabolic syndrome and diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We examined CVD mortality risk by metabolic syndrome and diabetes status in men from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) (mean ± SD age 45.1 ± 10.2 years). Participants were categorized as having neither diabetes nor metabolic syndrome (n = 23,770), metabolic syndrome only (n = 8,780), diabetes only (n = 532), or both (n = 1,097). The duration of follow-up was 14.6 ± 7.0 years with a total of 483,079 person-years of exposure and 1,085 CVD deaths. RESULTS Age-, examination year–, and smoking-adjusted CVD death rates (per 1,000 man-years) in men with neither metabolic syndrome nor diabetes, metabolic syndrome only, diabetes only, and both were 1.9, 3.3, 5.5, and 6.5, respectively. CVD mortality was higher in men with metabolic syndrome only (hazard ratio 1.8 [95% CI 1.5–2.0]), diabetes only (2.9 [2.1–4.0]), and both (3.4 [2.8–4.2]) compared with men with neither. The presence of metabolic syndrome was not associated (1.2 [0.8–1.7]) with higher CVD mortality risk in individuals with diabetes. In contrast, the presence of diabetes substantially increased (2.1 [1.7–2.6]) CVD mortality risk in individuals with metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS The presence of diabetes was associated with a threefold higher CVD mortality risk, and metabolic syndrome status did not modify this risk. Our findings support the fact that physicians should be aggressive in using CVD risk–reducing therapies in all diabetic patients regardless of metabolic syndrome status. PMID:19366967
Kanufre, Viviane C; Soares, Rosângelis D L; Alves, Michelle Rosa A; Aguiar, Marcos J B; Starling, Ana Lúcia P; Norton, Rocksane C
This study aimed to identify markers of metabolic syndrome (MS) in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). This was a cross-sectional study consisting of 58 PKU patients (ages of 4-15 years): 29 patients with excess weight, and 29 with normal weight. The biochemical variables assessed were phenylalanine (phe), total cholesterol, HDL-c, triglycerides, glucose, and basal insulin. The patients had Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) and waist circumference assessed. No inter-group difference was found for phe. Overweight patients had higher levels of triglycerides, basal insulin, and HOMA, but lower concentrations of HDL-cholesterol, when compared to the eutrophic patients. Total cholesterol/HDL-c was significantly higher in the overweight group. A positive correlation between basal insulin level and HOMA with waist circumference was found only in the overweight group. The results of this study suggest that patients with PKU and excess weight are potentially vulnerable to the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct clinical and laboratory monitoring, aiming to prevent metabolic changes, as well as excessive weight gain and its consequences, particularly cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
The incidence of chronic disease is escalating much more rapidly in developing countries than in industrialized countries. A potential emerging public health issue may be the increasing incidence of childhood obesity in developing countries and the resulting socioeconomic and public health burden faced by these countries in the near future. In a systematic review carried out through an electronic search of the literature from 1950-2007, the author compared data from surveys on the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome among children living in developing countries. The highest prevalence of childhood overweight was found in Eastern Europe and the Middle East, whereas India and Sri Lanka had the lowest prevalence. The few studies conducted in developing countries showed a considerably high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among youth. These findings provide alarming data for health professionals and policy-makers about the extent of these problems in developing countries, many of which are still grappling with malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. Time trends in childhood obesity and its metabolic consequences, defined by uniform criteria, should be monitored in developing countries in order to obtain useful insights for primordial and primary prevention of the upcoming chronic disease epidemic in such communities.
Wong, Sok Kuan; Chin, Kok-Yong; Suhaimi, Farihah Hj; Ahmad, Fairus; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and osteoporosis are two major healthcare problems worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of medical conditions consisting of central obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, in which each acts on bone tissue in different ways. The growing prevalence of MetS and osteoporosis in the population along with the controversial findings on the relationship between both conditions suggest the importance for further investigation and discussion on this topic. This review aims to assess the available evidence on the effects of each component of MetS on bone metabolism from the conventional to the contemporary. Previous studies suggested that the two conditions shared some common underlying pathways, which include regulation of calcium homeostasis, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)/receptor activator of the NF-κB (RANK)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) and Wnt-β-catenin signaling pathways. In conclusion, we suggest that MetS may have a potential role in developing osteoporosis and more studies are necessary to further prove this hypothesis. PMID:27338453
Martínez Martín, Francisco Javier
To evaluate the effects of manidipine versus amlodipine on blood pressure, albuminuria, insulin sensitivity, adiponectin, TNF-alpha and C-reactive protein in nondiabetic subjects with metabolic syndrome (ATP-III definition), including impaired fasting glucose (>5.6 mmol/l) and hypertension. In total, 64 patients were recruited and randomly assigned to manidipine 20 mg versus amlodipine 10 mg (for 12 +/- 2 weeks). Blood pressure was reduced to a similar extent (p < 0.001) by both treatments. Albuminuria was significantly reduced by manidipine (-37.3%; p = 0.003), but not by amlodipine. C-reactive protein was reduced similarly (p < 0.01) by both treatments. Plasma adiponectin was increased (32.9%; p = 0.011) and plasma TNF-alpha was reduced by manidipine (-37.1%; p = 0.019), but neither was significantly changed by amlodipine. The HOMA insulin resistance index was significantly reduced by manidipine (-21.3%; p = 0.007), but not by amlodipine (-8.3%; p = 0.062). Tolerability with manidipine was superior to that with amlodipine (p = 0.04). These data support the added value of manidipine in renal and metabolic protection beyond blood pressure reduction in the treatment of hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome.
Spatola, Leonardo; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Gambaro, Giovanni; Badalamenti, Salvatore; Dauriz, Marco
Uric acid nephrolithiasis (UAN) is an increasingly common disease in ethnically diverse populations and constitutes about 10% of all kidney stones. Metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus are accounted among the major risk factors for UAN, together with environmental exposure, individual lifestyle habits and genetic predisposition. The development and overt manifestation of UAN appears to stem on the background of insulin resistance, which acts at the kidney level by reducing urinary pH, thus hampering the ability of the kidney to generate renal ammonium in response to an acid load. Unduly acidic urinary pH and overt UAN are both considered renal manifestations of insulin resistance. The mechanisms underlying increased endogenous acid production and/or defective ammonium excretion are yet to be completely understood. Although the development of UAN and, more in general, of kidney stones largely recognizes modifiable individual determining factors, the rising prevalence of diabetes, obesity and accompanying metabolic disorders calls for the identification of novel therapeutic approaches and intervention targets. This review aims at providing an updated picture of existing evidence on the relationship between insulin resistance and UAN in the context of metabolic syndrome and in light of the most recent advancements in our understanding of its genetic signature. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hong, A Ram; Lim, Soo
Metabolic syndrome is referred to as syndrome X or insulin resistance syndrome, and is primarily composed of abdominal obesity, diabetes, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. Asians have a lower frequency of obesity than Caucasians, but have an increasing tendency toward metabolic syndrome. Thus, metabolic syndrome poses a major challenge for public health professionals, and is set to become a social and economic problem in Asian populations. Most data on metabolic syndrome are based on studies from Western countries with only limited information derived from Asian populations. Recently, several studies were carried out on a large scale that represents the general Korean population. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults has varied depending on the study designs and different criteria, but shows a distinct increasing trend of metabolic syndrome driven by an increase in abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. Given the rapid economic progression of Korea over the past 30 years along with a rise of the aged population, it is expected that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome will further increase. Therefore, a proactive strategy at the governmental level for metabolic syndrome prevention should be implemented, reducing abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. Healthy dietary habits and regular exercise should be emphasized as a part of such a strategy.
Hong, A Ram; Lim, Soo
Metabolic syndrome is referred to as syndrome X or insulin resistance syndrome, and is primarily composed of abdominal obesity, diabetes, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. Asians have a lower frequency of obesity than Caucasians, but have an increasing tendency toward metabolic syndrome. Thus, metabolic syndrome poses a major challenge for public health professionals, and is set to become a social and economic problem in Asian populations. Most data on metabolic syndrome are based on studies from Western countries with only limited information derived from Asian populations. Recently, several studies were carried out on a large scale that represents the general Korean population. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults has varied depending on the study designs and different criteria, but shows a distinct increasing trend of metabolic syndrome driven by an increase in abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. Given the rapid economic progression of Korea over the past 30 years along with a rise of the aged population, it is expected that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome will further increase. Therefore, a proactive strategy at the governmental level for metabolic syndrome prevention should be implemented, reducing abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. Healthy dietary habits and regular exercise should be emphasized as a part of such a strategy. PMID:26417407
Lin, Kuei-Man; Chiou, Jeng-Yuan; Ko, Shu-Hua; Tan, Jung-Ying; Huang, Chien-Ning; Liao, Wen-Chun
To explore associations between metabolic syndrome and modifiable lifestyle behaviors among the adult population in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from a nationally representative sample that participated in the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan. The sample (2,337 participants older than 19 years) provided data on demographic characteristics, modifiable lifestyle behaviors, anthropometric measurements, and blood chemistry panel. These data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, univariate logistic regression, and multivariate logistic regression to determine factors associated with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome had a prevalence of 25.2%, and this prevalence increased with age. In univariate regression analysis, metabolic syndrome was associated with age, living with family members, educational level, and modifiable lifestyle behaviors (smoking, drinking, betel quid chewing, and physical activity). Individuals with a smoking history and currently chewing betel quid had the highest risk for metabolic syndrome. The risk for metabolic syndrome might be reduced by public health campaigns to encourage people to quit smoking cigarettes and chewing betel quid. Implementing more modifiable lifestyle behaviors in daily life will decrease metabolic syndrome in Taiwan. Considering that betel quid chewing and tobacco smoking interact to adversely affect metabolic syndrome risk, public health campaigns against both behaviors seem to be a cost-effective and efficient health promotion strategy to reduce the prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Adeoye, Abiodun M; Adewoye, Ifeoluwa A; Dairo, David M; Adebiyi, Adewole; Lackland, Daniel T; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Tayo, Bamidele O
Metabolic syndrome is associated with higher rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although significant disparities in the risks of metabolic syndrome by occupation type and sex are well documented, the factors associated with metabolic syndrome in low- to middle-income countries remain unclear. These gaps in evidence identify the need for patterns of metabolic syndrome among hospital personnel of both sexes in Nigeria. A total of 256 hospital workers comprising 32.8% men were studied. The mean age of the participants was 42.03 ± 9.4 years. Using International Diabetic Federation criteria, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 24.2%. Women were substantially and significantly more likely to be identified with metabolic syndrome compared with men (34.9% vs 2.4%, respectively; P=.0001). This study identified metabolic syndrome among health workers with over one third of women with metabolic syndrome compared with <10% of men. These results support the implementation of lifestyle modification programs for management of metabolic syndrome in the health care workplace. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Matsuura, Hideo; Mure, Kanae; Nishio, Nobuhiro; Kitano, Naomi; Nagai, Naoko; Takeshita, Tatsuya
Background Metabolic syndrome has become a major worldwide public health problem. We examined the relationship between coffee consumption and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Japanese civil servants. Methods The study participants were 3284 employees (2335 men and 948 women) aged 20 to 65 years. Using data from their 2008 health checkup records, we analyzed the relationship between coffee consumption and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Japanese criteria. Results Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 374 of the 2335 men (16.0%) and 32 of the 948 women (3.4%). In univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses, the odds ratios (ORs) among men for the presence of metabolic syndrome were 0.79 (95% CI: 0.56–1.03) and 0.61 (0.39–0.95), respectively, among moderate (≥4 cups of coffee per day) coffee drinkers as compared with non-coffee drinkers. Among all components of metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure and high triglyceride level were inversely associated with moderate coffee consumption in men, after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, drinking status, and exercise. However, in women, moderate coffee consumption was not significantly associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome or its components. Conclusions Moderate coffee consumption was significantly associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Japanese male civil servants. PMID:22343325
Kaseb, Fatemeh; Haghighyfard, Kimia; Salami, Maryam-Sadat; Ghadiri-Anari, Akram
In recent years, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease has had a tremendous elevation growth. Many studies have demonstrated negative correlation between vitamin D deficiency and indexes of metabolic syndrome in obese patients. This study was designed to find the relation between vitamin D deficiency and markers of metabolic syndrome among overweight and obese adults referred to obesity center of Shahid Sadoughi hospital in 2014. Eighty-nine overweight and obese adults (79 women and 10 men), who 13 subjects were overweight and 76 subjects were obese were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, plasma glucose and vitamin D were measured. IDF criteria were used for identifying subjects with metabolic syndrome. Demographic questionnaire was completed. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0. Fisher exact test, logistic regression, and Spearman correlation coefficient were used. The frequency of vitamin D deficiency was 93.2%. According to IDF criteria, the frequency of metabolic syndrome was 36%. There was no significant relationship between vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome. Among metabolic syndrome indicators, there was a significant direct relationship between vitamin D level with FBS (P=0.013) and SBP (P=0.023). There was no significant relationship between vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome. Due to the lack of relationship between vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome, small number of participants in this study and very low case of normal vitamin D level, further studies are needed.
Lustig, Robert H; Mulligan, Kathleen; Noworolski, Susan M; Tai, Viva W; Wen, Michael J; Erkin-Cakmak, Ayca; Gugliucci, Alejandro; Schwarz, Jean-Marc
Dietary fructose is implicated in metabolic syndrome, but intervention studies are confounded by positive caloric balance, changes in adiposity, or artifactually high amounts. This study determined whether isocaloric substitution of starch for sugar would improve metabolic parameters in Latino (n = 27) and African-American (n = 16) children with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Participants consumed a diet for 9 days to deliver comparable percentages of protein, fat, and carbohydrate as their self-reported diet; however, dietary sugar was reduced from 28% to 10% and substituted with starch. Participants recorded daily weights, with calories adjusted for weight maintenance. Participants underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and oral glucose tolerance testing on Days 0 and 10. Biochemical analyses were controlled for weight change by repeated measures ANCOVA. Reductions in diastolic blood pressure (-5 mmHg; P = 0.002), lactate (-0.3 mmol/L; P < 0.001), triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol (-46% and -0.3 mmol/L; P < 0.001) were noted. Glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia improved (P < 0.001). Weight reduced by 0.9 ± 0.2 kg (P < 0.001) and fat-free mass by 0.6 kg (P = 0.04). Post hoc sensitivity analysis demonstrates that results in the subcohort that did not lose weight (n = 10) were directionally consistent. Isocaloric fructose restriction improved surrogate metabolic parameters in children with obesity and metabolic syndrome irrespective of weight change. © 2015 The Obesity Society.
Air pollutants have been associated with diabetes and metabolic syndrome, but the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We hypothesized that acute O3 exposure will produce metabolic impairments through endoplasmic reticular stress (ER) stress and altered insulin signaling in liver,...
Bryan, Sean; Baregzay, Boran; Spicer, Drew; Singal, Pawan K; Khaper, Neelam
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) comprises interrelated disease states including obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Essential to normal physiological function, and yet massively damaging in excess, oxidative stress and inflammation are pivotal common threads among the pathologies of MetS. Increasing evidence indicates that redox and inflammatory dysregulation parallels the syndrome's physiological, biochemical, and anthropometric features, leading many to consider the pro-oxidative, pro-inflammatory milieu an unofficial criterion in itself. Left unchecked, cross-promotion of oxidative stress and inflammation creates a feed-forward cycle that can initiate and advance disease progression. Such redox-inflammatory integration is evident in the pathogenesis of obesity, insulin resistance and T2DM, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and hypertension, and is thus hypothesized to be the "common soil" from which they develop. The present review highlights the synergistic contributions of redox-inflammatory processes to each of the components of the MetS.
Bador, Khalidah M; Wee, Lim D; Halim, Siti Aizon A; Fadi, Mohd Faris M; Santhiran, Premalatha; Rosli, Nabila F; Mustafa, Norlaila
The aim of this study was to determine if osteocalcin is related to adiposity and hyperglycaemia in metabolic syndrome irrespective of the presence of diabetes mellitus. This was a cross sectional study of 90 patients (59 men and 31 women) with metabolic syndrome as defined by the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Based on medical history 50 out of 90 patients had a diabetes. Anthropometric data were collected and blood taken for measurement of osteocalcin, fasting lipids, fasting glucose and insulin resistance (using homeostatic model assessment index, HOMA-IR). Osteocalcin correlated negatively with fasting glucose (r=-0.366, p<0.001) and HOMA-IR (r=-0.305, p<0.05) but not with waist circumference (r=0.079), body mass index (r=0.028), total cholesterol (r=0.061) or triglycerides (r=0.009). Diabetics had higher HOMA-IR (p<0.01) and lower osteocalcin levels (p<0.01) than non-diabetics. Among diabetics, osteocalcin correlated with glucose only (r=-0.341, p=0.015). In non-diabetics, osteocalcin correlated with HOMA-IR (r=-0.359, p=0.023) via insulin (r=-0.402, p=0.010). Patients with impaired fasting glucose levels (5.6-6.9mmol/L) had the same HOMA-IR as diabetics (p=0.076) but not low osteocalcin (p=0.025). In this cross-sectional study of subjects with metabolic syndrome and central obesity, low osteocalcin was associated with diabetes but not adiposity. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Panda, Saumya; Das, Anupam; Lahiri, Koushik; Chatterjee, Manas; Padhi, Tanmay; Rathi, Sanjay; Dhar, Sandipan; Sarma, Nilendu
Introduction: Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a frequently encountered entity. Facial AN (FAN) is a subset of AN which is being increasingly recognized. Recently, reports hypothesizing the association of FAN with features of metabolic syndrome have been published. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to study the clinicodemographic profile of patients with FAN, and to assess the correlation of hypertension, increased waist–hip ratio (WHR), increased body mass index (BMI), type 2 diabetes mellitus, deranged lipid profile, serum insulin, and impaired oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (parameters of metabolic syndrome) in these patients, as well as to determine the most significant predictor (highest relative risk) of development of FAN. Methods: A multicentric case–control study was conducted (123 cases in each group) over a period of 2 years. Data were obtained on the basis of history, examination, and relevant laboratory investigations. Statistical analysis was done using Statistica version 6 (StatSoft Inc., 2001, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA), SPSS statistics version 17 (SPSS Inc., 2008, Illinois, Chicago, USA), and GraphPad Prism version 5 (GraphPad Software Inc., 2007, San Diego, California, USA). Results: Mean age of the patients with FAN was 38.83 ± 8.62 years. Mean age of onset of the disease was 30.93 ± 8.18 years. The most common site of face involved was the forehead and temporal region. The most common pigmentation was brown-black. Male sex, positive OGTT, increased WHR, and increased BMI were most significantly related to FAN. Smoking was found to have a protective effect against the development of FAN. Conclusion: Here, we document a significant association between male patients with positive OGTT, increased WHR, and BMI and FAN. Thus, we propose that FAN could be considered a morphological marker of metabolic syndrome. PMID:29263532
Mehairi, Aaesha E.; Khouri, Aysha A.; Naqbi, Muna M.; Muhairi, Shamma J.; Maskari, Fatima A.; Nagelkerke, Nico; Shah, Syed M.
Objectives Population-based data on metabolic syndrome (MetS) among children is lacking in the United Arab Emirates which has among the highest rates of diabetes in the world. In this study we determined the prevalence of MetS and its correlates in a sample of adolescents. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted on 1,018 adolescents (48.4% girls) aged 12–18 years from Al Ain Abu Dhabi Emirates. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess socio-demographic characteristics, physical activity and dietary habits. Blood pressure, height, weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. MetS was defined using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Results The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 13%. Boys compared to girls were more likely to have MetS (21% vs. 4%, odds ratio [OR]: 6.57, 95%CI: 4.01 to 10.75). The prevalence of MetS increased with increase in body mass index and reached 59 percent in obese boys. After multivariable adjustment boys who were overweight (adjusted OR: 2.72 [1.37 to 5.35]), or obese (AOR: 12.70 [7.31 to 22.05]), or spent two or more than two hours on screen in a day (AOR: 1.65 [1.01 to 2.69) were more likely to have MetS. Girls who were overweight (AOR: 4.23 [1.32 to 13.62]) or obese (AOR: 8.32 [2.73 to 25.32]) were more likely to have MetS. Conclusions The prevalence of MetS is high among UAE boys. Population-based strategies are needed to address the high burden of metabolic syndrome targeted at the identified risk factors. PMID:23418529
Braunlin, Elizabeth; Steinberger, Julia; DeFor, Todd; Orchard, Paul; Kelly, Aaron S
Hematopoietic cell transplantation is a life-saving procedure, but one associated with increasing long-term cardiovascular risk requiring frequent long-term follow-up. This therapy has significantly lengthened survival in mucopolysaccharidosis type IH (Hurler syndrome), a disease with known coronary artery involvement. Metabolic syndrome-a constellation of central obesity, high blood pressure, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose-is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, and occurs when any 3 or more of these 5 components is present within a single individual. The incidence of metabolic syndrome and its components is poorly defined after transplantation for Hurler syndrome. Chart review of all long-term survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation for Hurler syndrome ≥9 years of age for factors comprising the metabolic syndrome: obesity, high blood pressure, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose. Sixty-three patients were evaluated, 20 of whom had components of the metabolic syndrome available for review. There was no significant difference in age at transplantation, sex, number of transplants, pretransplant radiation, or percent engraftment between those with and without these data. Median follow-up after transplantation for the 20 patients with data was 14.3 years. Only 1 (5%) patient of this group fulfilled the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Fifty-three percent of the patients had 1 or more components of metabolic syndrome: the most common was high blood pressure occurring in 40%. Metabolic syndrome is uncommon in this cohort of long-term survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation for Hurler syndrome but almost half of the patients had 1 or more components of the syndrome, with high blood pressure being the most common. Further studies are needed to develop guidelines in this diagnosis as well as other nonmalignant diseases of children
Ahsan, Tasnim; Banu, Zeenat
The causal association of childhood obesity and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism needs to be studied to unravel the cause and effect relationship between the two conditions. The relationship of hypogonadism to the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) remains valid even when using different definitions of MetS, and following the patients prospectively for over 10 years. This is a case of 19 years male who presented with micropenis, marked gynaecomastia and weight gain. Childhood obesity and family history of diabetes predisposed him to future MetS. Presence of micropenis reflects intrauterine hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Both entities exacerbated each other.
Cooke, Aoife A; Connaughton, Ruth M; Lyons, Claire L; McMorrow, Aoibheann M; Roche, Helen M
The metabolic syndrome is a group of obesity associated metabolic conditions that result in increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Global increases in obesity rates have led to an increase in metabolic syndrome resulting in a demand for increased understanding of the mechanisms involved. This review examines the relationship between adipose tissue biology, lipid metabolism and chronic low grade inflammation relating to obesity and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Rochlani, Yogita; Pothineni, Naga Venkata; Kovelamudi, Swathi; Mehta, Jawahar L.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that include hypertension, central obesity, insulin resistance, and atherogenic dyslipidemia, and is strongly associated with an increased risk for developing diabetes and atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). The pathogenesis of MetS involves both genetic and acquired factors that contribute to the final pathway of inflammation that leads to CVD. MetS has gained significant importance recently due to the exponential increase in obesity worldwide. Early diagnosis is important in order to employ lifestyle and risk factor modification. Here, we review the epidemiology and pathogenesis of MetS, the role of inflammation in MetS, and summarize existing natural therapies for MetS. PMID:28639538
Batsis, J A; Nieto-Martinez, R E; Lopez-Jimenez, F
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) encompasses a constellation of metabolic abnormalities that are thought to place patients at higher risk for the development of diabetes and cardiovascular (CV) disease. The underlying pathophysiology is still a point of contention among various professional organizations leading to inconsistencies in the manner in which MetS is defined. Each definition has its advantages and disadvantages. Nonetheless, there is an agreement that insulin resistance and obesity are likely the central contributing factors. Because the prevalence of obesity has been increasing at a frightening rate in the past few decades, MetS represents a major public health problem that should be identified clinically in individual patients. This review describes the changing epidemiology of obesity and of MetS and discusses its importance in CV disease. We outline the existing controversies that surround MetS and discuss the role of lifestyle, pharmacological, surgical, and novel approaches in its management.
Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Solivera, Juan; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Perez-Caballero, A I; Lovegrove, Julie A; Drevon, Christian A; Defoort, Catherine; Blaak, Ellen E; Dembinska-Kieć, Aldona; Risérus, Ulf; Herruzo-Gomez, Ezequiel; Camargo, Antonio; Ordovas, Jose M; Roche, Helen; Lopez-Miranda, José
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a high-prevalence condition characterized by altered energy metabolism, insulin resistance, and elevated cardiovascular risk. Although many individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been linked to certain MetS features, there are few studies analyzing the influence of SNPs on carbohydrate metabolism in MetS. A total of 904 SNPs (tag SNPs and functional SNPs) were tested for influence on 8 fasting and dynamic markers of carbohydrate metabolism, by performance of an intravenous glucose tolerance test in 450 participants in the LIPGENE study. From 382 initial gene-phenotype associations between SNPs and any phenotypic variables, 61 (16% of the preselected variables) remained significant after bootstrapping. Top SNPs affecting glucose metabolism variables were as follows: fasting glucose, rs26125 (PPARGC1B); fasting insulin, rs4759277 (LRP1); C-peptide, rs4759277 (LRP1); homeostasis assessment of insulin resistance, rs4759277 (LRP1); quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, rs184003 (AGER); sensitivity index, rs7301876 (ABCC9), acute insulin response to glucose, rs290481 (TCF7L2); and disposition index, rs12691 (CEBPA). We describe here the top SNPs linked to phenotypic features in carbohydrate metabolism among approximately 1000 candidate gene variations in fasting and postprandial samples of 450 patients with MetS from the LIPGENE study.
Kusuma, R.; Siregar, Y.; Mardianto
Disruption of adipose tissue, an endocrine organ, could turn out into the so-called metabolic syndrome. Aging men with lowering testosterone were related to metabolic syndrome and excessive aromatase activity in adipose tissue would increase estradiol level. This study hypothesized that estradiol to testosterone ratio is increasedin aging, metabolic syndrome men. A total of 52 men were randomly recruited for this study. A blood samplewas drawn before 11.00 AM after 10 hoursof overnight fasting, then aliquot serum kept in -20°C pending the research. Subjects were divided evenly into the metabolic syndrome and nonmetabolicsyndrome group. The hormonal assaywas measured on the day of research. Then examined with student t-test. Estradiol level in metabolic syndrome group was increased, but insignificant differ to the other group. Testosterone level decreased and significantly different between groups. In conclusion, estradiol to testosterone ratio was increased in themetabolic syndrome group but insignificant.
Srinivasan, Venkataramanujam; Ohta, Yoshiji; Espino, Javier; Pariente, Jose A; Rodriguez, Ana B; Mohamed, Mahaneem; Zakaria, Rahimah
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterised by symptoms of obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in MetS are complex and involved dysregulation of many biochemical and physiological regulatory mechanisms of the body. Elevated levels of low density lipoproteins like VLDL, and LDL with reduction of HDL seen in patients with MetS contribute to atherogenic dyslipedemia. Melatonin has been suggested to be effective in improving MetS through its anti-hyperlipidemic action. Melatonin reduced both adiposity, and body weight in experimental animal studies and also attenuated weight gain and obesityinduced metabolic alterations and this effect of melatonin is attributed to its anti-oxidative effects. Melatonin administration has been shown to inhibit insulin release by acting through both MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors present in pancreatic β-cells. Melatonin also increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in animals fed with either high fat or high sucrose diet. Melatonin exerts most of its beneficial actions by acting through MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors present in various tissues of the body and some of the metabolic actions of melatonin have been blocked by melatonin antagonist like luzindole. Ramelteon, the newly available melatonin agonist will also have more promising role in the control of MetS. The numbers of patents are available with regard to treatment of MetS. Drug related to antidepressant fluoxetine is used for treatment of MetS (US Patent No. 2008001400450). Anti-oxidants like S-adenosyl-methionine, Vitamin E, and Vitamin C have been found beneficial in treating MetS (US Patent No. 8063024). Melatonin being a powerful Antioxidant will have a promising role in treating patients with metabolic syndrome.
Bozdag, Gurkan; Yildiz, Bulent O
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with metabolic disturbances including obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and dyslipidemia. Cardiometabolic risk should be assessed at regular intervals starting from diagnosis. A comprehensive clinical evaluation includes determination of body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure and measurement of serum lipid and glucose levels in all women with PCOS. A standard 2-h 75g oral glucose tolerance test is required for women with a body mass index over 25kg/m(2) and with other risk factors for glucose intolerance. No long-term data are available for the risk or benefit of any medical intervention for metabolic dysfunction of PCOS. For the initial management of metabolic dysfunction in PCOS, available guidelines recommend lifestyle intervention which improves androgen excess and insulin resistance without significant effect on glucose intolerance or dyslipidemia. Pharmacological interventions include insulin sensitizing agents and statins. Metformin is the most commonly prescribed insulin sensitizer in PCOS. Available randomized controlled trials suggest that metformin improves insulin resistance without any effect on body mass index, fasting glucose or lipid levels. Short term use of statins alone or in combination with metformin decreases total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglycerides in PCOS patients with dyslipidemia. Low dose oral contraception in PCOS appears not to be associated with clinically significant metabolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Allam-Ndoul, Bénédicte; Guénard, Frédéric; Garneau, Véronique; Cormier, Hubert; Barbier, Olivier; Pérusse, Louis; Vohl, Marie-Claude
Underlying mechanisms associated with the development of abnormal metabolic phenotypes among obese individuals are not yet clear. Our aim is to investigate differences in plasma metabolomics profiles between normal weight (NW) and overweight/obese (Ov/Ob) individuals, with or without metabolic syndrome (MetS). Mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling was used to compare metabolite levels between each group. Three main principal components factors explaining a maximum of variance were retained. Factor 1's (long chain glycerophospholipids) metabolite profile score was higher among Ov/Ob with MetS than among Ov/Ob and NW participants without MetS. This factor was positively correlated to plasma total cholesterol (total-C) and triglyceride levels in the three groups, to high density lipoprotein -cholesterol (HDL-C) among participants without MetS. Factor 2 (amino acids and short to long chain acylcarnitine) was positively correlated to HDL-C and negatively correlated with insulin levels among NW participants. Factor 3's (medium chain acylcarnitines) metabolite profile scores were higher among NW participants than among Ov/Ob with or without MetS. Factor 3 was negatively associated with glucose levels among the Ov/Ob with MetS. Factor 1 seems to be associated with a deteriorated metabolic profile that corresponds to obesity, whereas Factors 2 and 3 seem to be rather associated with a healthy metabolic profile.
Margalef, Maria; Pons, Zara; Iglesias-Carres, Lisard; Bravo, Francisca Isabel; Muguerza, Begoña; Arola-Arnal, Anna
Flavanols, which exert several health benefits, are metabolized after ingestion. Factors such as the host physiological condition could affect the metabolism and bioavailability of flavanols, influencing their bioactivities. This study aimed to qualitatively evaluate whether a pathological state influenced flavanol plasma bioavailability. Standard and cafeteria (CAF) diet fed rats, a robust model of metabolic syndrome (MeS), were administered 1000mg/kg of flavanol enriched grape seed polyphenol extract (GSPE). Flavanols and their metabolites were quantified by HPLC-MS/MS in plasma before and at 2, 4, 7, 24, and 48h after GSPE ingestion. Results showed that in CAF administered rats the maximum time of plasma flavanol concentration was delayed and these animals presented higher levels of plasma phase-II metabolites as well as altered microbial metabolites. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that MeS pathological state modified flavanol bioavailability, supporting the hypothesis that flavanol metabolism, and therefore flavanol functionality, depend on the organism's state of health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common hormonal disorder among reproductive-age women and is associated with a high risk for metabolic disorders. Adiposity and insulin resistance are two prevalent conditions in PCOS and the likely culprits for the heightened metabolic risk. Up to 60% of women with PCOS are considered to be overweight or obese, and even among non-obese women with PCOS there is an increased accumulation of adipose tissue in abdominal depots. Insulin resistance in PCOS is unique and independent of obesity, as even non-obese women with this condition are frequently insulin resistant. However, obesity substantially aggravates the insulin resistance and the metabolic and reproductive abnormalities in women with PCOS. Recently, it has been shown that many aspects of adipose tissue function in PCOS are abnormal, and these abnormalities likely predispose to development of insulin resistance even in the absence of obesity. This review provides an overview of these abnormalities and their impact on development of metabolic disorders. At the end, an overview of the therapeutic options for management of adiposity and its complications in PCOS are discussed.
Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; Méndez-del Villar, Miriam; Pérez-Rubio, Karina G; Zuñiga, Laura Y; Cortez-Navarrete, Marisol; Ramírez-Rodriguez, Alejandra; González-Ortiz, Manuel
Nutraceutic therapies such as berberine, bitter melon, Gymnema sylvestre, Irvingia gabonensis, resveratrol and ursolic acid have been shown to help control metabolic syndrome (MetS). The effect of berberine on glucose and lipid metabolism, hypertension, obesity and MetS has been evaluated in animal models and humans. Most clinical trials involving bitter melon have been conducted to evaluate its effect on glucose metabolism; nevertheless, some studies have reported favorable effects on lipids and blood pressure although there is little information about its effect on body weight. Gymnema sylvestre helps to decrease body weight and blood sugar levels; however, there is limited information on dyslipidemia and hypertension. Clinical trials of Irvingia gabonensis have shown important effects decreasing glucose and cholesterol concentrations as well decreasing body weight. Resveratrol acts through different mechanisms to decrease blood pressure, lipids, glucose and weight, showing its effects on the population with MetS. Finally, there is evidence of positive effects with ursolic acid in in vitro and in vivo studies on glucose and lipid metabolism and on body weight and visceral fat. Therefore, a review of the beneficial effects and limitations of the above-mentioned nutraceutic therapies is presented. PMID:27076875
Lassandro, Carlotta; Banderali, Giuseppe; Radaelli, Giovanni; Borghi, Elisa; Moretti, Francesca; Verduci, Elvira
Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in the pediatric population. Considering the different existing criteria to define metabolic syndrome, the use of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria has been suggested in children. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been associated with beneficial effects on health. The evidence about the relationship of DHA status in blood and components of the metabolic syndrome is unclear. This review discusses the possible association between DHA content in plasma and erythrocytes and components of the metabolic syndrome included in the IDF criteria (obesity, alteration of glucose metabolism, blood lipid profile, and blood pressure) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. The current evidence is inconsistent and no definitive conclusion can be drawn in the pediatric population. Well-designed longitudinal and powered trials need to clarify the possible association between blood DHA status and metabolic syndrome.
Lassandro, Carlotta; Banderali, Giuseppe; Radaelli, Giovanni; Borghi, Elisa; Moretti, Francesca; Verduci, Elvira
Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in the pediatric population. Considering the different existing criteria to define metabolic syndrome, the use of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria has been suggested in children. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been associated with beneficial effects on health. The evidence about the relationship of DHA status in blood and components of the metabolic syndrome is unclear. This review discusses the possible association between DHA content in plasma and erythrocytes and components of the metabolic syndrome included in the IDF criteria (obesity, alteration of glucose metabolism, blood lipid profile, and blood pressure) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. The current evidence is inconsistent and no definitive conclusion can be drawn in the pediatric population. Well-designed longitudinal and powered trials need to clarify the possible association between blood DHA status and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26307979
Satoh, Akira; Adachi, Hisashi; Tsuruta, Makoto; Hirai, Yuji; Hiratsuka, Akiko; Enomoto, Mika; Furuki, Kumiko; Hino, Asuka; Takeuchi, Tomohiro; Imaizumi, Tsutomu
The metabolic syndrome is associated with a high incidence of cardiovascular disease even when the abnormalities present in the syndrome are mild. The underlying mechanism of the metabolic syndrome has not been elucidated. We investigated whether a strong atherogenic lipoprotein, remnant-like particle (RLP) lipoprotein cholesterol, is elevated in the metabolic syndrome. We performed a health examination among the residents of a rural community in Japan. Complete datasets, including fasting RLP cholesterol levels, were obtained in 1,261 subjects (509 men and 752 women) without diabetes and who were not taking lipid-lowering drugs. The subjects' medical history, use of alcohol, and smoking habits were ascertained by a questionnaire. All of the components of the metabolic syndrome were significantly related to RLP cholesterol by univariate analysis. Total cholesterol and smoking habits were also positively associated with RLP cholesterol. The subjects with the metabolic syndrome showed only mild abnormalities of each component. When RLP cholesterol levels were stratified by the number of the components of the metabolic syndrome, there was a strong association between RLP cholesterol levels and the number of components (P < 0.001 and F = 72.7). RLP cholesterol levels are elevated in the metabolic syndrome, and this elevation may underlie the high incidence of cardiovascular disease in the metabolic syndrome.
Yau, T Tl; Ng, N Yh; Cheung, L P; Ma, R Cw
Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age. Although traditionally viewed as a reproductive disorder, there is increasing appreciation that it is associated with significantly increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome may present to clinicians via a variety of different routes and symptoms. Although the impact on reproduction predominates during the reproductive years, the increased cardiometabolic problems are likely to become more important at later stages of the life course. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have an approximately 2- to 5-fold increased risk of dysglycaemia or type 2 diabetes, and hence regular screening with oral glucose tolerance test is warranted. Although the diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome are still evolving and are undergoing revision, the diagnosis is increasingly focused on the presence of hyperandrogenism, with the significance of polycystic ovarian morphology in the absence of associated hyperandrogenism or anovulation remaining uncertain. The management of women with polycystic ovary syndrome should focus on the specific needs of the individual, and may change according to different stages of the life course. In view of the clinical manifestations of the condition, there is recent debate about whether the current name is misleading, and whether the condition should be renamed as metabolic reproductive syndrome.
Song, Yun-Mi; Sung, Joohon; Lee, Kayoung
We evaluated the association between changes in adiposity traits including anthropometric and fat mass indicators and changes in metabolic syndrome traits including metabolic syndrome clustering and individual components over time. We also assessed the shared genetic and environmental correlations between the two traits. Participants were 284 South Korean twin individuals and 279 nontwin family members had complete data for changes in adiposity traits and metabolic syndrome traits of the Healthy Twin study. Mixed linear model and bivariate variance-component analysis were applied. Over a period of 3.1 ± 0.6 years of study, changes in adiposity traits [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, total fat mass, and fat mass to lean mass ratio] had significant associations with changes in metabolic syndrome clustering [high blood pressure, high serum glucose, high triglycerides (TG), and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol] after adjusting for intra-familial and sibling correlations, age, sex, baseline metabolic syndrome clustering, and socioeconomic factors and health behaviors at follow-up. Change in BMI associated significantly with changes in individual metabolic syndrome components compared to other adiposity traits. Change in metabolic syndrome component TG was a better predictor of changes in adiposity traits compared to changes in other metabolic components. These associations were explained by significant environmental correlations but not by genetic correlations. Changes in anthropometric and fat mass indicators were positively associated with changes in metabolic syndrome clustering and those associations appeared to be regulated by environmental influences.
Nam, Su-Hyun; Lee, Yun-Ah; Rho, Jun-Seung
Aim. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by a cluster of atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk factors. The cardioankle vascular index (CAVI) reflects arterial stiffness and may be used as an indicator of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In this study, we investigated the association of CAVI with metabolic syndrome. Methods. A total of 1,144 adults were included in this study. We measured CAVIs and examined blood samples to identify metabolic syndrome according to WHO Asia Pacific criteria and NCEP-ATPIII criteria. AST, ALT, r-GTP, BUN, creatinine, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and uric acid were also measured. Results. CAVI values were significantly higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome than those without metabolic syndrome and increased according to the number of metabolic syndrome components present. Subjects with high fasting blood sugar levels or high blood pressure showed high CAVI values. Multiple regression analysis showed that age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, and uric acid were independent predictors of CAVI. Conclusion. Subjects with metabolic syndrome had high CAVIs, which indicated arterial stiffness, and were closely associated with an increase in the number of metabolic risk factors. The individual risk factors for metabolic syndrome have the synergistic effect of elevating arterial stiffness in asymptomatic Korean population. PMID:26273666
Shafaei, Azam; Marjani, Abdoljalal; Khoshnia, Masoud
The role of progranulin in individuals with metabolic syndrome is not exactly clear.We aimed to assess the serum level of progranulin in type 2 diabetic patients with and without metabolic syndrome and compare them with healthy controls. The study included 60 patients with type 2 diabetes and 30 healthy individuals as control groups. Biochemical parameters and progranulin levels were determined. Subjects with metabolic syndrome showed significantly higher levels of triglyceride, waist circumference, BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure than subjects without metabolic syndrome and the control groups, while HDL-cholesterol level was significantly lower in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Fasting blood sugar was significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients than in the control groups. Serum level of progranulin was slightly increased in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Serum progranulin level had no significant relationship with metabolic syndrome components. Serum progranulin was also not dependent on cardiometabolic risk factors for subjects with metabolic syndrome, but it could be considered for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further studies are recommended to explain the effect of progranulin on the pathogenesis of metabolic risk factors.
Xiao, Jing; Shen, Chong; Chu, Min J; Gao, Yue X; Xu, Guang F; Huang, Jian P; Xu, Qiong Q; Cai, Hui
Metabolic syndrome is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence is related to physical activity, race, and lifestyle. Little data is available for people living in rural areas of China. In this study we examined associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components among people in rural China. The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study recruited 13,505 female and 6,997 male participants between 2007 and 2008. Data of socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected. The associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components were analyzed. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. It was significantly lower in men than in women. Low risks of metabolic syndrome were observed in those who did less sitting and engaged in more vigorous physical activity. The highest tertile of vigorous physical activity was associated with 15-40% decreased odds of metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men. Women with the highest tertile of moderate physical activity had 15-30% lower odds of central obesity, high glucose, and high triglycerides compared with those in the lowest tertile. Sitting time >42 hours per week had a 4%-12% attributable risk of metabolic syndrome, central obesity, and high triglycerides in both genders, and abnormal glucose and diastolic blood pressure in women. Sleeping for more than 8 hours per day was associated with risk of high serum glucose and lipids. Our data suggested that physical activity has a preventive effect against metabolic syndrome and all its abnormal components, and that longer sitting time and sleep duration are associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome components, including central obesity and high triglycerides, glucose, and diastolic blood pressure. This study could provide information for future investigation into these associations. Also, recommendations are developed to reduce
Özer, Samet; Yılmaz, Resul; Özlem Kazanci, Nafia; Sönmezgöz, Ergün; Karaaslan, Erhan; Altuntaş, Buket; Emre Kuyucu, Yunus
The definition of childhood metabolic syndrome has not been described clearly. Childhood obesity is increasing gradually, and the incidence of childhood metabolic syndrome is also rising. We aimed to show metabolic syndrome components and preventive factors for metabolic syndrome in obese children Methods: In the present study, 187 obese children and adolescents 5-18 years old were investigated retrospectively. Demographic data, anthropometric measurements, body mass index, blood pressure values, insulin levels, oral glucose tolerance test results, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, and triglyceride levels were obtained from hospital records. A body mass index > 95th percentile was considered obese. Insulin resistance was calculated according to the oral glucose tolerance test with 1.75 g/kg glucose maximum 75 g glucose. The insulin sensitivity index and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA IR) were calculated and compared. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the modified WHO criteria adapted for metabolic syndrome in children. Abnormal glucose homeostasis was detected in 53% of subjects. Dyslipidaemia was present in 45.7% and hypertension in 16.6% of the patients. Metabolic syndrome was identified in 24.6% of obese children and adolescents. High HOMA-IR values and fasting glucose levels, elevated triglycerides and lower HDL levels were an indication of metabolic syndrome. Obesity and insulin resistance are significant factors for the development of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. In obese children higher HDL levels are preventive factor for metabolic syndrome. Preventing obesity and insulin resistance may decrease the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Hess, Paul L; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Friedman, Daniel J; Mulder, Hillary; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Rosamond, Wayne R; Lopes, Renato D; Gersh, Bernard J; Mark, Daniel B; Curtis, Lesley H; Post, Wendy S; Prineas, Ronald J; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Al-Khatib, Sana M
Prior studies have demonstrated a link between the metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Whether the metabolic syndrome is associated with sudden cardiac death is uncertain. We characterized the relationship between sudden cardiac death and metabolic syndrome status among participants of the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study (1987-2012) free of prevalent coronary heart disease or heart failure. Among 13 168 participants, 357 (2.7%) sudden cardiac deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 23.6 years. Participants with the metabolic syndrome (n=4444) had a higher cumulative incidence of sudden cardiac death than those without it (n=8724) (4.1% versus 2.3%, P <0.001). After adjustment for participant demographics and clinical factors other than components of the metabolic syndrome, the metabolic syndrome was independently associated with sudden cardiac death (hazard ratio, 1.70, 95% confidence interval, 1.37-2.12, P <0.001). This relationship was not modified by sex (interaction P =0.10) or race (interaction P =0.62) and was mediated by the metabolic syndrome criteria components. The risk of sudden cardiac death varied according to the number of metabolic syndrome components (hazard ratio 1.31 per additional component of the metabolic syndrome, 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.44, P <0.001). Of the 5 components, elevated blood pressure, impaired fasting glucose, and low high-density lipoprotein were independently associated with sudden cardiac death. We observed that the metabolic syndrome was associated with a significantly increased risk of sudden cardiac death irrespective of sex or race. The risk of sudden cardiac death was proportional to the number of metabolic syndrome components. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.
Park, Soo Kyung; Larson, Janet L
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been reported to be 20% to 50% in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Because such people are sedentary and physically inactive, they are at risk of metabolic syndrome. The extent of this problem, however, is not fully understood. This study examined the relationship of sedentary time and physical activity to metabolic syndrome and the components of metabolic syndrome in a population-based sample of people with COPD. This was a secondary analysis of existing cross-sectional data. Subjects with COPD (n = 223) were drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data set (2003-2006). Physical activity was measured by accelerometry. Waist circumference, triglyceride level, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, blood pressure, and fasting glucose level were used to describe metabolic syndrome. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for analysis. Fifty-five percent of the sample had metabolic syndrome. No significant differences in sedentary time and level of physical activity were found in people with COPD and metabolic syndrome and people with COPD only. However, those with a mean activity count of greater than 240 counts per minute had a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Waist circumference and glucose level were significantly associated with the time spent in sedentary, light, and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in people with COPD, and greater physical activity and less sedentary time are associated with lower rates of metabolic syndrome. This suggests that interventions to decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome in people with COPD should include both reducing sedentary time and increasing the time and intensity of physical activity.
Tardivo, A P; Nahas-Neto, J; Orsatti, C L; Dias, F B; Poloni, P F; Schmitt, E B; Nahas, E A P
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diet alone or combined with omega-3 supplementation on metabolic and inflammatory markers in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. This randomized, controlled trial included 87 Brazilian women (age ≥ 45 years and with amenorrhea ≥ 12 months). Exclusion criteria were: cardiovascular disease, insulin-dependent diabetes, cancer, autoimmune diseases and use of either statins or hormone therapy. Participants were randomized to diet alone (n = 43, control) or diet plus omega-3 supplementation, 900 mg/day orally (n = 44). All women were provided with an individualized dietary prescription. Clinical, anthropometrical (body mass index and waist circumference) and biochemical variables were measured. The inflammatory profile included C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor α and interleukins (IL-1β and IL-6). The intervention time was 6 months, with assessments at initiation and completion. Data were analyzed according to intention-to-treat, using the independent t-test and ANOVA. There were significant reductions in body mass index and waist circumference in both groups (p < 0.05) without significant changes in body fat or muscle mass. Intervention with diet plus omega-3 was associated with significant reduction in systolic (< 12.2%) and diastolic (< 8.2%) blood pressure, serum triglyceride concentration (< 21.4%), and insulin resistance (< 13.1%) (p < 0.05), as well as a reduction in serum IL-6 concentration (< 28.5%) (p = 0.034). In postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome, dietary intervention plus supplementation of omega-3 resulted in a further decrease in triglycerides and blood pressure and also in an improvement in insulin resistance and inflammatory markers, important components of metabolic syndrome.
Laurson, Kelly R; Welk, Gregory J; Eisenmann, Joey C
To compare the diagnostic performance of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and FITNESSGRAM (FGram) BMI standards for quantifying metabolic risk in youth. Adolescents in the NHANES (n = 3385) were measured for anthropometric variables and metabolic risk factors. BMI percentiles were calculated, and youth were categorized by weight status (using CDC and FGram thresholds). Participants were also categorized by presence or absence of metabolic syndrome. The CDC and FGram standards were compared by prevalence of metabolic abnormalities, various diagnostic criteria, and odds of metabolic syndrome. Receiver operating characteristic curves were also created to identify optimal BMI percentiles to detect metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in obese youth was 19% to 35%, compared with <2% in the normal-weight groups. The odds of metabolic syndrome for obese boys and girls were 46 to 67 and 19 to 22 times greater, respectively, than for normal-weight youth. The receiver operating characteristic analyses identified optimal thresholds similar to the CDC standards for boys and the FGram standards for girls. Overall, BMI thresholds were more strongly associated with metabolic syndrome in boys than in girls. Both the CDC and FGram standards are predictive of metabolic syndrome. The diagnostic utility of the CDC thresholds outperformed the FGram values for boys, whereas FGram standards were slightly better thresholds for girls. The use of a common set of thresholds for school and clinical applications would provide advantages for public health and clinical research and practice.
Fernández-Bergés, Daniel; Consuegra-Sánchez, Luciano; Peñafiel, Judith; Cabrera de León, Antonio; Vila, Joan; Félix-Redondo, Francisco Javier; Segura-Fragoso, Antonio; Lapetra, José; Guembe, María Jesús; Vega, Tomás; Fitó, Montse; Elosua, Roberto; Díaz, Oscar; Marrugat, Jaume
There is a paucity of data regarding the differences in the biomarker profiles of patients with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus as compared to a healthy, normal weight population. We aimed to study the biomarker profile of the metabolic risk continuum defined by the transition from normal weight to obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. We performed a pooled analysis of data from 7 cross-sectional Spanish population-based surveys. An extensive panel comprising 20 biomarkers related to carbohydrate metabolism, lipids, inflammation, coagulation, oxidation, hemodynamics, and myocardial damage was analyzed. We employed age- and sex-adjusted multinomial logistic regression models for the identification of those biomarkers associated with the metabolic risk continuum phenotypes: obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. A total of 2851 subjects were included for analyses. The mean age was 57.4 (8.8) years, 1269 were men (44.5%), and 464 participants were obese, 443 had metabolic syndrome, 473 had diabetes mellitus, and 1471 had a normal weight (healthy individuals). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B100, leptin, and insulin were positively associated with at least one of the phenotypes of interest. Apolipoprotein A1 and adiponectin were negatively associated. There are differences between the population with normal weight and that having metabolic syndrome or diabetes with respect to certain biomarkers related to the metabolic, inflammatory, and lipid profiles. The results of this study support the relevance of these mechanisms in the metabolic risk continuum. When metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus are compared, these differences are less marked. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Platt, Adrienne M
School nurses are well aware of the childhood obesity epidemic in the United States, as one in three youth are overweight or obese. Co-morbidities found in overweight or obese adults were not commonly found in youth three decades ago but are now increasingly "normal" as the obesity epidemic continues to evolve. This article is the second of six related articles discussing the co-morbidities of childhood obesity and discusses the complex association between obesity and insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Insulin resistance increases up to 50% during puberty, which may help to explain why youth are more likely to develop co-morbidities as teens. Treatment of these disorders is focused on changing lifestyle habits, as a child cannot change his or her pubertal progression, ethnicity, or family history. School nurses and other personnel can assist youth with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome by supporting their efforts to make changes, reinforcing that insulin resistance is not necessarily type 2 diabetes even if the child is taking medication, and intervening with negative peer pressure. © 2015 The Author(s).
Johnson, Philip J.; Wiedmeyer, Charles E.; LaCarrubba, Alison; Ganjam, V. K. (Seshu); Messer, Nat T.
Analogous to the situation in human medicine, contemporary practices in horse management, which incorporate lengthy periods of physical inactivity coupled with provision of nutritional rations characterized by inappropriately high sugar and starch, have led to obesity being more commonly recognized by practitioners of equine veterinary practice. In many of these cases, obesity is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and glucose intolerance. An equine metabolic syndrome (MS) has been described that is similar to the human MS in that both IR and aspects of obesity represent cornerstones of its definition. Unlike its human counterpart, identification of the equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) portends greater risk for development of laminitis, a chronic, crippling affliction of the equine hoof. When severe, laminitis sometimes necessitates euthanasia. Unlike the human condition, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and many other chronic conditions, for which the risk is recognized as increased in the face of MS, is less likely in horses. The equine veterinary literature has been replete with reports of scientific investigations regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of EMS. PMID:22768883
Johnson, Philip J; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; LaCarrubba, Alison; Ganjam, V K; Messer, Nat T
Analogous to the situation in human medicine, contemporary practices in horse management, which incorporate lengthy periods of physical inactivity coupled with provision of nutritional rations characterized by inappropriately high sugar and starch, have led to obesity being more commonly recognized by practitioners of equine veterinary practice. In many of these cases, obesity is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and glucose intolerance. An equine metabolic syndrome (MS) has been described that is similar to the human MS in that both IR and aspects of obesity represent cornerstones of its definition. Unlike its human counterpart, identification of the equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) portends greater risk for development of laminitis, a chronic, crippling affliction of the equine hoof. When severe, laminitis sometimes necessitates euthanasia. Unlike the human condition, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and many other chronic conditions, for which the risk is recognized as increased in the face of MS, is less likely in horses. The equine veterinary literature has been replete with reports of scientific investigations regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of EMS. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.
Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Athyros, Vassilis G; Kolovou, Genovefa D; Anagnostopoulou, Katherine K; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities including abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidaemia and is associated with an increased risk of vascular events. Since the initial description of the MetS, several expert groups produced different definitions. This variability led to confusion and absence of comparability between studies. Although there is agreement that the MetS is a major public health challenge worldwide and consistent evidence stresses the need for intervention, the definition of the syndrome remains a matter of debate. This review considers the different definitions of the MetS. These include those proposed by the World Health Organisation, the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance, the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III, the American College of Endocrinology and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the latest International Diabetes Federation definition which includes ethnic-specific waist circumference cut-off points. These definitions share several features but also include important differences; all have limitations. Selected (after a Medline search) studies comparing the different definitions are also considered. There is a need for a standardised definition of the MetS. Furthermore, a definition tailored for children and adolescents is essential. Prospective long-term studies are needed to validate the prognostic power of these definitions. As new information becomes available the definition of the MetS might be further modified.
Carlsten, C.; Kaufman, J. D.; Trenga, C. A.; Allen, J.; Peretz, A.; Sullivan, J. H.
Traffic-derived particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the mechanism of this association is unclear. Prothrombotic processes have been linked to PM in epidemiological and animal models, but have not been consistently implicated in controlled human models. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major contributor to PM. We conducted a controlled human exposure of DE in subjects with metabolic syndrome. The study objective was to evaluate DE exposure effects on prothrombotic markers in a population vulnerable to cardiovascular disease. A randomized, crossover, double-blinded design was used: 16 subjects with metabolic syndrome exposed on 3 different days (≥2 wk washout) to DE at 0 (filtered air, FA), 100 μg PM2.5/m3 (DE100) and 200 μg PM2.5/m3 (DE200). We assessed DE-associated changes in D-dimer, von Willebrand factor (VWF), and plasmin activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) at 3, 7, and 22 h after exposure initiation. A DE200-attributable decrease (1.17-fold; CI 1.04 to 1.34) in VWF was noted at 7 h. Significant changes did not occur in other primary endpoints. As previously noted with healthy subjects, strong diurnal patterns in PAI-1 were observed. Thus, in a novel study, we were unable to demonstrate a prothrombotic effect of moderate-dose diesel exhaust exposure in a population at risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:18668408
Cruz del Castillo, Aaron H; García Fierro, Rafael; Hess Moreno, María I; Vigil Pérez, Claudia A; Córdova Fernández, José A; Chuck Santiago, Marco P; Domínguez Moreno, Rogelio
Metabolic syndrome (MS) including obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, etc.. is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It was reported that 15.9% of blood donors showed changes in fasting plasma glucose. To determine the prevalence of MS in a population of healthy donors in a secondary hospital. A cross-sectional study, included 726 healthy donors who attended the blood bank HGZ36. The SM was identified with at least 3 of 5 criteria of the NCEP ATPIII, we applied a structured questionnaire. We determined HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose Abnormal Fasting (GAA), hypertension (SAH), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (NCC). Plan Analysis: prevalence, t student, Chi2. Of the 726 donors, 85.1% were male, according to the ATPIII criteria, 54.8% (398) had a GAA, 63.2% (458) had hypertriglyceridemia, almost 17% (121) presented HDL hypocholesterolemia, 44.1% (320) were overweight by BMI, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 54.4%, in comparison by gender, men had a statistically significant difference compared to women, showing an OR = 2.27 (p = 0.0001, 95% CI 1.44-3.60). MS is highly prevalent in this population, which involves implementing preventive measures, changes in lifestyles and identify risk factors to be free from diseases like diabetes, hypertension, obesity and MS itself.
Golbidi, Saeid; Laher, Ismail
The lack of adequate physical activity and obesity created a worldwide pandemic. Obesity is characterized by the deposition of adipose tissue in various parts of the body; it is now evident that adipose tissue also acts as an endocrine organ capable of secreting many cytokines that are though to be involved in the pathophysiology of obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Adipokines, or adipose tissue-derived proteins, play a pivotal role in this scenario. Increased secretion of proinflammatory adipokines leads to a chronic inflammatory state that is accompanied by insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Lifestyle change in terms of increased physical activity and exercise is the best nonpharmacological treatment for obesity since these can reduce insulin resistance, counteract the inflammatory state, and improve the lipid profile. There is growing evidence that exercise exerts its beneficial effects partly through alterations in the adipokine profile; that is, exercise increases secretion of anti-inflammatory adipokines and reduces proinflammatory cytokines. In this paper we briefly describe the pathophysiologic role of four important adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, TNF-α, and IL-6) in the metabolic syndrome and review some of the clinical trials that monitored these adipokines as a clinical outcome before and after exercise.
McCanlies, Erin C; Slaven, James E; Smith, Lindsay M; Andrew, Michael E; Charles, Luenda E; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Violanti, John M
To examine associations for sleep quality and quantity with metabolic syndrome (MS) and its five components in police officers. The study population consisted of 98 randomly selected officers (39 women and 59 men) for whom MS and sleep data were available. Sleep duration (categorized as short < 6 hours, long ≥ 6 hours) for the past week and quality of sleep were collected by interviewer-administered questionnaires. MS was assessed using standard criteria. Generalized linear models were used to assess associations between sleep duration or sleep quality and MS, and the mean number of MS components. Metabolic syndrome was present in 22.0% and 2.6% of the male and female officers, respectively. Women with short sleep had a significantly higher mean number of MS components (mean=1.43) than those with longer sleep (mean=0.81, p=0.0316). Officers who stopped breathing during the night had more MS components (mean=2.43) compared to those who did not (mean =1.13, p=0.0206). Sleep duration and quality were associated with the mean number of MS components, particularly in women. Future research should examine these associations prospectively, in a larger cohort, exploring possible gender differences.
Friedlander, Arthur H; Weinreb, Jane; Friedlander, Ida; Yagiela, John A
The dental literature contains little information about metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its dental implications. The authors conducted a MEDLINE search for the period 2000 through 2005, using the term "metabolic syndrome" to define its pathophysiology, medical treatment and dental implications. MetS is the co-occurrence of abdominal obesity, hyper-triglyceridemia, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, hypertension and impaired fasting glucose, which results from consumption of a high-calorie diet and decreased levels of physical activity superimposed on the appropriate genetic setting. Components of MetS synergistically promote the development of atherosclerosis, resulting in myocardial infarction and stroke. Deteriorating oral health status is associated with worsening of the atherogenic profile. Tooth loss often results in chewing difficulties because of inadequate occlusive surfaces and may lead to alterations in food selection and dietary quality. This, in turn, adversely affects body composition and nutritional status, both of which are related to vascular health. Dentists should develop treatment plans that preserve and restore the dentition, thus ensuring maximum masticatory efficiency and affording patients the optimum opportunity to consume food that will not foster atherogenesis.
Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M; Pepine, Carl J
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been defined in different ways. However, key components common to most definitions are a constellation of risk factors including abdominal adiposity, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. A major mediator of MetS appears to be insulin resistance, which relates to the development of the vascular and metabolic dysfunctions that precede overt cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Evidence suggests that the mechanisms underlying the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with MetS begin with subclinical organ damage. Therapy for MetS targets individual components of the syndrome and includes lifestyle interventions, lipid-modifying therapy, and antihypertensive agents, particularly those that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system. Results of trials of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers have demonstrated reductions in new-onset diabetes and cardiovascular events in a wide range of patients. Clinical trials to investigate further the role of these drugs in the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes in patients with MetS are currently under way. The purpose of this paper is to review the MetS from the perspective of the cardiology workforce with the hope that a better understanding of the links between MetS and cardiovascular disease could lead to improved management of persons at risk.
Stino, Amro M; Smith, Albert G
Peripheral neuropathy is a major cause of disability worldwide. Diabetes is the most common cause of neuropathy, accounting for 50% of cases. Over half of people with diabetes develop neuropathy, and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a major cause of reduced quality of life due to pain, sensory loss, gait instability, fall-related injury, and foot ulceration and amputation. Most patients with non-diabetic neuropathy have cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy (CSPN). A growing body of literature links prediabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome to the risk of both DPN and CSPN. This association might be particularly strong in type 2 diabetes patients. There are no effective medical treatments for CSPN or DPN, and aggressive glycemic control is an effective approach to neuropathy risk reduction only in type 1 diabetes. Several studies suggest lifestyle-based treatments that integrate dietary counseling with exercise might be a promising therapeutic approach to early DPN in type 2 diabetes and CSPN associated with prediabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Gu, Yeyi; Lambert, Joshua D
Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L., Sterculiaceae) is a widely consumed food ingredient. Although typically found in high-fat, high-sugar foods such as chocolate, cocoa is rich in polyphenols, methylxanthines, and monounsaturated fatty acids. There is increasing evidence that moderate consumption of cocoa and cocoa-containing foods may have beneficial effects on the health including vasodilatory, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Polyphenols in cocoa, including monomeric flavanols, as well as polymeric proanthocyanidins, may play a role in these observed beneficial effects. Chronic inflammation represents a potential mechanistic link between obesity and its related pathologies: insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, which comprise the metabolic syndrome. In the present review, we discuss the available data regarding the modulation of metabolic syndrome-related inflammation by cocoa and cocoa-derived compounds. We emphasize studies using laboratory animals or human subjects since such studies often represent the strongest available evidence for biological effects. In vitro studies are included to provide some mechanistic context, but are critically interpreted. Although the available data seem to support the anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa, further studies are needed with regard to the dose-response relationship as well as the underlying mechanisms of action. We hope this review will stimulate further research on cocoa and its anti-inflammatory activities. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Background The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a complex of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This syndrome increases the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. It has been demonstrated that the prevalence of MS is increasing worldwide. Despite the importance of MS in the context of metabolic and cardiovascular disease, few studies have described the prevalence of MS and its determinants in Latin America. The present study aims to assess studies describing the prevalence of MS in Brazil in order to determine the global prevalence of the syndrome and its components. Methods Systematic review. Searches were carried out in PubMed and Scielo from the earliest available online indexing year through May 2013. There were no restrictions on language. The search terms used to describe MS were taken from the PubMed (MeSH) dictionary: “metabolic syndrome x”, “prevalence” and “Brazil”. Studies were included if they were cross-sectional, described the prevalence of MS and were conducted in apparently healthy subjects, from the general population, 19-64 years old (adult and middle aged) of both genders. The titles and abstracts of all the articles identified were screened for eligibility. Results Ten cross-sectional studies were selected. The weighted mean for general prevalence of MS in Brazil was 29.6% (range: 14.9%-65.3%). Half of the studies used the criteria for clinical diagnosis of MS proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) (2001). The highest prevalence of MS (65.3%) was found in a study conducted in an indigenous population, whereas the lowest prevalence of MS (14.9%) was reported in a rural area. The most frequent MS components were low HDL-cholesterol (59.3%) and hypertension (52.5%). Conclusions Despite methodological differences among the studies selected, our findings suggested a high prevalence of MS in the Brazilian adult population. PMID:24350922
Ukegbu, Ugochi J.; Castillo, Darleen C.; Knight, Michael G.; Ricks, Madia; Miller, Bernard V.; Onumah, Barbara M.; Sumner, Anne E.
OBJECTIVE Metabolic risk and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) prevalence were compared in Africans who immigrated to the U.S. and African Americans. If MetSyn were an effective predictor of cardiometabolic risk, then the group with a worse metabolic risk profile would have a higher rate of MetSyn. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cross-sectional analyses were performed on 95 men (39 Africans, 56 African Americans, age 38 ± 6 years [mean ± SD]). Glucose tolerance was determined by oral glucose tolerance test, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was determined by computerized tomography, and MetSyn was determined by the presence of three of five factors: central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low levels of HDL cholesterol, hypertension, and fasting hyperglycemia. RESULTS MetSyn prevalence was similar in Africans and African Americans (10 vs. 13%, P = 0.74), but hypertension, glycemia (fasting and 2-h glucose), and VAT were higher in Africans. CONCLUSIONS African immigrants have a worse metabolic profile than African Americans but a similar prevalence of MetSyn. Therefore, MetSyn may underpredict metabolic risk in Africans. PMID:21873563
Ukegbu, Ugochi J; Castillo, Darleen C; Knight, Michael G; Ricks, Madia; Miller, Bernard V; Onumah, Barbara M; Sumner, Anne E
Metabolic risk and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) prevalence were compared in Africans who immigrated to the U.S. and African Americans. If MetSyn were an effective predictor of cardiometabolic risk, then the group with a worse metabolic risk profile would have a higher rate of MetSyn. Cross-sectional analyses were performed on 95 men (39 Africans, 56 African Americans, age 38 ± 6 years [mean ± SD]). Glucose tolerance was determined by oral glucose tolerance test, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was determined by computerized tomography, and MetSyn was determined by the presence of three of five factors: central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low levels of HDL cholesterol, hypertension, and fasting hyperglycemia. MetSyn prevalence was similar in Africans and African Americans (10 vs. 13%, P = 0.74), but hypertension, glycemia (fasting and 2-h glucose), and VAT were higher in Africans. African immigrants have a worse metabolic profile than African Americans but a similar prevalence of MetSyn. Therefore, MetSyn may underpredict metabolic risk in Africans.
Płaczkowska, Sylwia; Pawlik-Sobecka, Lilla; Kokot, Izabela; Piwowar, Agnieszka
Civilizational developments occurring during recent decades have resulted in an increased incidence of a variety of metabolic disorders related to insulin resistance in younger people. The determination of decision limits for insulin resistance indices, especially among young people, is a significant challenge in clinical practice. The aim of this study was the estimation of metabolic factors related to their relationship to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MS) features in young, apparently healthy people. Moreover, we evaluated the optimal decision limits for patients with MS identification for HOMA1-IR, HOMA2-IR, HOMA2 obtained from C-peptide concentrations. 349 apparently healthy people aged 18-31 (260 women and 89 men), were enrolled in this study. The present analysis of metabolic, anthropometric and clinical parameters observed them in clusters covering the criteria of MS recognition, but MS in this group was only partially related to insulin resistance. The HOMA1-IR decision limit estimation is likely to became be useful in the prognostication of metabolic disturbances in young, apparently healthy people. A measure of insulin resistance that can provide a reliable early prediction of MS is likely to provide an opportunity for instigating preventive measures of significant clinical utility.
Gupta, Nidhi; Shah, Priyali; Nayyar, Sugandha; Misra, Anoop
Rapidly changing dietary practices accompanied by an increasingly sedentary lifestyle predispose to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, including childhood obesity. Over the last 5 y, reports from several developing countries indicate prevalence rates of obesity (inclusive of overweight) >15 % in children and adolescents aged 5-19 y; Mexico 41.8 %, Brazil 22.1 %, India 22.0 % and Argentina 19.3 %. Moreover, secular trends also indicate an alarming increase in obesity in developing countries; in Brazil from 4.1 % to 13.9 % between 1974 and 1997; in China from 6.4 % to 7.7 % between 1991 and 1997; and in India from 4.9 % to 6.6 % between 2003-04 to 2005-06. Other contributory factors to childhood obesity include: high socio-economic status, residence in metropolitan cities and female gender. Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, thus increasing the risk for conditions like the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease later in life. Interestingly, prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 35.2 % among overweight Chinese adolescents. Presence of central obesity (high waist-to-hip circumference ratio) along with hypertriglyceridemia and family history of T2DM increase the odds of T2DM by 112.1 in young Asian Indians (< 40 y). Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity are most important strategies for preventing childhood obesity. Effective health awareness educational programs for children should be immediately initiated in developing countries, following the successful model program in India (project 'MARG').
Kho, Min Chul; Lee, Yun Jung; Park, Ji Hun; Kim, Hye Yoom; Yoon, Jung Joo; Ahn, You Mee; Tan, Rui; Park, Min Cheol; Cha, Jeong Dan; Choi, Kyung Min; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub
Metabolic syndrome including obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension is a cluster of risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Fermentation of medicinal herbs improves their pharmacological efficacy. Red ginseng (RG), a widely used traditional herbal medicine, was reported with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. Aim in the present study was to investigate that the effects of fermented red ginseng (FRG) on a high-fructose (HF) diet induced metabolic disorders, and those effects were compared to RG and losartan. Animals were divided into four groups: a control group fed a regular diet and tap water, and fructose groups that were fed a 60% high-fructose (HF) diet with/without RG 250 mg/kg/day or FRG 250 mg/kg/day for eight weeks, respectively. Treatment with FRG significantly suppressed the increments of body weight, liver weight, epididymal fat weight and adipocyte size. Moreover, FRG significantly prevented the development of metabolic disturbances such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Staining with Oil-red-o demonstrated a marked increase of hepatic accumulation of triglycerides, and this increase was prevented by FRG. FRG ameliorated endothelial dysfunction by downregulation of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and adhesion molecules in the aorta. In addition, FRG induced markedly upregulation of Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4) in the muscle. These results indicate that FRG ameliorates obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and fatty liver in HF diet rats. More favorable pharmacological effects on HF diet induced metabolic disorders were observed with FRG, compared to an equal dose of RG. These results showed that the pharmacological activity of RG was enhanced by fermentation. Taken together, fermentated red ginseng might be a beneficial therapeutic approach for metabolic syndrome. PMID:27322312
Zhong, Fanyi; Xu, Mengyang; Bruno, Richard S; Ballard, Kevin D; Zhu, Jiangjiang
Both obesity and the metabolic syndrome are risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Identification of novel biomarkers are needed to distinguish metabolic syndrome from equally obese individuals in order to direct them to early interventions that reduce their risk of developing further health problems. We utilized mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolic profiling of 221 metabolites to evaluate the associations between metabolite profiles and established metabolic syndrome criteria (i.e. elevated waist circumference, hypertension, elevated fasting glucose, elevated triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) in plasma samples from obese men ( n = 29; BMI = 35.5 ± 5.2 kg/m 2 ) and women ( n = 40; 34.9 ± 6.7 kg/m 2 ), of which 26 met the criteria for metabolic syndrome (17 men and 9 women). Compared to obese individuals without metabolic syndrome, univariate statistical analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis showed that a specific group of metabolites from multiple metabolic pathways (i.e. purine metabolism, valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation, and tryptophan metabolism) were associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Receiver operating characteristic curves generated based on the PLS-DA models showed excellent areas under the curve (0.85 and 0.96, for metabolites only model and enhanced metabolites model, respectively), high specificities (0.86 and 0.93), and good sensitivities (0.71 and 0.91). Moreover, principal component analysis revealed that metabolic profiles can be used to further differentiate metabolic syndrome with 3 versus 4-5 metabolic syndrome criteria. Collectively, these findings support targeted metabolomics approaches to distinguish metabolic syndrome from obesity alone, and to stratify metabolic syndrome status based on the number of criteria met. Impact statement We utilized mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolic profiling of 221 metabolites to
Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Ryff, Carol D
Building on prior work linking high anger expression to poor health, this cross-sectional study addressed whether anger expression exacerbated age-related risk for metabolic syndrome in a national sample of adults, known as MIDUS (Midlife in the United States). Respondents reported anger expression via survey assessments and completed an overnight clinic visit. Unadjusted metabolic syndrome prevalence was 40.6%. Men, less educated individuals, and those who reported not getting regular physical activity were at significantly higher risk for metabolic syndrome. Anger expression did not predict higher risk for metabolic syndrome in main effects models, but it moderated the relationship between age and metabolic syndrome. Age-associated risk for metabolic syndrome was significant only for adults with high anger expression. Among older adults, anger expression predicted higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Older adults reporting low anger expression had metabolic syndrome rates comparable to younger adults. Results highlight that failing to show the frequently observed decline in anger expression with age may have pernicious health concomitants. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Termizy, H M; Mafauzy, M
The increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome worldwide is closely related to the rising obesity epidemic. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence and identify the associated and prognostic factors that influence the risk of metabolic syndrome among obese patients attending the Obesity Clinic at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. A study was conducted involving 102 obese persons who attended the Obesity Clinic from January 1 to December 31, 2005. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome among obese patients was 40.2 percent. The prevalence was higher in females (43.7 percent) than in males (32.3 percent). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was noted to increase with increasing body mass index class, from class 1 to class 2. However, the prevalence was lower in obesity class 3. The prevalence of metabolic comorbidities of raised blood pressure, reduced high density lipoprotein, high triglyceride and raised fasting blood glucose was 42, 40, 36 and 17 percent, respectively. A quarter of obese patients in this study had no other comorbidity. Based on logistic regression multivariable analysis, age was the only significant associated factor that influenced the risk of having metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was high and the highest comorbidity was high blood pressure. Age was the only significant risk factor of having this syndrome.
McElroy, S L; Kemp, D E; Friedman, E S; Reilly-Harrington, N A; Sylvia, L G; Calabrese, J R; Rabideau, D J; Ketter, T A; Thase, M E; Singh, V; Tohen, M; Bowden, C L; Bernstein, E E; Brody, B D; Deckersbach, T; Kocsis, J H; Kinrys, G; Bobo, W V; Kamali, M; McInnis, M G; Leon, A C; Faraone, S; Nierenberg, A A; Shelton, R C
Examine the effects of obesity and metabolic syndrome on outcome in bipolar disorder. The Comparative Effectiveness of a Second Generation Antipsychotic Mood Stabilizer and a Classic Mood Stabilizer for Bipolar Disorder (Bipolar CHOICE) study randomized 482 participants with bipolar disorder in a 6-month trial comparing lithium- and quetiapine-based treatment. Baseline variables were compared between groups wi