Kidney dysfunction in patients with heart failure and cardiovascular disorders in patients with chronic kidney disease are common. A recently proposed consensus definition of cardiorenal syndrome stresses the bidirectional nature of these heart-kidney interactions. The treatment of cardiorenal syndrome is challenging, however, promising new therapeutic options are currently being investigated in recent and ongoing clinical trials. PMID:20948701
Jia, Guanghong; Aroor, Annayya R.; Sowers, James R.
The cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS) consists of a constellation of cardiac, renal, and metabolic disorders including insulin resistance (IR), obesity, metabolic dyslipidemia, high-blood pressure, and evidence of early cardiac and renal disease. Mitochondria dysfunction often occurs in the CRS, and this dysfunction is promoted by excess reactive oxygen species, genetic factors, IR, aging, and altered mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently, it has been shown that there are important sex-related differences in mitochondria function and metabolic, cardiovascular, and renal components. Sex differences in the CRS have mainly been attributed to the estrogen’s effects that are mainly mediated by estrogen receptor (ER) α, ERβ, and G-protein coupled receptor 30. In this review, we discuss the effects of estrogen on the mitochondrial function, insulin metabolic signaling, glucose transport, lipid metabolism, and inflammatory responses from liver, pancreatic β cells, adipocytes, skeletal muscle, and cardiovascular tissue. PMID:25149220
Ferdinand, Keith C.; Rodriguez, Fatima; Nasser, Samar A.; Caballero, A. Enrique; Puckrein, Gary A.; Zangeneh, Farhad; Mansour, Michael; Foody, JoAnne Micale; Pemu, Priscilla E.; Ofili, Elizabeth O.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart disease and stroke, is the leading cause of death in the USA, regardless of self-determined race/ethnicity, and largely driven by cardiometabolic risk (CMR) and cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS). The primary drivers of increased CMR include obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease as well as associated adverse behaviors of physical inactivity, smoking, and unhealthy eating habits. Given the importance of CRS for public health, multiple stakeholders, including the National Minority Quality Forum (the Forum), the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the Association of Black Cardiologists (ABC), have developed this review to inform clinicians and other health professionals of the unique aspects of CMR in racial/ethnic minorities and of potential means to improve CMR factor control, to reduce CRS and CVD in diverse populations, and to provide more effective, coordinated care. This paper highlights CRS and CMR as sources of significant morbidity and mortality (particularly in racial/ethnic minorities), associated health-care costs, and an evolving index tool for cardiometabolic disease to determine geographical and environmental factors. Finally, this work provides a few examples of interventions potentially successful at reducing disparities in cardiometabolic health. PMID:24847329
Gnanaraj, Joseph; Radhakrishnan, Jai
Cardio-renal syndrome is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The purpose of this article is to highlight the interaction between the cardiovascular system and the renal system and how their interaction results in the complex syndrome of cardio-renal dysfunction. Additionally, we outline the available therapeutic strategies to manage this complex syndrome. PMID:27635229
Saab, Georges; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Bombeck, Andrew; Kurella Tamura, Manjula; Li, Suying; Chen, Shu-Cheng; McFarlane, Samy I.; Sowers, James R.; Norris, Keith; Bakris, George L.; McCullough, Peter A.
Aims The relationship between parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome was examined among non-diabetic persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods In a cross-sectional analysis, the relationship between PTH levels and the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome was investigated in 3,215 non-diabetic participants in the National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP 2.0) found to have CKD (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2). Results In unadjusted analyses, the prevalence of the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome increased along increasing PTH quartiles (31.7, 33.8, 37.3, and 48.7%, respectively, p for trend <0.0001). After multivariate adjustment, as compared to the first PTH quartile, odds of the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome were 16% (p = 0.18), 35% (p = 0.006), and 80% (p < 0.0001) higher for the second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively. When taken as a continuous predictor, each standard deviation increase of natural log transformed PTH was associated with 26% (p < 0.0001) higher odds of the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome. The association of PTH with the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome was not modified by age or gender (p for interaction was not significant for both modifiers). Conclusions Among an outpatient non-diabetic population with CKD, higher PTH levels were associated with a higher prevalence of the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome. PMID:22258399
Lea, Janice P; Greene, Eddie L; Nicholas, Susanne B; Agodoa, Lawrence; Norris, Keith C
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is more likely to progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in African Americans while the reasons for this are unclear. The metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and has been recently linked to incident CKD. Historically, fewer African Americans meet criteria for the definition of metabolic syndrome, despite having higher rates of cardiovascular mortality than Caucasians. The presence of microalbuminuria portends increased cardiovascular risks and has been shown to cluster with the metabolic syndrome. We recently reported that proteinuria is a predictor of CKD progression in African American hypertensives with metabolic syndrome. In this review we explore the potential value of including CKD markers--microalbuminuria/proteinuria or low glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-in refining the cluster of factors defined as metabolic syndrome, ie, "cardiorenal metabolic syndrome."
Cabandugama, Peminda K; Gardner, Michael J; Sowers, James R
In the United States, more than 50 million people have blood pressure at or above 120/80 mm Hg. All components of cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS) are linked to metabolic abnormalities and obesity. A major driver for CRS is obesity. Current estimates show that many of those with hypertension and CRS show some degree of systemic and cardiovascular insulin resistance. Several pathophysiologic factors participate in the link between hypertension and CRS. This article updates recent literature with a focus on the function of insulin resistance, obesity, and renin angiotensin aldosterone system-mediated oxidative stress on endothelial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of hypertension.
Pokhrel, Narayan; Maharjan, Najindra; Dhakal, Bismita; Arora, Rohit R
The incidence of cardiorenal syndrome is increasing; however, its pathophysiology and effective management are still not well understood. For many years, diuretics have been the mainstay of treatment for cardiorenal syndrome, although a significant proportion of patients develop resistance to diuretics and even deteriorate while on diuretics. Trials on different ways to counteract diuretic resistance and newer treatment modalities, such as nesiritide, arginine vasopressin receptor antagonists, adenosine receptor antagonists and ultrafiltration, have shown promising results. PMID:19343160
Pinheiro da Silva, Ana Luísa; Vaz da Silva, Manuel Joaquim
The Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative consensus conference proposed a classification of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS), aiming for a better delineation of each subtype. Although the exact pathophysiology of type 4 CRS is not completely understood, the mechanisms involved are probably multifactorial. There is growing evidence that oxidative stress is a major connector in the development and progression of type 4 CRS. Giving its complexity, poor prognosis and increasing incidence, type 4 CRS is becoming a significant public health problem. Patients with chronic kidney disease are particularly predisposed to cardiac dysfunction, due to the high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in this population, but the contribution of risk factors specific to chronic kidney disease should also be taken into account. Much remains to be elucidated about type 4 CRS: despite progress over the last decade, there are still significant questions regarding its pathophysiology and there is as yet no specific therapy. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved may provide potential targets for intervention. The present review will provide a brief description of the definition, epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, biomarkers and management strategies of type 4 CRS, and the pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors presumably involved in its development will be particularly highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ensling, Myriam; Steinmann, William; Whaley-Connell, Adam
Resistance to insulin metabolic signaling in adipose tissue contributes to the lipid abnormalities in obese, hyperinsulinemic, insulin-resistant patients who develop the cardiorenal syndrome. These same metabolic dyslipidemic abnormalities can be found in conditions of caloric energy restriction with decreased adiposity or normal insulin levels, such as anorexia, starvation or non-diabetic kidney disease. In this review, we assess hypoglycemia as an alternative physiological explanation for the biochemical and lipid findings in conditions of insulin resistance (IR). Therefore, PubMed databases (1961-2010) were searched for articles on the effect of hypoglycemia and starvation on non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) elevation and abnormalities in insulin signaling in muscles as well as abnormal kidney metabolism. The search included articles on NEFA and their role in triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism, as well as kidney and heart disease. Available studies support that hypoglycemia increases NEFA generation from adipose tissue. Elevated levels of NEFA induce increased plasma levels of TG and decreased levels of HDL cholesterol, and may cause direct kidney and myocardial damage. IR of adipose and skeletal muscle tissue, and the elevation in insulin levels in obese, insulin-resistant patients could be explained by an adaptation to their carbohydrate intake. These molecular abnormalities in insulin metabolic signaling can also be found in hypoglycemia or starvation. In conclusion, IR of adipose tissue cannot fully explain the lipid abnormalities observed in the cardiorenal syndrome. Decreased blood glucose levels (e.g. hypoglycemia) occur frequently in patients at risk for this syndrome. Hypoglycemia-induced increases in NEFA levels can promote lipid abnormalities that contribute to IR and the cardiorenal syndrome.
Chaudhary, Kunal; Malhotra, Kunal; Sowers, James; Aroor, Annayya
Elevated serum uric acid levels are a frequent finding in persons with obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular and kidney disease as well as in those with the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS). The increased consumption of a fructose-rich Western diet has contributed to the increasing incidence of the CRS, obesity and diabetes especially in industrialized populations. There is also increasing evidence that supports a causal role of high dietary fructose driving elevations in uric acid in association with the CRS. Animal and epidemiological studies support the notion that elevated serum uric acid levels play an important role in promoting insulin resistance and hypertension and suggest potential pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to the development of the CRS and associated cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. To this point, elevated serum levels of uric acid appear to contribute to impaired nitric oxide production/endothelial dysfunction, increased vascular stiffness, inappropriate activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, enhanced oxidative stress, and maladaptive immune and inflammatory responses. These abnormalities, in turn, promote vascular, cardiac and renal fibrosis as well as associated functional abnormalities. Small clinical trials have suggested that uric acid-lowering therapies may be beneficial in such patients; however, a consensus on the treatment of asymptomatic hyperuricemia is lacking. Larger randomized controlled trials need to be performed in order to critically evaluate the beneficial effect of lowering serum uric acid in patients with the CRS and those with diabetes and/or hypertension. PMID:24454316
Brisco, Meredith A.; Testani, Jeffrey M.
Renal dysfunction (RD) in heart failure portends adverse outcomes and often limits aggressive medical and decongestive therapies. Despite the high prevalence in this population, not all forms of RD are prognostically or mechanistically equivalent: RD can result from irreversible nephron loss secondary to diabetic or hypertensive kidney disease or it can develop secondary to the HF itself, i.e. the cardiorenal syndrome. Furthermore, filtration is only one aspect of renal performance such that significant renal impairment secondary to cardiorenal syndrome can exist despite a normal glomerular filtration rate. Renal biomarkers have the potential to inform some of the intricacies involved in accurately assessing cardiorenal interactions. This article discusses novel biomarkers for cardiorenal syndrome and their utility in prognosis, diagnosis, and targeted treatment of heart failure-induced RD. PMID:25239434
Virzì, Grazia Maria; Corradi, Valentina; Panagiotou, Anthi; Gastaldon, Fiorella; Cruz, Dinna N.; de Cal, Massimo; Clementi, Maurizio; Ronco, Claudio
The cardiorenal syndrome type 4 (Chronic Renocardiac Syndrome) is characterized by a condition of primary chronic kidney disease (CKD) that leads to an impairment of the cardiac function, ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and/or increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Clinically, it is very difficult to distinguish between CRS type 2 (Chronic Cardiorenal Syndrome) and CRS type 4 (Chronic Renocardiac Syndrome) because often it is not clear whether the primary cause of the syndrome depends on the heart or the kidney. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), a genetic disease that causes CKD, could be viewed as an ideal prototype of CRS type 4 because it is certain that the primary cause of cardiorenal syndrome is the kidney disease. In this paper, we will briefly review the epidemiology of ADPKD, conventional and novel biomarkers which may be useful in following the disease process, and prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:21234092
To include the vast array of interrelated derangements, and to stress the bidirectional nature of the heart-kidney interactions, the classification of the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) includes today five subtypes whose etymology reflects the primary and secondary pathology, the time-frame and simultaneous cardiac and renal codysfunction secondary to systemic disease. The CRS can be generally defined as a pathophysiologic disorder of the heart and kidneys, whereby acute or chronic dysfunction in one organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction in the other organ. Type 1 CRS reflects an abrupt worsening of cardiac function (e.g. acute cardiogenic shock or decompensated congestive heart failure) leading to acute kidney injury. Type 2 CRS describes chronic abnormalities in cardiac function (e.g. chronic congestive heart failure) causing progressive and permanent chronic kidney disease. Type 3 CRS consists in an abrupt worsening of renal function (e.g. acute kidney ischemia or glomerulonephritis) causing acute cardiac disorder (e.g. heart failure, arrhythmia, ischemia). Type 4 CRS describes a state of chronic kidney disease (e.g. chronic glomerular disease) contributing to decreased cardiac function, cardiac hypertrophy and/ or increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Type 5 CRS reflects a systemic condition (e.g. diabetes mellitus, sepsis) causing both cardiac and renal dysfunction. The identification of patients and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying each syndrome subtype will help to understand clinical disorders and to design future clinical trials.
Otero-Losada, Matilde; Gómez Llambí, Hernán; Ottaviano, Graciela; Cao, Gabriel; Müller, Angélica; Azzato, Francisco; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Milei, José
We report experimental evidence confirming renal histopathology, proinflammatory mediators, and oxidative metabolism induced by cola drinking. Male Wistar rats drank ad libitum regular cola (C, n = 12) or tap water (W, n = 12). Measures. Body weight, nutritional data, plasma glucose, cholesterol fractions, TG, urea, creatinine, coenzyme Q10, SBP, and echocardiograms (0 mo and 6 mo). At 6 months euthanasia was performed. Kidneys were processed for histopathology and immunohistochemistry (semiquantitative). Compared with W, C rats showed (I) overweight (+8%, p < 0.05), hyperglycemia (+11%, p < 0.05), hypertriglyceridemia (2-fold, p < 0.001), higher AIP (2-fold, p < 0.01), and lower Q10 level (−55%, p < 0.05); (II) increased LV diastolic diameter (+9%, p < 0.05) and volume (systolic +24%, p < 0.05), posterior wall thinning (−8%, p < 0.05), and larger cardiac output (+24%, p < 0.05); (III) glomerulosclerosis (+21%, p < 0.05), histopathology (+13%, p < 0.05), higher tubular expression of IL-6 (7-fold, p < 0.001), and TNFα (4-fold, p < 0.001). (IV) Correlations were found for LV dimensions with IL-6 (74%, p < 0.001) and TNFα (52%, p < 0.001) and fully abolished after TG and Q10 control. Chronic cola drinking induced cardiac remodeling associated with increase in proinflammatory cytokines and renal damage. Hypertriglyceridemia and oxidative stress were key factors. Hypertriglyceridemic lipotoxicity in the context of defective antioxidant/anti-inflammatory protection due to low Q10 level might play a key role in cardiorenal disorder induced by chronic cola drinking in rats. PMID:27340342
Price, Jack F; Goldstein, Stuart L
Concomitant cardiac and renal dysfunction has been termed the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). This clinical condition usually manifests as heart failure with worsening renal function and occurs frequently in the acute care setting. A consistent definition of CRS has not been universally agreed upon, although a recent classification of CRS describes several subtypes depending on the primary organ injured and the chronicity of the injury. CRS may develop in adults and children and is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized and ambulatory patients. The underlying physiology of CRS is not well understood, creating a significant challenge for clinicians when treating heart failure patients with renal insufficiency. This review summarizes recent data characterizing the incidence, physiology, and management of children who have heart failure and acute kidney injury.
Clementi, Anna; Virzì, Grazia Maria; Goh, Ching Yan; Cruz, Dinna N; Granata, Antonio; Vescovo, Girogio; Ronco, Claudio
There is a bidirectional and complex relationship between the heart and kidneys. This interaction is physical, chemical as well as biological and is also reflected in a strong connection between renal and cardiovascular diseases. Cardiorenal syndrome type 4 (CRS type 4) is characterized by primary chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to an impairment of cardiac function, with ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and/or increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. The incidence of CKD is increasing, and CRS type 4 is becoming a major public health problem associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In this study, we briefly review the epidemiology and pathophysiology of CRS type 4, the role of biomarkers in its early identification, and its management.
Saito, Akihiko; Kaseda, Ryohei; Hosojima, Michihiro; Sato, Hiroyoshi
Incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is remarkably high among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), even in the early microalbuminuric stages with normal glomerular filtration rates. Proximal tubule cells (PTCs) mediate metabolism and urinary excretion of vasculotoxic substances via apical and basolateral receptors and transporters. These cells also retrieve vasculoprotective substances from circulation or synthesize them for release into the circulation. PTCs are also involved in the uptake of sodium and phosphate, which are critical for hemodynamic regulation and maintaining the mineral balance, respectively. Dysregulation of PTC functions in CKD is likely to be associated with the development of CVD and is linked to the progression to end-stage renal disease. In particular, PTC dysfunction occurs early in diabetic nephropathy, a leading cause of CKD. It is therefore important to elucidate the mechanisms of PTC dysfunction to develop therapeutic strategies for treating cardiorenal syndrome in diabetes. PMID:21197105
Clementi, Anna; Virzì, Grazia Maria; Brocca, Alessandra; de Cal, Massimo; Pastori, Silvia; Clementi, Maurizio; Granata, Antonio; Vescovo, Giorgio; Ronco, Claudio
Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) type 3 is a subclassification of the CRS whereby an episode of acute kidney injury (AKI) leads to the development of acute cardiac injury or dysfunction. In general, there is limited understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in CRS type 3. An episode of AKI may have effects that depend on the severity and duration of AKI and that both directly and indirectly predispose to an acute cardiac event. Experimental data suggest that cardiac dysfunction may be related to immune system activation, inflammatory mediators release, oxidative stress, and cellular apoptosis which are well documented in the setting of AKI. Moreover, significant derangements, such as fluid and electrolyte imbalance, metabolic acidosis, and uremia, which are typical features of acute kidney injury, may impair cardiac function. In this review, we will focus on multiple factors possibly involved in the pathogenesis issues regarding CRS type 3.
Caetano, Francisca; Barra, Sérgio; Faustino, Ana; Botelho, Ana; Mota, Paula; Costa, Marco; Leitão Marques, António
Worsening renal function has an unquestionably negative impact on prognosis in patients with acute heart failure (HF). In Portugal there is little information about the importance of this entity in HF patients admitted to hospital. The objective of this work was to assess the prevalence of cardiorenal syndrome and to identify its key predictors and consequences in patients admitted for acute HF. This was a retrospective study of 155 patients admitted for acute HF. Cardiorenal syndrome was defined as an increase in serum creatinine of ≥26.5 μmol/l. Clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic parameters were analyzed and compared. Mortality was assessed at 30 and 90 days. Cardiorenal syndrome occurred in 46 patients (29.7%), 5.4 ± 4.4 days after admission; 66.7% (n=24) did not recover baseline creatinine levels. The factors associated with cardiorenal syndrome were older age, chronic renal failure, moderate to severe mitral regurgitation, higher admission blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and troponin I, and lower glomerular filtration rate. Patients who developed cardiorenal syndrome had longer hospital stay, were treated with higher daily doses of intravenous furosemide, and more often required inotropic support and renal replacement therapy. They had higher in-hospital and 30-day mortality, and multivariate analysis identified cardiorenal syndrome as an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality. Renal dysfunction is common in acute HF patients, with a negative impact on prognosis, which highlights the importance of preventing kidney damage through the use of new therapeutic strategies and identification of novel biomarkers. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Liang, Kelly V; Williams, Amy W; Greene, Eddie L; Redfield, Margaret M
Heart failure is one of the leading causes of hospitalizations in the United States. Concomitant and significant renal dysfunction is common in patients with heart failure. Increasingly, the syndrome of heart failure is one of cardiorenal failure, in which concomitant cardiac and renal dysfunctions exist, with each accelerating the progression of the other. One fourth of patients hospitalized for the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure will experience significant worsening of renal function, which is associated with worse outcomes. It remains unclear whether worsening renal function specifically contributes to poor outcomes or whether it is merely a marker of advanced cardiac and renal dysfunction. Diuretic resistance, with or without worsening renal function, is also common in acute decompensated heart failure, although the definition of diuretic resistance, its prevalence, and prognostic implications are less well defined. The term cardiorenal syndrome has been variably associated with cardiorenal failure, worsening renal function, and diuretic resistance but is more comprehensively defined as a state of advanced cardiorenal dysregulation manifest by one or all of these specific features. The pathophysiology of the cardiorenal syndrome is poorly understood and likely involves interrelated hemodynamic and neurohormonal mechanisms. When conventional therapy for acute decompensated heart failure fails, mechanical fluid removal via ultrafiltration, hemofiltration, or hemodialysis may be needed for refractory volume overload. While ultrafiltration can address diuretic resistance, whether ultrafiltration prevents worsening renal function or improves outcomes in patients with cardiorenal syndrome remains unclear. Evidence regarding the potential renal-preserving effects of nesiritide is mixed, and further studies on the efficacy and safety of different doses of nesiritide in heart failure therapy are warranted. Newer therapeutic agents, including vasopressin
Gupta, Deepashree; Brietzke, Stephen; Hayden, M.R.; Kurukulasuriya, L. Romayne; Sowers, James R.
Hyperphosphatemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, abnormalities of mineral metabolism and bone disease, and the progression of renal insufficiency in patients with chronic renal disease. In early renal disease, serum phosphate levels are maintained within the ‘normal laboratory range’ by compensatory increases in phosphaturic hormones such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23). An important co-factor for FGF-23 is Klotho; a deficiency in Klotho plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hyperphosphatemia, renal tubulointerstitial disease, and parathyroid and bone abnormalities. Clinical hyperphosphatemia occurs when these phosphaturic mechanisms cannot counterbalance nephron loss. Hyperphosphatemia is associated with calcific uremic arteriolopathy and uremic cardiomyopathy, which may explain, in part, the epidemiologic connections between phosphate excess and cardiovascular disease. However, no clinical trials have been conducted to establish a causal relationship, and large, randomized trials with hard endpoints are urgently needed to prove or disprove the benefits and risks of therapy. In summary, hyperphosphatemia accelerates renal tubulointerstitial disease, renal osteodystrophy, as well as cardiovascular disease, and it is an important mortality risk factor in patients with chronic kidney disease. PMID:22096458
Hatamizadeh, Parta; Fonarow, Gregg C; Budoff, Matthew J; Darabian, Sirous; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar
Combined dysfunction of the heart and the kidneys, which can be associated with haemodynamic impairment, is classically referred to as cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). Cardiac pump failure with resulting volume retention by the kidneys, once thought to be the major pathophysiologic mechanism of CRS, is now considered to be only a part of a much more complicated phenomenon. Multiple body systems may contribute to the development of this pathologic constellation in an interconnected network of events. These events include heart failure (systolic or diastolic), atherosclerosis and endothelial cell dysfunction, uraemia and kidney failure, neurohormonal dysregulation, anaemia and iron disorders, mineral metabolic derangements including fibroblast growth factor 23, phosphorus and vitamin D disorders, and inflammatory pathways that may lead to malnutrition-inflammation-cachexia complex and protein-energy wasting. Hence, a pathophysiologically and clinically relevant classification of CRS based on the above components would be prudent. With the existing medical knowledge, it is almost impossible to identify where the process has started in any given patient. Rather, the events involved are closely interrelated, so that once the process starts at a particular point, other pathways of the network are potentially activated. Current therapies for CRS as well as ongoing studies are mostly focused on haemodynamic adjustments. The timely targeting of different components of this complex network, which may eventually lead to haemodynamic and vascular compromise and cause refractoriness to conventional treatments, seems necessary. Future studies should focus on interventions targeting these components.
Villa, Gianluca; Romagnoli, Stefano; Sharma, Aashish; Ronco, Claudio
Fabry's disease (FD) is a severe congenital metabolic disorder characterized by the deficient activity of lysosomal exoglycohydrolase alpha-galactosidase, characterized by glycosphingolipid deposition in several cells, such as capillary endothelial cells, renal, cardiac, and nerve cells. As a systemic disease leading to a contemporaneous myocardial and renal dysfunction, FD might be an example of cardiorenal syndrome type 5 (CRS-5). Kidney damage is commonly characterized by proteinuria, isosthenuria and altered tubular function when occurs at the second-third decade, azotemia and end-stage renal disease in third-fifth decade. Beyond the irreversible glomerular, tubular and vascular damages, the podocytes foot process effacement is the major cause of kidney dysfunction. Myocardial damage is usually observed with right and left ventricular hypertrophy, arrhythmias (due to sinus node and conduction system impairment), diastolic dysfunction, congestive heart failure, myocardial ischemia, fibrosis and cardiac death. The enzymatic replacement therapy is essential for the management of FD, as well as the control of renal (with anti-proteinuric agents such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors- and/or angiotensin II receptor blockers), brain (coated aspirin, clopidogrel and statins to prevent strokes) and heart complications (calcium channel blockers for ischemic cardiomyopathy, warfarin and amiodarone or cardioverter device for arrhythmias). Copyright by Società Italiana di Nefrologia SIN, Rome, Italy.
Sharma, Aashish; Sartori, Marco; Zaragoza, Jose J; Villa, Gianluca; Lu, Renhua; Faggiana, Elena; Brocca, Alessandra; Di Lullo, Luca; Feriozzi, Sandro; Ronco, Claudio
Cardiorenal syndrome type 5 (CRS-5) includes conditions where there is a simultaneous involvement of the heart and kidney from a systemic disorder. This is a bilateral organ cross talk. Fabry's disease (FD) is a devastating progressive inborn error of metabolism with lysosomal glycosphingolipid deposition in variety of cell types, capillary endothelial cells, renal, cardiac and nerve cells. Basic effect is absent or deficient activity of lysosomal exoglycohydrolase a-galactosidase A. Renal involvement consists of proteinuria, isosthenuria, altered tubular function, presenting in second or third decade leading to azotemia and end-stage renal disease in third to fifth decade mainly due to irreversible changes to glomerular, tubular and vascular structures, especially highlighted by podocytes foot process effacement. Cardiac involvement consists of left ventricular hypertrophy, right ventricular hypertrophy, arrhythmias (sinus node and conduction system impairment), diastolic dysfunction, myocardial ischemia, infarction, transmural replacement fibrosis, congestive heart failure and cardiac death. Management of FD is based on enzymatic replacement therapy and control of renal (with anti-proteinuric agents such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors-and/or angiotensin II receptor blockers), brain (coated aspirin, clopidogrel and statin to prevent strokes) and heart complications (calcium channel blockers for ischemic cardiomyopathy, warfarin and amiodarone or cardioverter device for arrhythmias).
Uremic toxins have been increasingly recognized as a crucial missing link in the cardiorenal syndrome. Advances in dialysis technologies have contributed to an enormous improvement in uremic toxin removal, but removal of protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs) by current conventional dialysis remains problematic because of their protein-binding capacity. Most PBUTs that have been implicated in cardiorenal toxicity have been demonstrated to be derived from a colonic microbiota metabolism pathway using dietary amino acids as a substrate. Currently, indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate are the most extensively investigated gut-derived PBUTs. Strong evidence of adverse clinical outcomes, as well as biological toxicity on the kidney and cardiovascular system attributable to these toxins, has been increasingly reported. Regarding their site of origin, the colon has become a potential target for treatment of cardiorenal syndrome induced by gut-derived PBUTs.
Ganda, Anjali; Lin, Jeffrey; Onat, Duygu; Harxhi, Ante; Iyasere, Julia E.; Uriel, Nir; Cotter, Gad
Although inflammation is a physiologic response designed to protect us from infection, when unchecked and ongoing it may cause substantial harm. Both chronic heart failure (CHF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are known to cause elaboration of several pro-inflammatory mediators that can be detected at high concentrations in the tissues and blood stream. The biologic sources driving this chronic inflammatory state in CHF and CKD are not fully established. Traditional sources of inflammation include the heart and the kidneys which produce a wide range of proinflammatory cytokines in response to neurohormones and sympathetic activation. However, growing evidence suggests that non-traditional biomechanical mechanisms such as venous and tissue congestion due to volume overload are also important as they stimulate endotoxin absorption from the bowel and peripheral synthesis and release of proinflammatory mediators. Both during the chronic phase and, more rapidly, during acute exacerbations of CHF and CKD, inflammation and congestion appear to amplify each other resulting in a downward spiral of worsening cardiac, vascular, and renal functions that may negatively impact patients’ outcome. Anti-inflammatory treatment strategies aimed at attenuating end organ damage and improving clinical prognosis in the cardiorenal syndrome have been disappointing to date. A new therapeutic paradigm may be needed, which involves different anti-inflammatory strategies for individual etiologies and stages of CHF and CKD. It may also include specific (short-term) anti-inflammatory treatments that counteract inflammation during the unsettled phases of clinical decompensation. Finally, it will require greater focus on volume overload as an increasingly significant source of systemic inflammation in the cardiorenal syndrome. PMID:21688186
Obi, Yoshitsugu; Kim, Taehee; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Amin, Alpesh N.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar
Background Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) encompasses conditions in which cardiac and renal disorders co-exist and are pathophysiologically related. The newest classification of CRS into seven etiologically and clinically distinct types for direct patient management purposes includes hemodynamic, uremic, vascular, neurohumoral, anemia- and/or iron metabolism-related, mineral metabolism-related and protein-energy wasting-related CRS. This classification also emphasizes the pathophysiologic pathways. The leading CRS category remains hemodynamic CRS, which is the most commonly encountered type in patient care settings and in which acute or chronic heart failure leads to renal impairment. Summary This review focuses on selected therapeutic strategies for the clinical management of hemodynamic CRS. This is often characterized by an exceptionally high ratio of serum urea to creatinine concentrations. Loop diuretics, positive inotropic agents including dopamine and dobutamine, vasopressin antagonists including vasopressin receptor antagonists such as tolvaptan, nesiritide and angiotensin-neprilysin inhibitors are among the pharmacologic agents used. Additional therapies include ultrafiltration (UF) via hemofiltration or dialysis. The beneficial versus unfavorable effects of these therapies on cardiac decongestion versus renal blood flow may act in opposite directions. Some of the most interesting options for the outpatient setting that deserve revisiting include portable continuous dobutamine infusion, peritoneal dialysis and outpatient UF via hemodialysis or hemofiltration. Key Messages The new clinically oriented CRS classification system is helpful in identifying therapeutic targets and offers a systematic approach to an optimal management algorithm with better understanding of etiologies. Most interventions including UF have not shown a favorable impact on outcomes. Outpatient portable dobutamine infusion is underutilized and not well studied. Revisiting traditional and
Casado Cerrada, Jesús; Pérez Calvo, Juan Ignacio
Heart failure is a complex syndrome that affects almost all organs and systems of the body. Signs and symptoms of organ dysfunction, in particular kidney dysfunction, may be accentuated or become evident for the first time during acute decompensation of heart failure. Cardiorenal syndrome has been defined as the simultaneous dysfunction of both the heart and the kidney, regardless of which of the two organs may have suffered the initial damage and regardless also of their previous functional status. Research into the mechanisms regulating the complex relationship between the two organs is prompting the search for new biomarkers to help physicians detect renal damage in subclinical stages. Hence, a preventive approach to renal dysfunction may be adopted in the clinical setting in the near future. This article provides a general overview of cardiorenal syndrome and an update of the physiopathological mechanisms involved. Special emphasis is placed on the role of visceral congestion as an emergent mechanism in this syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Forte, Victoria; Pandey, Abhishek; Abdelmessih, Rita; Forte, Giovanna; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Sowers, James R.; McFarlane, Samy I.
Numerous epidemiological studies confirm that the prevalence of obesity and the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS) is extraordinarily high and that the rates have increased dramatically in the last three decades. In addition, epidemiological data demonstrate that obesity, the CRS, and diabetes are inextricably linked and are all associated with an increased incidence of a number of solid tissue cancers. The mechanisms for this association have been examined, including, but not limited to, higher levels of insulin and free levels of insulin-like growth factor and insulin resistance in obesity and the CRS. Mortality, morbidity, and the associated health care costs which are the link between obesity, the CRS, and diabetes are just beginning to be examined. In addition, we review the advantages of implementing lifestyle and surgical changes to modify obesity, lessening the development of the CRS, diabetes, and associated cancers. Epidemiological data regarding the general mechanisms of the pathogenesis of cancers associated with obesity, the CRS, and diabetes (specifically colon, pancreas, esophageal, liver, breast, prostate, thyroid, and renal carcinomas) are reviewed. The mechanisms by which obesity and other components of the CRS contribute to the pathogenesis of these cancers, such as hormone alterations and insulin- and insulin-like growth factor-dependent pathways of tumor pathogenesis, include the attending roles of inflammation and oxidative stress. Emphasis has been placed on obesity as a modifiable risk factor which, when addressed, provides a reduction in the rate of cancer deaths. In a second part to be published in the next issue of this journal, the relationship between diabetes and cancer will be reviewed in detail. PMID:22851963
Núñez, Julio; Miñana, Gema; Santas, Enrique; Bertomeu-González, Vicente
Cardiorenal syndrome has been defined as the simultaneous dysfunction of both the heart and the kidney. Worsening renal function that occurs in patients with acute heart failure has been classified as cardiorenal syndrome type 1. In this setting, worsening renal function is a common finding and is due to complex, multifactorial, and not fully understood processes involving hemodynamic (renal arterial hypoperfusion and renal venous congestion) and nonhemodynamic factors. Traditionally, worsening renal function has been associated with worse outcomes, but recent findings have revealed mixed and heterogeneous results, perhaps suggesting that the same phenotype represents a diversity of pathophysiological and clinical situations. Interpreting the magnitude and chronology of renal changes together with baseline renal function, fluid overload status, and clinical response to therapy might help clinicians to unravel the clinical meaning of renal function changes that occur during an episode of heart failure decompensation. In this article, we critically review the contemporary evidence on the pathophysiology and clinical aspects of worsening renal function in acute heart failure. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Johnson, Richard J; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Gaucher, Eric A
All humans are uricase knockouts; we lost the uricase gene due to a mutation that occurred in the mid Miocene approximately 15 million years ago. The consequence of being a uricase knockout is that we have higher serum uric acid levels that are less regulatable and can be readily influenced by diet. This increases our risk for gout and kidney stones, but there is also increasing evidence that uric acid increases our risk for hypertension, kidney disease, obesity and diabetes. This raises the question of why this mutation occurred. In this paper we review current hypotheses. We suggest that uric acid is a danger and survival signal carried over from the RNA world. The mutation of uricase that occurred during the food shortage and global cooling that occurred in the Miocene resulted in a survival advantage for early primates, particularly in Europe. Today, the loss of uricase functions as a thrifty gene, increasing our risk for obesity and cardiorenal disease. PMID:22000645
Gigante, A; Di Mario, F; Barbano, B; Rosato, E; Di Lazzaro Giraldi, G; Pofi, R; Gasperini, M L; Amoroso, D; Cianci, R; Laviano, A
Cardio-Renal Syndrome (CRS) is a condition, which is more frequently observed in clinical practice. The aim of this study is to explore nutritional status and intrarenal arterial stiffness in patients affected by CRS. 14 consecutive CRS patients, screened for anthropometry, biochemistry, nutritional and metabolic status underwent renal Doppler ultrasound and whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). We found a positive correlation between phase angle (PA) and CKD-EPI and MDRD (p=0.011 and p=0.007), and between body mass index and renal resistive index (RRI) (p=0.002). Finally, we found a negative correlation between fat-free mass and RRI (p=0.024). Body composition assessment may improve the care of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Also, BIS may help identify changes in hydration status in CKD patients resulting as a significant predictor of mortality.
Summary Cardiorenal syndromes (CRSs) with bidirectional heart-kidney signaling are increasingly being recognized for their association with increased morbidity and mortality. In acute CRS, recognition of the importance of worsening kidney function complicating management of acute decompensated heart failure has led to the examination of this specific outcome in the context of acute heart failure clinical trials. In particular, the role of fluid overload and venous congestion has focused interest in the most effective use of diuretic therapy to relieve symptoms of heart failure while at the same time preserving kidney function. Additionally, many novel vasoactive therapies have been studied in recent years with the hopes of augmenting cardiac function, improving symptoms and patient outcomes, while maintaining or improving kidney function. Similarly, recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic CRS have led to reanalysis of kidney outcomes in pivotal trials in chronic congestive heart failure, and newer trials are including changes in kidney function as well as kidney injury biomarkers as prospectively monitored and adjudicated outcomes. This paper provides an overview of some new developments in the pharmacologic management of acute and chronic CRS, examines several reports that illustrate a key management principle for each subtype, and discusses opportunities for future research. PMID:23929925
Di Lullo, Luca; Floccari, Fulvio; Granata, Antonio; D'Amelio, Alessandro; Rivera, Rodolfo; Fiorini, Fulvio; Malaguti, Moreno; Timio, Mario
The term cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) describes a broad spectrum of clinical conditions with four combinations of acute and chronic heart and kidney failure. Based on the pathophysiological primum movens, the actual classification recognizes five CRS types: in type I and II CRS, the initiating event is heart failure (acute or chronic), while it is kidney failure in type III and IV CRS; type V is linked to systemic diseases. Ultrasound techniques (echocardiography and ultrasonography of the kidney, inferior vena cava and chest) can be extremely helpful in establishing a prompt diagnosis and a correct CRS classification. Basic echocardiography allows evaluation of ventricular diastolic and systolic functions, investigates pulmonary congestion and pericardial effusion, and describes volume overload. On the other hand, renal ultrasound helps clinicians to distinguish between acute and chronic renal failure, excludes urinary tract dilation or pathological bladder repletion, and provides crucial information regarding kidney volume or echogenicity. Applying basic knowledge of echocardiography and renal ultrasound, nephrologists may be in a better position for patient treatment and management, bearing in mind that doctors can properly use a stethoscope although not being a cardiologist.
Di Lullo, Luca; Floccari, Fulvio; Granata, Antonio; D'Amelio, Alessandro; Rivera, Rodolfo; Fiorini, Fulvio; Malaguti, Moreno; Timio, Mario
The term cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) describes a broad spectrum of clinical conditions with four combinations of acute and chronic heart and kidney failure. Based on the pathophysiological primum movens, the actual classification recognizes five CRS types: in type I and II CRS, the initiating event is heart failure (acute or chronic), while it is kidney failure in type III and IV CRS; type V is linked to systemic diseases. Ultrasound techniques (echocardiography and ultrasonography of the kidney, inferior vena cava and chest) can be extremely helpful in establishing a prompt diagnosis and a correct CRS classification. Basic echocardiography allows evaluation of ventricular diastolic and systolic functions, investigates pulmonary congestion and pericardial effusion, and describes volume overload. On the other hand, renal ultrasound helps clinicians to distinguish between acute and chronic renal failure, excludes urinary tract dilation or pathological bladder repletion, and provides crucial information regarding kidney volume or echogenicity. Applying basic knowledge of echocardiography and renal ultrasound, nephrologists may be in a better position for patient treatment and management, bearing in mind that doctors can properly use a stethoscope although not being a cardiologist. PMID:22493598
Jindal, Ankur; Garcia-Touza, Mariana; Jindal, Nidhi; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Sowers, James R.
Synopsis Diabetes is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States. There was an estimated 7 million cases of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in the last National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (2005-2008). High blood pressure, hyperglycemia and other metabolic abnormalities interactively promote DKD, thus there has been increasing interest and renewed focus on the metabolic dysregulation and the interactions between heart and kidney pathologies observed in DKD. Indeed metabolic abnormalities that are observed in overweight or obese individuals are known to impact blood pressure regulation in kidney and cardiovascular disease; e.g. cardiorenal metabolic syndrome. In this context, obesity has been associated with increased blood pressure variability and nocturnal non-dipping which are risk predictors for albuminuria and DKD. These collective metabolic abnormalities have also been observed in earlier stages of DKD in association with micro-albuminuria. Herein we review the current literature regarding the role of blood pressure variability and nocturnal non-dipping of blood pressure as well as the presence of DKD, in the absence of albuminuria, as risk predictors for progressive DKD. We also discuss the importance of glycemic and blood pressure control in patients with diabetes and CKD, and the use of oral hypoglycemic agents and anti-hypertensive agents in this patient cohort. PMID:24286950
The current models of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) are mainly based on a cardiocentric approach; they assume that worsening renal function is an adverse consequence of the decline in cardiac function rather than a separate and independent pathologic phenomenon. If this assumption were true, then mechanical extraction of fluid (i.e., ultrafiltration therapy) would be expected to portend positive impact on renal hemodynamics and function through improvement in cardio-circulatory physiology and reduction in neurohormonal activation. However, currently available ultrafiltration trials, whether in acute heart failure (AHF) or in CRS, have so far failed to show any improvement in renal function; they have reported no impact or even observed adverse renal outcomes in this setting. Moreover, the presence or absence of renal dysfunction seems to affect the overall safety and efficacy of ultrafiltration therapy in AHF. This manuscript briefly reviews cardiorenal physiology in AHF and concludes that therapeutic options for CRS should not only target cardio-circulatory status of the patients, but they need to also have the ability of addressing the adverse homeostatic consequences of the associated decline in renal function. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) can be such an option for the chronic cases of CRS as it has been shown to provide efficient intracorporeal ultrafiltration and sodium extraction in volume overloaded patients while concurrently correcting the metabolic consequences of diminished renal function. Currently available trials on PD in heart failure have shown the safety and efficacy of this therapeutic modality for patients with chronic CRS and suggest that it could represent a pathophysiologically and conceptually relevant option in this setting. PMID:26225199
Nistala, Ravi; Hayden, Melvin R.; DeMarco, Vincent G.; Henriksen, Erik J.; Lackland, Daniel T.; Sowers, James R.
The presence of a group of interacting maladaptive factors, including hypertension, insulin resistance, metabolic dyslipidemia, obesity, and microalbuminuria and/or reduced renal function, collectively constitutes the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS). Nutritional and other environmental cues during fetal development can permanently affect the composition, homeostatic systems, and functions of multiple organs and systems; this process has been referred to as ‘programming’. Since the original formulation of the notion that low birth weight is a proxy for ‘prenatal programming’ of adult hypertension and cardiovascular disease, evidence has also emerged for programming of kidney disease, insulin resistance, obesity, metabolic dyslipidemia, and other chronic diseases. The programming concept was initially predicated on the notion that in utero growth restriction due to famine was responsible for increased hypertension, and cardiovascular and renal diseases. On the other hand, we are now more commonly exposed to increasing rates of maternal obesity. The current review will discuss the overarching role of maternal overnutrition, as well as fetal undernutrition, in epigenetic programming in relation to the pathogenesis of the CRS in children and adults. PMID:22096456
Nistala, Ravi; Hayden, Melvin R; Demarco, Vincent G; Henriksen, Erik J; Lackland, Daniel T; Sowers, James R
The presence of a group of interacting maladaptive factors, including hypertension, insulin resistance, metabolic dyslipidemia, obesity, and microalbuminuria and/or reduced renal function, collectively constitutes the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS). Nutritional and other environmental cues during fetal development can permanently affect the composition, homeostatic systems, and functions of multiple organs and systems; this process has been referred to as 'programming'. Since the original formulation of the notion that low birth weight is a proxy for 'prenatal programming' of adult hypertension and cardiovascular disease, evidence has also emerged for programming of kidney disease, insulin resistance, obesity, metabolic dyslipidemia, and other chronic diseases. The programming concept was initially predicated on the notion that in utero growth restriction due to famine was responsible for increased hypertension, and cardiovascular and renal diseases. On the other hand, we are now more commonly exposed to increasing rates of maternal obesity. The current review will discuss the overarching role of maternal overnutrition, as well as fetal undernutrition, in epigenetic programming in relation to the pathogenesis of the CRS in children and adults.
Dubin, Ruth F; Shah, Sanjiv J
Heart failure in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasingly common scenario and carries a poor prognosis. Clinicians lack tools for primary or secondary heart failure prevention in patients with cardiorenal syndromes. In patients without CKD, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and statins mitigate cardiovascular risk in large part due to salutary effects on the endothelium. In the setting of CKD, use of these therapies is limited by adverse effects of hyperkalemia in pre-dialysis CKD (ACE-I/ARB), or potential increased risk of stroke in end-stage renal disease (statins). The soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulators are a novel class of medications that promote endothelial and myocardial function with no known risk of hyperkalemia or stroke. In this review, we discuss the evidence emerging from recent clinical trials of sGC stimulators in pulmonary hypertension and heart failure, the diseased pathways involved in cardiorenal syndromes likely to be restored by sGC stimulators, and several strategies for designing future clinical trials of cardiorenal syndromes that might shorten the timeline for discovery and approval of effective cardiovascular therapies in these high-risk patients.
Buglioni, Alessia; Cannone, Valentina; Cataliotti, Alessandro; Sangaralingham, S Jeson; Heublein, Denise M; Scott, Christopher G; Bailey, Kent R; Rodeheffer, Richard J; Dessì-Fulgheri, Paolo; Sarzani, Riccardo; Burnett, John C
We sought to investigate the role of aldosterone as a mediator of disease and its relationship with the counter-regulatory natriuretic peptide (NP) system. We measured plasma aldosterone (n=1674; aged≥45 years old) in a random sample of the general population from Olmsted County, MN. In a multivariate logistic regression model, aldosterone analyzed as a continuous variable was associated with hypertension (odds ratio [OR]=1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.57-1.96; P<0.0001), obesity (OR=1.34; 95% CI=1.21-1.48; P<0.0001), chronic kidney disease (OR=1.39; 95% CI=1.22-1.60; P<0.0001), central obesity (OR=1.47; 95% CI=1.32-1.63; P<0.0001), metabolic syndrome (OR=1.41; 95% CI=1.26-1.58; P<0.0001), high triglycerides (OR=1.23; 95% CI=1.11-1.36; P<0.0001), concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (OR=1.22; 95% CI=1.09-1.38; P=0.0007), and atrial fibrillation (OR=1.24; 95% CI=1.01-1.53; P=0.04), after adjusting for age and sex. The associations with hypertension, central obesity, metabolic syndrome, triglycerides, and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy remained significant after further adjustment for body mass index, NPs, and renal function. Furthermore, aldosterone in the highest tertile correlated with lower NP levels and increased mortality. Importantly, most of these associations remained significant even after excluding subjects with aldosterone levels above the normal range. In conclusion, we report that aldosterone is associated with hypertension, chronic kidney disease, obesity, metabolic syndrome, concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, and lower NPs in the general community. Our data suggest that aldosterone, even within the normal range, may be a biomarker of cardiorenal and metabolic disease. Further studies are warranted to evaluate a therapeutic and preventive strategy to delay the onset and progression of disease, using mineralocorticoid antagonists or chronic NP administration in high-risk subjects identified by plasma aldosterone. © 2014
Silva, Ricardo P; Barbosa, Paulo H U; Kimura, Osamu S; Sobrinho, Carlos Roberto M R; Sousa Neto, João David; Silva, Frederico A L; Silva Júnior, Geraldo B; Mota, Rosa M S; Daher, Elizabeth F
Anemia is common in cardio-renal syndrome and may contribute to increase mortality. To examine the prevalence of anemia and its relationship with cardio-renal syndrome, and to evaluate the risk factors for death. Retrospective study with all patients admitted with congestive heart failure (CHF). The parameters as age, gender, hemoglobin (Hb), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, ejection fraction (EF%), hospital stay, hypertension, diabetes, smoking and CHF etiology were analyzed. Anemia was defined as Hb<12 g/dL, systolic dysfunction EF<55% and renal failure was stratified according to K-DOQI classification. Statistical analysis was done by the programs EpiInfo and SPSS for windows. A total of 174 patients were studied. The average age was 63+/-16 years, 65.5% were males, and 18 of them (11%) were non-survivors. Anemia was observed in 45% of patients, and 82% presented some degree of renal failure. The majority of patients (87%) were classified as NYHA functional class III or IV. The average ejection fraction was 43.9+/-16.6%, and there was no difference between survivors and non-survivors (p>0.05). Mortality was not significantly higher among patients with anemia (12.4%) when comparing to those without anemia (8.3%, p=0.31). There was a progressive decrease in the level of hemoglobin as renal function decreased (p<0.05). Increased serum creatinine was a significant risk factor for death (OR=1.59, 95% CI=1.074-2.363, p=0.021), and increased EF% was a protection factor against development of death (OR=0.904, 95% CI=0.845-0.973, p=0.007). The prevalence of anemia is high among patients with cardio-renal syndrome but was not associated with increased mortality. Increased serum creatinine and low EF% were variables associated with death.
Di Lullo, Luca; Floccari, Fulvio; De Pascalis, Antonio; Marinelli, Annibale; Barbera, Vincenzo; Santoboni, Alberto; Malaguti, Moreno; Balducci, Alessandro; Russo, Domenico; Rivera, Rodolfo; Gorini, Antonio; Ronco, Claudio
The cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) indicates how close the relationship is between heart and kidney during failure of these organs. At present, the classification of the syndrome includes five types of CRS: types I and II which are strictly related to initial heart failure (both acute and chronic), types III and IV which include initial kidney failure, and type V which includes several systemic diseases. Many pathophysiological pathways have been described illustrating how heart and kidney disease are involved in clinical conditions. The diagnosis of CRS is based on both blood tests and ultrasound imaging. Several biomarkers indicating levels of heart and kidney function have emerged over the last few decades which can be used to predict kidney failure in patients with acute or chronic heart disease. Kidney injury biomarkers have also to be tested, especially those indicating glomerular and tubular damage. Renal ultrasound and trans-thoracic echocardiography can provide further information on heart and kidney failure in patients with cardio-renal syndrome at any stage.
Buglioni, Alessia; Cannone, Valentina; Cataliotti, Alessandro; Sangaralingham, S. Jeson; Heublein, Denise M.; Scott, Christopher G.; Bailey, Kent R.; Rodeheffer, Richard J.; Dessì-Fulgheri, Paolo; Sarzani, Riccardo; Burnett, John C.
We sought to investigate the role of aldosterone as a mediator of disease and its relationship with the counter-regulatory natriuretic peptide (NP) system. We measured plasma aldosterone (n=1674; age ≥45 years old) in a random sample of the general population from Olmsted County, MN. In a multivariate logistic regression model, aldosterone analyzed as a continuous variable was associated with hypertension (HTN) (OR=1.75, 95%CI= 1.57,1.96; p<0.0001), obesity (OR=1.34, 95%CI= 1.21,1.48; p<0.0001), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR=1.39, 95%CI= 1.22,1.60; p<0.0001), central obesity (OR=1.47, 95%CI=1.32,1.63; p<0.0001), metabolic syndrome (MetS) (OR=1.41, 95%CI= 1.26,1.58; p<0.0001), high triglycerides (OR=1.23, 95%CI=1.11,1.36; p<0.0001), concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (cLVH) (OR=1.22, 95%CI= 1.09,1.38; p=0.0007) and atrial fibrillation (OR=1.24, 95%CI= 1.01,1.53; p=0.04), after adjusting for age and sex. The associations with HTN, central obesity, MetS, triglycerides and cLVH remained significant after further adjustment for BMI, NPs, and renal function. Furthermore, aldosterone in the highest tertile correlated with lower NP levels and increased mortality. Importantly, most of these associations remained significant even after excluding subjects with aldosterone levels above the normal range. In conclusion, we report that aldosterone is associated with HTN, CKD, obesity, MetS, cLVH, and lower NPs in the general community. Our data suggests that aldosterone, even within the normal range, may be a biomarker of cardiorenal and metabolic disease. Further studies are warranted to evaluate a therapeutic and preventive strategy to delay the onset and/or progression of disease, using mineralocorticoid antagonists or chronic NP administration in high risk subjects identified by plasma aldosterone. PMID:25368032
Lekawanvijit, Suree; Kompa, Andrew R; Krum, Henry
Protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs) accumulate once renal excretory function declines and are not cleared by dialysis. There is increasing evidence that PBUTs exert toxic effects on many vital organs, including the kidney, blood vessels, and heart. It has been suggested that PBUTs are likely to be a potential missing link in cardiorenal syndrome, based on the high incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality in the dialysis population, which are dramatically reduced in successful kidney transplant recipients. These data have led the call for more effective dialysis or additional adjunctive therapy to eradicate these toxins and their adverse biological effects. Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate are the two most problematic PBUTs, conferring renal and cardiovascular toxicity, and are derived from dietary amino acid metabolites by colonic microbial organisms. Therefore, targeting the colon where these toxins are initially produced appears to be a potential therapeutic alternative for patients with chronic kidney disease. This strategy, if approved, is likely to be applicable to predialysis patients, thereby potentially preventing progression of chronic kidney disease to end-stage renal disease as well as preventing the development of cardiorenal syndrome. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
Heart failure remains the leading cause of hospitalization in older patients and is considered a growing public health problem with a significant financial burden on the health care system. The suboptimal efficacy and safety profile of diuretic-based therapeutic regimens coupled with unsatisfactory results of the studies on novel pharmacologic agents have positioned ultrafiltration on the forefront as an appealing therapeutic option for patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). In recent years, substantial interest in the use of ultrafiltration has been generated due to the advent of dedicated portable devices and promising results of trials focusing both on mechanistic and clinical aspects of this therapeutic modality. This article briefly reviews the proposed benefits of ultrafiltration therapy in the setting of ADHF and summarizes the major findings of the currently available studies in this field. The results of more recent trials on cardiorenal syndrome that present a counterpoint to previous observations and highlight certain limitations of ultrafiltration therapy are then discussed, followed by identification of major challenges and unanswered questions that could potentially hinder its more widespread use. Future studies are warranted to shed light on less well characterized aspects of ultrafiltration therapy and to further define its role in ADHF and cardiorenal syndrome.
Changes in renal function are one of the most common manifestations of severe illness. There is a clinical need to intervene early with proven treatments in patients with potentially deleterious changes in renal function. Unfortunately progress has been hindered by poor definitions of renal dysfunction and a lack of early biomarkers of renal injury. In recent years, the definitional problem has been addressed with the establishment of a new well-defined diagnostic entity, acute kidney injury (AKI), which encompasses the wide spectrum of kidney dysfunction, together with clearer definition and sub-classification of the cardio-renal syndromes. From the laboratory have emerged new biomarkers which allow early detection of AKI, including neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and cystatin C. This review describes the new concepts of AKI and the cardio-renal syndromes as well as novel biomarkers which allow early detection of AKI. Panels of AKI biomarker tests are likely to revolutionise the diagnosis and management of critically ill patients in the coming years. Earlier diagnosis and intervention should significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with acute kidney damage. PMID:21474979
Pimienta González, Raquel; Couto Comba, Patricia; Rodríguez Esteban, Marcos; Alemán Sánchez, José Juan; Hernández Afonso, Julio; Rodríguez Pérez, María del Cristo; Marcelino Rodríguez, Itahisa; Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Elosua, Roberto; Cabrera de León, Antonio
Objectives To determine whether the risk of cardiovascular mortality associated with cardiorenal syndrome subtype 1 (CRS1) in patients who were hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) was greater than the expected risk based on the sum of its components, to estimate the predictive value of CRS1, and to determine whether the severity of CRS1 worsens the prognosis. Methods Follow-up study of 1912 incident cases of ACS for 1 year after discharge. Cox regression models were estimated with time to event (in-hospital death, and readmission or death during the first year after discharge) as the dependent variable. Results The incidence of CRS1 was 9.2/1000 person-days of hospitalization (95% CI = 8.1–10.5), but these patients accounted for 56.6% (95% CI = 47.4–65.) of all mortality. The positive predictive value of CRS1 was 29.6% (95% CI = 23.9–36.0) for in-hospital death, and 51.4% (95% CI = 44.8–58.0) for readmission or death after discharge. The risk of in-hospital death from CRS1 (RR = 18.3; 95% CI = 6.3–53.2) was greater than the sum of risks associated with either acute heart failure (RR = 7.6; 95% CI = 1.8–31.8) or acute kidney injury (RR = 2.8; 95% CI = 0.9–8.8). The risk of events associated with CRS1 also increased with syndrome severity, reaching a RR of 10.6 (95% CI = 6.2–18.1) for in-hospital death at the highest severity level. Conclusions The effect of CRS1 on in-hospital mortality is greater than the sum of the effects associated with each of its components, and it increases with the severity of the syndrome. CRS1 accounted for more than half of all mortality, and its positive predictive value approached 30% in-hospital and 50% after discharge. PMID:27907067
Charytan, David M.; Fishbane, Steven; Malyszko, Jolanta; McCullough, Peter A.; Goldsmith, David
The association between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established, and there is mounting evidence of inter-organ crosstalk that may accelerate pathological processes and the progression of organ dysfunction in both systems. This process, termed cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) by the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative, is considered a major health problem: patients with CKD and CVD are at much higher risk of mortality than patients with either condition alone. To date, the majority of CRS research has focused on neurohormonal mechanisms and hemodynamic alterations. However, mounting evidence suggests that abnormalities in the normal pathophysiology of the bone-mineral axis, iron, and erythropoietin play a role in accelerating CKD and CVD. The goal of this manuscript is to review the role and interrelated effects of the bone-mineral axis and anemia in the pathogenesis of chronic CRS. PMID:25727384
Prins, Kurt W.; Thenappan, Thenappan; Markowitz, Jeremy S.; Pritzker, Marc R.
Objective To present a review of cardiorenal syndrome type 1 (CRS1). Methods Review of the literature. Results Acute kidney injury occurs in approximately one-third of patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and the resultant condition was named CRS1. A growing body of literature shows CRS1 patients are at high risk for poor outcomes, and thus there is an urgent need to understand the pathophysiology and subsequently develop effective treatments. In this review we discuss prevalence, proposed pathophysiology including hemodynamic and nonhemodynamic factors, prognosticating variables, data for different treatment strategies, and ongoing clinical trials and highlight questions and problems physicians will face moving forward with this common and challenging condition. Conclusion Further research is needed to understand the pathophysiology of this complex clinical entity and to develop effective treatments. PMID:27158218
Di Lullo, Luca; Floccari, Fulvio; Rivera, Rodolfo; Granata, Antonio; D'Amelio, Alessandro; Logias, Francesco; Otranto, Giovanni; Villani, Annalisa; Santoboni, Alberto; Malaguti, Moreno; Timio, Mario; Fiorini, Fulvio
The term cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) refers to multiple possible clinicopathological correlations between heart and kidney failure. The most recent classification recognizes five types of CRS: types I and II originate from heart failure (acute and chronic, respectively), type III and IV from kidney failure (again acute and chronic), while type V originates from a range of systemic diseases. Echocardiography and renal ultrasound are important means to arrive at a correct diagnosis. Basic echocardiography (defined by some as "echocardioscopy") allows the assessment of the left and right ventricles (diastolic and systolic function), atrial size, pulmonary circulation markers such as systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (PAPs) and tricuspid annular plane excursion (TAPSE), pericardial effusions, valve dysfunctions, and volume repletion. Renal ultrasound is of help in distinguishing between chronic and acute renal failure (kidney volume, parenchymal thickness, echogenicity) and excluding obstructive kidney disease.
Preza, Paul M; Hurtado, Abdías; Armas, Victoria; Cárcamo, César P
This study sought to evaluate the incidence of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) type 1 in a coronary care unit and its association with hospital mortality within 30 days of admission, as well as other epidemiological characteristics. The medical records of all the patients who were hospitalized with the diagnosis of acute heart failure in a 4-year period were reviewed. CRS type 1 was characterized by the presence of acute heart failure and an elevation of serum creatinine ≥0.3mg/dL in comparison to the baseline creatinine calculated by the MDRD75 equation and/or the elevation of ≥50% of the admission serum creatinine within a 48 h period. The incidence of CRS type 1 was 27.87%, 95% CI: 20.13-36.71 (34 of 122). There was a higher frequency of CRS type 1 in those patients who were admitted with the diagnosis of cardiogenic shock (adjusted RR 2.02, 95% CI: 1.20-3.93, p=0.0378) and in those with higher hemoglobin levels (p=0.0412). The CRS type 1 was associated with an increase of 30-day mortality (HR: 4.11, 95% CI: 1.20-14.09, p=0.0244). The incidence of CRS type 1 in the coronary care unit found in our study is similar to those found in foreign studies. The history of stroke and the higher values of hemoglobin were associated with a higher incidence of cardiorenal syndrome type 1. Patients with CRS type 1 had a higher hospital mortality within 30 days of admission. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Kirklin, James K; Naftel, David C; Kormos, Robert L; Pagani, Francis D; Myers, Susan L; Stevenson, Lynne W; Givertz, Michael M; Young, James B
Comorbidities complicate recovery and contribute to mortality after implant of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Coexistent cardiac and renal dysfunction (so-called cardiorenal syndrome) increases the risk of death, both with advanced heart failure and after LVAD implantation. We analyzed patients from the Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assist Circulatory Support to better estimate postimplant mortality according to the severity of renal dysfunction. Patients with a continuous-flow LVAD were grouped according to their pre-implant level of renal dysfunction: severe was defined as dialysis and/or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 30 ml/min; moderate if eGFR was 30 to 59 ml/min or blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was > 60 mg/dl; and mild or no renal dysfunction if eGFR was ≥ 60 ml/min and BUN was < 60 mg/dl. Of the 4,917 patients with a continuous-flow LVAD implanted between June 2006 and March 2012, 3,160 (64%) were identified with mild or no renal dysfunction, 1,475 (30%) with moderate dysfunction, and 282 (6%) with severe dysfunction. Worsening renal dysfunction correlated with decreased survival, with nearly a 20% reduction in the 2-year survival going from low to severe dysfunction. The major negative survival effect occurred during the first 3 months. Combination of severe renal dysfunction and cardiogenic shock predicted the highest early mortality. Pre-implant renal dysfunction predicts higher mortality after LVAD implant. The progressive reduction in survival with higher grades of renal dysfunction supports consideration of LVAD implant before cardiorenal syndrome is advanced. For patients with severe renal dysfunction and other major comorbidities, initial support with a temporary device while awaiting organ recovery before implanting a durable pump could be considered. © 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Published by International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation All rights reserved.
Otaki, Yoichiro; Watanabe, Tetsu; Takahashi, Hiroki; Narumi, Taro; Kadowaki, Shinpei; Honda, Yuki; Arimoto, Takanori; Shishido, Tetsuro; Miyamoto, Takuya; Konta, Tsuneo; Kubota, Isao
Cardio-renal anemia syndrome (CRAS) has begun to gather attention as a vicious circle since chronic heart failure (CHF), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and anemia are all able to be caused and exacerbated by each other. However, it remains unclear whether renal tubular damage (RTD), another type of kidney dysfunction, is associated with this vicious circle. The aim of the present study was to assess the association of RTD with CRAS in patients with CHF. We included 300 consecutive patients with CHF. RTD was defined as a urinary β2-microglobulin to creatinine ratio ≥ 300 μg/g. Patients with RTD had lower serum iron and higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein than those without it. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that RTD was closely associated with anemia in patients with CHF, after adjustment for confounding factors. During a median period of 1,098 days, there were 86 cardiac events, including 14 cardiac deaths and 72 re-hospitalizations for worsening heart failure. Net reclassification improvement was significantly improved by addition of RTD to the model including age, New York Heart Association functional class, brain natriuretic peptide, anemia, and CKD. All patients were divided into 3 groups: CRAS+RTD group, CRAS group, and control group. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that CRAS+RTD had the greatest risk in patients with CHF. RTD was associated with normocytic anemia, accompanying iron deficiency and inflammation. RTD added prognostic information to conventional CRAS, suggesting the importance of RTD in cardio-renal anemia interaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone your body produces to help ... into energy for your body. If you are insulin resistant, too much sugar builds up in your ...
Scrutinio, Domenico; Passantino, Andrea; Santoro, Daniela; Catanzaro, Raffaella
We sought to assess the prevalence and clinical correlates of cardiorenal anaemia (CRA) syndrome in systolic heart failure and the relationship between renal dysfunction and anaemia on hard clinical outcomes. We studied 951 patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and systolic dysfunction. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and urgent heart transplantation (UHT). Cox's regression analyses were used to assess the relation of the variables to the primary outcome. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The prevalence of CRA syndrome was 21.1%. Age (P < 0.001), body mass index (P< 0.001), diabetes (P =< 0.001), ischaemic aetiology (P< 0.006), left ventricular ejection fraction (P= 0.018), and treatment with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (P< 0.001) were independently related to CRA syndrome. During a median follow-up of 3.7 years, the primary outcome occurred in 404 patients (42.5%). Compared with patients with preserved renal function and normal haemoglobin (Hb) levels, those with CRA syndrome had a significantly increased risk for the primary outcome; the univariate and multivariate-adjusted HRs were 4.04 (CI: 3.11-5.24; P< 0.0001) and 2.22 (CI: 1.64-2.98; P< 0.0001), respectively. Three-year UHT-free survival was 86 and 47%, respectively. Among patients with renal dysfunction, the adjusted HR for the primary outcome increased by 17% (CI: 8-26; P= 0.0001) for each 1g/dL decrease below an Hb value of 13.0 g/dL. Heart failure, renal dysfunction, and anaemia are a fatal combination. Despite a relatively low prevalence, the CRA syndrome contributes to considerable mortality due to CHF.
Pallangyo, Pedro; Fredrick, Francis; Bhalia, Smita; Nicholaus, Paulina; Kisenge, Peter; Mtinangi, Benjamin; Janabi, Mohamed; Humphrey, Stephen
Cardiorenal anemia syndrome (CRAS) is an evolving global epidemic associated with increased morbimortality and cost of care. The management of patients with CRAS remains a challenging undertaking worldwide and the lack of evidence-based clinical guidelines adds to the challenge. We aimed to explore the prevalence and survival rates of heart failure patients with CRAS in Tanzania. We screened 789 patients and consecutively recruited 463 who met the inclusion criteria. Each participant underwent an interview, physical examination, anthropometric measurements, anemia, renal functions and echocardiographic assessment. All participants were followed until death or for up-to 180 days, whichever came first. Bivariate comparison and subsequent Cox proportional-hazards regression model were used to compare the CRAS and non-CRAS groups with respect to the primary end point. The mean age of participants was 46.4 ± 18.9 years, and 56.5% were women. Overall, 51.9% of participants had renal insufficiency, 72.8% were anemic and 44.4% had CRAS. During a mean follow-up of 103 ± 75 days, 57.8% of participants died. Patients with CRAS displayed a higher mortality rate (73.5%) compared to those free of CRAS (45.8%), (p < 0.001). During multivariate analysis in a cox regression model of 21 potential predictors of mortality; renal dysfunction (HR 1.9; 95% CI 1.0-3.5; p = 0.03), severe anemia (HR 1.8; 95% CI 1.0-3.1; p = 0.04), hyponatremia (HR 2.2; 95% CI 1.3-3.7; p = 0.004) and rehospitalization (HR 4.3; 95% CI 2.2-8.4; p < 0.001) proved to be the strongest factors. Cardiorenal anemia syndrome is considerably prevalent and is associated with an increase in mortality amongst patients with heart failure. In view of this, timely, aggressive and collaborative measures to improve renal functions and/or correct anemia are crucial in the management of CRAS patients. Furthermore, these findings call for guideline committees to revise and/or develop evidence
Virzì, Grazia Maria; Clementi, Anna; de Cal, Massimo; Brocca, Alessandra; Day, Sonya; Pastori, Silvia; Bolin, Chiara; Vescovo, Giorgio; Ronco, Claudio
Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 1 (Type 1) is a specific condition which is characterized by a rapid worsening of cardiac function leading to acute kidney injury (AKI). Even though its pathophysiology is complex and not still completely understood, oxidative stress seems to play a pivotal role. In this study, we examined the putative role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of CRS Type 1. Twenty-three patients with acute heart failure (AHF) were included in the study. Subsequently, 11 patients who developed AKI due to AHF were classified as CRS Type 1. Quantitative determinations for IL-6, myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD), and endogenous peroxidase activity (EPA) were performed. CRS Type 1 patients displayed significant augmentation in circulating ROS and RNS, as well as expression of IL-6. Quantitative analysis of all oxidative stress markers showed significantly lower oxidative stress levels in controls and AHF compared to CRS Type 1 patients (P < 0.05). This pilot study demonstrates the significantly heightened presence of dual oxidative stress pathway induction in CRS Type 1 compared to AHF patients. Our findings indicate that oxidative stress is a potential therapeutic target, as it promotes inflammation by ROS/RNS-linked pathogenesis. PMID:25821554
Rajapakse, Niwanthi W; Nanayakkara, Shane; Kaye, David M
A highly complex interplay exists between the heart and kidney in the setting of both normal and abnormal physiology. In the context of heart failure, a pathophysiological condition termed the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) exists whereby dysfunction in the heart or kidney can accelerate pathology in the other organ. The mechanisms that underpin CRS are complex, and include neuro-hormonal activation, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. The endothelium plays a central role in the regulation of both cardiac and renal function, and as such impairments in endothelial function can lead to dysfunction of both these organs. In particular, reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) is a key pathophysiologic component of endothelial dysfunction. The synthesis of NO by the endothelium is critically dependent on the plasmalemmal transport of its substrate, L-arginine, via the cationic amino acid transporter-1 (CAT1). Impaired L-arginine-NO pathway activity has been demonstrated individually in heart and renal failure. Recent findings suggest abnormalities of the L-arginine-NO pathway also play a role in the pathogenesis of CRS and thus this pathway may represent a potential new target for the treatment of heart and renal failure.
... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Metabolic Syndrome? Metabolic syndrome is the name for a group of ... that may play a role in causing metabolic syndrome. Outlook Metabolic syndrome is becoming more common due to a ...
Cheng, Hong; Chen, Yi-Pu
Type 1 cardiorenal syndrome is one of the major diseases threatening human life in China. The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) associated with acute heart failure (AHF), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), cardiac surgery, and coronary angiography has been reported to be 32.2, 14.7, 40.2, and 4.5%, respectively. In the past 2 years, we derived and validated 4 risk scores for the prediction of AKI associated with the above acute heart diseases as well as for examination and treatment in Chinese cohorts. A univariable comparison and a subsequent multivariate logistic regression analysis of the potential predictive variables of AKI in the derivation set were conducted and used to establish the prediction scores, which were then verified in the validation set. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic test were performed to assess the discrimination and calibration of the prediction scores, respectively. These 4 prediction scores all showed adequate discrimination (area under the ROC curve, ≥0.70) and good calibration (p > 0.05). Both Forman's risk score (for AKI associated with AHF) and Mehran's risk score (for AKI associated with coronary angiography) are widely applied around the world. The external validation of these 2 risk scores was performed in our patients, but their discriminative power was quite low (area under the ROC curve, 0.65 and 0.57, respectively). Therefore, these prediction scores derived from Chinese cohorts might be more accurate than those derived from different races when they are applied in Chinese patients.
Baev, V M; Kozlov, D B
To estimate changes in renal function in patients with acute hypertensive encephalopathy (AHE) during standard inpatient antihypertensive therapy. Patients were selected for the trial in the cardiology and admission units of a Perm hospital. The group included 60 patients with AHE. The patients received inpatient antihypertensive therapy for 10-14 days. Within the first 2 hours, enalaprilate 1.25 mg was intravenously injected, by monitoring blood pressure. After 6 hours, the patients were given enalaprilate tablets 20 mg b.i.d. plus hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (Subgroup 1) or nifedipine 60 mg plus hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (Subgroup 2). The laboratory parameters of kidney function were measured twice: on admission to and before discharge from hospital. Plasma creatinine and urea concentrations were estimated. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urea/creatinine ratio were calculated. The patients were found to have proteinurea, low GFR, high plasma creatinine concentrations, and increased urea/creatinine ratio. Transient proteinuria was observed in 25% of the patients with AHE within the first 24 hours of the disease. The proportion of patients with lower GFR was unchanged during a 2-week treatment period (20 and 16%, respectively; p = 0.22). There was a rise in the proportion of patients with higher urea/creatinine ratio (83 and 95%, respectively; p = 0.006). The course of AHE is complicated by cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) with transient proteinuria and low GFR, as well as by prerenal azotemia (PRA). The number of patients with PRA increased after 2-week conventional inpatient antihypertensive therapy (enalaprilate + hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg or nifedipine + hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg).
Madeira, Marta; Caetano, Francisca; Almeida, Inês; Fernandes, Andreia; Reis, Liliana; Costa, Marco; Gonçalves, Lino
Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is common in acute heart failure (AHF), and is associated with dire prognosis. Levosimendan, a positive inotrope that also has diuretic effects, may improve patients' renal profile. Published results are conflicting. We aimed to assess the incidence of CRS in AHF patients according to the inotrope used and to determine its predictors in order to identify patients who could benefit from the most renoprotective inotrope. In a retrospective study, 108 consecutive patients with AHF who required inotropes were divided into two groups according to the inotrope used (levosimendan vs. dobutamine). The primary endpoint was CRS incidence. Follow-up for mortality and readmission for AHF was conducted. Seventy-one percent of the study population were treated with levosimendan and the remainder with dobutamine. No differences were found in heart failure etiology or chronic kidney disease. At admission, the dobutamine group had lower blood pressure; there were no differences in estimated glomerular filtration rate or cystatin C levels. The levosimendan group had lower left ventricular ejection fraction. CRS incidence was higher in the dobutamine group, and they more often had incomplete recovery of renal function at discharge. In multivariate analysis, cystatin C levels predicted CRS. The dobutamine group had higher in-hospital mortality, of which CRS and the inotrope used were predictors. Levosimendan appears to have some renoprotective effect, as it was associated with a lower incidence of CRS and better recovery of renal function at discharge. Identification of patients at increased risk of renal dysfunction by assessing cystatin C may enable more tailored therapy, minimizing the incidence of CRS and its negative impact on outcome in AHF. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Virzì, Grazia Maria; Clementi, Anna; Brocca, Alessandra; de Cal, Massimo; Marcante, Stefano; Ronco, Claudio
Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 5 (CRS Type 5) is characterized by concomitant cardiac and renal dysfunction in the setting of different systemic disorders, such as sepsis. In this study, we investigated the possible relationship between endotoxin levels, renal cell death and inflammation in septic patients with CRS Type 5. We enrolled 11 patients with CRS Type 5. CRS Type 5 was defined according to the current classification system. AKI was defined by Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. Acute cardiac dysfunction was documented by echocardiography as acute left and/or right ventricular dysfunction leading to decreased ejection fraction. Endotoxin activity was measured by the Endotoxin Activity Assay (EAA). Plasma from CRS Type 5 patients was incubated with renal tubular cells (RTCs) and cell death levels were evaluated. Plasma cytokines levels were measured as well. Accordingly to EAA levels, patients were divided into two groups: 45.4% of patients had low endotoxin activity level (negative EAA), while 54.5% of patients showed high endotoxin activity (positive EAA). RTCs incubated with plasma from EAA positive patients showed significantly higher apoptosis levels and higher caspase-3 activation compared to cells incubated with plasma from EAA negative patients, and a significant positive correlation was observed between EAA levels and RTC apoptosis levels. Furthermore, IL-6 and IFN-γ levels were significantly higher in CRS Type 5 patients with positive EAA. Our data suggest a possible relationship between endotoxin levels and renal cell death in septic patients with CRS Type 5. Furthermore, this study highlights the presence of renal apoptosis, the immune deregulation and the strong inflammation in CRS Type 5 patients, especially in those with high endotoxin activity. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Hanada, Shigeru; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Mizuno, Toshihide; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Tatsumi, Eisuke
The technique for assisting renal blood circulation may be a useful therapeutic method in acute cardiorenal syndrome (ACRS), because renal ischemic dysfunction due to the reduced renal blood circulation is a powerful negative prognostic factor in ACRS. We constructed a circuit assisting renal arterial pressure and flow, and performed renal-selective blood perfusion (RSP) to the left kidney in a goat model of ACRS induced by right ventricular rapid pacing (n = 8), with the right kidney left intact as an internal control. Upon induction of ACRS, renal arterial flow (RAF), creatinine clearance (CCr), and renal oxygen consumption (RVO(2)) of the left kidney decreased to 49, 48, and 63% of the respective baseline values accompanied by a significant increase in renal vascular resistance (RVR), and similar results were observed in the right kidney. Then, RSP improved RVR and increased left RAF, CCr, and RVO(2) up to 91, 86, and 93% of baseline values, respectively, without a significant change in systemic hemodynamics. The RSP-treated kidney showed significantly higher CCr and urinary excretion of water and sodium compared to the contralateral kidney. Additional infusion of prostaglandin E(1) with RSP decreased RVR further and enabled the left RAF to increase up to 129% of the baseline value, without a significant change in systemic hemodynamic parameters. The CCr and RVO(2) did not change significantly, and urinary excretion of water and sodium showed a tendency to increase. These findings suggest that the technique for assisting renal blood circulation for both kidneys may offer a new treatment strategy for patients with ACRS.
Larina, V N; Bart, B Ia; Raspopova, T N; Larin, V G
to assess impact of anemia on chronic heart failure (CHF) course in elderly patients in primary care setting. Methods. We examined 164 outpatients (n=164) aged 60-85 years with clinically stable CHF due to ischemic heart disease and arterial hypertension. All patients underwent clinical, laboratorial evaluation, ECG, EchoCG measurements, 6 min walk test. Patients were categorized according to the presence of anemia, as defined by the WHO criteria (hemoglobin levels <13 g/dl in men and <12 g/dl in women). Median duration of follow up was 1.85 (1.0-4.75) years. Results. Anemia was found in 32.9%, cardio-renal anemic syndrome (CRAS) in 23.2% of patients. In all patients anemia was mild (Hb>9 g/dl). It was associated with diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [R] 2.2, 95% CI 1.03-4.69, =0.041), high creatinine level (R 2.76, 95% CI 1.25-6.12, =0.012) and chronic kidney disease (R 5.66, 95% CI 2.51-12.77, <0.001). During follow-up mortality rate was similar among anemic and non-anemic patients (27.8 vs 30%, =0.768). Patients with CRAS had worse survival compared with patients of the same age without anemia and preserved kidney function (=0.004). Age >75 years (R 3.58, 95% CI 1.59-7.99, =0.002), diabetes (R 2.68, 95% CI 1.19-6.04, =0.018), history of myocardial infarction (R 2.7, 95% CI 1.24-6.04, =0.013), systolic blood pressure <110 mm Hg (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.09-5.71, =0.030), complete left bundle branch block (LBBB) (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.26-8.22, =0.012), creatinine >130 mmol/l (OR 3.53, 95% CI 1.51-8.22, =0.004) were predictors of mortality of elderly patients with CRAS. Conclusions. CHF patients with and without anemia had similar survival but survival of those with CRAS was worse compared with patients without anemia and preserved kidney function. Age >75 years, diabetes mellitus, history of myocardial infarction, low systolic blood pressure, complete LBBB, high creatinine level were predictors of mortality in patients with CRAS.
Takata, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Shimpei
Metabolic syndrome (Mets) is a combination of disorders including abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and hypertension, which increases risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes when occurring together. In Japan, diagnosis criteria of Mets consists of an increased waist circumference and 2 or more of CVD risk factors. Annual health checkups and health guidance using Mets criteria were established in 2008 for the prevention of life-style related diseases in Japan. In this issue, history and diagnostic criteria of Mets and concerns for Mets concept were described.
Sherling, Dawn Harris; Perumareddi, Parvathi; Hennekens, Charles H
The United States is experiencing its greatest life expectancy ever. Nonetheless, the general health of the US population is far from at an all-time high. An important contributor to the pandemic of cardiovascular disease is that overweight and obesity are also the major determinants of metabolic syndrome, an all too common and all too serious clinical and public health challenge. Clinicians have traditionally evaluated each of the major risk factors contributing to metabolic syndrome on an individual basis. There is evidence, however, that the risk factors are more than additive. The overlap of these factors in each disease state, resulting in increased atherogenic risks, is worth examining as a broader entity rather than separately. While therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) should be strongly recommended, clinicians should not let the perfect be the enemy of the possible. Evidence-based doses of statins, aspirin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin II receptor blockers should be prescribed as adjuncts, not alternatives, to TLCs. In fact, there is cogent evidence that the benefits of these pharmacologic therapies may also be at least additive.
Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) type II is a serious condition in which chronic cardiac abnormalities cause worsening kidney function, leading to permanent chronic kidney damage. Management of CRS type II coupled with diuretic-resistant congestive heart failure (CHF) has been an issue of dispute. However, since the early 1990s, reports indicating the clinical usefulness of peritoneal dialysis (PD) as maintenance therapy for intractable CHF in this population have been accumulating. The present manuscript reviews the mechanisms by which kidney dysfunction develops within CHF, and then examines recent experiences of PD as chronic supportive therapy for intractable CRS type II, reviews the contributing mechanisms, and discusses the rationale for using PD as a new therapeutic approach in the nonuremic setting of CHF. PMID:23349193
Insulin resistance syndrome; Syndrome X ... middle and upper parts of the body (central obesity ). This body type may be described as "apple-shaped." Insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas. ...
Ronco, Claudio; Kaushik, Manish; Valle, Roberto; Aspromonte, Nadia; Peacock, W Frank
Cardio-Renal syndrome may occur as a result of either primarily renal or cardiac dysfunction. This complex interaction requires a tailored approach to manage the underlying pathophysiology while optimizing the patient's symptoms and thus providing the best outcomes. Patients often are admitted to the hospital for signs and symptoms of congestion and fluid overload is the most frequent cause of subsequent re-admission. Fluid management is of paramount importance in the strategy of treatment for heart failure patients. Adequate fluid status should be obtained but a target value should be set according to objective indicators and biomarkers. Once the fluid excess is identified, a careful prescription of fluid removal by diuretics or extracorporeal therapies must be made. While delivering these therapies, adequate monitoring should be performed to prevent unwanted effects such as worsening of renal function or other complications. There is a very narrow window of optimal hydration for heart failure patients. Overhydration can result in myocardial stretching and potential decompensation. Inappropriate dehydration or relative reduction of circulating blood volume may result in distant organ damage caused by inadequate perfusion. We suggest consideration of the "5B" approach. This stands for balance of fluids (reflected by body weight), blood pressure, biomarkers, bioimpedance vector analysis, and blood volume. Addressing these parameters ensures that the most important issues affecting symptoms and outcomes are addressed. Furthermore, the patient is receiving the best possible care while avoiding unwanted side effects of the treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Palazzuoli, Alberto; McCullough, Peter A; Ronco, Claudio; Nuti, Ranuccio
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in heart failure (HF) has been recognized as an independent risk factor for adverse outcome, although the most important clinical trials tend to exclude patients with moderate and severe renal insufficiency. Despite this common association, the precise pathophysiological connection and liaison between heart and kidney is partially understood. Moreover, is it not enough considering how much cardio-renal syndrome type 1 is attributable to previous CKD, and how much to new-onset acute kidney injury (AKI). Neither development of AKI, its progression and time nor duration is related to an adverse outcome. An AKI definition is not universally recognized, and many confounding terms have been used in literature: "worsening renal function", "renal impairment", "renal dysfunction", etc., are all names that contribute to misunderstanding, and do not facilitate an universal classification. Therefore, AKI development should be the consequence of the basal clinical characteristics of patients, different primitive kidney disease and hemodynamic status. AKI could also be the mirror of several underlying associated diseases poorly controlled. Finally, it is not clear which is the optimal laboratory tool for identifying patients with an increased risk of AKI. In the current report, we review the different kidney diseases' impact in HF, and we analyze the modalities for AKI recognition during HF focusing our attention about some new biomarkers with potential application in the current setting.
Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disorders that increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Type 2 diabetes, elevated blood pressure, and atherogenic dyslipidemia are among the metabolic alterations that predispose the individual to several adverse cardiovascular complications. The hea...
Zhang, M-J; Gu, Y; Wang, H; Zhu, P-F; Liu, X-Y; Wu, J
Aortocaval fistula (AV) induced chronic volume overload in rats with preexisting mild renal dysfunction (right kidney remove: UNX) could mimic the type 4 cardiorenal syndrome (CRS): chronic renocardiac syndrome. Galectin-3, a β-galactoside binding lectin, is an emerging biomarker in cardiovascular as well as renal diseases. We observed the impact of valsartan on cardiac and renal hypertrophy and galectin-3 changes in this model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (200-250 g) were divided into S (Sham, n = 7), M (UNX+AV, n = 7) and M+V (UNX+AV+valsartan, n = 7) groups. Eight weeks later, cardiac function was measured by echocardiography. Renal outcome was measured by glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, renal blood flow and 24 hours albuminuria. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were used to evaluate the expressions of galectin-3 in heart and renal. Cardiac hypertrophy and renal hypertrophy as well as cardiac enlargement were evidenced in this AV shunt induced chronic volume overload rat model with preexisting mild renal dysfunction. Cardiac and renal hypertrophy were significantly attenuated but cardiac enlargement was unaffected by valsartan independent of its blood pressure lowering effect. 24 hours urine albumin was significantly increased, which was significantly reduced by valsartan in this model. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR evidenced significantly up-regulated galectin-3 expression in heart and kidney and borderline increased myocardial collagen I expression, which tended to be lower post valsartan treatment. Up-regulated galectin-3 signaling might also be involved in the pathogenesis in this CRS model. The beneficial effects of valsartan in terms of attenuating cardiac and renal hypertrophy and reducing 24 hours albumin in this model might partly be mediated through down-regulating galectin-3 signal pathway.
Kaddourah, Ahmad; Goldstein, Stuart L; Lipshultz, Steven E; Wilkinson, James D; Sleeper, Lynn A; Lu, Minmin; Colan, Steven D; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Aydin, Scott I; Rossano, Joseph; Everitt, Melanie D; Gossett, Jeffrey G; Rusconi, Paolo; Kantor, Paul F; Singh, Rakesh K; Jefferies, John L
Background The association of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) with mortality in children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is unknown. Methods With a modified Schwartz formula, we estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) for children ≥1 year old with DCM enrolled in the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry at the time of DCM diagnosis and annually thereafter, and defined CRS as an eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2. Children with and without CRS were compared on survival and serum creatinine concentrations (SCr). The association between eGFR and echocardiographic measures was assessed with linear mixed-effects regression models. Results Of 285 eligible children with DCM diagnosed at ≥1 year of age, 93 were evaluable. CRS was identified in 57 (61.3%). Mean (SD) eGFR was 62.0 (22.6) mL/min/1.73 m2 for children with CRS and 108.0 (14.0) for those without (P<0.001); median SCr concentrations were 0.9 and 0.5 mg/dL, respectively (P<0.001). The mortality hazard ratio of children with CRS vs. no CRS was 2.4 (95% CI: 0.8-7.4). eGFR was positively correlated with measures of left ventricular function and negatively correlated with age. Conclusions CRS in children newly diagnosed with DCM may be associated with higher 5-year mortality. Children with DCM, especially those with impaired left ventricular function, should be monitored for renal disease. PMID:26210985
Li, Zhilian; Cai, Lu; Liang, Xinling; Du, Zhiming; Chen, Yuanhan; An, Shengli; Tan, Ning; Xu, Lixia; Li, Ruizhao; Li, Liwen; Shi, Wei
Acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF) is usually type 1 of the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Early recognition of AKI is critical. This study was to determine if the new KDIGO criteria (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) for identification and short-term prognosis of early CRS type 1 was superior to the previous RIFLE and AKIN criteria. The association between AKI diagnosed by KDIGO but not by RIFLE or AKIN and in-hospital mortality was retrospectively evaluated in 1005 Chinese adult patients with AHF between July 2008 and May 2012. AKI was defined as RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO criteria, respectively. Cox regression was used for multivariate analysis of in-hospital mortality. Within 7 days on admission, the incidence of CRS type 1 was 38.9% by KDIGO criteria, 34.7% by AKIN, and 32.1% by RIFLE. A total of 110 (10.9%) cases were additional diagnosed by KDIGO criteria but not by RIFLE or AKIN. 89.1% of them were in Stage 1 (AKIN) or Stage Risk (RIFLE). They accounted for 18.4% (25 cases) of the overall death. After adjustment, this proportion remained an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality [odds ratios (OR)3.24, 95% confidence interval(95%CI) 1.97-5.35]. Kaplan-Meier curve showed AKI patients by RIFLE, AKIN, KDIGO and [K(+)R(-)+K(+)A(-)] had lower hospital survival than non-AKI patients (Log Rank P<0.001). KDIGO criteria identified significantly more CRS type 1 episodes than RIFLE or AKIN. AKI missed diagnosed by RIFLE or AKIN criteria was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality, indicating the new KDIGO criteria was superior to RIFLE and AKIN in predicting short-term outcomes in early CRS type 1.
Gigante, Antonietta; Barilaro, Giuseppe; Barbano, Biagio; Romaniello, Antonella; Di Mario, Francesca; Quarta, Silvia; Gasperini, Maria Ludovica; Di Lazzaro Giraldi, Gianluca; Laviano, Alessandro; Amoroso, Antonio; Cianci, Rosario; Rosato, Edoardo
Background Cardiorenal syndrome type 5 (CRS-5) includes a group of conditions characterized by a simultaneous involvement of the heart and kidney in the course of a systemic disease. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is frequently involved in the etiology of acute and chronic CRS-5 among connective tissue diseases. In SSc patients, left ventricular mass (LVM) can be used as a marker of nutritional status and fibrosis, while altered intrarenal hemodynamic parameters are suggestive of early kidney involvement. Methods Forty-two consecutive patients with a diagnosis of SSc without cardiac and/or renal impairment were enrolled to assess whether cardiac muscle mass can be related to arterial stiffness. Thirty subjects matched for age and sex were also enrolled as healthy controls (HC). All patients performed echocardiography and renal ultrasound. Results Doppler indices of intrarenal stiffness and echocardiographic indices of LVM were significantly increased in SSc patients compared to HC. A positive correlation exists between LVM/body surface area and pulsatile index (p < 0.05, r = 0.36), resistive index (p < 0.05, r = 0.33) and systolic/diastolic ratio (p < 0.05, r = 0.38). Doppler indices of intrarenal stiffness and LVM indices were significantly higher in SSc patients with digital ulcers than in SSc patients without a digital ulcer history. Conclusions SSc is characterized by the presence of microvascular and multiorgan injury. An early cardiac and renal impairment is very common. LVM and intrarenal arterial stiffness can be considered as early markers of CRS onset. The clinical use of these markers permits a prompt identification of organ damage. An early diagnosis allows the appropriate setting of pharmacological management, by slowing disease progression. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel PMID:27022332
Liang, Xinling; Du, Zhiming; Chen, Yuanhan; An, Shengli; Tan, Ning; Xu, Lixia; Li, Ruizhao; Li, Liwen; Shi, Wei
Objective Acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF) is usually type 1 of the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Early recognition of AKI is critical. This study was to determine if the new KDIGO criteria (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) for identification and short-term prognosis of early CRS type 1 was superior to the previous RIFLE and AKIN criteria. Methods The association between AKI diagnosed by KDIGO but not by RIFLE or AKIN and in-hospital mortality was retrospectively evaluated in 1005 Chinese adult patients with AHF between July 2008 and May 2012. AKI was defined as RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO criteria, respectively. Cox regression was used for multivariate analysis of in-hospital mortality. Results Within 7 days on admission, the incidence of CRS type 1 was 38.9% by KDIGO criteria, 34.7% by AKIN, and 32.1% by RIFLE. A total of 110 (10.9%) cases were additional diagnosed by KDIGO criteria but not by RIFLE or AKIN. 89.1% of them were in Stage 1 (AKIN) or Stage Risk (RIFLE). They accounted for 18.4% (25 cases) of the overall death. After adjustment, this proportion remained an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality [odds ratios (OR)3.24, 95% confidence interval(95%CI) 1.97–5.35]. Kaplan-Meier curve showed AKI patients by RIFLE, AKIN, KDIGO and [K(+)R(−)+K(+)A(−)] had lower hospital survival than non-AKI patients (Log Rank P<0.001). Conclusion KDIGO criteria identified significantly more CRS type 1 episodes than RIFLE or AKIN. AKI missed diagnosed by RIFLE or AKIN criteria was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality, indicating the new KDIGO criteria was superior to RIFLE and AKIN in predicting short-term outcomes in early CRS type 1. PMID:25542014
Meirelles, Ricardo M R
The incidence of cardiovascular disease increases considerably after the menopause. One reason for the increased cardiovascular risk seems to be determined by metabolic syndrome, in which all components (visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and glucose metabolism disorder) are associated with higher incidence of coronary artery disease. After menopause, metabolic syndrome is more prevalent than in premenopausal women, and may plays an important role in the occurrence of myocardial infarction and other atherosclerotic and cardiovascular morbidities. Obesity, an essential component of the metabolic syndrome, is also associated with increased incidence of breast, endometrial, bowel, esophagus, and kidney cancer. The treatment of metabolic syndrome is based on the change in lifestyle and, when necessary, the use of medication directed to its components. In the presence of symptoms of the climacteric syndrome, hormonal therapy, when indicated, will also contribute to the improvement of the metabolic syndrome.
Smith, Steven R
The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of easy-to-measure clinical phenotypes that serve as markers for increased risk for CVD and diabetes. There is no universal agreement as to the underlying pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome. At its core, the metabolic syndrome is the result of energy excess; therefore treating obesity is a good strategy to reverse the clinical features of the metabolic syndrome. Hypertension is a special case, may not be part of the core pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome, and will not be discussed. After a brief review of recent developments in the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome, this review will concentrate on peripheral targets in the following categories: ectopic fat and fat oxidation, intrinsic defects in substrate switching and mitochondrial biogenesis, lipolysis and lipid turnover, adipose tissue as an endocrine organ, nutrient / energy sensing systems, and inflammation. The advantages and pitfalls of these targets will be discussed with an eye towards the relevant literature.
Chen, Kuan-Hung; Chen, Chih-Hung; Wallace, Christopher Glenn; Chen, Yen-Ta; Yang, Chih-Chao; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Chiang, Hsin-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ling; Chua, Sarah; Yip, Hon-Kan; Cheng, Jiin-Tsuey
This study tested the hypothesis that combined therapy with melatonin (Mel) and exendin-4 (Ex4) would be superior to either therapy alone for preventing the deterioration of renal function in cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). Male adult Sprague Dawley rats (n = 48) were randomly and equally divided into sham-control (SC), chronic kidney disease (CKD; induced by 5/6 nephrectomy), CRS (CKD + dilated cardiomyopathy, DCM; induced by doxorubicin 7 mg/kg i.p. every 5 days, 4 doses), CRS-Mel (20 mg/kg/day), CRS-Ex4 (10 µg/kg/day) and CRS-Mel-Ex4. They were euthanized by day 60 after CRS induction. By day 60, plasma creatinine level, urine protein/creatinine ratio and kidney injury histopathology score were highest in CRS, lowest in SC, and progressively decreased from CKD, CRS-Mel, CRS-Ex4 to CRS-Mel-Ex4 (all P<0.0001). The kidney protein expressions of inflammation (TNF-α/NF-κB/MMP-9/iNOS/RANTES), oxidative stress (NOX-1/NOX-2/NOX-4/oxidized protein), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3/cleaved PARP/Bax), DNA-damaged marker (γ-H2AX) and fibrosis (p-mad3/TFG-β) showed identical patterns of creatinine level, whereas kidney protein expressions of GLP-1R showed a progressive increase from SC to CRS-Mel-Ex4 (all P<0.0001). Cellular expressions of inflammatory (CD14/CD68), DNA/kidney-damaged (γ-H2AX/KIM-1) and podocyte/renal tubule dysfunction signaling (β-catenin/Wnt1/Wnt4) biomarkers in kidney tissue exhibited an identical pattern of creatinine level (all P<0.0001). Podocyte components (podocin/dystroglycan/p-cadherin/synatopodin) were highest in SC, lowest in CRS, and significantly progressively increased from CKD to CRS-Mel-Ex4 (all P<0.0001). In conclusion, combined Mel-Ex4 therapy was superior to either one alone in preserving renal-function and kidney architectural integrity in the setting of CRS. PMID:28337255
Costa, Paul T.; Uda, Manuela; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schlessinger, David; Terracciano, Antonio
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has paralleled the sharp increase in obesity. Given its tremendous physical, emotional, and financial burden, it is of critical importance to identify who is most at risk and the potential points of intervention. Psychological traits, in addition to physiological and social risk factors, may contribute to metabolic syndrome. The objective of the present research is to test whether personality traits are associated with metabolic syndrome in a large community sample. Participants (N = 5,662) from Sardinia, Italy, completed a comprehensive personality questionnaire, the NEO-PI-R, and were assessed on all components of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose). Logistic regressions were used to predict metabolic syndrome from personality traits, controlling for age, sex, education, and current smoking status. Among adults over age 45 (n = 2,419), Neuroticism and low Agreeableness were associated with metabolic syndrome, whereas high Conscientiousness was protective. Individuals who scored in the top 10% on Conscientiousness were approximately 40% less likely to have metabolic syndrome (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.41–0.92), whereas those who scored in the lowest 10% on Agreeableness were 50% more likely to have it (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.09–2.16). At the facet level, traits related to impulsivity and hostility were the most strongly associated with metabolic syndrome. The present research indicates that those with fewer psychological resources are more vulnerable to metabolic syndrome and suggests a psychological component to other established risk factors. PMID:20567927
Grundy, Scott M
The metabolic syndrome is a multiplex risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. It is composed of atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, insulin resistance and elevated glucose, a pro-thrombotic state, and a pro-inflammatory state. Excess energy intake and concomitant obesity are the major drivers of the syndrome. Lifestyle intervention can reverse metabolic risk factors, but at times, drug therapies or bariatric surgery may be required to control more overt risk factors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Fukushi, Jun-ichi; Iwamoto, Yukihide
The Japanese Orthopedic Association coined the term locomotive syndrome (LS) to designate a condition of elderly people in high risk groups of requiring nursing care because of problems with their musculoskeletal diseases. LS is a socioeconomic concept, and closely associated with osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and sarcopenia. Recent studies have revealed that metabolic syndrome (MS), a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, has been related with LS. For example, individuals with MS have a greater risk of osteoarthritis and sarcopenia. Secreted factors from adipose tissue and skeletal muscles, namely, adipokines and myokines, are involved in the association of LS and MS.
Kota, Sunil Kumar; Meher, Lalit Kumar; Krishna, Svs; Modi, Kd
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and hypothyroidism are well established forerunners of atherogenic cardiovascular disease. Considerable overlap occurs in the pathogenic mechanisms of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism. Insulin resistance has been studied as the basic pathogenic mechanism in metabolic syndrome. This cross sectional study intended to assess thyroid function in patients with metabolic syndrome and to investigate the association between hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome. One hundred patients with metabolic syndrome who fulfilled the National Cholesterol Education Program- Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP) III criteria [ 3 out of 5 criteria positive namely blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mm hg or on antihypertensive medications, fasting plasma glucose > 100 mg/dl or on anti-diabetic medications, fasting triglycerides > 150 mg/dl, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) < 40 mg/dl in males and < 50 mg/dl in females, waist circumference > 102 cms in men and 88 cms in women] were included in the study group. Fifty patients who had no features of metabolic syndrome (0 out of 5 criteria for metabolic syndrome) were included in the control group. Patients with liver disorders, renal disorders, congestive cardiac failure, pregnant women, patients on oral contraceptive pills, statins and other medications that alter thyroid functions and lipid levels and those who are under treatment for any thyroid related disorder were excluded from the study. Acutely ill patients were excluded taking into account sick euthyroid syndrome. Patients were subjected to anthropometry, evaluation of vital parameters, lipid and thyroid profile along with other routine laboratory parameters. Students t-test, Chi square test and linear regression, multiple logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Of the 100 patients in study group, 55 were females (55%) and 45 were males (45
Kota, Sunil Kumar; Meher, Lalit Kumar; Krishna, SVS; Modi, KD
Aim: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and hypothyroidism are well established forerunners of atherogenic cardiovascular disease. Considerable overlap occurs in the pathogenic mechanisms of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism. Insulin resistance has been studied as the basic pathogenic mechanism in metabolic syndrome. This cross sectional study intended to assess thyroid function in patients with metabolic syndrome and to investigate the association between hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients with metabolic syndrome who fulfilled the National Cholesterol Education Program- Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP) III criteria [ 3 out of 5 criteria positive namely blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mm hg or on antihypertensive medications, fasting plasma glucose > 100 mg/dl or on anti-diabetic medications, fasting triglycerides > 150 mg/dl, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) < 40 mg/dl in males and < 50 mg/dl in females, waist circumference > 102 cms in men and 88 cms in women] were included in the study group. Fifty patients who had no features of metabolic syndrome (0 out of 5 criteria for metabolic syndrome) were included in the control group. Patients with liver disorders, renal disorders, congestive cardiac failure, pregnant women, patients on oral contraceptive pills, statins and other medications that alter thyroid functions and lipid levels and those who are under treatment for any thyroid related disorder were excluded from the study. Acutely ill patients were excluded taking into account sick euthyroid syndrome. Patients were subjected to anthropometry, evaluation of vital parameters, lipid and thyroid profile along with other routine laboratory parameters. Students t-test, Chi square test and linear regression, multiple logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of the 100 patients in study group, 55
Mortada, Rami; Williams, Tracy
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. It is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, affecting between 6.5% and 8% of women, and is the most common cause of infertility. Insulin resistance is almost always present in women with PCOS, regardless of weight, and they often develop diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The Rotterdam criteria are widely used for diagnosis. These criteria require that patients have at least two of the following conditions: hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The diagnosis of PCOS also requires exclusion of other potential etiologies of hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction. The approach to PCOS management differs according to the presenting symptoms and treatment goals, particularly the patient's desire for pregnancy. Weight loss through dietary modifications and exercise is recommended for patients with PCOS who are overweight. Oral contraceptives are the first-line treatment for regulating menstrual cycles and reducing manifestations of hyperandrogenism, such as acne and hirsutism. Clomiphene is the first-line drug for management of anovulatory infertility. Metformin is recommended for metabolic abnormalities such as prediabetes, and a statin should be prescribed for cardioprotection if the patient meets standard criteria for statin therapy.
Hardwick, James P.; Eckman, Katie; Lee, Yoon Kwang; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Esterle, Andrew; Chilian, William M.; Chiang, John Y.; Song, Byoung-Joon
Chronic persistent inflammation plays a significant role in disease pathology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS is a constellation of diseases that include obesity, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with many of the MetS diseases. These metabolic derangements trigger a persistent inflammatory cascade, which includes production of lipid autacoids (eicosanoids) that recruit immune cells to the site of injury and subsequent expression of cytokines and chemokines that amplify the inflammatory response. In acute inflammation, the transcellular synthesis of antiinflammatory eicosanoids resolve inflammation, while persistent activation of the autacoid-cytokine-chemokine cascade in metabolic disease leads to chronic inflammation and accompanying tissue pathology. Many drugs targeting the eicosanoid pathways have been shown to be effective in the treatment of MetS, suggesting a common linkage between inflammation, MetS and drug metabolism.The cross-talk between inflammation and MetS seems apparent because of the growing evidence linking immune cell activation and metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Thus modulation of lipid metabolism through either dietary adjustment or selective drugs may become a new paradigm in the treatment of metabolic disorders. This review focuses on the mechanisms linking eicosanoid metabolism to persistent inflammation and altered lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in MetS. PMID:23433458
Després, Jean-Pierre; Lemieux, Isabelle
Metabolic syndrome is associated with abdominal obesity, blood lipid disorders, inflammation, insulin resistance or full-blown diabetes, and increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Proposed criteria for identifying patients with metabolic syndrome have contributed greatly to preventive medicine, but the value of metabolic syndrome as a scientific concept remains controversial. The presence of metabolic syndrome alone cannot predict global cardiovascular disease risk. But abdominal obesity - the most prevalent manifestation of metabolic syndrome - is a marker of 'dysfunctional adipose tissue', and is of central importance in clinical diagnosis. Better risk assessment algorithms are needed to quantify diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk on a global scale.
Rapoport, S I; Molchanov, A Iu; Golichenkov, V A; Burlakova, O V; Suprunenko, E S; Savchenko, E S
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is characterized by the following symptoms: obesity, AH, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance. Pathophysiologically, MS is underlain by disorders of many biochemical and physiological processes, such as elevated levels of low density lipoproteins, hyperstimulation of pancreatic b-cells, increased insulin secretion, substitution of lipid metabolism for carbohydrate one, overgrowth of adipose tissue, excess production of adiponectin, leptin and other signal molecules and a rise in their local intravascular concentration, weight gain. Endogenous and exogenous melatonin inhibits these pathophysiological mechanisms, normalizes metabolism, equilibrates insulin secretion, prevents pancreatic hyperfunction, phosphorylates insulin receptors, inactivates active oxygen and nitrogen species including those produced in LDLP metabolism. Melatonin has specific MT1 and MT2 receptors localized in all body cells. Due to this, it exerts combined preventive action in patients with MS. Recently, melatonin has been reported to have therapeutic effect in MS; it may be recommended to treat this condition.
Altuntaş, Yüksel; Batman, Adnan
The role of gut bacteria in the pathogenesis and treatment of various diseases has been a focus of attention in the last 10 years. Prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases continues to increase, in spite of technological developments and treatment alternatives. Microbial dysbiosis, described as the decrease of useful bacteria and the increase of harmful bacteria, has been associated with diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, and metabolic syndrome. In microbial dysbiosis, increase of harmful metabolites and changes to composition of bile acids occur via carbohydrate and protein fermentation. As a result, insulin resistance pathways are activated, which initiate the processes of obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Healthy diet recommendations, including prebiotic and probiotic foods and the use of probiotic agents, look promising for future treatment of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.
Haase, Michael; Müller, Christian; Damman, Kevin; Murray, Patrick T; Kellum, John A; Ronco, Claudio; McCullough, Peter A
Pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiorenal syndromes (CRS) types 1-5 are still sparsely characterized. In an attempt to address this issue, a consensus conference on CRS was held in Venice, Italy, in November 2012 under the auspices of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI). Working group 1 discussed monodirectional mechanisms of CRS type 1 which is characterized by a rapid worsening of cardiac function leading to acute kidney injury (AKI). Pre-conference we performed a systematic search and review of the available literature using a modified Delphi analysis. Hereby identified and in this review discussed questions were: (i) What are the predominant pathophysiologic mechanisms of CRS type 1 in acute decompensated heart failure? (ii) Could biomarker profiling identify pathomechanisms or hemodynamic phenotype of patients with CRS type 1? Could predictive biomarkers improve renal safety of therapy in CRS type 1? (iii) How do the timing, severity and duration relate to the mechanisms and outcomes of CRS type 1? In summary, after discussion and appraisal of the best available evidence, working group 1 makes consensus recommendations for future research on pathologic mechanisms of CRS type 1 and recommendations for clinical practice where treatment is in either proof or disproof of a mechanism.
Cheng, Yu-Lun; Cheng, Hao-Min; Huang, Wei-Ming; Lu, Dai-Yin; Hsu, Pai-Feng; Guo, Chao-Yu; Yu, Wen-Chung; Chen, Chen-Huan; Sung, Shih-Hsien
Red cell distribution width (RCDW) has not been fully investigated for its prognostic impact in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) with or without the cardiorenal anemia syndrome (CRAS). A total of 978 patients (age 75 ± 14 years, 70% men, 43% with CRAS) hospitalized for AHF were enrolled. During a median follow-up duration of 31 months, 472 subjects (48%) died. The postdischarge mortality was positively associated with the increasing RCDW. After accounting for age, gender, co-morbidities, hemoglobin, renal function, sodium level, and N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide, RCDW remained an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] and 95% CI for a 1% increase of RCDW: 1.09, 1.00 to 1.17, p = 0.04). In the subgroups of patients with or without CRAS, RCDW was an independent predictor of total mortality for both subgroups (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.10 and HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.15, respectively). In conclusion, elevated RCDW was independently associated with mortality in patients hospitalized for AHF, with or without CRAS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Han, Weiping; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Chang, Young-Tae; Olivo, Malini; Velan, S Sendhil; Bhakoo, Kishore; Townsend, David; Radda, George K
Metabolic syndrome is a fast growing public health burden for almost all the developed countries and many developing nations. Despite intense efforts from both biomedical and clinical scientists, many fundamental questions regarding its aetiology and development remain unclear, partly due to the lack of suitable imaging technologies to visualize lipid composition and distribution, insulin secretion, β-cell mass and functions in vivo. Such technologies would not only impact on our understanding of the complexity of metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes, but also aid in their diagnosis, drug development and assessment of treatment efficacy. In this article we discuss and propose several strategies for visualization of physiological and pathological changes that affect pancreas and adipose tissue as a result of the development of metabolic diseases. PMID:20533426
Moulana, Mohadetheh; Lima, Roberta; Reckelhoff, Jane F
Obesity is one of the constellation of factors that make up the definition of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is also associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The presence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in men and women is also associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. In men, obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with reductions in testosterone levels. In women, obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with increases in androgen levels. In men, reductions in androgen levels are associated with inflammation, and androgen supplements reduce inflammation. In women, increases in androgens are associated with increases in inflammatory cytokines, and reducing androgens reduces inflammation. This review discusses the possibility that the effects of androgens on metabolic syndrome and its sequelae may differ between males and females.
Mikolasevic, I; Milic, S; Orlic, L; Poropat, G; Jakopcic, I; Franjic, N; Klanac, A; Kristo, N; Stimac, D
The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of metabolic syndrome on the course of acute pancreatitis determined by disease severity, the presence of local and systemic complications and survival rate. 609 patients admitted to our hospital in the period from January 1, 2008 up to June 31, 2015 with the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis were analyzed. The diagnosis and the severity of acute pancreatitis were made according to the revised Atlanta classification criteria from 2012. Of 609 patients with acute pancreatitis, 110 fulfilled the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome had statistically significantly higher incidence of moderately severe (38.2% vs. 28.5%; p=0.05) and severe (22.7% vs. 12.8%; p=0.01) acute pancreatitis in comparison to those without metabolic syndrome, while patients without metabolic syndrome had higher incidence of mild acute pancreatitis in comparison to those patients with metabolic syndrome (58.7% vs. 39.1%; p<0.001). Patients with metabolic syndrome had a higher number of local and systemic complications, and higher APACHE II score in comparison to patients without metabolic syndrome. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, the presence of metabolic syndrome was independently associated with moderately severe and severe acute pancreatitis. Comparing survival rates, patients suffering from metabolic syndrome had a higher death rate compared to patients without metabolic syndrome (16% vs. 4.5%; p<0.001). The presence of metabolic syndrome at admission portends a higher risk of moderately severe and severe acute pancreatitis, as well as higher mortality rate. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Harris, Mark F
The metabolic syndrome (MetSy) is increasingly common in Australia. It is associated with the rise in obesity and lifestyle risk behaviours. It is also controversial - its value in predicting cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk and in guiding therapy has been challenged. This article aims to provide advice on the diagnosis of the MetSy and the principles for its prevention and management in the context of primary care, taking into consideration aetiological factors and the complexity of managing its constituent risk factors. Diagnosis of the MetSy is useful in focusing attention on central adiposity and insulin resistance as risk factors both for the syndrome, and cardiovascular and diabetes morbidity and mortality. Its assessment requires measurement of waist circumference - a simple but seldom performed procedure in general practice. The most essential components for the prevention and management of the MetSy are measures to change diet and physical activity in order to achieve and sustain weight loss.
Mazidi, Mohsen; Rezaie, Peyman; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Mobarhan, Majid Ghayour; Ferns, Gordon A
The gut microbiome contributes approximately 2kg of the whole body weight, and recent studies suggest that gut microbiota has a profound effect on human metabolism, potentially contributing to several features of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is defined by a clustering of metabolic disorders that include central adiposity with visceral fat accumulation, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, dysglycemia and non-optimal blood pressure levels. Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. It is estimated that around 20-25 percent of the world's adult population has metabolic syndrome. In this manuscript, we have reviewed the existing data linking gut microbiome with metabolic syndrome. Existing evidence from studies both in animals and humans support a link between gut microbiome and various components of metabolic syndrome. Possible pathways include involvement with energy homeostasis and metabolic processes, modulation of inflammatory signaling pathways, interferences with the immune system, and interference with the renin-angiotensin system. Modification of gut microbiota via prebiotics, probiotics or other dietary interventions has provided evidence to support a possible beneficial effect of interventions targeting gut microbiota modulation to treat components or complications of metabolic syndrome.
Siegenthaler, M; Huynh-Do, U; Krayenbuehl, P; Pollock, E; Widmer, U; Debaix, H; Olinger, E; Frank, M; Namdar, M; Ruschitzka, F; Nowak, A
Fabry disease (FD) is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disease with a deficiency of α-galactosidase A leading to progressive sphingolipid accumulation in different organs, among them heart and kidney. We evaluated the impact of cardio-renal syndrome (CRS) on the incidence of major cardiovascular complications and death in a prospective FD cohort. A total of 104 genetically proven FD patients were annually followed at the University Hospitals Zurich and Bern. The main outcome was a composite of incident renal replacement therapy (RRT), hospitalisation due to decompensated Heart Failure, new onset atrial fibrillation, pacemaker/ICD implantation, stroke/TIA and death. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and left ventricular myocardial mass index (LVMMI) where explored as the primary exposure variables. During the median follow-up of 103 [59-155] months, events occurred in 27 patients. In a Cox regression analysis, both higher LVMMI and lower eGFR were independently associated with a greater risk of developing adverse events after adjustment for multiple confounders (HR 1.67 [1.04-2.73] P=0.03 per SD increase in LVMMI, HR 0.45 [0.25-0.83], P=0.01 per SD decrease in eGFR). In patients with CRS, the risk to develop events was significantly increased if adjusted for demographics and RRT (HR 4.46 [1.07-18.62], P=0.04), approaching significance if additionally adjusted for hypertension (HR 4.05 [0.95-17.29], P=0.06). In Kaplan-Meier-Analysis, the poorest event-free survival was observed among patients with CRS. CRS was associated with a high risk to develop cardiovascular complications and death, emphasizing the importance of its prevention and early recognition. A focus on cardio-reno-protective therapies is crucial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stančáková, Alena; Laakso, Markku
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic traits associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Central obesity and insulin resistance are thought to play key roles in the pathogenesis of the MetS. The MetS has a significant genetic component, and therefore linkage analysis, candidate gene approach, and genome-wide association (GWA) studies have been applied in the search of gene variants for the MetS. A few variants have been identified, located mostly in or near genes regulating lipid metabolism. GWA studies for the individual components of the MetS have reported several loci having pleiotropic effects on multiple MetS-related traits. Genetic studies have provided so far only limited evidence for a common genetic background of the MetS. Epigenetic factors (DNA methylation and histone modification) are likely to play important roles in the pathogenesis of the MetS, and they might mediate the effects of environmental exposures on the risk of the MetS. Further research is needed to clarify the role of genetic variation and epigenetic mechanisms in the development of the MetS.
Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Savolainen-Peltonen, Hanna
A vast majority of menopausal women suffer from vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats, the mean duration of which may be up to 7-10 years. In addition to a decreased quality of life, vasomotor symptoms may have an impact on overall health. Vasomotor symptoms are associated with overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system, and sympathetic overdrive in turn is associated with metabolic syndrome, which is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Menopausal hot flushes have a complex relationship to different features of the metabolic syndrome and not all data point towards an association between vasomotor symptoms and metabolic syndrome. Thus, it is still unclear whether vasomotor symptoms are an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Research in this area is constantly evolving and we present here the most recent data on the possible association between menopausal vasomotor symptoms and the metabolic syndrome.
Miñambres, Inka; de Leiva, Alberto; Pérez, Antonio
Metabolic syndrome and hypovitaminosis D are 2 diseases with high prevalence that share several risk factors, while epidemiological evidence shows they are associated. Although the mechanisms involved in this association are not well established, hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance, decreased insulin secretion and activation of the renin-angiotensin system, mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. However, the apparent ineffectiveness of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic syndrome components, as well as the limited information about the effect of improving metabolic syndrome components on vitamin D concentrations, does not clarify the direction and the mechanisms involved in the causal relationship between these 2 pathologies. Overall, because of the high prevalence and the epidemiological association between both diseases, hypovitaminosis D could be considered a component of the metabolic syndrome.
The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and glucose intolerance in the same persons has been called the metabolic or insulin-resistance syndrome. In 1998 WHO proposed a unifying definition for the syndrome and chose to call it the metabolic syndrome rather than the insulin-resistance syndrome. Although insulin resistance has been considered as a common denominator for the different components of the syndrome, there is still debate as to whether it is pathogenically involved in all of the different components of the syndrome. Clustering of the syndrome in families suggests a genetic component. It is plausible that so-called thrifty genes, which have ensured optimal storage of energy during periods of fasting, could contribute to the phenotype of the metabolic syndrome. Common variants in a number of candidate genes influencing fat and glucose metabolism can probably, together with environmental triggers, increase susceptibility to the syndrome. Among these, the genes for beta 3-adrenergic receptor, hormone-sensitive lipase, lipoprotein lipase, IRS-1, PC-1, skeletal muscle glycogen synthase, etc. appear to increase the risk of the metabolic syndrome. In addition, novel genes may be identified by genome-wide searches.
Ali, Aus Tariq
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder, where the main clinical features include menstrual irregularities, sub-fertility, hyperandrogenism, and hirsutism. The prevalence of PCOS depends on ethnicity, environmental and genetic factors, as well as the criteria used to define it. On the other hand, metabolic syndrome is a constellation of metabolic disorders which include mainly abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose metabolism, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. These associated disorders directly increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2), coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and endometrial cancer. Many patients with PCOS have features of metabolic syndrome such as visceral obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. These place patients with PCOS under high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), Type 2 diabetes (DMT2) and gynecological cancer, in particular, endometrial cancer. Metabolic syndrome is also increased in infertile women with PCOS. The aim of this review is to provide clear and up to date information about PCOS and its relationship with metabolic syndrome, and the possible interaction between different metabolic disorders.
Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Jozélio Freire; Bonfá, Eloísa
Metabolic syndrome is characterized by a combination of various cardiovascular risk factors (age, gender, smoking, hypertension and dyslipidemia) that imply additional cardiovascular morbidity that is greater than the sum of the risks associated with each individual component. Herein, the authors review the rheumatological diseases in which metabolic syndrome has been studied: gout, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome and ankylosing spondylitis. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in these disorders varies from 14% to 62.8%. The great majority of these studies demonstrated that this frequency was higher in rheumatological diseases than in the control populations, suggesting that either the presence or the treatment of those diseases seems to influence the risk of developing metabolic syndrome.
Poh, Stanley; Mohamed Abdul, Riswana Banu Binte; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Wong, Tien Y; Sabanayagam, Charumathi
Metabolic syndrome is becoming a worldwide medical and public health challenge as it has been seen increasing in prevalence over the years. Age-related eye diseases, the leading cause of blindness globally and visual impairment in developed countries, are also on the rise due to aging of the population. Many of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome have been shown to be associated with these eye diseases. However, the association of metabolic syndrome with eye diseases is not clear. In this review, we reviewed the evidence for associations between metabolic syndrome and certain ocular diseases in populations. We also reviewed the association of individual metabolic syndrome components with ocular diseases due to a paucity of research in this area. Besides, we also summarised the current understanding of etiological mechanisms of how metabolic syndrome or the individual components lead to these ocular diseases. With increasing evidence of such associations, it may be important to identify patients who are at risk of developing metabolic syndrome as prompt treatment and intervention may potentially decrease the risk of developing certain ocular diseases.
Wofford, Marion R; King, Deborah S; Harrell, T Kristopher
The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Based on data from 1988 to 1994, it is estimated that 24% of adults in the United States meet the criteria for diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. The use of certain medications may increase the risk of the metabolic syndrome by either promoting weight gain or altering lipid or glucose metabolism. Health providers should recognize and understand the risk associated with certain medications and appropriately monitor for changes related to the metabolic syndrome. Careful attention to drug choices should be paid in patients who are overweight or have other risk factors for diabetes or cardiovascular disease.
Virmani, Ashraf; Binienda, Zbigniew K; Ali, Syed F; Gaetani, Franco
Drug abuse is associated with significant health risk. Whether drug abusers are at a higher risk of suffering the metabolic syndrome is not widely known. The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities, including hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and abdominal obesity, and is probably triggered by initial imbalances at the cellular level in various critical metabolic pathways. These initially small metabolic imbalances are believed to cascade with time and lead to larger problems. Some indications that drug abuse may increase the risk of the metabolic syndrome include the following: Drug-abusing patients have higher rates of diabetes complications. Substance abuse is a significant contributing factor for treatment noncompliance in diabetes. Nutrition education can enhance substance abuse treatment outcomes. Each type of drug/substance abuse has a unique profile of toxicity. For example, the amphetamines generally affect the cardiovascular and neurological systems, worsening the risk factors for the metabolic syndrome. Methamphetamine (meth) abusers suffer cognitive deficits and abnormal metabolic activity, which affect nutritional status. This condition is further worsened by a drastic reduction in oral health in meth abusers, resulting in improper chewing and, therefore, digestion. Nutritional deficiency in combination with drug abuse would increase the risk of developing the metabolic syndrome by increasing cell damage, augmenting excitotoxicity, reducing energy production, and lowering the antioxidant potential of the cells. Another potential risk factor in the development of the metabolic syndrome is genetic vulnerability, especially in combination with drug abuse and nutritional deficiencies. The strategies available to treat this problem include pharmacological agents as well as dietary antioxidants. Such measures may be useful in reducing drug abuse-related toxicity that may lead to the metabolic syndrome.
Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi
The specific Na+/glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2 inhibitors) inhibit glucose reabsorption in proximal renal tubular cells, and both fasting and postprandial glucose significantly decrease due to urinary glucose loss. As a result, pancreatic β-cell function and peripheral insulin action significantly improve with relief from glucose toxicity. Furthermore, whole body energy metabolism changes to relative glucose deficiency and triggers increased lipolysis in fat cells, and fatty acid oxidation and then ketone body production in the liver during treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors. In addition, SGLT2 inhibitors have profound hemodynamic effects including diuresis, dehydration, weight loss, and lowering blood pressure. The most recent findings on SGLT2 inhibitors come from results of the Empagliflozin, cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in type 2 diabetes trial. SGLT2 inhibitors exert extremely unique and cardio-renal protection through metabolic and hemodynamic effects with long-term durability on the reduction of blood glucose, body weight, and blood pressure. Although a site of action of SGLT2 inhibitors is highly specific to inhibit renal glucose reabsorption, whole body energy metabolism and hemodynamic and renal functions are profoundly modulated during the treatment of SGLT2 inhibitors. Previous studies suggest multifactorial clinical benefits and safety concerns of SGLT2 inhibitors. Although ambivalent clinical results of this drug are still under active discussion, the present review summarizes promising recent evidences on the cardio-renal and metabolic benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Courties, Alice; Sellam, Jérémie; Berenbaum, Francis
Interest in the metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis phenotype is increasing. Here, we summarize recently published significant findings. Meta-analyses confirmed an association between type 2 diabetes and osteoarthritis and between cardiovascular diseases and osteoarthritis. Recent advances in the study of metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis have focused on a better understanding of the role of metabolic diseases in inducing or aggravating joint damage. In-vivo models of obesity, diabetes, or dyslipidemia have helped to better decipher this association. They give emerging evidence that, beyond the role of common pathogenic mechanisms for metabolic diseases and osteoarthritis (i.e., low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress), metabolic diseases have a direct systemic effect on joints. In addition to the impact of weight, obesity-associated inflammation is associated with osteoarthritis severity and may modulate osteoarthritis progression in mouse models. As well, osteoarthritis synovium from type 2 diabetic patients shows insulin-resistant features, which may participate in joint catabolism. Finally, exciting data are emerging on the association of gut microbiota and circadian rhythm and metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis. The systemic role of metabolic syndrome in osteoarthritis pathophysiology is now better understood, but new avenues of research are being pursued to better decipher the metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis phenotype.
Morgan, R; Keen, J; McGowan, C
Laminitis is one of the most common and frustrating clinical presentations in equine practice. While the principles of treatment for laminitis have not changed for several decades, there have been some important paradigm shifts in our understanding of laminitis. Most importantly, it is essential to consider laminitis as a clinical sign of disease and not as a disease in its own right. Once this shift in thinking has occurred, it is logical to then question what disease caused the laminitis. More than 90 per cent of horses presented with laminitis as their primary clinical sign will have developed it as a consequence of endocrine disease; most commonly equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Given the fact that many horses will have painful protracted and/or chronic recurrent disease, a good understanding of the predisposing factors and how to diagnose and manage them is crucial. Current evidence suggests that early diagnosis and effective management of EMS should be a key aim for practising veterinary surgeons to prevent the devastating consequences of laminitis. This review will focus on EMS, its diagnosis and management.
Morgan, R.; Keen, J.; McGowan, C.
Laminitis is one of the most common and frustrating clinical presentations in equine practice. While the principles of treatment for laminitis have not changed for several decades, there have been some important paradigm shifts in our understanding of laminitis. Most importantly, it is essential to consider laminitis as a clinical sign of disease and not as a disease in its own right. Once this shift in thinking has occurred, it is logical to then question what disease caused the laminitis. More than 90 per cent of horses presented with laminitis as their primary clinical sign will have developed it as a consequence of endocrine disease; most commonly equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Given the fact that many horses will have painful protracted and/or chronic recurrent disease, a good understanding of the predisposing factors and how to diagnose and manage them is crucial. Current evidence suggests that early diagnosis and effective management of EMS should be a key aim for practising veterinary surgeons to prevent the devastating consequences of laminitis. This review will focus on EMS, its diagnosis and management. PMID:26273009
Obesity and metabolic syndrome are examples whereby excess energy consumption and energy flux disruptions are causative agents of increased fatness. Because other, as yet elucidated, cellular factors may be involved and because potential treatments of these metabolic problems involve systemic agents...
De Sousa, Sunita M C; Norman, Robert J
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with a range of metabolic complications including insulin resistance (IR), obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. These compound risks result in a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and possibly increased cardiovascular (CV) disease. As the cardiometabolic risk of PCOS is shared amongst the different diagnostic systems, all women with PCOS should undergo metabolic surveillance though the precise approach differs between guidelines. Lifestyle interventions consisting of increased physical activity and caloric restriction have been shown to improve both metabolic and reproductive outcomes. Pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery may be considered in resistant metabolic disease. Issues requiring further research include the natural history of PCOS-associated metabolic disease, absolute CV risk and comparative efficacy of lifestyle interventions.
Paoletti, Rodolfo; Bolego, Chiara; Poli, Andrea; Cignarella, Andrea
The inflammatory component of atherogenesis has been increasingly recognized over the last decade. Inflammation participates in all stages of atherosclerosis, not only during initiation and during evolution of lesions, but also with precipitation of acute thrombotic complications. The metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk for development of both cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes in humans. Central obesity and insulin resistance are thought to represent common underlying factors of the syndrome, which features a chronic low-grade inflammatory state. Diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome occurs using defined threshold values for waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose and dyslipidemia. The metabolic syndrome appears to affect a significant proportion of the population. Therapeutic approaches that reduce the levels of proinflammatory biomarkers and address traditional risk factors are particularly important in preventing cardiovascular disease and, potentially, diabetes. The primary management of metabolic syndrome involves healthy lifestyle promotion through moderate calorie restriction, moderate increase in physical activity and change in dietary composition. Treatment of individual components aims to control atherogenic dyslipidemia using fibrates and statins, elevated blood pressure, and hyperglycemia. While no single treatment for the metabolic syndrome as a whole yet exists, emerging therapies offer potential as future therapeutic approaches. PMID:17319458
Sridhar, Gumpeny R; Rao, Allam Appa; Srinivas, Kudipudi; Nirmala, Gumpeny; Lakshmi, Gumpeny; Suryanarayna, Dasika; Rao, Padmanabhuni V Nageswara; Kaladhar, Dowluru G S V G L; Kumar, Sali Veeresh; Devi, Tatavarthi Uma; Nitesh, Turaga; Hanuman, Thota
Butyrylcholinesterase may have a role in a number of metabolic functions and could affect the expression of insulin resistance syndrome. We present our integrated work using clinical, biochemical and bioinformatic approaches to delineate the possible function of this enzyme. Initially, we constructed a phylogenic tree with nucleotides and amino acid sequences and showed the existence of similar sequences in bacteria, plants and in other animals. We also demonstrated a possible pathogenic role for BChE in the common existence of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease by in silico method and followed it up with a diabetic mouse study where cognition was slowed along with changes in BChE levels. In the next group of in silico studies, we employed THEMATICS method to identify the amino acids at the active site and later performed docking studies with drugs. THEMATICS predicted two clusters of ionisable amino acid residues that are in proximity: one with two residues and another with 11 showed perturbation in the THEMATICS curves. Using ISIS/Draw 2.5SP4, ARGUSLAB 4.0.1 and HEX 5.1. software. 3-D ligands were docked with BChE motif (from PDB). We did not find any of the ligands studied with significant docking distance, indicating they did not have direct interaction with the active site. Subsequently we performed in silico studies to compare the secondary structure and domain of BChE. Protein-protein interaction showed the following intersections with BChE UBE21, CHAT, APOE, AATF, DF ALDH9A1, PDHX, PONI PSME3 and ATP6VOA2. The integrative physiological roles of proteins with poorly known functions can be approached by generating leads in silico, which can be studied in vivo, setting into movement an iterative process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cunningham, Glenn R
Controversies surround the usefulness of identifying patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Many of the components are accepted risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although the MetS as defined includes many men with insulin resistance, insulin resistance is not universal. The low total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels in these men are best explained by the hyperinsulinism and increased inflammatory cytokines that accompany obesity and increased waist circumference. It is informative that low SHBG levels predict future development of the MetS. Evidence is strong relating low TT levels to CVD in men with and without the MetS; however, the relationship may not be causal. The recommendations of the International Diabetes Federation for managing the MetS include cardiovascular risk assessment, lifestyle changes in diet, exercise, weight reduction and treatment of individual components of the MetS. Unfortunately, it is uncommon to see patients with the MetS lose and maintain a 10% weight loss. Recent reports showing testosterone treatment induced dramatic changes in weight, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, hemoglobin A1c levels and improvements in each of the components of the MetS are intriguing. While some observational studies have reported that testosterone replacement therapy increases cardiovascular events, the Food and Drug Administration in the United States has reviewed these reports and found them to be seriously flawed. Large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide more definitive data regarding the efficacy and safety of this treatment in middle and older men with the MetS and low TT levels.
Cunningham, Glenn R
Controversies surround the usefulness of identifying patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Many of the components are accepted risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although the MetS as defined includes many men with insulin resistance, insulin resistance is not universal. The low total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels in these men are best explained by the hyperinsulinism and increased inflammatory cytokines that accompany obesity and increased waist circumference. It is informative that low SHBG levels predict future development of the MetS. Evidence is strong relating low TT levels to CVD in men with and without the MetS; however, the relationship may not be causal. The recommendations of the International Diabetes Federation for managing the MetS include cardiovascular risk assessment, lifestyle changes in diet, exercise, weight reduction and treatment of individual components of the MetS. Unfortunately, it is uncommon to see patients with the MetS lose and maintain a 10% weight loss. Recent reports showing testosterone treatment induced dramatic changes in weight, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, hemoglobin A1c levels and improvements in each of the components of the MetS are intriguing. While some observational studies have reported that testosterone replacement therapy increases cardiovascular events, the Food and Drug Administration in the United States has reviewed these reports and found them to be seriously flawed. Large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide more definitive data regarding the efficacy and safety of this treatment in middle and older men with the MetS and low TT levels. PMID:25652634
Malhotra, Nidhi; Grover, Sandeep; Chakrabarti, Subho; Kulhara, Parmanand
To review the data with respect to prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its correlates in schizophrenia. For this review, electronic search engines PUBMED, Sciencedirect, and Google Scholar were used. Available data suggests that most of the studies have been of cross-sectional design. Prevalence rates of MetS have varied from 11% to 69% in medicated patients, and 4-26% in drug naive patients in cross-sectional evaluations. Longitudinal studies have shown the prevalence rates to range from 0% to 14% at the baseline in drug naive patients, which increase to as high as 52.4% by 3 months of antipsychotic medication treatment. The prevalence rates of MetS in patients with schizophrenia are much higher than that seen in general population or healthy controls. Though there is no causal association with any demographic or clinical variables, the risk increases with increase in age. Among antipsychotics, there seems to be an association between MetS and atypical antipsychotics like clozapine and olanzapine. Therefore, the psychiatrists should be more vigilant regarding the presence of MetS in these high risk groups. Research on biological correlates of MetS in schizophrenia is still in its primitive stage, however, these is some evidence to suggest an association of MetS with adiponectin levels, hematological indices, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor (ADRA1A) gene. These areas hold promise, and targeting these with appropriate interventions may help us to prevent the occurrence of MetS in patients with schizophrenia in future. PMID:24249923
Gopinath, Hima; Upadya, Gatha M
Androgenic alopecia has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease in various studies. The relationship between androgenic alopecia and metabolic syndrome, a known risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is still poorly understood. To study the association between metabolic syndrome and early-onset androgenic alopecia. A hospital-based analytical cross-sectional study was done on men in the age group of 18-55 years. Eighty five clinically diagnosed cases with early-onset (<35 years) androgenic alopecia of Norwood grade III or above, and 85 controls without androgenic alopecia were included. Data collected included anthropometric measurements, arterial blood pressure and history of chronic diseases. Fasting blood and lipid profile were determined. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed as per the new International Diabetes Federation criteria. Chi-square and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.00. Metabolic syndrome was seen in 19 (22.4%) patients with androgenic alopecia and 8 (9.4%) controls (P = 0.021). Abdominal obesity, hypertension and lowered high-density lipoprotein were significantly higher in patients with androgenic alopecia versus their respective controls. The limitations of our study include small sample size in subgroups and the lack of evidence of a temporal relationship between metabolic syndrome and androgenic alopecia. A higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome is seen in men with early-onset androgenic alopecia. Early screening for metabolic syndrome and its components is beneficial in patients with early-onset androgenic alopecia.
Kraja, Aldi T.; Province, Michael A.; Straka, Robert J.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Arnett, Donna K.
The fibric acid derivative, fenofibrate (FF) has been used in the US since 1998 to manage patients with dyslipidemia. Typical changes in serum lipids as a result of FF treatment include clinically important mean reductions of serum triglycerides (TG) by a mean change of −93.7 mg/dL (−39.3%), increases of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) by +5.5 mg/dL (+12.4%), and reductions in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) by −17.9 mg/dL (−12.3%). The greatest reductions in serum TG are usually observed in subjects with elevated baseline TG including those with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Although statins remain the mainstay of therapy for most dyslipidemic patients, their combined use with FF would be expected to address residual risk resulting from less than optimal TG and HDLC levels in such patients. Clinical trials examining the cardiovascular benefits of FF alone or combined with statins have produced mixed results. These observations underscore our lack of understanding of which patients may benefit from FF therapy and which do not. Although FF’s basic mechanism of action is known to involve PPAR-α agonist activity resulting in altered transcription of several genes, the actual genetic bases for variability in lipid response is poorly understood. Studies, such as our GOLDN study and others were designed to better understand the genetic determinants of variability in the response to FF treatment and lipid levels. As a result several important genetic determinants of lipid levels have been identified. For example, in the GOLDN study SNPs from different genes were significantly associated with baseline lipid levels before treatment (APOA5-rs662799, rs3135506; APOC3-rs5128, rs2854117, rs4520); APOA4-rs5104; PPARA-rs9626730, rs135543, rs11703495; LPL-rs1801177), after treatment PPARA-rs11708495; LPL-rs1801177, and appeared to modulate overall response to FF treatment (NOS3-rs1799983). In this article, we will review the literature leading up
... of high blood pressure, heart attack, or stroke. Insulin resistance . This occurs when the body's cells don't ... Polycystic ovarian syndrome. Thought to be related to insulin resistance, this disorder involves the release of extra male ...
Williams, Sharon; Cunningham, Emily; Pories, Walter J
This article explores the surprising finding that bariatric surgery can produce full and durable remission of the metabolic syndrome as well as other comorbidities of obesity including type II diabetes, hypertension, polycystic ovary syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease, nonalcoholic steatotic hepatitis, adult asthma and improvement in weight-bearing arthropathy. Such an outcome was previously deemed impossible. One effect of the surgery is the correction of hyperinsulinemia, a common denominator in the various expressions of the metabolic syndrome. Basal insulin levels return to normal levels within a matter of days following surgery, allowing a return of the first phase of insulin secretion. This effect is 'dose related' to the extent of the reduction of contact between food and the gut. The resolution of the spectrum of diseases that comprise the metabolic syndrome following bariatric surgery suggests that hyperinsulinemia may be the common cause that is corrected by lowering contact between food and the gut. If this concept is true, then the cause of the syndrome, including diabetes, could be a diabetogenic signal from the gut that forces the islets to produce excessive and harmful levels of insulin, or the cause could be the removal of a signal that blocks excessive insulin secretion. If either of these mechanisms is proven correct, the current treatment of diabetes with long-term insulin administration deserves review.
Morrison, Christopher D; Brannigan, Robert E
Metabolic syndrome is a compilation of symptoms including central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Initially used to predict cardiovascular disease, it is now clear that the molecular and physiologic abnormalities seen in metabolic syndrome extend well beyond the cardiovascular system. Growing evidence has linked metabolic syndrome and its individual symptoms to the increasing prevalence of male infertility. This manuscript reviews the recent evidence connecting metabolic syndrome to male infertility as well as the underlying pathophysiology. Currently, there are limited prospective studies examining the effects of treating metabolic syndrome on male reproduction and these relationships will need to be a focus of further investigation.
Choudhary, Rajiv; Gopal, Dipika; Kipper, Ben A.; De La Parra Landa, Alejandro; Lee, Hermineh Aramin Elizabeth; Shah, Saloni; Maisel, Alan S.
Managing patients with heart failure (HF) is a challenging task within itself, but the presence of associated worsening renal function can greatly increase mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to prevent re-hospitalizations and reduce healthcare costs. Biomarkers have long been established as highly sensitive and specific tools in diagnosing and prognosticating patients with HF. Reflecting distinct pathophysiological events and ongoing cellular insult, biomarkers have been proven superior to conventional laboratory tests. Availability of better assays and rapid analysis has allowed the use of biomarkers as point-of-care tests in the emergency department and at the patient's bed-side. Acute HF patients often go on to develop worsening renal function, termed as acute cardiorenal syndrome. The growing breadth of studies has shown the implications of combining multiple biomarkers to better chart outcomes and produce desirable results in such patients. PMID:23097660
Jungbauer, Alois; Medjakovic, Svjetlana
Phytoestrogens are a diverse class of non-steroidal compounds that have an affinity for estrogen receptors α and β, for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family and for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Examples of phytoestrogens include prenylated flavonoids, isoflavones, coumestans and lignans. Many phytoestrogens counteract the cellular derailments that are responsible for the development of metabolic syndrome. Here we propose a mechanism of action which is based on five pillars/principles. First, phytoestrogens are involved in the downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as COX-2 and iNOS, by activating PPAR and by inhibiting IκB activation. Second, they increase reverse cholesterol transport, which is mediated by PPARγ. Third, phytoestrogens increase insulin sensitivity, which is mediated via PPARα. Fourth, they exert antioxidant effects by activating antioxidant genes through KEAP. Fifth, phytoestrogens increase energy expenditure by affecting AMP-activated kinase signaling cascades, which are responsible for the inhibition of adipogenesis. In addition to these effects, which have been demonstrated in vivo and in clinical trials, other effects, such as eNOS activation, may also be important. Some plant extracts from soy, red clover or licorice can be described as panPPAR activators. Fetal programming for metabolic syndrome has been hypothesized; thus, the consumption of dietary phytoestrogens during pregnancy may be relevant. Extracts from soy, red clover or licorice oil have potential as plant-derived medicines that could be used to treat polycystic ovary syndrome, a disease linked to hyperandrogenism and obesity, although clinical trials have not yet been conducted. Phytoestrogens may help prevent metabolic syndrome, although intervention studies will be always be ambiguous, because physical activity and reduced calorie consumption also have a significant impact. Nevertheless, extracts rich in phytoestrogens may be an
Micucci, Carla; Valli, Debora; Matacchione, Giulia; Catalano, Alfonso
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors that lead to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent studies linked metabolic syndrome and several types of cancer. Although metabolic syndrome may not necessarily cause cancer, it is linked to poorer cancer outcomes including increased risk of recurrence and overall mortality. This review tends to discuss the major biological and physiological alterations involved in the increase of incidence and mortality of cancer patients affected by metabolic syndrome. We focus on metabolic syndrome-associated visceral adiposity, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) pathway as well as estrogen signaling and inflammation. Several of these factors are also involved in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. A better understanding of the link between metabolic syndrome and cancer may provide new insight about oncogenesis. Moreover, prevention of metabolic syndrome - related alterations may be an important aspect in the management of cancer patients during simultaneous palliative care.
Micucci, Carla; Valli, Debora; Matacchione, Giulia; Catalano, Alfonso
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors that lead to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent studies linked metabolic syndrome and several types of cancer. Although metabolic syndrome may not necessarily cause cancer, it is linked to poorer cancer outcomes including increased risk of recurrence and overall mortality. This review tends to discuss the major biological and physiological alterations involved in the increase of incidence and mortality of cancer patients affected by metabolic syndrome. We focus on metabolic syndrome-associated visceral adiposity, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) pathway as well as estrogen signaling and inflammation. Several of these factors are also involved in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. A better understanding of the link between metabolic syndrome and cancer may provide new insight about oncogenesis. Moreover, prevention of metabolic syndrome – related alterations may be an important aspect in the management of cancer patients during simultaneous palliative care. PMID:27029038
Hopps, E; Caimi, G
Metabolic syndrome is commonly accompanied by an elevated cardiovascular risk with high morbidity and mortality. The alterations of the arterial vasculature begin with endothelial dysfunction and lead to micro- and macrovascular complications. The remodeling of the endothelial basal membrane, that promotes erosion and thrombosis, has a multifactorial pathogenesis that includes leukocyte activation, increased oxidative stress and also an altered matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression. MMPs are endopeptidases which degrade extracellular matrix proteins, such as collagen, gelatins, fibronectin and laminin. They can be secreted by several cells within the vascular wall, but macrophages are determinant in the atherosclerotic plaques. Their activity is regulated by tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMPs) and also by other molecules, such as plasmin. MMPs could be implicated in plaque instability predisposing to vascular complications. It has been demonstrated that an impaired MMP or TIMP expression is associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality. A large number of studies evaluated MMPs pattern in obesity, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia, all of which define metabolic syndrome according to several Consensus Statement (i.e. IDF, ATP III, AHA). However, few research have been carried out on subjects with metabolic syndrome. The evidences of an improvement in MMP/TIMP ratio with diet, exercise and medical therapy should encourage further investigations with the intent to contrast the atherosclerotic process and to reduce morbidity and mortality of this kind of patients.
Martínez, M Carmen; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson
Metabolic syndrome defines a cluster of interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. These factors include metabolic abnormalities, such as hyperglycemia, elevated triglyceride levels, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and obesity, mainly central adiposity. In this context, extracellular vesicles (EVs) may represent novel effectors that might help to elucidate disease-specific pathways in metabolic disease. Indeed, EVs (a terminology that encompasses microparticles, exosomes, and apoptotic bodies) are emerging as a novel mean of cell-to-cell communication in physiology and pathology because they represent a new way to convey fundamental information between cells. These microstructures contain proteins, lipids, and genetic information able to modify the phenotype and function of the target cells. EVs carry specific markers of the cell of origin that make possible monitoring their fluctuations in the circulation as potential biomarkers inasmuch their circulating levels are increased in metabolic syndrome patients. Because of the mixed components of EVs, the content or the number of EVs derived from distinct cells of origin, the mode of cell stimulation, and the ensuing mechanisms for their production, it is difficult to attribute specific functions as drivers or biomarkers of diseases. This review reports recent data of EVs from different origins, including endothelial, smooth muscle cells, macrophages, hepatocytes, adipocytes, skeletal muscle, and finally, those from microbiota as bioeffectors of message, leading to metabolic syndrome. Depicting the complexity of the mechanisms involved in their functions reinforce the hypothesis that EVs are valid biomarkers, and they represent targets that can be harnessed for innovative therapeutic approaches. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Esposito, Katherine; Capuano, Annalisa; Giugliano, Dario
Metabolic syndrome has become a major public health problem worldwide and represents a common clinical condition in countries with a high incidence of obesity and western dietary patterns. Metabolic syndrome associates with common cancers at many sites, including liver, colorectal, and bladder cancers in men, and endometrial, pancreatic, breast post-menopausal, and colorectal cancers in women. However, the role played by each single component of the syndrome on cancer risk is still unclear. For endometrial cancer, obesity and/or high circumference waist explain all the risk associated with the full metabolic syndrome, while for post-menopausal breast cancer, the risk conveyed by metabolic syndrome appears to be greater than its parts, as no single component explains the full risk associated with the syndrome. Future research should cover other avenues in order to elucidate the complexity of biological processes linking metabolic syndrome and cancer.
Festi, Davide; Schiumerini, Ramona; Eusebi, Leonardo Henry; Marasco, Giovanni; Taddia, Martina; Colecchia, Antonio
Gut microbiota exerts a significant role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, as confirmed by studies conducted both on humans and animal models. Gut microbial composition and functions are strongly influenced by diet. This complex intestinal “superorganism” seems to affect host metabolic balance modulating energy absorption, gut motility, appetite, glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as hepatic fatty storage. An impairment of the fine balance between gut microbes and host’s immune system could culminate in the intestinal translocation of bacterial fragments and the development of “metabolic endotoxemia”, leading to systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Diet induced weight-loss and bariatric surgery promote significant changes of gut microbial composition, that seem to affect the success, or the inefficacy, of treatment strategies. Manipulation of gut microbiota through the administration of prebiotics or probiotics could reduce intestinal low grade inflammation and improve gut barrier integrity, thus, ameliorating metabolic balance and promoting weight loss. However, further evidence is needed to better understand their clinical impact and therapeutic use. PMID:25473159
Delitala, Alessandro P; Fanciulli, Giuseppe; Pes, Giovanni M; Maioli, Margherita; Delitala, Giuseppe
Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of various metabolic parameters, which included diabetes, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, abdominal obesity, and hypertension. It has merged as a worldwide epidemic and a major public health care concern. However, due to the different criteria used for the assessment, the frequency of metabolic syndrome in the general population is variable but it more common in the older people. Metabolic syndrome is closely linked to cardiovascular risk and increases cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality. Recent evidences showed that alterations of the thyroid function could have an impact on the components of the metabolic syndrome, suggesting that thyroid hormones have a variety of effects on energy homeostasis, lipid and glucose metabolism, and blood pressure. In this review we summarize available data on the action of thyroid hormone on the components of metabolic syndrome.
Parikh, Rakesh M.; Mohan, Viswanathan
The first description of patients with clustering of various metabolic abnormalities was as early as 1923 but it was more than five decades later, in 1988, that Reaven coined the term ‘syndrome X’ for this entity. The last two decades have brought forth a number of definitions and criteria to identify this condition. Various studies have demonstrated disparities in these definitions and a few researchers have questioned the utility of these criteria and even the existence of such a syndrome. A few important definitions are reviewed in this paper and, at the end, a simplified clinical definition is given and a simple parameter – lipid accumulation product – is been described that can be used to identify this condition. PMID:22276247
Siddiqi, Sheelu S.; Misbahuddin; Ahmad, Farida; Rahman, Syed Z.; Khan, Asad U.
Introduction: Metabolic syndrome predisposes to diabetes and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Statins reduce cardiovascular events, so all metabolic syndrome patients should be evaluated for dyslipidemia. Many patients fail to achieve lipid goals with statin monotherapy. Co-administration of ezetimibe (EZE) and atorvastatin (ATV) may enable more patients to achievelow-density lipoproteincholesterol (LDL-C) goal while avoiding risks of high-dose statin monotherapy. Materials and Methods: The present study compares rosuvastatin (Rsv) with a combination of (Atv) and (Eze). Metabolic syndrome patients, 30-70 years with LDL-C ≥130 mg/dl and a 10-year CHD risk score of 10% were randomized to double-blind treatment with (Rsv) 5 mg (n = 67) or (Atv) 10 mg+(Eze) 10 mg (n = 68) for 12 weeks. Results: LDL-C reduced significantly; (32.3% and 30.3%, P < 0.001) in (Atv)+(Eze) and (Rsv), respectively, but there was no significant difference between two arms. More patients achieved LDL-C goal of ≤100 mg/dl with (Atv)+(Eze) compared to (Rsv) (65% vs. 58%, P < 0.05). Triglycerides (TG) were reduced more with (Atv)+(Eze) compared to (Rsv) (28.1% and 21.4%, P < 0.001). Greater increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was observed with (Atv)+(Eze). Both treatments were well tolerated. Conclusion: This study shows that the combination of (Atv)+(Eze) has more efficacy and comparable safety to that of (Rsv). PMID:23869305
Vargas-Aguilar, VM; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adanm; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Tovar-Rodriguez, JM
Breast Cancer is a heterogeneous disease, progressive, currently, are classified according to in pattern of gene expression luminal A, luminal B, basal and HER-2neu + and Triple-negative, 75% to 80% have receptors positive hormonal and 15% to 20% are positive for hER-2neu and 10% to 20% are triple negative, with hormone receptor negative and HER2-neu and their diagnostic is made by exclusion, the Metabolic Syndrome is related to a higher incidence of these cancers where the insulin-leptin axis-adiponectin are implicated in carcinogenesis. PMID:25083463
Gorbachinsky, Ilya; Akpinar, Haluk; Assimos, Dean G
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex entity consisting of multiple interrelated factors including insulin resistance, central adiposity, dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerotic disease, low-grade inflammation, and in males, low testosterone levels. MetS has been linked to a number of urologic diseases including nephrolithiasis, benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms, erectile dysfunction, male infertility, female incontinence, and prostate cancer. This article reviews the relationships between MetS and these entities. Urologists need to be cognizant of the impact that MetS has on urologic diseases as well as on overall patient health. PMID:21234260
Wu, Yue-E; Zhang, Chong-Lin; Zhen, Qing
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including central obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and increased blood pressure. The prevalence of MetS is on the increase worldwide owing to the epidemic of overweight and obesity. The risk of prevalence of MetS greatly increases during adulthood for those children exposed to cardiometabolic risk factors in their early lives. MetS has also been associated with liver fat accumulation in children. Elevated levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase have been associated with liver fat accumulation. The present review aimed to expand knowledge on the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors responsible for the widespread occurrence of metabolic disease in children. PMID:27698739
Wu, Yue-E; Zhang, Chong-Lin; Zhen, Qing
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including central obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and increased blood pressure. The prevalence of MetS is on the increase worldwide owing to the epidemic of overweight and obesity. The risk of prevalence of MetS greatly increases during adulthood for those children exposed to cardiometabolic risk factors in their early lives. MetS has also been associated with liver fat accumulation in children. Elevated levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase have been associated with liver fat accumulation. The present review aimed to expand knowledge on the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors responsible for the widespread occurrence of metabolic disease in children.
Ziegler, Michael G; Elayan, Hamzeh; Milic, Milos; Sun, Ping; Gharaibeh, Munir
Epinephrine is the prototypical stress hormone. Its stimulation of all α and β adrenergic receptors elicits short-term systolic hypertension, hyperglycemia, and other aspects of the metabolic syndrome. Acute epinephrine infusion increases cardiac output and induces insulin resistance, but removal of the adrenal medulla has no consistent effect on blood pressure. Epinephrine is the most effective endogenous agonist at the β2 receptor. Transgenic mice that cannot make epinephrine and mice that lack the β2 receptor become hypertensive during exercise, presumably owing to the absence of β2-mediated vasodilatation. Epinephrine-deficient mice also have cardiac remodeling and poor cardiac responses to stress, but do not develop resting hypertension. Mice that cannot make epinephrine have a normal metabolism on a regular 14% fat diet but become hyperglycemic and insulin resistant when they eat a high fat diet. Vigorous exercise prevents diabetes in young mice and humans that overeat. However, exercise is a less effective treatment in older type 2 human diabetics and had no effect on glucose or insulin responses in older, diabetic mice. Sensitivity of the β2 receptor falls sharply with advancing age, and adrenal epinephrine release also decreases. However, treatment of older diabetic mice with a β2 adrenergic agonist improved insulin sensitivity, indicating that β2 subsensitivity can be overcome pharmacologically. Recent studies show that over the long term, epinephrine prevents hypertension during stress and improves glucose tolerance. The hyperglycemic influence of epinephrine is short-lived. Chronic administration of epinephrine and other β2 agonists improves cellular glucose uptake and metabolism. Overall, epinephrine counteracts the metabolic syndrome.
Junien, Claudine; Gallou-Kabani, Catherine; Vigé, Alexandre; Gross, Marie-Sylvie
The importance of epigenetic alterations has been acknowledged in cancer for about two decades by an increasing number of molecular oncologists who contributed to deciphering the epigenetic codes and machinery and opened the road for a new generation of drugs now in clinical trials. However, the relevance of epigenetics to common diseases such as metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease was less conspicuous. This review focuses on converging data supporting the hypothesis that, in addition to "thrifty genotype" inheritance, individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS)--combining disturbances in glucose and insulin metabolism, excess of predominantly abdominally distributed weight, mild dyslipidemia and hypertension, with the subsequent development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD)--have suffered improper "epigenetic programing" during their fetal/postnatal development due to maternal inadequate nutrition and metabolic disturbances and also during their life-time. Moreover, as seen for obesity and T2D, MetS tends to appear earlier in childhood, to be more severe from generation to generation and to affect more pregnant women. Thus, in addition to maternal effects, MetS patients may display "transgenerational effects" via the incomplete erasure of epigenetic marks endured by their parents and grandparents. We highlight the susceptibility of epigenetic mechanisms controlling gene expression to environmental influences due to their inherent malleability, emphasizing the participation of transposable elements and the potential role of imprinted genes during critical time windows in epigenetic programming, from the very beginning of development throughout life. Increasing our understanding on epigenetic patterns significance and small molecules (nutrients, drugs) that reverse epigenetic (in) activation should provide us with the means to he obsolete human thrifty genotype into a "squandering" phenotype.
Junien, Claudine; Gallou-Kabani, Catherine; Vigé, Alexandre; Gross, Marie-Sylvie
The importance of epigenetic alterations has been acknowledged in cancer for about two decades by an increasing number of molecular oncologists who contributed to deciphering the epigenetic codes and machinery and opened the road for a new generation of drugs now in clinical trials. However, the relevance of epigenetics to common diseases such as metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease was less conspicuous. This review focuses on converging data supporting the hypothesis that, in addition to "thrifty genotype" inheritance, individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS)--combining disturbances in glucose and insulin metabolism, excess of predominantly abdominally distributed weight, mild dyslipidemia and hypertension, with the subsequent development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD)--have suffered improper "epigenetic programming" during their fetal/postnatal development due to maternal inadequate nutrition and metabolic disturbances and also during their lifetime. Moreover, as seen for obesity and T2D, MetS tends to appear earlier in childhood, to be more severe from generation to generation and to affect more pregnant women. Thus, in addition to maternal effects, MetS patients may display "transgenerational effects" via the incomplete erasure of epigenetic marks endured by their parents and grandparents. We highlight the susceptibility of epigenetic mechanisms controlling gene expression to environmental influences due to their inherent malleability, emphasizing the participation of transposable elements and the potential role of imprinted genes during critical time windows in epigenetic programming, from the very beginning of development throughout life. Increasing our understanding on epigenetic patterns significance and small molecules (nutrients, drugs) that reverse epigenetic (in)activation should provide us with the means to "unlock" silenced (enhanced) genes, and to "convert" the obsolete human thrifty genotype
Wofford, Marion R; King, Deborah S
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Based on data from 1988 to 1994, it is estimated that 24% of adults in the United States meet the criteria for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. The use of certain medications increases the risk for metabolic syndrome by either promoting weight gain or the development of changes in lipid or glucose metabolism. Diuretics and beta-blockers are among the agents recommended for first-line therapy for hypertension, yet these medications increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Healthcare providers should recognize and understand the risk associated with antihypertensive agents and should appropriately monitor for changes related to metabolic syndrome. Careful attention to drug choices should be given with patients who are overweight or have other risk factors for diabetes or cardiovascular disease.
Xita, Nektaria; Tsatsoulis, Agathocles
The natural history of metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which shares many components of metabolic syndrome, may originate in intrauterine life. Evidence from epidemiological observations, clinical, and experimental animal studies suggest that the nutritional, hormonal, and metabolic environment afforded by the mother may permanently program differentiating target tissues of the offspring toward the development of metabolic syndrome/PCOS phenotype in adult life. The mechanisms of fetal programming are not well understood. Thus, the altered tissue differentiation may be the result of fetal adaptive responses representing homeostatic adaptations due to alterations in fetal nutrition. Also, tissues under the influence of androgen excess may be directed toward a more masculine phenotype with regard to reproductive, neuroendocrine, and metabolic traits, while the importance of epigenetics in fetal origin of metabolic syndrome/PCOS cannot be overlooked.
Wang, Junjun; Wu, Zhenlong; Li, Defa; Li, Ning; Dindot, Scott V.; Satterfield, M. Carey; Bazer, Fuller W.
Significance: Epidemiological and animal studies have demonstrated a close link between maternal nutrition and chronic metabolic disease in children and adults. Compelling experimental results also indicate that adverse effects of intrauterine growth restriction on offspring can be carried forward to subsequent generations through covalent modifications of DNA and core histones. Recent Advances: DNA methylation is catalyzed by S-adenosylmethionine-dependent DNA methyltransferases. Methylation, demethylation, acetylation, and deacetylation of histone proteins are performed by histone methyltransferase, histone demethylase, histone acetyltransferase, and histone deacetyltransferase, respectively. Histone activities are also influenced by phosphorylation, ubiquitination, ADP-ribosylation, sumoylation, and glycosylation. Metabolism of amino acids (glycine, histidine, methionine, and serine) and vitamins (B6, B12, and folate) plays a key role in provision of methyl donors for DNA and protein methylation. Critical Issues: Disruption of epigenetic mechanisms can result in oxidative stress, obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and vascular dysfunction in animals and humans. Despite a recognized role for epigenetics in fetal programming of metabolic syndrome, research on therapies is still in its infancy. Possible interventions include: 1) inhibition of DNA methylation, histone deacetylation, and microRNA expression; 2) targeting epigenetically disturbed metabolic pathways; and 3) dietary supplementation with functional amino acids, vitamins, and phytochemicals. Future Directions: Much work is needed with animal models to understand the basic mechanisms responsible for the roles of specific nutrients in fetal and neonatal programming. Such new knowledge is crucial to design effective therapeutic strategies for preventing and treating metabolic abnormalities in offspring born to mothers with a previous experience of malnutrition. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 282–301. PMID
Singh, Gautam K
Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of interrelated risk factors of metabolic origin that often accompany obesity and consist of atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, a prothrombotic state, and a proinflammatory state. Using a modification of the criteria by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III, metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents can be clinically diagnosed when three or more of the following are present: body mass index > or = 2 z score, systolic or diastolic blood pressure greater than 95th percentile, triglyceride level greater than 95th percentile, and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol less than 5th percentile and impaired glucose tolerance (fasting glucose > 110 mg/dL ). The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in adolescents has been shown to be 4% overall, but it is 30% to 50% in overweight adolescents. In the United States, 18% to 22% of children and adolescents are overweight; the prevalence of a metabolic syndrome phenotype among US adolescents has also been increasing significantly over the past decade. All of the features of metabolic syndrome are risk factors for atherosclerosis, and metabolic syndrome has been shown to constitute risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in adults. In children and adolescents with metabolic syndrome, biomarkers of an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes are already present. Therefore, there is need for prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome in this population. The mainstay of the treatment is dietary intervention and promotion of active lifestyle to achieve and maintain optimum weight, normal blood pressure, and normal lipid profile for the height and age. The pharmaceutical intervention is usually not required and its long-term outcome has not been studied. There is need for large studies for the management and long-term outcomes of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents if the future tides
Dítě, Petr; Přinosilová, Jitka; Dovrtělová, Lenka; Kupka, Tomáš; Nechutová, Hana; Kianička, Bohuslav; Břegová, Bohdana; Kunovský, Lumír; Martínek, Arnošt; Souček, Miroslav
Metabolic syndrome and its components play an important part in the development of not only cardiovascular conditions, but also digestive and pancreaticobiliary system diseases. The aim of our study is to present a comprehensive overview of the diseases where metabolic syndrome is an inducing risk factor, or where it affects the course of the disease. Metabolic syndrome is a significant risk factor of induction of gastroesophageal reflux and its complication, which is Barretts esophagus. Metabolic syndrome was described as the disease closely linked to idiopathic intestinal inflammations, diseases of the biliary tree and pancreas. Acute pancreatitis, both its development in obese individuals and the burden of its course, are in close correlation with metabolic syndrome, similarly as the course of chronic, mainly alcoholic pancreatitis. Study of non-alcoholic steatopancreatitis presents a challenge, most importantly with regard to the function of pancreatic B cells in obese individuals. Non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and its forms may as much as lead to the stage of cirrhosis of the liver and they pose a risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Metabolic syndrome was also described in a population study as a risk factor for carcinoma of the colon. Metabolic syndrome and its components present an important risk factor in relation to inducing some benign as well as malignant gastrointestinal and pancreaticobiliary diseases. A systemic approach to influencing the metabolic syndrome and its components is therefore one of the important approaches to influencing the development and course of not only cardiovascular conditions.
Caserta, Donatella; Adducchio, Gloria; Picchia, Simona; Ralli, Eleonora; Matteucci, Eleonora; Moscarini, Massimo
Metabolic syndrome is an increasing pathology in adults and in children, due to a parallel rise of obesity. Sedentary lifestyle, food habits, cultural influences and also a genetic predisposition can cause dyslipidemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity and insulin resistance which are the two main features of metabolic syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition directly associated with obesity, insulin resistance (HOMA index) and metabolic syndrome, and it is very interesting for its relationship and overlap with the metabolic syndrome. The relationship between the two syndromes is mutual: PCOS women have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome and also women with metabolic syndrome commonly present the reproductive/endocrine trait of PCOS. Prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome and PCOS are similar for various aspects. It is necessary to treat excess adiposity and insulin resistance, with the overall goals of preventing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes and improving reproductive failure in young women with PCOS. First of all, lifestyle changes, then pharmacological therapy, bariatric surgery and laparoscopic ovarian surgery represent the pillars for PCOS treatment.
Rafeeinia, Arash; Tabandeh, Afsaneh; Khajeniazi, Safoura; Marjani, Abdoljalal
The aim of study was to assess the metabolic syndrome in preeclampsia women. The study was performed on 50 women. The metabolic syndrome prevalence was 66%. Serum glucose, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels significantly were increased and HDL- cholesterol level significantly was decreased in metabolic syndrome patients. These patients showed high prevalence of components of the syndrome. Our results show the importance of dyslipidemia in preeclampsia in overweight and obese women. Preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease are important problems for the health of women. It may be useful to give a treat to people with a high-normal blood pressure in early pregnancy. PMID:25553139
Horáková, D; Azeem, K; Dumbrovská, L; Vlčková, J; Horák, V; Kollárová, H
From an epidemiological point of view, the metabolic syndrome is a group of risk factors causally, rather than coincidentally, related to insulin resistance. The metabolic syndrome is a condition with relatively high prevalence rates in both the Czech Republic and in other developed countries. There is a clear trend of increasing prevalence in both sexes depending on age. In the Czech Republic, the syndrome is less common in females (25.5%) than in males (37.6%). Epidemiological studies found white (Europoid race) males to be at higher risk due to abdominal obesity. The definition of the metabolic syndrome has evolved over time and helps to identify individuals at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, hence the use of the term cardiometabolic syndrome. Early detection of metabolic syndrome symptoms including insulin resistance should be performed mainly by general practitioners as part of regular check-ups.
Mahalingaiah, Shruthi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia
Introduction Metabolic syndrome is comprised of a combination of the following states: increased insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, and increased abdominal obesity. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome over the course of their lives. Metabolic syndrome increases risk of major cardiovascular events, morbidity, quality of life, and overall health care costs. Though metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS is an area of great concern, there is no effective individual medical therapeutic to adequately treat this issue. Areas Covered This article will review key aspects of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. We will discuss classic and novel therapeutics to address metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS. We will conclude with the importance of developing strategic interventions to increase the compliance to lifestyle and dietary modification, in addition to appreciation of the emerging pharmaceutical therapeutics available. Expert Opinion Innovation in lifestyle modification, including diet, exercise, with and without dedicated stress reduction techniques is the future in treatment of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. Application of novel interventions, such as group medical care, may improve future adherence to lifestyle modification recommendations, in addition to or in combination with pharmaceutical therapeutics. PMID:26488852
Cojocaru, Manole; Cojocaru, Inimioara Mihaela; Silosi, Isabela; Vrabie, Camelia Doina
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) generally affects people between the ages of 20 and 50. Patients with RA have a significantly higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) compared to the general population. The increased cardiovascular risk (CVR) associated with RA places this disease among the most widely studied. The duration of RA was associated with MS, implicating the role of inflammation in MS development. The presence of MS correlates with increased subclinical atherosclerosis. A positive correlation between prevalence of MS and worsening of functional status was found in patients with RA. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have an increased risk and a higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD), the rheumatologist should be aware of those MS risk factors and attempt to modify them. This review summarizes recent advances in the field of MS in RA.
Sheen, Yi-Jing; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng
Both metabolic syndrome (MetS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are major global health issues. Current clinical markers used to reflect renal injury include albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Given the same eGFR level, urine albumin might be a better risk marker to predict progression of CKD and future development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Serum Cystatin C is emerging as a new biomarker for early detection of renal injury associated with MetS and cardiovascular risk. In addition to each component, MetS per se influences the incidence and prognosis of renal injury and the odds ratios increased with the increase in the number of metabolic abnormalities. Hyperinsulinemia, activation of rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, increase of oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokines are proposed to be the plausible biological link between MetS and CKD. Weight control, stick control of blood pressure, glucose, and lipids disorders may lead to lessening renal injury and even the subsequent CVD. PMID:21461396
Xia, Xuan; Weng, Jianping
Following on from impressive economic development and urbanization, China is currently experiencing a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome suffer from the "The Deadly Quartet" of hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, and central (or upper body) obesity. Current treatment strategies directed towards metabolic syndrome tend to be limited to just one of these four conditions, so developing novel drugs to target multiple metabolic abnormalities could be preferable to current approaches. New insights suggest benefits of natural agents as treatments for metabolic syndrome. Herein, we review the evidence for using nine such agents developed on the basis of traditional medicine or herbal preparations. © 2010 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Shuai, Xiaoming; Tao, Kaixiong; Mori, Masayuki; Kanda, Tsugiyasu
Metabolic syndrome is closely associated with morbid obesity and leads to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and related mortality. Bariatric surgery is considered an effective option for the management of this condition. We searched MEDLINE, Current Contents, and the Cochrane Library for papers published on bariatric surgery outcomes in English from January 1, 1990, to April 20, 2014. Bariatric surgery can significantly reduce body weight, resolve or cure many of the symptoms of metabolic syndrome, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and improve long-term survival. Surgery, in addition to existing therapy, could therefore be considered as an optimal treatment for patients with metabolic syndrome and morbid obesity.
Fomenko, Ekaterina Vladimirovna; Chi, Yuling
The recent emergence of a worldwide epidemic of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes, demands effective strategy to develop nutraceuticals or pharmaceuticals to halt this trend. Natural products have long been and continue to be an attractive source of nutritional and pharmacological therapeutics. One such natural product is mangiferin (MGF), the predominant constituent of extracts of the mango plant Mangifera indica L. Reports on biological and pharmacological effects of MGF increased exponentially in recent years. MGF has documented antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Recent studies indicate that it modulates multiple biological processes involved in metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. MGF has been shown to improve metabolic abnormalities and disorders in animal models and humans. This review focuses on the recently reported biological and pharmacological effects of MGF on metabolism and metabolic disorders. PMID:27534809
Fomenko, Ekaterina Vladimirovna; Chi, Yuling
The recent emergence of a worldwide epidemic of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes, demands effective strategy to develop nutraceuticals or pharmaceuticals to halt this trend. Natural products have long been and continue to be an attractive source of nutritional and pharmacological therapeutics. One such natural product is mangiferin (MGF), the predominant constituent of extracts of the mango plant Mangifera indica L. Reports on biological and pharmacological effects of MGF increased exponentially in recent years. MGF has documented antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Recent studies indicate that it modulates multiple biological processes involved in metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. MGF has been shown to improve metabolic abnormalities and disorders in animal models and humans. This review focuses on the recently reported biological and pharmacological effects of MGF on metabolism and metabolic disorders. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(5):492-503, 2016.
Pao, Vivian; Lee, Grace A.; Grunfeld, Carl
People with HIV infection have metabolic abnormalities that resemble metabolic syndrome (hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and insulin resistance), which is known to predict increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, there is not one underlying cause for these abnormalities and they are not linked to each other. Rather, individual abnormalities can be affected by the host response to HIV itself, specific HIV drugs, classes of HIV drugs, HIV-associated lipoatrophy, or restoration to health. Furthermore, one component of metabolic syndrome, increased waist circumference, occurs less frequently in HIV infection. Thus, HIV infection supports the concept that metabolic syndrome does not represent a syndrome based on a common underlying pathophysiology. As might be predicted from these findings, the prevalence of CVD is higher in people with HIV infection. It remains to be determined whether CVD rates in HIV infection are higher than might be predicted from traditional risk factors, including smoking. PMID:18366987
Cortez, Melissa; Singleton, J Robinson; Smith, A Gordon
There is increasing evidence that impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or metabolic syndrome may result in peripheral nerve injury, although the exact relationship between the conditions is still being characterized. There is animal model, epidemiologic, and clinical evidence to suggest a pathophysiologic relationship between neuropathy and metabolic syndrome, along with its components including obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. IGT and metabolic syndrome are associated with subclinical nerve damage or are typically painful and sensory predominant, although autonomic involvement may also occur. Because there is often preferential small fiber injury and nerve conduction studies may be relatively insensitive, skin biopsy with assessment of intraepidermal nerve fiber density is often used to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment of metabolic syndrome and IGT-associated neuropathies should include diet and exercise counseling, maintenance of normoglycemia, and targeted pharmacologic therapy for modifiable risk factors. Further research is required to fully elucidate the complex pathophysiology, as well as identify optimal diagnostic and treatment approaches.
Huang, Paul L
The metabolic syndrome refers to the co-occurrence of several known cardiovascular risk factors, including insulin resistance, obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertension. These conditions are interrelated and share underlying mediators, mechanisms and pathways. There has been recent controversy about its definition and its utility. In this article, I review the current definitions for the metabolic syndrome and why the concept is important. It identifies a subgroup of patients with shared pathophysiology who are at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. By considering the central features of the metabolic syndrome and how they are related, we may better understand the underlying pathophysiology and disease pathogenesis. A comprehensive definition for the metabolic syndrome and its key features would facilitate research into its causes and hopefully lead to new insights into pharmacologic and lifestyle treatment approaches.
Higgins, Victoria; Adeli, Khosrow
Pediatric overweight and obesity is an emerging public health priority as rates have rapidly increased worldwide. Obesity is often clustered with other metabolic abnormalities including hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, leading to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This cluster of risk factors, termed the metabolic syndrome, has traditionally been reported in adults. However, with the increased prevalence of pediatric obesity, the metabolic syndrome is now evident in children and adolescents. This complex cluster of risk factors is the result of the pathological interplay between several organs including adipose tissue, muscle, liver, and intestine with a common antecedent - insulin resistance. The association of the metabolic syndrome with several systemic alterations that involve numerous organs and tissues adds to the complexity and challenge of diagnosing the metabolic syndrome and identifying useful clinical indicators of the disease. The complex physiology of growing and developing children and adolescents further adds to the difficulties in standardizing laboratory assessment, diagnosis, and prognosis for the diverse pediatric population. However, establishing a consensus definition is critical to identifying and managing children and adolescents at high risk of developing the metabolic syndrome. As a result, the examination of novel metabolic syndrome biomarkers which can detect these metabolic abnormalities early with high specificity and sensitivity in the pediatric population has been of interest. Understanding this complex cluster of risk factors in the pediatric population is critical to ensure that this is not the first generation where children have a shorter life expectancy than their parents. This review will discuss the pathophysiology, consensus definitions and laboratory assessment of pediatric metabolic syndrome as well as potential novel biomarkers.
Tune, Johnathan D; Goodwill, Adam G; Sassoon, Daniel J; Mather, Kieren J
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as the concurrence of obesity-associated cardiovascular risk factors including abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, decreased HDL cholesterol, and/or hypertension. Earlier conceptualizations of the MetS focused on insulin resistance as a core feature, and it is clearly coincident with the above list of features. Each component of the MetS is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the combination of these risk factors elevates rates and severity of cardiovascular disease, related to a spectrum of cardiovascular conditions including microvascular dysfunction, coronary atherosclerosis and calcification, cardiac dysfunction, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. While advances in understanding the etiology and consequences of this complex disorder have been made, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain incompletely understood, and it is unclear how these concurrent risk factors conspire to produce the variety of obesity-associated adverse cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we highlight current knowledge regarding the pathophysiological consequences of obesity and the MetS on cardiovascular function and disease, including considerations of potential physiological and molecular mechanisms that may contribute to these adverse outcomes.
Nesto, Richard W
The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors that contribute to the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD has been identified by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) as the primary clinical outcome of the metabolic syndrome. Although no algorithm is currently available for estimating the absolute risk of CVD for patients with the metabolic syndrome, screening for cardiovascular (CV) risk in these patients involves testing for lipoprotein abnormalities (namely, an analysis of specific low-density lipoprotein particle numbers) and an assessment of various surrogate markers for subclinical coronary artery disease. Such screening can be used to help predict the development of CVD and thereby allow for effective interventions to help prevent coronary events. Strategies for reducing CV risk in patients with the metabolic syndrome are multifactorial. In addition to placing an emphasis on therapeutic lifestyle changes that increase levels of physical activity, dietary modification, and weight reduction, several pharmacologic therapies are available. One novel approach for managing CV risk in patients with the metabolic syndrome involves the inhibition of the endocannabinoid system, including the use of rimonabant. A review of CV risk factors in patients with the metabolic syndrome is beneficial for clinicians to apply in the care of their patients, along with a discussion about strategies for identifying at-risk patients and managing CVD risk for these patients.
Janszky, Imre; Vatten, Lars; Romundstad, Pål; Laugsand, Lars Erik; Bjørngård, Johan Håkon; Mańczuk, Marta; Zatoński, Witold A
In Central and Eastern European countries, cardiovascular disorders (CVD) in middle age are much more common than in Western Europe, and it is imperative to understand the causes underlying this excess disease burden. The metabolic syndrome comprises a constellation of metabolic abnormalities that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Data were obtained by structured interview, and by measurements of anthropometric factors and blood analyses among 3,862 individuals. Metabolic syndrome was defined according the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention, as the presence of at least 3 of 5 abnormalities: 1) abdominal obesity, 2) glucose intolerance, 3) high triglycerides, 4) low HDL cholesterol, 5) high blood pressure. Overall, 1,518 participants (39.5%) had metabolic syndrome. The prevalence among females was 34.3% (877 females) vs. 49.9% (641 males) among males, and increased with age in both genders. Abdominal obesity was the most common abnormality (2,897 participants, 75.1%), followed by high blood pressure (2,741 participants, 71%), glucose intolerance (1,437 participants, 37.3%), elevated triglycerides (817 participants, 21.2%) and low HDL (615 participants, 15.9%). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and metabolic abnormalities is high and represents strong risk factors for CVD morbidity and mortality. However, these factors are all potentially preventable by lifestyle modification and/or by pharmacological treatment. There is an urgent need for the health service to act, and to increase public awareness of metabolic syndrome.
Hoffmann, Irene S; Cubeddu, Luigi X
High blood pressure in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MS) is largely related to dietary salt. We investigated in free-living men and women whether increase in dietary salt intake is associated with the presence and severity of the MS. A total of 766 subjects (251M, 515F) of 44.9+/-0.5 years/age and SBP/DBP of 120+/-0.6/77+/-0.4 mmHg were studied. Twenty-four hour urinary sodium (UNa(+)) and potassium (UK(+)) excretions were 143+/-2.5 mmol (median: 131.5) and 48+/-0.9 mmol (median: 44). UNa(+) was higher in men than in women (median: 155.5 vs. 119.8 mmol/day; P<0.0001). UK(+) (r=0.34; P<0.0001), measures of obesity (r=0.26; P<0.0001) and BP (r=0.15; P<0.0001) were significantly associated with UNa(+). The association with BP was lost after adjusting for weight. Of the 766 subjects, 256 (33.4%) met the NCEP-ATPIII criteria for the MS. Median UNa(+) in men and women with no traits of the MS was 140 and 116.7 mmol/day, respectively (P<0.001), increasing to 176 in men and 135 mmol/day in women with 4-5 components of the syndrome (P<0.001). Weight, BMI and waist increased significantly across the quartiles of UNa(+) both in men and women; whereas, age, lipids and fasting glucose did not. SBP and DBP were associated with UNa(+) in men but not in women. UK(+) correlated with age in men and women (r=023; P<0.0001) and with obesity in women (r=0.14; P=0.001). UNa(+) a measure of dietary sodium intake in free-living subjects was markedly increased in subjects with the MS. Higher UNa(+) was associated with obesity and higher BP, but not with age, dyslipidemia or fasting glucose.
Thottam, Gabrielle E; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Pillinger, Michael H
The complexity of gout continues to unravel with each new investigation. Gout sits at the intersection of multiple intrinsically complex processes, and its prevalence, impact on healthcare costs, and association with important co-morbidities make it increasingly relevant. The association between gout and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease, renal disease, and obesity suggest that either gout, or its necessary precursor hyperuricemia, may play an important role in the manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. In this review, we analyze the complex interconnections between gout and metabolic syndrome, by reviewing gout's physiologic and epidemiologic relationships with its major co-morbidities. Increasing evidence supports gout's association with metabolic syndrome. More specifically, both human studies and animal models suggest that hyperuricemia may play a role in promoting inflammation, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, adipogenesis and lipogenesis, insulin and glucose dysregulation, and liver disease. Fructose ingestion is associated with increased rates of hypertension, weight gain, impaired glucose tolerance, and dyslipidemia and is a key driver of urate biosynthesis. AMP kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of processes that tend to mitigate against the metabolic syndrome. Within hepatocytes, leukocytes, and other cells, a fructose/urate metabolic loop drives key inhibitors of AMPK, including AMP deaminase and fructokinase, that may tilt the balance toward metabolic syndrome progression. Preliminary evidence suggests that agents that block the intracellular synthesis of urate may restore AMPK activity and help maintain metabolic homeostasis. Gout is both an inflammatory and a metabolic disease. With further investigation of urate's role, the possibility of proper gout management additionally mitigating metabolic syndrome is an evolving and important question.
Jindal, Ankur; Brietzke, Stephen; Sowers, James R.
The prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly in the United States. Obesity affects about one third of the adult population and, even though it is attributed to excess calorie intake and inadequate physical activity, its etiopathogenesis is much more complex and is an area of active study. Lifestyle modifications (with a focus on increased activity and decreased calorie intake) have modest efficacy in the treatment of obesity. There is a dearth of safe and effective therapeutic modalities to treat obesity. In this review, we discuss the role of different treatment options in the management of obesity and its comorbidities, with a focus on recently approved drugs and the emerging role of bariatric surgery. PMID:23380694
Okafor, Christian I.
Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of several cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to earlier thoughts, metabolic syndrome is no longer rare in Africa. The prevalence is increasing, and it tends to increase with age. This increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the continent is thought to be due to departure from traditional African to western lifestyles. In Africa, it is not limited to adults but is also becoming common among the young ones. Obesity and dyslipidemia seem to be the most common occurring components. While obesity appears more common in females, hypertension tends to be more predominant in males. Insulin resistance has remained the key underlying pathophysiology. Though pharmacologic agents are available to treat the different components of the syndrome, prevention is still possible by reverting back to the traditional African way of life. PMID:22276253
Okafor, Christian I
Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of several cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to earlier thoughts, metabolic syndrome is no longer rare in Africa. The prevalence is increasing, and it tends to increase with age. This increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the continent is thought to be due to departure from traditional African to western lifestyles. In Africa, it is not limited to adults but is also becoming common among the young ones. Obesity and dyslipidemia seem to be the most common occurring components. While obesity appears more common in females, hypertension tends to be more predominant in males. Insulin resistance has remained the key underlying pathophysiology. Though pharmacologic agents are available to treat the different components of the syndrome, prevention is still possible by reverting back to the traditional African way of life.
Strongly linked to the presence of obesity, the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is an independent risk factor for abnormalities of glucose metabolism ranging from simple impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes. It is also a risk factor for dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The pathological mechanisms underlying these associations remain to be precisely discovered, but intermittent hypoxia is probably one of the major factors. The place of obstructive apnea treatment in the management of metabolic conditions remains unclear. Copyright © 2016 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Gezgen, G; Roach, E C; Kizilarslanoglu, M C; Petekkaya, I; Altundag, K
Worldwide, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life-threatening cancer in women and the most important cause of cancer-related deaths among women. This disease is on the rise in Turkey. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity and high blood sugar. Several studies have examined the association of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome with breast cancer. More recent studies have shown it to be an independent risk factor for breast cancer. It has also been associated with poorer prognosis, increased incidence, a more aggressive tumor phenotype. Basic research studies are now in progress to illuminate the molecular pathways and mechanisms that are behind this correlation. Given the fact that all of the components of metabolic syndrome are modifiable risk factors, preventive measures must be established to improve the outcome of breast cancer patients. In this review we set the background by taking into account previous studies which have identified the components of metabolic syndrome individually as breast cancer risk factors. Then we present the latest findings which elaborate possible explanations regarding how metabolic syndrome as a single entity may affect breast cancer risk.
Welty, Francine K; Alfaddagh, Abdulhamied; Elajami, Tarec K
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is comprised of a cluster of closely related risk factors, including visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, hypertension, high triglyceride, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; all of which increase the risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A chronic state of inflammation appears to be a central mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and MetS. In this review, we summarize recent research which has provided insight into the mechanisms by which inflammation underlies the pathophysiology of the individual components of MetS including visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. On the basis of these mechanisms, we summarize therapeutic modalities to target inflammation in the MetS and its individual components. Current therapeutic modalities can modulate the individual components of MetS and have a direct anti-inflammatory effect. Lifestyle modifications including exercise, weight loss, and diets high in fruits, vegetables, fiber, whole grains, and low-fat dairy and low in saturated fat and glucose are recommended as a first line therapy. The Mediterranean and dietary approaches to stop hypertension diets are especially beneficial and have been shown to prevent development of MetS. Moreover, the Mediterranean diet has been associated with reductions in total and cardiovascular mortality. Omega-3 fatty acids and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonists lower high levels of triglyceride; their role in targeting inflammation is reviewed. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone blockers comprise pharmacologic therapies for hypertension but also target other aspects of MetS including inflammation. Statin drugs target many of the underlying inflammatory pathways involved in MetS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
El-Aty, Mahmoud Abd; Mabry, Ruth; Morsi, Magdi; Al-Lawati, Jawad; Al-Riyami, Asya; El-Sayed, Medhat
Objectives: The study aimed to describe the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components among Omani adults. Methods: The 2008 Oman World Health Survey dataset was used to determine the national prevalence of MS. Logistic regression using all key sociodemographic, clinical and behavioural variables was used to identify the associations of independent variables with MS. Results: The age-adjusted prevalence of MS was 23.6%. MS was significantly associated with age, marital and work status and wealth level. MS was more common for people aged 50 years and older compared to the youngest cohort (OR 3.6, CI: 2.4–5.3; P <0.001) and in people who were married or employed (OR 1.6, CI: 1.3–2.1; P <0.001 and OR 1.3, CI: 1.1–1.8; P = 0.043, respectively) compared to their unmarried and unemployed counterparts. MS was also more common in people in the second lowest wealth quintile (OR 1.6, CI: 1.2–2.2; P = 0.05) compared to the lowest quintile and in those who sat for more than six hours per day (OR 1.3, CI: 1.1–1.7; P = 0.035). Conclusion: One in four adults had MS in Oman. This may fuel the epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Oman, particularly given the increasingly elderly population. Urgent action is required to ensure quality patient care at all levels of the healthcare system. Further research on behavioural risk factors is needed. Developing and implementing a multisectoral strategy to prevent NCDs should be at the top of the current health agenda for Oman. PMID:25364547
Muñoz-Diosdado, A.; Ramírez-Hernández, L.; Aguilar-Molina, A. M.; Zamora-Justo, J. A.; Gutiérrez-Calleja, R. A.; Virgilio-González, C. D.
There is a relationship between the state of the cardiovascular system and metabolic syndrome (MS). A way to diagnose the heart state of a person is to monitor the electrical activity of the heart using a 24 hours Holter monitor. Scanned ECG signal can be analyzed beat-by-beat by algorithms that separate normal of abnormal heartbeats. If the percentage of abnormal heartbeats is too high it could be argued that the patient has heart problems. We have algorithms that can not only identify the abnormal heartbeats, but they can also classify them, so we classified and counted abnormal heartbeats in patients with MS and subjects without MS. Most of our patients have large waist circumference, high triglycerides and high levels of LDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol although some of them have high blood pressure. We enrolled adult patients with MS free of diabetes in a four month lifestyle intervention program including diet and physical aerobic exercise, and compared with healthy controls. We made an initial registration with a Holter, and 24 hours ECG signal is analyzed to identify and classify the different types of heartbeats. The patients then begin with diet or exercise (at least half an hour daily). Periodically Holter records were taken up and we describe the evolution in time of the number and type of abnormal heartbeats. Results show that the percentage of abnormal heartbeats decreases over time, in some cases the decline is very significant, and almost a reduction to half or less of abnormal heartbeats after several months since the patients changed their eating or physical activity habits.
Fowler, Susan B; Moussouttas, Michael; Mancini, Barbara
Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. The World Health Organization and National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III have identified physiologic abnormalities associated with metabolic syndrome, including impaired glucose metabolism, high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol levels, and abdominal obesity. It is estimated that 47 million Americans have metabolic syndrome. A variety of therapies may help reduce the incidence and risk, including diet, weight loss, physical exercise, glycemic control, and pharmacological treatments. Nursing care is focused on developing an individualized plan of care that includes family members and providing education, psychosocial support, close monitoring, and continued follow-up to ensure adherence and success in achieving patient outcomes.
Deedwania, P C; Gupta, R
The metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular dysmetabolic syndrome is characterized by obesity, central obesity, insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The major risk factors leading to this syndrome are physical inactivity and an atherogenic diet and cornerstone clinical feature is abdominal obesity or adiposity. In addition, patients usually have elevated triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, elevated LDL cholesterol, other abnormal lipid parameters, hypertension, and elevated fasting blood glucose. Impaired fibrinolysis, increased susceptibility to thrombotic events, and raised inflammatory markers are also observed. Given that India has the largest number of subjects with type-2 diabetes in the world it can be extrapolated that this country also has the largest number of patients with the metabolic syndrome. Epidemiological studies confirm a high prevalence. Therapeutic approach involves intervention at a macro-level and control of multiple risk factors using therapeutic lifestyle approaches (diet control and increased physical activity, pharmacotherapy - anti-obesity agents) for control of obesity and visceral obesity, and targeted approach for control of individual risk factors. Pharmacological therapy is a critical step in the management of patients with metabolic syndrome when lifestyle modifications fail to achieve the therapeutic goals. Anti-obesity drugs such as sibutramine and orlistat can be tried to reduce weight and central obesity and jointly control the metabolic syndrome components. Other than weight loss, there is no single best therapy and treatment should consist of treatment of individual components of the metabolic syndrome. Newer drugs such as the endocannabinoid receptor blocker,rimonabant, appear promising in this regard. Atherogenic dyslipidemia should be controlled initially with statins if there is an increase in LDL cholesterol. If there are other lipid abnormalities then combination therapy of statin with fibrates
Frezza, Eldo E; Wachtel, Mitchell
That obesity in the USA has reached epidemic proportions is undeniable: one in three American adults is obese. High levels of obesity yield adverse microeconomic and macroeconomic effects, but assessing the viability of bariatric surgery in this respect requires careful consideration of its efficacy, its economic costs, and the benefits of the surgery. Metabolic syndrome is a microcosm of multiple disease states; the diseases that fall under the umbrella of the metabolic syndrome are, like obesity, becoming more prevalent. Epidemic obesity in part reflects inadequate utilization of bariatric surgery and inadequate coordination of efforts by the healthcare system. An integrated delivery network (IDN) is the best current model to achieve healthcare goals for patient subsets that are deemed important. Our overweight population, both with and without the metabolic syndrome, constitutes such a group because of the fraction of the general population they compose, the inherent costs to the healthcare system that their comorbid conditions generate, and the lost productivity to our economy that the treatment of these conditions entail. In this paper, we show a metabolic syndrome service line that will benefit both the individual hospital and the healthcare system. Pathways accepted for bariatric practices can be used, with modification, for the creation of a metabolic syndrome IDN. Implementation of such a system would benefit patients, caregivers, and society.
Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Ghosh, Balaram
Though severe or refractory asthma merely affects less than 10% of asthma population, it consumes significant health resources and contributes significant morbidity and mortality. Severe asthma does not fell in the routine definition of asthma and requires alternative treatment strategies. It has been observed that asthma severity increases with higher body mass index. The obese-asthmatics, in general, have the features of metabolic syndrome and are progressively causing a significant burden for both developed and developing countries thanks to the westernization of the world. As most of the features of metabolic syndrome seem to be originated from central obesity, the underlying mechanisms for metabolic syndrome could help us to understand the pathobiology of obese-asthma condition. While mitochondrial dysfunction is the common factor for most of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, such as central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, the involvement of mitochondria in obese-asthma pathogenesis seems to be important as mitochondrial dysfunction has recently been shown to be involved in airway epithelial injury and asthma pathogenesis. This review discusses current understanding of the overlapping features between metabolic syndrome and asthma in relation to mitochondrial structural and functional alterations with an aim to uncover mechanisms for obese-asthma. PMID:23840225
Gulseth, Hanne L; Gjelstad, Ingrid M F; Birkeland, Kåre I; Drevon, Christian A
Vitamin D is essential in bone mineralization and calcium homeostasis, and an increasing body of evidence suggests that vitamin D may be important for maintaining extraskeletal health, including having beneficial effects on cardiometabolic outcomes. Vitamin D deficiency is widespread, but the role of vitamin D in the metabolic syndrome is not fully elucidated. In this review we summarize data from observational studies and randomized controlled trials on the relation between vitamin D and the metabolic syndrome and its components. A large number of observational studies suggest a relationship between low levels of 25(OH)D and the metabolic syndrome or its individual clinical features. Randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation addressing aspects of the metabolic syndrome have yielded inconsistent results, and many studies suffer from methodological limitations. There is an urgent need for large, well-designed randomized controlled trials with relevant endpoints. Until definitive results from such studies are available, caution should be taken towards the use of vitamin D-supplementation for disorders other than musculoskeletal system. New molecular biological techniques elucidating the interaction between the active vitamin D derivatives and target genes represent a promising approach to more precise knowledge about new biomedical function, which also might shed light on the complex metabolic syndrome.
A pilot evaluation of the long-term effect of combined therapy with intravenous iron sucrose and erythropoietin in elderly patients with advanced chronic heart failure and cardio-renal anemia syndrome: influence on neurohormonal activation and clinical outcomes.
Comín-Colet, Josep; Ruiz, Sonia; Cladellas, Mercè; Rizzo, Marcelo; Torres, Adriana; Bruguera, Jordi
The prognosis in elderly patients with advanced chronic heart failure (CHF) and cardio-renal anemia syndrome (CRAS) is ominous, and treatment alternatives in this subset of patients are scarce. To assess the long-term influence of combined therapy with intravenous (IV) iron and erythropoietin (rHuEPO) on hemoglobin (Hb), natriuretic peptides (NT-proBNP), and clinical outcomes in elderly patients with advanced CHF and mild-to-moderate renal dysfunction and anemia (CRAS) who are not candidates for other treatment alternatives, 487 consecutive patients were evaluated. Of them, 65 fulfilling criteria for entering the study were divided into 2 groups and treated in an open-label, nonrandomized fashion: intervention group (27, combined anemia therapy) and control group (38, no treatment for anemia). At baseline, mean age was 74 +/- 8 years, left ventricular ejection fraction was 34.5 +/- 14.1, Hb was 10.9 +/- 0.9 g/dL, creatinine was 1.5 +/- 0.5 mg/dL, NT-proBNP was 4256 +/- 4952 pg/mL, and 100% were in persistent New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III or IV. At follow-up (15.3 +/- 8.6 months), patients in the intervention group had higher levels of hemoglobin (13.5 +/- 1.5 vs. 11.3 +/- 1.1; P < .0001), lower levels of natural log of NT-proBNP (7.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 8.0 +/- 1.3, P = .016), better NYHA functional class (2.0 +/- 0.6 vs. 3.3 +/- 0.5; P < .001), and lower readmission rate (25.9% vs. 76.3%; P < .001). In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, combined therapy was associated with a reduction of the combined end point all-cause mortality or cardiovascular hospitalization (HR 95%CI 0.2 [0.1-0.6]; P < .001). Long-term combined therapy with IV iron and rHuEPO may increase Hb, reduce NT-proBNP, and improve functional capacity and cardiovascular hospitalization in elderly patients with advanced CHF and CRAS with mild to moderate renal dysfunction.
Makoundou, V; Golay, A
CBI endocannabinoid system receptors localized in the hypothalamus and the nucleus accumbens are known to regulate hunger. Hyperstimulation of the CBI receptors lead to an increase of food intake, but also to an increase of lipogenesis, decrease of adiponectin and increase of insulin resistance. Rimonabant is the first CBI central and peripheral blocker, tested in international trials (RIO-lipids, RIO-Europe and RIO-North America). Significant results on weight reduction, increased adiponectin and improved metabolic syndrome have been demonstrated. Rimonabant is a new pharmacological therapy and very interesting for tackling obesity and metabolic syndrome.
Cárdenas Villarreal, Velia Margarita; Rizo-Baeza, María M; Cortés Castell, Ernesto
In spite of the lack of a uniform definition for metabolic syndrome in pediatry, recent studies have shown that it develops during childhood and is highly prevalent among children and adolescents who suffer from obesity. In light of the current epidemic of obesity in this age category in western countries, and specifically in Mexico, it becomes essential to know the means to prevent, detect and treat this syndrome. Nurses play an important role in promoting childhood health with regards to metabolic syndrome. To put into practice the strategies which resolve underlying problems related with this syndrome is a priority for the well-being of this age group. These strategies should include the application and management of public policies; the collaboration by health services, social services and schools; but, furthermore, the prevention and the management of this syndrome require a family commitment, while the changes in living habits benefit the entire family. This review article proposes to introduce prevention, diagnostic and treatment strategies which nursing personnel can carry out while dealing with metabolic syndrome in adolescents.
Churchill, S J; Wang, E T; Pisarska, M D
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women and the leading cause of anovulatory infertility. The prevalence of the syndrome ranges between 6 to 15% based on broader Rotterdam diagnostic criteria verses strict NIH diagnostic criteria.1 The condition is characterized by a combination of ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and the presence of polycystic ovaries. PCOS has been associated with multiple metabolic alterations and consequences including impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, type II diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, obesity and subclinical cardiovascular disease. It remains unclear however if these associations lead to an increased risk of clinically significant long-term cardiovascular disease. Large prospective studies to date have not detected significant differences in overall cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in PCOS. The phenotypical variability in PCOS has made researching each of these associations challenging as different aspects of the syndrome may be contributing, opposing or confounding factors. The ability to detect significant differences in long-term cardiovascular outcomes may also be due to the variable nature of the syndrome. In this review, we attempt to describe a summary of the current literature concerning the metabolic alterations and cardiovascular consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome.
Ki, Nam-Kyun; Lee, Hae-Kag; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Seon-Chil; Kim, Nak-Sang
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to explore lifestyle factors in relation to metabolic syndrome so as to be able to utilize the results as baseline data for the furtherance of health-care and medical treatment. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted with patients who visited a health care center located in Seoul and had abdominal ultrasonography between 2 March 2013 and 28 February, 2014. Heights, weights, and blood pressures were measured by automatic devices. Three radiologists examined the patients using abdominal ultrasonography for gallstone diagnosis. The statuses of patients with regard to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and physical activities were explored for the lifestyle investigation. For investigating baseline demographics, we first used descriptive statistics. We then used the χ2 test to analyze lifestyles and gallstone prevalence with regard to the presence of metabolic syndrome. Lastly, logistic regression analysis was conducted to discover the risk factors of metabolic syndrome. [Results] For men, body mass index, maximum gallstone size, and waist circumference were revealed as risk factors for metabolic syndrome, in descending order of the degree of risk. For females, gallstone presence was the most significant risk factor, followed by waist circumference. [Conclusion] Metabolic disease mainly presents itself along with obesity, and we should become more focused on preventing and treating this disease. A large-scale prospective study is needed in the future, as the cause of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis remained unclear in this study. PMID:26957725
Duplancic, Darko; Cesarik, Marijan; Poljak, Nikola Kolja; Radman, Maja; Kovacic, Vedran; Radic, Josipa; Rogosic, Veljko
The ubiquitous distribution of vitamin D receptors in the human body is responsible for the pleiotropic effects of vitamin D-receptor activation. We discuss the possible beneficial effects of a selective activator of vitamin D receptor, paricalcitol, on the cardiovascular system in chronic heart failure patients and chronic kidney patients, in light of new trials. Paricalcitol should provide additional clinical benefits over the standard treatment for chronic kidney and heart failure, especially in cases of cardiorenal syndrome.
D'Adamo, Ebe; Santoro, Nicola; Caprio, Sonia
The worldwide epidemic of childhood obesity in the last decades is responsible for the occurrence in pediatrics of disorders once mainly found in adults, such as the metabolic syndrome. A key factor in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome is insulin resistance, a phenomenon occurring mainly in obese subjects with a general resistance to the insulin effect only on carbohydrates metabolism. Given that the metabolic syndrome is driven by obesity, the prevalence of the latter will strongly influence the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. This article addresses the causes of metabolic syndrome and the relevance of obesity in the pediatric population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Metabolic syndrome is defined by a constellation of interconnected physiological, biochemical, clinical, and metabolic factors that directly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and all cause mortality. Insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, genetic susceptibility, elevated blood pressure, hypercoagulable state, and chronic stress are the several factors which constitute the syndrome. Chronic inflammation is known to be associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance which is characterized by production of abnormal adipocytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, leptin, and adiponectin. The interaction between components of the clinical phenotype of the syndrome with its biological phenotype (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, etc.) contributes to the development of a proinflammatory state and further a chronic, subclinical vascular inflammation which modulates and results in atherosclerotic processes. Lifestyle modification remains the initial intervention of choice for such population. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioural strategies. Pharmacological treatment should be considered for those whose risk factors are not adequately reduced with lifestyle changes. This review provides summary of literature related to the syndrome's definition, epidemiology, underlying pathogenesis, and treatment approaches of each of the risk factors comprising metabolic syndrome. PMID:24711954
Bruce, Kimberley D; Cagampang, Felino R
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including central obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia and microalbuminuria, and more recently, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and atherosclerosis. Although the concept of the MetS is subject to debate due to lack of a unifying underlying mechanism, the prevalence of a metabolic syndrome phenotype is rapidly increasing worldwide. Moreover, it is increasingly prevalent in children and adolescents of obese mothers. Evidence from both epidemiological and experimental animal studies now demonstrates that MetS onset is increasingly likely following exposure to suboptimal nutrition during critical periods of development, as observed in maternal obesity. Thus, the developmental priming of the MetS provides a common origin for this multifactorial disorder. Consequently, the mechanisms leading to this developmental priming have recently been the subject of intensive investigation. This review discusses recent data regarding the epigenetic modifications resulting from nutrition during early development that mediate persistent changes in the expression of key metabolic genes and contribute toward an adult metabolic syndrome phenotype. In addition, this review considers the role of the endogenous molecular circadian clock system, which has the potential to act at the interface between nutrient sensing and epigenetic processing. A continued and greater understanding of these mechanisms will eventually aid in the identification of individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes, and help develop therapeutic interventions, in accordance with current global government strategy.
Mendizábal, Yolanda; Llorens, Silvia; Nava, Eduardo
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic and cardiovascular symptoms: insulin resistance (IR), obesity, dyslipemia. Hypertension and vascular disorders are central to this syndrome. After a brief historical review, we discuss the role of sympathetic tone. Subsequently, we examine the link between endothelial dysfunction and IR. NO is involved in the insulin-elicited capillary vasodilatation. The insulin-signaling pathways causing NO release are different to the classical. There is a vasodilatory pathway with activation of NO synthase through Akt, and a vasoconstrictor pathway that involves the release of endothelin-1 via MAPK. IR is associated with an imbalance between both pathways in favour of the vasoconstrictor one. We also consider the link between hypertension and IR: the insulin hypothesis of hypertension. Next we discuss the importance of perivascular adipose tissue and the role of adipokines that possess vasoactive properties. Finally, animal models used in the study of vascular function of metabolic syndrome are reviewed. In particular, the Zucker fatty rat and the spontaneously hypertensive obese rat (SHROB). This one suffers macro- and microvascular malfunction due to a failure in the NO system and an abnormally high release of vasoconstrictor prostaglandins, all this alleviated with glitazones used for metabolic syndrome therapy. PMID:23573411
Wong, Yee V.; Cook, Paul; Somani, Bhaskar K.
There has been an increasing prevalence of kidney stones over the last 2 decades worldwide. Many studies have indicated a possible association between metabolic syndrome and kidney stone disease, particularly in overweight and obese patients. Many different definitions of metabolic syndrome have been suggested by various organizations, although the definition by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) is universally considered as the most acceptable definition. The IDF definition revolves around 4 core components: obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathophysiology of urolithiasis resulting from metabolic syndrome, amongst which are the insulin resistance and Randall's plaque hypothesis. Similarly the pathophysiology of calcium and uric acid stone formation has been investigated to determine a connection between the two conditions. Studies have found many factors contributing to urolithiasis in patients suffering from metabolic syndrome, out of which obesity, overweight, and sedentary lifestyles have been identified as major etiological factors. Primary and secondary prevention methods therefore tend to revolve mainly around lifestyle improvements, including dietary and other preventive measures. PMID:25873954
van Zwieten, P.A.
The metabolic syndrome (MBS) is characterised by a clustering of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. This syndrome is now widely recognised as a distinct pathological entity, and it is receiving a great deal of attention in the medical literature but also in the lay press. Globally speaking, persons with MBS have a clustering of the following risk factors: [List: see text] MBS is associated with important cardio/cerebrovascular and metabolic risks. Prevention and treatment are therefore of great importance. Preventive measures involving lifestyle are mandatory. In addition, MBS patients require pharmacological treatment, usually for the rest of their lives. Complex patterns of drug treatment will be required, since all the different, heterogenous pathophysiological problems will require appropriate treatment. After an introduction to MBS, this article provides an extensive and critical review of the drug treatment of this complex pathological entity. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:25696664
Zennaro, Maria-Christina; Caprio, Massimiliano; Fève, Bruno
The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mediates aldosterone effects on salt homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. MR activation also promotes inflammation, cardiovascular remodelling and endothelial dysfunction, and affects adipose tissue differentiation and function. Some of these effects derive from MR activation by glucocorticoids. Recent epidemiological studies show that the incidence of metabolic syndrome increases across quartiles of aldosterone, implicating the MR as a central player in metabolic homeostasis, involving electrolyte, water and energy balance. This review summarizes the current understanding of MR-mediated effects in diverse tissues and the role of aldosterone as a cardiometabolic risk factor, and discusses the possible relationship between inappropriate MR activation (by both mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids) and the development of metabolic syndrome.
Chuppa, Sandra; Liang, Mingyu; Liu, Pengyuan; Liu, Yong; Casati, Marc C; Cowley, Allen W; Patullo, Leah; Kriegel, Alison J
Cardiovascular events are the leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), although the pathological mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we longitudinally characterized left ventricle pathology in a 5/6 nephrectomy rat model of CKD and identify novel molecular mediators. Next-generation sequencing of left ventricle mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) was performed at physiologically distinct points in disease progression, identifying alterations in genes in numerous immune, lipid metabolism, and inflammatory pathways, as well as several miRNAs. MiRNA miR-21-5p was increased in our dataset and has been reported to regulate many identified pathways. Suppression of miR-21-5p protected rats with 5/6 nephrectomy from developing left ventricle hypertrophy and improved left ventricle function. Next-generation mRNA sequencing revealed that miR-21-5p suppression altered gene expression in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) regulated pathways in the left ventricle. PPARα, a miR-21-5p target, is the primary PPAR isoform in the heart, importantly involved in regulating fatty acid metabolism. Therapeutic delivery of low-dose PPARα agonist (clofibrate) to rats with 5/6 nephrectomy improved cardiac function and prevented left ventricle dilation. Thus, comprehensive characterization of left ventricle molecular changes highlights the involvement of numerous signaling pathways not previously explored in CKD models and identified PPARα as a potential therapeutic target for CKD-related cardiac dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Metabolic diseases are characterized by the failure of regulatory genes or enzymes to effectively orchestrate specific pathways involved in the control of many biological processes. In addition to the classical regulators of metabolic homeostasis, recent discoveries have shown the remarkable role of small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs) in the post-transcriptional regulation of a number of genes, and their involvement in many pathological states, such as diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer. Of note is microRNA-33 (miR-33), an intronic microRNA (miRNA) located within the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) genes, one of the master regulators of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. We have recently shown that miR-33 regulates cholesterol efflux and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) formation, as well as fatty acid oxidation and insulin signaling. These results describe a model in which miR-33 works in concert with its host genes to ensure that the cell's metabolic state is balanced, thus highlighting the clinical potential of miRNAs as novel therapeutic targets for treating cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:21946517
Lin, Yulan; Ness-Jensen, Eivind; Hveem, Kristian; Lagergren, Jesper; Lu, Yunxia
The role of the metabolic syndrome in the etiology of esophageal and gastric cancer is unclear. This was a large nationwide cohort study based on data from 11 prospective population-based cohorts in Norway with long-term follow-up, the Cohort of Norway (CONOR) and the third Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3). The metabolic syndrome was assessed by objective anthropometric and metabolic biochemical measures and was defined by the presence of at least three of the following five factors: increased waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension and high glucose. Newly diagnosed cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma and gastric adenocarcinoma were identified from the Norwegian Cancer Registry. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for potential confounders. Among 192,903 participants followed up for an average of 10.6 years, 62 developed esophageal adenocarcinoma, 64 had esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma and 373 had gastric adenocarcinoma. The metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.14-1.82), but not associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma (HR 1.32, 95% CI 0.77-2.26) or esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.64-1.83). Increased waist circumference was associated with an increased HR of esophageal adenocarcinoma (HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.27-4.85). No significant association was found between any single component of the metabolic syndrome and risk of esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma. High waist circumference (HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.05-2.80), hypertension (HR 2.41, 95% CI 1.44-4.03) and non-fasting glucose (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.18-2.56) were also related to an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in women, but not in men. Metabolic syndrome was associated with an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in women. Of
Gordon Smith, A; Robinson Singleton, J
Peripheral neuropathy is a common problem encountered by neurologists and primary care physicians. While there are many causes for peripheral neuropathy, none can be identified in a large percentage of patients ("idiopathic neuropathy"). Despite its high prevalence, idiopathic neuropathy is poorly studied and understood. There is evolving evidence that impaired glucose tolerance (prediabetes) is associated with idiopathic neuropathy. Preliminary data from a multicenter study of diet and exercise in prediabetes (the Impaired Glucose Tolerance Neuropathy Study) suggests a diet and exercise counseling regimen based on the Diabetes Prevention Program results in improved metabolic measures and small fiber function. Prediabetes is part of the Metabolic Syndrome, which also includes hypertension, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Individual aspects of the Metabolic Syndrome influence risk and progression of diabetic neuropathy and may play a causative role in neuropathy both for those with prediabetes, and those with otherwise idiopathic neuropathy. Thus, a multifactorial treatment approach to individual components of Metabolic Syndrome may slow prediabetic neuropathy progression or result in improvement.
Davì, Giovanni; Santilli, Francesca; Patrono, Carlo
Metabolic syndrome represents a clustering of risk factors related to an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Occurrence of both metabolic syndrome and diabetes and their vascular complications share several pathogenetic features including subclinical, low-grade inflammation, altered oxidative/antioxidant status, and persistent platelet activation. Despite the availability of multiple interventions to counteract these metabolic changes, including appropriate diet, regular exercise, weight control and drugs, epidemiological data are witnessing the growing trend of the problem, reflecting both the multifactorial nature of these diseases as well as the scarce compliance of patients to established strategies. Several nutraceuticals used in clinical practice have been shown to target the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and their complications and to favorably modulate a number of biochemical and clinical endpoints. These compounds include antioxidant vitamins, such as vitamins C and E, flavonoids, vitamin D, conjugated linoleic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, minerals such as chromium and magnesium, alpha-lipoic acid, phytoestrogens, and dietary fibers. Several areas of concern exist regarding the use of dietary supplements and nutraceuticals in this setting, including product standardization, definition of optimal dosing regimen, potential side effects, drug interactions, and need for evidence-based indications.
Calvin, Andrew D.; Albuquerque, Felipe N.; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco
Abstract The combination of metabolic syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been termed “syndrome Z.” The prevalence of both OSA and metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide, in part linked to the epidemic of obesity. Beyond their epidemiologic relationship, growing evidence suggests that OSA may be causally related to metabolic syndrome. We are only beginning to understand the potential mechanisms underlying the OSA–metabolic syndrome interaction. Although there is no clear consensus, there is growing evidence that alterations in the hypothalamic–pituitary axis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to repetitive hypoxia, inflammation, and generation of adipokines may be implicated in the changes associated with both OSA and metabolic syndrome. Whether some or all of these metabolic alterations mechanistically link OSA to metabolic syndrome remains to be proven, but it is an area of intense scientific interest. PMID:19344228
Litvinova, Larisa; Atochin, Dmitriy N.; Fattakhov, Nikolai; Vasilenko, Mariia; Zatolokin, Pavel; Kirienkova, Elena
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders that collectively increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a crucial role in the pathogeneses of MS components and is involved in different mitochondrial signaling pathways that control respiration and apoptosis. The present review summarizes the recent information regarding the interrelations of mitochondria and NO in MS. Changes in the activities of different NO synthase isoforms lead to the formation of metabolic disorders and therefore are highlighted here. Reduced endothelial NOS activity and NO bioavailability, as the main factors underlying the endothelial dysfunction that occurs in MS, are discussed in this review in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction. We also focus on potential therapeutic strategies involving NO signaling pathways that can be used to treat patients with metabolic disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The article may help researchers develop new approaches for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of MS. PMID:25741283
Kamkar, Mohammad Zaman; Sanagoo, Akram; Zargarani, Fatemeh; Jouybari, Leila; Marjani, Abdoljalal
Background: Metabolic syndrome is commonly associated with cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric mental illness. Hence, we aimed to assess the metabolic syndrome among severe mental illness (SMI). Materials and Methods: The study included 267 patients who were referred to the psychiatric unit at 5th Azar Education Hospital of Golestan University of Medical Sciences in Gorgan, Iran. Results: The mean waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the SMI with metabolic syndrome, but the high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was significantly lower. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in SMI patients was 20.60%. There were significant differences in the mean of waist circumference, systolic (except for women) and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and fasting blood glucose in men and women with metabolic syndrome when compared with subjects without metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in SMI women was higher than men. The most age distribution was in range of 30-39 years old. The most prevalence of metabolic syndrome was in age groups 50-59 years old. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was increased from 30 to 59 years old. Conclusion: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with SMI in Gorgan is almost similar to those observed in Asian countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was lower than western countries. These observations may be due to cultural differences in the region. It should be mention that the families of mental illness subjects in our country believe that their patients must be cared better than people without mental illness. These findings of this study suggest that mental illness patients are at risk of metabolic syndrome. According to our results, risk factors such as age and gender differences may play an important role in the presence of metabolic syndrome. In our country, women do less
Varagic, Jasmina; Ahmad, Sarfaraz; Nagata, Sayaka; Ferrario, Carlos M.
Our current recognition of the renin-angiotensin system is more convoluted than originally thought due to the discovery of multiple novel enzymes, peptides, and receptors inherent to this interactive biochemical cascade. Over the last decade angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has emerged as a key player in the pathophysiology of hypertension and cardiovascular and renal disease due to its pivotal role in metabolizing vasoconstrictive/hypertrophic/proliferative angiotensin II into favorable angiotensin-(1-7). This review addresses a considerable advancement in research on the role of tissue ACE2 in development and progression of hypertension and cardiorenal injury. We also summarize the results from recent clinical and experimental studies suggesting that serum or urine soluble ACE2 may serve as a novel biomarker or independent risk factor relevant for diagnosis and prognosis of cardiorenal disease. Recent proceedings on novel therapeutic approaches to enhance ACE2/angiotensin-(1-7) axis are also reviewed. PMID:24510672
Vélez, Leandro Martín; Motta, Alicia Beatriz
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine and metabolic disorder affecting women in reproductive age. Although the etiology of PCOS remains unclear, it is believed to result from genetic, environmental and behavioral interactions. Women with PCOS have higher lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease (CVR) than healthy women at the same age and tend to display insulin resistance (IR). IR has traditionally been defined as a decreased ability of insulin to mediate the metabolic actions on glucose uptake, glucose production, and/or lipolysis. This results in a requirement for increased amounts of insulin to achieve a given metabolic action. Metabolic syndrome (MS) includes hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, increased CVR and hyperleptinemia and metabolic disorders such as hypertension, IR, gestational diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus, systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. The prevalence of MS in women is around 50 %. In addition, it has been recently suggested that women with MS show increased circulating androgens. The present review discusses the main alterations and features of PCOS and MS and the most important treatments.
Farooqui, Akhlaq A; Farooqui, Tahira; Panza, Francesco; Frisardi, Vincenza
The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of common pathologies: abdominal obesity linked to an excess of visceral fat, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. At the molecular level, metabolic syndrome is accompanied not only by dysregulation in the expression of adipokines (cytokines and chemokines), but also by alterations in levels of leptin, a peptide hormone released by white adipose tissue. These changes modulate immune response and inflammation that lead to alterations in the hypothalamic 'bodyweight/appetite/satiety set point,' resulting in the initiation and development of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for neurological disorders such as stroke, depression and Alzheimer's disease. The molecular mechanism underlying the mirror relationship between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders is not fully understood. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that all cellular and biochemical alterations observed in metabolic syndrome like impairment of endothelial cell function, abnormality in essential fatty acid metabolism and alterations in lipid mediators along with abnormal insulin/leptin signaling may represent a pathological bridge between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease and depression. The purpose of this review is not only to describe the involvement of brain in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, but also to link the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome with neurochemical changes in stroke, Alzheimer's disease and depression to a wider audience of neuroscientists with the hope that this discussion will initiate more studies on the relationship between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders.
Fernández-Miró, Mercè; Chillarón, Juan J; Pedro-Botet, Juan
Testosterone deficiency in adult age is associated with a decrease in libido, energy, hematocrit, muscle mass and bone mineral density, as well as with depression. More recently, testosterone deficiency has also been associated with various components of the metabolic syndrome, which in turn is associated with a five-fold increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease. Low testosterone levels are associated with increased insulin resistance, increase in fat mass, low HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride levels and hypertension. Testosterone replacement therapy in patients with testosterone deficiency and type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome has shown reductions in insulin resistance, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and improvement in glycemic control and anthropometric parameters.
Buell, Jackie L; Calland, Doug; Hanks, Fiona; Johnston, Bruce; Pester, Benjamin; Sweeney, Robert; Thorne, Robert
Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of symptoms associated with abdominal obesity that demonstrates a high risk for cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. To evaluate football linemen in National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions I, II, and III schools for the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria as well as to document other related biomarkers. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Three university locations on the first full day of football camp in early morning. Of 76 football linemen, 70 were able to provide blood samples. Height, mass, blood pressure, upper-body skinfolds, and waist circumference were measured at various stations. Two small venous samples of blood were collected and analyzed in a hospital laboratory for fasting insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and glycosylated hemoglobin. The last station was a verbal family history for cardiovascular disease and diabetes; also, athletes filled out a nutrition attitudes questionnaire. Of the 70 athletes, 34 were identified as having metabolic syndrome according to measures of blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides. The mean total cholesterol-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio for the group was 4.95, with 32 participants displaying values higher than 5.0. Twelve volunteers had total cholesterol levels greater than 200 mmol/L, 15 had high levels of C-reactive protein, and 9 had slightly elevated levels of glycosylated hemoglobin. Although athletes might be assumed to be protected from risks of cardiovascular disease, we found a high incidence of metabolic syndrome and other associated adverse biomarkers for heart disease in collegiate football linemen. Early screening, awareness, and intervention may have favorable effects on the overall health outcomes of football linemen.
Pechánová, O; Varga, Z V; Cebová, M; Giricz, Z; Pacher, P; Ferdinandy, P
It is well documented that metabolic syndrome (i.e. a group of risk factors, such as abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides and low cholesterol level in high-density lipoprotein), which raises the risk for heart disease and diabetes, is associated with increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) generation. ROS/RNS can modulate cardiac NO signalling and trigger various adaptive changes in NOS and antioxidant enzyme expressions/activities. While initially these changes may represent protective mechanisms in metabolic syndrome, later with more prolonged oxidative, nitrosative and nitrative stress, these are often exhausted, eventually favouring myocardial RNS generation and decreased NO bioavailability. The increased oxidative and nitrative stress also impairs the NO-soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) signalling pathway, limiting the ability of NO to exert its fundamental signalling roles in the heart. Enhanced ROS/RNS generation in the presence of risk factors also facilitates activation of redox-dependent transcriptional factors such as NF-κB, promoting myocardial expression of various pro-inflammatory mediators, and eventually the development of cardiac dysfunction and remodelling. While the dysregulation of NO signalling may interfere with the therapeutic efficacy of conventional drugs used in the management of metabolic syndrome, the modulation of NO signalling may also be responsible for the therapeutic benefits of already proven or recently developed treatment approaches, such as ACE inhibitors, certain β-blockers, and sGC activators. Better understanding of the above-mentioned pathological processes may ultimately lead to more successful therapeutic approaches to overcome metabolic syndrome and its pathological consequences in cardiac NO signalling. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Pharmacology of the Gasotransmitters. To view the other articles in this
van Meijl, Leonie E C; Vrolix, Ruth; Mensink, Ronald P
The metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus and CVD. Epidemiological studies have now suggested protective effects of dairy product consumption on the development of this syndrome. Here we review the physiological effects and possible mechanisms involved of three main dairy constituents (Ca, protein, fat) on important components of the metabolic syndrome. Ca supplements improve the serum lipoprotein profile, particularly by decreasing serum total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations. They also lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Insufficient evidence exists for a significant role of Ca supplements or dairy in body-weight management. Effects of Ca may be related to intestinal binding to fatty acids or bile acids, or to changes in intracellular Ca metabolism by suppressing calciotropic hormones. Dietary proteins may increase satiety in both the short and longer term, which may result in a reduced energy intake. They have also been reported to improve the serum lipoprotein profile as compared with carbohydrates. Dairy proteins are precursors of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme-inhibitory peptides, which may lower blood pressure. Such effects, however, have inconsistently been reported in human studies. Finally, conjugated linoleic acid, which effectively lowers body weight in animals, has no such effect in humans in the quantities provided by dairy products. To reduce the intake of SFA, the consumption of low-fat instead of high-fat dairy products is recommended. In conclusion, more research is warranted to better understand the physiological effects and the mechanisms involved of dairy products in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome.
Buell, Jackie L; Calland, Doug; Hanks, Fiona; Johnston, Bruce; Pester, Benjamin; Sweeney, Robert; Thorne, Robert
Context: Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of symptoms associated with abdominal obesity that demonstrates a high risk for cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. Objective: To evaluate football linemen in National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions I, II, and III schools for the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria as well as to document other related biomarkers. Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: Three university locations on the first full day of football camp in early morning. Patients or Other Participants: Of 76 football linemen, 70 were able to provide blood samples. Main Outcome Measure(s): Height, mass, blood pressure, upper-body skinfolds, and waist circumference were measured at various stations. Two small venous samples of blood were collected and analyzed in a hospital laboratory for fasting insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and glycosylated hemoglobin. The last station was a verbal family history for cardiovascular disease and diabetes; also, athletes filled out a nutrition attitudes questionnaire. Results: Of the 70 athletes, 34 were identified as having metabolic syndrome according to measures of blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides. The mean total cholesterol-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio for the group was 4.95, with 32 participants displaying values higher than 5.0. Twelve volunteers had total cholesterol levels greater than 200 mmol/L, 15 had high levels of C-reactive protein, and 9 had slightly elevated levels of glycosylated hemoglobin. Conclusions: Although athletes might be assumed to be protected from risks of cardiovascular disease, we found a high incidence of metabolic syndrome and other associated adverse biomarkers for heart disease in collegiate football linemen. Early
Bagry, Hema S; Raghavendran, Sreekrishna; Carli, Franco
Metabolic syndrome represents a constellation of risk factors associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and progression to diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance, a state of decreased biologic response to physiologic concentrations of insulin, is a key component of this syndrome and seems to be the result of a primary defect at the skeletal muscle glucose transporter. Acute illness and the perioperative period are characterized by a state of insulin resistance that manifests as hyperglycemia and leads to various other metabolic and biochemical alterations that adversely affect end organ function. Hyperglycemia in acutely ill patients adversely affects outcome. Achieving euglycemia seems beneficial in certain clinical situations, but considerable disagreement exists regarding the target blood sugar levels, the duration of therapy, and the modality. Pharmacotherapy, exercise, and nutrition to improve insulin sensitivity seem promising but require further evaluation to confirm their efficacy for perioperative risk reduction. This review discusses the pathophysiology and the clinical implications of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the acutely ill patient with an emphasis on perioperative modulation strategies.
Mesquita de Carvalho, Cláudia; Dias Mendonça, Dayana; Haas Piovesan, Carla; Edler Macagnan, Fabrício; Pandolfo Feoli, Ana Maria
The nutritional approach in the treatment of metabolic syndrome is a fundamental factor. It is important to raise awareness to patients about the benefits of following the treatments when you want to promote changes in lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess nutritional adequacy in subjects with metabolic syndrome according to the dietary recommendations prescribed. Quasi-experimental research with 72 subjects with metabolic syndrome, held in southern Brazil. A nutritional orientation was conducted, related or not with physical exercise for three months. A 24-hour recall and two-day food record, were the reference method of dietary intake assessment. Nutritional adequacy was determined by the energy and nutrient intakes as defined by the Brazilian Food Guide Pyramid groups. Volunteers reached on average 80% of the energy consumption recommended. Protein and lipid intake was higher, and carbohydrate consumption was lower than recommended levels. There was a low intake of cereals, vegetables, dairy product and beans (p<0.001) as compared with the recommended servings. A high consumption of meat (p<0.001) and an adequate intake of fruit (p=0.149) were observed. The dietary intake was insufficient to meet the recommendation of energy, although the goal for weight loss was achieved. Still, the results show the need for a balance in food intake and quality of the diet to achieve nutritional adequacy. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Vendrame, Stefano; Del Bo’, Cristian; Ciappellano, Salvatore; Riso, Patrizia; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy
Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of risk factors which often includes central obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, as well as a pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant, and pro-thrombotic environment. This leads to a dramatically increased risk of developing type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death both in the United States and worldwide. Increasing evidence suggests that berry fruit consumption has a significant potential in the prevention and treatment of most risk factors associated with Metabolic Syndrome and its cardiovascular complications in the human population. This is likely due to the presence of polyphenols with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, such as anthocyanins and/or phenolic acids. The present review summarizes the findings of recent dietary interventions with berry fruits on human subjects with or at risk of Metabolic Syndrome. It also discusses the potential role of berries as part of a dietary strategy which could greatly reduce the need for pharmacotherapy, associated with potentially deleterious side effects and constituting a considerable financial burden. PMID:27706020
Prasad, Hari; Ryan, Debra A; Celzo, Ma Florence; Stapleton, Dwight
The collection of impaired glucose metabolism, central obesity, elevated blood pressure, and dyslipidemia is identified as metabolic syndrome (MetS). It is estimated that approximately 25% of the world's population has MetS. In the United States, MetS is more common in men and Hispanics, and its incidence increases with age. Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The underlying risk factors include insulin resistance and abdominal obesity. Confusion about MetS exists in part due to the lack of a consensus definition and treatment protocol. Treatment of MetS begins with therapeutic lifestyle changes and then pharmacologic treatment of the syndrome's individual components. Effective interventions include diet modification, exercise, and use of pharmacologic agents to treat risk factors. Weight loss and increasing physical activity significantly improve all aspects of MetS. A diet that includes more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, monounsaturated fats, and low-fat dairy products will benefit most patients with MetS. Physicians can be most effective in advising patients by customizing specific lifestyle recommendations after assessing patients for the presence of risk factors.
Strufaldi, Maria Wany Louzada; Silva, Edina Mariko Koga da; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini
This was a two-stage cross-sectional study that assessed metabolic syndrome and associated factors among prepubertal schoolchildren. In the first stage, nutritional status, blood pressure, personal (low birth weight) and family antecedents for cardiovascular disease (CVD) were collected. In the second stage, schoolchildren with at least one of these criteria participated: obesity, personal or family history. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was defined by ATP III and WHO definitions. Among 929 (6-10 year old) schoolchildren, 27.7% presented with overweight/obesity, 12.2% hypertension, and personal (9.4%) and family (35.3%) antecedents. 205 children finished the second stage. The frequencies of MS-ATP and MS-WHO were 9.3% and 1.9%. Among the obese, MS was present in 25.8% (ATP) and 5.2% (WHO). Children with normal weight presented: low HDL (23.6%), hyperglycaemia (3.6%), HOMA-IR (0.9%) and MS-ATP (0.9%). In conclusion, overweight/obesity was associated with metabolic syndrome in schoolchildren. It was found that children with normal weight with personal and/or family antecedents presented with HOMA-IR and MS-ATP.
Potter, K. A.; Hoffman, Y.; Sakai, L. Y.; Byers, P. H.; Besser, T. E.; Milewicz, D. M.
Bovine Marfan syndrome is a disorder that closely resembles human Marfan syndrome in its clinical signs and pathological lesions. The similarities between the human and bovine diseases suggest that similar metabolic defects could be responsible. Although indirect immunofluorescent assays for fibrillin in skin biopsies did not distinguish affected cattle from control animals, cultures of skin fibroblasts of affected animals were distinguished from normal, unrelated control animals and normal half-siblings on the basis of fibrillin staining. After 72 to 96 hours in culture, stained with anti-fibrillin monoclonal antibody 201, hyperconfluent fibroblast cultures of affected cattle had less immunoreactive fibrillin than control cultures, and the staining pattern was granular rather than fibrillar. Under similar culture conditions, normal bovine aortic smooth muscle cells produced large amounts of immunoreactive fibrillin, but smooth muscle cells from a single affected cow showed markedly less fibrillin staining. In pulse-chase metabolic labeling experiments with [35S]cysteine, dermal fibroblasts from 6 affected calves, incorporated far less fibrillin into the extracellular matrix than control cells. These findings are similar to those reported in human Marfan syndrome, and they suggest that the bovine Marfan syndrome, like the human disorder, is caused by a mutation in fibrillin, leading to defective microfibrillar synthesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8456941
Breyer, Marie-Kathrin; Spruit, Martijn A.; Hanson, Corrine K.; Franssen, Frits M. E.; Vanfleteren, Lowie E. G. W.; Groenen, Miriam T. J.; Bruijnzeel, Piet L. B.; Wouters, Emiel F. M.; Rutten, Erica P. A.
Background The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in COPD patients and its impact on patient related outcomes has been little studied. We evaluated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and clinical and functional characteristics in patients with COPD and healthy subjects. Methods 228 COPD patients and 156 healthy subjects were included. Metabolic syndrome was defined using criteria of the IDF. In all patients spirometry, body composition, functional exercise performance, and mood and health status were assessed. Groups were stratified for BMI and gender. Results Metabolic syndrome was present in 57% of the COPD patients and 40% of the healthy subjects. After stratification for BMI, presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 was higher than in healthy peers. Patients with metabolic syndrome and a BMI <25 kg/m2 had higher BMI, fat free mass index and bone mineral density, and a lower 6MWD than the BMI matched patients without metabolic syndrome. Spirometry, maximal ergometry, mood and health status, and blood gases were not different between those groups. In COPD patients with metabolic syndrome self-reported co-morbidities and medication use were higher than in those without. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome is more prevalent in overweight or obese COPD patients than in BMI matched healthy subjects. Metabolic syndrome did not additionally impact patients' functional outcomes, but did impact the prevalence of co-morbidities. PMID:24950070
In late twentieth century, Ruderman and Reaven showed that insulin resistance might be fundamental to metabolic syndrome (MetS) which means a constellation of obesity-related metabolic derangements predisposing to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In 2001, user-friendly National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria of MetS were proposed. In 2005, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the Examination Committee for Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome in Japan issued different criteria of MetS where abdominal obesity is a necessary component. In 2009, IDF, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, American Heart Association, World Heart Federation, International Atherosclerosis Society, and International Association for the Study of Obesity jointly adopted the revised NCEP criteria, where abdominal obesity is not a necessary component, as worldwide criteria of MetS. In 2010, WHO Expert Consultation warned that MetS is a concept that focuses attention on complex multifactorial health problems but has limited practical utility as a management tool. In animal studies, adipose tissue inflammation characterized by an increased number of crown-like structures in adipose tissue, rather than obesity per se, was shown to be a fundamental mechanism of metabolic derangements.
ManiIa, M N
A leg cramp is a pain that comes from a leg muscle. It is due to a muscle spasm which usually occurs in a calf muscle, below and behind a knee. Leg cramps (often called night cramps) usually occur most commonly at night when in bed. Night leg cramps are involuntary painful contractions of skeletal muscles arose in the calves and soles of the feet. Although in most cases they aren't harmful and resolve easily in some instances they have a long duration and can result in intense pain, disturb normal sleep and make a person feel anxious. Pathophysiology of leg cramps is poorly understood. The aim of our study was to determine the role of metabolic syndrome in relation to night leg cramps. The study included 86 subjects aged 34 to 88 years. Metabolic syndrome group consisted of 40 subjects (10 men (25%) and 30 women (75%)); the control group consisted of 46 persons (9 men (19.5%) and 37 women (80.5%)). According to frequency and intensity of manifestation leg cramps were subdivided into less frequent and frequent leg cramps. Blood samples were analysed for lipids, fasting glucose, red blood cells and electrolytes. Persons were screened for leg vein insufficiency as well. The investigation showed that 77.5% (31/40) of patients with metabolic syndrome had leg cramps, from which 60% (24/40) had frequent leg cramps. In control group 73.9% (34/46) had leg cramps, from which 50% (23/46) had frequent leg cramps. Among known predisposing factors leg cramps most often were associated with deep vein insufficiency and superficial vein varicose. High frequency of night leg cramps in our study is due to female predominance (75% versus 25% women and men, respectively) and age distribution in our study population (from 34 to 88 years old). The investigation showed that people often experience nocturnal leg cramps. Leg cramp is slightly increasing among the patients with metabolic syndrome. Frequent leg cramps were observed in 60% of cases in metabolic syndrome group versus 50% of
Ma, Huijuan; Patti, Mary Elizabeth
Bile acids are increasingly recognized as key regulators of systemic metabolism. While bile acids have long been known to play important and direct roles in nutrient absorption, bile acids also serve as signaling molecules. Bile acid interactions with the nuclear hormone receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the membrane receptor G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 5 (TGR5) can regulate incretin hormone and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) secretion, cholesterol metabolism, and systemic energy expenditure. Bile acid levels and distribution are altered in type 2 diabetes and increased following bariatric procedures, in parallel with reduced body weight and improved insulin sensitivity and glycemic control. Thus, modulation of bile acid levels and signaling, using bile acid binding resins, TGR5 agonists, and FXR agonists, may serve as a potent therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other components of the metabolic syndrome in humans. PMID:25194176
Vitariusova, E; Kostalova, L; Pribilincova, Z; Hlavata, A; Kovacs, L
Increasing prevalence of exogenous obesity in children appears possibly related to changes in their lipid and carbohydrate metabolism resulting from insulin resistance which, together with obesity and arterial hypertension, are among the components of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the age related incidence of obesity complications and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in children according to the latest criteria. A total of 98 obese children were divided in two age groups (5 to 10 and 10 to 16 years). In all patients the BMI was calculated, standard deviation score of BMI (SDS BMI) was estimated according to the data by anthropometric surveys Slovakia and obesity was defined as SDS BMI >2 which is equal to 97th percentile for the appropriate age and gender. Blood pressure >95th percentile for the appropriate gender, age and body was classified as hypertension. Fasting glycemia, total and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were determined in serum and oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Insulin resistance was classified according to HOMA index. Among 21 children less than 10 years of age lower HOMA values and no impaired glucose tolerance appeared, but hypercholesterolemia was found in 8 cases (38.1 %). Among 77 patients aged 10 to 16 years increased frequency of cases was found with insulin resistance (37.7 %), increased triglycerides (53.3 %), decreased HDL cholesterol (54.4 %) and impaired glucose tolerance (7.8 %). In this group 32.5 % of children showed metabolic syndrome based on modified IDF criteria, while such prevalence rose to 39.0 % if borderline criteria for blood pressure were used. The treatment of referred pathological states requires lifestyle changes and follow up at the specialized clinic.
Onuchina, E L; Solov'ev, O V; Mochalova, O V; Kononov, S K; Onuchin, S G
The aim of the study was to elucidate specific features of chronic recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and disturbed carbohydrate metabolism compared with AF patients without MS. It enrolled 145 patients aged 44-83 years: 117 with abdominal obesity (BMI >30 kg/m2, waist circumference >80 and 94 cm in women and men respectively) including 30 without metabolic disturbances; 35 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 52 with type 2 DM, and 28 controls without MS. Parameters measured included frequency and severity of AF, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, albuminurea, C-reactive peptide level, quality of AH control, results of echocardiography and 24 hour ECG monitoring (sinus rhythm), and insulin resistance index (HOMA IRindex). Groups of AF and MS patients were dominated by women. The frequency and severity of AF relapses in MS patients were higher than in controls (especially in the presence of IGT and DM). IGT and DM2 associated with structural changes in myocardium (left atrial dilatation, prevalence of LV concentric hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction) coupled to higher systolic AH and marked metabolic disorders (hyperglycemia, IR, elevated microalbuminurea and C-reactive protein level, dyslipidemia). These conditions contribute to the frequency and severity of AF relapses. Development of AF in MS is a multifactor problem necessitating strict control of AH, dyslipidemia, DM2 and IGT, reduction of body weight and abdominal obesity.
Dai, Meng; Li, Mian; Yang, Zhi; Xu, Min; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Chen, Yuhong; Liu, Jianmin; Ning, Guang; Bi, Yufang
Background Clinical diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome is time-consuming and invasive. Convenient instruments that do not require laboratory or physical investigation would be useful in early screening individuals at high risk of metabolic syndrome. Examination of the autonomic function can be taken as a directly reference and screening indicator for predicting metabolic syndrome. Methodology and Principal Findings The EZSCAN test, as an efficient and noninvasive technology, can access autonomic function through measuring electrochemical skin conductance. In this study, we used EZSCAN value to evaluate autonomic function and to detect metabolic syndrome in 5,887 participants aged 40 years or older. The EZSCAN test diagnostic accuracy was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves. Among the 5,815 participants in the final analysis, 2,541 were diagnosed as metabolic syndrome and the overall prevalence was 43.7%. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increased with the elevated EZSCAN risk level (p for trend <0.0001). Moreover, EZSCAN value was associated with an increase in the number of metabolic syndrome components (p for trend <0.0001). Compared with the no risk group (EZSCAN value 0–24), participants at the high risk group (EZSCAN value: 50–100) had a 2.35 fold increased risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome after the multiple adjustments. The area under the curve of the EZSCAN test was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61–0.64) for predicting metabolic syndrome. The optimal operating point for the EZSCAN value to detect a high risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome was 30 in this study, while the sensitivity and specificity were 71.2% and 46.7%, respectively. Conclusions and Significance In conclusion, although less sensitive and accurate when compared with the clinical definition of metabolic syndrome, we found that the EZSCAN test is a good and simple screening technique for early predicting metabolic syndrome. PMID:22916265
Troxel, Wendy M.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Matthews, Karen A.; Kip, Kevin E.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Hall, Martica; Drumheller, Oliver; Reis, Steven E.
Background: Sleep complaints are highly prevalent and associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. This is the first prospective study to report the association between commonly reported sleep symptoms and the development of the metabolic syndrome, a key CVD risk factor. Methods: Participants were from the community-based Heart Strategies Concentrating on Risk Evaluation study. The sample was comprised of 812 participants (36% African American; 67% female) who were free of metabolic syndrome at baseline, had completed a baseline sleep questionnaire, and had metabolic syndrome evaluated 3 years after baseline. Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was measured cross-sectionally using a portable monitor in a subset of 290 participants. Logistic regression examined the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and its components according to individual sleep symptoms and insomnia syndrome. Results: Specific symptoms of insomnia (difficulty falling asleep [DFA] and “unrefreshing” sleep), but not a syndromal definition of insomnia, were significant predictors of the development of metabolic syndrome. Loud snoring more than doubled the risk of developing the metabolic syndrome and also predicted specific metabolic abnormalities (hyperglycemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). With further adjustment for AHI or the number of metabolic abnormalities at baseline, loud snoring remained a significant predictor of metabolic syndrome, whereas DFA and unrefreshing sleep were reduced to marginal significance. Conclusion: Difficulty falling asleep, unrefreshing sleep, and, particularly, loud snoring, predicted the development of metabolic syndrome in community adults. Evaluating sleep symptoms can help identify individuals at risk for developing metabolic syndrome. Citation: Troxel WM; Buysse DJ; Matthews KA; Kip KE; Strollo PJ; Hall M; Drumheller O; Reis SE. Sleep symptoms predict the development of the metabolic syndrome. SLEEP 2010
The complex mechanisms linking fat excess to metabolic syndrome are not well understood, but several experimental studies have shown that altered production of adipokines plays a main role in development and progression of this disorder. In particular, reduced secretion of adiponectin has a crucial role in inducing insulin resistance but also in determining the clustering of elevated triglycerides and small, dense LDL particles. Increased leptin secretion may be responsible for sympathetic nervous system overactivity and hypertension, while reduced omentin may have an important permissive role in the development of atherogenic processes. Finally, cytokines and other adipokines (resistin, visfatin) determine and modulate the inflammatory process that is an essential component of this condition of cardiovascular risk. Because obesity is prevalent in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), it is not surprising that patients with PCOS present altered adipokine levels and increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. However, because of the presence of other CV risk factors (androgen excess), in PCOS adipokine dysfunction is particularly severe. Understanding and treating adipokine dysfunction in young women with PCOS is an essential component of any politics of prevention of CV diseases in the general population.
Although nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is not one of the defining criteria for metabolic syndrome, it is a common hepatic manifestation. NAFLD includes a spectrum of histologic findings ranging from simple steatosis, known as nonalcoholic fatty liver, to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). To make the diagnosis of NAFLD, other etiologies of steatosis or hepatitis, such as hepatotoxic drugs, excessive alcohol intake, congenital errors of metabolism, or viral hepatitis, must be ruled out. After ruling out other conditions, the diagnosis of NAFLD often is made clinically, but a definitive diagnosis of NASH requires liver biopsy. As with other complications of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance is thought to be an underlying etiology of NAFLD. Management strategies attempt to reverse or improve insulin resistance while minimizing liver damage. The strongest evidence supports lifestyle modifications with weight loss, but there is some evidence to support bariatric surgery, medical therapy with insulin-sensitizing agents, and/or pharmacotherapy to promote weight loss. Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality in patients with NAFLD, so management must include modification of cardiovascular risk factors. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
Calogero, A E; Giagulli, V A; Mongioì, L M; Triggiani, V; Radicioni, A F; Jannini, E A; Pasquali, D
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is one of the most common genetic causes of male infertility. This condition is associated with much comorbidity and with a lower life expectancy. The aim of this review is to explore more in depth cardiovascular and metabolic disorders associated to KS. KS patients have an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease (standardized mortality ratio, SMR, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.6-3.0), but it is not clear whether the cause of the death is of thrombotic or hemorrhagic nature. Cardiovascular congenital anomalies (SMR, 7.3; 95% CI, 2.4-17.1) and the development of thrombosis or leg ulcers (SMR, 7.9; 95% CI, 2.9-17.2) are also more frequent in these subjects. Moreover, cardiovascular abnormalities may be at least partially reversed by testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). KS patients have also an increased probability of endocrine and/or metabolic disease, especially obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The effects of TRT on these abnormalities are not entirely clear.
Wider, Michael D.
Insufficient hepatic O2 in animal and human studies has been shown to elicit a hepatorenal reflex in response to increased hepatic adenosine, resulting in the stimulation of renal as well as muscle sympathetic nerve activity and activating the renin angiotensin system. Low hepatic ATP, hyperuricemia, and hepatic lipid accumulation reported in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients may reflect insufficient hepatic O2 delivery, potentially accounting for the sympathetic overdrive associated with MetS. This theoretical concept is supported by experimental results in animals fed a high fructose diet to induce MetS. Hepatic fructose metabolism rapidly consumes ATP resulting in increased adenosine production and hyperuricemia as well as elevated renin release and sympathetic activity. This review makes the case for the hepatorenal reflex causing sympathetic overdrive and metabolic syndrome in response to exaggerated splanchnic oxygen consumption from excessive eating. This is strongly reinforced by the fact that MetS is cured in a matter of days in a significant percentage of patients by diet, bariatric surgery, or endoluminal sleeve, all of which would decrease splanchnic oxygen demand by limiting nutrient contact with the mucosa and reducing the nutrient load due to loss of appetite or dietary restriction. PMID:28168086
Wider, Michael D.
Insufficient hepatic O2 in animal and human studies has been shown to elicit a hepatorenal reflex in response to increased hepatic adenosine, resulting in stimulation of renal as well as muscle sympathetic nerve activity and activating the renin angiotensin system. Low hepatic ATP, hyperuricemia, and hepatic lipid accumulation reported in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients may reflect insufficient hepatic O2 delivery, potentially accounting for the sympathetic overdrive associated with MetS. This theoretical concept is supported by experimental results in animals fed a high fructose diet to induce MetS. Hepatic fructose metabolism rapidly consumes ATP resulting in increased adenosine production and hyperuricemia as well as elevated renin release and sympathetic activity. This review makes the case for the hepatorenal reflex causing sympathetic overdrive and metabolic syndrome in response to exaggerated splanchnic oxygen consumption from excessive eating. This is strongly reinforced by the fact that MetS is cured in a matter of days in a significant percentage of patients by diet, bariatric surgery, or endoluminal sleeve, all of which would decrease splanchnic oxygen demand by limiting nutrient contact with the mucosa and reducing the nutrient load due to the loss of appetite or dietary restriction. PMID:27656314
Bhowmik, D; Tiwari, S C
Obesity is fast becoming a bane for the present civilization, as a result of sedentary lifestyle, atherogenic diet, and a susceptible thrifty genotype. The concept of metabolic syndrome, which is a constellation of metabolic disturbances, has crystallized over the last 80 years with the aim of identifying those at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These patients have visceral obesity and insulin resistance characterized by hypertyriglyceridemia. Recently, it has been realized that they are also at an increased risk of chronic renal disease. Release of adipocytokines leads to endothelial dysfunction. There is also activation of systemic and local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, oxidative stress, and impaired fibrinolysis. This leads to glomerular hyperfiltration, proteinuria, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and ultimately end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Treatment consists of lifestyle modifications along with optimal control of blood pressure, blood sugar and lipids. Metformin and thiazolidenidiones reduce insulin resistance; while angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers reduce proteinuria and have a renoprotective effect. Exciting new medical therapies on the horizon include rimonabant a cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonist, soy proteins, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist. Bariatric surgery for morbid obesity has also been shown to be effective in treating metabolic syndrome.
Chueh, Hee Won; Yoo, Jae Ho
The number of childhood cancer survivors is increasing as survival rates improve. However, complications after treatment have not received much attention, particularly metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome comprises central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, and cancer survivors have higher risks of cardiovascular events compared with the general population. The mechanism by which cancer treatment induces metabolic syndrome is unclear. However, its pathophysiology can be categorized based on the cancer treatment type administered. Brain surgery or radiotherapy may induce metabolic syndrome by damaging the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which may induce pituitary hormone deficiencies. Local therapy administered to particular endocrine organs directly damages the organs and causes hormone deficiencies, which induce obesity and dyslipidemia leading to metabolic syndrome. Chemotherapeutic agents interfere with cell generation and growth, damage the vascular endothelial cells, and increase the cardiovascular risk. Moreover, chemotherapeutic agents induce oxidative stress, which also induces metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity caused by cancer treatment or the cancer itself, dietary restrictions, and the frequent use of antibiotics may also be risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Since childhood cancer survivors with metabolic syndrome have higher risks of cardiovascular events at an earlier age, early interventions should be considered. The optimal timing of interventions and drug use has not been established, but lifestyle modifications and exercise interventions that begin during cancer treatment might be beneficial and tailored education and interventions that account for individual patients' circumstances are needed. This review evaluates the recent literature that describes metabolic syndrome in cancer survivors, with a focus on its pathophysiology.
Chueh, Hee Won
The number of childhood cancer survivors is increasing as survival rates improve. However, complications after treatment have not received much attention, particularly metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome comprises central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, and cancer survivors have higher risks of cardiovascular events compared with the general population. The mechanism by which cancer treatment induces metabolic syndrome is unclear. However, its pathophysiology can be categorized based on the cancer treatment type administered. Brain surgery or radiotherapy may induce metabolic syndrome by damaging the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which may induce pituitary hormone deficiencies. Local therapy administered to particular endocrine organs directly damages the organs and causes hormone deficiencies, which induce obesity and dyslipidemia leading to metabolic syndrome. Chemotherapeutic agents interfere with cell generation and growth, damage the vascular endothelial cells, and increase the cardiovascular risk. Moreover, chemotherapeutic agents induce oxidative stress, which also induces metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity caused by cancer treatment or the cancer itself, dietary restrictions, and the frequent use of antibiotics may also be risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Since childhood cancer survivors with metabolic syndrome have higher risks of cardiovascular events at an earlier age, early interventions should be considered. The optimal timing of interventions and drug use has not been established, but lifestyle modifications and exercise interventions that begin during cancer treatment might be beneficial and tailored education and interventions that account for individual patients' circumstances are needed. This review evaluates the recent literature that describes metabolic syndrome in cancer survivors, with a focus on its pathophysiology. PMID:28690985
Padhi, Tanmay; Garima
Metabolic syndrome (Met S) is a clustering of risk factors comprising of abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and abnormal glucose tolerance. The prevalence of Met S has been increasing in the last few years throughout the world. Psoriasis has consistently been associated with Met S as well as its various components. However, the association is no longer limited to psoriasis alone. Various dermatological conditions such as lichen planus, androgenetic alopecia, systemic lupus erythematosus, skin tags, acanthosis nigricans, and even cutaneous malignancies have also been found to be associated with this syndrome. Though chronic inflammation is thought to be the bridging link, the role of oxidative stress and endocrine abnormalities has recently been proposed in bringing them together. PMID:23919003
Vassallo, Patricia; Driver, Steven L; Stone, Neil J
Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a clustering of metabolic risk factors, identifies individuals at increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Measurement of waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose are easily obtained in the clinic. At any level of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, presence of MetS increases the risk of adverse CVD outcomes including bothatherosclerotic CVD and atrial fibrillation. The MetS construct should focus the clinician on recommending behavioral lifestyle modification as this improves all of its components. The challenge, however, has been the lack of a standardized approach to achieve effective and sustained lifestyle modification in clinical practice. We briefly review various approaches useful to the clinician in counseling such patients. These include group lifestyle programs and emerging mobile technology. Technology alone may not be sufficient, but as an adjunct has the promise to improve low rates of behavioral change currently seen with traditional programs.
Gómez-Abellán, Purificación; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Ordovás, José María; Garaulet, Marta
Circadian rhythms (approximately 24h) are widely characterized at molecular level and their generation is acknowledged to originate from oscillations in expression of several clock genes and from regulation of their protein products. While general entrainment of organisms to environmental light-dark cycles is mainly achieved through the master clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in mammals, this molecular clockwork is functional in several organs and tissues. Some studies have suggested that disruption of the circadian system (chronodisruption (CD)) may be causal for manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. This review summarizes (1) how molecular clocks coordinate metabolism and their specific role in the adipocyte; (2) the genetic aspects of and scientific evidence for obesity as a chronobiological illness; and (3) CD and its causes and pathological consequences. Finally, ideas about use of chronobiology for the treatment of obesity are discussed.
Peyrot des Gachons, Catherine; Breslin, Paul A S
Salivary amylase is a glucose-polymer cleavage enzyme that is produced by the salivary glands. It comprises a small portion of the total amylase excreted, which is mostly made by the pancreas. Amylases digest starch into smaller molecules, ultimately yielding maltose, which in turn is cleaved into two glucose molecules by maltase. Starch comprises a significant portion of the typical human diet for most nationalities. Given that salivary amylase is such a small portion of total amylase, it is unclear why it exists and whether it conveys an evolutionary advantage when ingesting starch. This review will consider the impact of salivary amylase on oral perception, nutrient signaling, anticipatory metabolic reflexes, blood sugar, and its clinical implications for preventing metabolic syndrome and obesity.
Lawson, Heather A.; Cheverud, James M.
1. Abstract Animal models have enriched understanding of the physiological basis of metabolic disorders and advanced identification of genetic risk factors underlying the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Murine models are especially appropriate for this type of research, and are an excellent resource not only for identifying candidate genomic regions, but also for illuminating the possible molecular mechanisms or pathways affected in individual components of MetS. In this review, we briefly discuss findings from mouse models of metabolic disorders, particularly in light of issues raised by the recent flood of human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) results. We describe how mouse models are revealing that genotype interacts with environment in important ways, indicating that the underlying genetics of MetS is highly context dependant. Further we show that epistasis, imprinting and maternal effects each contribute to the genetic architecture underlying variation in metabolic traits, and mouse models provide an opportunity to dissect these aspects of the genetic architecture that are difficult if not impossible to ascertain in humans. Finally we discuss how knowledge gained from mouse models can be used in conjunction with comparative genomic methods and bioinformatic resources to inform human MetS research. PMID:20088816
Tfayli, Hala; Arslanian, Silva
The metabolic syndrome, a constellation of interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, has become a major public health concern against the backdrop of increasing rates of obesity. Insulin resistance plays a pivotal role as the underlying pathophysiological linchpin of the various components of the syndrome. The metabolic syndrome is well recognized in adults, and there is convincing evidence that it starts in childhood, with progressive clustering of the various components over time and tracking through adulthood. Adult women and adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have higher prevalence rates of the metabolic syndrome compared with the general population. Several anthropometric (obesity, particularly abdominal obesity), metabolic (insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia) and hormonal (low IGFBP1, IGFBP2 and low sex hormone binding globulin) features of adolescents with PCOS are also features of the metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance, believed to be a key pathogenic factor in both PCOS and the metabolic syndrome, may be the thread that links the two conditions. Menstrual health in adolescents could be viewed as yet another component in the evaluation of the metabolic syndrome. Careful assessment of menstrual history and appropriate laboratory work-up could reveal the presence of PCOS in obese at-risk adolescent girls with a family history of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:18574212
Rochlani, Yogita; Pothineni, Naga Venkata; Mehta, Jawahar L
Cardiovascular disease represents a massive healthcare burden worldwide. Gender differences in the pathophysiology, presentation and prognosis of cardiovascular disease have been described in the literature. Metabolic syndrome, characterized by a cluster of metabolic abnormalities is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. With the global obesity epidemic, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is rising rapidly in the developed as well as developing world. However, there is considerable variation in the prevalence based on geography, age, sex and, definition used for diagnosis. Data on gender related differences in metabolic syndrome is relatively scarce. Here, we aim to review the gender differences in epidemiology and pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome as well as its individual components. Knowledge of gender differences in metabolic syndrome can help design gender specific preventative and therapeutic strategies that will have a positive impact on overall population health.
The metabolic syndrome is featured by the combination of obesity induced by visceral fat accumulation, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. It is well documented that obesity and body weight increase are positively linked to increased bone mineral density (BMD) and reduced fracture risk of weight-bearing bones through mechanical stress. On the other hand, inflammatory cytokines secreted from visceral fat and advanced glycation products induced by hyperglycemia tend to reduce BMD and to increase fracture risk in contrast to obesity. Thus, BMD and fracture risk in patients with the metabolic syndrome may be determined by the balance between the beneficial effect of obesity and detrimental ones of inflammatory cytokines and hyperglycemia on bone.
Nair, Sruthi S; Harikrishnan, S; Sarma, P Sankara; Thomas, Sanjeev V
Persons with epilepsy have higher cardiovascular mortality and morbidity compared to general population and alteration of their biochemical milieu is one of the proposed mechanisms. We aimed to study the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors in young adults with epilepsy and the association with antiepileptic drug use. An observational study was conducted in persons with epilepsy aged 20-49 years using antiepileptic drugs regularly for the previous three years. The subjects were examined and their blood samples were collected for fasting blood glucose and lipid profile. Over 18 months, 183 patients (120 males; 63 females) were recruited (mean age 32.5 ± 8.9 years). Metabolic syndrome (MetS) by ATP III criteria was present in 54 (29.5%) subjects. People with MetS in our group had higher frequency of abdominal obesity (50.0%) and hypertriglyceridemia (55.5%) than diabetes/impaired fasting glucose (27.8%). Older age (p=0.005) and use of valproate (p=0.012) were associated with significant risk of MetS. Clinicians need to be vigilant regarding the risk of MetS while initiating treatment and following up persons with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dumas, Marc-Emmanuel; Kinross, James; Nicholson, Jeremy K
Metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, is becoming an increasing global health concern. Insulin resistance is often associated with metabolic syndrome and also typical hepatic manifestations such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Profiling of metabolic products (metabolic phenotyping or metabotyping) has provided new insights into metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Data from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry combined with statistical modeling and top-down systems biology have allowed us to analyze and interpret metabolic signatures in terms of metabolic pathways and protein interaction networks and to identify the genomic and metagenomic determinants of metabolism. For example, metabolic phenotyping has shown that relationships between host cells and the microbiome affect development of the metabolic syndrome and fatty liver disease. We review recent developments in metabolic phenotyping and systems biology technologies and how these methodologies have provided insights into the mechanisms of metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We discuss emerging areas of research in this field and outline our vision for how metabolic phenotyping could be used to study metabolic syndrome and fatty liver disease. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zarzavadjian Le Bian, Alban; Fuks, David; Chopinet, Sophie; Gaujoux, Sébastien; Cesaretti, Manuela; Costi, Renato; Belgaumkar, Ajay P; Smadja, Claude; Gayet, Brice
To analyze immediate postoperative outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy regarding metabolic syndrome. In two academic centers, postoperative outcomes of patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy from 2002 to 2014 were prospectively recorded. Patients presenting with metabolic syndrome [defined as at least three criteria among overweight (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m²), diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia] were compared to patients without metabolic syndrome. Among 270 consecutive patients, 29 (11%) presented with metabolic syndrome. In univariable analysis, patients with metabolic syndrome were significantly older (69.4 years vs 62.5 years, P = 0.003) and presented more frequently with soft pancreas (72% vs 22%, P = 0.0001). In-hospital morbidity (83% vs 71%) and mortality (7% vs 6%) did not differ in the two groups so as pancreatic fistula rate (45% vs 30%, P = 0.079) and severity of pancreatic fistula (P = 0.257). In multivariable analysis, soft pancreas texture (P = 0.001), pancreatic duct diameter < 3 mm (P = 0.025) and BMI > 30 kg/m² (P = 0.041) were identified as independent risk factors of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy, but not metabolic syndrome. In spite of logical reasoning and appropriate methodology, present series suggests that metabolic syndrome does not jeopardize postoperative outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Therefore, definition of metabolic syndrome seems to be inappropriate and fatty pancreas needs to be assessed with an international consensual histopathological classification.
Rubio-Guerra, Alberto F; Morales-López, Herlinda; Garro-Almendaro, Ana K; Vargas-Ayala, German; Durán-Salgado, Montserrat B; Huerta-Ramírez, Saul; Lozano-Nuevo, Jose J
Hyperuricemia leads to insulin resistance, whereas insulin resistance decreases renal excretion of uric acid, both mechanisms link elevated serum uric acid with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the probability for the development of metabolic syndrome in low-income young adults with hyperuricaemia.
The metabolic syndrome is often a precursor of chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. Since the metabolic syndrome is multi-factorial, strategies for reducing its incidence and consequences must also be mult...
Hudetz, Judith A; Patterson, Kathleen M; Amole, Oludara; Riley, Aaron V; Pagel, Paul S
Vascular risk factors, including metabolic syndrome, are known to contribute to the development of cognitive dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that patients with metabolic syndrome are more likely to develop cognitive dysfunction after noncardiac surgery. Age- and education-balanced patients (n = 60) undergoing elective noncardiac surgery with and without metabolic syndrome and 30 nonsurgical controls were enrolled. Recent verbal and nonverbal memory and executive functions were assessed using a psychometric test battery before and 1 month after noncardiac surgery or at a 1-month interval in nonsurgical controls. Neurocognitive scores under baseline conditions were similar in surgical patients with versus without metabolic syndrome in all examined cognitive modalities (recent nonverbal and verbal memory, executive functions). Pronounced reductions in tests of verbal memory (delayed story recall, immediate and delayed word list recall) and executive function (backward digit span) were observed in patients with versus without metabolic syndrome after surgery. Overall cognitive performance after surgery was also significantly (P = 0.03) more impaired in patients with versus without metabolic syndrome. The prevalence rate of POCD wasdifferent in the studied groups (17/30 [corrected] and 8/30 in patientswith versus without metabolic syndrome; P < 0.02). The results indicate that cognitive functions were more profoundly impaired in patients with metabolic syndrome undergoing noncardiac surgery compared with their healthier counterparts.
Naviaux, Robert K.; Naviaux, Jane C.; Li, Kefeng; Bright, A. Taylor; Alaynick, William A.; Wang, Lin; Baxter, Asha; Nathan, Neil; Anderson, Wayne; Gordon, Eric
More than 2 million people in the United States have myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). We performed targeted, broad-spectrum metabolomics to gain insights into the biology of CFS. We studied a total of 84 subjects using these methods. Forty-five subjects (n = 22 men and 23 women) met diagnostic criteria for ME/CFS by Institute of Medicine, Canadian, and Fukuda criteria. Thirty-nine subjects (n = 18 men and 21 women) were age- and sex-matched normal controls. Males with CFS were 53 (±2.8) y old (mean ± SEM; range, 21–67 y). Females were 52 (±2.5) y old (range, 20–67 y). The Karnofsky performance scores were 62 (±3.2) for males and 54 (±3.3) for females. We targeted 612 metabolites in plasma from 63 biochemical pathways by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization, and tandem mass spectrometry in a single-injection method. Patients with CFS showed abnormalities in 20 metabolic pathways. Eighty percent of the diagnostic metabolites were decreased, consistent with a hypometabolic syndrome. Pathway abnormalities included sphingolipid, phospholipid, purine, cholesterol, microbiome, pyrroline-5-carboxylate, riboflavin, branch chain amino acid, peroxisomal, and mitochondrial metabolism. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed diagnostic accuracies of 94% [95% confidence interval (CI), 84–100%] in males using eight metabolites and 96% (95% CI, 86–100%) in females using 13 metabolites. Our data show that despite the heterogeneity of factors leading to CFS, the cellular metabolic response in patients was homogeneous, statistically robust, and chemically similar to the evolutionarily conserved persistence response to environmental stress known as dauer. PMID:27573827
Naviaux, Robert K; Naviaux, Jane C; Li, Kefeng; Bright, A Taylor; Alaynick, William A; Wang, Lin; Baxter, Asha; Nathan, Neil; Anderson, Wayne; Gordon, Eric
More than 2 million people in the United States have myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). We performed targeted, broad-spectrum metabolomics to gain insights into the biology of CFS. We studied a total of 84 subjects using these methods. Forty-five subjects (n = 22 men and 23 women) met diagnostic criteria for ME/CFS by Institute of Medicine, Canadian, and Fukuda criteria. Thirty-nine subjects (n = 18 men and 21 women) were age- and sex-matched normal controls. Males with CFS were 53 (±2.8) y old (mean ± SEM; range, 21-67 y). Females were 52 (±2.5) y old (range, 20-67 y). The Karnofsky performance scores were 62 (±3.2) for males and 54 (±3.3) for females. We targeted 612 metabolites in plasma from 63 biochemical pathways by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization, and tandem mass spectrometry in a single-injection method. Patients with CFS showed abnormalities in 20 metabolic pathways. Eighty percent of the diagnostic metabolites were decreased, consistent with a hypometabolic syndrome. Pathway abnormalities included sphingolipid, phospholipid, purine, cholesterol, microbiome, pyrroline-5-carboxylate, riboflavin, branch chain amino acid, peroxisomal, and mitochondrial metabolism. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed diagnostic accuracies of 94% [95% confidence interval (CI), 84-100%] in males using eight metabolites and 96% (95% CI, 86-100%) in females using 13 metabolites. Our data show that despite the heterogeneity of factors leading to CFS, the cellular metabolic response in patients was homogeneous, statistically robust, and chemically similar to the evolutionarily conserved persistence response to environmental stress known as dauer.
Finan, Brian; Yang, Bin; Ottaway, Nickki; Stemmer, Kerstin; Müller, Timo D; Yi, Chun-Xia; Habegger, Kirk; Schriever, Sonja C; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Kabra, Dhiraj G; Hembree, Jazzminn; Holland, Jenna; Raver, Christine; Seeley, Randy J; Hans, Wolfgang; Irmler, Martin; Beckers, Johannes; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Tiano, Joseph P; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Pfluger, Paul; Zhang, Lianshan; Gelfanov, Vasily; DiMarchi, Richard D; Tschöp, Matthias H
We report the development of a new combinatorial approach that allows for peptide-mediated selective tissue targeting of nuclear hormone pharmacology while eliminating adverse effects in other tissues. Specifically, we report the development of a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-estrogen conjugate that has superior sex-independent efficacy over either of the individual hormones alone to correct obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in mice. The therapeutic benefits are driven by pleiotropic dual hormone action to improve energy, glucose and lipid metabolism, as shown by loss-of-function models and genetic action profiling. Notably, the peptide-based targeting strategy also prevents hallmark side effects of estrogen in male and female mice, such as reproductive endocrine toxicity and oncogenicity. Collectively, selective activation of estrogen receptors in GLP-1–targeted tissues produces unprecedented efficacy to enhance the metabolic benefits of GLP-1 agonism. This example of targeting the metabolic syndrome represents the discovery of a new class of therapeutics that enables synergistic co-agonism through peptide-based selective delivery of small molecules. Although our observations with the GLP-1–estrogen conjugate justify translational studies for diabetes and obesity, the multitude of other possible combinations of peptides and small molecules may offer equal promise for other diseases. PMID:23142820
Ermolaeva, L A; Shishkin, A N; Sheveleva, N A; Penkovoi, E A; Sheveleva, M A; Sokolovich, N A; Khabarova, O V; Mihailova, E S
The purpose of this article is to familiarize readers on the relationship between metabolic syndrome and periodontitis, as well as common pathogenetic processes underlying these diseases. The data of modern researches, devoted to the correlation of lesions of periodontal and systemic diseases associated with metabolic syndrome. In the article analyzed also the data of the original study of the interaction of periodontitis and metabolic syndrome, which also used special methods of examination like Doppler ultrasound microcirculatory vasculature of the periodontal tissues and ultrasound densitometry. The possible methods of diagnostics of a condition of periodontal tissues in patients with metabolic syndrome are considered. Conclusions about the relationship of each component of metabolic syndrome with periodontitis are made.
Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Hamarneh, Sulaiman R; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P; Nasrin Alam, Sayeda; Moaven, Omeed; Patel, Palak; Malo, Nondita S; Ray, Madhury; Abtahi, Seyed M; Muhammad, Nur; Raychowdhury, Atri; Teshager, Abeba; Mohamed, Mussa M Rafat; Moss, Angela K; Ahmed, Rizwan; Hakimian, Shahrad; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, José Luis; Hohmann, Elizabeth; Warren, H Shaw; Bhan, Atul K; Malo, Madhu S; Hodin, Richard A
Metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of related disorders that includes obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver. Recently, gut-derived chronic endotoxemia has been identified as a primary mediator for triggering the low-grade inflammation responsible for the development of metabolic syndrome. In the present study we examined the role of the small intestinal brush-border enzyme, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), in preventing a high-fat-diet-induced metabolic syndrome in mice. We found that both endogenous and orally supplemented IAP inhibits absorption of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides) that occurs with dietary fat, and oral IAP supplementation prevents as well as reverses metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, IAP supplementation improves the lipid profile in mice fed a standard, low-fat chow diet. These results point to a potentially unique therapy against metabolic syndrome in at-risk humans.
Champagne, Catherine M; Bray, George A
Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome includes a set of laboratory and physical findings, including central adiposity, elevated TAG, reduced HDL-cholesterol, hypertension and elevated fasting glucose or insulin resistance. While definitions have varied slightly, from a practical point of view, identifying dietary and lifestyle factors, including low levels of physical activity, are important in designing a diet and exercise programme that can help individuals with the metabolic syndrome to reduce the associated detrimental health consequences. Specific features of the metabolic syndrome require intervention, whether dietary or otherwise, to move towards normal ranges. It is important to remember that no one size or treatment fits all. While central obesity is perceived as the hallmark of the metabolic syndrome, other features need to be treated independently if they do not respond to lifestyle change. The future may hold treatments for the metabolic syndrome that involve modulation of inflammation.
Roh, Y H; Lee, B K; Baek, J R; Park, M H; Noh, J H; Gong, H S; Baek, G H
Diffuse peripheral nerve impairment is common in metabolic syndrome: in patients with metabolic syndrome and carpal tunnel syndrome this might affect the outcome of treatment by local corticosteroid injection. A total of 55 consecutive patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and metabolic syndrome treated with corticosteroid injection (10 mg triamcinolone acetonide) were age and sex matched with 55 control patients without metabolic syndrome. Grip strength, perception of touch with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments and Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaires were assessed at the baseline and at 6, 12 and 24 weeks follow-up. The two groups had similar pre-operative grip strength and Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire scores. The Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire symptom and function scores of the metabolic syndrome group were significantly greater than the control group at 12 and 24 weeks follow-up. Except for significantly greater grip strength at the 12-week follow-up in the control group, there were no significant differences in grip strength between the groups. Semmes-Weinstein monofilament sensory index for the control group was significantly greater than that of the metabolic syndrome group throughout the 24-week follow-up. After 24 weeks, five patients (13%) in the control group and 13 patients (27%) in the metabolic syndrome group had had carpal tunnel surgery. Patients with metabolic syndrome are at risk for poor functional outcome and failure of treatment after corticosteroid injection for carpal tunnel syndrome.
Pratyush, Daliparthy D; Tiwari, Shalbha; Singh, Saurabh; Singh, Surya K
Metabolic syndrome progresses to diabetes and determinants of this progression like hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and genetic factors have been speculative. The present study was aimed at quantifying the insulin resistance and influence of family history of diabetes in subjects with metabolic syndrome developing prediabetes and diabetes. Consecutive subjects attending the endocrine clinic were evaluated for metabolic syndrome as per definition of International Diabetes Federation, 2005. The family history of diabetes in their first degree relatives was ascertained and Homeostasis model assessment of Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), Homeostasis model assessment for beta cell function (HOMA-B) and Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated in 163 subjects enrolled. HOMA-IR was higher (p<0.05) but HOMA-B and QUICKI were lower (p<0.0001) in subjects with metabolic syndrome+prediabetes or diabetes compared to metabolic syndrome with normal glucose tolerance. HOMA-B was lower and prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes was higher in metabolic syndrome subjects with family history of diabetes than in those without such family history (p<0.05). subjects with metabolic syndrome having prediabetes and diabetes had more severe insulin resistance than those with metabolic syndrome only. Beta cell dysfunction was remarkable and prevalence of prediabetes was high in metabolic syndrome subjects with family history of diabetes. Both the severity of the insulin resistance and family history of diabetes are therefore proposed to be determinants of diminished Beta cell function leading to diabetes in metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Graf, Brittany L; Raskin, Ilya; Cefalu, William T; Ribnicky, David M
Metabolic syndrome is defined as a set of coexisting metabolic disorders that increase an individual's likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Medicinal plants, some of which have been used for thousands of years, serve as an excellent source of bioactive compounds for the treatment of metabolic syndrome because they contain a wide range of phytochemicals with diverse metabolic effects. In order for botanicals to be effectively used against metabolic syndrome, however, botanical preparations must be characterized and standardized through the identification of their active compounds and respective modes of action, followed by validation in controlled clinical trials with clearly defined endpoints. This review assesses examples of commonly known and partially characterized botanicals to describe specific considerations for the phytochemical, preclinical and clinical characterization of botanicals associated with metabolic syndrome.
Graf, Brittany L; Raskin, Ilya; Cefalu, William T; Ribnicky, David M
Metabolic syndrome is defined as a set of coexisting metabolic disorders that increase an individual’s likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Medicinal plants, some of which have been used for thousands of years, serve as an excellent source of bioactive compounds for the treatment of metabolic syndrome because they contain a wide range of phytochemicals with diverse metabolic effects. In order for botanicals to be effectively used against metabolic syndrome, however, botanical preparations must be characterized and standardized through the identification of their active compounds and respective modes of action, followed by validation in controlled clinical trials with clearly defined endpoints. This review assesses examples of commonly known and partially characterized botanicals to describe specific considerations for the phytochemical, preclinical and clinical characterization of botanicals associated with metabolic syndrome. PMID:20872313
Bizzarri, C; Bottaro, G; Pinto, R M; Cappa, M
The survival of children with cancer has grown considerably in recent years resulting in a marked increase of endocrine complications. increasingly recognized problems are metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. We critically analysed the most recent literature about the prevalence and molecular mechanisms of metabolic dysregulation and long-term cardio-metabolic risk in this population. Hypothalamic irradiation determines growth hormone deficiency and hypogonadism; moreover it is able to disrupt the appetite regulating centre leading to hyperphagia and progressive obesity. These conditions determine an insulin resistant state, contributing to the development of metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. Irradiation and/or chemotherapy may lead to an insulin secretory defect through a direct damage of pancreatic beta cells. Metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus represent increasingly recognized long-term complications of childhood cancer treatment. The different impact of insulin resistance and secretory defects on the onset and progression of metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus remains unclear.
Horská, Kateřina; Kučerová, Jana; Suchý, Pavel; Kotolová, Hana
Metabolic syndrome, acondition increasing cardiovascular morbidity, mortality and risk for diabetes mellitus type 2, is currently worldwide reaching epidemic proportions. This complex disorder represents an urgent challenge for new pharmacotherapeutic strategies formulation. Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying metabolic syndrome are not completely understood, nevertheless growing evidence is supporting the hypothesis that multiple metabolic dysregulations do contribute to its development. Apotential target for pharmacological intervention is considered to be dysregulation of adipose tissue endocrine/paracrine function. Specific adipokines, proteins secreted by the adipose tissue, with some pleiotropic effects, have been identified with strong association to regulation of energy metabolism, appetite, insulin signaling, tissue insulin sensitivity and the proinflammatory state related to metabolic syndrome. The aim of this paper is to provide a brief overview of endocrine/paracrine functions of the adipose tissue with regard to metabolic syndrome development and pathophysiology and particular adipokines as potential targets for innovative pharmacotherapeutic approaches.
Pivovarova, Olga; Bernigau, Wolfgang; Bobbert, Thomas; Isken, Frank; Möhlig, Matthias; Spranger, Joachim; Weickert, Martin O.; Osterhoff, Martin; Pfeiffer, Andreas F.H.; Rudovich, Natalia
OBJECTIVE Insulin clearance is decreased in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for unknown reasons. Subjects with metabolic syndrome are hyperinsulinemic and have an increased risk of T2DM. We aimed to investigate the relationship between hepatic insulin clearance (HIC) and different components of metabolic syndrome and tested the hypothesis that HIC may predict the risk of metabolic syndrome. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Individuals without diabetes from the Metabolic Syndrome Berlin Brandenburg (MeSyBePo) study (800 subjects with the baseline examination and 189 subjects from the MeSyBePo recall study) underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with assessment of insulin secretion (insulin secretion rate [ISR]) and insulin sensitivity. Two indices of HIC were calculated. RESULTS Both HIC indices showed lower values in subjects with metabolic syndrome (P < 0.001) at baseline. HIC indices correlate inversely with waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and OGTT-derived insulin secretion index. During a mean follow-up of 5.1 ± 0.9 years, 47 individuals developed metabolic syndrome and 33 subjects progressed to impaired glucose metabolism. Both indices of HIC showed a trend of an association with increased risk of metabolic syndrome (HICC-peptide odds ratio 1.13 [95% CI 0.97–1.31], P = 0.12, and HICISR 1.38 [0.88–2.17], P = 0.16) and impaired glucose metabolism (HICC-peptide 1.12 [0.92–1.36], P = 0.26, and HICISR 1.31 [0.74–2.33] P = 0.36), although point estimates reached no statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS HIC was associated with different components of metabolic syndrome and markers of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Decreased HIC may represent a novel pathophysiological mechanism of the metabolic syndrome, which may be used additionally for early identification of high-risk subjects. PMID:24026549
Pivovarova, Olga; Bernigau, Wolfgang; Bobbert, Thomas; Isken, Frank; Möhlig, Matthias; Spranger, Joachim; Weickert, Martin O; Osterhoff, Martin; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Rudovich, Natalia
Insulin clearance is decreased in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for unknown reasons. Subjects with metabolic syndrome are hyperinsulinemic and have an increased risk of T2DM. We aimed to investigate the relationship between hepatic insulin clearance (HIC) and different components of metabolic syndrome and tested the hypothesis that HIC may predict the risk of metabolic syndrome. Individuals without diabetes from the Metabolic Syndrome Berlin Brandenburg (MeSyBePo) study (800 subjects with the baseline examination and 189 subjects from the MeSyBePo recall study) underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with assessment of insulin secretion (insulin secretion rate [ISR]) and insulin sensitivity. Two indices of HIC were calculated. Both HIC indices showed lower values in subjects with metabolic syndrome (P < 0.001) at baseline. HIC indices correlate inversely with waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and OGTT-derived insulin secretion index. During a mean follow-up of 5.1 ± 0.9 years, 47 individuals developed metabolic syndrome and 33 subjects progressed to impaired glucose metabolism. Both indices of HIC showed a trend of an association with increased risk of metabolic syndrome (HICC-peptide odds ratio 1.13 [95% CI 0.97-1.31], P = 0.12, and HICISR 1.38 [0.88-2.17], P = 0.16) and impaired glucose metabolism (HICC-peptide 1.12 [0.92-1.36], P = 0.26, and HICISR 1.31 [0.74-2.33] P = 0.36), although point estimates reached no statistical significance. HIC was associated with different components of metabolic syndrome and markers of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Decreased HIC may represent a novel pathophysiological mechanism of the metabolic syndrome, which may be used additionally for early identification of high-risk subjects.
Palacios-Verdú, María Gabriela; Segura-Puimedon, Maria; Borralleras, Cristina; Flores, Raquel; Del Campo, Miguel; Campuzano, Victoria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis Alberto
Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS, OMIM-194050) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with multisystemic manifestations caused by a 1.55-1.83 Mb deletion at 7q11.23 including 26-28 genes. Reported endocrine and metabolic abnormalities include transient hypercalcaemia of infancy, subclinical hypothyroidism in ∼ 30% of children and impaired glucose tolerance in ∼ 75% of adult individuals. The purpose of this study was to further study metabolic alterations in patients with WBS, as well as in several mouse models, to establish potential candidate genes. We analysed several metabolic parameters in a cohort of 154 individuals with WBS (data available from 69 to 151 cases per parameter), as well as in several mouse models with complete and partial deletions of the orthologous WBS locus, and searched for causative genes and potential modifiers. Triglyceride plasma levels were significantly decreased in individuals with WBS while cholesterol levels were slightly decreased compared with controls. Hyperbilirubinemia, mostly unconjugated, was found in 18.3% of WBS cases and correlated with subclinical hypothyroidism and hypotriglyceridemia, suggesting common pathogenic mechanisms. Haploinsufficiency at MLXIPL and increased penetrance for hypomorphic alleles at the UGT1A1 gene promoter might underlie the lipid and bilirubin alterations. Other disturbances included increased protein and iron levels, as well as the known subclinical hypothyroidism and glucose intolerance. Our results show that several unreported biochemical alterations, related to haploinsufficiency for specific genes at 7q11.23, are relatively common in WBS. The early diagnosis, follow-up and management of these metabolic disturbances could prevent long-term complications in this disorder. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Porporato, P E
Metabolic reprogramming occurs in tumors to foster cancer cell proliferation, survival and metastasis, but as well at a systemic level affecting the whole organism, eventually leading to cancer cachexia. Indeed, as cancer cells rely on external sources of nitrogen and carbon skeleton to grow, systemic metabolic deregulation promoting tissue wasting and metabolites mobilization ultimately supports tumor growth. Cachectic patients experience a wide range of symptoms affecting several organ functions such as muscle, liver, brain, immune system and heart, collectively decreasing patients' quality of life and worsening their prognosis. Moreover, cachexia is estimated to be the direct cause of at least 20% of cancer deaths. The main aspect of cachexia syndrome is the unstoppable skeletal muscle and fat storage wasting, even with an adequate caloric intake, resulting in nutrient mobilization – both directly as lipid and amino acids and indirectly as glucose derived from the exploitation of liver gluconeogenesis – that reaches the tumor through the bloodstream. From a metabolic standpoint, cachectic host develops a wide range of dysfunctions, from increased insulin and IGF-1 resistance to induction of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and fat tissue browning resulting in an increased energy expenditure and heat generation, even at rest. For a long time, cachexia has been merely considered an epiphenomenon of end-stage tumors. However, in specific tumor types, such as pancreatic cancers, it is now clear that patients present markers of tissue wasting at a stage in which tumor is not yet clinically detectable, and that host amino acid supply is required for tumor growth. Indeed, tumor cells actively promote tissue wasting by secreting specific factors such as parathyroid hormone-related protein and micro RNAs. Understanding the molecular and metabolic mediators of cachexia will not only advance therapeutic approaches against cancer, but also improve patients' quality of
Bragt, M C E; Popeijus, H E
The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rapidly increasing. This syndrome is characterized by metabolic disturbances, such as abnormal lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and a low-grade inflammatory state. PPARs play an important role in these metabolic processes, which makes them effective targets for treatment and prevention of the metabolic syndrome. Synthetic PPAR agonists, such as fibrates and thiazolidinediones are already used to treat hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus, respectively. Besides synthetic ligands, dietary fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives can also bind to an activate PPARs. As demonstrated with ligand-binding assays, PPARs have a clear preference of binding polyunsaturated fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids are also very effective in binding PPARs, whereas saturated fatty acids are poor PPAR binders. However, ligand binding does not necessarily mean transcriptional activation. Therefore, it is important to investigate transactivation properties of dietary fatty acids as PPAR agonists and their role in metabolic reactions. Furthermore, human intervention studies comparing the effects of natural versus synthetic ligands side-by-side may reveal specific fatty acids that exert beneficial PPAR-mediated metabolic effects. The ability of PPARs to sense fatty acids and to mediate lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism and the inflammatory state makes them excellent targets for dietary modulation in order to prevent and treat the metabolic syndrome and associated diseases. This review discusses the role and function of PPARs and their ligands in light of the metabolic syndrome.
Ren, Sidney Y.; Xu, Xihui
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of multiple metabolic risk factors including abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Over the past decades, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome has increased dramatically, imposing a devastating, pandemic health threat. More importantly, individuals with metabolic syndrome are at an increased risk of diabetes mellitus and overall cardiovascular diseases. One of the common comorbidities of metabolic syndrome is heart anomalies leading to the loss of cardiomyocytes, cardiac dysfunction and ultimately heart failure. Up-to-date, a plethora cell signaling pathways have been postulated for the pathogenesis of cardiac complications in obesity including lipotoxicity, inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and sympathetic overactivation although the precise mechanism of action underscoring obesity-associated heart dysfunction remains elusive. Recent evidence has indicated a potential role of protein quality control in components of metabolic syndrome. Within the protein quality control system, the autophagy-lysosome pathway is an evolutionarily conserved pathway responsible for bulk degradation of large intracellular organelles and protein aggregates. Autophagy has been demonstrated to play an indispensible role in the maintenance of cardiac geometry and function under both physiological and pathological conditions. Accumulating studies have demonstrated that autophagy plays a pivotal role in the etiology of cardiac anomalies under obesity and metabolic syndrome. In this mini review, we will discuss on how autophagy is involved in the regulation of cardiac function in obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:24810277
Kraja, Aldi T; Chasman, Daniel I; North, Kari E; Reiner, Alexander P; Yanek, Lisa R; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Smith, Jennifer A; Dehghan, Abbas; Dupuis, Josée; Johnson, Andrew D; Feitosa, Mary F; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Chu, Audrey Y; Nolte, Ilja M; Dastani, Zari; Morris, Andrew; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Sun, Yan V; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Vaez, Ahmad; Lin, Honghuang; Ligthart, Symen; Marullo, Letizia; Rohde, Rebecca; Shao, Yaming; Ziegler, Mark A; Im, Hae Kyung; Schnabel, Renate B; Jørgensen, Torben; Jørgensen, Marit E; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Stolk, Ronald P; Snieder, Harold; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Franco, Oscar H; Ikram, M Arfan; Richards, J Brent; Rotimi, Charles; Wilson, James G; Lange, Leslie; Ganesh, Santhi K; Nalls, Mike; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Pankow, James S; Coresh, Josef; Tang, Weihong; Linda Kao, W H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Morrison, Alanna C; Ridker, Paul M; Becker, Diane M; Rotter, Jerome I; Kardia, Sharon L R; Loos, Ruth J F; Larson, Martin G; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Province, Michael A; Tracy, Russell; Voight, Benjamin F; Vaidya, Dhananjay; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Benjamin, Emelia J; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Prokopenko, Inga; Meigs, James B; Borecki, Ingrid B
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become a health and financial burden worldwide. The MetS definition captures clustering of risk factors that predict higher risk for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Our study hypothesis is that additional to genes influencing individual MetS risk factors, genetic variants exist that influence MetS and inflammatory markers forming a predisposing MetS genetic network. To test this hypothesis a staged approach was undertaken. (a) We analyzed 17 metabolic and inflammatory traits in more than 85,500 participants from 14 large epidemiological studies within the Cross Consortia Pleiotropy Group. Individuals classified with MetS (NCEP definition), versus those without, showed on average significantly different levels for most inflammatory markers studied. (b) Paired average correlations between 8 metabolic traits and 9 inflammatory markers from the same studies as above, estimated with two methods, and factor analyses on large simulated data, helped in identifying 8 combinations of traits for follow-up in meta-analyses, out of 130,305 possible combinations between metabolic traits and inflammatory markers studied. (c) We performed correlated meta-analyses for 8 metabolic traits and 6 inflammatory markers by using existing GWAS published genetic summary results, with about 2.5 million SNPs from twelve predominantly largest GWAS consortia. These analyses yielded 130 unique SNPs/genes with pleiotropic associations (a SNP/gene associating at least one metabolic trait and one inflammatory marker). Of them twenty-five variants (seven loci newly reported) are proposed as MetS candidates. They map to genes MACF1, KIAA0754, GCKR, GRB14, COBLL1, LOC646736-IRS1, SLC39A8, NELFE, SKIV2L, STK19, TFAP2B, BAZ1B, BCL7B, TBL2, MLXIPL, LPL, TRIB1, ATXN2, HECTD4, PTPN11, ZNF664, PDXDC1, FTO, MC4R and TOMM40. Based on large data evidence, we conclude that inflammation is a feature of MetS and several gene variants show pleiotropic genetic
Kraja, Aldi T.; Chasman, Daniel I.; North, Kari E.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Dehghan, Abbas; Dupuis, Josée; Johnson, Andrew D.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Chu, Audrey Y.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Dastani, Zari; Morris, Andrew; Pendergrass, Sarah A.; Sun, Yan V.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Vaez, Ahmad; Lin, Honghuang; Ligthart, Symen; Marullo, Letizia; Rohde, Rebecca; Shao, Yaming; Ziegler, Mark A.; Im, Hae Kyung; Schnabel, Renate B.; Jørgensen, Torben; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Stolk, Ronald P.; Snieder, Harold; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Franco, Oscar H.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Richards, J. Brent; Rotimi, Charles; Wilson, James G.; Lange, Leslie; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Nalls, Mike; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Pankow, James S.; Coresh, Josef; Tang, Weihong; Kao, W.H. Linda; Boerwinkle, Eric; Morrison, Alanna C.; Ridker, Paul M.; Becker, Diane M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Larson, Martin G.; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Province, Michael A.; Tracy, Russell; Voight, Benjamin F.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; O’Donnell, Christopher; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Prokopenko, Inga; Meigs, James B.; Borecki, Ingrid B.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become a health and financial burden worldwide. The MetS definition captures clustering of risk factors that predict higher risk for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Our study hypothesis is that additional to genes influencing individual MetS risk factors, genetic variants exist that influence MetS and inflammatory markers forming a predisposing MetS genetic network. To test this hypothesis a staged approach was undertaken. (a) We analyzed 17 metabolic and inflammatory traits in more than 85,500 participants from 14 large epidemiological studies within the Cross Consortia Pleiotropy Group. Individuals classified with MetS (NCEP definition), versus those without, showed on average significantly different levels for most inflammatory markers studied. (b) Paired average correlations between 8 metabolic traits and 9 inflammatory markers from the same studies as above, estimated with two methods, and factor analyses on large simulated data, helped in identifying 8 combinations of traits for follow-up in meta-analyses, out of 130,305 possible combinations between metabolic traits and inflammatory markers studied. (c) We performed correlated meta-analyses for 8 metabolic traits and 6 inflammatory markers by using existing GWAS published genetic summary results, with about 2.5 million SNPs from twelve predominantly largest GWAS consortia. These analyses yielded 130 unique SNPs/genes with pleiotropic associations (a SNP/gene associating at least one metabolic trait and one inflammatory marker). Of them twenty-five variants (seven loci newly reported) are proposed as MetS candidates. They map to genes MACF1, KIAA0754, GCKR, GRB14, COBLL1, LOC646736-IRS1, SLC39A8, NELFE, SKIV2L, STK19, TFAP2B, BAZ1B, BCL7B, TBL2, MLXIPL, LPL, TRIB1, ATXN2, HECTD4, PTPN11, ZNF664, PDXDC1, FTO, MC4R and TOMM40. Based on large data evidence, we conclude that inflammation is a feature of MetS and several gene variants show pleiotropic genetic
Olde, Darin; Alpert, Patricia; Dalusung-Angosta, Alona
To explore current studies on metabolic syndrome (MetS), including its complex pathophysiology and to describe the unique role of the advanced practice nurse including management and ethical decision making utilizing a case study to exemplify salient points. From original research articles extracted from nursing and medical databases. MetS is a constellation of characteristics that increases the risk for the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The pathophysiology of MetS is not completely understood, but is thought to involve a complex interaction between the environment, genetic susceptibility, insulin resistance, and abnormal adipose tissue function. The role of the advanced practice nurse is appropriate for early intervention and counseling of patients with MetS and those who are at risk, as well as addressing the ethical challenges that accompany their care. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Di Carli, Marcelo F; Charytan, David; McMahon, Graham T; Ganz, Peter; Dorbala, Sharmila; Schelbert, Heinrich R
The metabolic syndrome affects 25% of the U.S. population and greatly increases the risk of diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). We tested the hypothesis that the metabolic syndrome is associated with impaired coronary vasodilator function, a marker of atherosclerotic disease activity. Four hundred sixty-two patients at risk for CAD, as defined by a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥ 160 mg/dL with fewer than 2 coronary risk factors, a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dL with 2 or more coronary risk factors, or with documented CAD were included. A subset of 234 individuals underwent repeated PET at 1 y. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) and vasodilator reserve were assessed by PET. Modified criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III were used to characterize the metabolic syndrome. Adenosine- and cold-stimulated MBF were similar in patients with and without metabolic syndrome, whereas baseline MBF showed a stepwise increase with increasing features of the syndrome. Consequently, patients with metabolic syndrome showed a lower coronary flow reserve (CFR) (2.5 ± 1.0) than those without metabolic syndrome (3.0 ± 0.9, P = 0.004). Differences in CFR were no longer present after correcting rest flows for the rate-pressure product. Change in MBF and CFR at 1 y were not different across groups of patients with increasing features of the metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome demonstrate impaired CFR, which is related to the augmentation in resting coronary blood flow caused by hypertension. In high-risk individuals, peak adenosine- and cold-stimulated blood flows are impaired even in the absence of the metabolic syndrome.
Suh, Sunghwan; Lee, Moon-Kyu
There has been a rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome(MetS) over the past two to three decades in most Asian countries. According to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey(KNHANES), the prevalence of MetS significantly increased from 24.9% to 31.3% between 1998 and 2007. The clinical significance of MetS is based on the increased risk for the development of cardiovascular disease(CVD). We analyzed the 8-year follow-up data of 2,435 healthy subjects and found that MetS was associated with an increased risk of CVD in both men and women(OR: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.30-3.03 in men; OR: 4.04, 95% CI: 1.78-9.14 in women). MetS was significantly associated with the risk for future coronary heart disease(CHD) in men(OR: 3.68; 95% CI: 1.93-7.01) and stroke in women(OR: 3.96; 95% CI: 1.58- 9.94). We also analyzed the echocardiographic findings of 1,600 healthy subjects to evaluate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction(LVDD). The patients with MetS exhibited significant differences in parameters of cardiac structure and the LV diastolic function compared to that observed in the patients without MetS. MetS was associated with an increased risk of LVDD(OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.18-2.37). These results suggest that the presence of MetS is associated with an increased risk for the development of serious CVD and abnormal changes in the LV structure and diastolic function, even before the development of overt CVD.
Brola, Waldemar; Sobolewski, Piotr; Fudala, Małgorzata; Goral, Anna; Kasprzyk, Marta; Szczuchniak, Wiktor; Pejas-Dulewicz, Renata; Przybylski, Wojciech
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) predisposes individuals to cardiovascular disease or stroke development. We aimed at evaluating the prevalence of MetS in a population of acute ischemic stroke (IS) patients from central Poland and at estimating the relationship between MetS and stroke risk. We analyzed 672 IS patients who were consecutively admitted to stroke units. The control group was composed of 612 patients with other neurologic disorders. MetS was diagnosed if 3 of 5 factors were present (obesity, increased blood pressure, increased triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, and fasting hyperglycemia) according to the Unified Criteria for Clinical Diagnosis of the Metabolic Syndrome (2009). MetS was diagnosed in 61.2% of stroke patients versus 18.1% of the control group (P < .001). Multiple logistic regression showed that MetS was 1.8 times more common in women than in men (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-2.5). The adjusted OR (95% CI) associated with MetS was 2.44 (1.48-3.64; P < .001) for IS. Hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia were the most frequent disturbances of IS patients (87.2% and 68.2%, respectively). The analysis of the interaction between MetS and its components showed significant associations with hypertension (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, .98-4.24; P < .01), high triglyceride levels (OR, 4.35; 95% CI, 2.87-9.43; P < .0001), and low HDL cholesterol levels (OR, 5.12; 95% CI, 3.15-8.20; P < .001). Over 60% of Polish IS patients have MetS. The prevalence of MetS was significantly higher in women than in men. Thus, MetS may be a risk factor for IS. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kallwitz, Eric R; Loy, Veronica; Mettu, Praveen; Von Roenn, Natasha; Berkes, Jamie; Cotler, Scott J
There is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in liver transplant recipients, a population that tends to be physically inactive. The aim of this study was to characterize physical activity and evaluate the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome after liver transplantation. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in patients more than 3 months after transplantation. Metabolic syndrome was classified according to National Cholesterol Education Panel Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Physical activity, including duration, frequency, and metabolic equivalents of task (METs), was assessed. The study population consisted of 204 subjects, with 156 more than 1 year after transplantation. The median time after transplantation was 53.5 months (range = 3-299 months). The mean duration of exercise was 90 ± 142 minutes, and the mean MET score was 3.6 ± 1.5. Metabolic syndrome was observed in 58.8% of all subjects and in 63.5% of the subjects more than 1 year after transplantation. In a multivariate analysis involving all subjects, metabolic syndrome was associated with a time after transplantation greater than 1 year [odds ratio (OR) = 2.909, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.389-6.092] and older age (OR = 1.036, 95% CI = 1.001-1.072). A second analysis was performed for only patients more than 1 year after transplantation. In a multivariate analysis, metabolic syndrome was associated with lower exercise intensity (OR = 0.690, 95% CI = 0.536-0.887), older age (OR = 1.056, 95% CI = 1.014-1.101), and pretransplant diabetes (OR = 4.246, 95% CI = 1.300-13.864). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome is common after liver transplantation, and the rate is significantly higher in patients more than 1 year after transplantation. The observation that exercise intensity is inversely related to metabolic syndrome after transplantation is novel and suggests that physical activity might provide a means for reducing metabolic syndrome complications in liver
Nevin, Mary A
The prevalence of obesity in the pediatric population has dramatically increased in the last 30 years. While the adverse health effects of obesity have long been recognized in adults, many of these complications are now understood to begin in early childhood. Obese children and adolescents are significantly more likely than their peers of healthy weight to suffer from obstructive sleep apnea and metabolic syndrome. In turn, affected individuals may experience myriad serious clinical sequelae; neuro-cognitive, psychiatric, cardiovascular, and endocrinologic complications have each been extensively documented. Thus, the spectrum of obesity-related disease represents a serious but preventable threat to personal and family wellness; additionally, it is a source of considerable health care expenditure and represents a national and international health crisis. The optimal care of these patients will be best achieved through the pediatric health care provider's timely recognition of these clinical problems and knowledge of appropriate intervention strategies.
Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Wright, Bruce R; Burns, G Leonard; Parks, Craig D; Strand, Paul S
Without verification of longitudinal measurement invariance, researchers cannot be certain whether observed change in the metabolic syndrome reflects true change or changes in assessment or structure of the construct over time. This research tested longitudinal measurement invariance of a 1-factor model of the metabolic syndrome during the course of 6 years. Tests of longitudinal measurement invariance (configural, metric, and scalar) were conducted on 604 men and women who participated in the Spokane Heart Study from 1996 to 2006. Metabolic syndrome indicators included body mass index, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, diastolic blood pressure, and fasting glucose. Sequential configural and metric invariance models demonstrated adequate model fit, but the scalar invariance model led to a decrement in fit. Therefore, the theoretical framework of the syndrome and the relationships between the syndrome construct and the indicators appear to be equivalent over time. However, observed values of the metabolic syndrome indicators may differ across time when there is a constant level of the syndrome. Because longitudinal invariance was not fully demonstrated, interpretation of change in the metabolic syndrome over time may be misleading because change may be partly attributable to measurement properties of the indicators. However, a cross-sectional 1-factor model of the metabolic syndrome is supported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nelson, Rachel A; Bremer, Andrew A
The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of specific anthropometric, physiological, and biochemical abnormalities predisposing affected individuals to the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The syndrome is well described in the adult literature. However, its description in the pediatric literature is more limited. Due in large part to the normal physiological changes that occur in children and adolescents with respect to growth and puberty, investigators have also struggled to establish a standard definition of the syndrome in the pediatric age group, hindering coordinated research efforts. However, whatever definition of the syndrome is used, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the pediatric age group has increased worldwide. Insulin resistance is the principal metabolic abnormality that is common to the development of the metabolic syndrome in both children and adults. This review summarizes current research regarding the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and how this may contribute to specific abnormalities seen in children and adolescents with the metabolic syndrome. Specifically, insulin resistance in pediatric patients is correlated with cardiovascular risk factors such as elevated blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, all of which are significant risk factors for adult disease. In addition, current treatment and prevention strategies, including lifestyle modifications, pharmacologic agents, and certain surgical therapies, are highlighted. The need for collaborative changes at the family, school, city, state, and national levels to address the growing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the pediatric age group is also reviewed.
Johnson, Philip J; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; LaCarrubba, Alison; Ganjam, V K Seshu; Messer, Nat T
Although much has been written about laminitis in the context of its association with inflammatory processes, recognition is growing that most cases of laminitis examined by veterinarians in private practice are those associated with pasture grazing, obesity, and insulin resistance (IR). The term 'endocrinopathic laminitis' has been adopted to classify the instances of laminitis in which the origin seems to be more strongly associated with an underlying endocrinopathy, such as either IR or the influence of corticosteroids. Results of a recent study suggest that obesity and IR represent the most common metabolic and endocrinopathic predispositions for laminitis in horses. IR also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of laminitis that develops when some horses or ponies are allowed to graze pastures at certain times of the year. The term equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) has been proposed as a label for horses whose clinical examination results (including both physical examination and laboratory testing) suggest heightened risk for developing laminitis as a result of underlying IR.
Keane, Deirdre; Kelly, Stacey; Healy, Niamh P; McArdle, Maeve A; Holohan, Kieran; Roche, Helen M
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex multifactorial disorder and its incidence is on the increase worldwide. Due to the definitive link between obesity and the MetS weight loss strategies are of prime importance in halting the spread of MetS. Numerous epidemiological studies provide evidence linking dietary patterns to incidence of MetS symptoms. As a consequence of the epidemiology studies, dietary intervention studies which analyse the effects of supplementing diets with particular nutrients of interest on the symptoms of the MetS have been conducted. Evidence has shown that lifestyle intervention comprising changes in dietary intake and physical activity leads to an improved metabolic profile both in the presence or absence of weight loss thus highlighting the importance of a multi-faceted approach in combating MetS. Nutritional therapy research is not focused solely on reducing energy intake and manipulating macronutrient intake but is investigating the role of functional foods or bioactive components of food. Such bioactives which target weight maintenance and /or insulin sensitivity may have a potentially positive effect on the symptoms of the MetS. However the efficacy of different functional nutrients needs to be further defined and clearly demonstrated.
Hastert, Theresa A; Gong, Jian; Campos, Hannia; Baylin, Ana
To examine whether total physical activity or activity patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. Participants include 1994 controls from a case-control study of non-fatal myocardial infarction in Costa Rica (1994-2004). Physical activity was assessed via self-administered questionnaire and patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was assessed via blood samples and anthropometry measurements from in-home study visits. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using log binomial regression. Adjusted least squares means of metabolic syndrome components were calculated by quintile of total activity and pattern scores. Four activity patterns were identified: rest/sleep, agricultural, light indoor activity, and manual labor. Total activity was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was 20% lower in participants with the highest scores on the agricultural job pattern compared to those with the lowest (PR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.68-0.94). Higher total activity was associated with lower triglycerides and lower HDL cholesterol. Higher scores on each pattern were inversely associated with metabolic syndrome components, particularly waist circumference and fasting blood glucose. Patterns or types of physical activity may be more strongly associated with metabolic syndrome and its components than total activity levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lonardo, Amedeo; Ballestri, Stefano; Marchesini, Giulio; Angulo, Paul; Loria, Paola
The conventional paradigm of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease representing the "hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome" is outdated. We identified and summarized longitudinal studies that, supporting the association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with either type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome, suggest that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease precedes the development of both conditions. Online Medical databases were searched, relevant articles were identified, their references were further assessed and tabulated data were checked. Although several cross-sectional studies linked nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to either diabetes and other components of the metabolic syndrome, we focused on 28 longitudinal studies which provided evidence for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as a risk factor for the future development of diabetes. Moreover, additional 19 longitudinal reported that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease precedes and is a risk factor for the future development of the metabolic syndrome. Finally, molecular and genetic studies are discussed supporting the view that aetiology of steatosis and lipid intra-hepatocytic compartmentation are a major determinant of whether fatty liver is/is not associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Data support the novel paradigm of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as a strong determinant for the development of the metabolic syndrome, which has potentially relevant clinical implications for diagnosing, preventing and treating metabolic syndrome.
Hastert, Theresa A.; Gong, Jian; Campos, Hannia; Baylin, Ana
Objective To examine whether total physical activity or activity patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. Methods Participants include 1,994 controls from a case-control study of non-fatal myocardial infarction in Costa Rica (1994–2004). Physical activity was assessed via self-administered questionnaire and patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was assessed via blood samples and anthropometry measurements from in-home study visits. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using log binomial regression. Adjusted least squares means of metabolic syndrome components were calculated by quintile of total activity and pattern scores. Results Four activity patterns were identified: rest/sleep, agricultural, light indoor activity, and manual labor. Total activity was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was 20% lower in participants with the highest scores on the agricultural job pattern compared to those with the lowest (PR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.68–0.94). Higher total activity was associated with lower triglycerides and lower HDL cholesterol. Higher scores on each pattern were inversely associated with metabolic syndrome components, particularly waist circumference and fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Patterns or types of physical activity may be more strongly associated with metabolic syndrome and its components than total activity levels. PMID:25445330
Hauhouot-Attoungbré, Marie Laure; Yayo, Eric Sagou; Konan, Jean-Louis; Koné, Fatoumata; Siara, Eugénie; Monnet, Dagui
Metabolic syndrome is a particular state of morbidity characterized by the association of several factors contributing to the increase in the cardiovascular risk. This constellation of factors associates the glucose intolerance and its corollary the hyperglycemia, the overweight, the hypertriglyceridemia, the fall of the HDL-cholesterol and arterial hypertension. In Africa, it is difficult to evaluate in the actual prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. The present study aims was to determine the prediction and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a group of nurse--lactating mothers--in Abidjan (Ivory Coast), who were submitted at a particularly rich food lipids. Our populations were composed to 100 lactating women, and we used the definition of « National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III ». The results obtained showed that the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is 7%, and 30% of them are presented an abdominal obesity. Our populations were composed to 100 lactating women, which belong to the Ethie where the habit are to eat, after giving birth, high foods lipids for 6 months. We used the definition of "National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III" to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this population and see if the diet has a negative influence. The results obtained showed that the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is 7%, and 30% of them are presented an abdominal obesity. The risk to develop a metabolic syndrome in this specific population of nurse is particularly big and it's linked to their eating habits.
Gobato, Amanda Oliva; Vasques, Ana Carolina J; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Barros Filho, Antonio de Azevedo; Hessel, Gabriel
To verify the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents and its relationship with different body composition indicators. A cross-sectional study comprising 79 adolescents aged ten to 18 years old. The assessed body composition indicators were: body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, abdominal circumference, and subcutaneous fat. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Cook et al. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index for values above 3.16. The analysis of ROC curves was used to assess the BMI and the abdominal circumference, aiming to identify the subjects with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The cutoff point corresponded to the percentage above the reference value used to diagnose obesity. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 45.5% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29.1%. Insulin resistance showed association with HDL-cholesterol (p=0.032) and with metabolic syndrome (p=0.006). All body composition indicators were correlated with insulin resistance (p<0.01). In relation to the cutoff point evaluation, the values of 23.5 and 36.3% above the BMI reference point allowed the identification of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The best cutoff point for abdominal circumference to identify insulin resistance was 40%. All body composition indicators, HDL-cholesterol and metabolic syndrome showed correlation with insulin resistance. The BMI was the most effective anthropometric indicator to identify insulin resistance.
Murphy, Rinki; Carroll, Richard W; Krebs, Jeremy D
Identifying rare human metabolic disorders that result from a single-gene defect has not only enabled improved diagnostic and clinical management of such patients, but also has resulted in key biological insights into the pathophysiology of the increasingly prevalent metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are linked to obesity and driven by excess caloric intake and reduced physical activity. However, key events in the causation of the metabolic syndrome are difficult to disentangle from compensatory effects and epiphenomena. This review provides an overview of three types of human monogenic disorders that result in (1) severe, non-syndromic obesity, (2) pancreatic beta cell forms of early-onset diabetes, and (3) severe insulin resistance. In these patients with single-gene defects causing their exaggerated metabolic disorder, the primary defect is known. The lessons they provide for current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the common metabolic syndrome are highlighted.
Taylor, Simeon I
In this issue of the journal, Brima et al. report thought-provoking research providing a potential evolutionary rationale whereby natural selection might have preserved genes that predispose to metabolic syndrome. When CD-1 mice were fed a high fat diet, this induced metabolic changes characteristic of metabolic syndrome. In addition, the high fat diet provided substantial protection from lethality due to infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. The authors hypothesize that the same genes predispose to both metabolic syndrome and protection against infectious disease. Thus, the selective advantage of not dying from infectious disease implicitly provides selective pressure predisposing to metabolic syndrome. This hypothesis follows a similar line of reasoning that has provided explanations for the survival of the HbS mutation for sickle cell disease and renal disease-associated genetic variants in apolipoprotein L1. Variants in these two genes provide protection from malaria and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, respectively.
Reisin, Efrain; Alpert, Martin A
Metabolic syndrome includes a clustering of metabolic derangements that cause affected subjects to have an increased risk for developing diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and, according to recent epidemiologic studies, chronic kidney disease. The present review discusses four definitions of metabolic syndrome published by different national and international committees. In an effort to bridge the differences existent in those classifications, a unified definition that recognizes the increased biologic activity of the upper visceral fatty tissue and the strong association of abdominal obesity as a leading part of metabolic syndrome is proposed herein. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome is reserved for pre-diabetic patients who share the risk of becoming diabetic or developing cardiovascular or chronic kidney disease.
Sidiropoulos, Prodromos I; Karvounaris, Stylianos A; Boumpas, Dimitrios T
Subjects with metabolic syndrome--a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors of which central obesity and insulin resistance are the most characteristic--are at increased risk for developing diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. In these subjects, abdominal adipose tissue is a source of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, known to promote insulin resistance. The presence of inflammatory cytokines together with the well-documented increased risk for cardiovascular diseases in patients with inflammatory arthritides and systemic lupus erythematosus has prompted studies to examine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in an effort to identify subjects at risk in addition to that conferred by traditional cardiovascular risk factors. These studies have documented a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome which correlates with disease activity and markers of atherosclerosis. The correlation of inflammatory disease activity with metabolic syndrome provides additional evidence for a link between inflammation and metabolic disturbances/vascular morbidity.
Murphy, Rinki; Carroll, Richard W.; Krebs, Jeremy D.
Identifying rare human metabolic disorders that result from a single-gene defect has not only enabled improved diagnostic and clinical management of such patients, but also has resulted in key biological insights into the pathophysiology of the increasingly prevalent metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are linked to obesity and driven by excess caloric intake and reduced physical activity. However, key events in the causation of the metabolic syndrome are difficult to disentangle from compensatory effects and epiphenomena. This review provides an overview of three types of human monogenic disorders that result in (1) severe, non-syndromic obesity, (2) pancreatic beta cell forms of early-onset diabetes, and (3) severe insulin resistance. In these patients with single-gene defects causing their exaggerated metabolic disorder, the primary defect is known. The lessons they provide for current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the common metabolic syndrome are highlighted. PMID:23766565
Li Vecchi, Valentina; Maggi, Paolo; Rizzo, Manfredi; Montalto, Giuseppe
The metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, has become an important public health problem. Considerable differences in the prevalence of the MetS in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects have been reported, as a consequence of several limitations regarding the diagnostic critera for MetS. New evidence suggests that the use of optimal waist cut-off points specific for the various ethnic populations could represent a step forward in overcoming these limitations. Also the use of specific cut-off points for measuring upper trunk fat as an adjunctive criterion of MetS in HIV patients with lipodystrophy could represent an interesting new research topic. Although metabolic disorders have been associated indirectly with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), directly with HIV infection per se or with host conditions, current circumstances could change the framework of MetS in the HIV setting: For example, the aging HIV population and newer, less metabolically toxic antiretroviral drugs. Lipotoxicity and adipokines have been focused as key issues for explaining MetS in HIV patients. Several studies have investigated the pathophysiology of MetS and cardiovascular complications in HIV infection. Evidence shows that both HIV infection per se and HIV-related chronic immune activation despite antiretroviral therapy are critical factors linking MetS and cardiovascular complications. Current epidemiological and pathogenetic data on MetS in HIV infection, prevention strategies and therapeutic options for all MetS components are reviewed in the light of the recent Adult Treatment Panel IV recommendations and the new antiretroviral drugs.
Wierzbicki, A S
Rimonabant is the first drug to target the endocannabinoid (CB) pathway by inhibiting the actions of anandamide and 2-archidonyl-glycerol on CB1 receptors. This review gives an overview of rimonabant and the CB system and how this system relates to obesity. Rimonabant blocks the central effects of this neurotransmitter pathway involved in obesity and weight control and also blocks the direct effects of CBs on adipocyte and hepatocyte metabolism. Blockade of CB1 receptors leads to a decrease in appetite and also has direct actions in adipose tissue and the liver to improve glucose, fat and cholesterol metabolism so improving insulin resistance, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and in some patients, blood pressure. The Rimonabant in Obesity (RIO) trials have shown that rimonabant induces weight loss > 5% in 30-40% of patients and > 10% in 10-20% above both a dietary run-in and long-term hypocaloric management over a 2 year period with a low level of drug-related side effects. Rimonabant therapy is associated with an extra 8-10% increase in HDL-C and a 10-30% reduction in triglycerides and improvements in insulin resistance, glycaemic control in patients with diabetes and also adipokines and cytokines including C-reactive protein over hypocaloric diet therapy. In addition rimonabant abolishes the weight gain associated with smoking cessation and improves the chances of quitting smoking. Thus rimonabant has major effects on both the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors thus has the potential to reduce the risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease associated with the cardiometabolic phenotype.
Rice, Megan S; Biessy, Carine; Lajous, Martin; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Tamimi, Rulla M; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Romieu, Isabelle
Metabolic syndrome has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer; however, little is known about the association between metabolic syndrome and percent mammographic density, a strong predictor of breast cancer. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 789 premenopausal and 322 postmenopausal women in the Mexican Teacher's Cohort (ESMaestras). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition. We measured percent density on mammograms using a computer-assisted thresholding method. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the association between density and metabolic syndrome, as well as its components by state (Jalisco, Veracruz) and menopausal status (premenopausal, postmenopausal). Among premenopausal women in Jalisco, women with metabolic syndrome had higher percent density than those without after adjusting for potential confounders including BMI [difference = 4.76; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.72-7.81]. Among the metabolic syndrome components, only low high-density lipoprotein levels (<50 mg/dL) were associated with significantly higher percent density among premenopausal women in Jalisco (difference = 4.62; 95% CI, 1.73-7.52). Metabolic syndrome was not associated with percent density among premenopausal women in Veracruz (difference = -2.91; 95% CI, -7.19 to 1.38), nor among postmenopausal women in either state. Metabolic syndrome was associated with higher percent density among premenopausal women in Jalisco, Mexico, but was not associated with percent density among premenopausal women in Veracruz, Mexico, or among postmenopausal women in either Jalisco or Veracruz. These findings provide some support for a possible role of metabolic syndrome in mammographic density among premenopausal women; however, results were inconsistent across states and require further confirmation in larger studies. ©2013 AACR.
Tanaka, H; Shiohira, Y; Uezu, Y; Higa, A; Iseki, K
We assessed the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a hospital-based screening program in Okinawa, Japan. The significance of metabolic syndrome as a determinant of CKD was examined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 6980 participants, aged 30-79 years, participated in a screening program in Tomishiro Chuo Hospital. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria of the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III). Data were also analyzed according to the modified criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) that defines abdominal obesity as a waist circumference of > oe =85 cm in men and > or =90 cm in women. CKD was defined as dipstick proteinuria (> or =1+) or a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). GFR was estimated using the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and CKD was 12.8 and 13.7%, respectively. Metabolic syndrome was a significant determinant of CKD (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.537 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.277-1.850, P<0.0001). The adjusted OR (95% CI) was 1.770 (1.215-2.579, P=0.0029) for those with four metabolic syndrome risk factors compared to those with no metabolic syndrome risk factors. Metabolic syndrome was a significant determinant for younger participants (<60 years; OR 1.686, 95% CI 1.348-2.107, P<0.0001), but not for older participants (> or =60 years; OR 1.254, 95% CI 0.906-1.735, NS). The relationship between the number of metabolic syndrome risk factors and the prevalence of CKD was linear using the modified criteria. The results suggest that metabolic syndrome is a significant determinant of CKD in men under 60 years of age, in Okinawa, Japan.
Cho, Sung Tae; Jung, Seung Il; Myung, Soon Chul; Kim, Tae Hyoung
To determine the correlation between metabolic syndrome and the distribution of stone components in patients with urolithiasis. Between January 2007 and December 2010, renal or ureteral stones were collected from 712 patients (432 males, 280 females) who underwent surgical intervention at three hospitals in South Korea. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the latest definition of the International Diabetes Federation, using ethnicity- and sex-specific cut-off values for central obesity. Patients were assessed by factors used in metabolic syndrome. All urinary stones were analyzed using infrared spectrophotometry and categorized according to their main component. The patients' mean age was 55.9 years (range 19-93 years). Of the 712 patients, 347 (48.7%; 205 males, 142 females) had a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Calcium oxalate (71.5%), uric acid (15.3%), carbonate apatite (8.0%) and struvite (4.1%) calculi were found as the main stone components. Overall, the proportion of uric acid calculi was markedly higher in patients with rather than without metabolic syndrome (19.6 vs 11.2%; P=0.002). However, the proportion of calcium oxalate, carbonate apatite and struvite calculi did not differ between the two groups. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for uric acid calculi according to the metabolic syndrome components indicated that the presence of metabolic syndrome was associated with a 93% increased odds ratio of uric acid calculi compared with the absence of metabolic syndrome. Impaired fasting glucose and hypertriglyceridemia were independent risk factors for uric acid calculi. Metabolic syndrome is associated with a significantly increased risk of uric acid calculi development, especially those with impaired fasting glucose and hypertriglyceridemia. © 2012 The Japanese Urological Association.
Zhu, Ling; Zhao, Xiaolan; Zeng, Ping; Zhu, Jianguo; Yang, Shuwen; Liu, Annan; Song, Yuehua
There is still a lack of simple methods and instruments for the early assessment of autonomic dysfunction in metabolic syndrome patients. Assessment of sudomotor function has been proposed to explore autonomic function, and could be used as an early biomarker for metabolic syndrome. In the present study, we use a quick and non-invasive method to measure sudomotor function, and aimed to evaluate its efficacy to identify metabolic syndrome in a Chinese population. Information on the 1,160 Chinese participants involved in the study, such as age, sex, blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose and lipid profile, and SUDOSCAN, was recorded. During the sudomotor test, patients were asked to place their bare hands and feet on large electrodes. The test took 2 min to carry out, was painless and no participant preparation was required. A total of 567 participants were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome correlated significantly with increasing SUDOSCAN cardiac risk score (P for trend <0.0001). Furthermore, an increase in cardiac risk score value was associated with an increase in the number of metabolic syndrome components (P for trend <0.0001). Compared with the no-risk group (cardiac risk score <20), participants in the high-risk group (cardiac risk score ≥30) had a 2.83-fold increased risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome (P < 0.0001), and 1.51-fold increased risk (P = 0.01) after adjustments. Autonomic dysfunction is correlated to components of metabolic syndrome. The role of SUDOSCAN in the screening of at-risk populations for metabolic syndrome has to be confirmed by further studies. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Rutters, Femke; Pilz, Stefan; Koopman, Anitra D M; Rauh, Simone P; Pouwer, Frans; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Elders, Petra J; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M
Stressful life events are associated with the metabolic syndrome in cross-sectional studies, but prospective studies addressing this issue are rare and limited. We therefore evaluated whether the number of stressful life events is associated with incident metabolic syndrome. We assessed the association between the number of stressful life events experienced in the 5 years up until baseline and incident metabolic syndrome after 6.5 years at follow-up in the Hoorn study, a middle-aged and elderly population-based cohort. Participants with prevalent metabolic syndrome at baseline were excluded. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III, including fasting plasma glucose levels, HDL-C levels, triglyceride levels, waist circumference and hypertension. We included 1099 participants (47% male; age 60 ± 7 years). During 6.5 years of follow-up, 238 participants (22%) developed the metabolic syndrome. Logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, education level and follow-up duration showed a positive association between the number of stressful life events at baseline and incident metabolic syndrome [OR 1.13 (1.01-1.27) per event, p = 0.049]. In addition, a Poisson model showed a significant positive association between the number of stressful life events at baseline and the number of metabolic syndrome factors at follow-up [OR 1.05 (1.01-1.11) per event, p = 0.018]. Finally, we observed a significant association between the number of stressful life events at baseline and waist circumference at follow-up [adjusted for confounders β 0.86 (0.39-1.34) cm per event, p < 0.001]. Overall, we concluded that persons who reported more stressful life events at baseline had a significantly increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome during 6.5 years of follow-up, in a middle-aged and elderly population-based cohort.
Bernabé García, Juana; Zafrilla Rentero, Pilar; Mulero Cánovas, Juana; Gómez Jara, Purificación; Leal Hernández, Mariano; Abellán Alemán, José
1) Nutritional assessment of the diet followed by patients with metabolic syndrome, and 2) biochemical analysis of the oxidation-reduction level in patients with metabolic syndrome. A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients with metabolic syndrome in Murcia. Fifty-three patients, 33 with and 20 without (control group) metabolic syndrome, were selected. The intervention consisted of completion of a recall survey and a test to nutritionally assess dietary intake. Anthropometric and laboratory variables, including those related to antioxidant activity, were also tested. Antioxidant activity was within normal limits in both groups (1.7 ± 0.2 mmol/L in the control group and 1.8 ± 0.1 mmol/L in the metabolic syndrome group) (NS). Superoxide dismutase levels were not significantly different between the groups. Mean glutathione reductase levels (U/L) were higher in the control group as compared to patients with metabolic syndrome (P<.05). As regards oxidative stress biomarkers, mean isoprostane levels were higher in the control group (4.9 ± 6.2 ng/mL) than in metabolic syndrome patients (3.5 ± 3.9 ng/mL) (P<.05). Oxidized LDL values tended to be higher in metabolic syndrome patients (96 ± 23.2U/L) as compared to the control group (86.2 ± 17.3 U/L), but differences were not significant. There is a trend to a poorer nutritional and biochemical profile in patients with metabolic syndrome, who also tend to have a greater degree of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Rice, Megan; Biessy, Carine; Lajous, Martin; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Romieu, Isabelle
Background Metabolic syndrome has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer; however little is known about the association between metabolic syndrome and percent mammographic density, a strong predictor of breast cancer. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 789 premenopausal and 322 postmenopausal women in the Mexican Teacher's Cohort (ESMaestras). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition. We measured percent density on mammograms using a computer-assisted thresholding method. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the association between density and metabolic syndrome, as well as its components by state (Jalisco, Veracruz) and menopausal status (premenopausal, postmenopausal). Results Among premenopausal women in Jalisco, women with metabolic syndrome had higher percent density compared to those without after adjusting for potential confounders including BMI (difference = 4.76, 95%CI: 1.72, 7.81). Among the metabolic syndrome components, only low high-density lipoprotein levels (<50mg/dl) were associated with significantly higher percent density among premenopausal women in Jalisco (difference=4.62, 95%CI: 1.73, 7.52). Metabolic syndrome was not associated with percent density among premenopausal women in Veracruz (difference=-2.91, 95% CI: -7.19, 1.38), nor among postmenopausal women in either state. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome was associated with higher percent density among premenopausal women in Jalisco, Mexico, but was not associated with percent density among premenopausal women in Veracruz, Mexico or among postmenopausal women in either Jalisco or Veracruz. These findings provide some support for a possible role of metabolic syndrome in mammographic density among premenopausal women; however results were inconsistent across states and require further confirmation in larger studies. PMID:23682074
Cheng, A Y; Leiter, Lawrence A
In the past two decades, the 'metabolic syndrome' has raised much clinical and research interest and remains a controversial topic. The constellation of commonly coexisting cardiovascular risk factors, now known as the metabolic syndrome, has had many definitions which has added to the confusion surrounding the syndrome. Recently, the controversy has been escalated by a joint statement from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes calling into question the existence and clinical utility of the metabolic syndrome as a discrete clinical entity. Despite the controversy, there is agreement that the risk factors of abdominal obesity, hypertension, elevated glucose and dyslipidemia commonly coexist in the same patient, and are important to identify when assessing an individual patient's risk. Therefore, whether the 'syndrome' is a distinct clinical entity is not important. By definition, a syndrome is a group of signs or symptoms that commonly group together. It remains a useful clinical tool to raise awareness among health care professionals to look for 'nontraditional' cardiovascular risk factors, such as glucose intolerance or elevated waist circumference, in patients with other components of the syndrome, without negating the importance of identifying and treating the other 'traditional' risk factors not identified in the syndrome. It also reminds clinicians of the importance of lifestyle interventions to treat all of the components of the syndrome. Therefore, the 'metabolic syndrome' continues to serve a useful clinical purpose to raise awareness among health care professionals and aid in identifying high-risk individuals.
Singleton, J Robinson; Marcus, Robin L; Lessard, Margaret K; Jackson, Justin E; Smith, A Gordon
Unmyelinated cutaneous axons are vulnerable to physical and metabolic injury, but also capable of rapid regeneration. This balance may help determine risk for peripheral neuropathy associated with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Capsaicin application for 48 hours induces cutaneous fibers to die back into the dermis. Regrowth can be monitored by serial skin biopsies to determine intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). We used this capsaicin axotomy technique to examine the effects of exercise on cutaneous regenerative capacity in the setting of metabolic syndrome. Baseline ankle IENFD and 30-day cutaneous regeneration after thigh capsaicin axotomy were compared for participants with type 2 diabetes (n = 35) or metabolic syndrome (n = 32) without symptoms or examination evidence of neuropathy. Thirty-six participants (17 with metabolic syndrome) then joined twice weekly observed exercise and lifestyle counseling. Axotomy regeneration was repeated in month 4 during this intervention. Baseline distal leg IENFD was significantly reduced for both metabolic syndrome and diabetic groups. With exercise, participants significantly improved exercise capacity and lower extremity power. Following exercise, 30-day reinnervation rate improved (0.051 ± 0.027 fibers/mm/day before vs 0.072 ± 0.030 after exercise, p = 0.002). Those who achieved improvement in more metabolic syndrome features experienced a greater degree of 30-day reinnervation (p < 0.012). Metabolic syndrome was associated with reduced baseline IENFD and cutaneous regeneration capacity comparable to that seen in diabetes. Exercise-induced improvement in metabolic syndrome features increased cutaneous regenerative capacity. The results underscore the potential benefit to peripheral nerve function of a behavioral modification approach to metabolic improvement. © 2014 American Neurological Association.
Maddah, Shahpoor; Mahdizadeh, Jamileh
The association of obesity and other metabolic conditions with osteoarthritis is under debate; however, a strong link between metabolic disturbances is suggested to contribute to increased incidences and progression of osteoarthritis. We examined the association of metabolic syndrome and its components with the incidence of knee osteoarthritis in Iranian population. A community-based study was conducted on a total of 625 Iranian volunteers with the complaint of knee pain. Weight-bearing and anteroposterior plain radiographs of both knees were taken on the day of admission. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the modified Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome were 22.5% in males and 11.6% in females (P=0.002). The prevalence rate of knee osteoarthritis was 20.0% in males and 43.8% of females (P<0.001). In both genders, osteoarthritis group had higher serum levels of triglyceride and systolic blood pressure in comparison with non-osteoarthritis group. Women with osteoarthritis had higher Body Mass Index (BMI), however, this association was not observed in men. In females, the presence of osteoarthritis was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome, with the risk of metabolic syndrome in the osteoarthritis group at 2.187 fold the risk in the non-osteoarthritis group. But, the presence of osteoarthritis was not associated with metabolic syndrome in males. Metabolic syndrome mainly through high BMI is associated with knee osteoarthritis in the Iranian women, but neither metabolic syndrome nor any related components are associated with knee osteoarthritis in men.
Shin, Aesun; Lim, Sun-Young; Sung, Joohon; Shin, Hai-Rim; Kim, Jeongseon
Dietary factors contribute to the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, a disorder associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and some cancers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the intake frequencies of certain food groups, eating habits, and the risk of metabolic syndrome in a cross-sectional study of Korean men. Study participants were recruited from the National Cancer Center in South Korea. A total of 7,081 men aged 30 years and older were recruited between August 2002 and May 2007. Metabolic syndrome was defined as having three or more of the following conditions: obesity, high blood pressure, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, high triglyceride level, and high fasting blood glucose level. The association of metabolic syndrome and sociodemographic characteristics, food intake frequencies, and eating habits assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, was examined. The prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome for men aged 30 to 39, 40 to 49, 50 to 59, and 60+ years was 18.2%, 19.8%, 21.9%, and 20.5%, respectively. The study participants with metabolic syndrome had significantly higher family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (27.6% vs 21.6%, P<0.001), and were more likely to be current smokers (50.1% vs 45.3%, P=0.005) than their counterparts. Among food group items, participants with metabolic syndrome showed significantly higher intake of seaweed (odds ratio [OR] 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05 to 1.50), and oily foods (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.57) than participants without metabolic syndrome. In addition, the group with metabolic syndrome was more likely to eat quickly (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.60 to 3.12 for fast vs slow) and to overeat frequently (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.85 to 3.05 for more than 4 times a week vs less than once a week). The results suggest that high intake of seaweed and oily foods as well as eating habits such as eating faster and frequent
Schneider-Burrus, Sylke; Metternich, Deborah; Kokolakis, Georgios; Kurek, Agata; Philipp, Sandra; Uribe, Daniela; Wolk, Kerstin; Sterry, Wolfram
Background Acne inversa (AI; also designated as Hidradenitis suppurativa) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease, localized in the axillary, inguinal and perianal skin areas that causes painful, fistulating sinuses with malodorous purulence and scars. Several chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with the metabolic syndrome and its consequences including arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease, myocardial infraction, and stroke. So far, the association of AI with systemic metabolic alterations is largely unexplored. Methods and Findings A hospital-based case-control study in 80 AI patients and 100 age- and sex-matched control participants was carried out. The prevalence of central obesity (odds ratio 5.88), hypertriglyceridemia (odds ratio 2.24), hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia (odds ratio 4.56), and hyperglycemia (odds ratio 4.09) in AI patients was significantly higher than in controls. Furthermore, the metabolic syndrome, previously defined as the presence of at least three of the five alterations listed above, was more common in those patients compared to controls (40.0% versus 13.0%; odds ratio 4.46, 95% confidence interval 2.02 to 9.96; P<0.001). AI patients with metabolic syndrome also had more pronounced metabolic alterations than controls with metabolic syndrome. Interestingly, there was no correlation between the severity or duration of the disease and the levels of respective parameters or the number of criteria defining the metabolic syndrome. Rather, the metabolic syndrome was observed in a disproportionately high percentage of young AI patients. Conclusions This study shows for the first time that AI patients have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and all of its criteria. It further suggests that the inflammation present in AI patients does not have a major impact on the development of metabolic alterations. Instead, evidence is given for a role of metabolic alterations in the development of AI. We recommend monitoring of AI patients
Brown, Audrey E; Walker, Mark
Insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome are complex metabolic traits and key risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. They result from the interplay of environmental and genetic factors but the full extent of the genetic background to these conditions remains incomplete. Large-scale genome-wide association studies have helped advance the identification of common genetic variation associated with insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome, and more recently, exome sequencing has allowed the identification of rare variants associated with the pathogenesis of these conditions. Many variants associated with insulin resistance are directly involved in glucose metabolism; however, functional studies are required to assess the contribution of other variants to the development of insulin resistance. Many genetic variants involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome are associated with lipid metabolism.
Masson, Walter; Epstein, Teo; Huerín, Melina; Lobo, Lorenzo Martín; Molinero, Graciela; Angel, Adriana; Masson, Gerardo; Millán, Diana; De Francesca, Salvador; Vitagliano, Laura; Cafferata, Alberto; Losada, Pablo
The estimated cardiovascular risk determined by the different risk scores, could be heterogeneous in patients with metabolic syndrome without diabetes or vascular disease. This risk stratification could be improved by detecting subclinical carotid atheromatosis. To estimate the cardiovascular risk measured by different scores in patients with metabolic syndrome and analyze its association with the presence of carotid plaque. Non-diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III definition) without cardiovascular disease were enrolled. The Framingham score, the Reynolds score, the new score proposed by the 2013 ACC/AHA Guidelines and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator were calculated. Prevalence of carotid plaque was determined by ultrasound examination. A Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis was performed. A total of 238 patients were enrolled. Most patients were stratified as "low risk" by Framingham score (64%) and Reynolds score (70.1%). Using the 2013 ACC/AHA score, 45.3% of the population had a risk ≥7.5%. A significant correlation was found between classic scores but the agreement (concordance) was moderate. The correlation between classical scores and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator was poor. Overall, the prevalence of carotid plaque was 28.2%. The continuous metabolic syndrome score used in our study showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque (area under the curve 0.752). In this population, the calculated cardiovascular risk was heterogenic. The prevalence of carotid plaque was high. The Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque.
Jerums, George; Ekinci, Elif I.
Cardiovascular (CV) and kidney disease are common and significant complications in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). CV disease is the leading cause of death, morbidly and hospitalisations for people with T2DM. Furthermore, diabetic kidney disease is a major risk factor for CV disease and is the main reason why patients need renal replacement therapy. In this perspective, we highlight the results of the recent landmark EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial which has shown that empagliflozin, a member of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor class of glucose lowering medications, reduces death from CV causes, hospitalisation for heart failure and progression to end stage kidney disease in patients with T2DM and established CV disease. The SGLT2 receptor mediates high-capacity glucose uptake in the early proximal tubule, and SGLT2 inhibitors, via their ability to promote glycosuria, have been developed as glucose lowering medications. As well as having a glucose lowering effect, SGLT-2 inhibitors also reduce blood pressure, promote weight loss and reduce uric acid levels. Potential side-effects or concerns related to the use of SGLT-2 inhibitors include increased rates of urinary tract infections, genital tract infections, postural hypotension, diabetic ketoacidosis, acute kidney injury and possible increased rates of fractures. The exact mechanisms that result in empagliflozin’s dramatic CV and renal protective effects, with a very favourable safety/tolerability profile, in the EMPA-REG study remain to be fully defined. However, they are most likely distinct from the glucose lowering effects of empagliflozin. CV safety trials involving dapagliflozin and canagliflozin, members of the SGLT-2 class, are under way and the results from these studies will help to answer the question as to whether the cardio-renal benefits of empagliflozin are a class-effect or not. Without doubt, trials to investigate whether SGLT-2 inhibitors have cardio-renal protective effects in
Background Metabolic syndrome has become a major public health concern, but the role of diet in the etiology of this syndrome is not well understood. This study investigated the association between major dietary patterns and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a Japanese working population. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 460 municipal employees (284 men and 176 women), aged 21–67 years, who participated in a health survey at the time of periodic checkup. Dietary patterns were derived by using the principal component analysis of the consumption of 52 food and beverage items, which were assessed by a validated brief diet history questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the modified NCEP-ATP III criteria. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome with adjustment of potential confounding variables. Results Three dietary patterns were identified. Westernized breakfast pattern characterized by high intakes of bread, confectionaries, and milk and yogurt but low intakes of rice and alcoholic beverages was inversely associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome and high blood pressure (P for trend = 0.02 and 0.049, respectively). Animal food pattern characterized by high intakes of fish and shellfish, meat, processed meat, mayonnaise, and egg was not associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome, but was positively associated with high blood glucose (P for trend = 0.03). Healthy Japanese dietary pattern characterized by vegetables and fruits, soy products, mushrooms, and green tea was not appreciably associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome or its components. Conclusions The results suggest that westernized breakfast pattern may confer some protection against metabolic syndrome in Japanese. The causality of these associations needs to be confirmed. PMID:23537319
Suliga, Edyta; Kozieł, Dorota; Głuszek, Stanisław
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and overweight in individuals with normal body weight is connected with higher exposure to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk and frequency of occurrence of metabolic syndrome and each of its components among individuals with normal weight. Data were obtained by structured interview, and by measurements of anthropometric factors and blood analyses among 13,172 individuals aged 37-66. The risk of occurrence of metabolic syndrome was analysed in tertiles within the normal range of BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2) ). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 17.27% of individuals with normal weight. A significant increase in the risk of occurrence of metabolic syndrome in females was observed within the second (OR = 2.22; 95% CI: 1.63-3.05) and the third (OR = 3.97; 95% CI: 2.97-5.36) tertiles of normal BMI values. In males, a significantly higher risk of occurrence of metabolic syndrome was noted only in the highest BMI tertile (OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.26-3.83), compared to the reference level. A high frequency of occurrence of metabolic syndrome risk factors was observed among individuals with BMI close to the upper cut-off point of the normal range. In order to early diagnose metabolically obese individuals with normal weight it is necessary to check the waist circumference when BMI ≥ 22.5 kg/m(2) in females, and BMI ≥ 23.8 kg/m(2) in males, where abnormal values should be a signal that further examinations should be performed to determine other risk factors of metabolic syndrome.
Hromnats'ka, N M
To study dyslipidemia types in children with metabolic syndrome. From 1520 children of total population 155 children aged from 9 to 18 years were selected, who formed 2 groups: 1 group--85 children with metabolic syndrome, 2 group--54 children with normal body mass. Anthropometry, blood pressure measurement, estimation of total cholesterol, low density cholesterol, very low density cholesterol, high density cholesterol, tryglicerides in blood were done. The total cholesterol level was 1,1 times higher (p = 0.001), low density cholesterol 1,4 times higher (p = 0.001), very low density cholesterol 1,1 times higher (p= 0.015), tryglicerides 1,1 times higher (p = 0.020) in children with metabolic syndrome than in children of control group. In children with metabolic syndrome sensitively more often IIa, IV dislipidemia types and isolated hypercholesterolemia and less often IIb, III dislipidemia types and high density cholesterol isolated decrease were diagnosed. So children with metabolic syndrome were characterized by atherogenic types of dislipidemias which determine early atherosclerosis development. Children with metabolic syndrome must be examined on the lipid metabolism violation with the aim of its prevention and correction.
Baños, G; Pérez-Torres, I; El Hafidi, M
The metabolic syndrome (MS) has become a worldwide health problem. It is difficult for patients to follow a diet/exercise regime that would improve their symptoms, therefore the investigation of agents that may deal with its more serious aspects is an important medical field for research. The cardiovascular consequences associated with the syndrome and some of the therapeutic approaches are discussed. The different agents can be divided into several groups: Inorganic/ organic: Zinc complexes with garlic components as insulino-mimetics; Selenium as antioxidant; Copper, Zinc and Manganese as microcomponents of antioxidant enzymes. Organic: Natural or Synthetic: Glycine is effective in lowering blood pressure, TBARS, intra-abdominal fat tissue and triglycerides in sucrose-fed rats. Pharmaceutical products: Fibrates, Lipid-lowering drugs. Antidiabetics. Anti-gout agents. On the other hand there are natural products such as those of animal origin: Sex hormones (also synthetic) used in the problems of menopause and hypoandrogenism frequently found in the MS, antioxidant Omega-3-oils (fish oils) or Vegetal: for example Digitalis pupurea, century-old cardiovascular medication as well as Magnolia officinalis; Spirulina maxima with beneficial effects as antioxidant and lipid-lowering agent, among others. Prickly Pear Cacti. (Opuntia Ficus- Indica Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd.) Spreng) whose many properties against diabetes and hypercholesterolemia have been empirically known for many years. Perezone (from Perezia plants, a.k.a. Peonia) described as an antiplatelet aggregating agent. The mixed elements in the Mediterranean diet: Fish, salads (peppers, tomatoes), olive oil, garlic, red wine which combines fish oils, garlic and avocado as well as antioxidants from the rest of its components.
Park, Sun-Hee; Lindholm, Bengt
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as a cluster of risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease; it is also an independent risk factor for developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population. Therefore, CKD has many similarities and associations with MetS, and the individual risk factors constituting MetS-especially insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity-are also common features of the early stages of CKD. In the later stages of CKD, uremia per se and uremic complications such as fluid retention, protein-energy wasting, inflammation, and oxidative stress further contribute to an increase in the prevalence of MetS in CKD patients. In addition, PD patients exposed to glucose-based PD fluids have an increased risk of developing metabolic complications. The broad use of MetS in clinical research has raised the awareness of the public and of individual patients concerning the value of lifestyle interventions. However, the definition and pathogenesis of MetS are still debated, and no standardized definition nor proven prognostic value has been established for MetS as a cluster of risk factors for diabetes or cardiovascular disease in PD patients. Furthermore, considering the paradoxical associations of some of the risk factors in MetS with decreased mortality, another set of risk factors-those specific to patients with uremia (for example, inflammation and malnutrition)-and the appropriate cut-off levels to individual MetS risk factors should be taken account at the same time. Also, the benefit of interventions targeting these risk factors should be clarified in further clinical studies.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that include obesity, impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Recently, more attention has been reserved to the correlation between periodontitis and systemic health. MetS is characterized by oxidative stress, a condition in which the equilibrium between the production and the inactivation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) becomes disrupted. ROS have an essential role in a variety of physiological systems, but under a condition of oxidative stress, they contribute to cellular dysfunction and damage. Oxidative stress may act as a common link to explain the relationship between each component of MetS and periodontitis. All those conditions show increased serum levels of products derived from oxidative damage, promoting a proinflammatory state. Moreover, adipocytokines, produced by the fat cells of fat tissue, might modulate the balance between oxidant and antioxidant activities. An increased caloric intake involves a higher metabolic activity, which results in an increased production of ROS, inducing insulin resistance. At the same time, obese patients require more insulin to maintain blood glucose homeostasis – a state known as hyperinsulinemia, a condition that can evolve into type 2 diabetes. Oxidation products can increase neutrophil adhesion and chemotaxis, thus favoring oxidative damage. Hyperglycemia and an oxidizing state promote the genesis of advanced glycation end-products, which could also be implicated in the degeneration and damage of periodontal tissue. Thus, MetS, the whole of interconnected factors, presents systemic and local manifestations, such as cardiovascular disease and periodontitis, related by a common factor known as oxidative stress. PMID:23009606
This study identified factors associated with unhealthy lifestyle behaviors in people with metabolic syndrome in South Korea. The sample consisted of 1,207 subjects with metabolic syndrome from the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2014. High-risk alcohol consumption, smoking, aerobic physical activity, leisure physical activity, excessive carbohydrate intake, and fat intake were measured. A secondary data analysis was performed using chi-square tests and logistic regression. Gender was associated with all unhealthy behaviors. The number of metabolic syndrome components, a poor perceived health status, and attempts to control weight were associated with physical inactivity. Those findings may be helpful to develop a tailored lifestyle modification programs for people with metabolic syndrome.
Prasad, Priyanka; Kochhar, Anita
Vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide public health problem. Vitamin D deficiency plays key role in the pathophysiology of risk factors of metabolic syndrome which affect cardiovascular system, increase insulin resistance and obesity, stimulate rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system that cause hypertension. The discovery of vitamin D receptor expressed ubiquitously in almost all body cells such as immune, vascular and myocardial cells, pancreatic beta cells, neurons and osteoblasts suggests an involvement of vitamin D mediated effects on metabolic syndrome. Moreover vitamin D deficiency as well as cardiovascular diseases and related risk factors frequently co-occur. This underlines the importance of understanding the role of vitamin D in the context of metabolic syndrome. The paper provides an insight into the physiology of vitamin D and relationship of vitamin D deficiency with risk factors of metabolic syndrome through observational and supplementation studies.
Several physiopathological explanations for the metabolic syndrome have been proposed involving insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and ectopic fat accumulation following adipose tissue saturation. However, current concepts create several paradoxes, including limited cardiovascular risk reducti...
Paschos, P; Paletas, K
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a clinicopathologic entity increasingly recognized as a major health burden in developed countries. It includes a spectrum of liver damage ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), advanced fibrosis, and rarely, progression to cirrhosis. Recent studies emphasize the role of insulin resistance, oxidative stress and subsequent lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory cytokines, adipokines and mitochondrial dysfunction in the development and progression of NAFLD. Furthermore, accumulating evidence supports an association between NAFLD and metabolic syndrome. Although the data are mainly epidemiological, the pathogenesis of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome seems to have common pathophysiological mechanisms, with focus on insulin resistance as a key factor. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis of both NAFLD and metabolic syndrome and the findings that strongly support the association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as a possible component in the cluster of metabolic syndrome. PMID:19240815
Mancini, Marcio C
In recent years, there has been a greater concern about the presence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. However, there is no consensus regarding the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. It is evident that each component of the syndrome must be identified as early as possible in order to prevent definitive lesions. The question is how to do this and which cut-offs must be adopted for this diagnosis. For a matter of convenience, the definition chosen as the most appropriate is the one proposed by the IDF, with cut-offs fixed for pressure, lipids and glycemia, and abdominal circumference points assessed by percentile. Although on the one hand this definition could fail to include some children in the diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome, on the other hand, it would be of easier acceptance as it does not use multiple tables to assess several anthropometric and metabolic criteria. PMID:19840386
Bitzur, Rafael; Brenner, Ronen; Maor, Elad; Antebi, Maayan; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Segev, Shlomo; Sidi, Yechezkel; Kivity, Shaye
Metabolic syndrome and its components are severe global health issues that are increasing in frequency as the prevalence of obesity increases. Various studies have established a correlation between metabolic syndrome and diseases including, diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, and cardiovascular disease. In recent years, correlations have also been detected between obesity and metabolic syndrome and the prevalence of certain types of cancer. The current study examines whether obesity and metabolic syndrome components are risk factors for cancer among the adult population in Israel. A cohort study analysis was performed of 24,987 initially healthy men and women who underwent yearly medical assessments at the Institute for Medical Screening in the Sheba Medical Center. Data from the Institute for Medical Screening database was correlated with that from the Israel Cancer Center in the Ministry of Health updated to December 2013. The correlation between metabolic syndrome, obesity, and the overall risk of cancer as well as the risks of specific types of cancer were examined. Of 20,444 subjects for whom complete data were available, 1535 were diagnosed with cancer during the mean follow-up time of 104.3months. In a multi-variant analysis, no significant correlation was found between metabolic syndrome or obesity and the incidence of cancer. When the data were stratified by gender and cancer type, however, a significant association between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer in women was observed (P=0.03, HR=1.67, 95% CI=1.05-2.67). Metabolic syndrome correlates with higher than expected breast cancer incidence in women. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Deen, Jason F; Krieger, Eric V; Slee, April E; Arslan, Alex; Arterburn, David; Stout, Karen K; Portman, Michael A
Metabolic syndrome increases risk for atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, and its prevalence increases with increasing age and body mass index. Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) are now living longer and accruing coronary artery disease risk factors. However, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in ACHD patients is unknown. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of ACHD patients at our center to quantify the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an ACHD population. Using case-control matching, we constructed a comparable control group from a population-based sample of 150 104 adults. International Diabetes Federation criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome. We used logistic regression to compare the risk of metabolic syndrome across the resulting cohorts, which were composed of 448 ACHD patients and 448 controls matched by age and sex. Mean age of both groups was 32.4±11.3 years, and 51.3% were female. Obesity was present in 16.1% of the ACHD patients and 16.7% of the controls. Metabolic syndrome was more common in ACHD patients than in controls (15.0% versus 7.4%; odds ratio 1.82, 95% CI 1.25-2.65). Our data suggest that metabolic syndrome is more common among adults with congenital heart disease than in the general population. Thus, patients with congenital heart disease should be screened for metabolic syndrome and risk factors mitigated where possible to prevent atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Preventive cardiology should be included during routine ACHD care. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
Jung, Jae Hyun; Song, Gwan Gyu; Ji, Jong Dae; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Seo, Young Ho; Choi, Sung Jae
We performed this study to investigate associations between metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and gout. We reviewed the medical records of 151 patients with gout at the Department of Rheumatology in Korea University Ansan Hospital. The following measures were examined: waist circumference, blood pressure, alcohol consumption, and levels of triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting serum glucose, serum uric acid (SUA), creatinine, insulin, and C-peptide. We assessed metabolic syndrome by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index and renal function by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation; patients were classified according to World Health Organization Asia-Pacific obesity criteria. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in gout patients (50.8%) was higher than in non-gout patients. The mean SUA level was significantly higher in gout patients with metabolic syndrome (9.13 ± 3.15 mg/dL) than in gout patients without metabolic syndrome (8.14 ± 2.07 mg/dL). The mean SUA level was also significantly higher in patients with gout and CKD (9.55 ± 2.86 mg/dL) than in patients with gout but no CKD (7.74 ± 2.27 mg/dL). In gout patients, HOMA-IR was positively correlated with waist circumference (r = 0.409, p = 0.001). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with gout was 50.8%, which is higher than the prevalence in the general Korean population. Hyperuricemia in gout patients was correlated with metabolic syndrome and CKD. Insulin resistance may provide clues to better understand the relationship between metabolic syndrome, CKD, and gout.
Feichtinger, Michael; Stopp, Tina; Göbl, Christian
Polycystic ovarian syndrome represents the most common endocrine disease of women of reproductive age. Symptoms include metabolic, gynecologic and cosmetic features. Genetic factors seem to contribute to the disease, affecting not only women but also male relatives of patients with similar symptoms. Besides, lifestyle factors play a central role impacting clinical PCOS appearance. Following we present an overview of the syndrome, its epidemiology, metabolic and gynecological aspects, gender and genetic factors and its therapy.
Kheterpal, Emil; Sammon, Jesse D; Diaz, Mireya; Bhandari, Akshay; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Pokala, Naveen; Sharma, Pranav; Menon, Mani; Agarwal, Piyush K
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing worldwide, however its association with prostate cancer (CaP) is unclear. We reviewed patients undergoing robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) to evaluate if those with metabolic syndrome had more aggressive disease. A prospective database of patients undergoing RARP between January 2005 and December 2008 (n = 2756) was queried for components of metabolic syndrome (BMI ≥ 30 and ≥ 2 of the following: hypertension, diabetes or elevated blood glucose, and dyslipidemia; n = 357). Patients with no components of metabolic syndrome were used as controls (n = 694). Biopsy and final pathology were compared between the 2 groups using all controls, and using best-matched controls (n = 357) based on greedy matching by propensity score. Compared with unmatched controls, metabolic syndrome patients had higher pathology Gleason grade (≥ 7: 78% vs. 64%, P < 0.001) and higher pathologic stage (≥ T3 disease: 43% vs. 31%, P < 0.001). After controlling for confounders, those with metabolic syndrome when compared with best-matched controls had maintained the greater pathology Gleason grade (≥ 7: 78% vs. 64%, P < 0.001) and pathologic stage (≥ T3 disease: 43% vs. 32%, P < 0.001). They also had significantly greater pathologic upgrading of Gleason grade 6 adenocarcinoma found on biopsy compared with best-matched controls (63% vs. 45%, P < 0.001). On pathology, a 2-fold increase in Gleason 8 and greater was noted between patients with metabolic syndrome and best-matched controls (15% vs. 8%). After controlling for confounders, patients with metabolic syndrome were found to have higher Gleason grade and tumor stage on final pathology and were more likely to have upgrading. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bardsley, Martha Z; Falkner, Bonita; Kowal, Karen; Ross, Judith L
Aims To investigate risk factors for metabolic syndrome in prepubertal boys with Klinefelter syndrome. Methods Eighty-nine boys with Klinefelter syndrome, ages 4–12.9 years, and 34 age-matched control boys had height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure measured and their parents completed a questionnaire about physical activity. The boys with Klinefelter syndrome also had measurement of lipids, fasting glucose and insulin. Insulin-glucose homeostasis model assessment was calculated, and the boys were evaluated for childhood metabolic syndrome. Results The Klinefelter syndrome and control groups were similar ages (7.5 ± 2.4 vs. 8.1 ± 2.3 years). Body mass index measurements were similar, but waist circumference was >90‰ in 30% of boys with Klinefelter syndrome versus 21% of controls. The mean daily time spent running was 42 min less in the Klinefelter syndrome versus control groups (p < 0.01). About 37% of the boys with Klinefelter syndrome had elevated LDL cholesterol, 24% had insulin resistance, and 7% met the three criteria for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Truncal obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are present in boys as young as 4–12 years with Klinefelter syndrome, and these occur in association with reduced running-type activity. PMID:21251059
O'Sullivan, T A; Lyons-Wall, P; Bremner, A P; Ambrosini, G L; Huang, R C; Beilin, L J; Mori, T A; Blair, E; Oddy, W H
High dietary glycaemic carbohydrate, as measured by the dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load has been associated with increased risk of the metabolic syndrome in adults, but limited research exists for younger populations. We aimed to evaluate associations between dietary glycaemic carbohydrate and insulin resistance or the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome defined by three different criteria in a population-based adolescent cohort. Diet was assessed using 3 day food records in 769 adolescents aged 13-15 years participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The metabolic syndrome was identified using age-specific adolescent definitions from the International Diabetes Federation, the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III and a population-derived 'high-risk' metabolic cluster algorithm. Presence of a high waist circumference was mandatory only in the International Diabetes Federation definition. Insulin resistance was measured using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome as defined by the International Diabetes Federation and the Adult Treatment Panel III was 3.6 and 4.0%, respectively; 25.9% of subjects were classified into the high-risk cluster. Significantly increased odds of International Diabetes Federation-defined metabolic syndrome were independently associated with a 20 unit glycaemic load increase (odds ratio 2.18; 95% confidence interval 1.26-3.78) and a 30 g carbohydrate increase (odds ratio 3.86; 95% confidence interval 1.80-8.28). No significant associations were observed when using the Adult Treatment Panel III, or the cluster-defined metabolic syndrome, or with HOMA-IR. This study supports the concept that high dietary glycaemic carbohydrate is associated with a higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in adolescents. However, relationships vary according to the definition of the metabolic syndrome used, with waist circumference a potentially
Wang, Xin; Yang, Fang; Bots, Michiel L; Guo, Wei-Ying; Zhao, Bing; Hoes, Arno W; Vaartjes, Ilonca
Background: The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of metabolic abnormalities and has been associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among employees in Northeast China. Methods: Totally, 33,149 employees who received health screening in the International Health Promotion Center in the First Hospital of Jilin University were enrolled. Height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein were recorded. Three definitions for the metabolic syndrome were applied, revised National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria, and the Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS) criteria. Results: Overall, the age-standardized prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 22.9%, 20.6%, and 15.3% based on definitions of revised NCEP ATP III criteria, the IDF criteria, and the CDS criteria, respectively. Men had higher age-standardized prevalence than women in all three definitions (P < 0.05). The prevalence was 27.1%, 24.5%, and 20.4% for men; 17.1%, 15.4%, and 8.3% for women, respectively. The most common metabolic component with the metabolic syndrome was overweight (54.7% of men had an elevated body mass index, and 35.9% of women had central obesity). Conclusions: A large proportion of employees among Northeast China have the metabolic syndrome. These findings place emphasis on the need to develop aggressive lifestyle modification for patients with the metabolic syndrome and population level strategies for the prevention, detection, and treatment of cardiovascular risk. PMID:26228207
Strath, Scott; Swartz, Ann; Parker, Sarah; Miller, Nora; Cieslik, Linda
Background Little data exists describing the impact that walking has on metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a multicultural sample of older adults. Methods Walking was measured via pedometer in 150 older adults from 4 different ethnic categories. Steps per day were classified as low (<3100 steps/d) or high (≥3100 steps/d) for statistical analyses. Results Occurrence of MetS was lower in the white (33%) versus non-white population (50%). Low steps/d were related to an increase in MetS for both white (OR = 96.8, 95% CI 12.3–764.6) and non-white individuals (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.8–11.3). Low steps/d also increased the odds for selected components of MetS in both the white and non-white groups. Conclusion Low levels of walking increase the likelihood of having MetS in both white and non-white older adults. Efforts to increase walking in older adults may decrease the likelihood of developing this clustering of disease risk factors. PMID:18209231
Zhou, Ji-Yin; Chan, Lawrence; Zhou, Shi-Wen
Omentin is an adipokine preferentially produced by visceral adipose tissue with insulin-sensitizing effects. Its expression is reduced in obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Omentin is also positively related with adiponectin, high-density lipoprotein levels and negatively related with body mass index, waist circumference, insulin resistance, triglyceride and leptin levels. Lower plasma omentin levels contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in obese or overweight patients. Omentin has anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, anti-cardiovascular disease and antidiabetic properties. With respect to vascular biology, omentin causes vasodilatation of blood vessels and attenuates C-reactive protein-induced angiogenesis. The ability of omentin to reduce insulin resistance in conjunction with its anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties makes it a promising therapeutic target. Thus, omentin may have beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome and could potentially be used as a biologic marker and/or pharmacologic agent/target in this respect.
Babbucci, A; De Santis, L; Pannunzio, L; Coppeta, L; Pietroiusti, A; Magrini, A
Reports about medical consequences from sedentary work are contradictory. It might be associated with the metabolic syndrome (MS), a collection of cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and central obesity. No data are currently available on workers using visual display units (VDIU), a potential high risk group, given the sedentariness inherent in this work. We evaluated MS prevalence in 1547 VDU users with a mean age of 29.7 years and in a control group of 892 individuals with a mean age of 30.2 years who performed non-sedentary work, selected on the basis of similar demographic data. Physical examination and laboratory tests useful for MS diagnosis were performed. MS prevalence was 3.10% in VDU users vs 2.01% in controls (OR 2.048, 95% CI 1.169 to 3.587, p = 0.012). Significance persisted after controlling for confounding factors (e.g, smoking and leisure activity) in a multivariate analysis (OR 1.555, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.690, p < 0.05). MS should carefully considered when performing health surveillance programmes in VDU users.
Abella, Vanessa; Scotece, Morena; López, Verónica; Lazzaro, Verónica; Pino, Jesús; Gómez-Reino, Juan J.; Gualillo, Oreste
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic disorders that result from the increasing prevalence of obesity. The major components of MetS include insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. MetS identifies the central obesity with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitis, have increased prevalence of CVDs. Moreover, CVD risk is increased when obesity is present in these patients. However, traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not completely explain the enhanced cardiovascular risk in this population. Thus, MetS and the altered secretion patterns of proinflammatory adipokines present in obesity could be the link between CVDs and rheumatic diseases. Furthermore, adipokines have been linked to the pathogenesis of MetS and its comorbidities through their effects on vascular function and inflammation. In the present paper, we review recent evidence of the role played by adipokines in the modulation of MetS in the general population, and in patients with rheumatic diseases. PMID:24741591
Wang, Su-qing; Liu, Yu-jian; Zhan, Jian; Liu, Xiao-li; Feng, Qi; Gong, Jie; Talbott, Evelyn O; He, Qi-qiang
The objective of this study was to identify the potential risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Chinese schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study among 624 children (357 boys and 267 girls, aged 9.6 ± 0.7 years) was conducted in Wuhan, China, from May to June 2010. MetS was defined according to the criteria proposed by De Ferranti and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Data on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), household income, parental hypertension, and children's personal information, including birth weight, preterm birth, and breast-feeding, reported by their parents were obtained. Multiple logistic regression showed that CRF (odds ratio [OR] = 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.60-0.77), breast-feeding (OR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.10-0.97), and paternal hypertension (OR = 5.06; 95% CI = 1.20-21.37) were all independently associated with MetS. In conclusion, low CRF and paternal hypertension significantly increase the risk, whereas breast-feeding may reduce the risk of MetS among Chinese schoolchildren.
Castro Vilela, María Elena; Quílez Pina, Raquel María; Bonafonte Marteles, José Luis; Morlanes Navarro, Teresa; Calvo Gracia, Fernando
To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) according to the definitions of the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and its relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in hospitalized elderly patients. This descriptive and prospective study (February-March 2011) included 200 consecutive patients hospitalized in a Geriatric Department. Sociodemographic, clinical and biochemical data was collected. The prevalence of MS was 65% (NCEP-ATP III) and 67.5% (IDF) and was greater in women (NCEP-ATP III=72.8%, IDF=73.6%) than in men (NCEP-ATP III=50.7%; IDF=56.3%). The mean age of patients diagnosed with MS by both diagnostic criteria were similar: 84.7 years. MS was not associated with an increased prevalence of CVD. MS is highly prevalent in elderly hospitalized patients, being higher in women, with both diagnostic criteria (NCEP- ATP III and IDF). In our population the MS was not associated with an increased prevalence of CVD. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Malesci, D; Valentini, G; La Montagna, G
Toward the end of the last century a better knowledge of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and their associations led investigators to propose the existence of a unique pathophysiological condition called "metabolic" or "insulin resistance syndrome". Among all, insulin-resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia are considered its most important treatment targets. Different definitions have been provided by World Health Organization (WHO) and by The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III). In particular, abdominal obesity, hypertension, low HDL cholesterol and hyperglicemia are the most common items used for its definition. The presence of MetS is effective in predicting the future risk of diabetes and coronaropathies. The evidence of a higher CV risk rate among different rheumatic inflammatory diseases has recently been associated with high prevalence of MetS in some cases. Rheumatoid or psoriatic arthritis have the large series among arthritis, whereas systemic lupus erythematosus among connective tissue disorders. This review analyses all most important studies about the evidence of MetS in rheumatic patients and the main clinical and prognostic significance of this relation.
Abella, Vanessa; Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; López, Verónica; Lazzaro, Verónica; Pino, Jesús; Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Gualillo, Oreste
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic disorders that result from the increasing prevalence of obesity. The major components of MetS include insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. MetS identifies the central obesity with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitis, have increased prevalence of CVDs. Moreover, CVD risk is increased when obesity is present in these patients. However, traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not completely explain the enhanced cardiovascular risk in this population. Thus, MetS and the altered secretion patterns of proinflammatory adipokines present in obesity could be the link between CVDs and rheumatic diseases. Furthermore, adipokines have been linked to the pathogenesis of MetS and its comorbidities through their effects on vascular function and inflammation. In the present paper, we review recent evidence of the role played by adipokines in the modulation of MetS in the general population, and in patients with rheumatic diseases.
Uzunlulu, Mehmet; Telci Caklili, Ozge; Oguz, Aytekin
Growing data show the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) or its components with cancer development and cancer-related mortality. It is suggested that in MetS and cancer association, insulin resistance and insulin-like growth factor 1 system play a key role, especially adipokines secreted from visceral adipocytes, free fatty acids and aromatase activity contribute to this process. It is also reported that MetS has a link with colorectal, breast, endometrial, pancreas, primary liver and, although controversial, prostate cancer. Although every component of MetS is known to have an association with cancer development, it is still debated whether the effects of these components are additive or synergistic. On the other hand, in the association between MetS and cancer, the role of antidiabetic and antihypertensive treatments including thiazolidinedione, insulin, angiotensin receptor blockers is also suggested. The primary approach in MetS-cancer relation is to prevent risk factors. Life style changes including weight loss and a healthy diet are known to decrease cancer risk in normal population. It is postulated that an insulin-sensitizing agent, metformin, has cancer-preventing effects on diabetic patients. This review discusses the relationship between MetS and cancer from different aspects and examines this relationship in some of the cancers suggested to be linked with MetS. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Yoshinaga, Masao; Tanaka, Satoru; Shimago, Atsushi; Sameshima, Koji; Nishi, Junichiro; Nomura, Yuichi; Kawano, Yoshifumi; Hashiguchi, Jun; Ichiki, Takeo; Shimizu, Shinichiro
To determine the prevalence of and sex differences related to the metabolic syndrome among obese and overweight elementary school children. Subjects were 471 overweight or obese Japanese children. Children meeting at least three of the following five criteria qualified as having the metabolic syndrome: abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, high triglyceride levels, and high fasting glucose levels. Fasting insulin levels were also examined. Japanese obese children were found to have a significantly lower prevalence (17.7%) of the metabolic syndrome than U.S. obese adolescents (28.7%, p = 0.0014). However, Japanese overweight children had a similar incidence (8.7%) of the metabolic syndrome compared with U.S. overweight adolescents (6.8%). Hyperinsulinemia in girls and abdominal obesity in boys are characteristic features of individual metabolic syndrome factors in Japanese children. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is not lower in preteen Japanese overweight children than in U.S. overweight adolescents, although it is significantly lower in Japanese obese preteen children than in U.S. obese adolescents. Primary and secondary interventions are needed for overweight preteen children in Japan.
Weiss, Ram; Bremer, Andrew A; Lustig, Robert H
Metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, altered glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, and abdominal obesity) that occur in obese children. However, metabolic syndrome can also occur in lean individuals, suggesting that obesity is a marker for the syndrome, not a cause. Metabolic syndrome is difficult to define, due to its nonuniform classification and reliance on hard cutoffs in the evaluation of disorders with non-Gaussian distributions. Defining the syndrome is even more difficult in children, owing to racial and pubertal differences and lack of cardiovascular events. Lipid partitioning among specific fat depots is associated with insulin resistance, which can lead to mitochondrial overload and dysfunctional subcellular energy use and drive the various elements of metabolic syndrome. Multiple environmental factors, in particular a typical Western diet, drive mitochondrial overload, while other changes in Western society, such as stress and sleep deprivation, increase insulin resistance and the propensity for food intake. These culminate in an adverse biochemical phenotype, including development of altered glucose metabolism and early atherogenesis during childhood and early adulthood. PMID:23356701
Chen, Yi; Wen, Ya-yuan; Li, Zhi-rong; Luo, Dong-lin; Zhang, Xiao-hua
Metabolic syndrome, which is extremely common in developed and some developing countries, is a clustering of at least three of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein levels. It has been proved that there is a strong association between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer. Metabolic syndrome could increase the risk of breast cancer and influence the prognosis of the breast cancer patients. Some characteristic of metabolic syndrome such as obesity and lack of physical exercise are all risk factors for developing breast cancer. The metabolic syndrome mainly include obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and each of them impacts the risk of breast cancer and the prognosis of the breast cancer patients in different ways. In this Review, we focus on recently uncovered aspects of the immunological and molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the development of this highly prevalent and serious disease. These studies bring new insight into the complex associations between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer and have led to the development of novel therapeutic strategies that might enable a personalized approach in the management of this disease.
Sánchez-Chaparro, Miguel-Angel; Calvo-Bonacho, Eva; González-Quintela, Arturo; Fernández-Labandera, Carlos; Cabrera, Martha; Sáinz, Juan-Carlos; Fernández-Meseguer, Ana; Banegas, José R.; Ruilope, Luis-Miguel; Valdivielso, Pedro; Román-García, Javier
OBJECTIVE—To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Spanish working population and determine how the prevalence varies according to occupation and sex. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This was a cross-sectional study of 259,014 workers (mean age 36.4 years, range [16–74]; 72.9% male) who underwent a routine medical checkup. The Adult Treatment Panel III (2001) definition for metabolic syndrome was used. RESULTS—The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 11.6% (95% CI 11.5–11.7) in male subjects and 4.1% (4.0–4.2) in female subjects and increased with age. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varied in the different categories of occupational activity depending on the sex considered. Among female subjects, the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in blue-collar than in white-collar workers, but this difference was not evident among male workers. CONCLUSIONS—The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varies in the different categories of occupational activity in the Spanish working population. This variation also depends on sex. PMID:18753667
Trompeter, Susan E; Bettencourt, Ricki; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth
Limited literature suggests that sexual dysfunction in women covaries with the metabolic syndrome. This study examined the association of sexual function with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in healthy older women. There were 376 postmenopausal, community-dwelling women from the Rancho Bernardo Study (mean baseline age = 73 years) that completed a clinic visit during 1999-2002 and returned the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire mailed in 2002. Thirty-nine percent reported being sexually active; 41.5% met a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. The number of metabolic syndrome components was strongly associated with decreased sexual activity, desire, and low sexual satisfaction. Waist girth, diabetes, and hypertension were associated with decreased sexual activity. Elevated triglycerides were associated with low desire. Among the cardiovascular endpoints, heart attack, coronary artery bypass, and angina were associated with decreased sexual activity, but not with sexual desire or satisfaction. Past diagnosis of heart failure, poor circulation, and stroke were not associated with sexual function. Sexually active women with metabolic syndrome met criteria for sexual dysfunction in desire, arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction domains. The FSFI Total Score did not differ significantly between sexually active and inactive women. Metabolic syndrome was associated with decreased sexual activity, desire, and satisfaction in all women and with sexual dysfunction in most domains in sexually active women. Coronary artery disease was more prevalent in women with low sexual activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Di Francesco, Simona; Tenaglia, Raffaele L
Links between metabolic syndrome and prostate cancer after androgen deprivation therapy are emerging. The aim of the research was to investigate the association of metabolic syndrome and aggressive prostate malignancy, at initial diagnosis, without the influence of hormonal treatment. Retrospective analysis of 133 patients with prostate tumor diagnosis between 2007 and 2009 was conducted. Patients with prostate cancer were subdivided in 2 groups according to Gleason score: Gleason score≥7 as high-grade prostate tumor (Group 1) and <7 (Group 2) as low-grade prostate tumor. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute definition. Metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with aggressive prostate cancer (OR 1.87, p<0.05) and a reduced risk of low-grade prostate cancer (OR 0.53, p<0.05) at initial diagnosis, without the influence of endocrine therapy. In our study, patients with metabolic syndrome were more likely to present with more aggressive prostate carcinoma vs. patients without metabolic syndrome. Further research should elucidate these relations in larger samples to confirm these associations and to stabilize future prevention and therapeutic strategies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Weiss, Ram; Bremer, Andrew A; Lustig, Robert H
Metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, altered glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, and abdominal obesity) that occur in obese children. However, metabolic syndrome can also occur in lean individuals, suggesting that obesity is a marker for the syndrome, not a cause. Metabolic syndrome is difficult to define, due to its nonuniform classification and reliance on hard cutoffs in the evaluation of disorders with non-Gaussian distributions. Defining the syndrome is even more difficult in children, owing to racial and pubertal differences and lack of cardiovascular events. Lipid partitioning among specific fat depots is associated with insulin resistance, which can lead to mitochondrial overload and dysfunctional subcellular energy use and drive the various elements of metabolic syndrome. Multiple environmental factors, in particular a typical Western diet, drive mitochondrial overload, while other changes in Western society, such as stress and sleep deprivation, increase insulin resistance and the propensity for food intake. These culminate in an adverse biochemical phenotype, including development of altered glucose metabolism and early atherogenesis during childhood and early adulthood.
Dağdelen, Selçuk; Erbaş, Tomris
Metabolic syndrome is generally considered as a complication of modernity. Here we searched for the presence of metabolic syndrome components among the Ottoman emperors who lived between 1258 and 1926. Collections of historical archives, which were published as books specifically about morbidity and mortality of Ottoman emperors were reviewed to diagnose metabolic syndrome according to modified criteria by American College of Endocrinology and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Nineteen of 36 dynasty members (53%) had fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular events. Twenty-nine of the dynasty (81%) members were either depicted as truncal obese or reported to have obesity. Thirteen emperors (36%) satisfied diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome, retrospectively. Overall, 42% of non-commanding emperors, but 26% of commanding-emperors (who were assumed to be athletically grown and physically more active) were found to have metabolic syndrome (p=0.553). We suggest firstly here that sedentary palace lifestyle exacerbated metabolic syndrome in Ottoman dynasty especially in elderly members, thereafter complicated by cardiovascular events, even in pre-modern era.
Bil, Enes; Dilbaz, Berna; Cirik, Derya Akdag; Ozelci, Runa; Ozkaya, Enis; Dilbaz, Serdar
It is unknown which phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has a greater metabolic risk and how to detect this risk. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic risk profile (MRP) for different phenotypes. A total of 100 consecutive newly diagnosed PCOS women in a tertiary referral hospital were recruited. Patients were classified into four phenotypes according to the Rotterdam criteria, on the presence of at least two of the three criteria hyperandrogenism (H), oligo/anovulation (O) and PCO appearance (P): phenotype A, H + O + P; phenotype B, H + O; phenotype C, H + P; phenotype D, O + P. Prevalence of MetS and MRP were compared among the four groups. Based on Natural Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III diagnostic criteria, MetS prevalence was higher in phenotypes A and B (29.6% and 34.5%) compared with the other phenotypes (10.0% and 8.3%; P < 0.001). Although the prevalence of obesity was similar, the number of patients with homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) >3.8 was significantly higher in androgenic PCOS phenotypes. After logistic regression analysis, visceral adiposity index (VAI) was the only independent predictor of MetS in PCOS (P = 0.002). VAI was also significantly higher in phenotype B, when compared with the others (P < 0.01). Phenotypes A and B had the highest risk of MetS among the four phenotypes, and VAI may be a predictor of metabolic risk in PCOS women. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Ataş, Hatice; Gönül, Müzeyyen
Inflammatory and immune processes can be triggered in vitiligo due to a decreased number of melanocytes and their anti-inflammatory effects. Because of the systemic nature of vitiligo, metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance and lipid profile disturbances as well as skin involvement may be observed in vitiligo. To investigate the association between metabolic syndrome and vitiligo. Case-control study. The demographic, clinical and laboratory features in the subjects were compared according to presence of vitiligo and metabolic syndrome [patients (n=63) vs. gender-age matched controls (n=65) and metabolic syndrome positive (n=38) vs. negative (n=90)]. A logistic regression analysis was also used. We identified metabolic syndrome in 24 (38.1%) subjects with vitiligo and 14 (21.5%) subjects without vitiligo (p=0.04). Active vitiligo, segmental vitiligo, an increased duration of vitiligo and an increased percentage in the affected body surface area were determined to be independent predictors of metabolic syndrome [activity of vitiligo: p=0.012, OR (95% CI)=64.4 (2.5-1672); type of vitiligo: p=0.007, OR (95% CI)=215.1 (4.3-10725.8); duration of vitiligo: p=0.03, OR (95% CI)=1.4 (1.1-2.0); percentage of affected body surface area: p=0.07, OR (95% CI)=1.2 (0.98-1.5)]. The risk of developing metabolic syndrome is increased in patients with vitiligo. The poor clinical features of vitiligo, such as active, extended and segmental vitiligo with an increased duration of time, are independent predictors for developing metabolic syndrome.
The term "metabolic syndrome" refers to the clustering of a number of cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia) believed to be related to insulin resistance. The prevalence of each of these diseases as well as the metabolic syndrome is increasing world wide. Obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes are no longer diseases of the wealthy. By 2025, three out of four people with diabetes will be living in 3rd world countries, and similar trends are likely for the other components of the syndrome. Preventive action is urgently needed, and studies in China and India have proven to be effective.
González-Molero, Inmaculada; Rojo, Gemma; Morcillo, Sonsoles; Pérez-Valero, Vidal; Rubio-Martín, Eleazara; Gutierrez-Repiso, Carolina; Soriguer, Federico
Vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome are 2 very common health problems in the Spanish population. It has been suggested that patients with metabolic syndrome may be vitamin D deficient more often than subjects without it and that low vitamin D levels may predispose to metabolic syndrome development. However, the results of prospective and intervention studies have been different and such relationship remains unclear. We assessed the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the prevalence and incidence of metabolic syndrome. We undertook a population-based cohort study in Spain. At baseline (1996-1998), 1,226 subjects were evaluated. Follow-up visits were performed in 2002-2004 and 2005-2007.At baseline and follow-up, participants underwent an interview and a standardized clinical examination with an oral glucose tolerance test in those subjects without known diabetes. At the second visit, 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and intact parathyroid hormone levels were measured. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome at the second and third visit was 29.4 and 42.5%, respectively. Mean levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were lower in subjects with metabolic syndrome: 21.7 (6.21) vs 23.35 (6.29) ng/ml, P<.001.The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D<20 ng/ml) at the second evaluation was 34.7%, with significant differences between subjects with and without metabolic syndrome(34.6 vs 26.5%, P<.01). Men with vitamin D deficiency had more frequently hypertension and metabolic syndrome than men with normal levels. Women with vitamin D deficiency had more frequently hyperglycemia, hypertension, increased waist circumference and hypertriglyceridemia. In a prospective study, 25-hydroxyvitamin D values<20 ng/ml were not significantly associated with an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome in the next 5 years (odds ratio 0,99, 95% confidence interval 0.57-1.7, P=.97) after adjusting by sex and age. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an
Trøseid, Marius; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Arnesen, Harald
The metabolic syndrome is thought to be associated with a chronic low-grade inflammation, and a growing body of evidence suggests that interleukin-18 (IL-18) might be closely related to the metabolic syndrome and its consequences. Circulating levels of IL-18 have been reported to be elevated in subjects with the metabolic syndrome, to be closely associated with the components of the syndrome, to predict cardiovascular events and mortality in populations with the metabolic syndrome and to precede the development of type 2 diabetes. IL-18 is found in the unstable atherosclerotic plaque, in adipose tissue and in muscle tissue, and is subject to several regulatory steps including cleavage by caspase-1, inactivation by IL-18 binding protein and the influence of other cytokines in modulating its interaction with the IL-18 receptor. The purpose of this review is to outline the role of IL-18 in the metabolic syndrome, with particular emphasis on cardiovascular risk and the potential effect of life style interventions.
Tsutsumi, Rie; Sebe, Mayu
In this session, we describe the acute phase in patients with metabolic syndrome from two sides; acute disease that occurs higher in patients with metabolic syndrome such as colonary heart disease and stroke, and acute aggravation of diabetes such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome. The electrolyte imbalance is frequently detected in critical ill patients. It is reported that the extreme abnormalities of ionized calcium concentrations are independent predictors of mortality. In addition, from clinical database MIMIC-Ⅱ,calcium supplementation improves clinical outcome in intensive care unit patients. Although metabolic syndrome; lifestyle-related disease, is a chronic disease, the possibility of falling into acute disease by having it becomes very high and improvement of electrolyte imbalance, especially hypocalcaemia is expected to effective on clinical outcome.
Lehnen, Alexandre M.; Rodrigues, Bruno; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia; Schaan, Beatriz D'Agord
Metabolic syndrome has been defined as a group of risk factors that directly contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance seems to have a fundamental role in the genesis of this syndrome. Over the past years to the present day, basic and translational research has used small animal models to explore the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and to develop novel therapies that might slow the progression of this prevalent condition. In this paper we discuss the animal models used for the study of metabolic syndrome, with particular focus on cardiovascular changes, since they are the main cause of death associated with the condition in humans. PMID:23691518
de Leeuw, Christiaan; Goudriaan, Andrea; Smit, August B; Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Scharf, J M; Pauls, D L; Yu, D; Illmann, C; Osiecki, L; Neale, B M; Mathews, C A; Reus, V I; Lowe, T L; Freimer, N B; Cox, N J; Davis, L K; Rouleau, G A; Chouinard, S; Dion, Y; Girard, S; Cath, D C; Posthuma, D; Smit, J H; Heutink, P; King, R A; Fernandez, T; Leckman, J F; Sandor, P; Barr, C L; McMahon, W; Lyon, G; Leppert, M; Morgan, J; Weiss, R; Grados, M A; Singer, H; Jankovic, J; Tischfield, J A; Heiman, G A; Verheijen, Mark H G; Posthuma, Danielle
Tourette syndrome is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder whose pathophysiology remains unknown. Recent genome-wide association studies suggest that it is a polygenic disorder influenced by many genes of small effect. We tested whether these genes cluster in cellular function by applying gene-set analysis using expert curated sets of brain-expressed genes in the current largest available Tourette syndrome genome-wide association data set, involving 1285 cases and 4964 controls. The gene sets included specific synaptic, astrocytic, oligodendrocyte and microglial functions. We report association of Tourette syndrome with a set of genes involved in astrocyte function, specifically in astrocyte carbohydrate metabolism. This association is driven primarily by a subset of 33 genes involved in glycolysis and glutamate metabolism through which astrocytes support synaptic function. Our results indicate for the first time that the process of astrocyte-neuron metabolic coupling may be an important contributor to Tourette syndrome pathogenesis. PMID:25735483
de Leeuw, Christiaan; Goudriaan, Andrea; Smit, August B; Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Verheijen, Mark H G; Posthuma, Danielle
Tourette syndrome is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder whose pathophysiology remains unknown. Recent genome-wide association studies suggest that it is a polygenic disorder influenced by many genes of small effect. We tested whether these genes cluster in cellular function by applying gene-set analysis using expert curated sets of brain-expressed genes in the current largest available Tourette syndrome genome-wide association data set, involving 1285 cases and 4964 controls. The gene sets included specific synaptic, astrocytic, oligodendrocyte and microglial functions. We report association of Tourette syndrome with a set of genes involved in astrocyte function, specifically in astrocyte carbohydrate metabolism. This association is driven primarily by a subset of 33 genes involved in glycolysis and glutamate metabolism through which astrocytes support synaptic function. Our results indicate for the first time that the process of astrocyte-neuron metabolic coupling may be an important contributor to Tourette syndrome pathogenesis.
Phillips, Liza K; Prins, Johannes B
The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors associated with abdominal obesity is well established. Although currently lacking a universal definition, the metabolic syndrome describes a constellation of metabolic abnormalities, including abdominal obesity, and was originally introduced to characterize a population at high cardiovascular risk. Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that secretes several inflammatory and immune mediators known as adipokines. Dysregulation of adipokine secretion, free fatty acid toxicity, and the site-specific differences in abdominal (visceral) versus subcutaneous fat support abdominal obesity as a causal factor mediating the insulin resistance, increased risk of diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in the metabolic syndrome.
Mankowska, Aneta; Nowak, Lena; Sypniewska, Grazyna
Obesity is associated with premature atherosclerosis, as well as with many metabolic alterations including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Visceral fat accumulation, particularly, is closely associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. The menopause transition, as well as the early postmenopausal period, is associated with increase in total and central obesity. Among adipocytokines secreted by the adipose tissue adiponectin is the only one that has a protective role in the development of obesity-related disorders, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This review aims to present a role that adiponectin may play during the progress of menopause in relation to development of menopausal metabolic syndrome. PMID:27683315
Rask-Madsen, Christian; Kahn, C. Ronald
Summary Impaired insulin signaling is central to the development of the metabolic syndrome and can promote cardiovascular disease indirectly through development of abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism, hypertension and a proinflammatory state. However, insulin action directly on vascular endothelium, atherosclerotic plaque macrophages, and in the heart, kidney, and retina has now been described, and impaired insulin signaling in these locations can alter progression of cardiovascular disease in the metabolic syndrome and affect development of microvascular complications of diabetes. Recent advances in our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of insulin’s effects on vascular tissues offer new opportunities for preventing these cardiovascular disorders. PMID:22895666
Karzai, Fatima H; Madan, Ravi A; Dahut, William L
Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is a fundamental element of treatment for nonlocalized prostate cancer and for patients with high-risk disease who are not candidates for radical treatment. ADT has been linked to metabolic syndrome, which involves changes in metabolic factors. While distinct from classic metabolic syndrome, this type does include changes in body composition, lipid profiles and insulin resistance. The constellation of risk factors may be associated with cardiovascular morbidity and the onset of diabetes mellitus. Physicians should discuss in detail the risk and benefits of ADT, as well as any needed lifestyle modifications with patients before beginning therapy.
Karzai, Fatima H; Madan, Ravi A; Dahut, William L
Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is a fundamental element of treatment for nonlocalized prostate cancer and for patients with high-risk disease who are not candidates for radical treatment. ADT has been linked to metabolic syndrome, which involves changes in metabolic factors. While distinct from classic metabolic syndrome, this type does include changes in body composition, lipid profiles and insulin resistance. The constellation of risk factors may be associated with cardiovascular morbidity and the onset of diabetes mellitus. Physicians should discuss in detail the risk and benefits of ADT, as well as any needed lifestyle modifications with patients before beginning therapy. PMID:27067408
Yao, Chong-hua; Zuo, Hui-juan; Kong, Ling-zhi; Yang, Xiao-guang; Zhai, Feng-ying
To investigate the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome (MS). A multi-stage stratified cluster sampling was conducted in 132 sampling 218,920 residents, aged 44.3 +/- 15.3 (15 - 96), in the 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities of the mainland China according to the program of the National Nutrition and Health Survey. Questionnaire survey, interview, physical examination, measurement of biochemical indices, and dietary investigation were done. Information of physical activity and measurement of fasting glucose and/or glucose 2 hours after meal, blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were obtained in 50,494 participants. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Chinese Medical Association's definition. The intensity of physical activity was divided into 3 categories according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention of US/American College of Sports Medicine criteria. 50,495 subjects, 23,932 males (47.4%) and 26,562 females (52.6%), were diagnosed as with MS. The MS incidence of those with high intensity of physical activity was lower by 60% in comparison with those with low intensity of physical activity (odds ratio 0.60, 95% CI: 0.362 - 0.443) adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and alcohol intake. The risk of MS in those with moderate intensity of physical activity of 151 - 300 minutes/week was slightly decreased compared to those with moderate intensity of physical activity of 90 - 150 minutes/week, (odds ratio 0.935, 95% CI: 0.685 - 1.277), however, the risk of MS in those with the moderate intensity of physical activity over 300 minutes/week increased slightly (OR = 1.269, 95% CI: 0.923 - 1.745). The risk of MS in those with low-level physical activity of 301 - 420 minutes/week was lower by 35% in comparison with those with the low-level physical activity of 90 - 150 minutes/week (95% CI: 0.451 - 0.933), however, the risk of MS in those with the low-level physical activity over 420
Grimaldi, Paul A
The prevalence of metabolic disturbances, collectively known as metabolic syndrome, has reached an epidemic proportion in industrialized countries. Lifestyle interventions and pharmacological treatments of such pathologies are only partially efficient and new therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. This review focuses on the recent findings describing the regulatory functions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta (PPARbeta) on lipid metabolism in several tissues and on the implications of such findings on the therapeutic usefulness of PPARbeta agonists in the treatment of particular features of the metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia and cardiac dysfunctions.
Miao, Xiao; Sun, Weixia; Fu, Yaowen; Miao, Lining; Cai, Lu
Zinc (Zn) is an essential mineral that is required for various cellular functions. Zn dyshomeostasis always is related to certain disorders such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes and diabetic complications. The associations of Zn with metabolic syndrome, diabetes and diabetic complications, thus, stem from the multiple roles of Zn: (1) a constructive component of many important enzymes or proteins, (2) a requirement for insulin storage and secretion, (3) a direct or indirect antioxidant action, and (4) an insulin-like action. However, whether there is a clear cause-and-effect relationship of Zn with metabolic syndrome, diabetes, or diabetic complications remains unclear. In fact, it is known that Zn deficiency is a common phenomenon in diabetic patients. Chronic low intake of Zn was associated with the increased risk of diabetes and diabetes also impairs Zn metabolism. Theoretically Zn supplementation should prevent the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and diabetic complications; however, limited available data are not always supportive of the above notion. Therefore, this review has tried to summarize these pieces of available information, possible mechanisms by which Zn prevents the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and diabetic complications. In the final part, what are the current issues for Zn supplementation were also discussed.
Saetang, Jirakrit; Sangkhathat, Surasak
Diets have been believed to be an important factor in the development of metabolic syndrome and colorectal cancer (CRC). In recent years, many studies have shown an intimate relationship between mucosal immunity, metabolism and diets, which has led to a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and CRC development. Although the precise effects of diets on oncogenesis have not been compl-etely elucidated, microbiota changes and inflammation are believed to be important factors that influence the development of CRC. Moreover, increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and alteration of adipokine levels have been observed in patients with colorectal adenoma and/or CRC, and these all have been considered as the important mechanisms that link diets to the development of metabolic syndrome and CRC. Importantly, a high-fat, low-fiber diet is associated with dysbiosis, and as the gut signature becomes more important in metabolic syndrome and CRC, an increased understanding of diets on bacterial activity in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and CRC will lead to new preventive and therapeutic strategies.
Cibičková, Ľ; Langová, K; Vaverková, H; Kubíčková, V; Karásek, D
Hyperuricemia has been described as associated with the risk of development metabolic syndrome; however the relationship between the uric acid level and particular parameters of metabolic syndrome remained unclear. We performed a cross-sectional study on a cohort of 833 dyslipidemic patients and correlated their levels of uric acid with parameters of insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, C-reactive protein, anthropometric parameters. We also defined patients with hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and compered their uric acid levels with those without this phenotype. We found that levels of uric acid are associated with parameters of metabolic syndrome. Specifically, dyslipidemia characteristic for metabolic syndrome (low HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides) correlates better with uric acid levels than parameters of insulin resistance. Also waist circumference correlates better with uric acid levels than body mass index. Patients with hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype had higher levels of uric acid when compared with patients without this phenotype. Serum uric acid levels are even in low levels linearly correlated with parameters of metabolic syndrome (better with typical lipid characteristics than with parameters of insulin resistance) and could be associated with higher cardiovascular risk.
Coniglio, Raúl I; Nellem, Jorge; Gentili, Roberto; Sibechi, Norberto; Agusti, Elisa; Torres, Marta
The detection of metabolic syndrome (MS) is use ful for identifying individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. The objectives of the study were to describe the prevalence of MS in employees 40-65 years old, utilizing different definitions and to analyze the relation with educational level and gender by means of cross-sectional and multicenter study of different regions of Argentina. Compared MS definitions were: International Diabetes Federation, American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and National Cholesterol Education Program - Adults Treatment Panel III. Fulfilled the protocol 2806 cases. It was observed a prevalence of 0.31, 0.30 and 0.26 respectively, more frequent in men (p = 0.0000). There was no significant difference between sexes in the group 60 to 65 years old. After adjusting to age, sex, physical activity, family history of diabetes and menopause, the women with low educational level (<12 years) had more risk than men, OR = 1.95 (CI 95% 1.49-2.55) p = 0.000 compared with OR = 1.36 (CI 95% 1.10-1.69) p = 0.005, respectively. The low educational level in women, adjusted for confounders, was a predictor of four components of MS: central obesity, low C-HDL, glucose > or =100 mg/dl and hypertriglyceridemia; in men was only a hard predictor of hypertriglyceridemia. The results alert about the need of education of the population for the control of risk factors and adoption of healthy habits.
Paul, Abi Albon; Dkhar, Steven Aibor; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Thabah, Molly Mary; George, Melvin; Chandrasekaran, Indumathi; Gunaseelan, Vikneswaran; Selvarajan, Sandhiya
Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors with increased predilection towards occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. Currently physical exercise and management with metformin are the prevailing treatment modalities for metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome have been found to have reduced exercise capacity over a period of time. Likewise metformin has been shown to decrease exercise capacity among healthy volunteers. Hence this study aims to evaluate the effect of metformin on the exercise capacity of patients with metabolic syndrome. Prospective study with 6 weeks follow up. Newly diagnosed patients with metabolic syndrome and to be started on Table Metformin 500mg twice a day were recruited for the study after obtaining written informed consent. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (CPET) was done at baseline before the subjects were started on metformin and after 6 weeks of treatment using cardiopulmonary exercise testing apparatus (ZAN600). Fifteen treatment naïve patients with metabolic syndrome completed six weeks of therapy with metformin. In these patients oxygen uptake [VO2] showed statistically significant decrease from 1.10±0.44 at baseline to 0.9±0.39 (l/min) after six weeks of treatment with metformin [mean difference of -0.20 (-0.31 to -0.09); P=0.001]. Similarly oxygen uptake/kg body weight [VO2/Kg] showed a significant decrease from 14.10±4.73 to 11.44±3.81 (mlkg(-1)min(-1)) at the end of six weeks of treatment [mean difference of -2.66 (-4.06 to -1.26); P=0.001]. Six weeks of treatment with metformin significantly decreases exercise capacity in newly diagnosed patients with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Han, Thang S; Lean, Mike Ej
The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by a special constellation of reversible major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The main, diagnostic, components are reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose, all of which are related to weight gain, specifically intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation and a large waist circumference. Using internationally adopted arbitrary cut-off values for waist circumference, having metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease, but offers an effective treatment approach through weight management. Metabolic syndrome now affects 30-40% of people by age 65, driven mainly by adult weight gain, and by a genetic or epigenetic predisposition to intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation related to poor intra-uterine growth. Metabolic syndrome is also promoted by a lack of subcutaneous adipose tissue, low skeletal muscle mass and anti-retroviral drugs. Reducing weight by 5-10%, by diet and exercise, with or without, anti-obesity drugs, substantially lowers all metabolic syndrome components, and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Other cardiovascular disease risk factors such as smoking should be corrected as a priority. Anti-diabetic agents which improve insulin resistance and reduce blood pressure, lipids and weight should be preferred for diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. Bariatric surgery offers an alternative treatment for those with BMI ≥ 40 or 35-40 kg/m(2) with other significant co-morbidity. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease is expected to rise along with the global obesity epidemic: greater emphasis should be given to effective early weight-management to reduce risk in pre-symptomatic individuals with large waists.
Gobato, Amanda Oliva; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Barros, Antonio de Azevedo; Hessel, Gabriel
Objective: To verify the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents and its relationship with different body composition indicators. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 79 adolescents aged ten to 18 years old. The assessed body composition indicators were: body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, abdominal circumference, and subcutaneous fat. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Cook et al. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index for values above 3.16. The analysis of ROC curves was used to assess the BMI and the abdominal circumference, aiming to identify the subjects with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The cutoff point corresponded to the percentage above the reference value used to diagnose obesity. Results: The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 45.5% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29.1%. Insulin resistance showed association with HDL-cholesterol (p=0.032) and with metabolic syndrome (p=0.006). All body composition indicators were correlated with insulin resistance (p<0.01). In relation to the cutoff point evaluation, the values of 23.5 and 36.3% above the BMI reference point allowed the identification of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The best cutoff point for abdominal circumference to identify insulin resistance was 40%. Conclusions: All body composition indicators, HDL-cholesterol and metabolic syndrome showed correlation with insulin resistance. The BMI was the most effective anthropometric indicator to identify insulin resistance. PMID:24676191
Yildiz, Seyma; Toprak, Huseyin; Aydin, Sinem; Bilgin, Mehmet; Oktay, Veysel; Abaci, Okay; Kocas, Cuneyt
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between metabolic syndrome and breast arterial calcification detected via mammography in a cohort of postmenopausal subjects. METHODS: Among 837 patients referred to our radiology department for mammographic screening, 310 postmenopausal females (105 patients with and 205 patients without breast arterial calcification) aged 40 to 73 (mean 55.9±8.4) years were included in this study. The groups were compared with respect to clinical characteristics and metabolic syndrome criteria. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the factors related to breast arterial calcification. RESULTS: Age, postmenopausal duration and the frequencies of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and metabolic syndrome were significantly higher in the subjects with breast arterial calcification than in those without (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that age (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1–1.6, p = 0.001) and metabolic syndrome (OR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.5−10.4, p = 0.005) were independent predictors of breast arterial calcification detected via mammography. The independent predictors among the features of metabolic syndrome were low levels of high-density lipoproteins (OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 1.0−64.0, p = 0.047) and high blood pressure (OR = 8.7, 95% CI = 1.5−49.7, p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: The likelihood of mammographic detection of breast arterial calcification increases with age and in the presence of hypertension or metabolic syndrome. For patients undergoing screening mammography who present with breast arterial calcification, the possibility of metabolic syndrome should be considered. These patients should be informed of their cardiovascular risk factors and counseled on appropriate lifestyle changes. PMID:25627997
Lean, Mike EJ
The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by a special constellation of reversible major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The main, diagnostic, components are reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose, all of which are related to weight gain, specifically intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation and a large waist circumference. Using internationally adopted arbitrary cut-off values for waist circumference, having metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease, but offers an effective treatment approach through weight management. Metabolic syndrome now affects 30–40% of people by age 65, driven mainly by adult weight gain, and by a genetic or epigenetic predisposition to intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation related to poor intra-uterine growth. Metabolic syndrome is also promoted by a lack of subcutaneous adipose tissue, low skeletal muscle mass and anti-retroviral drugs. Reducing weight by 5–10%, by diet and exercise, with or without, anti-obesity drugs, substantially lowers all metabolic syndrome components, and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Other cardiovascular disease risk factors such as smoking should be corrected as a priority. Anti-diabetic agents which improve insulin resistance and reduce blood pressure, lipids and weight should be preferred for diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. Bariatric surgery offers an alternative treatment for those with BMI ≥ 40 or 35–40 kg/m2 with other significant co-morbidity. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease is expected to rise along with the global obesity epidemic: greater emphasis should be given to effective early weight-management to reduce risk in pre-symptomatic individuals with large waists. PMID:26998259
Aquilante, Christina L; Kosmiski, Lisa A; Zineh, Issam; Rome, Lucille Capo; Knutsen, Shannon D
To determine the effects of the thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone on the adipocyte-derived cytokines adiponectin (an antiinflammatory and insulin-sensitizing cytokine; low levels have been associated with metabolic syndrome) and resistin (an inflammation mediator; high levels have been associated with metabolic syndrome) in nondiabetic patients with metabolic syndrome, and to characterize the effects of rosiglitazone on other components of the metabolic syndrome phenotype in this population. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Outpatient general clinical research center. Thirty-two nondiabetic men and women with a clinical diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (as defined in the American Heart Association-National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute scientific statement). Patients were randomly assigned to receive either oral rosiglitazone 4 mg/day or matching placebo for 12 weeks. The primary end point was change in serum adiponectin concentrations from baseline to week 12. Secondary end points were changes in serum resistin concentrations, insulin resistance, fasting glucose level, fasting insulin level, body weight, lipid levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and waist circumference from baseline to week 12. Also, changes from baseline in adiponectin and resistin concentrations and insulin resistance were assessed over time at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12. Rosiglitazone was associated with a significant increase in serum adiponectin concentration after 12 weeks compared with placebo (45.8% vs 2.6%, p=0.002). The increase in adiponectin concentration occurred quickly, with a significant difference observed after 2 weeks of therapy. Compared with placebo, rosiglitazone was not associated with significant 12-week changes in serum resistin concentrations, insulin resistance, fasting glucose level, fasting insulin level, body weight, lipid levels, systolic or diastolic blood pressure, or waist circumference. Rosiglitazone had beneficial effects on
Pérez, Cynthia M.; Guzmán, Manuel; Ortiz, Ana P.; Estrella, Mayra; Valle, Yari; Pérez, Naydi; Haddock, Lillian; Suárez, Erick
Objective The metabolic syndrome is associated with a high risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and Hispanics in the United States have higher rates than do other ethnic groups. We assessed the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its individual components in Puerto Rican adults. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study that used a probability cluster design to select a sample of households of the San Juan metropolitan area from 2005 through 2007. A total of 859 persons aged 21–79 years completed a face-to-face interview, blood pressure and waist circumference measurements, and blood sampling. Our primary outcome measure was metabolic syndrome as defined by the updated NCEP-ATP criteria. Results Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 43.3%; 45.3% for men and 42.2% for women (P>.05). Prevalence significantly rose with age, from 12.8% among participants aged 21–29 years to 58.2% for participants aged 70–79 years (P<.001). Corresponding increases in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in both men and women were also observed; the prevalence peaked in men aged 50–59 years (62.6%) and in women aged 70–79 years (65.2%). Elevated glucose (49.8%) and abdominal obesity (49.0%) were the most common components of the metabolic syndrome, followed by elevated blood pressure (46.1%), reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (46.0%), and elevated triglycerides (31.3%). Substantial variations were found between men and women in the prevalence of individual components. Conclusions Puerto Ricans have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. This health disparity has implications for diabetes and cardiovascular prevention programs. PMID:19157247
Araujo Guedes, Rubem Carlos; de Alburquerque Paiva, Ana Maria; Amâncio-dos-Santos, Angela; Vieira-Filho, Leucio Duarte; Oliveira da Paixão, Ana Durce
Chronic ethanol ingestion, mostly in young adults, constitutes a frequent drug-abuse situation, which is associated to a wide variety of pathological disturbance affecting a number of organs, including liver, kidney, heart, pancreas and brain. The ethanol effects are more prominent when occurring at the perinatal period of life, generating, among other disabilities, brain developmental and functional impairments, as well as the so-called "fetal alcoholic syndrome". However, low doses of ethanol, although not producing conspicuous signs of physiological impairment, may affect the developing organism, impairing the renal and cardiovascular system, among others. As a consequence of increased oxidative stress produced by ethanol intake and its subsequent oxidation, lipid peroxidation increases, enhancing reactive oxygen species formation, which is potentially injurious to the brain tissue. When occurring during gestation, lipid peroxidation may occur in the placenta, an event that would partially be responsible for fetal nutrition disturbance and consequently late physiological impairment. In this short review, data on ethanol effects on the nervous and cardiorenal structure and function are analyzed at the light of the most relevant hypotheses concerning ethanol mechanisms of action. Additionally, experimental data from the authors' laboratories are presented and discussed, focusing particular attention to the possibility of differential neural and cardiorenal ethanol effects as a function of the dose used in distinct experimental models.
Cavalcante-Silva, Luiz H. A.; Galvão, José G. F. M.; da Silva, Juliane Santos de França; de Sales-Neto, José M.; Rodrigues-Mascarenhas, Sandra
The intimate interplay between immune system, metabolism, and gut microbiota plays an important role in controlling metabolic homeostasis and possible obesity development. Obesity involves impairment of immune response affecting both innate and adaptive immunity. The main factors involved in the relationship of obesity with inflammation have not been completely elucidated. On the other hand, gut microbiota, via innate immune receptors, has emerged as one of the key factors regulating events triggering acute inflammation associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Inflammatory disorders lead to several signaling transduction pathways activation, inflammatory cytokine, chemokine production and cell migration, which in turn cause metabolic dysfunction. Inflamed adipose tissue, with increased macrophages infiltration, is associated with impaired preadipocyte development and differentiation to mature adipose cells, leading to ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance. This review focuses on the relationship between obesity and inflammation, which is essential to understand the pathological mechanisms governing metabolic syndrome. PMID:26635627
Hooijschuur, Mieke C E; Ghossein-Doha, Chahinda; Al-Nasiry, Salwan; Spaanderman, Marc E A
We sought to explore to what extent the presence of cardiometabolic and cardiovascular risk constitutions differ between pregnancies complicated by small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infancy, preeclampsia (PE), or a combination of both. We conducted a cohort study in women after pregnancies complicated by placental syndrome with fetal manifestations (SGA infancy [n = 113]), maternal manifestations (PE [n = 729]), or both (n = 461). Independent sample t test was used to compare cardiometabolic and cardiovascular risk factors between groups. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its constituents between groups. Adjustments were made for maternal age, parity, smoking, interval between delivery and measurements, and intrauterine fetal demise. The metabolic syndrome was present in 7.5% of women who delivered SGA infants, 15.6% of former PE women, and 19.8% of women after pregnancy complicated by both SGA and PE. Hypertension was observed in 25% of former PE women and 15% of women with solely SGA. Women who delivered a SGA infant had lower global vascular compliance compared to former PE women without SGA. Cardiometabolic risk factors consistent with metabolic syndrome relate to the maternal rather than to the fetal presentation of placental syndrome. Nonetheless, highest incidence of metabolic syndrome was observed in women with both PE and SGA. PE relates to chronic hypertension, whereas increased arterial stiffness seems to be associated with women who deliver a SGA infant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Edwards, M J
THE BARKER HYPOTHESIS: Is an excellent explanation of the process where human and animal foetuses exposed to malnutrition, either by maternal malnutrition or placental insufficiency, are metabolically programmed, with selective stunting of cell differentiation and organ growth. With the postnatal excess of nutrition observed in developed countries, this irreversible programming causes metabolic syndrome, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. Metabolic programming involves epigenetic changes including imprinting which might be transmitted through more than one generation rather than being completely re-set or erased during reproduction. The Barker hypothesis was supported by epidemiological data that recognised no excess fetal or postnatal mortality when pregnant women were starved during the Dutch famine in World War II. This argued against the "thrifty genotype" theory introduced in 1962, which proposed that starvation selected against members of the population with less "thrifty" genes, but the survivors who had "thrifty" genes developed metabolic syndrome if they were subsequently over-nourished. EMBRYONIC/FETAL SELECTION: Embryos or early foetuses could be selected very early in pregnancy on the basis of their genotype, by maternal malnutrition, hypertension, obesity or other causes of placental insufficiency. The genotype that allows embryos, or cells within them, to survive a less hospitable environment in the decidua after implantation might contribute to the later development of metabolic syndrome. This article hypothesises that an adverse intrauterine environment, caused by maternal malnutrition or placental insufficiency, kills a proportion of embryos and selects a surviving population of early embryos whose growth in utero is retarded by their genotype, their environment or a combination of both. The metabolic syndrome follows if the offspring is over-nourished later in life. The embryonic selection hypothesis presented here could be
Lewis, John E; Cutrono, Stacy E; Hodgson, Nicole; LeBlanc, William G; Arheart, Kristopher L; Fleming, Lora E; Lee, David J
To explore the association between cardiovascular fitness and metabolic syndrome across occupational groups using a nationally representative sample of the US population. Respondents aged 18 to 49 years from the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were evaluated for cardiovascular fitness and classified with regard to metabolic syndrome. Comparisons were made across 40 occupational categories. For all occupations with and without metabolic syndrome, the estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was 38.8 mL/kg/min (standard error = 0.5) and 41.1 mL/kg/min (standard error = 0.2), respectively. The estimated VO2max was higher for those without metabolic syndrome for most occupational groups, particularly for sales supervisors and proprietors, sales representatives, finance, business, and commodities, and freight, stock, and material movers. Low estimated VO2max among workers with metabolic syndrome can be addressed, in part, by workplace interventions designed to increase fitness. This study identifies priority occupational groups for these interventions.
Kumar, Hari K; Yadav, Raj K; Prajapati, Jayaram; Reddy, Challa V K; Raghunath, Manchala; Modi, Kirtikumar D
To determine the association between thyroid hormones, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome in euthyroid women. Forty-five women with no past medical history were studied in this cross-sectional study at the Department of Endocrinology, Medwin Hospitals, Hyderabad, India, from August 2008 to September 2008. The body fat was estimated using bio-impedance method, and fasting blood sample was analyzed for total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), lipid profile, insulin, and glucose. The mean age of the participants was 32.6 +/= 9.6 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 29.9 +/= 3.8 kg/m2. Evidence of homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) more than 3 was seen in 34 (75%) and metabolic syndrome in 29 (64%) participants. Total T3 showed a positive correlation with triglycerides, low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol, insulin, HOMA-IR and negatively with body fat. Thyroid-stimulating hormone correlated positively with BMI, insulin, HOMA-IR, LDL-C and negatively with HDL-cholesterol (p<0.05). Free triiodothyronine correlated positively with waist circumference and T4 did not correlate with metabolic syndrome parameters. Our preliminary data show an association between thyroid hormones and some components specific of the metabolic syndrome in euthyroid women. Total triiodothyronine and TSH correlated more with variables of metabolic syndrome than FT3 and T4.
Baspinar, B; Eskici, G; Ozcelik, A O
Metabolic syndrome, with its increasing prevalence, is becoming a major public health problem throughout the world. Many risk factors including nutrition play a role in the emergence of metabolic syndrome. Of the most-consumed beverages in the world, coffee contains more than 1000 components such as caffeine, chlorogenic acid, diterpenes and trigonelline. It has been proven in many studies that coffee consumption has a positive effect on chronic diseases. In this review, starting from the beneficial effects of coffee on health, the relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome and its components has been investigated. There are few studies investigating the relationship between coffee and metabolic syndrome, and the existing ones put forward different findings. The factors leading to the differences are thought to stem from coffee variety, the physiological effects of coffee elements, and the nutritional ingredients (such as milk and sugar) added to coffee. It is reported that consumption of coffee in adults up to three cups a day reduces the risk of Type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.
Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Li, Da; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Cao, Ji-Min
The body's total antioxidant capacity represents a sum of the antioxidant capacity of various tissues/organs. A decrease in the body's antioxidant capacity may induce oxidative stress and subsequent metabolic syndrome, a clustering of risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The skin, the largest organ of the body, is one of the major components of the body's total antioxidant defense system, primarily through its xenobiotic/drug biotransformation system, reactive oxygen species-scavenging system, and sweat glands- and sebaceous glands-mediated excretion system. Notably, unlike other contributors, the skin contribution is variable, depending on lifestyles and ambient temperature or seasonal variations. Emerging evidence suggests that decreased skin's antioxidant and excretory functions (e.g., due to sedentary lifestyles and low ambient temperature) may increase the risk for metabolic syndrome. This review focuses on the relationship between the variability of skin-mediated detoxification and elimination of exogenous and endogenous toxic substances and the development of metabolic syndrome. The potential role of sebum secretion in lipid and cholesterol homeostasis and its impact on metabolic syndrome, and the association between skin disorders (acanthosis nigricans, acne, and burn) and metabolic syndrome are also discussed.
Monda, Keri L.; North, Kari E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Rao, D.C.; Province, Michael A.; Arnett, Donna K.; Kraja, Aldi T.
In this review, we discuss the genetic architecture of obesity and the metabolic syndrome, highlighting recent advances in identifying genetic variants and loci responsible for a portion of the variation in adiposity traits, serum HDL and triglycerides, blood pressure, and glycemic traits; in other words, the components comprising the metabolic syndrome. We focus particularly on recent progress from large-scale genome-wide association studies. Detailing their successes and how lessons learned can pave the way for future discovery. Results from recent genome-wide association studies coalesce with earlier work suggesting numerous interconnections between obesity and the metabolic syndrome, developed through several potentially pleiotropic effects. We detail recent work by way of a case study on the cadherin 13 gene and its relation with adiponectin in the HyperGEN and the Framingham Heart Studies, and its association with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. We provide also a gene network analysis on recent variants related to obesity and metabolic syndrome discovered through genome-wide association studies. PMID:20406164
Vicente-Herrero, María Teófila; López González, Ángel Arturo; Ramírez-Iñiguez de la Torre, María Victoria; Capdevila-García, Luisa; Terradillos-García, María Jesús; Aguilar-Jiménez, Encarna
Prevalence of alcohol consumption is high in the general population and generates specific problems at the workplace. To establish benchmarks between levels of alcohol consumption and cardiovascular risk variables and metabolic syndrome. A cross-sectional study of 7,644 workers of Spanish companies (2,828 females and 4,816 males). Alcohol consumption and its relation to cardiovascular risk was assessed using Framingham calibrated for the Spanish population (REGICOR) and SCORE, and metabolic syndrome was assessed using modified ATPIII and IDF criteria and Castelli and atherogenic index and triglycerides/HDL ratio. A multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression and odds ratios were estimated. Statistically significant differences were seen in the mean values of the different parameters studied in prevalence of metabolic syndrome, for both sexes and with modified ATPIII, IDF and REGICOR and SCORE. The sex, age, alcohol, and smoking variables were associated to cardiovascular risk parameters and metabolic syndrome. Physical exercise and stress are only associated to with some of them. The alcohol consumption affects all cardiovascular risk parameters and metabolic syndrome, being more negative the result in high level drinkers. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo C; Yamamoto-Kimura, Liria; Medina-Urrutia, Aida; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Caracas-Portilla, Nacú A; Posadas-Romero, Carlos
aim: To know the metabolic syndrome and its components prevalence in Mexico City adolescents sample. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 772 men and 1078 women, 12 to 16 years old, from 8 randomly selected public junior high schools in Mexico City. Anthropometric variables, lipids, lipoproteins, Apo AI and B, glucose and insulin were determined. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 12.5%, 11.15% in men and 13.5% en women (p ns). The most frequently metabolic syndrome component found in México City adolescents was low HDL-C levels (38%), followed by hypertriglyceridemia (25.5%), hypertension (19.2%), central obesity (11.8%) and elevated fasting glucose (1.7). Except by the hypertriglyceridemia, higher in woman than in men, 28.2% vs. 21.6%, p < 0.001, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome components was similar between males and females. The high prevalence of biochemical and physiological factors of metabolic syndrome, associated with overweight and obesity in Mexico City adolescents, increases the risk of premature development of coronary atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus in this population.
Gulati, Om P
The present review provides an update of the biological actions of Pycnogenol® in the treatment of metabolic syndrome and related disorders such as obesity, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and hypertension. Pycnogenol® is a French maritime pine bark extract produced from the outer bark of Pinus pinaster Ait. Subsp. atlantica. Its strong antioxidant, antiinflammatory, endothelium-dependent vasodilator activity, and also its anti-thrombotic effects make it appropriate for targeting the multifaceted pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. Clinical studies have shown that it can reduce blood glucose levels in people with diabetes, blood pressure in mild to moderate hypertensive patients, and waist circumference, and improve lipid profile, renal and endothelial functions in metabolic syndrome. This review highlights the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and related clinical research findings on the safety and efficacy of Pycnogenol®. The results of clinical research studies performed with Pycnogenol® are discussed using an evidence-based, target-oriented approach following the pathophysiology of individual components as well as in metabolic syndrome overall.
The body’s total antioxidant capacity represents a sum of the antioxidant capacity of various tissues/organs. A decrease in the body’s antioxidant capacity may induce oxidative stress and subsequent metabolic syndrome, a clustering of risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The skin, the largest organ of the body, is one of the major components of the body’s total antioxidant defense system, primarily through its xenobiotic/drug biotransformation system, reactive oxygen species-scavenging system, and sweat glands- and sebaceous glands-mediated excretion system. Notably, unlike other contributors, the skin contribution is variable, depending on lifestyles and ambient temperature or seasonal variations. Emerging evidence suggests that decreased skin’s antioxidant and excretory functions (e.g., due to sedentary lifestyles and low ambient temperature) may increase the risk for metabolic syndrome. This review focuses on the relationship between the variability of skin-mediated detoxification and elimination of exogenous and endogenous toxic substances and the development of metabolic syndrome. The potential role of sebum secretion in lipid and cholesterol homeostasis and its impact on metabolic syndrome, and the association between skin disorders (acanthosis nigricans, acne, and burn) and metabolic syndrome are also discussed. PMID:22537765
Saboya, Patrícia Pozas; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Zimmermann, Paulo Roberto; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Assumpção, Caroline Melo; Londero, Fernanda
ABSTRACT Objectives: to present currently available evidence to verify the association between metabolic syndrome and quality of life. Method: Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline and LILACS databases were studied for all studies investigating the association with metabolic syndrome and quality of life. Two blinded reviewers extracted data and one more was chosen in case of doubt. Results: a total of 30 studies were included, considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, which involved 62.063 patients. Almost all studies suggested that metabolic syndrome is significantly associated with impaired quality of life. Some, however, found association only in women, or only if associated with depression or Body Mass Index. Merely one study did not find association after adjusted for confounding factors. Conclusion: although there are a few studies available about the relationship between metabolic syndrome and quality of life, a growing body of evidence has shown significant association between metabolic syndrome and the worsening of quality of life. However, it is necessary to carry out further longitudinal studies to confirm this association and verify whether this relationship is linear, or only an association factor. PMID:27901223
Sicińska, Paulina; Pytel, Edyta; Maćczak, Aneta; Koter-Michalak, Maria
Civilization development is associated with immense progress in science and significant improvement of human living conditions but simultaneously it contributes to many health problems including metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a set of mutually associated factors including insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, lipids disorders and hypertension, which is the main cause of development of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. The first line of defense against metabolic syndrome is a change of life style including body mass reduction, application of a low-calorie diet and performance of physical activity. In spite of the simplicity of therapy, long-term success of the above treatment among patients is observed seldom because it is very difficult to obey rigorous rules. Nowadays, it is considered that diet supplements including antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acids and mineral elements are helpful in metabolic syndrome treatment due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It is considered that a health balanced diet enriched with various diet supplements may be the best strategy in metabolic syndrome treatment.
Feldman, Ross D; Anderson, Todd J; Touyz, Rhian M
The real promise of the metabolic syndrome concept was the opportunity to elucidate a singular common mechanism for its component abnormalities and consequently a singular therapy. That promise has not produced. This relates to the following considerations: (1) metabolic syndrome remains a syndrome not a disease, (2) its diagnosis offers little more than what can be determined by measuring waist circumference, (3) risk assessment is not improved by the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, (4) the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome does not impact the treatment of each component of the syndrome, and (5) there is no effective therapy for metabolic syndrome in its entirety.
Bankoski, Andrea; Harris, Tamara B.; McClain, James J.; Brychta, Robert J.; Caserotti, Paolo; Chen, Kong Y.; Berrigan, David; Troiano, Richard P.; Koster, Annemarie
OBJECTIVE This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data were from 1,367 men and women, aged ≥60 years who participated in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Sedentary time during waking hours was measured by an accelerometer (<100 counts per minute). A sedentary bout was defined as a period of time >5 min. A sedentary break was defined as an interruption in sedentary time (≥100 counts per minute). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria. RESULTS On average, people spent 9.5 h (65% of wear time) as sedentary. Compared with people without metabolic syndrome, people with metabolic syndrome spent a greater percentage of time as sedentary (67.3 vs. 62.2%), had longer average sedentary bouts (17.7 vs. 16.7 min), had lower intensity during sedentary time (14.8 vs. 15.8 average counts per minute), and had fewer sedentary breaks (82.3 vs. 86.7), adjusted for age and sex (all P < 0.01). A higher percentage of time sedentary and fewer sedentary breaks were associated with a significantly greater likelihood of metabolic syndrome after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, education, alcohol consumption, smoking, BMI, diabetes, heart disease, and physical activity. The association between intensity during sedentary time and metabolic syndrome was borderline significant. CONCLUSIONS The proportion of sedentary time was strongly related to metabolic risk, independent of physical activity. Current results suggest older people may benefit from reducing total sedentary time and avoiding prolonged periods of sedentary time by increasing the number of breaks during sedentary time. PMID:21270206
Seda, Ondrej; Liska, Frantisek; Krenova, Drahomira; Kazdova, Ludmila; Sedova, Lucie; Zima, Tomas; Peng, Junzheng; Pelinkova, Kveta; Tremblay, Johanne; Hamet, Pavel; Kren, Vladimir
The polydactylous rat strain (PD/Cub) is a highly inbred (F > 90) genetic model of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic architecture of the metabolic derangements found in the PD/Cub strain and to assess its dynamics in time and in response to diet and medication. We derived a PD/Cub x BN/Cub (Brown Norway) F2 intercross population of 149 male rats and performed metabolic profiling and genotyping and multiple levels of genetic linkage and statistical analyses at five different stages of ontogenesis and after high-sucrose diet feeding and dexamethasone administration challenges. The interval mapping analysis of 83 metabolic and morphometric traits revealed over 50 regions genomewide with significant or suggestive linkage to one or more of the traits in the segregating PD/Cub x BN/Cub population. The multiple interval mapping showed that, in addition to "single" quantitative train loci, there are more than 30 pairs of loci across the whole genome significantly influencing the variation of particular traits in an epistatic fashion. This study represents the first whole genome analysis of metabolic syndrome in the PD/Cub model and reveals several new loci previously not connected to the genetics of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. In addition, it attempts to present the concept of "dynamic genetic architecture" of metabolic syndrome attributes, evidenced by shifts in the genetic determination of syndrome features during ontogenesis and during adaptation to the dietary and pharmacological influences.
Helvaci, Mehmet Rami; Kaya, Hasan; Seyhanli, Mahmut; Yalcin, Atilla
Although white coat hypertension (WCH) is believed to have an effect on health, there is no term defining WCH in metabolic syndrome. Consecutive patients 20 years old or older who underwent a check-up were included. The study included 1068 cases. The prevalences of hyperbetalipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and WCH were similar to excess weight in that they increased significantly until the seventh decade of life and decreased thereafter significantly (P < 0.05 in most steps). On the other hand, the prevalences of hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), and coronary heart disease (CHD) always increased significantly with age without any decrease (P < 0.05 in most steps), indicating their irreversibility in contrast to the reversibility of excess weight, hyperbetalipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, IGT, and WCH. Metabolic syndrome is a reversible progression step between health and irreversible final diseases terminating with increased mortality and disabilities. Thus, the definition of metabolic syndrome should include reversible metabolic risk factors such as excess weight (overweight and obesity), hyperbetalipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, IGT, and WCH, instead of irrevesible diseases such as DM, HT, CHD, and stroke that have already developed and require drug therapy. After development of one of the final metabolic diseases, the term metabolic syndrome probably loses most of its significance, since from that point on, nonpharmaceutical approaches such as lifestyle changes, diet, and exercise will provide little benefit to prevent development of the others, most likely due to the cumulative effects of the risk factors on body systems over a long period of time.
Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Schaan, Beatriz; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; de Vasconcellos, Maurício T L
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated 37,504 adolescents who were participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, school-based, national study. The adolescents, aged from 12 to 17 years, lived in cities with populations greater than 100,000 inhabitants. The sample was stratified and clustered into schools and classes. The criteria set out by the International Diabetes Federation were used to define metabolic syndrome. Prevalences of metabolic syndrome were estimated according to sex, age group, school type and nutritional status. RESULTS Of the 37,504 adolescents who were evaluated: 50.2% were female; 54.3% were aged from 15 to 17 years, and 73.3% were from public schools. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6% (95%CI 2.3-2.9), slightly higher in males and in those aged from 15 to 17 years in most macro-regions. The prevalence was the highest in residents from the South macro-region, in the younger female adolescents and in the older male adolescents. The prevalence was higher in public schools (2.8% [95%CI 2.4-3.2]), when compared with private schools (1.9% [95%CI 1.4-2.4]) and higher in obese adolescents when compared with nonobese ones. The most common combinations of components, referring to 3/4 of combinations, were: enlarged waist circumference (WC), low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) and high blood pressure; followed by enlarged WC, low HDL-c and high triglycerides; and enlarged WC, low HDL-c, high triglycerides and blood pressure. Low HDL was the second most frequent component, but the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (26.8%) was observed in the presence of high triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS ERICA is the first Brazilian nation-wide study to present the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and describe the role of its components. Despite the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome being low, the high prevalences of some
Carroll, Sean; Dudfield, Mike
Prevention of the metabolic syndrome and treatment of its main characteristics are now considered of utmost importance in order to combat the epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus and to reduce the increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Insulin resistance/hyperinsulinaemia are consistently linked with a clustering of multiple clinical and subclinical metabolic risk factors. It is now widely recognised that obesity (especially abdominal fat accumulation), hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and hypertension are common metabolic traits that, concurrently, constitute the distinctive insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome. Cross-sectional and prospective data provide an emerging picture of associations of both physical activity habits and cardiorespiratory fitness with the metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome, is a disorder that requires aggressive multi-factorial intervention. Recent treatment guidelines have emphasised the clinical utility of diagnosis and an important treatment role for 'therapeutic lifestyle change', incorporating moderate physical activity. Several previous narrative reviews have considered exercise training as an effective treatment for insulin resistance and other components of the syndrome. However, the evidence cited has been less consistent for exercise training effects on several metabolic syndrome variables, unless combined with appropriate dietary modifications to achieve weight loss. Recently published randomised controlled trial data concerning the effects of exercise training on separate metabolic syndrome traits are evaluated within this review. Novel systematic review and meta-analysis evidence is presented indicating that supervised, long-term, moderate to moderately vigorous intensity exercise training, in the absence of therapeutic weight loss, improves the dyslipidaemic profile by raising high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lowering triglycerides in overweight and obese adults with characteristics
Hanefeld, M; Schaper, F; Ceriello, A
Metabolic syndrome--a cluster of metabolic diseases and hypertension--is not a new disease. It has been present in the upper classes of all highly developed cultures suffering from over-nutrition and limited physical activity. In the medical literature, it can be found in Renaissance and Baroque times. We are presently experiencing a global tsunami of this syndrome as over-nutrition and lack of movement are typical for large groups of the population. The current definition of metabolic syndrome of the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and the International Diabetes Federation incorporates the quartet central obesity, hypertension, increased blood sugar and dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol). Thus, simple, collective diagnostics and therapy for this finely meshed group of diseases together with its risk factors is possible.
Goodwill, Adam G; Frisbee, Jefferson C
The evolution of the metabolic syndrome in afflicted individuals is, in part, characterized by the development of a severely pro-oxidant state within the vasculature. It has been previously demonstrated by many investigators that this increasingly pro-oxidant state can have severe negative implications for many relevant processes within the vasculature, including the coordination of dilator/constrictor tone or reactivity, the structural adaptations of the vascular wall or distal networks, as well as the integrated regulation of perfusion resistance across and throughout the vascular networks. The purpose of this review article is to present the different sources of oxidant stress within the setting of the metabolic syndrome, the available mechanism for attempts at regulation and the vascular outcomes associated with this condition. It is anticipated that this overview will help readers and investigators to more effectively design experiments and interpret their results within the extremely complicated setting of metabolic syndrome.
Fall, Tove; Ingelsson, Erik
Until just a few years ago, the genetic determinants of obesity and metabolic syndrome were largely unknown, with the exception of a few forms of monogenic extreme obesity. Since genome-wide association studies (GWAS) became available, large advances have been made. The first single nucleotide polymorphism robustly associated with increased body mass index (BMI) was in 2007 mapped to a gene with for the time unknown function. This gene, now known as fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) has been repeatedly replicated in several ethnicities and is affecting obesity by regulating appetite. Since the first report from a GWAS of obesity, an increasing number of markers have been shown to be associated with BMI, other measures of obesity or fat distribution and metabolic syndrome. This systematic review of obesity GWAS will summarize genome-wide significant findings for obesity and metabolic syndrome and briefly give a few suggestions of what is to be expected in the next few years.
Gibson, Todd M; Ehrhardt, Matthew J; Ness, Kirsten K
Treatment-related obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Both conditions often begin during therapy. Preventive measures, including dietary counseling and tailored exercise, should be initiated early in the course of survivorship, with referral to specialists to optimize success. However, among adults who develop obesity or the metabolic syndrome and who do not respond to lifestyle therapy, medical intervention may be indicated to manage underlying pathology, such as growth hormone deficiency, or to mitigate risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Because no specific clinical trials have been done in this population to treat metabolic syndrome or its components, clinicians who follow adult survivors of childhood ALL should use the existing American Heart Association/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Scientific Statement to guide their approach.
Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Inoue, Yuichi
Insomnia has been reported to underlie the development and aggravation of metabolic syndrome including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Treatment of insomnia is important for both the management and prevention of these comorbid disorders. We introduced the treatment strategy of insomnia for the patients with metabolic syndrome. For the better management of insomnia, sleep hygiene education should be given first, and adequate drug therapy should be started thereafter. Cognitive behavioral therapy is useful not only for insomnia symptom but also for the reducing amount of drug and prevention of the recurrence of insomnia. We expect that progress in the management of insomnia would result in the better treatment outcome of metabolic syndrome in general practice.
Reungjui, Sirirat; Roncal, Carlos A; Mu, Wei; Srinivas, Titte R; Sirivongs, Dhavee; Johnson, Richard J; Nakagawa, Takahiko
Fructose is a commonly used sweetener associated with diets that increase the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Thiazide diuretics are frequently used in these patients for treatment of hypertension, but they also exacerbate metabolic syndrome. Rats on high-fructose diets that are given thiazides exhibit potassium depletion and hyperuricemia. Potassium supplementation improves their insulin resistance and hypertension, whereas allopurinol reduces serum levels of uric acid and ameliorates hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance. Both potassium supplementation and treatment with allopurinol also increase urinary nitric oxide excretion. We suggest that potassium depletion and hyperuricemia in rats exacerbates endothelial dysfunction and lowers the bioavailability of nitric oxide, which blocks insulin activity and causes insulin resistance during thiazide usage. Addition of potassium supplements and allopurinol with thiazides might be helpful in the management of metabolic syndrome.
Basu, Arpita; Lyons, Timothy J
Emerging science supports therapeutic roles of strawberries, blueberries, and cranberries in metabolic syndrome, a prediabetic state characterized by several cardiovascular risk factors. Interventional studies reported by our group and others have demonstrated the following effects: strawberries lowering total and LDL-cholesterol, but not triglycerides, and decreasing surrogate biomarkers of atherosclerosis (malondialdehyde and adhesion molecules); blueberries lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure and lipid oxidation and improving insulin resistance; and low-calorie cranberry juice selectively decreasing biomarkers of lipid oxidation (oxidized LDL) and inflammation (adhesion molecules) in metabolic syndrome. Mechanistic studies further explain these observations as up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity, reduction in renal oxidative damage, and inhibition of the activity of carbohydrate digestive enzymes or angiotensin-converting enzyme by these berries. These findings need confirmation in future studies with a focus on the effects of strawberry, blueberry, or cranberry intervention in clinical biomarkers and molecular mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome.
Gibson, Todd M.; Ehrhardt, Matthew J.; Ness, Kirsten K.
Opinion statement Treatment-related obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Both conditions often begin during therapy. Preventive measures, including dietary counseling and tailored exercise should be initiated early in the course of survivorship, with referral to specialists to optimize success. However, among adults who develop obesity or the metabolic syndrome and who do not respond to lifestyle therapy, medical intervention may be indicated to manage underlying pathology, such as growth hormone deficiency, or to mitigate risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Because no specific clinical trials have been done in this population to treat metabolic syndrome or its components, clinicians who follow adult survivors of childhood ALL should use the existing American Heart Association/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Scientific Statement to guide their approach. PMID:26951206
Uyar, Meral; Davutoğlu, Vedat; Aydın, Neriman; Filiz, Ayten
The aim of this study is to compare metabolic syndrome with syndrome Z growing epidemic in terms of risk factors, demographic variables, and gender differences in our large cohort at southeastern area in Turkey. Data of patients admitted to sleep clinic in University of Gaziantep from January 2006 to January 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. ATP III and JNC 7 were used for defining metabolic syndrome and hypertension. Data of 761 patients were evaluated. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, pulmonary hypertension, and left ventricular hypertrophy were more common in patients with syndrome Z than in patients without metabolic syndrome. Age, waist/neck circumferences, BMI, triglyceride, glucose, and Epworth sleepiness scale score were detected higher, whereas the minimum oxygen saturation during sleep was lower in patients with syndrome Z. Metabolic syndrome was more common in sleep apneic subjects than in controls (58 versus 30 %). Female sleep apneics showed higher rate of metabolic syndrome than those of males (74 versus 52 %). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and left ventricular hypertrophy were detected higher in males with syndrome Z than in males without metabolic syndrome. Snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness were detected higher in females with syndrome Z than in females without metabolic syndrome. Systemic/pulmonary hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and left ventricular hypertrophy were more common in females with syndrome Z than in females without metabolic syndrome. Complaints of headache and systemic/pulmonary hypertension were more common among females than males with syndrome Z. Female syndrome Z patients had lower minimum oxygen saturation than male patients with syndrome Z. Metabolic syndrome in sleep apneic patients is more prevalent than in controls. All metabolic syndrome parameters were significantly different among obstructive sleep apneic patients with respect to gender with more severe
Kaduka, Lydia U.; Kombe, Yeri; Kenya, Eucharia; Kuria, Elizabeth; Bore, John K.; Bukania, Zipporah N.; Mwangi, Moses
OBJECTIVE Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiologic transition accompanied by increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) linked to urbanization and lifestyle modifications. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of CVD risk factors whose extent in Kenya remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and factors associated with its occurrence among an urban population in Kenya. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a household cross-sectional survey comprising 539 adults (aged ≥18 years) living in Nairobi, drawn from 30 clusters across five socioeconomic classes. Measurements included waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAGs), fasting glucose, and blood pressure. RESULTS The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 34.6% and was higher in women than in men (40.2 vs. 29%; P < 0.001). The most frequently observed features were raised blood pressure, a higher waist circumference, and low HDL cholesterol (men: 96.2, 80.8, and 80%; women: 89.8, 97.2, and 96.3%, respectively), whereas raised fasting glucose and TAGs were observed less frequently (men: 26.9 and 63.3%; women: 26.9 and 30.6%, respectively). The main factors associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome were increasing age, socioeconomic status, and education. CONCLUSIONS Metabolic syndrome is prevalent in this urban population, especially among women, but the incidence of individual factors suggests that poor glycemic control is not the major contributor. Longitudinal studies are required to establish true causes of metabolic syndrome in Kenya. The Kenyan government needs to create awareness, develop prevention strategies, and strengthen the health care system to accommodate screening and management of CVDs. PMID:22374643
Kaduka, Lydia U; Kombe, Yeri; Kenya, Eucharia; Kuria, Elizabeth; Bore, John K; Bukania, Zipporah N; Mwangi, Moses
Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiologic transition accompanied by increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) linked to urbanization and lifestyle modifications. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of CVD risk factors whose extent in Kenya remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and factors associated with its occurrence among an urban population in Kenya. This was a household cross-sectional survey comprising 539 adults (aged ≥18 years) living in Nairobi, drawn from 30 clusters across five socioeconomic classes. Measurements included waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAGs), fasting glucose, and blood pressure. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 34.6% and was higher in women than in men (40.2 vs. 29%; P < 0.001). The most frequently observed features were raised blood pressure, a higher waist circumference, and low HDL cholesterol (men: 96.2, 80.8, and 80%; women: 89.8, 97.2, and 96.3%, respectively), whereas raised fasting glucose and TAGs were observed less frequently (men: 26.9 and 63.3%; women: 26.9 and 30.6%, respectively). The main factors associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome were increasing age, socioeconomic status, and education. Metabolic syndrome is prevalent in this urban population, especially among women, but the incidence of individual factors suggests that poor glycemic control is not the major contributor. Longitudinal studies are required to establish true causes of metabolic syndrome in Kenya. The Kenyan government needs to create awareness, develop prevention strategies, and strengthen the health care system to accommodate screening and management of CVDs.
Magnavita, Nicola; Fileni, Adriano
Scientific data have amply demonstrated that work stress increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, less attention has been given to the association between stress and metabolic syndrome. In this study, our aim was to investigate the relationship between work stress and metabolic syndrome in a population of radiologists. Radiologists and radiotherapists taking part in scientific conferences were invited to compile a questionnaire to evaluate work stress and the main parameters for diagnosing metabolic syndrome (obesity, hypertension, elevated cholesterol level, elevated triglycerides, and hyperglycemia). Most of the doctors taking part in the survey (n = 383, 58.6 %) were found to have at least one pathological component; 47 subjects (7.1 %) had metabolic syndrome. All the variables indicating work stress, whether derived from Karasek's demand/control model or from the effort/reward model devised by Siegrist, were significant predictors of metabolic syndrome components. Radiologists with elevated levels of stress had a significantly higher risk of being affected by metabolic syndrome than colleagues with lower stress levels, whether stress was defined as "job strain", i.e., elevated work load and reduced discretionary power (OR 4.89, 95 % CI 2.51-9.55), or as "effort reward imbalance", i.e., mismatch between effort and reward for the work performed (OR 4.66, 95 % CI 2.17-10.02). Should the results of this cross-sectional study be confirmed by a subsequent longitudinal survey, they would indicate the need for prompt organizational intervention to reduce occupational stress in radiologists.
Giugliano, Dario; Ceriello, Antonio; Esposito, Katherine
The concept of the metabolic syndrome, although controversial, continues to gain acceptance. Whereas each risk factor of the metabolic syndrome (visceral obesity, atherogenetic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and dysglycemia) can be dealt with individually, the recommended initial therapeutic approach is to focus on reversing its root causes of atherogenetic diet, sedentary lifestyle, and overweight or obesity. No single diet is currently recommended for patients with the metabolic syndrome, although epidemiologic evidence suggests a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome associated with dietary patterns rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, dairy products, and unsaturated fats. We conducted a literature search to identify clinical trials specifically dealing with the resolution of the metabolic syndrome by lifestyle, drugs, or obesity surgery. Criteria used for study selection were English language, randomized trials with a placebo or control group (except for surgery), a follow-up lasting>or=6 mo, and a time frame of 5 y. We identified 3 studies based on lifestyle interventions, 5 studies based on drug therapy, and 3 studies based on laparoscopic weight-reduction surgery The striking resolution of the metabolic syndrome with weight-reduction surgery (93%) as compared with lifestyle (25%) and drugs (19%) strongly suggests that obesity is the driving force for the occurrence of this condition. Although there is no "all-inclusive" diet yet, it seems plausible that a Mediterranean-style diet has most of the desired attributes, including a lower content of refined carbohydrates, a high content of fiber, a moderate content of fat (mostly unsaturated), and a moderate-to-high content of vegetable proteins.
Múnera, Nora Elena; Uscátegui, Rosa Magdalena; Parra, Beatriz Elena; Manjarrés, Luz Mariela; Patiño, Fredy; Velásquez, Claudia María; Estrada, Alejandro; Bedoya, Gabriel; Parra, Vicky; Muñoz, Angélica María; Orozco, Ana Carolina; Agudelo, Gloria María
The environmental risk factors such as food intake and physival activity, are determinants in the etiology of metabolic syndrome in overweight adolescents. To explore the association between environmental risk factors and components presence of metabolic syndrome in overweight youngsters in Medellín. Adolescents between the ages of 10 and 18 were selected for a cross sectional study. Body composition by anthropometry, blood pressure, lipid profile, glucose, insulin, food intake and physical activity level were assessed in the study population. The prevalence for metabolic syndrome components of hypertriglyceridemia was 40.9%; hypertension, 20.9%; low HDLc, 15.6%; high waist circumference, 4.0%, and hyperglycemia, 0.9%; the overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 3.1%. There was a statistical difference (p<0.005) between the consumption of calories, simple and total carbohydrates and the presence of the components; no association was found between the level of physical activity and the presence of components (p>0.05). The logistic regression model showed a higher probability of having at least one component if the youngster was male (p=0.022), with a higher BMI (Body Mass Index)(p=0.019) and was located in the fourth simple carbohydrates consumption quartile (p=0.036). Environmental risk factors associated with components of metabolic syndrome were the increased consumption of calories, simple and complex carbohydrates, all directly related to the BMI. In contrast, the level of physical activity, family history and personal risk factors showed no association. The metabolic syndrome only occurred in youngsters with obesity.
Ashraf, Tariq; Memon, Muhammad Anis; Talpur, Muhammad Saeed; Panhwar, Ziauddin; Rasool, Syed Ishtiaq
To evaluate the frequency of metabolic syndrome in patients with Ischaemic Heart Disease. This was a cross sectional observational study. Patients with a first time cardiac event arriving in emergency room during the period October 2009 to April 2010, were included. Five components of Metabolic syndrome were defined according to criteria set by International Diabetes Federation, American Heart Association & National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute which had abdominal obesity (waist circumference) as an integral part of the syndrome. Blood sugar, triglycerides, HDL-C were measured within 24 hrs of cardiac insult. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure > 130/85 mmHg. Variables were integrated for descriptive statistics. A total of 477 patients diagnosed with Ischaemic Heart Disease were inducted in the study. There were 355 (74%) males and 122 (26%) females. Frequency of metabolic syndrome in Ischaemic heart disease was seen in 195 (54.95%) males and 96 (78.7%) females (p < 0.001). According to recent criteria abdominal obesity was observed in 91 (81.1%) females as compared to males 219 (61.7%) (p < 0.001) Similarly, low HDL and Hypertension were high in frequency in females. No significant difference in triglycerides levels was found in either gender. Frequency of metabolic syndrome with Ischaemic heart disease was high in females as compared to males. This could be attributed to the increased prevalence of abdominal obesity.
Desai, M; Jellyman, J K; Ross, M G
Epigenetic mechanisms are emerging as mediators linking early environmental exposures during pregnancy with programmed changes in gene expression that alter offspring growth and development. There is irrefutable evidence from human and animal studies that nutrient and environmental agent exposures (for example, endocrine disruptors) during pregnancy may affect fetal/newborn development resulting in offspring obesity and obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities (metabolic syndrome). This concept of 'gestational programming' is associated with alterations to the epigenome (nongenomic) rather than changes in the DNA sequence (genomic). Epigenetic alterations induced by suboptimal maternal nutrition/endocrine factors include DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling and/or regulatory feedback by microRNAs, all of which have the ability to modulate gene expression and promote the metabolic syndrome phenotype. Recent studies have shown tissue-specific transcriptome patterns and phenotypes not only in the exposed individual, but also in subsequent progeny. Notably, the transmission of gestational programming effects to subsequent generations occurs in the absence of continued adverse environmental exposures, thus propagating the cycle of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This phenomenon may be attributed to an extrinsic process resulting from the maternal phenotype and the associated nutrient alterations occurring within each pregnancy. In addition, epigenetic inheritance may occur through somatic cells or through the germ line involving both maternal and paternal lineages. Since epigenetic gene modifications may be reversible, understanding how epigenetic mechanisms contribute to transgenerational transmission of obesity and metabolic dysfunction is crucial for the development of novel early detection and prevention strategies for programmed metabolic syndrome. In this review we discuss the evidence in human and animal studies for the role of
Braun, Sandra; Bitton-Worms, Keren; LeRoith, Derek
Since the incidence of the metabolic syndrome is on the rise in the western world, its coherence to cancer is becoming more apparent. In this review we discuss the different potential factors involved in the increase of cancer in the metabolic syndrome including obesity, dyslipidemia and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) as well as inflammation and hypoxia. We especially focus on the insulin and IGF systems with their intracellular signaling cascades mediated by different receptor subtypes, and suggest that they may play major roles in this process. Understanding the mechanisms involved will be helpful in developing potential therapeutics. PMID:21912508
Boutzios, Georgios; Livadas, Sarantis; Marinakis, Evangelos; Opie, Nicole; Economou, Frangiskos; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia
Wolfram syndrome (WS), also known as DIDMOAD (Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy and Deafness), is a neurodegenerative disease with autosomal recessive inheritance with incomplete penetrance. DIDMOAD is a very rare disease with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 770,000 and it is believed to occur in 1 of 150 patients with juvenile-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Additionally, WS may also present with different endocrine and metabolic abnormalities such as anterior and posterior pituitary gland dysfunction. This mini-review summarizes the variable presentation of WS and the need of screening for other metabolic and hormonal abnormalities, coexisting in this rare syndrome.
Gallo, Linda C; de los Monteros, Karla Espinosa; Ferent, Virginia; Urbina, Jorge; Talavera, Greg
Individuals with low socioeconomic position (SEP) and Latino ethnicity are at high risk for the metabolic syndrome. In part, this may reflect that these populations benefit from fewer resilient resources to manage stressful environments, resulting in accentuated psychological and physiological costs (1). We examined the direct effects of educational attainment (an indicator of SEP) and psychosocial resources on metabolic syndrome variables, and tested indirect effects of education, via resources. Participants were 145 middle-aged (M=47.07 years) Latinas recruited from health clinics along the California-Mexico border. Women completed assessments of demographics and resilient resources; metabolic syndrome variables were measured (blood pressure [BP], waist circumference [WC]) or abstracted from medical charts (lipids, glucose). Women with less education reported fewer psychosocial resources (DeltaR2=.14, p<.0001) and showed a higher risk profile on measures of BP, WC, and plasma glucose (3-7% of variance explained, all ps<.05), relative to those with more education. Resources independently predicted lower WCs (DeltaR2=.07, p<.05). Education exerted an indirect effect (p<.05) through resources on WC, a core factor underlying the metabolic syndrome. Additional research is warranted to further explore the roles of resilient resources in relationships among SEP, metabolic risk factors, and chronic disease processes.
Eapen, Danny; Kalra, Girish L; Merchant, Nadya; Arora, Anjali; Khan, Bobby V
This review discusses the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in the South Asian population, evaluates conventional and emerging risk factors, and reinforces the need for ethnic-specific redefinition of guidelines used to diagnose metabolic syndrome. We reviewed recent and past literature using Ovid Medline and PubMed databases. South Asians represent one of the largest and fastest growing ethnic groups in the world. With this growth, a dramatic rise in the rates of acute myocardial infarction and diabetes is being seen in this population. Potential etiologies for this phenomenon include dietary westernization, poor lifestyle measures, adverse body fat patterning, and genetics. While traditional risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease should not be overlooked, early metabolic syndrome has now been shown in the South Asian pediatric population, suggesting that "metabolic programming" and perinatal influences may likely play a substantial role. Health care practitioners must be aware that current guidelines used to identify individuals with metabolic syndrome are underestimating South Asian individuals at risk. New ethnic-specific guidelines and prevention strategies are discussed in this review and should be applied by clinicians to their South Asian patients.
Garcia-Rizo, C; Fernandez-Egea, E; Oliveira, C; Meseguer, A; Cabrera, B; Mezquida, G; Bioque, M; Penades, R; Parellada, E; Bernardo, M; Kirkpatrick, B
Patients with schizophrenia exhibit a reduced life expectancy. Although unhealthy lifestyle or suicide risk plays a role, the main causes are diverse medical conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Albeit pharmacological secondary side effects might also trigger previous conditions, studies in naïve patients reflect diverse anomalies at the onset. Patients with a first episode of psychosis, display a wide scope of metabolic abnormalities, ranging from normality till pathological values depending on the parameters studied. We attempted to evaluate the metabolic syndrome and glycemic homeostasis in a subset of antipsychotic-naïve patients with a first episode of non-affective psychosis. Patients (n=84) showed a similar prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared with a matched control sample (n=98) (6% vs 4%, P=0.562), while glucose homeostasis values differed significantly (14% vs. 5%, P=0.034). Our results suggest that metabolic syndrome is not a useful clinical condition to be evaluated in patients before pharmacological treatment. Abnormal glycemic homeostasis at the onset of the disease requires specific diagnostic tools and preventive measures in order to avoid future cardiovascular events. New strategies must be implemented in order to evaluate the cardiovascular risk and subsequent morbidity in patients at the onset of the disease.
Marotz, Clarisse A.; Zarrinpar, Amir
The worldwide prevalence of metabolic syndrome, which includes obesity and its associated diseases, is rising rapidly. The human gut microbiome is recognized as an independent environmental modulator of host metabolic health and disease. Research in animal models has demonstrated that the gut microbiome has the functional capacity to induce or relieve metabolic syndrome. One way to modify the human gut microbiome is by transplanting fecal matter, which contains an abundance of live microorganisms, from a healthy individual to a diseased one in the hopes of alleviating illness. Here we review recent evidence suggesting efficacy of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) in animal models and humans for the treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic disorders. PMID:27698622
Marotz, Clarisse A; Zarrinpar, Amir
The worldwide prevalence of metabolic syndrome, which includes obesity and its associated diseases, is rising rapidly. The human gut microbiome is recognized as an independent environmental modulator of host metabolic health and disease. Research in animal models has demonstrated that the gut microbiome has the functional capacity to induce or relieve metabolic syndrome. One way to modify the human gut microbiome is by transplanting fecal matter, which contains an abundance of live microorganisms, from a healthy individual to a diseased one in the hopes of alleviating illness. Here we review recent evidence suggesting efficacy of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) in animal models and humans for the treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic disorders.
The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors (central obesity, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and arterial hypertension), indicating an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. The gastrointestinal tract is seldom discussed as an organ system of principal importance for metabolic diseases. The present overview connects various metabolic research lines into an integrative physiological context in which the gastrointestinal tract is included. Strong evidence for the involvement of the gut in the metabolic syndrome derives from the powerful effects of weight-reducing (bariatric) gastrointestinal surgery. In fact, gastrointestinal surgery is now recommended as a standard treatment option for type 2 diabetes in obesity. Several gut-related mechanisms that potentially contribute to the metabolic syndrome will be presented. Obesity can be caused by hampered release of satiety-signalling gut hormones, reduced meal-associated energy expenditure and microbiota-assisted harvest of energy from nondigestible food ingredients. Adiposity per se is a well-established risk factor for hyperglycaemia. In addition, a leaky gut mucosa can trigger systemic inflammation mediating peripheral insulin resistance that together with a blunted incretin response aggravates the hyperglycaemic state. The intestinal microbiota is strongly associated with obesity and the related metabolic disease states, although the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Enterorenal signalling has been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension and postprandial triglyceride-rich chylomicrons; in addition, intestinal cholesterol metabolism probably contributes to atherosclerosis. It is likely that in the future, the metabolic syndrome will be treated according to novel pharmacological principles interfering with gastrointestinal functionality.
Casco, Stephania; Soto-Vega, Elena
Long-term childhood cancer survivors are at great risk of developing late adverse effects after treatment, such as, reduced growth, obesity, decreased fertility, high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, impaired glucose, another form of cancer, among others organ dysfunctions, some of them are part of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome and cancer connection is still not entirely understood, but there are some notions about it. Metabolic alterations produced during childhood cancer are more likely determined by treatments like radiotherapy, chemotherapy, glucocorticoids therapy, and surgery. Cancer treatment is associated to vascular alterations, hormone deficiencies, changes in insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, and inflammatory mediators. Obesity has been considered a crucial component in metabolic syndrome; obesity risk factors during childhood cancer include cranial radiation, female gender, and exposure to glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone. In addition, local radiotherapy or surgery may cause endocrine deficiencies, depends on the directly damage of endocrine organs. Patients who received some types of cancer treatment should be evaluated periodically to early diagnostic metabolic disorders associated to antineoplastic therapy.
Increase in prevalence of obesity has become a worldwide major health problem in adults, as well as among children and adolescents. Furthermore, total adiposity and truncal subcutaneous fat accumulation during adolescence are positively and independently associated with atherosclerosis at adult ages. Centrally accumulation of body fat is associated with insulin resistance, whereas distribution of body fat in a peripheral pattern is metabolically less important. Obesity is associated with a large decrease in life expectancy. The effect of extreme obesity on mortality is greater among younger than older adults. In this respect, obesity is also associated with increased risk of several cancer types. However, up to 30% of obese patients are metabolically healthy with insulin sensitivity similar to healthy normal weight individuals, lower visceral fat content, and lower intima media thickness of the carotid artery than the majority of metabolically "unhealthy" obese patients.Abdominal obesity is the most frequently observed component of metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome; clustering of abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension, is a major public health challenge. The average prevalence of metabolic syndrome is 31%, and is associated with a two-fold increase in the risk of coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and a 1.5-fold increase in the risk of all-cause mortality.
Panchal, Sunil K; Wanyonyi, Stephen; Brown, Lindsay
Trace metals play an important role in the proper functioning of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Some of the trace metals are thus essential for maintaining homeostasis, while deficiency of these trace metals can cause disorders with metabolic and physiological imbalances. This article concentrates on three trace metals (selenium, vanadium, and chromium) that may play crucial roles in controlling blood glucose concentrations possibly through their insulin-mimetic effects. For these trace metals, the level of evidence available for their health effects as supplements is weak. Thus, their potential is not fully exploited for the target of metabolic syndrome, a constellation that increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Given that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing throughout the world, a simpler option of interventions with food supplemented with well-studied trace metals could serve as an answer to this problem. The oxidation state and coordination chemistry play crucial roles in defining the responses to these trace metals, so further research is warranted to understand fully their metabolic and cardiovascular effects in human metabolic syndrome.
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with and without weight loss (WL) on apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome. The diet of 19 men with metabolic syndrome (age, 24–62 years) was first standardized to a North America...
Sohn, Young Bae; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sung Won; Kim, Se-Hwa; Cho, Sung-Yoon; Lee, Soo Hyun; Yoo, Keon Hee; Sung, Ki Woong; Chung, Jae Hoon; Koo, Hong Hoe
Purpose Long-term survivors of childhood cancer appear to have an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome, subsequent type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood compared to healthy children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of the metabolic syndrome and associated factors in childhood cancer survivors at a single center in Korea. Methods We performed a retrospective review of medical records of 98 childhood cancer survivors who were diagnosed and completed anticancer treatment at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea between Jan. 1996 and Dec. 2007. Parameters of metabolic syndrome were evaluated between Jan. 2008 and Dec. 2009. Clinical and biochemical findings including body fat percentage were analyzed. Results A total of 19 (19.4%) patients had the metabolic syndrome. The median body fat percentage was 31.5%. The body mass index and waist circumference were positively correlated with the cranial irradiation dose (r=0.38, P<0.001 and r=0.44, P<0.00, respectively). Sixty-one (62.2%) patients had at least one abnormal lipid value. The triglyceride showed significant positive correlation with the body fat percentage (r=0.26, P=0.03). The high density lipoprotein cholesterol showed significant negative correlation with the percent body fat (r=-0.26, P=0.03). Conclusion Childhood cancer survivors should have thorough metabolic evaluation including measurement of body fat percentage even if they are not obese. A better understanding of the determinants of the metabolic syndrome during adolescence might provide preventive interventions for improving health outcomes in adulthood. PMID:21949520
Bian, Zehua; Cui, Yuqi; Zhou, Xinyu; Zhou, Xuefeng; Zhang, Bo; Adesanya, T. M. Ayodele; Yi, Frank; Park, Ki Ho; Tan, Tao; Chen, Zhishui; Zhu, Hua
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia that increases the individual’s likelihood of developing cardiovascular diseases. Patients inflicted with metabolic disorders also suffer from tissue repair defect. Mitsugumin 53 (MG53) is a protein essential to cellular membrane repair. It facilitates the nucleation of intracellular vesicles to sites of membrane disruption to create repair patches, contributing to the regenerative capacity of skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues upon injury. Since individuals suffering from metabolic syndrome possess tissue regeneration deficiency and MG53 plays a crucial role in restoring membrane integrity, we studied MG53 activity in mice models exhibiting metabolic disorders induced by a 6 month high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Western blotting showed that MG53 expression is not altered within the skeletal and cardiac muscles of mice with metabolic syndrome. Rather, we found that MG53 levels in blood circulation were actually reduced. This data directly contradicts findings presented by Song et. al that indict MG53 as a causative factor for metabolic syndrome (Nature 494, 375-379). The diminished MG53 serum level observed may contribute to the inadequate tissue repair aptitude exhibited by diabetic patients. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analyses reveal that skeletal muscle fibers of mice with metabolic disorders experience localization of subcellular MG53 around mitochondria. This clustering may represent an adaptive response to oxidative stress resulting from HFD feeding and may implicate MG53 as a guardian to protect damaged mitochondria. Therapeutic approaches that elevate MG53 expression in serum circulation may be a novel method to treat the degenerative tissue repair function of diabetic patients. PMID:25950605
Perkins, Jennifer M; Davis, Stephen N
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays a physiologic role in modulating energy balance, feeding behavior, lipoprotein metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis, which when dysregulated can all contribute to cardiometabolic risk. Evidence has suggested that the ECS is overactive in human obesity and in animal models of genetic and diet-induced obesity. ECS stimulation centrally and peripherally drives metabolic processes that mimic the metabolic syndrome. These findings have led to the development of potential novel therapeutic targets, including the drug rimonabant, a selective CB1 receptor antagonist, which has been shown to promote weight loss, reduce inflammation, improve dyslipidemia, and improve glucose homeostasis.
Benavides, Sandra; Kohler, Lisa A.; Souffrant, Garry
Purpose: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the pediatric population is increasing. Barriers, including the lack of consensus of a definition for metabolic syndrome and time constraints for the pediatrician, may limit the identification and diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in children. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the role…
Benavides, Sandra; Kohler, Lisa A.; Souffrant, Garry
Purpose: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the pediatric population is increasing. Barriers, including the lack of consensus of a definition for metabolic syndrome and time constraints for the pediatrician, may limit the identification and diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in children. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the role…
Serafino-Agrusa, Laura; Spatafora, Mario; Scichilone, Nicola
Asthma and obesity are epidemiologically linked; however, similar relationships are also observed with other markers of the metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, which cannot be accounted for by increased body mass alone. Obesity appears to be a predisposing factor for the asthma onset, both in adults and in children. In addition, obesity could make asthma more difficult to control and to treat. Although obesity may predispose to increased Th2 inﬂammation or tendency to atopy, other mechanisms need to be considered, such as those mediated by hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia in the context of metabolic syndrome. The mechanisms underlying the association between asthma and metabolic syndrome are yet to be determined. In the past, these two conditions were believed to occur in the same individual without any pathogenetic link. However, the improvement in asthma symptoms following weight reduction indicates a causal relationship. The interplay between these two diseases is probably due to a bidirectional interaction. The purpose of this review is to describe the current knowledge about the possible link between metabolic syndrome and asthma, and explore potential application for future studies and strategic approaches. PMID:25789301
Wahi, Gita; LeBlanc, Paul J.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.; O'Leary, Debra; Cairney, John
Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have higher rates of obesity compared to children with typical motor development, and, as a result may be at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of MetS and its components among children with and without DCD. This…
Kim, Jin Taek; Lee, Hong Kyu
The worldwide epidemic of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in the last few decades cannot be fully accounted for only by changes in the lifestyle factors, such as sedentary lifestyle and overeating. Besides genetic factors, there must be other causes to explain this rapid change. They could not be infectious in nature and induce insulin resistance as key biochemical abnormality. Mitochondrial dysfunction could be underlying mechanism behind the insulin resistance, thus metabolic syndrome. Then there have been increasing number of reports suggesting that chronic exposure to and accumulation of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), especially so-called the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) within the body might be associated with metabolic syndrome. Combining two concepts, we developed new "EDCs-induced mitochondrial dysfunction hypothesis of metabolic syndrome". In this review we suggest that classifying those chemicals into 5 groups might be clinically useful considering their removal or avoidance; POPs, non-persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals, air pollutants and drugs. We will also discuss briefly how those insights could be applied to clinical medicine.
Hauner, Dagmar; Hauner, Hans
Epidemiological data suggest a close link between obesity and breast cancer, the most frequently occurring cancer in women. The metabolic syndrome is typically associated with abdominal obesity and comprises disturbances in glucose and/or lipid metabolism and/or hypertension. Recent studies have established a specific association between the metabolic syndrome - as well as its components - and breast cancer, indicating both an increased risk of developing breast cancer and a poorer prognosis. In premenopausal women, obesity might have a protective effect only on receptor-positive tumors, whereas a positive association was observed between obesity/abdominal obesity and an increased risk of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Overall survival and disease-free survival were reported to be significantly shorter in premenopausal obese women with TNBC compared to non-obese women, but these results are still inconsistent and need further research. The metabolic syndrome is characterized by a state of insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia and subacute chronic inflammation, with both conditions offering a plausible mechanistic link towards breast cancer. Thus, in addition to their increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, women with this syndrome represent a group at elevated risk of developing breast cancer and with poorer prognosis.
Repovich, Wendy E. S.; Babcock, Garth J.
The purpose of this study was to determine if body composition and blood pressure (BP), two markers for Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), were correlated in college football players. Height, weight, BMI, systolic (SBP) and Diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and body composition (three measures) were assessed in a Division IAA football team (N = 55). Data…
Kanwar, Pushpjeet; Kowdley, Kris V
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are highly prevalent in the Western population. Their pathogenesis is closely linked to insulin resistance, which serves as a therapeutic target for the management of these conditions. This review article reviews the research supporting the influence of MetS on NASH and includes studies supporting their similar epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment.
Saad, Farid; Gooren, Louis
Over the last three decades it has become apparent that testosterone plays a significant role in the maintenance of bone and muscle mass, in erythropoiesis, and in mental functions. But testosterone is also a key player in glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism. The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of risk factors predisposing to late onset diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The main components of the syndrome are visceral obesity, glucose intolerance, raised blood pressure and dyslipidaemia (elevated triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol),and a pro-inflammatory and thrombogenic state. Cross-sectional epidemiological studies have reported a direct correlation between plasma testosterone and insulin sensitivity, and low testosterone levels are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, dramatically illustrated by androgen deprivation in men with prostate carcinoma. Lower total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin(SHBG) predict a higher incidence of the metabolic syndrome. There is now evidence to argue that hypotestosteronaemia should be an element in the definition of the metabolic syndrome. Administration of testosterone to hypogonadal men reverses the unfavorable risk profile for the development of diabetes and atherosclerosis. Testosterone should be regarded as a pivotal hormone for men's health.
Wahi, Gita; LeBlanc, Paul J.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.; O'Leary, Debra; Cairney, John
Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have higher rates of obesity compared to children with typical motor development, and, as a result may be at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of MetS and its components among children with and without DCD. This…
Bonde, Ylva; Angelin, Bo
Effectively treating metabolic syndrome and its progression to type 2 diabetes, steatohepatitis and cardiovascular disease remain a major clinical challenge. The use of a novel engineered molecule that combines thyroid hormone and glucagon to target liver and adipose tissue might provide a new 'magic bullet' with exciting future prospects.
Fernandes, Jill; Lofgren, Ingrid E.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is present in young adults and because coronary heart disease (CHD) is likely, screening to determine MetS prevalence and its criteria is critical. Objective: To determine MetS prevalence and most prevalent criteria in a sample of first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students between 18 and 24…
Sang, Jae Hong; Ki, Nam Kyun; Cho, Jae Hwan; Ahn, Jae Ouk; Sunwoo, Jae Gun
[Purpose] This study investigated the serologic factors associated with metabolic syndrome and gallstones. [Subjects and Methods] The study evaluated subjects who visited a health promotion center in Seoul from March 2, 2013 to February 28, 2014, and had undergone abdominal ultrasonography. Height, weight, and blood pressure were measured. Blood sampling was performed for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting blood glucose, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thyroid stimulating hormone, and red and white blood cell counts. We conducted logistic regression analysis to assess the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. [Results] The risk factors for metabolic syndrome in men, in order of decreasing weight, were red blood cell count, body mass index, maximum size of gallstones, white blood cell count, waist circumference, and uric acid level. The factors in women, in order of decreasing weight, were red blood cell count, presence/absence of gallstones, uric acid level, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, and waist circumference. [Conclusion] Most serum biochemical factors and gallstone occurrence could be used to indicate the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome, independent of gender. PMID:27630427
Following up on original descriptions of clustering of cardiovascular risk factors (chiefly, glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension) around the presence of insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome has recently been upgraded to the status of a disease entity with an inherent predictive value for cardiovascular disease. In pathophysiological terms, insulin resistance (of glucose metabolism) and the attendant compensatory hyperinsulinaemia are causally related to each of glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia, high blood pressure and vascular dysfunction. The physiological mechanisms are concisely reviewed here. However, insulin resistance/hyperinsulinaemia alone is insufficient to cause these abnormalities, for which other pathogenic factors (e.g. ss-cell dysfunction for glucose intolerance) are required. The metabolic syndrome, on the other hand, has evolved from a set of statistical associations believed to carry an excess of cardiovascular risk. In the various existing definitions, a mixture of physical, metabolic and clinical variables have been used on grounds of predictive value or practical ease. These variables belong to different phenotypes, which are upstream, intermediate and proximal, respectively, in their relation to clinical disease. The resulting 'syndromes' usually lack a cogent conceptual structure, may reflect the particular data set from which they are extracted and may be of limited applicability. While overt diabetes, clinical hypertension and frank dyslipidaemia are often present together in the same patient, a subclinical syndrome with a distinct, probable aetiology and a proven power as a risk indicator remains to be identified.
Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Nantasenamat, Chanin; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm; Pidetcha, Phannee; Prachayasittikul, Virapong
This study employs decision tree as a decision support system for rapid and automated identification of individuals with metabolic syndrome (MS) among a Thai population. Results demonstrated strong predictivity of the decision tree in classification of individuals with and without MS, displaying an overall accuracy in excess of 99%.
Fernandes, Jill; Lofgren, Ingrid E.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is present in young adults and because coronary heart disease (CHD) is likely, screening to determine MetS prevalence and its criteria is critical. Objective: To determine MetS prevalence and most prevalent criteria in a sample of first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students between 18 and 24…
Metabolic syndrome has been applied to a clustering of risk factors of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases including elevated blood lipids, elevated glucose, elevated blood pressure, proinflammatory state including increased C-reactive protein and TNF-alpha, and prothrombotic state including anomal...
Moore, Justin B.; Davis, Catherine L.; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Lewis, Richard D.; Yin, Zenong
Background: Research suggests significant health differences between rural dwelling youth and their urban counterparts with relation to cardiovascular risk factors. This study was conducted to (1) determine relationships between physical activity and markers of metabolic syndrome, and (2) to explore factors relating to physical activity in a…
Moore, Justin B.; Davis, Catherine L.; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Lewis, Richard D.; Yin, Zenong
Background: Research suggests significant health differences between rural dwelling youth and their urban counterparts with relation to cardiovascular risk factors. This study was conducted to (1) determine relationships between physical activity and markers of metabolic syndrome, and (2) to explore factors relating to physical activity in a…
The presence of smaller low-density lipoproteins (LDL) has been associated with atherosclerosis risk, and the insulin resistance (IR) underlying the metabolic syndrome (MetS). In addition, some research has supported the association of very low-, low- and high-density lipoprotein (VLDL HDL) particle...
Gandhi, Kishor; Viscusi, Eugene R; Schwenk, Eric S; Pulido, Luis; Parvizi, Javad
The coexistence of diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia is defined as metabolic syndrome. Studies show substantial cardiovascular risks among these patients. The risk of patients with metabolic syndrome undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is unknown. Patients with and without metabolic syndrome undergoing TJA during a 3-year period were analyzed for postoperative complications. Metabolic syndrome was defined by having 3 of the following 4 criteria: obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)), dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. Patients with metabolic syndrome had a significantly higher risk of cardiovascular complications compared with controls (P = .017). The risk of an adverse event increased by 29% and 32%, respectively, when there were 3 or 4 syndrome components. Patients with metabolic syndrome undergoing TJA have increased risk for cardiovascular complications. Our results show that metabolic syndrome may have a clustering effect and pose increased risk when individual risks factors are combined. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de SOUZA, Maíra Danielle Gomes; VILAR, Lucio; de ANDRADE, Cinthia Barbosa; ALBUQUERQUE, Raíssa de Oliveira e; CORDEIRO, Lúcia Helena de Oliveira; CAMPOS, Josemberg Marins; FERRAZ, Álvaro Antônio Bandeira
Background - Overweight and obesity are associated with metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity, thereby increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. In Brazil, there are still no precise data on the prevalence of these disorders, especially among individuals who carry out some kind of physical activity in public spaces and there are no education and prevention programs for obesity. Aim: To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity among park users. Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 619 individuals assessed and stratified by profile according to a specific protocol. The group was characterized as follows: female (50.1%) and mean age =50.6±14.8, with predominance of individuals aged between 50 and 59 years (26.8%) and with higher education (68%) and a household income of between 4 and 10 minimum wages (29.2%). Results: Regular physical exercise was reported by 78% of the individuals and it was found that 70.7% were nevertheless of above normal weight: 45% overweight and 25.7% obese, of whom 20.7% had obesity grade I, 3.9% grade II and 1.1% grade III. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 4.3%, mostly in men (6.3%). Arterial hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus were detected in 17.8% and 5.5%, respectively. In view of the influence of obesity on the occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, it was found that this association was not significant for the two conditions (p=0.014 and 0.017, respectively). Conclusion : The findings demonstrate a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in the studied population, and metabolic syndrome in 4.3%, despite the fact that 70% reported engaging in regular physical activity. PMID:26537270
Noshad, Sina; Abbasi, Mehrshad; Etemad, Koorosh; Meysamie, Alipasha; Afarideh, Mohsen; Khajeh, Elias; Asgari, Fereshteh; Mousavizadeh, Mostafa; Rafei, Ali; Neishaboury, Mohamadreza; Ghajar, Alireza; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Esteghamati, Alireza
The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its individual components among the Iranian adult population in 2011 and to investigate changes between 2007 and 2011. Data from two rounds of the Surveillance of Risk Factors of Non-communicable Diseases national surveys conducted in 2007 and 2011 were pooled. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to International Diabetes Federation criteria. In 2007, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adults aged 25-64 years was 35.95 (95% confidence interval [CI] 34.27-37.63), which decreased to 32.96 (95% CI 30.73-35.18) in 2011 (P = 0.0108). Despite this overall decline, the prevalence of central obesity (P = 0.1383), raised triglycerides (P = 0.3058), and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; P = 0.5595) remained constant. There was a trend towards a decline in the proportion of individuals with increased blood pressure (P = 0.0978), and the proportion of adults with increased fasting plasma glucose (FPG) increased (P < 0.0001). In 2011, the prevalence of central obesity, raised triglycerides, reduced HDL-C, increased blood pressure and increased FPG was 51.88 (95% CI 48.97-54.79), 36.99 (95% CI 34.52-39.45), 54.72 (95% CI 50.87-58.57), 38.92 (95% CI 36.19-41.64), and 24.97 (95% CI 22.02-27.93) respectively. Over the period 2007-11, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome has decreased slightly in Iran, although prevalence of increased FPG has increased significantly. One-third of the Iranian adult population is diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Nagpal, Mohit; De, Dipankar; Handa, Sanjeev; Pal, Arnab; Sachdeva, Naresh
Robust evidence of the association of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome with acne in male patients is lacking. To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in male patients 20 years or older with acne. We performed a cross-sectional study in 100 male patients with acne and 100 age-matched male controls without acne from a dermatology outpatient department of a tertiary care institute. Postadolescent patients were recruited only to negate the effects of physiologic insulin resistance that are seen at the time of puberty and adolescence. Twenty-five patients were included in each of the 4 individual severity groups according to the Global Acne Grading System and were age matched to 100 male controls without acne. Clinical examination, Global Acne Rating System, National Cholesterol Education Programme Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III), and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed as per the criteria of the modified NCEP-ATP III. Insulin resistance was assessed by the HOMA-IR. A HOMA-IR value greater than 2.5 was arbitrarily considered as insulin resistance. Prevalence of insulin resistance was significantly higher in cases (22%) compared with controls (11%) (P = .03). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was comparable between cases (17%) and controls (9%) (P = .09). Prevalence of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome did not differ significantly among the acne severity groups. Postadolescent male patients with acne more commonly have insulin resistance. This resistance may be a stage of prediabetes, and the patients may develop hyperinsulinemia or type 2 diabetes in the future. These patients should be followed up for a prolonged time to determine whether they develop conditions associated with insulin resistance.
DiBello, Julia R; McGarvey, Stephen T; Kraft, Peter; Goldberg, Robert; Campos, Hannia; Quested, Christine; Laumoli, Tuiasina Salamo; Baylin, Ana
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has reached epidemic levels in the Samoan Islands. In this cross-sectional study conducted in 2002-2003, dietary patterns were described among American Samoan (n = 723) and Samoan (n = 785) adults (> or =18 y) to identify neo-traditional and modern eating patterns and to relate these patterns to the presence of metabolic syndrome using Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The neo-traditional dietary pattern, similar across both polities, was characterized by high intake of local foods, including crab/lobster, coconut products, and taro, and low intake of processed foods, including potato chips and soda. The modern pattern, also similar across both polities, was characterized by high intake of processed foods such as rice, potato chips, cake, and pancakes and low intake of local foods. The neo-traditional dietary pattern was associated with significantly higher serum HDL-cholesterol in American Samoa (P-trend = 0.05) and a decrease in abdominal circumference in American Samoa and Samoa (P-trend = 0.004 and 0.01, respectively). An inverse association was found with metabolic syndrome, although it did not reach significance (P = 0.23 in American Samoa; P = 0.13 in Samoa). The modern pattern was significantly positively associated with metabolic syndrome in Samoa (prevalence ratio = 1.21 for the fifth compared with first quintile; 95% CI: 0.93.1.57; P-trend = 0.05) and with increased serum triglyceride levels in both polities (P < 0.05). Reduced intake of processed foods high in refined grains and adherence to a neo-traditional eating pattern characterized by plant-based fiber, seafood, and coconut products may help to prevent growth in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Samoan islands.
Singh, Rajvir; Smith, Emily; Fathzadeh, Mohsen; Liu, Wenzhong; Go, Gwang-Woong; Subrahmanyan, Lakshman; Faramarzi, Saeed; McKenna, William; Mani, Arya
A rare mutation in LRP6 has been shown to underlie autosomal dominant coronary artery disease (CAD) and metabolic syndrome in an Iranian kindred. The prevalence and spectrum of LRP6 mutations in the disease population of the United States is not known. Two hundred white Americans with early onset familial CAD and metabolic syndrome and 2,000 healthy Northern European controls were screened for nonconservative mutations in LRP6. Three novel mutations were identified, which cosegregated with the metabolic traits in the kindreds of the affected subjects and none in the controls. All three mutations reside in the second propeller domain, which plays a critical role in ligand binding. Two of the mutations substituted highly conserved arginines in the second YWTD domain and the third substituted a conserved glycosylation site. The functional characterization of one of the variants showed that it impairs Wnt signaling and acts as a loss of function mutation.
Steinberg, Gregory; Scott, Adam; Honcz, Joseph; Spettell, Claire; Pradhan, Susil
The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a targeted, personalized wellness program on reducing employees' future risk of metabolic syndrome. Aetna piloted a year-long program that included a limited genetic profile, a traditional psychosocial assessment, and high-intensity coaching in a randomized controlled study of Aetna employees with an increased risk for metabolic syndrome. Sustained employee engagement of 50% over the course of 1 year; 76% of participating employees lost an average of 10 pounds (4.5 kg) (P < 0.001 vs baseline weight), and there were trends in improved clinical outcomes relative to three of five metabolic factors. Average health care costs were reduced by $122 per participant per month, resulting in a positive return on investment in the program's first year. At scale, such programs would be expected to lead to significant downstream reduction in major clinical events and costs.
Billiet, Laura; Doaty, Sarah; Katz, James D; Velasquez, Manuel T
Hyperuricemia has long been established as the major etiologic factor in gout. In recent years, a large body of evidence has accumulated that suggests that hyperuricemia may play a role in the development and pathogenesis of a number of metabolic, hemodynamic, and systemic pathologic diseases, including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, stroke, and atherosclerosis. A number of epidemiologic studies have linked hyperuricemia with each of these disorders. In some studies, therapies that lower uric acid may prevent or improve certain components of the metabolic syndrome. There is an association between uric acid and the development of systemic lupus erythematosus; the connection between other rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis is less clear. The mechanism for the role of uric acid in disorders other than gout is not well established but recent investigations point towards systemic inflammation induced by urate, as the major pathophysiological event common to systemic diseases, including atherosclerosis.
Wilson, Alexander D. M.; Szekeres, Petra; Violich, Mackellar; Gutowsky, Lee F. G.; Eliason, Erika J.; Cooke, Steven J.
Despite growing interest, the behavioural ecology of deep-sea organisms is largely unknown. Much of this scarcity in knowledge can be attributed to deepwater animals being secretive or comparatively 'rare', as well as technical difficulties associated with accessing such remote habitats. Here we tested whether two species of giant marine isopod (Bathynomus giganteus, Booralana tricarinata) captured from 653 to 875 m in the Caribbean Sea near Eleuthera, The Bahamas, exhibited an activity behavioural syndrome across two environmental contexts (presence/absence of food stimulus) and further whether this syndrome carried over consistently between sexes. We also measured routine metabolic rate and oxygen consumption in response to a food stimulus in B. giganteus to assess whether these variables are related to individual differences in personality. We found that both species show an activity syndrome across environmental contexts, but the underlying mechanistic basis of this syndrome, particularly in B. giganteus, is unclear. Contrary to our initial predictions, neither B. giganteus nor B. tricarinata showed any differences between mean expression of behavioural traits between sexes. Both sexes of B. tricarinata showed strong evidence of an activity syndrome underlying movement and foraging ecology, whereas only male B. giganteus showed evidence of an activity syndrome. Generally, individuals that were more active and bolder, in a standard open arena test were also more active when a food stimulus was present. Interestingly, individual differences in metabolism were not related to individual differences in behaviour based on present data. Our study provides the first measurements of behavioural syndromes and metabolism in giant deep-sea isopods.
Chaudhary, Nidhi; Nakka, Kiran Kumar; Maulik, Nilanjana; Chattopadhyay, Samit
Metabolic syndrome constitutes a group of disorders such as insulin resistance, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia, predisposing an individual to risk factors such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia. A majority of these diseases are influenced by the environmental factors, nutrient uptake, and genetic profile of an individual that together dysregulate gene function. These genetic and nongenetic factors are reported to introduce epigenetic cues that modulate the gene function which is inherited by the offspring. Considering the epigenetic modulation of the metabolic disorders, nutrigenomics has been distinctly categorized as a branch that deals with modulatory effect of nutrients on metabolic disorders and disease progression by supplementing the individuals with key nutrient-enriched diets which are derived from plant and animal sources. Nutritional components of the diet regulate the metabolic health of an individual either by controlling the expression of some key genes related to metabolic pathways or by modulating the epigenetic events on such genes. The present article discusses various metabolic disorders in detail and the effect of nutrients on the specific genes causing those disorders. We also highlight the molecular mechanisms of some metabolic disorders through epigenetic modifications and possible therapeutic interventions. With the advent of high-throughput technologies and epigenetic modulation of the metabolic disorders, an altered epigenetic code that is programmed due to improper nutrients can be reverted back by supplementing the diet with various plant-derived compounds. The implication of small molecular drugs is also of utmost significance for challenging the metabolic disorders.
Gaudreault, Valérie; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rhéaume, Caroline; Alméras, Natalie; Bergeron, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Poirier, Paul
Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased cardiac morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate exercise-induced hypertension (EIH) in men with metabolic syndrome and to explore potential associations with anthropometric and metabolic variables. A total of 179 normotensive men with metabolic syndrome underwent a maximal symptom-limited treadmill test. Blood pressure was measured at 5-min rest prior to exercise testing (anticipatory blood pressure), at every 3 min during the exercise, and during the recovery period. EIH was defined as maximum systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥220 mmHg and/or maximum diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥100 mmHg. Of the 179 men, 87 (47%) presented EIH. Resting blood pressure values at baseline were 127±10/83±6 mmHg in EIH and 119±9/80±6 mmHg (P=0.01 for both) in normal blood pressure responders to exercise. Anticipatory SBP and DPS were higher in the group with EIH (P=0.001). Subjects with EIH presented higher waist circumference (WC) (P<0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) levels as well as insulin resistance (all P<0.05). Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and total body fat mass were comparable between groups. Subjects with EIH had higher abdominal visceral adipose tissue (P<0.001). The best predictors of EIH were resting SBP and abdominal obesity. Each increment of 5 cm in WC was associated with an odds ratio of 1.30 (1.20-1.68) for EIH. About half of our subjects with metabolic syndrome showed EIH. These men are characterized by a worsened metabolic profile. Our data suggest that a treadmill exercise test may be helpful to identify a potentially higher risk metabolic syndrome subset of subjects.
Karlova, Olena O; Omelchuk, Sergei T; Kuzminska, Olena V; Melnyk, Valentyna V
The metabolic syndrome has become pandemic nature and tends to rejuvenation in the world. Elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms on membrane-cell level will optimize the treatment of patients with metabolic syndrome and prevention of metabolic syndrome on the level of pre-clinical manifestations. to study the immunological status and lipid metabolism in the patients with metabolic syndrome and the pathogenetic mechanisms of metabolic syndrome were established. There were 4 groups of pacients (110) with: metabolic syndrome, ischemic heart disease and hypertension, hypertention; control group. General clinical, instrumental, laboratory and statistical methods were used. The levels of immune factors - interleukin-6 in supernatants of mononuclear cells by 65%, sICAM-1 by 20% is elevated in patients with metabolic syndrome compared with the control group. The increasing of the content of saturated fatty acids by 9.4% and polyunsaturated fatty acid by 36.6% lead to fundamental breach of structural and functional properties of membranes. There is significant common carotid artery intima media thickness on average twice at the patients with metabolic syndrome and with ischemic heart disease and hypertension. The immunoinflammatory reactions were more revealed in the group of patients with metabolic syndrome than in other groups. The lipid state at patients with metabolic syndrome was changed more than in patients with hypertension or patients with ischemic heart disease and hypertension both. Moreover our data indicate the presence of structural changes in the vessel wall in patients with metabolic syndrome.
Ohashi, Y.; Thomas, G.; Nurko, S.; Stephany, B.; Fatica, R.; Chiesa, A.; Rule, A. D.; Srinivas, T.; Schold, J. D.; Navaneethan, S. D.; Poggio, E. D.
The selection of living kidney donors is based on a formal evaluation of the state of health. However, this spectrum of health includes subtle metabolic derangements that can cluster as metabolic syndrome. We studied the association of metabolic syndrome with kidney function and histology in 410 donors from 2005 to 2012, of whom 178 donors were systematically followed after donation since 2009. Metabolic syndrome was defined as per the NCEP ATPIII criteria, but using a BMI > 25 kg/m2 instead of waist circumference. Following donation, donors received counseling on lifestyle modification. Metabolic syndrome was present in 50 (12.2%) donors. Donors with metabolic syndrome were more likely to have chronic histological changes on implant biopsies than donors with no metabolic syndrome (29.0% vs. 9.3%, p < 0.001). This finding was associated with impaired kidney function recovery following donation. At last follow-up, reversal of metabolic syndrome was observed in 57.1% of donors with predonation metabolic syndrome, while only 10.8% of donors developed de novo metabolic syndrome (p < 0.001). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome in donors is associated with chronic histological changes, and nephrectomy in these donors was associated with subsequent protracted recovery of kidney function. Importantly, weight loss led to improvement of most abnormalities that define metabolic syndrome. PMID:23865821
Cardinali, Daniel P; Bernasconi, Pablo A Scacchi; Reynoso, Roxana; Toso, Carlos F Reyes; Scacchi, Pablo
To examine the effect of melatonin given to rats simultaneously with fructose on initial and fully developed metabolic syndrome, male Wistar rats had free access to chow and 5% or 10% fructose drinking solution for 8 weeks. As compared to controls, systolic blood pressure augmented significantly under both treatments whereas excessive body weight was seen in rats receiving the 10% fructose only. Rats drinking 5% fructose showed a greater tolerance to a glucose load while rats having access to a 10% fructose drinking solution exhibited the expected impaired glucose tolerance found in the metabolic syndrome. Circulating triglyceride and low density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-c) concentration augmented significantly in rats showing a fully developed metabolic syndrome only, while high blood cholesterol levels were found at both stages examined. Melatonin (25 μg/mL drinking solution) counter